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Sample records for academic search elite

  1. The Academic Achievement of Elite Athletes at Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgakis, Steve; Evans, John Robert; Warwick, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    While sport and student-athletes have featured in the Australian education system since compulsory schooling, there has been no analysis to date of the link between academic achievement and elite student-athletes. However, this is in stark contrast to the United States of America (US), where student-athletes have been the subject of sustained…

  2. The Academic Achievement of Elite Athletes at an Australian University: Debunking the Dumb Jock Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgakis, Steve; Wilson, Rachel; Ferguson, Jamaya

    2014-01-01

    Elite athletes and their academic achievement in higher education have long been subject to considerable debate within North American scholarship. This interest proliferated especially after the release of the Knight Report (2001), which, amongst other findings, revealed a clear negative link between elite athletes and their academic achievement.…

  3. An Enhanced Differential Evolution with Elite Chaotic Local Search

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhaolu; Huang, Haixia; Deng, Changshou; Yue, Xuezhi; Wu, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is a simple yet efficient evolutionary algorithm for real-world engineering problems. However, its search ability should be further enhanced to obtain better solutions when DE is applied to solve complex optimization problems. This paper presents an enhanced differential evolution with elite chaotic local search (DEECL). In DEECL, it utilizes a chaotic search strategy based on the heuristic information from the elite individuals to promote the exploitation power. Moreover, DEECL employs a simple and effective parameter adaptation mechanism to enhance the robustness. Experiments are conducted on a set of classical test functions. The experimental results show that DEECL is very competitive on the majority of the test functions. PMID:26379703

  4. An Enhanced Differential Evolution with Elite Chaotic Local Search.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaolu; Huang, Haixia; Deng, Changshou; Yue, Xuezhi; Wu, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is a simple yet efficient evolutionary algorithm for real-world engineering problems. However, its search ability should be further enhanced to obtain better solutions when DE is applied to solve complex optimization problems. This paper presents an enhanced differential evolution with elite chaotic local search (DEECL). In DEECL, it utilizes a chaotic search strategy based on the heuristic information from the elite individuals to promote the exploitation power. Moreover, DEECL employs a simple and effective parameter adaptation mechanism to enhance the robustness. Experiments are conducted on a set of classical test functions. The experimental results show that DEECL is very competitive on the majority of the test functions. PMID:26379703

  5. The Frog Pond Revisited: High School Academic Context, Class Rank, and Elite College Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espenshade, Thomas J.; Hale, Lauren E.; Chung, Chang Y.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors test a "frog-pond" model of elite college admission proposed by Attewell, operationalizing high school academic context as the secondary school-average SAT score and number of Advanced Placement tests per high school senior. Data on more than 45,000 applications to three elite universities show that a high school's…

  6. Nurturing Science's Young Elite: Westinghouse Talent Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huler, Scott

    1991-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of entering the Westinghouse Talent Search are discussed. The caliber of the contest is indicated by the accomplishments of its alumni. The careers and characteristics of past winners are described. (KR)

  7. The Academic Job Search Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiberger, Mary Morris; Vick, Julia Miller

    This book is designed for new doctorates and junior faculty as a complete guide to the academic job search process. The volume opens with an overview of academic careers and institutional structures with pointers and information on how institutions may view and conduct hiring. It then proceeds step-by-step through the application process beginning…

  8. Academic performance and self-regulatory skills in elite youth soccer players.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Laura; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Toering, Tynke T; Lyons, James; Visscher, Chris

    2010-12-01

    Although elite athletes have been reported to be high academic achievers, many elite soccer players struggle with a stereotype of being low academic achievers. The purpose of this study was to compare the academic level (pre-university or pre-vocational) and self-regulatory skills (planning, self-monitoring, evaluation, reflection, effort, and self-efficacy) of elite youth soccer players aged 12-16 years (n = 128) with those of 164 age-matched controls (typical students). The results demonstrate that the elite youth soccer players are more often enrolled in the pre-university academic system, which means that they are high academic achievers, compared with the typical student. The elite players also report an increased use of self-regulatory skills, in particular self-monitoring, evaluation, reflection, and effort. In addition, control students in the pre-university system had more highly developed self-regulatory skills than those in the pre-vocational system, whereas no difference was observed within the soccer population. This suggests that the relatively stronger self-regulatory skills reported by the elite youth soccer players may be essential for performance at the highest levels of sport competition and in academia. PMID:21104520

  9. Academic Colorectal Surgery Job Search

    PubMed Central

    Kalady, Matthew F.

    2014-01-01

    The field of academic colorectal surgery encompasses a vast array of possibilities. Clinical care accompanied by research, teaching, innovation, and/or administration provides the foundation for what is considered an academic career. For those choosing academic colorectal surgery, the process of finding and selecting a first job can provoke much angst. This article describes some strategies to approach the academic colorectal job search and provides insight into deciding a career focus, exploring relevant positions, weighing specific factors, and negotiating your first offer. PMID:25067918

  10. Academic colorectal surgery job search.

    PubMed

    Kalady, Matthew F

    2014-06-01

    The field of academic colorectal surgery encompasses a vast array of possibilities. Clinical care accompanied by research, teaching, innovation, and/or administration provides the foundation for what is considered an academic career. For those choosing academic colorectal surgery, the process of finding and selecting a first job can provoke much angst. This article describes some strategies to approach the academic colorectal job search and provides insight into deciding a career focus, exploring relevant positions, weighing specific factors, and negotiating your first offer. PMID:25067918

  11. The Academic Elite Goes to Washington, and to War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lionel

    2005-01-01

    It has become part of the conventional wisdom that a decidedly left-wing slant influences what students are taught at elite colleges and universities in America, chiefly at Ivy League institutions. This perception has been common at least since the congressional investigations in the late 1940s into Communist Party activities in the United States,…

  12. Flaunting One's Academic Pedigree? Self-Presentation of Students from Elite French Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draelants, Hugues; Darchy-Koechlin, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    This article starts from the puzzle that although French elite institutions enjoy extremely positive and attractive images, students from these schools generally choose to conceal their academic pedigree in their daily interactions. We show that, in a context of growing inequalities of access to "grandes ecoles," the strategy of hiding one's…

  13. The talent process of successful academic women scientists at elite research universities in New York state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaenzig, Lisa M.

    women scientists at elite research universities in New York. A criterion sample (n=94) was selected resulting in forty-one successful academic women scientists as the study participants, representing a response rate of 43.6%. Findings include the important roles of parents, teachers, mentors and collaborators on the talent development process of the participants. The perception of the study participants was that there were multiple facilitators to their talent development process, while few barriers were acknowledged. The most important barriers cited by participants were perceptions of institutional culture and sexism. Implications for practice in both gifted and higher education are suggested, based on the findings of the study. For gifted education, these suggestions include the need to provide parental education programs emphasizing the importance of intellectual engagement at home, providing dedicated time for science in primary education, and fostering science and mathematics opportunities, particularly for girls and young women. Stressing the importance of hard work, persistence and intelligent risk-taking are also important for encouraging girls in science. For higher education, the study provides models of success of academic women scientists, outlines the importance of mentors and collaborators, and emphasizes the critical role that institutions and departments play in facilitating or impeding women's career development as academics. The current study suggests several areas for further research to continue the exploration of the talent development influences on academic women scientists. Based on the findings of this study, recommended studies include examining the differences of generational cohorts; probing the roles of collaborators/mentor colleagues; exploring differences for women from various ethnic and racial backgrounds; replicating the current study with larger populations of women scientists; investigating the role of facilitative school environments

  14. The talent process of successful academic women scientists at elite research universities in New York state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaenzig, Lisa M.

    women scientists at elite research universities in New York. A criterion sample (n=94) was selected resulting in forty-one successful academic women scientists as the study participants, representing a response rate of 43.6%. Findings include the important roles of parents, teachers, mentors and collaborators on the talent development process of the participants. The perception of the study participants was that there were multiple facilitators to their talent development process, while few barriers were acknowledged. The most important barriers cited by participants were perceptions of institutional culture and sexism. Implications for practice in both gifted and higher education are suggested, based on the findings of the study. For gifted education, these suggestions include the need to provide parental education programs emphasizing the importance of intellectual engagement at home, providing dedicated time for science in primary education, and fostering science and mathematics opportunities, particularly for girls and young women. Stressing the importance of hard work, persistence and intelligent risk-taking are also important for encouraging girls in science. For higher education, the study provides models of success of academic women scientists, outlines the importance of mentors and collaborators, and emphasizes the critical role that institutions and departments play in facilitating or impeding women's career development as academics. The current study suggests several areas for further research to continue the exploration of the talent development influences on academic women scientists. Based on the findings of this study, recommended studies include examining the differences of generational cohorts; probing the roles of collaborators/mentor colleagues; exploring differences for women from various ethnic and racial backgrounds; replicating the current study with larger populations of women scientists; investigating the role of facilitative school environments

  15. Chemical Information in Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendig, Regina B.

    2009-01-01

    The author sought to determine to what extent the two search engines, Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engines), would be useful to first-year university students as the first point of searching for chemical information. Five topics were searched and the first ten records of each search result were evaluated with regard to the type of…

  16. Search strategies along the academic lifecycle.

    PubMed

    Horlings, Edwin; Gurney, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Understanding how individual scientists build a personal portfolio of research is key to understanding outcomes on the level of scientific fields, institutions, and systems. We lack the scientometric and statistical instruments to examine the development over time of the involvement of researchers in different problem areas. In this paper we present a scientometric method to map, measure, and compare the entire corpus of individual scientists. We use this method to analyse the search strategies of 43 condensed matter physicists along their academic lifecycle. We formulate six propositions that summarise our theoretical expectations and are empirically testable: (1) a scientist's work consists of multiple finite research trails; (2) a scientist will work in several parallel research trails; (3) a scientist's role in research trail selection changes along the lifecycle; (4) a scientist's portfolio will converge before it diverges; (5) the rise and fall of research trails is associated with career changes; and (6) the rise and fall of research trails is associated with the potential for reputational gain. Four propositions are confirmed, the fifth is rejected, and the sixth could not be confirmed or rejected. In combination, the results of the four confirmed propositions reveal specific search strategies along the academic lifecycle. In the PhD phase scientists work in one problem area that is often unconnected to the later portfolio. The postdoctoral phase is where scientists diversify their portfolio and their social network, entering various problem areas and abandoning low-yielding ones. A professor has a much more stable portfolio, leading the work of PhDs and postdoctoral researchers. We present an agenda for future research and discuss theoretical and policy implications. PMID:23420456

  17. (No) Harm in Asking: Class, Acquired Cultural Capital, and Academic Engagement at an Elite University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Anthony Abraham

    2016-01-01

    How do undergraduates engage authority figures in college? Existing explanations predict class-based engagement strategies. Using in-depth interviews with 89 undergraduates at an elite university, I show how undergraduates with disparate precollege experiences differ in their orientations toward and strategies for engaging authority figures in…

  18. Trans-Local Academic Credentials and the (Re)production of Financial Elites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sarah; Appleyard, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which credentials from a range of education providers are used to (re)produce transnational financial elites in London's international financial district. Extant research has examined the long-standing relationship between educational background and entry into these financial labour markets. Far less attention has…

  19. The European Research Elite: A Cross-National Study of Highly Productive Academics in 11 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on a rare scholarly theme of highly productive academics, statistically confirming their pivotal role in knowledge production across 11 systems studied. The upper 10% of highly productive academics in 11 European countries studied (N = 17,211) provide on average almost half of all academic knowledge production. In contrast…

  20. Neither colorblind nor oppositional: perceived minority status and trajectories of academic adjustment among Latinos in elite higher education.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Mooney, Margarita

    2009-05-01

    As more Latinos experience upward social mobility, it is increasingly necessary to challenge oppositional cultural assumptions to explain how perceived minority status barriers may influence their academic achievement. The present study builds on previous work that identified 3 distinct minority status orientations among Latino college students entering elite colleges-which the authors call assimilation, accommodation, and resistance. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen, the authors examined how these orientations influence Latino students' academic and social adjustment from their freshman to junior years of college. Latino students who most strongly questioned the openness of the opportunity structure to ethnic minorities-resisters-reported similar grades and time spent studying as their counterparts who perceived less ethnic and racial inequities. In addition, resisters did not disengage from their social environment but rather became increasingly involved in campus activities outside the classroom during their college career. Implications for understanding ethnic minority individuals' interpretations of social stratification in well-resourced, high-achieving contexts are discussed. PMID:19413422

  1. The North Carolina State University Libraries Search Experience: Usability Testing Tabbed Search Interfaces for Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague-Rector, Susan; Ballard, Angela; Pauley, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Creating a learnable, effective, and user-friendly library Web site hinges on providing easy access to search. Designing a search interface for academic libraries can be particularly challenging given the complexity and range of searchable library collections, such as bibliographic databases, electronic journals, and article search silos. Library…

  2. The Academic Job Search Handbook. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiberger, Mary Morris; Vick, Julia Miller

    This handbook provides specific advice on all aspects of job-seeking in an increasingly tight academic market, from the timetable for the application process through seeking tenure. New material in this edition provides more information for candidates in scientific and technical fields and more advice for those applying to technical and community…

  3. Information Resource Selection of Undergraduate Students in Academic Search Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jee Yeon; Paik, Woojin; Joo, Soohyung

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to investigate the selection of information sources and to identify factors associated with the resource selection of undergraduate students for academic search tasks. Also, user perceptions of some factors, such as credibility, usefulness, accessibility and familiarity, were examined to classify resources by their…

  4. Academic Users' Information Searching on Research Topics: Characteristics of Research Tasks and Search Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Jia Tina; Evans, Nina

    2011-01-01

    This project investigated how academic users search for information on their real-life research tasks. This article presents the findings of the first of two studies. The study data were collected in the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) in Brisbane, Australia. Eleven PhD students' searching behaviors on personal research topics were…

  5. Searching for the Next Generation of Teacher Educators: Assessing the Success of Academic Searches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twombly, Susan B.; Wolf-Wendel, Lisa; Williams, James; Green, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    In light of a documented shortage of candidates for teacher education faculty positions, this article explores the academic labor market for teacher education faculty using job announcements from the Chronicle of Higher Education and a survey of search chairs to examine the qualifications sought. The authors conclude that the demand for teacher…

  6. Higher Education Leadership in Russia: A Case Study of Mid-Level Academic Management at an Elite State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Justine; Pogosian, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Head of Department (HoD) role at an elite State university in Russia. It draws upon documentary analysis of government texts and focus groups with both HoDs and lecturers. It concludes that most HoDs are invited to apply for the role by more senior university colleagues. Once in post, they are offered a range of helpful…

  7. On Anti-Elite Prime Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M"Uller, Tom

    2007-09-01

    An odd prime number p is called anti-elite if only finitely many Fermat numbers are quadratic non-residues to p. This concept is the exact opposite to that of elite prime numbers. We study some fundamental properties of anti-elites and show that there are infinitely many of them. A computational search among all the numbers up to 100 billion yielded 84 anti-elite primes.

  8. Racial/Ethnic Variations in the Consequences of Religious Participation for Academic Achievement at Elite Colleges and Universities.

    PubMed

    Owens, Jayanti

    2014-03-01

    Research has not investigated how much of the previously documented positive association between high school religious service attendance and college grades is mediated by campus religious group participation. Nor do we know whether campus religious group involvement is an important mediator for black and Hispanic students who experience grade-lowering stereotype threat at historically white institutions. Path analyses conducted on a racially diverse sample of students at 28 elite institutions indicate that religious group involvement in college mediates the positive relationship between high school service attendance and college grades for Hispanic and to some extent black students. For Asian and white students, high school service attendance is positively associated with grades net of religious group involvement on campus. Asians frequently attending high school services on average earn a grade-point average of 0.12 points above Asians who never attended, net of controls. PMID:24855331

  9. Racial/Ethnic Variations in the Consequences of Religious Participation for Academic Achievement at Elite Colleges and Universities

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Jayanti

    2014-01-01

    Research has not investigated how much of the previously documented positive association between high school religious service attendance and college grades is mediated by campus religious group participation. Nor do we know whether campus religious group involvement is an important mediator for black and Hispanic students who experience grade-lowering stereotype threat at historically white institutions. Path analyses conducted on a racially diverse sample of students at 28 elite institutions indicate that religious group involvement in college mediates the positive relationship between high school service attendance and college grades for Hispanic and to some extent black students. For Asian and white students, high school service attendance is positively associated with grades net of religious group involvement on campus. Asians frequently attending high school services on average earn a grade-point average of 0.12 points above Asians who never attended, net of controls. PMID:24855331

  10. Neither Colorblind nor Oppositional: Perceived Minority Status and Trajectories of Academic Adjustment among Latinos in Elite Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Mooney, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    As more Latinos experience upward social mobility, it is increasingly necessary to challenge oppositional cultural assumptions to explain how perceived minority status barriers may influence their academic achievement. The present study builds on previous work that identified 3 distinct minority status orientations among Latino college students…

  11. The Impact of Class Absenteeism on Undergraduates' Academic Performance: Evidence from an Elite Economics School in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Aurora A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The empirical literature focusing mainly on the USA suggests that class absenteeism undermines students' academic performance and that an enforced mandatory attendance policy may be beneficial. Based on a different cultural and economic context, and using data on 146 second-year management students enrolled in a macroeconomics course at an elite…

  12. Google Scholar Search Performance: Comparative Recall and Precision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative evaluation of Google Scholar and 11 other bibliographic databases (Academic Search Elite, AgeLine, ArticleFirst, EconLit, GEOBASE, MEDLINE, PAIS International, POPLINE, Social Sciences Abstracts, Social Sciences Citation Index, and SocINDEX), focusing on search performance within the multidisciplinary field of…

  13. CD-ROM--A Viable Alternative to Online Searching for Academic Libraries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubbeld, Catherine E.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of CD-ROM as an alternative to online searching for academic libraries focuses on a comparison between online and CD-ROM costs at the University of Natal (South Africa) library. Other factors examined include funding methods; user fees; staff involvement; user training; user access, including search intermediaries and networking; and…

  14. Finding Your Voice: Talent Development Centers and the Academic Talent Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushneck, Amy S.

    2012-01-01

    Talent Development Centers are just one of many tools every family, teacher, and gifted advocate should have in their tool box. To understand the importance of Talent Development Centers, it is essential to also understand the Academic Talent Search Program. Talent Search participants who obtain scores comparable to college-bound high school…

  15. All Elite Primes Up to 250 Billion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaumont, Alain; Müller, Tom

    2006-08-01

    A prime number p is called elite if only finitely many Fermat numbers 2^(2^n)+1 are quadratic residues of p. Previously only the interval up to 10^9 was systematically searched for elite primes and 16 such primes were found. We extended this research up to 2.5*10^11 and found five further elites, among which 1,151,139,841 is the smallest and 171,727,482,881 the largest.

  16. Use of an Academic Library Web Site Search Engine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2002-01-01

    Describes an analysis of the search engine logs of Southern Illinois University, Carbondale's library to determine how patrons used the site search. Discusses results that showed patrons did not understand the function of the search and explains improvements that were made in the Web site and in online reference services. (Author/LRW)

  17. How Elite?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothblatt, Sheldon

    2006-01-01

    Certain types of university, denominated as "elite"--Oxford is certainly an example--are often thought to have a structural or cultural capacity to imbue their members with a particular social or moral mission, or ideology. History is also a factor, insofar as the age of a university, which usually produces a lengthy relationship with other kinds…

  18. Automating Academic Literature Searches With RSS Feeds and Google Reader™

    PubMed Central

    Dubuque, Erick M

    2011-01-01

    Behavior analytic practitioners have an ethical obligation to stay abreast of the most recent research developments in their areas of expertise. Although conducting frequent and comprehensive literature searches is one way to meet this mandate, doing so can be a time intensive process. One way to reduce the effort involved in this process is setting up automated literature and news searches using RSS feeds via programs like Google Reader™. This paper outlines the steps necessary for setting up a Google Reader™ account and creating customized RSS feeds based on searches of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) PubMed database and the World Wide Web. PMID:22532905

  19. Being the Diversity Hire: Negotiating Identity in an Academic Job Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Anne K.; Horner, Pilar S.; Ortiz, Daniel Velez

    2012-01-01

    A diverse faculty is a goal of all social work programs. However, recruiting and retaining diverse faculty is often a struggle. In this article, narratives of 3 recent doctoral graduates are analyzed to identify the role that diversity played in their academic job searches. Autoethnographic analysis revealed 2 broad themes: identity and…

  20. Academic medicine and the search for meaning and purpose.

    PubMed

    Souba, Wiley W

    2002-02-01

    The transformation of the health care industry into a marketplace governed by commercialism and free competition challenges the doctrine of medicine as a profession valuing service to the patient above financial reward. Many physicians have become disenchanted with their ability to serve as advocates for and provide care to their patients. Financial success, the measure of the marketplace, has become the dominant standard of measurement or "value" for most academic medical centers (AMCs). Many doctors report their work is less fulfilling. As a result, all three social missions-patient care, teaching, and research-are in jeopardy. The growth of modernism, preeminence of biomedical research, and dominance of a market-driven clinical enterprise will continue to pose challenges to the health care system in the United States. However, AMCs can provide the leadership and serve as the ambassadors through which the health care system can be renewed with a sense of direction and purpose. Renewal must begin with more open discourse about what we value in health care and what kind of medical profession we want to have, to include addressing questions such as: What does it mean to be an academic physician? What gives my work meaning and purpose? This kind of dialogue could easily be built into the medical students' curricula and residency training programs, with the faculty taking the lead. PMID:11841973

  1. Achievement Patterns of Students in an Elite, Male Independent School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusty, Edward Maurice, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    There is an underlying assumption that regardless of student ethnicity, socio-economic status, or any other variable, elite, independent schools by mission and design are effective at producing successful students. This would cause some to conclude that all students enrolled in elite, independent schools perform similarly on all academic measures.…

  2. Improved Genetic Algorithm Based on the Cooperation of Elite and Inverse-elite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanakubo, Masaaki; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    In this paper, we propose an improved genetic algorithm based on the combination of Bee system and Inverse-elitism, both are effective strategies for the improvement of GA. In the Bee system, in the beginning, each chromosome tries to find good solution individually as global search. When some chromosome is regarded as superior one, the other chromosomes try to find solution around there. However, since chromosomes for global search are generated randomly, Bee system lacks global search ability. On the other hand, in the Inverse-elitism, an inverse-elite whose gene values are reversed from the corresponding elite is produced. This strategy greatly contributes to diversification of chromosomes, but it lacks local search ability. In the proposed method, the Inverse-elitism with Pseudo-simplex method is employed for global search of Bee system in order to strengthen global search ability. In addition, it also has strong local search ability. The proposed method has synergistic effects of the three strategies. We confirmed validity and superior performance of the proposed method by computer simulations.

  3. Secularization and Religious Change among Elite Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Park, Jerry Z.; Veliz, Phil Todd

    2008-01-01

    Sociologists of religion have often connected secularization to science, but have rarely examined the role of religion in the lives of scientists or how the sciences have changed religiously over time. Here we address this shortcoming by comparing religiosity between two samples of elite academic natural and social scientists, one in 1969 and one…

  4. Searching for Excellence & Diversity: Increasing the Hiring of Women Faculty at One Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Jennifer T.; Fine, Eve; Pribbenow, Christine Maidl; Handelsman, Jo; Carnes, Molly

    2014-01-01

    One opportunity to realize the diversity goals of academic health centers comes at the time of hiring new faculty. To improve the effectiveness of search committees in increasing the gender diversity of faculty hires, the authors created and implemented a training workshop for faculty search committees designed to improve the hiring process and increase the diversity of faculty hires at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. They describe the workshops, which they presented in the School of Medicine and Public Health between 2004 and 2007, and they compare the subsequent hiring of women faculty in participating and nonparticipating departments and the self-reported experience of new faculty within the hiring process. Attendance at the workshop correlates with improved hiring of women faculty and with a better hiring experience for faculty recruits, especially women. The authors articulate successful elements of workshop implementation for other medical schools seeking to increase gender diversity on their faculties. PMID:20505400

  5. Do economic equality and generalized trust inhibit academic dishonesty? Evidence from state-level search-engine queries.

    PubMed

    Neville, Lukas

    2012-04-01

    What effect does economic inequality have on academic integrity? Using data from search-engine queries made between 2003 and 2011 on Google and state-level measures of income inequality and generalized trust, I found that academically dishonest searches (queries seeking term-paper mills and help with cheating) were more likely to come from states with higher income inequality and lower levels of generalized trust. These relations persisted even when controlling for contextual variables, such as average income and the number of colleges per capita. The relation between income inequality and academic dishonesty was fully mediated by generalized trust. When there is higher economic inequality, people are less likely to view one another as trustworthy. This lower generalized trust, in turn, is associated with a greater prevalence of academic dishonesty. These results might explain previous findings on the effectiveness of honor codes. PMID:22421204

  6. The Question of Elitism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph A.

    1987-01-01

    Argues that excellence in art education is not elitist, but that commitment to excellence is a traditional democratic value. Elaborates by describing the nature of beneficial elitism. Concludes that a synthesis of beneficial elitism and beneficial populism are required for the success of art education in a democracy. (BSR)

  7. The Achievement and Social Adjustment of Accelerated Students: The Impact of Academic Talent Search after Seven Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Terry A.

    Academic Talent Search (ATS) provided advanced instruction in a 6-week summer school for talented middle school students on the campus of California State University, Sacramento. A survey was conducted to examine the long-term impact of the ATS program on students over a period of 7 years. Data were collected pertaining to high school and college…

  8. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years.

    PubMed

    Huijgen, Barbara C H; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13-17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for "higher-level" cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). "Lower-level" cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA's showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the "higher-level" cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p < .05). Using stepwise discriminant analysis, 62.5% of subjects was correctly assigned to one of the groups based on their metacognition, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility performance. Controlling for training hours and academic level, MANCOVA's showed differences in favor of the elite youth soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the "lower-level" cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal

  9. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M.; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13–17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for “higher-level” cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). “Lower-level” cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA’s showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the “higher-level” cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p < .05). Using stepwise discriminant analysis, 62.5% of subjects was correctly assigned to one of the groups based on their metacognition, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility performance. Controlling for training hours and academic level, MANCOVA’s showed differences in favor of the elite youth soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the “lower-level” cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the

  10. Feeding the Elite: The Evolution of Elite Pathways from Star High Schools to Elite Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeTendre, Gerald K.; Gonzalez, Roger Geertz; Nomi, Takako

    2006-01-01

    During the last 50 years, private "feeder" schools in Japan came to dominate entry into elite colleges. Intense organizational competition shaped the organizational environment and changed the pathways available to social elites. Compared to Japan, elite private feeders in the US have failed to dominate pathways into elite colleges. In this paper,…

  11. Bridging academic science and clinical research in the search for novel targeted anti-cancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Matter, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This review starts with a brief history of drug discovery & development, and the place of Asia in this worldwide effort discussed. The conditions and constraints of a successful translational R&D involving academic basic research and clinical research are discussed and the Singapore model for pursuit of open R&D described. The importance of well-characterized, validated drug targets for the search for novel targeted anti-cancer agents is emphasized, as well as a structured, high quality translational R&D. Furthermore, the characteristics of an attractive preclinical development drug candidate are discussed laying the foundation of a successful preclinical development. The most frequent sources of failures are described and risk management at every stage is highly recommended. Organizational factors are also considered to play an important role. The factors to consider before starting a new drug discovery & development project are described, and an example is given of a successful clinical project that has had its roots in local universities and was carried through preclinical development into phase I clinical trials. PMID:26779369

  12. Asthma in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-06-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes have been shown to have a different distribution of airway inflammation and unequal response to bronchial provocative test. Elite athletes display signs of exercise-induced symptoms, for example, nonasthmatic inspiratory wheeze, vocal cord dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias, which could limit their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should be aware of the doping aspects. Systemic β2-agonist intake is strictly prohibited, whereas inhaled treatment is allowed in therapeutic doses when asthma is documented and dispensation has been granted when needed. PMID:21702657

  13. Searching for Electronic Journal Articles to Support Academic Tasks. A Case Study of the Use of the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakkari, Pertti; Talja, Sanna

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: We analyse how academic status and discipline influence the major search methods used by university academic staff for obtaining electronic articles for teaching, research and keeping up to date in their field. Method: The data consist of a nationwide Web-survey of the end-users of FinELib, The Finnish National Electronic Library.…

  14. The ELITE system.

    PubMed

    Iandelli, I; Rosi, E; Scano, G

    1999-12-01

    This report describes the technical limitations that affect the computation of thoraco-abdominal volume displacement and the characteristics that an ideal system should have. The elaboratore di immagini televisive (ELITE) system satisfies many of these characteristics. ELITE system is an optoelectronic device able to track the three-dimensional co-ordinates of a number of reflecting markers placed noninvasively on the skin of the subject. The simultaneous acquisition of kinematic signals with pleural and gastric pressures during a relaxation manoeuvre allows the representation of pressure-volume plots describing the mechanical characteristics of each compartment. The results of studies concerning chest-wall mechanics by applying the ELITE system are described. PMID:10695319

  15. Conducting Elite Performance Training.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Elliott; Tucker, Scott A; Imsdahl, Solveig; Charles, Justin A; Stellato, Mallory A; Wagner, Mercy D; Brown, Kimberly M

    2015-08-01

    Training to excellence in the conduct of surgical procedures has many similarities to the acquisition and mastery of technical skills in elite-level music and sports. By using coaching techniques and strategies gleaned from analysis of professional music ensembles and athletic training, surgical educators can set conditions that increase the success rate of training to elite performance. This article describes techniques and strategies used in both music and athletic coaching, and it discusses how they can be applied and integrated into surgical simulation and education. PMID:26210975

  16. Diversity and Senior Leadership at Elite Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasman, Marybeth; Abiola, Ufuoma; Travers, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the lack of diversity at the 8 Ivy League institutions using a Critical Race Theory lens. It includes a comprehensive literature review of the scholarship related to diversity in academe, but especially within the areas of elite institutions and administration. The article also provides data pertaining to the senior…

  17. Is Beneficial Elitism Beneficial?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Jack A.

    1988-01-01

    Discussing Ralph Smith's monograph EXCELLENCE IN ART EDUCATION: IDEAS AND INITIATIVES, the author criticizes the reliance on "classics" or "masterpieces" for art education. Stating that Smith's elitism is unbeneficial, Hobbs advocates a mixture of the classics and local and popular art with a disposition to interpret and criticize. (GEA)

  18. Millennial Students' Mental Models of Search: Implications for Academic Librarians and Database Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    Today's students exhibit generational differences in the way they search for information. Observations of first-year students revealed a proclivity for simple keyword or phrases searches with frequent misspellings and incorrect logic. Although no students had strong mental models of search mechanisms, those with stronger models did construct more…

  19. Manually Classifying User Search Queries on an Academic Library Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Suzanne; Desai, Shevon; Hagedorn, Kat; Varnum, Ken; Mishra, Sonali; Piacentine, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The University of Michigan Library wanted to learn more about the kinds of searches its users were conducting through the "one search" search box on the Library Web site. Library staff conducted two investigations. A preliminary investigation in 2011 involved the manual review of the 100 most frequently occurring queries conducted…

  20. A Search for Correlations Between Teaching Style, Academic Gain, and Epistemology of Introductory Physics Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, Abigail; Kuhl, Dennis

    2011-04-01

    Ideally, a physics class would improve both students' academic abilities and their attitudes towards physics. This study was designed both to investigate any correlation between academic ability and epistemology, and to examine the effects of teaching style on academic and epistemological growth. Over four hundred students in high school and college introductory physics courses were given two pre- and post-instruction surveys: the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE) to measure knowledge of physics and the Epistemological Beliefs Assessment for Physical Science (EBAPS) to quantify epistemological beliefs about physics. The average normalized gains from each class were then compared to teaching style. It was found that, though different teaching styles produced drastically different academic gains, student epistemologies remained fairly constant.

  1. Towards a portal and search engine to facilitate academic and research collaboration in engineering and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla Villarreal, Isaura Nathaly

    While international academic and research collaborations are of great importance at this time, it is not easy to find researchers in the engineering field that publish in languages other than English. Because of this disconnect, there exists a need for a portal to find Who's Who in Engineering Education in the Americas. The objective of this thesis is to built an object-oriented architecture for this proposed portal. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) model developed in this thesis incorporates the basic structure of a social network for academic purposes. Reverse engineering of three social networks portals yielded important aspects of their structures that have been incorporated in the proposed UML model. Furthermore, the present work includes a pattern for academic social networks..

  2. Searching Scientific Information on the Internet: A Dutch Academic User Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorbij, Henk J.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the use and perceived importance of the Internet among students and faculty in the Netherlands through questionnaires and focus-group interviews. Highlights include electronic journals, learning to use the Internet, search engines, needed library support, and problems with subject searching. A copy of the questionnaire is…

  3. Schools that Overcome the Disparities of Academic Achievements among Children: Searching for Japanese Effective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimizu, Kokichi

    2007-01-01

    We reported the major findings of our research based on our own academic achievement tests towards elementary school and junior high school pupils in 2002. We then pointed out the fact that the differences of achievement between social groups have been expanded. Nowadays, that issue is seen to be one of the most serious educational problems in…

  4. In Search of Excellence in Education: The Political, Academic, and Curricular Leadership of Ethel T. Overby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Adah Ward; Sanders, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the educational leadership of the first African American female principal in Richmond, Virginia: Mrs. Ethel Thompson Overby. It seeks to ascertain, through a historical framework utilizing critical race theory, how this particular educational and instructional leader conceptualized academic achievement given the context of…

  5. In Search of the Effects of Academic Achievement in Postgraduation Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donhardt, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between academic achievement and the financial success of baccalaureate recipients in the workplace is the focal point of an investigation that covers the first 3 years following graduation. Employment activity and quarterly earnings of university baccalaureate recipients were tracked in a comprehensive study that merged state…

  6. Vaccination in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Barbara C; Meyer, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Public health vaccination guidelines cannot be easily transferred to elite athletes. An enhanced benefit from preventing even mild diseases is obvious but stronger interference from otherwise minor side effects has to be considered as well. Thus, special vaccination guidelines for adult elite athletes are required. In most of them, protection should be strived for against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, measles, mumps and varicella. When living or traveling to endemic areas, the athletes should be immune against tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, poliomyelitis, typhoid fever, and meningococcal disease. Vaccination against pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae type b is only relevant in athletes with certain underlying disorders. Rubella and papillomavirus vaccination might be considered after an individual risk-benefit analysis. Other vaccinations such as cholera, rabies, herpes zoster, and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) cannot be universally recommended for athletes at present. Only for a very few diseases, a determination of antibody titers is reasonable to avoid unnecessary vaccinations or to control efficacy of an individual's vaccination (especially for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis B and, partly, hepatitis A). Vaccinations should be scheduled in a way that possible side effects are least likely to occur in periods of competition. Typically, vaccinations are well tolerated by elite athletes, and resulting antibody titers are not different from the general population. Side effects might be reduced by an optimal selection of vaccines and an appropriate technique of administration. Very few discipline-specific considerations apply to an athlete's vaccination schedule mainly from the competition and training pattern as well as from the typical geographical distribution of competitive sites. PMID:24986118

  7. A Handbook for the Introduction of On-Line Bibliographic Search Services Into Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, David M.

    A handbook is provided for library administrators who are planning to install commercially available on-line interactive search services. It includes guidelines for selecting and organizing the service, staffing, training and orientation, preparing the service sites, promotion and user education, finance, data collection, and service evaluation.…

  8. Students' Self-Regulated Learning, Online Information Evaluative Standards and Online Academic Searching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Sheng-Chau; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Online information searching strategies (OISS) used by students can be viewed as a key indicator in online learning environments. Therefore, developments in their OISS may also involve variables such as self-regulated learning (SRL) and online information evaluative standards (OIES). Three instruments, an OISS, a SRL and an OIES were used to…

  9. Intelligence, Academic Self-Concept, and Information Literacy: The Role of Adequate Perceptions of Academic Ability in the Acquisition of Knowledge about Information Searching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present paper argues that adequate self-perceptions of academic ability are essential for students' realization of their intellectual potential, thereby fostering learning of complex skills, e.g., information-seeking skills. Thus, academic self-concept should moderate the relationship between intelligence and information…

  10. An Analysis of Scholar Athlete Attitudes and Behaviors, and Academic Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgin, Ann Savona

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine how, and to what extent, attitudes and behaviors of collegiate elite scholar athletes vary from attitudes and behaviors of non-elite scholar athletes and their academic success. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature with new information about academically successful athletes. The study…

  11. Dynamic balance in elite karateka.

    PubMed

    Zago, Matteo; Mapelli, Andrea; Shirai, Yuri Francesca; Ciprandi, Daniela; Lovecchio, Nicola; Galvani, Christel; Sforza, Chiarella

    2015-12-01

    In karate, balance control represents a key performance determinant. With the hypothesis that high-level athletes display advanced balance abilities, the purpose of the current study was to quantitatively investigate the motor strategies adopted by elite and non-elite karateka to maintain balance control in competition. The execution of traditional karate techniques (kihon) in two groups of elite Masters (n = 6, 31 ± 19 years) and non-elite Practitioners (n = 4, 25 ± 9 years) was compared assessing body center of mass (CoM) kinematics and other relevant parameters like step width and angular joint behavior. In the considered kihon sequence, normalized average CoM height was 8% lower (p < 0.05), while CoM displacement in the horizontal direction was significantly higher in Masters than in Practitioners (2.5 vs. 1.9 m, p < 0.05), as well as CoM average velocity and rms acceleration (p < 0.05). Step width was higher in Masters in more than half of the sequence steps (p < 0.05). Results suggest that elite karateka showed a refined dynamic balance control, obtained through the increase of the base of support and different maneuvers of lower limbs. The proposed method could be used to objectively detect talented karateka, to measure proficiency level and to assess training effectiveness. PMID:26499923

  12. Somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Massidda, Myosotis; Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Calò, Carla M

    2013-09-01

    The somatotyping method is especially helpful in sports in which the body could directly influence the biomechanics of movements and the performance's results. The purpose of this study was to determine the somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts and to compare it in terms of competition levels. The sample comprised 64 elite gymnasts (42 females (F), somatotype 1.4-4.4-3.2; and 22 males (M), somatotype 1.6-6.3-2.1) belonging to the Italian National Artistic Gymnastic Team (2007) at different competition levels: Allieve, Junior, and Senior. Mean whole somatotypes, by competition levels, were not significantly different in both sexes (Female gymnasts: Allieve, 1.3-4.6-3.3; Junior, 1.3-4.2-3.6; Senior, 1.7-4.2-2.7; Male gymnasts: Junior, 1.5-6.3-2.5; Senior, 1.7-6.3-1.6). Male Junior gymnasts exhibited greater ectomorphy than Senior athletes (F1,20 = 7.75, p < 0.01). Compared to other elite athletes male and female gymnasts tend to be less endomorphic and more mesomorphic. This study highlighted the peculiarities of the somatotype of Italian elite gymnasts and their strong homogeneity, evident also from the low values of somatotype attitudinal mean (SAM). The results emphasize the need for a specific somatotype to reach an elite level in sport and the need to integrate the somatotype analysis between the scientific instruments for selecting talent also in artistic gymnastics. PMID:24308228

  13. "Floating Elites": Interpreting Mainland Chinese Undergraduates' Graduation Plans in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    Cross-border student migration has significant implications for host communities in terms of academic, financial and social consequences. In light of Hong Kong's thirst for human resources, this paper reports on a study that interpreted the graduation plans of a group of "elite" mainland Chinese undergraduates in a publicly funded…

  14. School Grades, School Context and University Degree Performance: Evidence from an Elite Scottish Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasselle, Laurence; McDougall-Bagnall, Jonathan; Smith, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates degree classification outcomes for students with SQA Higher qualifications at an elite Scottish university. Students are characterised according to a new indicator based on their secondary school's academic performance relative to the national (Scottish) average. The results show that our school context indicator…

  15. Teachers, and Scholars Too: Economic Scholarship at Elite Liberal Arts Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodenhorn, Howard

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of a study that ranked the economics departments of 40 elite, liberal arts colleges by number of publications. The findings suggest that at small colleges academic publishing is being given a mantle of importance previously reserved for teaching. Includes statistical tables concerning rankings and publications. (MJP)

  16. Measuring Student Success from a Developmental Mathematics Course at an Elite Public Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Julian; Gehring, William J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper asks whether placement recommendations for a developmental math course at an elite public institution impact students' future academic performance, course-taking, and college outcomes. Researchers use these specific outcomes to measure whether developmental courses help students develop the skills necessary to succeed in college,…

  17. Pedagogy of the Privileged: Elite Universities and Dialectical Contradictions in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell, Mark; Karimova, Zulfia; Brock, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the role and function of Left academics within "elite" (i.e. Russell Group) universities within the UK. Deploying Marxist theory and critical realism, it analyses the "dialectical contradictions" experienced in such a role and reflects upon productive strategies for resisting the hegemony of neo-liberalism…

  18. Building and evaluating an informatics tool to facilitate analysis of a biomedical literature search service in an academic medical center library.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Elizabeth G; Oelschlegel, Sandra; Vaughn, Cynthia J; Lindsay, J Michael; Hurst, Sachiko M; Earl, Martha

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes an informatics tool to analyze a robust literature search service in an academic medical center library. Structured interviews with librarians were conducted focusing on the benefits of such a tool, expectations for performance, and visual layout preferences. The resulting application utilizes Microsoft SQL Server and .Net Framework 3.5 technologies, allowing for the use of a web interface. Customer tables and MeSH terms are included. The National Library of Medicine MeSH database and entry terms for each heading are incorporated, resulting in functionality similar to searching the MeSH database through PubMed. Data reports will facilitate analysis of the search service. PMID:23869631

  19. Self Hypnosis for Elite Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Colin P.

    A summary of the use of hypnosis in sport (Morgan 1980) has suggested that the evidence in this area is equivocal, particularly in strength, endurance, and psychomotor tasks. However, some experiments have demonstrated the potential use of hypnosis. This paper presents examples of two elite Australian athletes who achieve success using hypnosis or…

  20. Where can we find future K-12 science and math teachers? a search by academic year, discipline, and academic performance level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moin, Laura J.; Dorfield, Jennifer K.; Schunn, Christian D.

    2005-11-01

    Responding to the increasing math and science teacher shortage in the United States, this study intended to determine which science, engineering, and math (SEM) majors during which years in their undergraduate education and from which academic performance levels are most interested in K-12 teaching. Results may aid policymakers and practitioners in making most effective use of this traditional undergraduate candidate pool when designing K-12 science and math teacher recruitment programs. A survey of SEM majors from two research-oriented, urban universities is used to assess participants' interest in K-12 teaching both compared to other career choices and in isolation. Results indicate that the more successful targets for K-12 teacher recruitment include (1) SEM undergraduates in their junior and senior years independent of SEM major, (2) SEM undergraduates with mid-academic performance levels independent of SEM major and academic year, and (3) math majors followed by natural science majors and, as least promising targets, engineering majors. Results remain independent from gender and ethnicity variables.

  1. Elite Rationalities and Curricular Form: "Meritorious" Class Reproduction in the Elite Thinking Curriculum in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Leonel; Apple, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    While much of the critical scholarship around elite schooling has focused on the students who attend elite institutions, their social class locations, privileged habituses and cultural capital, this paper foregrounds curricular form itself as a central mechanism in the (re)production of elites. Using Basil Bernstein's conceptual framework of…

  2. Return to Sport Following Shoulder Surgery in the Elite Pitcher

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Joshua D.; Frank, Jonathan M.; Jordan, Mark A.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Gupta, Anil K.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.; McCormick, Frank M.; Bach, Bernard R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The ability to return to elite pitching, performance, and clinical outcomes of shoulder surgery in elite baseball pitchers are not definitively established. Objective: To determine (1) the rate of return to sport (RTS) in elite pitchers following shoulder surgery, (2) postoperative clinical outcomes upon RTS, and (3) performance upon RTS and to compare RTS rates in different types of shoulder surgery. Data Sources: Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and checklist, Medline, SciVerse Scopus, SportDiscus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. Study Selection: Levels I-IV evidence were eligible for inclusion if performance-based (eg, RTS) and/or clinical outcome–based reporting of outcomes were reported following surgical treatment of shoulder pathology in elite pitchers (major or minor league or collegiate). Data Extraction: Subject, shoulder, and pre- and postoperative performance-based variables of interest were extracted. All shoulder surgery types were potentially inclusive (eg, open, arthroscopic, rotator cuff, labrum, biceps, acromioclavicular joint, fracture). Study methodological quality was analyzed using the Modified Coleman Methodology Score (MCMS). Results: Six studies were analyzed (287 elite male pitchers [mean age, 27 years] who underwent shoulder surgery, with 99% on the dominant, throwing shoulder). MCMS was 38 (poor). Most pitchers were professional, with a mean career length of 6.58 years and postoperative clinical follow-up of 3.62 years. In 5 of 6 studies, multiple diagnoses were addressed concomitantly at surgery. Rate of RTS was 68% at mean 12 months following surgery. Twenty-two percent of Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers never RTS in MLB. Overall performance did improve following surgery; however, this did not improve to pre-injury levels. Conclusion: In this systematic review, the rate of return to elite baseball pitching following surgery was

  3. Students of the New Global Elite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandrick, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Universities in the United States and elsewhere are increasingly enrolling an elite group of international students who not only are able to pay the high tuition and other expenses of U.S.-based universities, but also are personally familiar with several countries and cultures. These students are part of a new global economic and cultural elite.…

  4. How Elite Universities Fail Latino Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavans, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    The US Census Bureau reveals that although there are more than 41.3 million Latinos in the US as on 2004--about 14 percent of the population, only a very small percentage of them attend the country's elite colleges. A large part of the problem is that, like most of the nation, elite colleges and universities have little awareness of the…

  5. Exploring Biographical Learning in Elite Soccer Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2014-01-01

    Qualified and skilled sport coaches are vital to the development of sport in general and of elite sport in particular. Research suggests that the development of coaching expertise in elite sport is a complex matter involving mediated, unmediated and internal learning situations. However, it is less clear to what extent and in which ways these…

  6. What's behind the Name? The Intensification of Co-Branding in Elite US Colleges of Business and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mars, Matthew M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents research that draws attention to the intensification of co-branding within elite US graduate colleges of business and education. A robust set of descriptive data collected and analyzed according to a content analysis strategy is used to develop an initial understanding of the trend of naming of colleges and academic units in…

  7. Investigating the Perceptions of Intellectual Diversity among Socially Conservative Christian Seniors at Elite U.S. Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brow, Mark V.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of intellectual diversity at elite U.S. universities through the lens of the socially conservative Christian senior. Closely aligned with the principle of academic freedom, intellectual diversity is a foundational value putatively espoused by most if not all colleges and universities in the US. Although…

  8. Pathways to an Elite Education: Application, Admission, and Matriculation to New York City's Specialized High Schools. Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Sean P.; Baker-Smith, Christine

    2015-01-01

    New York City's elite public specialized high schools have a long history of offering a rigorous college preparatory education to the City's most academically talented students. Though immensely popular and highly selective, their policy of admitting students on the basis of a single entrance exam has been heavily criticized. Many argue, for…

  9. Biogeography-based particle swarm optimization with fuzzy elitism and its applications to constrained engineering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Weian; Li, Wuzhao; Zhang, Qun; Wang, Lei; Wu, Qidi; Ren, Hongliang

    2014-11-01

    In evolutionary algorithms, elites are crucial to maintain good features in solutions. However, too many elites can make the evolutionary process stagnate and cannot enhance the performance. This article employs particle swarm optimization (PSO) and biogeography-based optimization (BBO) to propose a hybrid algorithm termed biogeography-based particle swarm optimization (BPSO) which could make a large number of elites effective in searching optima. In this algorithm, the whole population is split into several subgroups; BBO is employed to search within each subgroup and PSO for the global search. Since not all the population is used in PSO, this structure overcomes the premature convergence in the original PSO. Time complexity analysis shows that the novel algorithm does not increase the time consumption. Fourteen numerical benchmarks and four engineering problems with constraints are used to test the BPSO. To better deal with constraints, a fuzzy strategy for the number of elites is investigated. The simulation results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  10. Information Retrieval Techniques: The Differences in Cognitive Strategies and Search Behaviors among Graduate Students in an Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Charlotte E.

    Graduate schools have been admitting more and more students older than the "traditional" 18- to 24-year-old campus population. These adult learners may come to their programs of study without formal training in library use in general or literature searches in particular. By examining various successful and unsuccessful strategies used by these…

  11. Weight-control behaviour and weight-concerns in young elite athletes – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Weight-control behaviour is commonly observed in a wide range of elite sports, especially leanness sports, where control over body weight is crucial for high peak performance. Nonetheless, there is only a fine line between purely functional behaviour and clinically relevant eating disorders. Especially the rapid form of weight manipulation seems to foster later eating disorders. So far, most studies have focussed on adult athletes and concentrated on manifest eating disorders. In contrast, our review concentrates on young athletes and weight-control behaviour as a risk factor for eating disorders. An electronic search according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) Statement was performed using Pubmed, PsychInfo and Spolit. The following search terms were used: weight-control, weight-control behaviour, weight gain, weight loss, pathogenic weight-control behaviour and weight-concerns, each of them combined with elite athlete, young elite athlete, adolescent elite athlete and elite sports. Overall, data are inconsistent. In general, athletes do not seem to be at a higher risk for pathogenic weight concerns and weight-control behaviour. It does seem to be more prevalent in leanness sports, though. There is evidence for pathogenic weight-control behaviour in both genders; male athletes mostly trying to gain weight whereas females emphasise weight reduction. There is not enough data to make predictions about connections with age of onset. Young elite athletes do show weight-control behaviour with varying degrees of frequency and severity. In particular, leanness sports seem to be a risk factor for weight manipulation. Further research is needed for more details and possible connections. PMID:24999399

  12. Elite male faculty in the life sciences employ fewer women.

    PubMed

    Sheltzer, Jason M; Smith, Joan C

    2014-07-15

    Women make up over one-half of all doctoral recipients in biology-related fields but are vastly underrepresented at the faculty level in the life sciences. To explore the current causes of women's underrepresentation in biology, we collected publicly accessible data from university directories and faculty websites about the composition of biology laboratories at leading academic institutions in the United States. We found that male faculty members tended to employ fewer female graduate students and postdoctoral researchers (postdocs) than female faculty members did. Furthermore, elite male faculty--those whose research was funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, who had been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, or who had won a major career award--trained significantly fewer women than other male faculty members. In contrast, elite female faculty did not exhibit a gender bias in employment patterns. New assistant professors at the institutions that we surveyed were largely comprised of postdoctoral researchers from these prominent laboratories, and correspondingly, the laboratories that produced assistant professors had an overabundance of male postdocs. Thus, one cause of the leaky pipeline in biomedical research may be the exclusion of women, or their self-selected absence, from certain high-achieving laboratories. PMID:24982167

  13. Response to "The Academic Elite in Library Science..."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcia J

    1998-01-01

    Refutes the claim that top-rated programs in library science tend to maintain and enhance their reputation by hiring their own and each other's graduates and that this pattern of inbreeding was likely to be harmful to the field. Concludes convincing evidence was not provided and the true situation may be other than claimed. (PEN)

  14. Researchers, elites, and people in a rapidly changing world.

    PubMed

    Galtung, J

    1983-01-01

    The paper locates the problem of research ethics in a "value-free" science that has made researchers value-blind, insufficiently able to foresee possible negative consequences of what they do, but very able to design strategies to agree to structures that protect them. The intellectual style of a given research community enters as a key variable, and most intellectual styles are seen as ways of making scientific findings less threatening by focusing on data with little interpretation or speculation with little documentation. The famous Wilkes/Gleditsch case in Norway is cited as an example of research that offered both data (obtained from open sources) and interpretation, and was met with disapproval and sentence. The moral problem of value conflicts can best be understood by studying researchers in a social setting, together with elites and people. Only if researchers were on top and truth were the supreme value would the researchers' situation be unproblematic. But philosopher-kings, however omniscient and omnipotent, are rarely benevolent, and the very fact of concentrating so much on top leads to highly unacceptable societies, by demobilizing the rest, turning them into clients. Hence, researchers will live with their problems of being tempted into sins of commission--to pursue destructive knowledge--and sins of omission--not to pursue constructive knowledge, and not to pursue unpleasant truths, not because they want this, but because the structure leads them in that direction. Most researchers probably want security, academic freedom, and relevance, and the problem is this: Elites offer security and relevance, not academic freedom; universities offer security and academic freedom, not relevance; people may offer relevance, but neither security, nor freedom. In a rapidly changing world the interconnections and possibly destructive effects of research far away in space and time have become more evident, at the same time as formerly rich and dominating countries

  15. Are search committees really searching?

    PubMed

    Hoffmeir, Patricia A

    2003-02-01

    Academic chair searches are admittedly a labor-intensive process, but they are made more difficult and often lead to less-than-optimal outcomes because search committees spend their time "advertising," "looking," but not truly searching for academic chairs. At the onset, certain "realities" must be acknowledged, including (1) understanding that unless your organization is renowned in the specialty for which you are conducting the search, candidates won't be pounding at your door for a job, (2) searches that fail to include an overall assessment of the department in question are likely to miss the mark, (3) chairs must have demonstrated not only clinical expertise but also business savvy, (4) the best candidate is not necessarily someone who is already a department chair, (5) when it comes to chair searches, it's a buyer's market, and (6) the search process is inextricably linked to the success of the search. Key to the process of conducting an academic chair search are the judicious formation of the search committee; committee members' willingness to do their homework, attend all committee meeting, and keep the committee's activities confidential; crafting, not revising, the current job description for the open chair position; interviewing viable candidates rather than all candidates and adhering to a coordinated interviewing process; and evaluating internal and external candidates according to the same parameters. PMID:12584089

  16. A Response to the Question of Elitism: Elitism, Open and Shut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Bennett

    1987-01-01

    Reviews Ralph Smith's article "The Question of Elitism." Questions Smith's criteria for excellence and his assertion that art must be judged by a single, absolute scale. Argues that populism is pervasive in all aspects of American life and that elitism is deadening to culture. (BSR)

  17. Academic Library User Education in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Ping; Rader, Hannelore B.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses user education in China's academic libraries in light of educational reform and the changing role of academic libraries. Describes information technology developments, objectives of user education, and the emphasis on computerbased searching in the Tsinghua University library. (LRW)

  18. Elite Schools, Postcolonial Chineseness and Hegemonic Masculinities in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Daniel P. S.

    2015-01-01

    The educational reproduction of elite masculinity in postcolonial societies has not been properly studied. This is partly because the postcolonial masculinities of non-western elites are accomplished through the cultivation of naturalized practices signifying the body politic of the nation-state. In Singapore, same-sex elite schools of colonial…

  19. Elites and Panic: More to Fear than Fear Itself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Lee; Chess, Caron

    2008-01-01

    Attributions of panic are almost exclusively directed at members of the general public. Here, we inquire into the relationships between elites and panic. We review current research and theorizing about panic, including problems of identifying when it has occurred. We propose three relationships: elites fearing panic, elites causing panic and…

  20. The Minor Roads to Excellence: Positive Action, Outreach Policies and the New Positioning of Elite High Schools in France and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allouch, Annabelle; Buisson-Fenet, Helene

    2009-01-01

    Increased academic attention has been drawn to democratisation in higher education, following the implementation of affirmative action in America. However, the models of Access policies presented by certain European educational systems deserve more attention. France and Britain share a common position on elitism, although they define it according…

  1. The Relationship Between Imagery Type and Collective Efficacy in Elite and Non Elite Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, David A.; Thomson, Rob; Mellalieu, Stephen D.; Shearer, Catherine R

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between imagery function and individual perceptions of collective efficacy as a function of skill level. Elite (n = 70) and non elite (n = 71) athletes from a number of interactive team sports completed the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ) and the Collective Efficacy Inventory (CEI). Multiple hierarchical regression analysis was then used to examine which SIQ sub-scales predicted individual perceptions of collective efficacy. For the elite sample, Motivational General-Mastery (MG-M) imagery accounted for approximately 17% of the variance in collective efficacy scores. No significant predictions were observed in the non elite sample. The findings suggest MG-M imagery as a potential technique to improve levels of collective efficacy although competitive level may moderate the effectiveness of such interventions. Key pointsAs imagery is an individual intervention, an examination of individual perceptions of collective efficacy was most appropriate.Elite athletes who use more MG-M imagery also have higher individual perceptions of collective efficacy.For non-elite athletes, none of the imagery functions tested predicted individual perceptions of collective efficacy.Performance accomplishments provided by MG-M imagery may increase individual perceptions of collective efficacy.Future research should investigate further the effects of imagery intervention programmes on collective efficacy beliefs. PMID:24149327

  2. What Is an Elite Boarding School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaztambide-Fernandez, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    This article brings attention to the rarefied world of elite boarding schools. Despite their reputation for excellence, these unique educational institutions remain largely outside the gaze of educational researchers and the scope of public debates about education. One reason for this absence is a lack of knowledge about what exactly defines an…

  3. Asymmetry of Muscle Strength in Elite Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drid, Patrik; Drapsin, Miodrag; Trivic, Tatjana; Lukac, Damir; Obadov, Slavko; Milosevic, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    "Study aim": To determine muscle strength variables in elite judoists and wrestlers since thigh muscle strength and bilaterally balanced flexor-to-extensor ratio minimise injury risk and are desirable for achieving sport successes. "Material and methods": Judoists, wrestlers and untrained subjects, 10 each, were subjected to isokinetic strength…

  4. Strategic Elites, the Press, and Race Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domke, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines 2 important congressional debates about race relations, and the relationship of journalism to these debates, in the late 19th century. Suggests that political elites commonly used news, opinion, and perceptions in press content and by journalists to support, defend, and buttress certain policy positions in these debates. (SR)

  5. Motivational Traits of Elite Young Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Craig; Meyers, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Among the most overlooked aspects in the development of elite young soccer players is that of specific psychological traits. Of those traits, motivation has important implications for programs whose objectives are identification and cultivation of young, skilled performers. The growth in popularity of soccer by youth and the successes experienced…

  6. Nutrition Education for Elite Female Runners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Nancy; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A survey of the dietary habits of 115 elite female runners revealed that some did not eat wisely, pointing out nutrition education needs for these subjects in the areas of sweets, vitamin and mineral supplementation, intake of red meat, body weight and body image, eating disorders, calorie intake, and amenorrhea and stress fractures. (Author/CB)

  7. Search Engines for Tomorrow's Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2011-01-01

    Today's scholars face an outstanding array of choices when choosing search tools: Google Scholar, discipline-specific abstracts and index databases, library discovery tools, and more recently, Microsoft's re-launch of their academic search tool, now dubbed Microsoft Academic Search. What are these tools' strengths for the emerging needs of…

  8. How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Cory; Sierra, Tito; Boyer, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Academic libraries are turning increasingly to unified search solutions to simplify search and discovery of library resources. Unfortunately, very little research has been published on library user search behavior in single search box environments. This study examines how users search a large public university library using a prominent, single…

  9. Night Thoughts on Academic Searches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachtenberg, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    When a university, or any organization, and its recruiting firm set out to find a new leader, they usually begin and end in a delusion. They declare their intention to find the best person for the job and, once all the sorting and sifting are done, they announce that they have indeed found the best person for the job. The odds are they have done…

  10. CUE USAGE IN VOLLEYBALL: A TIME COURSE COMPARISON OF ELITE, INTERMEDIATE AND NOVICE FEMALE PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Vaeyens, R; Zeuwts, L; Philippaerts, R; Lenoir, M

    2014-01-01

    This study compared visual search strategies in adult female volleyball players of three levels. Video clips of the attack of the opponent team were presented on a large screen and participants reacted to the final pass before the spike. Reaction time, response accuracy and eye movement patterns were measured. Elite players had the highest response accuracy (97.50 ± 3.5%) compared to the intermediate (91.50 ± 4.7%) and novice players (83.50 ± 17.6%; p<0.05). Novices had a remarkably high range of reaction time but no significant differences were found in comparison to the reaction time of elite and intermediate players. In general, the three groups showed similar gaze behaviour with the apparent use of visual pivots at moments of reception and final pass. This confirms the holistic model of image perception for volleyball and suggests that expert players extract more information from parafoveal regions. PMID:25609887

  11. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  12. Parenting and Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    The four articles in this issue exemplify several exciting trends in the ongoing effort to understand the nature and sources of children's academic trajectories. Particularly noteworthy is the common thread of searching for key parenting and child mediators of the connection between parental educational accomplishments and child outcomes. In an…

  13. Parvenus and conflict in elite cohorts.

    PubMed

    Michael Lindsay, D; Schachter, Ariela; Porter, Jeremy R; Sorge, David C

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies find that greater workplace diversity leads to higher degrees of conflict in low and medium-status workgroups. This paper examines whether similar dynamics operate in elite cohorts. We use data from a survey of White House Fellows (N=475) to look at how the presence of parvenus-individuals from underrepresented groups in elite environments-change the rate at which fellows reported conflict with each other and with the director of the program. We find that there is no unified "parvenu experience." Analysis of the interaction between race and cohort diversity reveals inflection points consistent with Kanter's (1977) theory of tokenism, but the effects of increasing diversity diverge: for Hispanics, conflict with the director increases with diversity, while for Asians, conflict falls with diversity. While other groups' level of conflict with their peers stays roughly constant, Asians' reported level of conflict with their peers increases with diversity. PMID:24913951

  14. Airway dysfunction in elite swimmers: prevalence, impact, and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lomax, Mitch

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of airway dysfunction in elite swimmers is among the highest in elite athletes. The traditional view that swimmers naturally gravitate toward swimming because of preexisting respiratory disorders has been challenged. There is now sufficient evidence that the higher prevalence of bronchial tone disorders in elite swimmers is not the result of a natural selection bias. Rather, the combined effects of repeated chlorine by-product exposure and chronic endurance training can lead to airway dysfunction and atopy. This review will detail the underpinning causes of airway dysfunction observed in elite swimmers. It will also show that airway dysfunction does not prevent success in elite level swimming. Neither does it inhibit lung growth and might be partially reversible when elite swimmers retire from competition. PMID:27274324

  15. Airway dysfunction in elite swimmers: prevalence, impact, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Mitch

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of airway dysfunction in elite swimmers is among the highest in elite athletes. The traditional view that swimmers naturally gravitate toward swimming because of preexisting respiratory disorders has been challenged. There is now sufficient evidence that the higher prevalence of bronchial tone disorders in elite swimmers is not the result of a natural selection bias. Rather, the combined effects of repeated chlorine by-product exposure and chronic endurance training can lead to airway dysfunction and atopy. This review will detail the underpinning causes of airway dysfunction observed in elite swimmers. It will also show that airway dysfunction does not prevent success in elite level swimming. Neither does it inhibit lung growth and might be partially reversible when elite swimmers retire from competition. PMID:27274324

  16. A Comparison of the Developmental Experiences of Elite and Sub-Elite Swimmers: Similar Developmental Histories Can Lead to Differences in Performance Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Michael B.; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Edmonds, William A.; Castillo, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    The current study fills a void in the literature that investigates the factors required for elite athlete development. Previous studies have (a) illustrated psychological and physiological differences between elites and non-elites; "or" (b) described the psychological and physiological developmental experiences of elite performers. The current…

  17. Math-oriented fields of study and the race gap in graduation likelihoods at elite colleges.

    PubMed

    Gelbgiser, Dafna; Alon, Sigal

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between chosen field of study and the race gap in college completion among students at elite colleges. Fields of study are characterized by varying institutional arrangements, which impact the academic performance of students in higher education. If the effect of fields on graduation likelihoods is unequal across racial groups, then this may account for part of the overall race gap in college completion. Results from a large sample of students attending elite colleges confirm that fields of study influence the graduation likelihoods of all students, above and beyond factors such as students' academic and social backgrounds. This effect, however, is asymmetrical: relative to white students, the negative effect of the institutional arrangements of math-oriented fields on graduation likelihood is greater for black students. Therefore, the race gap is larger within math-oriented fields than in other fields, which contributes to the overall race gap in graduation likelihoods at these selective colleges. These results indicate that a nontrivial share of the race gap in college completion is generated after matriculation, by the environments that students encounter in college. Consequently, policy interventions that target field of study environments can substantially mitigate racial disparities in college graduation rates. PMID:27194657

  18. ECMS--Educational Contest Management System for Selecting Elite Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Thorsten

    2004-01-01

    Selecting elite students out of a huge collective is a difficult task. The main problem is to provide automated processes to reduce human work. ECMS (Educational Contest Management System) is an online tool approach to help--fully or partly automated--with the task of selecting such elite students out of a mass of candidates. International tests…

  19. Beyond Anti-Elitism: Black Studies and the Pedagogical Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jane Anna

    2010-01-01

    "Elitism" is frequently invoked among the pantheon of "isms" actively to be disavowed. Indeed the charge of elitism often takes the form of reiteration, of identifying yet another manifestation of adherence to traditional standards steeped in discrimination by sex, race, and class, this time in their institutional guises in the merit credited to…

  20. Elite and Status Attainment Models of Inequality of Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myles, John F.; Srensen, Aage B.

    1975-01-01

    With changes in method, analysis of the process of attainment of various occupations and sub-sets of occupations such as elites can bring about the desired comparability between elite and status attainment studies of equality of opportunity. (Author/AM)

  1. Digital Media and "Girling" at an Elite Girls' School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Claire

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I draw on Judith Butler's notion of performativity to investigate the role of digital technologies in processes of gendered subjectification (or "girling") in elite girls' education. Elite girls' schooling is a site where the potential of digital technologies in mediating student-led constructions and explorations of "femininity"…

  2. The Question of Elitism: Some Movement to the Left?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haack, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Calls for a synthesis of beneficial elitism and beneficial populism to ensure excellence for all. Suggests that Robert Penn Warren's views on how to collapse dualisms between these two philosophies provides the key to their synthesis. Concludes by comparing differences between elitism and populism and examining questions raised by Ralph Smith's…

  3. Researching Elite Education: Affectively Inferred Belongings, Desires and Exclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects on key moments occurring during the course of a three-year study of elite girls' education, with a focus on the power relations that emerged between researchers and elites within the context in which the study was conducted. Central to our analysis is a focus on the affective dimensions of interaction between the researcher and…

  4. Environmentalism and elitism: a conceptual and empirical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Denton E.; Dunlap, Riley E.

    1986-09-01

    The frequent charge that environmentalism is “elitist” is examined conceptually and empirically. First, the concept of elitism is analyzed by distinguishing between three types of accusations made against the environmental movement: (a) compositional elitism suggests that environmentalists are drawn from privileged socioeconomic strata, (b) ideological elitism suggests that environmental reforms are a subterfuge for distributing benefits to environmentalists and/or costs to others, and (c) impact elitism suggests that environmental reforms, whether intentionally or not, do in fact have regressive social impacts. The evidence bearing on each of the three types of elitism is examined in some detail, and the following conclusions are drawn: Compositional elitism is an exaggeration, for although environmentalists are typically above average in socioeconomic status (as are most sociopolitical activists), few belong to the upper class. Ideological elitism may hold in some instances, but environmentalists have shown increasing sensitivity to equity concerns and there is little evidence of consistent pursuit of self-interest. Impact elitism is the most important issue, and also the most difficult to assess. It appears that there has been a general tendency for environmental reforms to have regressive impacts. However, it is increasingly recognized that problems such as workplace pollution and toxic waste contamination disproportionately affect the lower socioeconomic strata, and thus reforms aimed at such problems will likely have more progressive impacts.

  5. Cardiovascular regulation during apnea in elite divers.

    PubMed

    Heusser, Karsten; Dzamonja, Gordan; Tank, Jens; Palada, Ivan; Valic, Zoran; Bakovic, Darija; Obad, Ante; Ivancev, Vladimir; Breskovic, Toni; Diedrich, André; Joyner, Michael J; Luft, Friedrich C; Jordan, Jens; Dujic, Zeljko

    2009-04-01

    Involuntary apnea during sleep elicits sustained arterial hypertension through sympathetic activation; however, little is known about voluntary apnea, particularly in elite athletes. Their physiological adjustments are largely unknown. We measured blood pressure, heart rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, muscle sympathetic nerve activity, and vascular resistance before and during maximal end-inspiratory breath holds in 20 elite divers and in 15 matched control subjects. At baseline, arterial pressure and heart rate were similar in both groups. Maximal apnea time was longer in divers (1.7+/-0.4 versus 3.9+/-1.1 minutes; P<0.0001), and it was accompanied by marked oxygen desaturation (97.6+/-0.7% versus 77.6+/-13.9%; P<0.0001). At the end of apnea, divers showed a >5-fold greater muscle sympathetic nerve activity increase (P<0.01) with a massively increased pressor response compared with control subjects (9+/-5 versus 32+/-15 mm Hg; P<0.001). Vascular resistance increased in both groups, but more so in divers (79+/-46% versus 140+/-82%; P<0.01). Heart rate did not change in either group. The rise in muscle sympathetic nerve activity correlated with oxygen desaturation (r(2)=0.26; P<0.01) and with the increase in mean arterial pressure (r(2)=0.40; P<0.0001). In elite divers, breath holds for several minutes result in an excessive chemoreflex activation of sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. Extensive sympathetically mediated peripheral vasoconstriction may help to maintain adequate oxygen supply to vital organs under asphyxic conditions that untrained subjects are not able to tolerate voluntarily. Our results are relevant to conditions featuring periodic apnea. PMID:19255361

  6. Re-Searching Secondary Teacher Trainees in Distance Education and Face-to-Face Mode: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Mamta; Gakhar, Sudesh

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and…

  7. How Academic Is Academic Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kym; Ling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    University provision for academic development is well established in the USA, UK and many other countries. However, arrangements for its provision and staffing vary. In Australia, there has been a trend towards professional rather than academic staff appointments. Is this appropriate? In this paper, the domains of academic development work are…

  8. [Organic injuries in doped elite sports men].

    PubMed

    Vitoria Ortiz, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    The technical level of the sportsmen in different Sports increases every year. The athletic records reach new heights and the margin between success and failure in the world of sports becomes smaller. Therefore, trainers and sportsmen look for this small difference to secure the victory. They may try to get the support from ergogenetic substances (to improve the performance). Some of these supports may benefit the performance but others may have lethal consequences. The author presents the consequences in human body of the elite sportsman who have used prohibited substances to improve the sport performance. PMID:21877411

  9. Moving Elite Athletes Forward: Examining the Status of Secondary School Elite Athlete Programmes and Available Post-School Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study focused specifically on examining the status of and the promotion of two elite athlete programmes (EAPs), the students/elite athlete selection process and available post-school options. The research was guided by Michel Foucault's work in understanding the relationship between power and knowledge. Participants,…

  10. Oral health and elite sport performance.

    PubMed

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651

  11. Supplement Use of Elite Australian Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gregory; Slater, Gary; Burke, Louise M

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the influence the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) Sport Supplement Program had on supplement practices of elite Australian swimmers, comparing those guided by the Program with others in the same national team. Thirty-nine elite swimmers (13 AIS, 26 Other; 20 female, 19 male; age 21.8 ± 3.3 y) completed a questionnaire investigating supplement use. Ninety-seven percent of swimmers reported taking supplements or sports foods over the preceding 12 months. AIS swimmers reported using more total brands (p = .02) and supplements considered Ergogenic (p = .001) than Other swimmers who used more supplements considered to be lacking scientific support (p = .028). Swimmers rated the risk of a negative outcome from the use of supplements available in Australia (Mdn = 3.0) as less than the risk of supplements from international sources (Mdn = 4.0; p < .001). AIS swimmers were more likely to report dietitians (p < .001) and sports physicians (p = .017) as advisors of their supplement use. Other swimmers more frequently reported fellow athletes as a source of supplement advice (p = .03). AIS swimmers sourced a greater percentage of their supplements from an organized program (94 ± 16%) compared with Other (40 ± 32%; p < .001) who sourced a greater percentage (30 ± 30%) of their dietary supplements from supermarkets. These findings suggest that swimmers influenced by this sport supplement program more frequently use supplements that are recommended by allied health trained individuals, classified as evidence based and provided by the program. PMID:26630501

  12. Ophthalmological findings in elite amateur Turkish boxers

    PubMed Central

    Hazar, M; Beyleroglu, M; Subasi, M; Or, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the nature and incidence of pathological ocular conditions in boxing. Methods: A group of 20 active, elite, amateur, asymptomatic Turkish boxers were examined and compared with a control group composed of 20 age matched sportsmen who were not boxers. The boxers had been actively boxing for 5–20 years (mean 9.65), were aged 16–34 (mean 22.25), and weighed 51–91 kg (mean 73.07). They had been involved in 67–500 fights (mean 143.8), with 5–40 losses (mean 17.75). All were championship title holders at the national, European, Olympic, or World level. Results: An atrophic retinal hole was found in one boxer, which was treated with laser prophylaxis. In this series, the incidence of traumatic eye injuries was much lower than in the literature. Possible reasons are their young age, their division being mainly lightweight or middleweight, few fight losses, being elite boxers, their fighting distance being near or distant, protective methods, and racial factors. Conclusion: Boxing does not appear to be as hazardous to the eyes as previously reported, but prospective, longitudinal studies need to be carried out, including boxers of all divisions, ages, boxing experience, and level, and using various methods of fighting and protection. It should be made mandatory for all boxers to have a complete ophthalmological examination at the beginning of their careers and periodically thereafter. PMID:12453836

  13. Oral health and elite sport performance

    PubMed Central

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651

  14. Temporal associations between individual changes in hormones, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men.

    PubMed

    Crewther, B T; Carruthers, J; Kilduff, L P; Sanctuary, C E; Cook, C J

    2016-09-01

    To advance our understanding of the hormonal contribution to athletic performance, we examined the temporal associations between individual changes in testosterone (T) and/or cortisol (C) concentrations, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men. Two male cohorts classified as elites (n = 12) and non-elites (n = 12) completed five testing sessions over a six-week period. The athletes were tested for salivary T, C, T/C ratio, self-perceived training motivation, countermovement jump (CMJ) height and isometric mid-thigh pull peak force (IMTP PF), after which an actual training workout was performed. The elite men reported higher motivation to train and they produced greater CMJ height overall, whereas the non-elites had higher pooled T levels (p < 0.05). No significant group differences in C concentrations, T/C ratio or IMTP PF were found. The individual changes in T levels were positively associated with training motivation in the elite men only (p = 0.033), but the hormonal and motivation measures did not predict CMJ height or IMTP PF in either group. The monitoring of elite and non-elite men across a short training block revealed differences in T levels, motivation and lower-body power, which may reflect training and competitive factors in each group. Despite having lower T levels, the elite athletes showed better linkage between pre-training T fluctuations and subsequent motivation to train. The nature of the performance tests (i.e. single repetition trials) could partly explain the lack of an association with the hormonal and motivational measures. PMID:27601775

  15. Temporal associations between individual changes in hormones, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, J; Kilduff, LP; Sanctuary, CE; Cook, CJ

    2016-01-01

    To advance our understanding of the hormonal contribution to athletic performance, we examined the temporal associations between individual changes in testosterone (T) and/or cortisol (C) concentrations, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men. Two male cohorts classified as elites (n = 12) and non-elites (n = 12) completed five testing sessions over a six-week period. The athletes were tested for salivary T, C, T/C ratio, self-perceived training motivation, countermovement jump (CMJ) height and isometric mid-thigh pull peak force (IMTP PF), after which an actual training workout was performed. The elite men reported higher motivation to train and they produced greater CMJ height overall, whereas the non-elites had higher pooled T levels (p < 0.05). No significant group differences in C concentrations, T/C ratio or IMTP PF were found. The individual changes in T levels were positively associated with training motivation in the elite men only (p = 0.033), but the hormonal and motivation measures did not predict CMJ height or IMTP PF in either group. The monitoring of elite and non-elite men across a short training block revealed differences in T levels, motivation and lower-body power, which may reflect training and competitive factors in each group. Despite having lower T levels, the elite athletes showed better linkage between pre-training T fluctuations and subsequent motivation to train. The nature of the performance tests (i.e. single repetition trials) could partly explain the lack of an association with the hormonal and motivational measures. PMID:27601775

  16. Middle class and marginal? Socioeconomic status, stigma, and self-regulation at an elite university.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah E; Richeson, Jennifer A; Finkel, Eli J

    2011-05-01

    In four studies, the authors investigated the proposal that in the context of an elite university, individuals from relatively lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds possess a stigmatized identity and, as such, experience (a) concerns regarding their academic fit and (b) self-regulatory depletion as a result of managing these concerns. Study 1, a correlational study, revealed the predicted associations between SES, concerns about academic fit, and self-regulatory strength. Results from Studies 2 and 3 suggested that self-presentation involving the academic domain is depleting for lower (but not higher) SES students: After a self-presentation task about academic achievement, lower SES students consumed more candy (Study 2) and exhibited poorer Stroop performance (Study 3) relative to their higher SES peers; in contrast, the groups did not differ after discussing a nonacademic topic (Study 3). Study 4 revealed the potential for eliminating the SES group difference in depletion via a social comparison manipulation. Taken together, these studies support the hypothesis that managing concerns about marginality can have deleterious consequences for self-regulatory resources. PMID:21280968

  17. Search Engines for Tomorrow's Scholars, Part Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2012-01-01

    This two-part article considers how well some of today's search tools support scholars' work. The first part of the article reviewed Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic Search using a modified version of Carole L. Palmer, Lauren C. Teffeau, and Carrier M. Pirmann's framework (2009). Microsoft Academic Search is a strong contender when…

  18. Island of the Sun: Elite and Non-Elite Observations of the June Solstice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearborn, David S. P.; Bauer, Brian S.

    In Inca times (AD 1400-1532), two small islands in Lake Titicaca had temples dedicated to the sun and the moon. Colonial documents indicate that the islands were the focus of large-scale pilgrimages. Recent archaeoastronomical work suggests that rituals, attended by both elites and commoners, were held on the Island of the Sun to observe the setting sun on the June solstice.

  19. KINEMATICS THAT DIFFERENTIATE THE BEACH FLAGS START BETWEEN ELITE AND NON-ELITE SPRINTERS

    PubMed Central

    Vickery, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study differentiated the kinematics of the beach flags sprint start between five elite (three males, two females; age = 21.2 ± 2.6 years; height = 1.71 ± 0.04 m; mass = 66.2 ± 5.9 kg) and five non-elite (three males, two females; age = 20.4 ± 1.7 years; height = 1.69 ± 0.08 meters [m]; mass = 61.6 ± 5.7 kilograms) sprinters. A high-speed camera filmed the start. Timing gates recorded the 0-2, 0-5, and 0-20 m intervals. Data included body position during the start and at take-off; start time; first step length; and sprint times. A Mann-Whitney U-test determined significant (p < 0.05) between-group differences; effect sizes (ES) were also calculated. Elite sprinters had a greater take-off trajectory angle (p = 0.01; ES = 2.57), and were faster over the 0-2 (p = 0.02; ES = 1.77), 0-5 (p = 0.05; ES = 1.20), and 0-20 m (p = 0.02; ES = 1.83) intervals. Large effects were found for: greater take-off swing leg hip flexion (ES = 1.13) and trunk lean (ES = 1.37); longer duration start time (ES = 1.33); and longer first step length (ES = 1.23) in elite sprinters. A longer start time assists with force generation, which in conjunction with increased hip flexion, could translate to a longer first step. Increased trunk lean shifts the take-off trajectory angle towards the horizontal. A greater trajectory angle at start take-off, which could be advantageous for force production during sprint performance, is likely necessary for beach flags. PMID:24744496

  20. First Job Search of Residents in the United States: A Survey of Anesthesiology Trainees' Interest in Academic Positions in Cities Distant from Previous Residences.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Franklin; De Oliveira, Gildasio S; McCarthy, Robert J

    2016-01-15

    We surveyed anesthesiology residents to evaluate the predictive effect of prior residence on desired location for future practice opportunities. One thousand five hundred United States anesthesiology residents were invited to participate. One question asked whether they intend to enter academic practice when they graduate from their residency/fellowship training. The analysis categorized the responses into "surely yes" and "probably" versus "even," "probably not," and "surely no." "After finishing your residency/fellowship training, are you planning to look seriously (e.g., interview) at jobs located more than a 2-hour drive from a location where you or your family (e.g., spouse or partner/significant other) have lived previously?" Responses were categorized into "very probably" and "somewhat probably" versus "somewhat improbably" and "not probable." Other questions explored predictors of the relationships quantified using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve) ± its standard error. Among the 696 respondents, 36.9% (N = 256) would "probably" consider an academic practice. Fewer than half of those (P < 0.0001) would "very probably" consider a distant location (31.6%, 99% CI 24.4%-39.6%). Respondents with prior formal research training (e.g., PhD or Master's) had greater interest in academic practice at a distant location (AUC 0.63 ± 0.03, P = 0.0002). Except among respondents with formal research training, a good question to ask a job applicant is whether the applicant or the applicant's family has previously lived in the area. PMID:26422456

  1. Academic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago City Colleges, IL.

    This statement outlines the academic policies of the City Colleges of Chicago. Part I outlines the Institution's academic standards, covering: (1) student class attendance; (2) the grading system; (3) mid-term grades; (4) the use of non-grade designations; i.e., administrative initiated withdrawal, auditor, no-show withdrawal, incomplete, and…

  2. Academic Bullies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2008-01-01

    Many professors have been traumatized by academic bullies. Unlike bullies at school, the academic bully plays a more subtle game. Bullies may spread rumors to undermine a colleague's credibility or shut their target out of social conversations. The more aggressive of the species cuss out co-workers, even threatening to get physical. There is…

  3. Academic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The academy is defined by a fundamentally uncertain pursuit of certainty. The question of whether academic work is a sufficient form of engagement on its own is inseparable from the contradiction inherent to this pursuit. Like any properly academic question, it lends itself to a forum: a response is nearly obligatory for any professor in the…

  4. Academic Duty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Donald

    This book by a former university president examines the state of the research university faculty, focusing on teaching and how success at teaching can be evaluated; ethical problems in reviewing the work of others, research and how it is supported; outside commitments; and research misconduct. Chapters include: "Academic Freedom, Academic Duty,"…

  5. The distributional preferences of an elite.

    PubMed

    Fisman, Raymond; Jakiela, Pamela; Kariv, Shachar; Markovits, Daniel

    2015-09-18

    We studied the distributional preferences of an elite cadre of Yale Law School students, a group that will assume positions of power in U.S. society. Our experimental design allows us to test whether redistributive decisions are consistent with utility maximization and to decompose underlying preferences into two qualitatively different tradeoffs: fair-mindedness versus self-interest, and equality versus efficiency. Yale Law School subjects are more consistent than subjects drawn from the American Life Panel, a diverse sample of Americans. Relative to the American Life Panel, Yale Law School subjects are also less fair-minded and substantially more efficiency-focused. We further show that our measure of equality-efficiency tradeoffs predicts Yale Law School students' career choices: Equality-minded subjects are more likely to be employed at nonprofit organizations. PMID:26383958

  6. Explanatory style among elite ice hockey athletes.

    PubMed

    Davis, H; Zaichkowsky, L

    1998-12-01

    Mentally tough' athletes show resilience and an ability to compete during adverse conditions. The present study investigated mental toughness and assessed causal explanations for positive and negative reactions to imagined events using Seligman's Attributional Style Questionnaire. Pessimistic Explanatory style on this scale is a risk factor for negative affect and behavior following negative events. 38 elite athletes in ice hockey were rated for mental toughness by the National Hockey League's scouts on consensually derived criteria. The comparison of players above and below the median split on mental toughness showed composite explanations for negative events that were more internal, stable and global for players above the median. Contrary to predictions, these results suggest that a Pessimistic Explanatory style may benefit hockey performance. PMID:9885080

  7. Competition Nutrition Practices of Elite Ultramarathon Runners.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerff, Trent

    2016-02-01

    Anecdotal claims have suggested that an increasing number of ultramarathoners purposely undertake chronic low-carbohydrate (CHO) ketogenic diets while training, and race with very low CHO intakes, as a way to maximize fat oxidation and improve performance. However, very little empirical evidence exists on specific fueling strategies that elite ultramarathoners undertake to maximize race performance. The study's purpose was to characterize race nutrition habits of elite ultramarathon runners. Three veteran male ultrarunners (M ± SD; age 35 ± 2 years; mass 59.5 ± 1.7 kg; 16.7 ± 2.5 hr 100-mi. best times) agreed to complete a competition- specific nutrition intake questionnaire for 100-mi. races. Verbal and visual instructions were used to instruct the athletes on portion sizes and confirm dietary intake. Throughout 2014, the athletes competed in 16 ultramarathons with a total of 8 wins, including the prestigious Western States Endurance Run 100-miler (14.9 hr). The average prerace breakfast contained 70 ± 16 g CHO, 29 ± 20 g protein, and 21 ± 8 g fat. Athletes consumed an average of 1,162 ± 250 g of CHO (71 ± 20g/hr), with minor fat and protein intakes, resulting in caloric intakes totaling 5,530 ± 1,673 kcals (333 ± 105 kcals/hr) with 93% of calories coming from commercial products. Athletes also reported consuming 912 ± 322 mg of caffeine and 6.9 ± 2.4 g of sodium. Despite having limited professional nutritional input into their fueling approaches, all athletes practiced fueling strategies that maximize CHO intake and are congruent with contemporary evidence-based recommendations. PMID:26061831

  8. What are the people's attitudes toward spinal cord injury victims (from common to elite)

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinigolafshani, Zahra; Abedi, Heidarali; Ahmadi, Fazlolah

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the acutely fatal and prevalent crises in all societies is acute spinal cord injury. Individuals with a spinal cord injury are prone to numerous challenges, perturbation, and acute mental distresses. One of their concerns, often expressed generally and in the form of a complaint, is how people deal with them. The present study aims to analyze the experiences and interactions of the disabled with the society and to achieve a deep clarification of their internal attitudes and realistic approaches in various social classes (from common people to elite). Materials and Methods: The present study is a part of a greater research with a classical grounded theory approach conducted on 12 successful and nationally and internationally popular disabled people. Sampling was firstly purposive and then continued with snowball sampling. The data were collected by open deep interviews which were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The obtained data were analyzed by Graneheim content analysis method. Results: The findings obtained through analysis of the interviews yielded the theme of a socially suppressing attitude which contained four subthemes of compassionate attitude, disability attitude, inhuman attitude, and atonement attitude. Conclusions: The results showed that both groups of common, and educated and elite classes of Iranian society have identically suppressing attitudes and interactions toward spinal cord injury victims. It seems that traditional attitudes yet preponderate academic and scientific knowledge in Iranian society. This gap needs notable attention of all the Iranians, especially policy makers and social personalities. PMID:24949065

  9. The key to success in elite athletes? Explicit and implicit motor learning in youth elite and non-elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Verburgh, L; Scherder, E J A; van Lange, P A M; Oosterlaan, J

    2016-09-01

    In sports, fast and accurate execution of movements is required. It has been shown that implicitly learned movements might be less vulnerable than explicitly learned movements to stressful and fast changing circumstances that exist at the elite sports level. The present study provides insight in explicit and implicit motor learning in youth soccer players with different expertise levels. Twenty-seven youth elite soccer players and 25 non-elite soccer players (aged 10-12) performed a serial reaction time task (SRTT). In the SRTT, one of the sequences must be learned explicitly, the other was implicitly learned. No main effect of group was found for implicit and explicit learning on mean reaction time (MRT) and accuracy. However, for MRT, an interaction was found between learning condition, learning phase and group. Analyses showed no group effects for the explicit learning condition, but youth elite soccer players showed better learning in the implicit learning condition. In particular, during implicit motor learning youth elite soccer showed faster MRTs in the early learning phase and earlier reached asymptote performance in terms of MRT. Present findings may be important for sports because children with superior implicit learning abilities in early learning phases may be able to learn more (durable) motor skills in a shorter time period as compared to other children. PMID:26788666

  10. Attributes of top elite team-handball players.

    PubMed

    Massuça, Luís M; Fragoso, Isabel; Teles, Júlia

    2014-01-01

    Researchers in the field of excellence in sport performance are becoming increasingly focused on the study of sport-specific characteristics and requirements. In accordance with this, the purposes of this study were (a) to examine the morphologic-, fitness-, handball-specific skills and psychological and "biosocial" differences between top elite and nontop elite team-handball players and (b) to investigate the extent to which they may be used to identify top elite team-handball players. One hundred sixty-seven adult male team-handball players were studied and divided in 2 groups: top elite (n = 41) and nontop elite (n = 126). Twenty-eight morphologic-, 9 fitness-, 1 handball-specific skills and 2 psychological-based and 2 "biosocial"-based attributes were used. Top elite and nontop elite groups were compared for each variable of interest using Student's t-test, and 5 logistic regression analyses were performed with the athlete's performance group (top elite or nontop elite) as the dependent variable and the variables of each category as predictors. The results showed that (a) body mass, waist girth, radiale-dactylion length, midstylion-dactylion length, and absolute muscle mass (morphologic model); (b) 30-m sprint time, countermovement jump height and average power, abdominal strength and the class of performance in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test (fitness model); (c) offensive power (specific-skills model); (d) ego-based motivational orientation (psychological model); (e) socioeconomic status and the energy spent (for week) in handball activity (biosocial model); significantly (p < 0.05) contributed to predict the probability of an athlete to be a top elite team-handball player. Moreover, the fitness model exhibited higher percentages of correct classification (i.e., 91.5%) than all the other models did. This study provided (a) the rational to reduce the battery of tests for evaluation purposes, and (b) the initial step to work on building a

  11. Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De George, Richard T.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that Martin Michaelson's proposal in "Should Untenured as Well as Tenured Faculty Be Guaranteed Academic Freedom? A Few Observations," despite its good intentions, is seriously flawed and if adopted in preference to existing standards will weaken rather than strengthen academic freedom. (EV)

  12. ACE and AGTR1 polymorphisms in elite rhythmic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Alessandra; Sapere, Nadia; Piazza, Marina; Aquino, Giovanna; Iuliano, Enzo; Intrieri, Mariano; Calcagno, Giuseppe

    2013-02-01

    In the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, Alu deletion, in intron 16, is associated with higher concentrations of ACE serum activity and this may be associated with elite sprint and power performance. The Alu insertion is associated with lower ACE levels and this could lead to endurance performance. Moreover, recent studies have identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the angiotensin type 1 receptor gene AGTR1, which seems to be related to ACE activity. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of the ACE and the AGTR1 gene polymorphisms in 28 Italian elite rhythmic gymnasts (age range 21 ± 7.6 years), and compare them to 23 middle level rhythmic gymnasts (age range 17 ± 10.9 years). The ACE D allele was significantly more frequent in elite athletes than in the control population (χ(2)=4.07, p=0.04). Comparisons between the middle level and elite athletes revealed significant differences (p<0.0001) for the ACE DD genotype (OR=6.48, 95% confidence interval=1.48-28.34), which was more frequent in elite athletes. There were no significant differences in the AGTR1 A/C genotype or allele distributions between the middle level and elite athletes. In conclusion, the ACE D allele genotype could be a contributing factor to high-performance rhythmic gymnastics that should be considered in athlete development and could help to identify which skills should be trained for talent promotion. PMID:23145508

  13. Elite US college admissions: could the quest for admission increase overuse injury risk?

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Yang, Jingzhen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: This commentary addresses the intriguing correspondence of two trends. First, we describe the increasing selectivity for undergraduate admission to elite colleges and universities in the United States and an apparent preference for “angular” applicants who have demonstrated tremendous accomplishment in a single non-academic pursuit such as music, athletics, or the arts. Second, we describe an apparent increase in overuse injuries among American children and adolescents, a trend that many experts attribute to specialization within a single athletic, musical or artistic pursuit among youth who in previous generations were more “generalist” in their extracurricular activities. It is premature to demonstrate causality and suggest increasing college selectivity has led to increasing rates of overuse injuries, but we speculate there may be a causal relation present and encourage scholarly research on the topic. PMID:27130516

  14. Elites and Ethnic Boundary Maintenance: A Study of the Roles of Elites in Chinatown, New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Bernard

    1977-01-01

    The traditional elite, born in China, is over 50 years old, owns Chinese-type businesses, derives its power from family name and territorial dialect associations, and leads a traditional Chinese life-style. The new elite, born in the U.S., is 25 to 50 years of age, works in social service agencies, and leads an American middle class life-style.…

  15. Graphic Novel Collections in Academic ARL Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Cassie

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which ARL academic libraries collect graphic novels. Using a core list of 176 titles developed from winners of major comics industry awards and a library-focused "best of" list, the holdings of 111 ARL academic libraries were searched using the libraries' online catalogs. Results suggest that most of the…

  16. Academic Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Presents design features of the Renner Middle School (Plano, Texas) where the sprawling suburbs have been kept at bay while creating the atmosphere of an academic village. Photos and a floor plan are provided. (GR)

  17. Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Building data is given for the following academic libraries: (1) Rosary College, River Forest, Illinois; (2) Abilene Christian College, Abilene, Texas; (3) University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California. (MF)

  18. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  19. Anabolic hormone profiles in elite military men.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marcus K; Kviatkovsky, Shiloah A; Hernández, Lisa M; Sargent, Paul; Segal, Sabrina; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-06-01

    We recently characterized the awakening responses and daily profiles of the catabolic stress hormone cortisol in elite military men. Anabolic hormones follow a similar daily pattern and may counteract the catabolic effects of cortisol. This companion report is the first to characterize daily profiles of anabolic hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone in this population. Overall, the men in this study displayed anabolic hormone profiles comparable to that of healthy, athletic populations. Consistent with the cortisol findings in our prior report, summary parameters of magnitude (hormone output) within the first hour after awakening displayed superior stability versus summary parameters of pattern for both DHEA (r range: 0.77-0.82) and testosterone (r range: 0.62-0.69). Summary parameters of evening function were stable for the two hormones (both p<0.001), while the absolute decrease in testosterone across the day was a stable proxy of diurnal function (p<0.001). Removal of noncompliant subjects did not appreciably affect concentration estimates for either hormone at any time point, nor did it alter the repeatability of any summary parameter. The first of its kind, this report enables accurate estimations of anabolic balance and resultant effects upon health and human performance in this highly resilient yet chronically stressed population. PMID:27083310

  20. An injury profile of elite ironman competitors.

    PubMed

    Pen, L J; Barrett, R S; Neal, R J; Steele, J R

    1996-03-01

    An injury questionnaire was administered to the 30 elite ironman competitors (mean age = 25.7 +/- 4.6 yrs) participating in a commercially sponsored seven race national series. Responses provided retrospective data from the preceding three years indicating the type, location, frequency, cause and severity of injuries sustained by ironmen, and associated these injuries with particular race components (run, swim, board, ski). Twenty self-reported questionnaires were returned for analysis that described a total of 67 injuries incurred by 19 subjects. Results indicated the following: (i) the most frequently injured body parts were the knee (n = 18) and shoulder (n = 14) with the lower extremity accounting for 55% of all injuries reported; (ii) knee, shin and calf injuries had a significant association with the run component and upper extremity injuries had a significant association with the swim component; (iii) running was perceived to be the most injurious race component in terms of the frequency and severity of injury; (iv) overtraining was perceived to be the main cause of injury; (v) tendinitis was perceived to be the main type of injury; (vi) athletes adjusted their training mode to accommodate injury so that total training volume could be maintained; and (vii) injury did not result in withdrawal from competition. Further research investigating the techniques used in the ironman event and their relationship to injury is recommended. PMID:8742860

  1. Cardiovascular health in former elite male athletes.

    PubMed

    Johansson, J K; Kujala, U M; Sarna, S; Karanko, H; Puukka, P J; Jula, A M

    2016-05-01

    To increase our knowledge on the effects of previous and current physical activity on cardiovascular health, we studied a group of Finnish male former elite athletes (endurance, n = 49; power, n = 50) and their 49 age and area-matched controls, aged 64-89 years. Body mass index (BMI), fasting serum glucose, lipids, blood pressure, and ultrasonography of cardiac and carotid artery structure and function were measured. Former endurance athletes smoked less, had lower prevalence of hypertension, and had higher intensity and volume of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) than the controls. No difference was detected in cardiac or carotid artery structure and function between these groups. Former athletes performing high-intensity LTPA were slightly younger (possible selection bias), had lower BMI and waist circumference, lower use of antihypertensives, lower prevalence of diabetes, lower pulse wave velocity, and higher carotid artery elasticity than former athletes not performing high-intensity LTPA. In conclusion, former athletes had a higher intensity and volume of LTPA than the controls. Athletes performing vigorous LTPA had more elastic arteries than athletes performing moderately or no LTPA. Vigorous LTPA through the whole lifetime associates with good cardiovascular health, although the previous medical history may play an important role. PMID:25919653

  2. Nutritional intake of elite football referees.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Gonçalves, Liliana; Meneses, Tiago; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of dietary data in football referees. In this study, 23 elite main and assistant referees (34.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 7-day dietary record during the competitive season. No nutritional intake differences were observed between main and assistant referees. Referees' mean daily energy intake (DEI) was 2819 ± 279 kcal. The intake of proteins (1.7 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)), carbohydrates (4.1 ± 0.8 g · kg(-1)) and fats (1.4 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)) represented, respectively, 18.4 ± 1.5%, 44.4 ± 4.4% and 34.6 ± 4.1% of the DEI. Carbohydrate intakes before, during and after exercise were 66 ± 42, 7 ± 15 and 120 ± 62 g. Daily carbohydrate, fibre, polyunsaturated fat and water intakes were below recommendations, while fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intakes were above recommended values. The prevalence of inadequate intake was high for vitamin E (96%), folate (74%), vitamin A (61%), vitamin C (39%), magnesium (26%) and calcium (22%). Carbohydrate intake before, during and after exercise were far from achieving the minimum recommended values. Most referees demonstrated a negligent behaviour of hydration during exercise. Referees would benefit from dietary education in order to optimise performance and health. PMID:24784464

  3. Utilizing a Culture of Trust to Promote Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulsart, Robyn; McCarthy, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    A simple Internet search of "academic dishonesty" reveals a continuing conversation among individuals within the academic community who are asking what academic dishonesty is, who is cheating, why students are cheating, and how we stop them from cheating. This article addresses these questions and provides a model for creating a culture of trust…

  4. A review of the risk factors for lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Bowerman, Erin Anne; Whatman, Chris; Harris, Nigel; Bradshaw, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to review the evidence for selected risk factors of lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers. An electronic search of key databases from 1969 to July 2013 was conducted using the keywords dancers, ballet dancers, athletes, adolescent, adolescence, young, injury, injuries, risk, overuse, lower limb, lower extremity, lower extremities, growth, maturation, menarche, alignment, and biomechanics. Thirteen published studies were retained for review. Results indicated that there is a high incidence of lower extremity overuse injuries in the target population. Primary risk factors identified included maturation, growth, and poor lower extremity alignment. Strong evidence from well-designed studies indicates that young elite female ballet dancers suffer from delayed onset of growth, maturation, menarche, and menstrual irregularities. However, there is little evidence that this deficit increases the risk of overuse injury, with the exception of stress fractures. Similarly, there is minimal evidence linking poor lower extremity alignment to increased risk of overuse injury. It is concluded that further prospective, longitudinal studies are required to clarify the relationship between growth, maturation, menarche, and lower extremity alignment, and the risk of lower extremity overuse injury in young elite female ballet dancers. PMID:26045395

  5. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Lilian; Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries. PMID:26258134

  6. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes.

    PubMed

    Roos, Lilian; Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries. PMID:26258134

  7. How to Land the Academic Job

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Silvana

    Looking for a job is not an easy task. It is time consuming and, most of the time, frustrating. Academic positions are no exception to the rule. Looking for an academic position is as demanding and exciting as any other job search. To minimize frustrations and surprises, the job search should be approached with the right attitude and preparation. The first step toward finding a job in academia is to understand the implications and responsibilities of an academic job. Realizing an academic job is the future that an individual wants to follow is a difficult decision. For most people it is not an easy choice to make. A significant amount of time and effort must be devoted to the job search process; therefore, narrowing the possible choices by selecting specific areas of interest is a good strategy to pursue.

  8. The Poor and the Rich: A Look at Economic Stratification and Academic Performance among Undergraduate Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, John Aubrey; Thomson, Gregg

    2008-01-01

    A number of national studies point to a trend in which highly selective and elite private and public universities are becoming less accessible to lower-income students. At the same time there have been surprisingly few studies of the actual characteristics and academic experiences of low-income students or comparisons of their undergraduate…

  9. Picturing Success: Young Femininities and the (Im)Possibilities of Academic Achievement in Selective, Single-Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade it is young women who have come to be widely understood as the bearers of educational qualifications. It is girls who are now seen to have "the world at their feet" and to be able to attain the glittering prizes of academic success associated with elite universities and top occupations. And it is upper-middle-class girls, in…

  10. English and American Residential Secondary Schools: A Comparative Study of the Reproduction of Social Elites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr.; Persell, Caroline H.

    1985-01-01

    Elite secondary boarding schools educate and socialize students from socially elite backgrounds in ways that reflect the different characters of English and American society. Observations and interviews in 5 English and 12 American elite schools focused on leadership styles; discipline; curriculum; teaching style; and the structure of…

  11. Old Elite Schools, History and the Construction of a New Imaginary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2014-01-01

    Elite schools established in the nineteenth century in the image of British public schools now face intense competition from newly established elite schools. Located within the broader research project that this special issue discusses, this paper examines some of the ways in which an old elite school in India has sought to utilise is history to…

  12. The Burden of Responsibility: Elite Students' Understandings of Civic Participation in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Elder statesman Lee Kuan Yew maintains that a society ruled by elites is necessary to provide for high growth and social progress. Elitism conjures a class divide; an ongoing concern is a disconnection between elite and the citizens it has to represent. In the tradition of political socialization, and using the case study approach, this article…

  13. Access through the Ages at an Elite Boarding School: A Case Study of Phillips Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    This study is about access for low-income students at an elite boarding school. As "feeder schools" to elite colleges and universities, elite boarding schools play a significant role in determining which students will be in the upper class in America; however, little is known about the history of low-income students at these schools. The…

  14. The End of the E*LIT Era: Exploring Its Impact. Spotlight Feature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnone, Marilyn P.; Sullivan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a retrospective look at a Center for Digital Literacy (CDL) program called E*LIT which stands for "Enriching Literacy through Information Technology." E*LIT was created by CDL director, Dr. Ruth V. Small. Every year for the past six years, the E*LIT Competition has inspired students in and around Central New York to create…

  15. Staying Ahead of the Game: The Globalising Practices of Elite Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Fahey, Johannah

    2014-01-01

    How are elite schools caught up in the changing processes of globalisation? Is globalisation a new phenomenon for them? This paper focuses on the globalising practices that selected elite schools adopt. It also explores how globalisation is impacting on the social purposes of elite schools, which conventionally have been to serve privileged social…

  16. Embodying "Britishness": The (Re)Making of the Contemporary Nigerian Elite Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayling, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Existing studies on the role of schooling in the formation and (re)production of elite identity have focused almost entirely on the reproduction strategies of Western elites. Consequently, the distinction strategies employed by non-western elite parents to maintain and/or advance their class positioning--via their children--have remained largely…

  17. Reach for the Stars: A Constellational Approach to Ethnographies of Elite Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Howard

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a method for examining elite schools in a global setting by appropriating Theodor Adorno's constellational approach. I contend that arranging ideas and themes in a non-deterministic fashion can illuminate the social reality of elite schools. Drawing on my own fieldwork at an elite school in Argentina, I suggest that local…

  18. Sprinters in the Course of a Marathon: Withdrawal from Elite Competitive Sport in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudrak, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain, using a multi-case study approach, why some young elite athletes, who have shown extraordinary talent in childhood, leave competitive sport in adolescence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five young elite athletes who decided to withdraw from elite sport. Interview data were analyzed using the…

  19. Homophily in the career mobility of China's political elite.

    PubMed

    Opper, Sonja; Nee, Victor; Brehm, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    We argue that leadership promotion in China's political elite relies on homophily for signals of trustworthiness and future cooperative behavior more than on economic performance. We first point to the limitation of the economic performance argument from within the framework of China's specific M-form state structure, and then we proffer a sociological explanation for why higher-level elites in China rely on homophilous associations in recruiting middle-level elites to the top positions of state. Using a unique dataset covering China's provincial leaders from 1979 to 2011, we develop a homophily index focusing on joint origin, joint education and joint work experience. We trace personal similarities in these respects between provincial leaders and members of China's supreme decision-making body, the Politbureau's Standing Committee. We then provide robust evidence confirming the persisting impact of homophilous associations on promotion patterns in post-reform China. PMID:26463552

  20. Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure in Japanese elite male athletes.

    PubMed

    Ohya, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Chino, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP) is a common measurement of inspiratory muscle strength, which is often used in a variety of exercises to evaluate the effects of inspiratory muscle training. An understanding of elite athletes' MIP characteristics is needed to guide sport-specific inspiratory muscle training programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate and better understand the MIP characteristics of elite athletes from a variety of sports. A total of 301 Japanese elite male athletes participated in this study. MIP was assessed using a portable autospirometer with a handheld mouth pressure meter. Athletes with higher body mass tended to have stronger MIP values, in absolute terms. In relative terms, however, athletes who regularly experienced exercise-induced inspiratory muscle fatigue tended to have stronger MIP values. Our findings suggest that athletes could benefit from prescribed, sport-specific, inspiratory muscle training or warm-ups. PMID:27181330

  1. Academic Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William R.

    The internal politics of colleges and the influence of a current emphasis on efficiency on the traditional independence of the academician are analyzed. It is suggested that the academician does not work in the same differentiated, and therefore interdependent, way as someone in industry or a bureaucracy. Academic activity is segmented, which…

  2. Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Brian G.

    The strength of academic freedom has always depended upon historical circumstances. In the United States, higher education began with institutions founded and controlled by religious sects. The notion of who gets educated and to what ends expanded as American democracy expanded. By the 1980's, legitimate calls for equality became a general…

  3. Academic Prophecies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Robert M.; Polishook, Irwin H.

    1985-01-01

    Academic prophecies are characterized by their innocence, detachment from the realities of politics and economics, and deference to a limited cohort of administrative representatives. Careless forecasting of the untested future contributes to public misunderstanding of higher education's role in society. (MLW)

  4. Academic Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Burton R.

    With fragmentation the dominant trend in academic settings around the world, the larger wholes of profession, enterprise, and system are less held together by integrative ideology. Strong ideological bonding is characteristic of the parts, primarily the disciplines. The larger aggregations are made whole mainly by formal superstructure, many…

  5. Academic Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally negative practice.…

  6. Academic Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Linda

    2013-01-01

    As colleges and universities become even more complex organizations, advancement professionals need to have the skills, experience, and academic credentials to succeed in this ever-changing environment. Advancement leaders need competencies that extend beyond fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing. The author encourages…

  7. China Academic Library and Information System: An Academic Library Consortium in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, Longji; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Hongyang

    2000-01-01

    Describes CALIS (China Academic Library and Information System), a nationwide academic library consortium funded primarily by the Chinese government to serve multiple resource-sharing functions among the participating libraries, including online searching, interlibrary loan, document delivery, and coordinated purchasing and cataloging, by…

  8. Bone Mineral Density in Elite DanceSport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Kruusamäe, Helena; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2016-03-01

    This study compared bone mineral density (BMD) variables of female and male elite dancesport athletes with untrained control subjects of the same gender. Sixty-six elite dancesport athletes (M 33, F 33) and 64 untrained controls (M 34, F 31) participated in this study. Elite dancesport athletes were dancing couples competing at the international level. Whole-body bone mineral content and whole-body, forearm, lumbar-spine, and femoral-neck BMD, as well as whole-body fat mass and fat free mass, were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no differences (p>0.05) in height and body mass between dancers and controls of the same gender, but percent body fat was lower (p<0.05) in dancers of both genders than in untrained controls. Elite dancesport athletes had significantly higher femoral-neck BMD, and male dancers also higher whole-body BMD values when compared with controls of the same gender. All other measured bone mineral values did not differ between the groups of the same gender. In addition, training experience was positively correlated with whole-body BMD (r=0.27; p<0.05) in dancesport athletes. Based on this study, it can be concluded that elite dancesport athletes have higher BMD values at the weight-bearing site (femoral-neck BMD), while other measured areas and whole-body bone mineral values do not differ from the corresponding values of healthy sedentary controls of the same gender. According to our results, low BMD is not an issue for elite female dancesport athletes, despite their lower percent body fat values. PMID:26966961

  9. Imaging of muscle injury in the elite athlete

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J C; Mitchell, A W M; Healy, J C

    2012-01-01

    Injuries to muscle in the elite athlete are common and may be responsible for prolonged periods of loss of competitive activity. The implications for the athlete and his/her coach and team may be catastrophic if the injury occurs at a critical time in the athlete's diary. Imaging now plays a crucial role in diagnosis, prognostication and management of athletes with muscle injuries. This article discusses the methods available to clinicians and radiologists that are used to assess skeletal muscle injury. The spectrum of muscle injuries sustained in the elite athlete population is both discussed and illustrated. PMID:22496067

  10. Management of syndesmosis injuries in the elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Mak, May Fong; Gartner, Louise; Pearce, Christopher J

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the basics and evidence base thus far on syndesmosis injuries, focusing on its management in the elite sporting population. A syndesmosis injury or "high ankle sprain" is a significant injury, especially in the elite athlete. Among all ankle sprains, the syndesmotic injury is most predictive of persistent symptoms in the athletic population. Late diagnosis of unstable syndesmosis injuries leads to a poor outcome and delayed return to sports. A high index of suspicion and an understanding of the mechanism of injury is required to ensure an early diagnosis. Incomplete/inaccurate reduction leads to a poor outcome. PMID:23707173

  11. Are Bibliographic Management Software Search Interfaces Reliable?: A Comparison between Search Results Obtained Using Database Interfaces and the EndNote Online Search Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgibbons, Megan; Meert, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The use of bibliographic management software and its internal search interfaces is now pervasive among researchers. This study compares the results between searches conducted in academic databases' search interfaces versus the EndNote search interface. The results show mixed search reliability, depending on the database and type of search…

  12. Better searching through science.

    PubMed

    Voss, D

    2001-09-14

    The explosive growth of the World Wide Web has produced frustration for researchers seeking quality content and pinpoint results among the noise and spam. Now, a handful of companies and academic researchers are working on a new breed of search engines to undo this second curse of Babel. These next-generation search tools will let scientists drill deeper into the billion-page Web. PMID:11557874

  13. ACTN3 genotype in Spanish elite swimmers: no "heterozygous advantage".

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J R; Santiago, C; Yvert, T; Muniesa, C; Díaz-Ureña, G; Bekendam, N; Fiuza-Luces, C; Gómez-Gallego, F; Femia, P; Lucia, A

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present case-control study was to examine the association of the ACTN3 R577X genotype with elite swimming status. We compared a group of Spanish (Caucasian) elite swimmers (n = 88) with other cohorts of the same ethnic origin, i.e., nonathletic controls (n = 343) and other types of athletes who are in both end-points of the sports performance continuum, i.e., world-class power (n = 119) and endurance male athletes (n = 154). Swimmers had a lower odds ratio (OR) of having the RX genotype [1.815, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.899-3.664] compared with nonathletic controls, yet the association did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.096). Endurance athletes had greater OR of having the XX genotype (OR: 2.88, 95% CI: 1.162-7.135, P = 0.022), or the RX+XX genotype (OR: 1.903, 95% CI: 1.015-3.567, P = 0.045) compared with swimmers. No other association was found. In summary, we did not observe an association between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and elite swimmer's status, suggesting that any influence of this polymorphism is not of sufficient magnitude as to significantly influence elite swimming performance, at least in Spanish athletes. PMID:23317015

  14. Physical demands and physiological responses during elite field hockey.

    PubMed

    Lythe, J; Kilding, A E

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physical demands of elite men's field hockey using modern time-motion analysis techniques. 18 elite male players (age: 24.4 ± 4.5 yrs) participated in 5 matches, during which physical outputs of players were quantified using GPS units and heart rate monitors. The mean total distance covered by each individual player was 6798 ± 2009 m. Mean total distance covered per position for 70 min (position (70)) was 8160 ± 428 m. Distance covered per position (70) decreased by 4.8% between the 1 (st )and 2 (nd) halves ( P < 0.05). Fullbacks covered significantly less total distance than all other positions ( P < 0.05). High-intensity running (>19 km.h (-1)) comprised 6.1% (479 ± 108 m) of the total distance covered and involved 34 ± 12 sprints per player, with an average duration of 3.3 s. Average HR was higher in the 1 (st) half (86.7% HR (max)) than the 2 (nd) half, (84.4% HR (max)), though this was not significant ( P = 0.06). The results suggest that modern day elite field hockey is a physically demanding team sport. Quantification of the demands and outputs of players at this level provides a useful framework on which to develop conditioning practices. The difference in physical outputs observed for some positions suggests position-specific conditioning is required at the elite level. PMID:21563026

  15. France's grandes écoles accused of elitism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellemans, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    Physicists in France have backed government plans to open up the country's elite grandes écoles to more students from poorer backgrounds. The government wants to allow up to 30% of students to be given free scholarships in an attempt to broaden the social mix of the student body. The physicists say this would not lead to a lowering of standards.

  16. Genes and elite athletes: a roadmap for future research.

    PubMed

    Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Oliveira, José; Duarte, José Alberto; Birk, Ruth; Lucia, Alejandro

    2011-07-01

    There is compelling evidence that genetic factors influence several phenotype traits related to physical performance and training response as well as to elite athletic status. Previous case-control studies showed that ∼20 genetic variants seem to be associated with elite endurance athletic status. The present review aims to introduce novel methodological approaches in the field of sports genetics research, which can be applied in the near future to analyse the genotype profile associated with elite athletic status. These include genotype-phenotype association studies using gene expression analysis, analysis of post-transcriptional factors, particularly microRNAs, genome-wide scan linkage or genome-wide association studies, and novel algorithm approaches, such as 'genotype scores'. Several gaps in the current body of knowledge have been identified including, among others: small sample size of most athletic cohorts, lack of corroboration with replication cohorts of different ethnic backgrounds (particularly, made up of non-Caucasian athletes), the need of research accounting for the potential role of epigenetics in elite athletic performance, and also the need for future models that take into account the association between athletic status and complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Some recommendations are provided to minimize research limitations in the field of sport genetics. PMID:21540342

  17. Leadership styles of elite Dixie youth baseball coaches.

    PubMed

    Bennett, G; Maneval, M

    1998-12-01

    Chelladurai and Saleh's Leadership Scale for Sports was administered to 52 elite Dixie Youth baseball coaches. Analyses indicated that subjects scored high in positive feedback, training and instruction, and social support, moderate in democratic behavior, and low in autocratic behavior. These results seem to support the validity of using the scale to compare coaching behavior. PMID:9885031

  18. Management Studies Educational Knowledge: Technical, Elite or Political?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hordern, Jim

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on the technical, elite and political interpretations of the purpose of management, to identify demands for particular forms of educational knowledge in the management studies curriculum. The varied character of this knowledge is discussed using Bernsteinian concepts of verticality, grammaticality, classification and framing, and…

  19. Genes and elite athletes: a roadmap for future research

    PubMed Central

    Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Oliveira, José; Duarte, José Alberto; Birk, Ruth; Lucia, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There is compelling evidence that genetic factors influence several phenotype traits related to physical performance and training response as well as to elite athletic status. Previous case-control studies showed that ∼20 genetic variants seem to be associated with elite endurance athletic status. The present review aims to introduce novel methodological approaches in the field of sports genetics research, which can be applied in the near future to analyse the genotype profile associated with elite athletic status. These include genotype–phenotype association studies using gene expression analysis, analysis of post-transcriptional factors, particularly microRNAs, genome-wide scan linkage or genome-wide association studies, and novel algorithm approaches, such as ‘genotype scores’. Several gaps in the current body of knowledge have been indentified including, among others: small sample size of most athletic cohorts, lack of corroboration with replication cohorts of different ethnic backgrounds (particularly, made up of non-Caucasian athletes), the need of research accounting for the potential role of epigenetics in elite athletic performance, and also the need for future models that take into account the association between athletic status and complex gene–gene and gene–environment interactions. Some recommendations are provided to minimize research limitations in the field of sport genetics. PMID:21540342

  20. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence. Although, these athletes apparently undergo sufficient physical activity to develop healthy bones, it is possible that other...

  1. Disruptive Events: Elite Education and the Discursive Production of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the discursive production of violence in the context of educational markets. Drawing on a larger study of sexually violent incidents that occurred in an elite private boys' school in Sydney, Australia, in 2000, the paper examines disciplinary traditions and communicative practices surrounding these events. Insights from Michel…

  2. The Relative Age Effect in Elite Sport: The French Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delorme, Nicolas; Boiche, Julie; Raspaud, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is considered a common phenomenon in elite sport. However, it has not been examined systematically in previous research, and the mechanisms likely to generate or to limit such an effect are little understood. This paper investigates the prevalence of the RAE in French professional championship-level players, taking…

  3. Physical performance of elite and subelite Spanish female futsal players.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Campo, D J; Rubio-Arias, J A; Carrasco-Poyatos, M; Alcaraz, P E

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the parameters distinguishing top female futsal players from lower level players. Twenty-seven female futsal players participated in the study, composed of professional first division (elite; n = 15) players and semi-professional second division players (sub-elite; n = 14). Active and passive straight leg raise tests, isokinetic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 60° · s(-1) angular velocity, squat and counter movement jumps, 30 m sprint, 30 m agility, repeated sprint ability test and maximum ball speed during shooting were measured. The elite players were more agile and kicked harder than sub-elite players in maximum ball speed during the shooting test (P ≤ 0.05). However, no significant differences between teams were observed in active and passive hamstring flexibility, jumping ability, repeated sprint ability test, 30 m sprint time, H/Q ratio and absolute and relative torque from 60° · s(-1) angular velocity. Based on these findings we conclude that agility and maximum ball speed during shooting may be important determinant factors of Spanish female futsal actions and could distinguish ability at high-level games. PMID:27601786

  4. Higher Education and UK Elite Formation in the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gareth; Filippakou, Ourania

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the proposition that mass higher education is, in practice, less a network of more or less homogeneous activities than a series of concentric circles in which elite institutions remain at the centre, but are surrounded by increasingly wide bands of universities and colleges, that are less and less likely to set graduates on the…

  5. Elite Professional Education and Problems of Regional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavrikov, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    This article emphasizes the regional development in today's Russia and focuses on the current state of the system of higher education. The concept of elite professional education is used as a means of social mobility and an instrument for the formation of the social structure of a particular region. What prompted this approach was an analysis of…

  6. Physical performance of elite and subelite Spanish female futsal players

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Arias, JA; Carrasco-Poyatos, M; Alcaraz, PE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the parameters distinguishing top female futsal players from lower level players. Twenty-seven female futsal players participated in the study, composed of professional first division (elite; n = 15) players and semi-professional second division players (sub-elite; n = 14). Active and passive straight leg raise tests, isokinetic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 60° · s-1 angular velocity, squat and counter movement jumps, 30 m sprint, 30 m agility, repeated sprint ability test and maximum ball speed during shooting were measured. The elite players were more agile and kicked harder than sub-elite players in maximum ball speed during the shooting test (P ≤ 0.05). However, no significant differences between teams were observed in active and passive hamstring flexibility, jumping ability, repeated sprint ability test, 30 m sprint time, H/Q ratio and absolute and relative torque from 60° · s-1 angular velocity. Based on these findings we conclude that agility and maximum ball speed during shooting may be important determinant factors of Spanish female futsal actions and could distinguish ability at high-level games. PMID:27601786

  7. Social Class and Elite University Education: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nathan Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The United States experienced a tremendous expansion of higher education after the Second World War. However, this expansion has not led to a substantial reduction to class inequalities at elite universities, where the admissions process is growing even more selective. In his classic studies of French education and society, Pierre Bourdieu…

  8. Maternity in Spanish elite sportswomen: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Pascual, Beatriz; Alvarez-Harris, Sara; Fernández-De-Las-Peñas, César; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of maternity among Spanish elite sportswomen. Twenty (n = 20) Spanish elite sportswomen with the following criteria were included: (a) aged 18-65 years; (b) had been pregnant during their sporting professional career; and (c) after the end of their pregnancy they had returned to their professional sporting career for at least one year. A qualitative analysis was conducted. Data were collected using in-depth personal interviews, investigator's field notes, and extracts from the participants' personal letters. Identified themes included: (a) a new identity, with two sub-themes ("mother role" and "being visible"); (b) going back to sport, with three subthemes ("guilt appears," "justifying going back to sport," and "rediscovering sport"); and, (c) reaching a goal, with two subthemes ("balancing mother-sportswoman" and "the challenge of maternity"). Understanding the meaning of maternity for elite Spanish sportswomen might help gain deeper insight into their expectations and develop training systems focused on elite sports women after pregnancy. PMID:24512619

  9. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in Tunisian elite athletes is underdiagnosed

    PubMed Central

    Sallaoui, Ridha; Zendah², Ines; Ghedira², Habib; Belhaouz³, Mohcine; Ghrairi³, Mourad; Amri³, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown an increased risk of developing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction among the athletic population, particularly at the elite level. Subjective methods for assessing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction such as surveys and questionnaires have been used but have resulted in an underestimation of the prevalence of airway dysfunction when compared with objective measurements. The aim of the present study was to compare the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction among Tunisian elite athletes obtained using an objective method with that using a subjective method, and to discuss the possible causes and implications of the observed discrepancy. As the objective method we used spirometry before and after exercise and for the subjective approach we used a medical history questionnaire. All of the recruited 107 elite athletes responded to the questionnaire about respiratory symptoms and medical history and underwent a resting spirometry testing before and after exercise. Post-exercise spirometry revealed the presence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in 14 (13%) of the elite athletes, while only 1.8% reported having previously been diagnosed with asthma. In conclusion, our findings indicate that medical history-based diagnoses of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction lead to underestimations of true sufferers. PMID:24198569

  10. The role of self-interest in elite bargaining.

    PubMed

    LeVeck, Brad L; Hughes, D Alex; Fowler, James H; Hafner-Burton, Emilie; Victor, David G

    2014-12-30

    One of the best-known and most replicated laboratory results in behavioral economics is that bargainers frequently reject low offers, even when it harms their material self-interest. This finding could have important implications for international negotiations on many problems facing humanity today, because models of international bargaining assume exactly the opposite: that policy makers are rational and self-interested. However, it is unknown whether elites who engage in diplomatic bargaining will similarly reject low offers because past research has been based almost exclusively on convenience samples of undergraduates, members of the general public, or small-scale societies rather than highly experienced elites who design and bargain over policy. Using a unique sample of 102 policy and business elites who have an average of 21 y of practical experience conducting international diplomacy or policy strategy, we show that, compared with undergraduates and the general public, elites are actually more likely to reject low offers when playing a standard "ultimatum game" that assesses how players bargain over a fixed resource. Elites with more experience tend to make even higher demands, suggesting that this tendency only increases as policy makers advance to leadership positions. This result contradicts assumptions of rational self-interested behavior that are standard in models of international bargaining, and it suggests that the adoption of global agreements on international trade, climate change, and other important problems will not depend solely on the interests of individual countries, but also on whether these accords are seen as equitable to all member states. PMID:25512497

  11. The role of self-interest in elite bargaining

    PubMed Central

    LeVeck, Brad L.; Hughes, D. Alex; Fowler, James H.; Hafner-Burton, Emilie; Victor, David G.

    2014-01-01

    One of the best-known and most replicated laboratory results in behavioral economics is that bargainers frequently reject low offers, even when it harms their material self-interest. This finding could have important implications for international negotiations on many problems facing humanity today, because models of international bargaining assume exactly the opposite: that policy makers are rational and self-interested. However, it is unknown whether elites who engage in diplomatic bargaining will similarly reject low offers because past research has been based almost exclusively on convenience samples of undergraduates, members of the general public, or small-scale societies rather than highly experienced elites who design and bargain over policy. Using a unique sample of 102 policy and business elites who have an average of 21 y of practical experience conducting international diplomacy or policy strategy, we show that, compared with undergraduates and the general public, elites are actually more likely to reject low offers when playing a standard “ultimatum game” that assesses how players bargain over a fixed resource. Elites with more experience tend to make even higher demands, suggesting that this tendency only increases as policy makers advance to leadership positions. This result contradicts assumptions of rational self-interested behavior that are standard in models of international bargaining, and it suggests that the adoption of global agreements on international trade, climate change, and other important problems will not depend solely on the interests of individual countries, but also on whether these accords are seen as equitable to all member states. PMID:25512497

  12. The Search for Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fattal, Laura Felleman

    2004-01-01

    Practical and academic, the interrelationship of the visual and performing arts opens unique frontiers to aesthetic pioneers. Divergent in aim from the historic search for similar tonalities between the Synchronists and Stravinsky or atonal musicians of the 1950s-70s and minimalist painters and sculptors, the present use of the visual arts as a…

  13. The Prevalence and Impact of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Menorrhagia) in Elite and Non-Elite Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bruinvels, Georgie; Burden, Richard; Brown, Nicola; Richards, Toby; Pedlar, Charles

    2016-01-01

    To identify the prevalence and impact of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in exercising females where anemia may have a significant effect on training and performance a ‘Female Health Questionnaire’ was designed incorporating a validated diagnostic HMB series, demographics, exercise ability data, training status, anemia, iron supplementation and whether the menstrual cycle had affected training and performance. The survey was conducted in two stages; initially online, advertised via social media, and then repeated via face-to-face interviews with runners registered for the 2015 London Marathon. 789 participants responded to the online survey, and 1073 completed the survey at the marathon. HMB was reported by half of those online (54%), and by more than a third of the marathon runners (36%). Surprisingly, HMB was also prevalent amongst elite athletes (37%). Overall, 32% of exercising females reported a history of anemia, and 50% had previously supplemented with iron. Only a minority (22%) had sought medical advice. HMB is highly prevalent in exercising females, associated with self-reported anemia, increased use of iron supplementation and a perceived negative impact on performance. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of HMB, iron deficiency and anemia in exercising females. PMID:26901873

  14. The Prevalence and Impact of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Menorrhagia) in Elite and Non-Elite Athletes.

    PubMed

    Bruinvels, Georgie; Burden, Richard; Brown, Nicola; Richards, Toby; Pedlar, Charles

    2016-01-01

    To identify the prevalence and impact of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in exercising females where anemia may have a significant effect on training and performance a 'Female Health Questionnaire' was designed incorporating a validated diagnostic HMB series, demographics, exercise ability data, training status, anemia, iron supplementation and whether the menstrual cycle had affected training and performance. The survey was conducted in two stages; initially online, advertised via social media, and then repeated via face-to-face interviews with runners registered for the 2015 London Marathon. 789 participants responded to the online survey, and 1073 completed the survey at the marathon. HMB was reported by half of those online (54%), and by more than a third of the marathon runners (36%). Surprisingly, HMB was also prevalent amongst elite athletes (37%). Overall, 32% of exercising females reported a history of anemia, and 50% had previously supplemented with iron. Only a minority (22%) had sought medical advice. HMB is highly prevalent in exercising females, associated with self-reported anemia, increased use of iron supplementation and a perceived negative impact on performance. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of HMB, iron deficiency and anemia in exercising females. PMID:26901873

  15. Feature extraction of performance variables in elite half-pipe snowboarding using body mounted inertial sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, J. W.; Small, J. W.; James, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Recent analysis of elite-level half-pipe snowboard competition has revealed a number of sport specific key performance variables (KPV's) that correlate well to score. Information on these variables is difficult to acquire and analyse, relying on collection and labour intensive manual post processing of video data. This paper presents the use of inertial sensors as a user-friendly alternative and subsequently implements signal processing routines to ultimately provide automated, sport specific feedback to coaches and athletes. The author has recently shown that the key performance variables (KPV's) of total air-time (TAT) and average degree of rotation (ADR) achieved during elite half-pipe snowboarding competition show strong correlation with an athlete's subjectively judged score. Utilising Micro-Electrochemical System (MEMS) sensors (tri-axial accelerometers) this paper demonstrates that air-time (AT) achieved during half-pipe snowboarding can be detected and calculated accurately using basic signal processing techniques. Characterisation of the variations in aerial acrobatic manoeuvres and the associated calculation of exact degree of rotation (DR) achieved is a likely extension of this research. The technique developed used a two-pass method to detect locations of half-pipe snowboard runs using power density in the frequency domain and subsequently utilises a threshold based search algorithm in the time domain to calculate air-times associated with individual aerial acrobatic manoeuvres. This technique correctly identified the air-times of 100 percent of aerial acrobatic manoeuvres within each half-pipe snowboarding run (n = 92 aerial acrobatic manoeuvres from 4 subjects) and displayed a very strong correlation with a video based reference standard for air-time calculation (r = 0.78 +/- 0.08; p value < 0.0001; SEE = 0.08 ×/÷ 1.16; mean bias = -0.03 +/- 0.02s) (value +/- or ×/÷ 95% CL).

  16. Academic Administration: The Search for Effective Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, John R.; Brownlee, Leonard J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Three approaches generally have been taken to explain effective leadership in educational administration: (1) The leader's personality traits are the key; (2) Success results from mastering modes of interpersonal behavior; and (3) Effectiveness depends on the situation in which leadership is exercised. Leadership is a reciprocal process--leader…

  17. Academic Staffing: The Search for Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Fay

    1980-01-01

    Australian universities are surveyed to determine the proportion of female appointments and the appointments of candidates with non-Australian degrees. Evidence is presented that shows both groups are underrepresented, and partial explanations are offered. (JSR)

  18. Library Instruction and Online Database Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercado, Heidi

    1999-01-01

    Reviews changes in online database searching in academic libraries. Topics include librarians conducting all searches; the advent of end-user searching and the need for user instruction; compact disk technology; online public catalogs; the Internet; full text databases; electronic information literacy; user education and the remote library user;…

  19. The Weaknesses of Full-Text Searching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a theoretical critique of the deficiencies of full-text searching in academic library databases. Because full-text searching relies on matching words in a search query with words in online resources, it is an inefficient method of finding information in a database. This matching fails to retrieve synonyms, and it also retrieves…

  20. Multitasking Information Seeking and Searching Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Amanda; Ozmutlu, H. Cenk; Ozmutlu, Seda

    2002-01-01

    Presents findings from four studies of the prevalence of multitasking information seeking and searching by Web (via the Excite search engine), information retrieval system (mediated online database searching), and academic library users. Highlights include human information coordinating behavior (HICB); and implications for models of information…

  1. Nutrition and Supplements for Elite Open-Weight Rowing.

    PubMed

    Boegman, Susan; Dziedzic, Christine E

    2016-01-01

    Competitive rowing events are raced over 2,000 m requiring athletes to have highly developed aerobic and anaerobic systems. Elite rowers therefore undertake training sessions focused on lactate tolerance, strength and power as well as aerobic and anaerobic capacity development, that can amount to a 24-h training week. The training stimuli and consequent metabolic demands of each session in a rowing training program differ depending on type, length, and intensity. Nutrition guidelines for endurance- and power-based sports should be drawn upon; however, individualized and flexible nutrition plans are critical to successfully meet the daily, weekly, and cyclic nutrient requirements of a rower. This review will provide an overview of key nutritional strategies to optimize training and enhance adaptation, and briefly discuss supplement strategies that may support health and enhance performance in elite rowing. PMID:27399822

  2. The Academic Mind at the Top: The Political Behavior and Values of Faculty Elites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipset, Seymour Martin

    1982-01-01

    Faculty surveys of the honorific academies and of American professors indicate that the former are more liberal politically than the latter, including those at the most distinguished institutions. Theories of intellectual creativity and political socialization are applied to these findings. Available from Elsevier Publishing, 52 Vanderbilt Avenue,…

  3. Sleep Hygiene and Recovery Strategies in Elite Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Nédélec, Mathieu; Halson, Shona; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset; Ahmaidi, Said; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    In elite soccer, players are frequently exposed to various situations and conditions that can interfere with sleep (e.g., playing night matches interspersed with 3 days; performing activities demanding high levels of concentration close to bedtime; use of products containing caffeine or alcohol in the period preceding bedtime; regular daytime napping throughout the week; variable wake-up times or bedtime), potentially leading to sleep deprivation. We outline simple, practical, and pharmaceutical-free sleep strategies that are coordinated to the constraints of elite soccer in order to promote sleep. Sleep deprivation is best alleviated by sleep extension; however, sleep hygiene strategies (i.e., consistent sleep pattern, appropriate napping, and active daytime behaviors) can be utilized to promote restorative sleep. Light has a profound impact on sleep, and sleep hygiene strategies that support the natural environmental light-dark cycle (i.e., red-light treatment prior to sleep, dawn-simulation therapy prior to waking) and prevent cycle disruption (i.e., filtering short wavelengths prior to sleep) may be beneficial to elite soccer players. Under conditions of inordinate stress, techniques such as brainwave entrainment and meditation are promising sleep-promoting strategies, but future studies are required to ascertain the applicability of these techniques to elite soccer players. Consuming high-electrolyte fluids such as milk, high-glycemic index carbohydrates, some forms of protein immediately prior to sleep, as well as tart cherry juice concentrate and tryptophan may promote rehydration, substrate stores replenishment, muscle-damage repair and/or restorative sleep. The influence of cold water immersion performed close to bedtime on subsequent sleep is still debated. Conversely, the potential detrimental effects of sleeping medication must be recognized. Sleep initiation is influenced by numerous factors, reinforcing the need for future research to identify such

  4. Cardiovascular changes during maximal breath-holding in elite divers.

    PubMed

    Guaraldi, Pietro; Serra, Maria; Barletta, Giorgio; Pierangeli, Giulia; Terlizzi, Rossana; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Cialoni, Danilo; Cortelli, Pietro

    2009-12-01

    During maximal breath-holding six healthy elite breath-hold divers, after an initial "easy-going" phase in which cardiovascular changes resembled the so-called "diving response", exhibited a sudden and severe rise in blood pressure during the "struggle" phase of the maneuver. These changes may represent the first tangible expression of a defense reaction, which overrides the classic diving reflex, aiming to reduce the hypoxic damage and to break the apnea before the loss of consciousness. PMID:19655193

  5. Legal and Ethical Issues in the Cardiovascular Care of Elite Athletes.

    PubMed

    Emery, Michael S; Quandt, Eric F

    2015-07-01

    This article presents an overview of the legal and ethical issues in the cardiovascular care of elite athletes. An important distinction between the assessment and care of elite athletes and the general population necessitates an understanding of the applicable legal standard and the limitation of potential exposures. Important recommendations and pertinent case law is presented that can assist the medical provider in comprehending important considerations with regard to preparticipation evaluations, return-to-play decisions, and second opinions in elite athletes. PMID:26100425

  6. The coaching preferences of elite athletes competing at Universiade '83.

    PubMed

    Terry, P C

    1984-12-01

    The study investigated the coaching preferences of 95 male and 65 female elite athletes competing at Universiade '83 (Edmonton, Canada). Preferred coaching behaviour (PCB) was measured using a version of the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). Preference scores were analyzed on the basis of sex, age, nationality, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that males prefer significantly more Autocratic behaviour than females (p = .039). Also, athletes in team sports prefer significantly more Training behaviour (p = .001), Autocratic behaviour (p less than .001), and Rewarding behaviour (p = .017), and significantly less Democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and Social Support behaviour (p = .002) than athletes in individual sports. No significant differences in PCB attributable to the age or nationally of the athlete were found. In addition, data collected in a previous study (Terry and Howe, 1984), which examined the PCB of 'club' athletes, was included to facilitate a comparison of club v elite athletes. A MANOVA showed that elite athletes prefer significantly more Democratic behaviour (p = .01) and Social Support behaviour (p = .001), and significantly less Rewarding behaviour (p = .01) than athletes at a 'club' level. Although differences between subject groups were found, it can be concluded that athletes generally tend to favour coaches who "often" display Training behaviour and Rewarding behaviour, "occasionally" display Democratic behaviour and Social Support behaviour, and "seldom" display Autocratic behaviour. PMID:6525753

  7. Monitoring load, recovery, and performance in young elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Brink, Michel S; Nederhof, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Schmikli, Sandor L; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between training load, recovery, and monthly field test performance in young elite soccer players to develop training guidelines to enhance performance. In a prospective, nonexperimental cohort design, 18 young elite soccer players registered training and match duration for a full competitive season by means of daily training logs. Furthermore, session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and total quality of recovery (TQR) scores were recorded. Weekly duration (TL(d)), load (duration x session RPE = TL(rpe)), and TQR scores were calculated for 1 and 2 weeks before a monthly submaximal interval shuttle run tests to determine interval endurance capacity. Participants spent on average 394.4 +/- 134.9 minutes per week on training and game play with an average session RPE of 14.4 +/- 1.2 (somewhat hard) and TQR of 14.7 +/- 1.3 (good recovery). Random intercept models showed that every extra hour training or game play resulted in enhanced field test performance (p < 0.05). Session RPE and TQR scores did not contribute to the prediction of performance. The duration of training and game play in the week before field test performance is most strongly related to interval endurance capacity. Therefore, coaches should focus on training duration to improve interval endurance capacity in elite soccer players. To evaluate the group and individual training response, field tests should be frequently executed and be incorporated in the training program. PMID:20145570

  8. Ventilatory response to exercise of elite soccer players

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of ventilatory parameters in maximal exercise performance in elite soccer players. Methods From September 2009 to December 2012, 90 elite soccer players underwent evaluation of lung function test and ergospirometry by means of an incremental symptom-limited treadmill test. Results were analyzed according to i) maximal exercise velocity performed (Hi-M: high-performers, >18.65 km/h; Lo-M: low-performers, <18.65 km/h) and ii) usual role in the team. Results Hi-M showed higher peak minute ventilation (V˙Epeak: 158.3 ± 19.5 vs 148.0 ± 18.54 L/min, p = 0.0203), and forced expiratory volume at first second (5.28 ± 0.50 vs 4.89 ± 0.52 liters, p < 0.001) than Lo-M, independently of playing role. Moreover, a significant correlation between peak oxygen uptake and V˙E (r = 0.57, p < 0.001) was found. Conclusions Ventilatory response plays a role in the assessment of exercise capacity in elite soccer players. PMID:24694313

  9. White matter plasticity in the cerebellum of elite basketball athletes

    PubMed Central

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Ye Na; Kwon, Soonwook; Lee, Nam Joon

    2015-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies indicate that learning a novel motor skill induces plastic changes in the brain structures of both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) that are associated with a specific practice. We previously reported an increased volume of vermian lobules VI-VII (declive, folium, and tuber) in elite basketball athletes who require coordination for dribbling and shooting a ball, which awakened the central role of the cerebellum in motor coordination. However, the precise factor contributing to the increased volume was not determined. In the present study, we compared the volumes of the GM and WM in the sub-regions of the cerebellar vermis based on manual voxel analysis with the ImageJ program. We found significantly larger WM volumes of vermian lobules VI-VII (declive, folium, and tuber) in elite basketball athletes in response to long-term intensive motor learning. We suggest that the larger WM volumes of this region in elite basketball athletes represent a motor learning-induced plastic change, and that the WM of this region likely plays a critical role in coordination. This finding will contribute to gaining a deeper understanding of motor learning-evoked WM plasticity. PMID:26770877

  10. White matter plasticity in the cerebellum of elite basketball athletes.

    PubMed

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Ye Na; Kwon, Soonwook; Lee, Nam Joon; Rhyu, Im Joo

    2015-12-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies indicate that learning a novel motor skill induces plastic changes in the brain structures of both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) that are associated with a specific practice. We previously reported an increased volume of vermian lobules VI-VII (declive, folium, and tuber) in elite basketball athletes who require coordination for dribbling and shooting a ball, which awakened the central role of the cerebellum in motor coordination. However, the precise factor contributing to the increased volume was not determined. In the present study, we compared the volumes of the GM and WM in the sub-regions of the cerebellar vermis based on manual voxel analysis with the ImageJ program. We found significantly larger WM volumes of vermian lobules VI-VII (declive, folium, and tuber) in elite basketball athletes in response to long-term intensive motor learning. We suggest that the larger WM volumes of this region in elite basketball athletes represent a motor learning-induced plastic change, and that the WM of this region likely plays a critical role in coordination. This finding will contribute to gaining a deeper understanding of motor learning-evoked WM plasticity. PMID:26770877

  11. Neural processes distinguishing elite from expert and novice athletes.

    PubMed

    Callan, Daniel E; Naito, Eiichi

    2014-12-01

    This commentary builds on a companion article in which Kim et al compare brain activation in elite, expert, and novice archers during a simulated target aiming task (Kim et al. 2014. Cogn Behav Neurol. 27:173-182). With the archery study as our starting point, we address 4 neural processes that may be responsible in general for elite athletes' superior performance over experts and novices: neural efficiency, cortical expansion, specialized processes, and internal models. In Kim et al's study, the elite archers' brains showed more activity in the supplementary motor area and the cerebellum than those of the novices and experts, and showed minimal widespread activity, especially in frontal areas involved with executive control. Kim et al's results are consistent with the idea of specialized neural processes that help coordinate motor planning and control. As athletes become more skilled, these processes may mediate the reduction in widespread activity in regions mapping executive control, and may produce a shift toward more automated processing. Kim et al's finding that activity in the cerebellum rose with increasing skill is consistent both with expansion of the finger representational area in the cerebellum and with internal models that simulate how archers manipulate the bow and arrow when aiming. Kim et al prepare the way for testing of neuromodulation techniques to improve athletic performance, refine highly technical job skills, and rehabilitate patients. PMID:25539037

  12. Osteitis pubis: can early return to elite competition be contemplated?

    PubMed Central

    Jardí, Jaume; Rodas, Gil; Pedret, Carles; Til, Lluis; Cusí, Manuel; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Del Buono, Angelo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose In elite athletes, osteitis pubis is a common painful degenerative process of the pubic symphysis and surrounding soft tissues and tendons. We report the diagnostic pathway and the rehabilitation protocol of six elite athletes with osteitis pubis in three different sports, and compare protocol stages and time to return to competition. Methods 6 athletes (2 soccer, 2 basketball, 2 rugby players) were diagnosed with osteitis pubis stage III and IV according to Rodriguez classification using standard clinical and imaging criteria. After performing a baseline lumbo-pelvic assessment, the rehabilitation protocol described by Verrall was adapted to each individual athlete. Results The length of time for each stage of the protocol was as follows; Stage 1 (rest from sport) was 26 +/− 5 days, Stage 2 (to achieve pain free running), 18 +/− 5 days, Stage 3 (squad training) 63 +/− 7, Stage 4 (return to competition) 86 +/− 15. Soccer players took longer to return to competition than basketball and rugby players. No recurrences were reported at 2 year follow-up. Conclusion The protocol presented ensures a safe return to elite athletes. The time from diagnosis to full recovery is longer in football players, and seems to increase with age. PMID:25147768

  13. Determinants of labour migration of elite sport coaches.

    PubMed

    Orlowski, Johannes; Wicker, Pamela; Breuer, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Previous research examining labour migration in sport focused on athletes in professional team sports. The purpose of this study is to analyse the factors influencing the migration probability of elite sport coaches in Germany (i.e. national coaches, state coaches, and coaches at Olympic training bases). From a theoretical perspective, labour migration of athletes is affected by economic, social, political, competitive, geographic and cultural factors. This study examines whether these factors can be applied to coaches. Primary data were collected using an online survey of elite sport coaches in Germany. Applying a conjoint design, respondents were presented with 10 migration scenarios leading to a sample size of n = 1860 for the empirical analysis. In the scenarios, the coaching position openings abroad differed in terms of income level, contract length, weekly workload, responsibility for personnel, reputation of coaching job, career perspectives, sporting performance of athletes, distance from Germany, and predominant job language. Coaches were asked for their migration probability contingent on the specific scenario. On average, migration probability was 24.2%. The results of regression analysis showed that higher income, contracts of longer duration, responsibility for personnel and speaking the respective language significantly increased the migration probability, while distances of nine flight hours and more, lower reputation and career perspectives reduced it. The findings have implications for policy-makers: they indicate in what areas the situation of coaches needs improvement to increase the likelihood of retaining elite sport coaches in the German sport system. PMID:26744912

  14. Dietary supplement use among elite young German athletes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Hans; Koehler, Karsten; Geyer, Hans; Kleiner, Jens; Mester, Joachim; Schanzer, Wilhelm

    2009-02-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and motives of supplement use among elite young athletes who compete on national and international levels. Therefore, the current survey was performed to assess information regarding the past and present use of dietary supplements among 164 elite young athletes (16.6 +/- 3.0 years of age). A 5-page questionnaire was designed to assess their past and present (last 4 weeks) use of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrate, protein, and fat supplements; sport drinks; and other ergogenic aids. Furthermore, information about motives, sources of advice, supplement sources, and supplement contamination was assessed. Eighty percent of all athletes reported using at least 1 supplement, and the prevalence of use was significantly higher in older athletes (p < .05). Among supplement users, minerals, vitamins, sport drinks, energy drinks, and carbohydrates were most frequently consumed. Only a minority of the athletes declared that they used protein/amino acids, creatine, or other ergogenic aids. Major motives for supplement use were health related, whereas performance enhancement and recommendations by others were less frequently reported. Supplements were mainly obtained from parents or by athletes themselves and were mostly purchased in pharmacies, supermarkets, and health-food stores. Among all athletes, only 36% were aware of the problem of supplement contamination. The survey shows that supplement use is common and widespread among German elite young athletes. This stands in strong contrast to recommendations by leading sport organizations against supplement use by underage athletes. PMID:19403956

  15. Academic medicine amenities unit: developing a model to integrate academic medical care with luxury hotel services.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David W; Kagan, Sarah H; Abramson, Kelly Brennen; Boberick, Cheryl; Kaiser, Larry R

    2009-02-01

    The interface between established values of academic medicine and the trend toward inpatient amenities units requires close examination. Opinions of such units can be polarized, reflecting traditional reservations about the ethical dilemma of offering exclusive services only to an elite patient group. An amenities unit was developed at the University of Pennsylvania Health System in 2007, using an approach that integrated academic medicine values with the benefits of philanthropy and service excellence to make amenities unit services available to all patients. Given inherent internal political concerns, a broadly based steering committee of academic and hospital leadership was developed. An academically appropriate model was conceived, anchored by four principles: (1) integration of academic values, (2) interdisciplinary senior leadership, (3) service excellence, and (4) recalibrated occupancy expectations based on multiple revenue streams. Foremost is ensuring the same health care is afforded all patients throughout the hospital, thereby overcoming ethical challenges and optimizing teaching experiences. Service excellence frames the service ethic for all staff, and this, in addition to luxury hotel-style amenities, differentiates the style and feel of the unit from others in the hospital. Recalibrated occupancy creates program viability given revenue streams redefined to encompass gifts and patient revenue, including both reimbursement and self-pay. The medical-surgical amenities patient-care unit has enjoyed a successful first year and a growing stream of returning patients and admitting physicians. Implications for other academic medical centers include opportunities to extrapolate service excellence throughout the hospital and to cultivate philanthropy to benefit services throughout the medical center. PMID:19174661

  16. Academic Productivity as Perceived by Malaysian Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Aminuddin; Tymms, Peter; Ismail, Habsah

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the perspectives of Malaysian academics in relation to academic productivity and some factors affecting it. A large scale online questionnaire was used to gather information from six public universities. The most productive role in the eyes of the academics was found to be teaching, with research and…

  17. After Bath: Scientists, Social Scientists, and Humanists in the Context of Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurych, Jitka

    1986-01-01

    Detailed analysis of 462 university faculty search request forms identifies similarities and differences among representatives of academic disciplines in their approaches to seeking information online. Search particulars noted include comprehensiveness, scope, language, retrospectiveness, relevant citations, search purpose, funding, clarity, and…

  18. Comparisons of eccentric knee flexor strength and asymmetries across elite, sub-elite and school level cricket players

    PubMed Central

    Chalker, Wade J.; Shield, Anthony J.; Opar, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. There has been a continual increase in injury rates in cricket, with hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) being the most prominent. Eccentric knee flexor weakness and bilateral asymmetries are major modifiable risk factors for future HSIs. However, there is a lack of data relating to eccentric hamstring strength in cricket at any skill level. The objective of this study was to compare eccentric knee flexor strength and bilateral asymmetries in elite, sub-elite and school level cricket players; and to determine if playing position and limb role influenced these eccentric knee flexor strength indices. Methods. Seventy four male cricket players of three distinct skill levels performed three repetitions of the Nordic hamstring exercise on the experimental device. Strength was assessed as the absolute and relative mean peak force output for both limbs, with bilateral asymmetries. Differences in mean peak force outputs between skill level and playing positions were measured. Results. There were no significant differences between elite, sub-elite and school level athletes for mean peak force and bilateral asymmetries of the knee flexors. There were no significant differences observed between bowler’s and batter’s mean peak force and bilateral asymmetries. There were no significant differences between front and back limb mean peak force outputs. Discussion. Skill level, playing position and limb role appeared to have no significant effect on eccentric knee flexor strength and bilateral asymmetries. Future research should seek to determine whether eccentric knee flexor strength thresholds are predictive of HSIs in cricket and if specific eccentric knee flexor strengthening can reduce these injuries. PMID:26925310

  19. Academic detailing.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations. PMID:21209521

  20. Teachers' Roles in the Integration of Vocational and Academic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, B. June; And Others

    A study of the roles of vocational and academic teachers in the integration process involved interviews with 109 principals, other administrators, counselors, and vocational and academic teachers at 10 school sites. The research was designed to build upon and complement studies identified in a literature search that had examined other facets of…

  1. School Gardens Enhance Academic Performance and Dietary Outcomes in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berezowitz, Claire K.; Bontrager Yoder, Andrea B.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schools face increasing demands to provide education on healthy living and improve core academic performance. Although these appear to be competing concerns, they may interact beneficially. This article focuses on school garden programs and their effects on students' academic and dietary outcomes. Methods: Database searches in CABI,…

  2. Academia and the Search for Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorner, Peter

    1982-01-01

    History provides examples of how academic communities responded to serious social problems and tensions: by intentionally or unintentionally aggravating them, withdrawing, or searching for solutions. (AVAIL: Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, 1922 University Ave., Madison, WI 53705)

  3. Kinesiology Faculty Citations across Academic Rank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Citations to research reports are used as a measure for the influence of a scholar's research line when seeking promotion, grants, and awards. The current study documented the distributions of citations to kinesiology scholars of various academic ranks. Google Scholar Citations was searched for user profiles using five research interest areas…

  4. Challenging Google, Microsoft Unveils a Search Tool for Scholarly Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft has introduced a new search tool to help people find scholarly articles online. The service, which includes journal articles from prominent academic societies and publishers, puts Microsoft in direct competition with Google Scholar. The new free search tool, which should work on most Web browsers, is called Windows Live Academic Search…

  5. Elite Discourse and Racism. Sage Series on Race and Ethnic Relations, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijk, Teun A. van

    A new multidisciplinary discourse approach is introduced to the study of racism. It is shown that elites play a primary role in the reproduction of ethnic dominance and racism in the popular cultures of Western societies. The subtle forms of elite racism demonstrated in politics, business, academia, education, and the media are discussed. Chapter…

  6. The role of community in the development of elite handball and football players in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rossing, N N; Nielsen, A B; Elbe, A-M; Karbing, D S

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the place of early development in a sample of Danish male elite and youth handball and football players. The sample included 366 handball and football players from the elite Danish league in the season 2011-2012 and a comparison sample of youth players under the age of 12 from 2003, including 147,221 football and 26,290 handball players. Odds ratio analysis showed that both population size and density significantly affected the proportional number of youth players per community and the odds of athletes reaching an elite level in football and handball. The odds for youth player registrations in both handball and football increased in rural in contrast to urban communities. However, elite football players primarily came from communities of high density (>1000 pop./km(2)), whereas elite handball players primarily came from less densely populated communities (100 to <250 pop./km(2)). Furthermore, there seems to be a relation between representation of elite and talent clubs in different communities and the probability of becoming an elite player in both sports. The limited number of elite players in both sports from rural communities may be due to national talent development strategies that do not incorporate development support for clubs in rural areas. Additionally, the results of the study clearly suggest the need to include the youth player population to advance research findings in birthplace effect studies. PMID:25703343

  7. Discursive Obstruction and Elite Opposition to Environmental Activism in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Thomas E.; Adams, Alison E.; Cable, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    Extant research on social movements has highlighted activists' discursive tactics to challenge the state, yet little analytical attention focuses on elite efforts to dominate the discourse arena through the deployment of oppositional frames. This paper analyzes elite oppositional framing surrounding the placement of a highway bypass in the Czech…

  8. The Transnational Track: State Sponsorship and Singapore's Oxbridge Elite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Rebecca; Nylander, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the process of transnational institutional matching between elite institutions in Singapore and Great Britain, and the role of state-sponsored scholarships in enabling this process as political and administrative elites are selected and groomed. Using data gathered from in-depth interviews conducted with Singaporean…

  9. Elite Repudiation of the R-Word and Public Opinion about Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Monique L.; Simplican, Stacy Clifford

    2015-01-01

    Part of the motivation for encouraging elite stakeholders--like governments, professionals, and advocacy groups--to replace the language of "mental retardation" with "intellectual disability" (ID) is the belief that elite endorsement could undermine negative attitudes and influence the public to follow suit. We examine the…

  10. Modeling College Women's Perceptions of Elite Leadership Positions with Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeagley, Emily E.; Subich, Linda M.; Tokar, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The utility of Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) for predicting college women's interests and goals for positions of elite leadership was examined with 156 undergraduate women at a public university. They completed measures of elite leadership self-efficacy expectations, outcome expectations, interests, and goals.…

  11. On Being a Living Contradiction: The Struggle of an Elite Intercollegiate Christian Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gregg; Sagas, Michael; Fleming, David; Von Roenn, Sean

    2005-01-01

    While some research has been conducted on the manner in which Christian athletes utilize their faith to cope with the dominant culture of winning, there appears to be a relative paucity of investigation on the manner in which elite coaches function in this environment. The purpose of this study was to describe an elite intercollegiate coach's…

  12. Gatekeepers or Facilitators: The Influence of Teacher Habitus on Students' Applications to Elite Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Caroline; Kettley, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    Low application rates of state school students to elite universities have been identified as a factor in their limited participation in elite universities. This article explores the role of teachers in state schools and colleges in guiding higher education (HE) choice. Drawing on qualitative research with teachers and students in six institutions,…

  13. Coaches' Coaching Competence in Relation to Athletes' Perceived Progress in Elite Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, Frode; Federici, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at whether higher levels of perceived coaching competencies focusing on relational issues, were associated with higher satisfaction among elite athletes with their progress in sport. In order to explore this, we investigated elite athletes' perceptions of their coaches' coaching competence (CCS) and how these perceptions related…

  14. Dietary Habits and Physical Self-Concept of Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boros, Szilvia

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To identify main differences in nutrient patterns, food preferences and physical self-concept between the world's elite rhythmic gymnasts and untrained controls. Material and methods: A group of elite rhythmic gymnasts (n = 103) aged 15-21 years volunteered to participate in the study during the 2003 World Championships in Rhythmic…

  15. To Perceive and to Be Perceived: Challenges of Ethnography in Elite Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercader, Patricia; Weber, Rebecca; Durif-Varembont, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a larger study on "Gender practices and violence between peers: the stakes of mixed-sex education", this paper examines the methodological challenges specific to carrying out ethnography in an elite high school. The researcher's subjective experience in the field reveals the power dynamics at play in the elite setting. We also…

  16. Preparing for Power in Elite Boarding Schools and in Working-Class Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Elite boarding schools endeavor to instill in their students elite-class solidarity, strong beliefs in both meritocracy and the essential rightness of the status quo, and practical political know-how. Each of these objectives is wholly compatible with the self-interest of their students and their families. In the vast majority of working-class…

  17. Personality of Elite Male and Female Chess Players and Its Relation to Chess Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollstadt-Klein, Sabine; Grimm, Oliver; Kirsch, Peter; Bilalic, Merim

    2010-01-01

    Whereas a lot of studies examine cognitive processes in chess players, personality profiles of elite chess players are still not described well. The aim of this study was to examine personality of strong chess experts and its influence on chess skill. We tested elite male and female chess players with Freiburg Personality Inventory Revised…

  18. Gender Power in Elite Schools: Methodological Insights from Researcher Reflexive Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Joan; Weiner, Gaby

    2014-01-01

    The main task of this paper is to understand the methodological insights from researchers' reflexive accounts about the production of gender in the specific practices of three Scottish elite schools. Accordingly, the paper poses three questions: How is gender re/constructed through the specific practices of these elite schools? What insights…

  19. A Public Secret: "Education for Quality" and Suicide among Chinese Elite University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bregnbaek, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on anthropological fieldwork undertaken at two elite universities in Beijing. It addresses the paradoxical situation of the many instances of suicide among Chinese elite university students in Beijing, which constitute a public secret. The pressure of education weighs heavily on the shoulders of China's only child in each…

  20. Structure of Physical Self-Concept: Elite Athletes and Physical Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) was administered to 1,514 elite athletes and nonelite high school students. Physical self-concept was higher for the elite athletes, but gender differences were smaller in this group. Results support the usefulness of the PSDQ and extend understanding of self-concept in school settings. (SLD)

  1. Food and macronutrient intake of elite Ethiopian distance runners

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Explanations for the phenomenal success of East African distance runners include unique dietary practices. The aim of the present study was to assess the food and macronutrient intake of elite Ethiopian distance runners during a period of high intensity exercise training at altitude and prior to major competition. Methods The dietary intake of 10 highly-trained Ethiopian long distance runners, living and training at high altitude (approximately 2400 m above sea level) was assessed during a 7 day period of intense training prior to competition using the standard weighed intake method. Training was also assessed using an activity/training diary. Results Body mass was stable (i.e., was well maintained) over the assessment period (pre: 56.7 ± 4.3 kg vs. post: 56.6 ± 4.2 kg, P = 0.54; mean ± SD). The diet comprised of 13375 ± 1378 kJ and was high in carbohydrate (64.3 ± 2.6%, 545 ± 49 g, 9.7 ± 0.9 g/kg). Fat and protein intake was 23.3 ± 2.1% (83 ± 14 g) and 12.4 ± 0.6% (99 ± 13 g, 1.8 ± 0.2 g/kg), respectively. Fluid intake comprised mainly of water (1751 ± 583 mL), while no fluids were consumed before or during training with only modest amounts being consumed following training. Conclusions Similar to previous studies in elite Kenyan distance runners, the diet of these elite Ethiopian distance runners met most recommendations of endurance athletes for macronutrient intake but not for fluid intake. PMID:21595961

  2. Energy Balance during Taekwondo Practice in Elite Male Taekwondo Players

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang Ok; Garber, Carol Ewing; Lee, Sukho; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to evaluate energy expenditure and dietary intake of nutrients during Taekwondo practice in elite Korean male Taekwondo players. Methods: Elite Korean male high school (high school player: HP; n = 59) and college players (college player: CP; n = 58) wore an accelerometer to measure energy expenditure and recorded their daily dietary intake for nutritional analysis over the course of five days. Results: Nutritional adequacy ratios for total energy (0.82), vitamin C (0.97), calcium (0.78), and folate (0.75) were below recommended levels for all players. When comparing daily nutrient intake and energy expenditure between HP and CP, the HP group had significantly higher total calorie intake (402.7 kcal, p < 0.001), calcium (126.3 mg, p = 0.018), phosphorus (198.0 mg, p = 0.002), iron (1.3 mg, p = 0.002), and vitamin B2 (0.4 mg, p < 0.001) than the CP group. Although there was no significant difference in the estimated energy requirement during Taekwondo practice, the total energy expenditure (151.2 kcal, p = 0.001), total activity counts (130,674 counts, p = 0.038) and energy expenditure during Taekwondo practice (257.7 kcal, p < 0.001) were significantly higher in the HP than in the CP. Conclusion: The results indicate that a sports nutrition program based on energy balance is necessary to achieve optimal health and performance in elite male Taekwondo players. PMID:26064838

  3. Anthropometric Injury Risk Factors in Elite-standard Youth Soccer.

    PubMed

    Kemper, G L J; van der Sluis, A; Brink, M S; Visscher, C; Frencken, W G P; Elferink-Gemser, M T

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether an increased risk of injury occurrence can be determined through frequent anthropometric measurements in elite-standard youth soccer players. Over the course of one season, we followed 101 male elite-standard youth soccer players between 11 and 19 years of age. Height and body mass were monitored at monthly measurement intervals and fat percentage was assessed every 3 months by use of the sum of skinfold method. Growth in height (cm), alternations in body mass index (kg/m(2)), fat percentage and fat-free mass index (kg/m(2)) were calculated. Injuries were recorded in accordance with the recommendations of the FIFA Consensus Model for Injury Registration. Odds ratio scores and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using binary logistic regression analyses. The following anthropometric injury risk factors were identified: ≥ 0.6 centimeter growth per month (p=0.03; OR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.06-2.52), ≥ 0.3 kg/m(2) increase of body mass index value per month (p=0.03; OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.04-2.49) and low fat percentage; i. e., < 7% for players aged 11-16 and < 5% for players over 16 years (p=0.01; OR=1.81; 95% CI: 1.18-2.76). Individual monitoring of anthropometrics provides useful information to determine increased risk of injury occurrence in elite-standard youth soccer. PMID:26258817

  4. Movement Demands of Elite U20 International Rugby Union Players.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Daniel; Shearer, David A; Drawer, Scott; Eager, Robin; Taylor, Neil; Cook, Christian; Kilduff, Liam P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify movement demands of elite international age grade (U20) rugby union players during competitive tournament match play. Forty elite professional players from an U20 international performance squad were monitored using 10 Hz global positioning systems (GPS) during 15 international tournament matches during the 2014/15 and 2015/16 seasons. Data on distances, velocities, accelerations, decelerations, high metabolic load (HML) distance and efforts, and number of sprints were derived. Data files from players who played over 60 min (n = 161) were separated firstly into Forwards and Backs, and more specifically into six positional groups; FR--Front Row (prop & hooker), SR--Second Row, BR--Back Row (Flankers & No.8), HB--Half Backs (scrum half & outside half), MF--Midfield (centres), B3--Back Three (wings & full back) for match analysis. Analysis revealed significant differences between forwards and backs positions. Backs scored higher on all variables measured with the exception of number of moderate accelerations, decelerations (no difference). The centres covered the greatest total distance with the front row covering the least (6.51 ± 0.71 vs 4.97 ± 0.75 km, p < 0.001). The front row also covered the least high speed running (HSR) distance compared to the back three (211.6 ± 112.7 vs 728.4 ± 150.2 m, p < 0.001) who covered the most HSR distance, affirming that backs cover greater distances but forwards have greater contact loads. These findings highlight for the first time differences in the movement characteristics of elite age grade rugby union players specific to positional roles. PMID:27055230

  5. Movement Demands of Elite U20 International Rugby Union Players

    PubMed Central

    Drawer, Scott; Eager, Robin; Taylor, Neil; Cook, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify movement demands of elite international age grade (U20) rugby union players during competitive tournament match play. Forty elite professional players from an U20 international performance squad were monitored using 10Hz global positioning systems (GPS) during 15 international tournament matches during the 2014/15 and 2015/16 seasons. Data on distances, velocities, accelerations, decelerations, high metabolic load (HML) distance and efforts, and number of sprints were derived. Data files from players who played over 60 min (n = 161) were separated firstly into Forwards and Backs, and more specifically into six positional groups; FR—Front Row (prop & hooker), SR—Second Row, BR—Back Row (Flankers & No.8), HB—Half Backs (scrum half & outside half), MF—Midfield (centres), B3 –Back Three (wings & full back) for match analysis. Analysis revealed significant differences between forwards and backs positions. Backs scored higher on all variables measured with the exception of number of moderate accelerations, decelerations (no difference). The centres covered the greatest total distance with the front row covering the least (6.51 ± 0.71 vs 4.97 ± 0.75 km, p < 0.001). The front row also covered the least high speed running (HSR) distance compared to the back three (211.6 ± 112.7 vs 728.4 ± 150.2 m, p < 0.001) who covered the most HSR distance, affirming that backs cover greater distances but forwards have greater contact loads. These findings highlight for the first time differences in the movement characteristics of elite age grade rugby union players specific to positional roles. PMID:27055230

  6. Tapering Practices of New Zealand's Elite Raw Powerlifters.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Hayden J; Tod, David A; Barnes, Matthew J; Keogh, Justin W; McGuigan, Michael R

    2016-07-01

    Pritchard, HJ, Tod, DA, Barnes, MJ, Keogh, JW, and McGuigan, MR. Tapering practices of New Zealand's elite raw powerlifters. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1796-1804, 2016-The major aim of this study was to determine tapering strategies of elite powerlifters. Eleven New Zealand powerlifters (28.4 ± 7.0 years, best Wilks score of 431.9 ± 43.9 points) classified as elite were interviewed, using semistructured interviews, about their tapering strategies. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analyzed. Total training volume peaked 5.2 ± 1.7 weeks from competition while average training intensity (of 1 repetition maximum) peaked 1.9 ± 0.8 weeks from competition. During tapering, volume was reduced by 58.9 ± 8.4% while intensity was maintained (or slightly reduced) and the final weight training session was performed 3.7 ± 1.6 days out from competition. Participants generally stated that tapering was performed to achieve full recovery; that accessory work was removed around 2 weeks out from competition; and deadlifting takes longer to recover from than other lifts. Typically participants stated that trial and error, and changes based on "feel" were the sources of tapering strategies; equipment used and movements performed during tapering are the same as in competition; nutrition was manipulated during the taper (for weight cutting or performance aims); and poor tapering occurred when too long (1 week or more) was taken off training. These results suggest that athletes may benefit from continuing to strength train before important events with reduced volume and maintained intensity. Only exercises that directly assist sports performance should remain in the strength program during tapering, to assist with reductions in fatigue while maintaining/improving strength expression and performance. PMID:26670988

  7. Does 'altitude training' increase exercise performance in elite athletes?

    PubMed

    Lundby, Carsten; Robach, Paul

    2016-07-01

    What is the topic of this review? The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of various altitude training strategies as investigated within the last few years. What advances does it highlight? Based on the available literature, the foundation to recommend altitude training to athletes is weak. Athletes may use one of the various altitude training strategies to improve exercise performance. The scientific support for such strategies is, however, not as sound as one would perhaps imagine. The question addressed in this review is whether altitude training should be recommended to elite athletes or not. PMID:27173805

  8. The Elite Athlete and Strenuous Exercise in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pivarnik, James M; Szymanski, Linda M; Conway, Michelle R

    2016-09-01

    Highly trained women continue to exercise during pregnancy, but there is little information available to guide them, and their health care providers, in how to maximize performance without jeopardizing the maternal-fetal unit. Available evidence focusing on average women who perform regular vigorous exercise suggests that this activity is helpful in preventing several maladies of pregnancy, with little to no evidence of harm. However, some studies have shown that there may be a limit to how intense an elite performer should exercise during pregnancy. Health care providers should monitor these women athletes carefully, to build trust and understanding. PMID:27398878

  9. Precordial Catch Syndrome in Elite Swimmers With Asthma.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Don; Younger, Bradley R; Mansour, Heidi M; Strawbridge, Heather

    2016-02-01

    Precordial catch syndrome is a benign cause of chest pain in children and adolescents that remains underrecognized. Because of distinctive symptoms, precordial catch syndrome is not necessarily a diagnosis of exclusion. However, a detailed history eliciting diagnostic features is important, along with a physical examination excluding other pathologic disorders. We present the cases of 2 elite swimmers with asthma who had acute episodes of precordial catch syndrome, one associated with an acute asthma exacerbation and one not, while swimming during competitive swim meets that required rescue efforts for both and eventual evaluation in the emergency department. PMID:26835568

  10. Air quality and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Kenneth W; Sue-Chu, Malcolm

    2013-08-01

    A higher prevalence of airway hyperresponsiveness, airway remodeling, and asthma has been identified among athletes who compete and train in environmental conditions of cold dry air and/or high air pollution. Repeated long-duration exposure to cold/dry air at high minute ventilation rates can cause airway damage. Competition or training at venues close to busy roadways, or in indoor ice arenas or chlorinated swimming pools, harbors a risk for acute and chronic airway disorders from high pollutant exposure. This article discusses the effects of these harsh environments on the airways, and summarizes potential mechanisms and prevalence of airway disorders in elite athletes. PMID:23830133

  11. Positional Match Running Performance in Elite Gaelic Football.

    PubMed

    Malone, Shane; Solan, Barry; Collins, Kieran D; Doran, Dominic A

    2016-08-01

    Malone, S, Solan, B, Collins, KD, and Doran, DA. Positional match running performance in elite Gaelic football. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2292-2298, 2016-There is currently limited information available on match running performance in Gaelic football. The objective of the current study was to report on the match running profile of elite male Gaelic football and assess positional running performance. In this observational study, 50 elite male Gaelic football players wore 4-Hz global positioning systems units (VX Sports) across 30 competitive games with a total of 215 full game data sets collected. Activity was classed according to total distance, high-speed distance (≥17 km·h), sprint distance (≥22 km·h), mean velocity (km·h), peak velocity (km·h), and number of accelerations. The average match distance was 8,160 ± 1,482 m, reflective of a relative distance of 116 ± 21 m·min, with 1,731 ± 659 m covered at high speed, which is reflective of a relative high-speed distance of 25 ± 9 m·min. The observed sprint distance was 445 ± 169 m distributed across 44 sprint actions. The peak velocity was 30.3 ± 1.8 km·h with a mean velocity of 6.5 ± 1.2 km·h. Players completed 184 ± 40 accelerations, which represent 2.6 ± 0.5 accelerations per minute. There were significant differences between positional groups for both total running distance, high-speed running distance, and sprint distance, with midfielders covering more total and high-speed running distance, compared with other positions (p < 0.001). There was a reduction in high-speed and sprint distance between the first and second half (p < 0.001). Reductions in running performance were position dependent with the middle 3 positions experiencing the highest decrement in performance. The current study is the first to communicate a detailed description of match running performance during competitive elite Gaelic football match play. PMID:26694505

  12. Mental Health in Sport (MHS): Improving the Early Intervention Knowledge and Confidence of Elite Sport Staff.

    PubMed

    Sebbens, Joshua; Hassmén, Peter; Crisp, Dimity; Wensley, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Mental illnesses are as prevalent among elite athletes as in the general population. Despite this, there is little research examining how to enhance mental health literacy or helping behaviors in elite sport environments. A Mental Health in Sport (MHS) workshop was therefore developed and its effects on mental health literacy and confidence studied in 166 coaches and support staff working with elite athletes and teams in Australia. Results indicated that participants increased their knowledge of the signs and symptoms of common mental illnesses and were more confident in helping someone who may be experiencing a mental health problem. We conclude that even a very brief intervention can be effective in improving the mental health literacy and confidence of key persons in elite sport environments, and may promote early intervention and timely referral of elite athletes with mental health concerns to appropriate professionals. PMID:27445887

  13. Mental Health in Sport (MHS): Improving the Early Intervention Knowledge and Confidence of Elite Sport Staff

    PubMed Central

    Sebbens, Joshua; Hassmén, Peter; Crisp, Dimity; Wensley, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Mental illnesses are as prevalent among elite athletes as in the general population. Despite this, there is little research examining how to enhance mental health literacy or helping behaviors in elite sport environments. A Mental Health in Sport (MHS) workshop was therefore developed and its effects on mental health literacy and confidence studied in 166 coaches and support staff working with elite athletes and teams in Australia. Results indicated that participants increased their knowledge of the signs and symptoms of common mental illnesses and were more confident in helping someone who may be experiencing a mental health problem. We conclude that even a very brief intervention can be effective in improving the mental health literacy and confidence of key persons in elite sport environments, and may promote early intervention and timely referral of elite athletes with mental health concerns to appropriate professionals. PMID:27445887

  14. Consensus statement: Oral health and elite sport performance.

    PubMed

    Needleman, I; Ashley, P; Fine, P; Haddad, F; Loosemore, M; de Medici, A; Donos, N; Newton, T; van Someren, K; Moazzez, R; Jaques, R; Hunter, G; Khan, K; Shimmin, M; Brewer, J; Meehan, L; Mills, S; Porter, S

    2014-11-01

    While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25415018

  15. Propagation of elite rescue dogs by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun Ju; Choi, Jin; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Geon A; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Yoo Bin; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the efficiency of two oocyte activation culture media to produce cloned dogs from an elite rescue dog and to analyze their behavioral tendencies. In somatic cell nuclear transfer procedure, fused couplets were activated by calcium ionophore treatment for 4 min, cultured in two media: modified synthetic oviduct fluid (mSOF) with 1.9 mmol/L 6-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) (SOF-DMAP) or porcine zygote medium (PZM-5) with 1.9 mmol/L DMAP (PZM-DMAP) for 4 h, and then were transferred into recipients. After embryo transfer, pregnancy was detected in one out of three surrogate mothers that received cloned embryos from the PZM-DMAP group (33.3%), and one pregnancy (25%) was detected in four surrogate mothers receiving cloned embryos from the SOF-DMAP group. Each pregnant dog gave birth to one healthy cloned puppy by cesarean section. We conducted the puppy aptitude test with two cloned puppies; the two cloned puppies were classified as the same type, accepting humans and leaders easily. The present study indicated that the type of medium used in 6-DMAP culture did not increase in cloning efficiency and dogs cloned using donor cells derived from one elite dog have similar behavioral tendencies. PMID:26387964

  16. An especial skill in elite wheelchair basketball players.

    PubMed

    Fay, K; Breslin, G; Czyż, S H; Pizlo, Z

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to investigate whether an especial skill is present in elite wheelchair basketball players when taking twenty shots with a regular basketball from five different distances (11 ft, 13 ft, 17 ft, & 19 ft) from the basket including the free throw line (15 ft). Twelve elite male basketball players participated. The results showed that as distance increased shot accuracy decreased in line with force by variability predictions for the 11 ft, 13 ft, 17 ft, & 19 ft distances. However, shot performance at the free throw line where players are more familiar with practicing free throw shots did not follow this trend. A linear regression line was drawn to predict performance at the free throw line based on nearer (11 ft & 13 ft) and farer (17 ft & 19 ft) distances to the basket, this was then compared to actual performance. A significant difference between actual and predicted scores was found (p<.05) supporting the presence of an especial skill. Significant positive correlations were found for the 11 ft and 17 ft distance, age, years of playing, and accumulated practice hours with performance at the 15 ft line (p<.05). These correlations imply the operation of generalization in the especial skill. This observation received support from applying a model in which shot accuracy as a function of distance was approximated by two regression lines. PMID:23981485

  17. Kinanthropometric comparison between young elite kayakers and canoeists.

    PubMed

    Alacid, Fernando; Marfell-Jones, Michael; Muyor, José Maria; López-Miñarro, Pedro Angel; Martínez, Ignacio

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this study were to describe and compare kinanthropometric characteristics of elite young kayakers and canoeists and to compare their proportionality with Olympic paddlers. One hundred and twenty young elite sprint paddlers (66 kayakers and 58 canoeists), aged 13- and 14-years-old, were assessed using a battery of 32 anthropometric dimensions. Somatotypes, Phantom Z-scores and corrected girths were calculated. Comparison between kayakers and canoeists showed that kayakers had greater height, body weight, sitting height, arm span and upper body lengths, breadths and girths than canoeists. Higher proportional humerus breadth and arm girths were also found in kayakers. However, canoeists had higher Z-scores in femur breadth. Olympic paddlers had higher proportional dimensions in upper body girths, and biacromial breadth in both disciplines. Mean somatotypes of kayakers were best described as balanced mesomorphs, while canoeists were ecto-mesomorphs. Differences between kayak and canoe paddlers may be explained by the continual need for physical development in kayakers, in order to remain competitive, compared to the young canoeists' need to place much greater emphasis on the development of their technical ability. The data provided in this study could be used as a guideline for talent identification in sprint canoeing and kayaking. PMID:26040079

  18. Fitness Profiles of Elite Portuguese Rugby Union Players

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Luís; Morais, Tomaz; Rocha, Henrique; James, Nic

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the fitness profiles of senior elite Portuguese rugby players. Forty-six senior Portuguese rugby players, classified as backs (n=22; age 26.2±2.8) and forwards (n=24; age 26.7±2.9) were assessed during physical testing sessions carried out for the Portuguese National rugby team. The body composition, maximum strength and anaerobic capacity of players are hypothesized to be important physical characteristics as successful performance in rugby is predicated on the ability to undertake skilled behaviours both quickly and whilst withstanding large forces when in contact situations. No absolute differences were found between the backs and forwards for the speed performance variables although positional differences were found across all speeds when assessed relative to body mass since the forwards were significantly heavier. Coaches and the management team can use this information for monitoring progressive improvements in the physiological capacities of rugby players. These physical characteristics of elite rugby players provide normative profiles for specific positions and should form the basis of developmental programmes for adolescents. PMID:25114750

  19. Evaluation of elite table tennis players' technique effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Wei; Hu, Jin-Ju; Liu, Rui-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study constructed a technique effectiveness evaluation formula for table tennis players based on the relationship between the scoring rate and usage rate of techniques and established evaluation criteria through the examination of 224 matches of the world's top 35 players. It also built a competition performance formula with the score difference theory for the exploration of the correlation between player technique effectiveness and competition performance. The results showed the three indices - the technique effectiveness of the first and third strokes (TE₁,₃), the second and fourth strokes (TE₂,₄) and the after fourth strokes (TE>₄) - could help better evaluate the technique effectiveness of elite players. The comparative analysis of Chinese elite table tennis players and players from other countries and regions revealed that Chinese players as a whole were 'excellent' in all the examined techniques except in the male's 'first and third strokes'; while players from other countries and regions were overall 'general'. The case analysis of two of the world's top players further indicated that correlation analysis of technique effectiveness and competition performance could help identify the technique indices highly correlated with player competition performance. PMID:23879820

  20. JUMP LANDING CHARACTERISTICS IN ELITE SOCCER PLAYERS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    PubMed Central

    Grande, I.; Mejuto, G.; Los Arcos, A.; Yanci, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the parameters that characterize the vertical ground reaction force during the landing phase of a jump, and to determine the relationship among these parameters in elite soccer players with cerebral palsy (CP). Thirteen male members of the Spanish national soccer team for people with CP (mean age: 27.1 ± 4.7 years) volunteered for the study. Each participant performed three counter movement jumps. The characteristics of the first peak of the vertical ground reaction force during the landing phase of a jump, which corresponds to the forefoot contact with the ground, were similar to the results obtained in previous studies. However, a higher magnitude of rearfoot contact with the ground (F2) was observed in participants with CP than in participants without CP. Furthermore, a significant correlation between F2 magnitude and the elapsed time until its production (T2) was not observed (r = -0.474 for p = 0.102). This result implies that a landing technique based on a delay in the production of F2 might not be effective to reduce its magnitude, contrary to what has been observed in participants without CP. The absence of a significant correlation between these two parameters in the present study, and the high magnitude of F2, suggest that elite soccer players with CP should use footwear with proper cushioning characteristics. PMID:24744473

  1. Adolescent elite athletes' cigarette smoking, use of snus, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to examine cigarette smoking, use of snus, alcohol, and performance-enhancing illicit drugs among adolescent elite athletes and controls, and possible gender and sport group differences. First-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. Totally, 602 athletes (89%) and 354 (84%) controls completed the questionnaire. More controls than athletes were smoking, using snus, and drinking alcohol. Competing in team sports was associated with use of snus [odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 4.7] and a similar percentage of male and female handball (22.2% vs 18.8%) and soccer players (15.7% vs 15.0%) reported using snus. For controls, not participating in organized sport was a predictor for smoking (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.9). Female athletes were more prone to drink alcohol than males (46.3% vs 31.0%, P < 0.001). Only, 1.2% athletes and 2.8% controls reported use of performance-enhancing illicit drugs. In conclusion, use of legal drugs is less common among athletes, but this relationship depends on type of sport and competition level. The association between team sports and use of snus suggests that sport subcultures play a role. PMID:22830488

  2. Growth and maturity status of elite British junior tennis players.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Gillian K; Cumming, Sean P; Coelho E Silva, Manuel; Cooke, Karl; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Growth and maturation impact the selection, development and progression of youth athletes. Individual differences in the growth and maturity may afford a performance advantage, clouding coaches and practitioners' perceptions regarding current ability and future potential. This may result in the exclusion of talented, yet less physically gifted athletes. Participants were 91 male (n = 47) and female (n = 44) elite British Junior tennis players, 8-17 years of age (12.5 ± 1.9 years). Height and body mass were measured and compared to growth charts; hand-wrist radiographs were taken. Skeletal age (SA) was estimated with the Fels method and contrasted to chronological age (CA). Mean height and body mass of individual players ranged between the 50th and 90th centiles for age and sex. Females were advanced in SA relative to CA (0.3-0.89 years.) from 8 years. Males were average to delayed in maturation from 8 to 12 years, but advanced in SA from 14 to 16 years (0.75-1.23 years). Individual differences in growth and maturation appear to contribute towards the selection of elite junior tennis players, with a bias towards males and females who are advanced in maturation and comparatively tall and heavy for their age. This has important implications for talent identification and development. PMID:26930031

  3. Academic Delay of Gratification and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2011-01-01

    The ability to delay gratification is the cornerstone of all academic achievement and education. It is by delaying gratification that learners can pursue long-term academic and career goals. In general, "delay of gratification" refers to an individual's ability to forgo immediate rewards for the sake of more valuable ones later (Mischel, 1996).…

  4. Oral health of elite athletes and association with performance: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, P; Di Iorio, A; Cole, E; Tanday, A; Needleman, I

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to systematically review the epidemiology of oral disease and trauma in the elite athlete population and to investigate the impact of oral health on sporting performance. Methods Authors searched Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to October 2013), Ovid EMBASE (1980 to October 2013), EBSCO SPORTDiscus (up to October 2013) and OpenGrey (http://www.opengrey.eu). No date or language restrictions were applied. Papers were included if they evaluated the oral health of professional athletes. The methodological quality of papers was evaluated using a modification of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results The literature search led to 9858 potentially relevant citations. Following a set of predefined exclusion criteria, 34 studies remained. Twenty-six studies reported on dental trauma, which ranged in prevalence from 14% to 47% varying by sport and country. Sixteen studies considered the oral health of athletes and reported high prevalence of oral diseases: dental caries 15–75%, dental erosion 36–85%, periodontal disease 15%. In four studies, a range between 5% and 18% of athletes reported negative impact of oral health or trauma on performance. The methodological quality of included studies was generally low. Conclusions Within the limits of the review, oral health of athletes is poor. We hypothesise that poor oral health associates with self-reported performance; however, this needs to be tested. Further studies on representative samples of athletes are needed to assess the size of the problem of poor oral health as well as to investigate the possible impact on performance using objective measures of performance. PMID:25388551

  5. Winning the game: brain processes in expert, young elite and amateur table tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Sebastian; Brölz, Ellen; Scholz, David; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Keune, Philipp M.; Hautzinger, Martin; Birbaumer, Niels; Strehl, Ute

    2014-01-01

    This study tested two hypotheses: (1) compared with amateurs and young elite, expert table tennis players are characterized by enhanced cortical activation in the motor and fronto-parietal cortex during motor imagery in response to table tennis videos; (2) in elite athletes, world rank points are associated with stronger cortical activation. To this aim, electroencephalographic data were recorded in 14 expert, 15 amateur and 15 young elite right-handed table tennis players. All subjects watched videos of a serve and imagined themselves responding with a specific table tennis stroke. With reference to a baseline period, power decrease/increase of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) during the pretask- and task period indexed the cortical activation/deactivation (event-related desynchronization/synchronization, ERD/ERS). Regarding hypothesis (1), 8–10 Hz SMR ERD was stronger in elite athletes than in amateurs with an intermediate ERD in young elite athletes in the motor cortex. Regarding hypothesis (2), there was no correlation between ERD/ERS in the motor cortex and world rank points in elite experts, but a weaker ERD in the fronto-parietal cortex was associated with higher world rank points. These results suggest that motor skill in table tennis is associated with focused excitability of the motor cortex during reaction, movement planning and execution with high attentional demands. Among elite experts, less activation of the fronto-parietal attention network may be necessary to become a world champion. PMID:25386126

  6. Academic Inbreeding in Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael H.

    1977-01-01

    Academic inbreeding, the employment for faculty positions of persons who receive their graduate training at the same academic institution, is considered detrimental to an institution's academic environment. Results of a study conducted at 54 universities revealed that almost half the faculty (48 percent) in collegiate nursing programs are drawn…

  7. What Is Academic Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…

  8. The Academic Adviser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I explore the idea that "academic" advisers are "academics" who play a major role in connecting the general education curriculum to the students' experience as well as connecting the faculty to the students' holistic experience of the curriculum. The National Academic Advising Association Concept of Academic…

  9. Library Searching: An Industrial User's Viewpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses library searching of chemical literature from an industrial user's viewpoint, focusing on differences between academic and industrial researcher's searching techniques of the same problem area. Indicates that industry users need more exposure to patents, work with abstracting services and continued improvement in computer searching…

  10. Doping in sport: a review of elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

    2013-06-01

    Doping in sport is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied mainly from a biomedical point of view, even though psychosocial approaches are also key factors in the fight against doping. This phenomenon has evolved greatly in recent years, and greater understanding of it is essential for developing efficient prevention programmes. In the psychosocial approach, attitudes are considered an index of doping behaviour, relating the use of banned substances to greater leniency towards doping. The aim of this review is to gather and critically analyse the most recent publications describing elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport, to better understand the foundations provided by the previous work, and to help develop practical strategies to efficiently combat doping. For this purpose, we performed a literature search using combinations of the terms "doping", "sport", "elite athletes", "attitudes", "beliefs", "knowledge", "drugs", and "performance-enhancing substances" (PES). A total of 33 studies were subjected to comprehensive assessment using articles published between 2000 and 2011. All of the reports focused on elite athletes and described their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport. The initial reasons given for using banned substances included achievement of athletic success by improving performance, financial gain, improving recovery and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, as well as the idea that others use them, or the "false consensus effect". Although most athletes acknowledge that doping is cheating, unhealthy and risky because of sanctions, its effectiveness is also widely recognized. There is a general belief about the inefficacy of anti-doping programmes, and athletes criticise the way tests are carried out. Most athletes consider the severity of punishment is appropriate or not severe enough. There are some differences between sports, as team-based sports and sports requiring motor skills could be less

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    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/cloud.html Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this page, ... Top 110 zoster vaccine Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search cloud ...

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    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/cloud.html Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search cloud ...

  13. An Estimation of Difficulty for Academic Books using Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Yuki; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko

    A collaborate filtering has been generally used as a method which recommends items to customers. However, recommending academic books, it need to consider difficulty of them and individual amount of knowledge as well as user's preference. If the recommendation method considers only user's preference, they might regret after buying or reading recommended book because it won't match user's appropriate level. In this paper, we focus on academic books and propose a method which estimates the difficulty of academic books using user's reviews. Estimating difficulty of books will support users to search and recommend academic books that match user's skill. Moreover, we evaluated applying our method to academic text books about C programming Language. We verified that our method is more effective than traditional methods for academic books.

  14. The Elite: A high speed, low-cost general aviation aircraft for Aeroworld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rueter, Amy; Fay, Jonathan; Staudmeister, Douglas; Avis, Daniel; Le, Tuan; Stem, Steven

    1994-01-01

    The Elite is a six passenger, general aviation aircraft targeted at the upper middle class private pilot. The Elite is a low wing, conventional monoplane utilizing rudder, ailerons, and a stabilator. The Elite will create a new class of aircraft in Aeroworld. This class of aircraft will demonstrate a substantial improvement in cruise speed over the current existing commercial fleet of aircraft in Aeroworld. This new class will be capable of servicing all existing airstrips in Aeroworld, including rough and short airways. The drivers of this design were aesthetics, a high cruise speed, and take-off distance.

  15. Game and Training Load Differences in Elite Junior Australian Football

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Brendan; Cook, Jill; Kidgell, Dawson J.; Gastin, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Game demands and training practices within team sports such as Australian football (AF) have changed considerably over recent decades, including the requirement of coaching staff to effectively control, manipulate and monitor training and competition loads. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the differences in external and internal physical load measures between game and training in elite junior AF. Twenty five male, adolescent players (mean ±SD: age 17.6 ± 0.5 y) recruited from three elite under 18 AF clubs participated. Global positioning system (GPS), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) data were obtained from 32 game files during four games, and 84 training files during 19 training sessions. Matched-pairs statistics along with Cohen’s d effect size and percent difference were used to compare game and training events. Players were exposed to a higher physical load in the game environment, for both external (GPS) and internal (HR, Session-RPE) load parameters, compared to in-season training. Session time (d = 1.23; percent difference = 31.4% (95% confidence intervals = 17.4 – 45.4)), total distance (3.5; 63.5% (17.4 – 45.4)), distance per minute (1.93; 33.0% (25.8 – 40.1)), high speed distance (2.24; 77.3% (60.3 – 94.2)), number of sprints (0.94; 43.6% (18.9 – 68.6)), mean HR (1.83; 14.3% (10.5 – 18.1)), minutes spent above 80% of predicted HRmax (2.65; 103.7% (89.9 – 117.6)) and Session-RPE (1.22; 48.1% (22.1 – 74.1)) were all higher in competition compared to training. While training should not be expected to fully replicate competition, the observed differences suggest that monitoring of physical load in both environments is warranted to allow comparisons and evaluate whether training objectives are being met. Key points Physical loads, including intensity, are typically lower in training compared to competition in junior elite Australian football. Monitoring of player loads in team sports should include both

  16. Neglected lesser tuberosity avulsion in an adolescent elite gymnast

    PubMed Central

    Karavasili, Alexandra; Manolarakis, Manolis; Paxinos, Thrasivoulos; Papavasiliou, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old elite gymnast who presented with recurring pain in the left shoulder after training. The athlete recalled an injury to the shoulder 2 years ago. Clinically a localized tenderness to the anterior shoulder and loss of strength and range of motion was noted. Imaging investigation suggested a neglected lesser tuberosity avulsion. The athlete was treated with open excision of the deformed tuberosity and direct repair of the subscapularis to the humeral head. Following a careful postoperative rehabilitation protocol the athlete was able to return to unrestricted gymnastics after 6 months. After surgery the athlete followed a intense rehabilitation program that allowed him to return to sports at 6 months. At 5-years follow-up, the athlete was asymptomatic and competing at an international level. Avulsion fractures of the lesser tuberosity are extremely rare injuries with significant shoulder disability if left untreated. Anatomic repair can yield excellent results, even in neglected cases.

  17. Making weight: a case study of two elite wrestlers.

    PubMed Central

    Maffulli, N

    1992-01-01

    Two mature elite Sambo wrestlers were studied during a 22-day pre-European Championship period, during which they were to lose weight and maintain their top physical performance characteristics. During this time the athletes underwent intensive training coupled with a hypocaloric diet. Both lost approximately 8% of their initial body weight, while maintaining their pre-weight loss maximum oxygen uptake, anaerobic threshold and maximum isometric strength. These variables therefore increased when expressed relative to the lower body weight. Isometric endurance and short-term sprinting ability, however, were compromised by the weight-loss regimen, decreasing by up to 7% and 13% respectively. Following a well-planned weight-reduction programme coupled with serious training, aerobic power and isometric strength were unaffected and/or improved, but prolonged anaerobic exercise performance was impaired. PMID:1623355

  18. Stress fracture of the rib in an elite oarsman.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, D C

    1989-06-01

    This paper documents an unusual case of a stress fracture of the ninth rib in an elite oarsman. A 25-year-old male presented with a 3-day history of right-sided chest pain aggravated by deep inspiration and movements simulating rowing. The athlete was treated initially as having a soft tissue injury; however, a technetium-99 bone scan confirmed the diagnosis. Routine radiographs of the ribs were negative. The pain and symptoms were confined to the anatomical area of the fracture along the anterolateral portion of the rib where the serratus anterior muscle originates. An analysis of the stroke mechanics involved in rowing implicated the serratus anterior muscle as being a major contributor to the repetitive stress that resulted in the injury. The primary etiological factor was errors in the training program. The athlete responded to simple conservative measures and was able to return to competitive rowing in 1 month's time. PMID:2777439

  19. Accounting for elite indoor 200 m sprint results.

    PubMed

    Usherwood, James R; Wilson, Alan M

    2006-03-22

    Times for indoor 200 m sprint races are notably worse than those for outdoor races. In addition, there is a considerable bias against competitors drawn in inside lanes (with smaller bend radii). Centripetal acceleration requirements increase average forces during sprinting around bends. These increased forces can be modulated by changes in duty factor (the proportion of stride the limb is in contact with the ground). If duty factor is increased to keep limb forces constant, and protraction time and distance travelled during stance are unchanging, bend-running speeds are reduced. Here, we use results from the 2004 Olympics and World Indoor Championships to show quantitatively that the decreased performances in indoor competition, and the bias by lane number, are consistent with this 'constant limb force' hypothesis. Even elite athletes appear constrained by limb forces. PMID:17148323

  20. Making weight: a case study of two elite wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, N

    1992-06-01

    Two mature elite Sambo wrestlers were studied during a 22-day pre-European Championship period, during which they were to lose weight and maintain their top physical performance characteristics. During this time the athletes underwent intensive training coupled with a hypocaloric diet. Both lost approximately 8% of their initial body weight, while maintaining their pre-weight loss maximum oxygen uptake, anaerobic threshold and maximum isometric strength. These variables therefore increased when expressed relative to the lower body weight. Isometric endurance and short-term sprinting ability, however, were compromised by the weight-loss regimen, decreasing by up to 7% and 13% respectively. Following a well-planned weight-reduction programme coupled with serious training, aerobic power and isometric strength were unaffected and/or improved, but prolonged anaerobic exercise performance was impaired. PMID:1623355

  1. The long sitting screening test in elite cyclists.

    PubMed

    Mueller, P; McEvoy, M; Everett, S

    2005-12-01

    Pelvic rotation during cycling is important because it influences aerodynamics, cycling efficiency and the occurrence of overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not pelvic position in long sitting influences pelvic position during cycling. An observational, cross sectional, within-subjects study design was used. Thirty elite international track and road cyclists participated as subjects and two measures were undertaken. In long sitting, a digital inclinometer was positioned on the lumbosacral junction to give a static measure in degrees of sacral inclination (SI) relative to the horizontal. During active cycling, video analysis of reflective surface markers over the anterior superior iliac spine and posterior superior iliac spine was used to give a measure in degrees of anterior pelvic rotation (APR), by the angle between these two landmarks and the horizontal. No significant linear relationship was found between the two testing positions (r = 0.23, p = 0.22). PMID:16602164

  2. Anxiety and performance in elite non-professional athletes.

    PubMed

    Hannon, B; Fitzgerald, P

    2006-09-01

    Anxiety is one of the main motivators with regards to performance of individuals in any given task, including sporting endeavours. Our study sought to assess state anxiety levels in elite non-professional sportsmen, and to investigate if anxiety correlated with sporting performance, the IDA-Q (irritability, depression & anxiety questionnaire) was used to assess 3 mental state variables in an inter-county hurling team as well as a matched non-sporting control group, and performance was judged by completion of a standard task in 2 different settings: a non-pressurised one and a highly pressurised setting. Subjects had significantly higher anxiety scores on the IDA-Q than the controls (p = 0.019). There were no significant differences and controls in the depression and irritability scales. There was a significantly negative correlation between anxiety scores and performance on the IDA-Q; spearman r = -0.57. High anxiety levels impair sporting performance. PMID:17120607

  3. Academic Self-Concept, Autonomous Academic Motivation, and Academic Achievement: Mediating and Additive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guay, Frederic; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Roy, Amelie; Litalien, David

    2010-01-01

    Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between…

  4. Sport Injuries in Elite Paralympic Swimmers With Visual Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marilia Magno e; Bilzon, James; Duarte, Edison; Gorla, Jose; Vital, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Context: Visually impaired athletes sustain overuse injuries in the lower limbs, but the pattern of injuries may vary according to the sport. The characteristics of sports injuries in visually impaired swimmers are unknown. Objective: To determine the characteristics and epidemiologic measures (prevalence, clinical incidence, and incidence rate) of sports injuries in visually impaired elite national swimmers and to assess differences among visual classes and between sexes. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: International Paralympic competitions held between 2004 and 2008. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-eight elite, visually impaired swimmers (19 males, 9 females) from the Brazilian Paralympic Team participated in this study. Twelve were visual class S11 (blind swimmers), 12 were S12 (low-vision swimmers), and 4 were S13 (low-vision swimmers). Intervention(s): A standardized report form was used to collect data during 5 competitions. This was endorsed by 2 Brazilian sports governing bodies. Main Outcome Measures: The characteristics, prevalence, clinical incidence, and incidence rate of injuries were calculated. Results: Eighteen athletes reported 41 sports injuries, with a prevalence of 64%, clinical incidence of 1.5 injuries per athlete, and an incidence rate of 0.3 injuries per athlete per competition. Overuse injuries (80%) were more frequent than traumatic injuries (20%). The clinical incidence and prevalence varied according to sex and visual class, but no statistical differences were observed (P > .05). The highest proportion of injuries was in the trunk (46.34%), followed by the upper limbs (34.15%). The shoulders (29.27%) were most affected, followed by the thoracic (21.95%) and lumbar spine (17.07%). Spasm (36.59%) was the most frequent diagnosis, followed by tendinopathy (26.83%). Conclusions: Visually impaired swimmers had a relatively high proportion of overuse injuries, predominantly associated with muscle spasm in the spine and

  5. Anthropometric Profiling of New Zealand Junior Elite Triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Bhargav; Dave, Asmi; Kotecha, Nilesh; Oates, Myrtle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The triathlon involves a combination of three separate disciplines-swimming, cycling and running. To date, very few studies have been conducted on the anthropometric characteristics of the New Zealand junior elite triathletes. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between physical traits of calf girth or sum of eight skinfolds (anthropometry) and running or cycling performances in the triathlon event. Methods Eleven junior elite triathletes (6 females, 5 males; (Av. age: 17) who were selected for the New Zealand national squad, were examined in this cross-sectional study. All athletes were measured for the complete anthropometric profile, as per the International Society for Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) guidelines. It was then correlated with the cycling and running performances using interclass correlation (ICC) with 90% confidence interval (CI) limits. Results A non-significant positive correlation observed between eight skinfolds tests on running performance (ICC: 0.10; 90% CI: −0.68–0.77; p>0.05) and biking performance (ICC: 0.15; 90% CI: −0.65–0.79; p>0.05), suggested athletes with greater body fat may render a better athletic performance. Conversely, a significant negative correlation was observed between calf girth and running performance (ICC:−0.66; 90% CI: −0.94 – −0.12; p<0.05) and a non-significant negative correlation was observed between calf girth and cycling performance (ICC:−0.94; 90% CI: −0.97– 0.68; p>0.05). Conclusion Anthropometric data can help in predicting an ideal body profile. This research indicates the similarities and differences of the New Zealand junior profile and the world junior profile. PMID:27504176

  6. Sport-specific influences on respiratory patterns in elite athletes

    PubMed Central

    Durmic, Tijana; Lazovic, Biljana; Djelic, Marina; Lazic, Jelena Suzic; Zikic, Dejan; Zugic, Vladimir; Dekleva, Milica; Mazic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in lung function among sports that are of a similar nature and to determine which anthropometric/demographic characteristics correlate with lung volumes and flows. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving elite male athletes (N = 150; mean age, 21 ± 4 years) engaging in one of four different sports, classified according to the type and intensity of exercise involved. All athletes underwent full anthropometric assessment and pulmonary function testing (spirometry). RESULTS: Across all age groups and sport types, the elite athletes showed spirometric values that were significantly higher than the reference values. We found that the values for FVC, FEV1, vital capacity, and maximal voluntary ventilation were higher in water polo players than in players of the other sports evaluated (p < 0.001). In addition, PEF was significantly higher in basketball players than in handball players (p < 0.001). Most anthropometric/demographic parameters correlated significantly with the spirometric parameters evaluated. We found that BMI correlated positively with all of the spirometric parameters evaluated (p < 0.001), the strongest of those correlations being between BMI and maximal voluntary ventilation (r = 0.46; p < 0.001). Conversely, the percentage of body fat correlated negatively with all of the spirometric parameters evaluated, correlating most significantly with FEV1 (r = −0.386; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the type of sport played has a significant impact on the physiological adaptation of the respiratory system. That knowledge is particularly important when athletes present with respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea, cough, and wheezing. Because sports medicine physicians use predicted (reference) values for spirometric parameters, the risk that the severity of restrictive disease or airway obstruction will be underestimated might be greater for athletes. PMID:26785960

  7. Asthma and other pulmonary diseases in former elite athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Kujala, U. M.; Sarna, S.; Kaprio, J.; Koskenvuo, M.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of asthma is rising and there are recent reports of increasing asthma rates among top level skiers and runners in the Nordic countries. METHODS: The lifetime occurrence of pulmonary diseases (asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema) and current bronchitis symptoms was compared in former elite male athletes (n = 1282) who represented Finland between 1920 and 1965 at least once in international competitions and controls (n = 777) who, at the age of 20, were classified as healthy and who responded to a questionnaire in 1985. The presence of disease and symptoms was identified from the questionnaire and, in the case of asthma, also from a nationwide reimbursable medication register. The death certificates of the subjects of our original cohort who died between 1936 and 1985 were also investigated to determine the cause of death. RESULTS: The occurrence of the pulmonary diseases was associated with age, smoking habits, occupational group, and a history of exposure to chemicals. After adjusting for these variables, athletes who participated in mixed sports (odds ratio (OR) 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23 to 0.92) and power sports (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.87) had lower odds ratios for emphysema, and endurance sports athletes had a lower odds ratio for the presence of at least one pulmonary disease (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.98) when compared with controls. Athletes also tended to have fewer reimbursable medications for asthma and fewer current symptoms for chronic bronchitis. Between 1936 and 1985 two controls but none of the athletes died of asthma. CONCLUSIONS: The lifetime occurrence of asthma or other pulmonary diseases is not increased in former elite athletes, and exercise alone, even in a cold environment, did not appear to increase the prevalence of asthma, at least up to the mid 1980s. PMID:8779133

  8. Aerobic power and peak power of elite America's Cup sailors.

    PubMed

    Neville, Vernon; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2009-05-01

    Big-boat yacht racing is one of the only able bodied sporting activities where standing arm-cranking ('grinding') is the primary physical activity. However, the physiological capabilities of elite sailors for standing arm-cranking have been largely unreported. The purpose of the study was to assess aerobic parameters, VO(2peak) and onset of blood lactate (OBLA), and anaerobic performance, torque-crank velocity and power-crank velocity relationships and therefore peak power (P (max)) and optimum crank-velocity (omega(opt)), of America's Cup sailors during standing arm-cranking. Thirty-three elite professional sailors performed a step test to exhaustion, and a subset of ten grinders performed maximal 7 s isokinetic sprints at different crank velocities, using a standing arm-crank ergometer. VO(2peak) was 4.7 +/- 0.5 L/min (range 3.6-5.5 L/min) at a power output of 332 +/- 44 W (range 235-425 W). OBLA occurred at a power output of 202 +/- 31 W (61% of W(max)) and VO(2) of 3.3 +/- 0.4 L/min (71% of VO(2peak)). The torque-crank velocity relationship was linear for all participants (r = 0.9 +/- 0.1). P (max) was 1,420 +/- 37 W (range 1,192-1,617 W), and omega(opt) was 125 +/- 6 rpm. These data are among the highest upper-body anaerobic and aerobic power values reported. The unique nature of these athletes, with their high fat-free mass and specific selection and training for standing arm cranking, likely accounts for the high values. The influence of crank velocity on peak power implies that power production during on-board 'grinding' may be optimised through the use of appropriate gear-ratios and the development of efficient gear change mechanisms. PMID:19234715

  9. Osteitis pubis in elite athletes: Diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Angoules, Antonios G

    2015-10-18

    Osteitis pubis (OP) is a debilitating overuse syndrome characterizing by pelvic pain and local tenderness over the pubic symphysis commonly encountered in athletes often involved in kicking, twisting and cutting activities in sports such as soccer and rugby and to a lesser degree distance running. It is a common source of groin pain in elite athletes attributable to pubis sympysis instability as the result of microtrauma caused by repetitive muscle strains on pubic bones. Diagnosis is based mainly on detailed sports history and a meticulous clinical examination, although occasionally is difficult to distinguish this nosological entity from other pathologies affecting the involved area which may occur concomitantly in the same patient. Radiologic examinations such as plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging and 3 phase bone isotope scanning may be helpful to differentiate from other clinical entities with similar clinical presentation. Most cases respond well to conservative treatment which includes several physical modalities and especially a progressive rehabilitation programmed individualized to each one of patients diagnosed with OP. Local injection therapies have been also been proposed as a non-operative therapeutic option for the efficient management of these patients. In refractory cases, surgical therapeutic strategies are warranted. These include several open or minimally invasive surgical interventions such as arthroscopic or open symphysis curettage, wedge or total resection of pubic sympysis, polypropylene mesh placement and pubic fusion. In this review a critical analysis of OP in elite athletes is performed with special focus on current concepts of diagnosis and management of this source of athletic groin pain. PMID:26495244

  10. Anthropometric Characteristics and Physical Performance of Colombian Elite Male Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Velez, Robinson; Argothyd, Rodrigo; Meneses-Echavez, Jose Francisco; Beatriz Sanchez-Puccini, Maria; Lopez-Alban, Carlos Alejandro; Cohen, Daniel Dylan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Wrestling was an important part of the ancient Olympic Games and is still one of the most popular events of the modern Olympic Games. Studies indicate that general physiologic profile of successful wrestlers is high anaerobic power and capacity, muscular strength, above average aerobic power, exceptional flexibility, fat free mass, and a mesomorphic somatotype. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics and physical performance of elite male wrestlers. Patients and Methods: The Colombian Wrestling Team was evaluated while in preparation for the Olympic Games (n = 21; age, 27.9 ± 6.7 years). Athletes were tested on anthropometric and fitness parameters: body composition, somatotype distribution according to Heath-Carter, aerobic capacity, vertical jump, and anaerobic power. Results: The evaluations showed a mean body fat percentage of 13.6% ± 3.0% (95% CI, 12.2%-15%), muscle mass of 46.4% ± 2.2% (95% CI, 45.4%-47.4%), Ponderal index of 41.0 ± 1.8 (95% CI, 40.2-41.8), body adiposity index (BAI) 25.1 ± 3.6 (95% CI, 23.5-26.8), and somatotype distribution mesomorphic-ectomorph (5.3-1.6-3.8). Mean aerobic capacity was 45.9 ± 6.6 mL/kg/min (95% CI, 42.8-48.9), vertical jump was 36.4 ± 6.6 cm (95% CI, 11.8-16.6), and anaerobic power was 92.6 ± 19.5 kg/s (95% CI, 83.7-101.5). Conclusions: These results provided a profile of elite wrestlers that could be used as training targets for developing athletes. The results may also provide information for training and tactical planning. PMID:25741411

  11. Quiet Eye Training Facilitates Competitive Putting Performance in Elite Golfers

    PubMed Central

    Vine, Samuel J.; Moore, Lee J.; Wilson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a brief quiet eye (QE) training intervention aimed at optimizing visuomotor control and putting performance of elite golfers under pressure, and in real competition. Twenty-two elite golfers (mean handicap 2.7) recorded putting statistics over 10 rounds of competitive golf before attending training individually. Having been randomly assigned to either a QE training or Control group, participants were fitted with an Applied Science Laboratories Mobile Eye tracker and performed 20 baseline (pre-test) putts from 10 ft. Training consisted of video feedback of their gaze behavior while they completed 20 putts; however the QE-trained group received additional instructions related to maintaining a longer QE period. Participants then recorded their putting statistics over a further 10 competitive rounds and re-visited the laboratory for retention and pressure tests of their visuomotor control and putting performance. Overall, the results were supportive of the efficacy of the QE training intervention. QE duration predicted 43% of the variance in putting performance, underlying its critical role in the visuomotor control of putting. The QE-trained group maintained their optimal QE under pressure conditions, whereas the Control group experienced reductions in QE when anxious, with subsequent effects on performance. Although their performance was similar in the pre-test, the QE-trained group holed more putts and left the ball closer to the hole on missed putts than their Control group counterparts in the pressure test. Importantly, these advantages transferred to the golf course, where QE-trained golfers made 1.9 fewer putts per round, compared to pre-training, whereas the Control group showed no change in their putting statistics. These results reveal that QE training, incorporated into a pre-shot routine, is an effective intervention to help golfers maintain control when anxious. PMID:21713182

  12. Osteitis pubis in elite athletes: Diagnostic and therapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    Angoules, Antonios G

    2015-01-01

    Osteitis pubis (OP) is a debilitating overuse syndrome characterizing by pelvic pain and local tenderness over the pubic symphysis commonly encountered in athletes often involved in kicking, twisting and cutting activities in sports such as soccer and rugby and to a lesser degree distance running. It is a common source of groin pain in elite athletes attributable to pubis sympysis instability as the result of microtrauma caused by repetitive muscle strains on pubic bones. Diagnosis is based mainly on detailed sports history and a meticulous clinical examination, although occasionally is difficult to distinguish this nosological entity from other pathologies affecting the involved area which may occur concomitantly in the same patient. Radiologic examinations such as plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging and 3 phase bone isotope scanning may be helpful to differentiate from other clinical entities with similar clinical presentation. Most cases respond well to conservative treatment which includes several physical modalities and especially a progressive rehabilitation programmed individualized to each one of patients diagnosed with OP. Local injection therapies have been also been proposed as a non-operative therapeutic option for the efficient management of these patients. In refractory cases, surgical therapeutic strategies are warranted. These include several open or minimally invasive surgical interventions such as arthroscopic or open symphysis curettage, wedge or total resection of pubic sympysis, polypropylene mesh placement and pubic fusion. In this review a critical analysis of OP in elite athletes is performed with special focus on current concepts of diagnosis and management of this source of athletic groin pain. PMID:26495244

  13. Perceived parenting styles differ between genders but not between elite athletes and controls.

    PubMed

    Brand, Serge; Gerber, Markus; Beck, Johannes; Kalak, Nadeem; Hatzinger, Martin; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2011-01-01

    For adolescent elite athletes, parental financial and emotional support is crucial. However, parents of elite athletes may be critical and demanding. Moreover, there is evidence that girls report more favorable perceived parenting styles compared with boys. The aim of the present study was to investigate perceived parenting styles among female and male adolescent elite athletes and controls. We sampled 258 adolescent elite athletes (139 females, 119 males) and 176 controls (139 females, 37 males). Participants completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parenting styles (support, commendation, reproach, restriction, inconsistency). Results showed that parenting styles did not differ between athletes and controls, except for restriction, for which athletes reported lower levels. Female adolescents had higher scores for positive and lower scores for negative perceived parenting styles. PMID:24600271

  14. American Mass Media and the Myth of Libertarianism: Toward an "Elite Power Group" Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhavan-Majid, Roya; Wolf, Gary

    1991-01-01

    Presents evidence of the demise of Libertarianism in the U.S. mass media system and proposes an "elite power group" model as an alternative explanation of the working of the mass media in the United States. (MG)

  15. Postdilatation ballooning of an Edwards ELITE rapid deployment bioprosthesis for a severe paravalvular leak.

    PubMed

    Gennari, Marco; Trabattoni, Piero; Polvani, Gianluca; Agrifoglio, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Severe paravalvular leak may be observed following rapid deployment aortic valve implantation. We report an open off-label use of postdilatation ballooning of an Edwards Intuity ELITE aortic prosthesis to manage an intraoperative paravalvular leak. PMID:27346033

  16. Physiological Changes in Elite Male Distance Runners Training for Olympic Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, D. E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Nine elite male distance runners were evaluated by comprehensive periodic monitoring of selected blood chemistry variables, percent body fat and lean body mass, and cardiopulmonary performance as they prepared for the 1984 Olympic Summer Games. Results are discussed. (MT)

  17. Review of Sports Performance Research with Youth, Collegiate, and Elite Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.; Woods, Kathryn E.; Reed, Derek D.

    2011-01-01

    This brief review summarizes translational and intervention research in the area of sports performance. We describe studies with youth, collegiate, and elite athletes; identify recent trends; and propose recommendations for future research.

  18. A Comparison of Computer-Based Bibliographic Database Searching vs. Manual Bibliographic Searching. Final CARE Grant Report #5964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Eileen E.; Rockman, Ilene F.

    The purpose of this study was to improve upon previous research investigations by analyzing the elements of cost effectiveness, precision, recall, citation overlap, and hours searching in a comparison between computerized database searching and manual searching, using the setting of an academic library environment with a diverse group of students…

  19. The Experience of Depression during the Careers of Elite Male Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Steve; Hannigan, Barbara; Campbell, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The topic of depression during the career of elite male athletes has been the subject of much public interest and attention in recent years. Despite numerous debates and personal disclosures within the media, there is a dearth of published research directly exploring the phenomenon. This study sought to explore how elite male athletes experience depression during their sporting careers. Eight former/current elite male athletes who had previously publically self-identified as having experienced depression while participating in sport were recruited for this study. A qualitative methodology was employed and each participant was interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Data analysis which was conducted using descriptive and interpretive thematic analysis uncovered three domains: (1) The emergence of depression, (2) The manifestation of symptoms of depression, and (3) Adaptive and Maladaptive proceesses of recovery. Findings from the current study reveal the nature of how male athletes experience, express, and respond to depression during their careers. Additionally, this is influenced by a myriad of factors embedded in the masculine elite sport environment. Implications are discussed particularly in relation to atypical expressions of depression not necessarily reflected on or in standard diagnostic criteria. Future research is encouraged to examine in depth moderating factors (e.g., athletic sense of identity and masculine elite sport environments) for the relationship between depression and participation in elite sport. PMID:27486418

  20. The Experience of Depression during the Careers of Elite Male Athletes.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Steve; Hannigan, Barbara; Campbell, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    The topic of depression during the career of elite male athletes has been the subject of much public interest and attention in recent years. Despite numerous debates and personal disclosures within the media, there is a dearth of published research directly exploring the phenomenon. This study sought to explore how elite male athletes experience depression during their sporting careers. Eight former/current elite male athletes who had previously publically self-identified as having experienced depression while participating in sport were recruited for this study. A qualitative methodology was employed and each participant was interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Data analysis which was conducted using descriptive and interpretive thematic analysis uncovered three domains: (1) The emergence of depression, (2) The manifestation of symptoms of depression, and (3) Adaptive and Maladaptive proceesses of recovery. Findings from the current study reveal the nature of how male athletes experience, express, and respond to depression during their careers. Additionally, this is influenced by a myriad of factors embedded in the masculine elite sport environment. Implications are discussed particularly in relation to atypical expressions of depression not necessarily reflected on or in standard diagnostic criteria. Future research is encouraged to examine in depth moderating factors (e.g., athletic sense of identity and masculine elite sport environments) for the relationship between depression and participation in elite sport. PMID:27486418

  1. Study on Human Recognition by Ear Image Based on Genetic Local Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Tsurusawa, Hidenobu; Yuizono, Takaya; Sato, Kiminori; Nakayama, Shigeru

    An individual recognition system using the genetic local search with respect to ear images has been examined. We generated a set of individuals which are ramdomly selected from the ear images consisted of 50 registrants, and carried out genetic operations to the set of the individuals in order to lead to new generation. The local search is applied to some top elites with the best fitnesses in the new generation. The best fitness is searched between some positions selected near the elite position. Individual recognition experiment using the ear image with the uncertain data was carried out in respect of the method. As the result, it is noted that the registrant recognition rate was 100 percent, and it became 100 percent, at the un-registrant denial rate.

  2. The Academic Structure in Japan: Institutional Hierarchy and Academic Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arimoto, Akira

    The characteristics of the Japanese academic structure are examined with attention to the evolution of institutional hierarchy, the closed academic structure, and the effects of the academic structure upon academic research. The evolution of Japan's institutional hierarchy in academics has been tightly related to factors of nationalism,…

  3. Partnerships with Academic Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes how professional and continuing higher education units can develop and sustain successful partnerships with academic departments in order to deliver educational programs effectively to students.

  4. Ethics and academic integrity.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2015-01-01

    Academics from across the globe must navigate ever-increasing demands for research, practice, and educational productivity. With the increased demands, nurse faculty must choose value priorities and actions that reflect academic integrity. What does it mean to choose actions that reflect personal integrity in the academic arena? This article begins an important nursing philosophical and theoretical discussion that members and future members of the discipline of nursing must reflect upon and grapple with as they consider what it potentially means to act with straight thinking and integrity in academics. PMID:25520458

  5. Physical and physiological demands of elite team handball.

    PubMed

    Póvoas, Susana C A; Seabra, André F T; Ascensão, António A M R; Magalhães, José; Soares, José M C; Rebelo, António N C

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to analyze elite team handball physical and physiological demands during match play. Time-motion (N = 30) and heart rate (HR; N = 60) analyses were performed throughout 10 official matches. The defined locomotor categories were standing still, walking, jogging, fast running, sprinting, backwards movement, sideways medium-intensity movement, and sideways high-intensity movement, and playing actions studied were jumps, shots, stops when preceded by high-intensity activities, changes of direction and one-on-one situations. During matches, the mean distances covered were 4,370 ± 702.0 m. Around 80% of the total time was spent standing still (43.0 ± 9.27%) and walking (35.0 ± 6.94%) and only 0.4 ± 0.31% with sprinting. The most frequent high-intensity actions were stops, changes of direction, and one-on-one situations. Effective mean HR was 157 ± 18.0 b·min(-1) (82 ± 9.3% of HRmax), and total HR was 139 ± 31.9 b·min(-1) (72 ± 16.7% of HRmax). The HR, time spent in high-intensity activities, frequency of stops, changes of direction, one-on-one situations, and most intense periods of the game were higher during the first half than during the second half (p ≤ 0.05). The opposite was observed for the number of time outs and the time between each change of activity (p = 0.00). Handball is an intermittent exercise that primarily uses aerobic metabolism, interspersed by high-intensity actions that greatly tax anaerobic metabolism. Additionally, exercise intensity decreases from the first to the second half of the match, suggesting that neuromuscular fatigue may occur during the game. The training of elite handball players should comprise exercises targeting the ability to perform specific high-intensity actions throughout the game and to rapidly recover during the less intense periods. PMID:22222325

  6. Analysis of fatigue development during elite male handball matches.

    PubMed

    Póvoas, Susana C A; Ascensão, António A M R; Magalhães, José; Seabra, André F T; Krustrup, Peter; Soares, José M C; Rebelo, António N C

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at describing the physiological demands and fatigue development during elite male handball matches. Our hypothesis was that players perform multiple high-intensity activities during periods of the game and develop temporary and end-match neuromuscular fatigue. Time-motion analyses and heart rate (HR) recordings were performed in 40 players during 12 competitive matches. Blood samples were collected, and sprint, jump, and intermittent exercise performance (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 test [YYIE2]) was assessed for 18 players at baseline conditions and after 2 competitive matches, and additional blood sampling and testing were performed for 12 of these players during a friendly match. The time spent with high-intensity running (4.4 ± 2.0 to 3.1 ± 1.7%), the frequency of demanding actions (61 ± 5 to 54 ± 6), and the time with HR above 80% HRmax (62 ± 21 to 41 ± 17%) were lowered from the first to the second half. Average blood lactate during the match was 3.6 ± 2.1 (1.3-8.6) mM. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA), glycerol, glucose, and uric acid increased (p ≤ 0.05) during the first half and plasma FFA and glycerol increased further (p ≤ 0.05) during the second half. After an intense period in the second half, sprint performance was decreased by 3.9 ± 4.9%. After the match, YYIE2 (33.4 ± 8.7%), vertical jump (7.4 ± 6.5%), and 20-m sprint performance (1.6 ± 2.6%) was lower (p ≤ 0.05) than at baseline. This study showed that the intensity is high in certain periods during elite male handball games and that physical performance is impaired both temporarily during and toward the end of games confirming our hypothesis. These findings enables physical trainers and coaches to plan and design proper game-specific training exercises aiming at delaying both temporary and end-game fatigue and strengthen the physiological rationale for the need for substitutions in various stages of match-play. PMID:24552799

  7. Isokinetic leg strength and power in elite handball players.

    PubMed

    González-Ravé, José M; Juárez, Daniel; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A; Clemente-Suarez, Vicente J; Martinez-Valencia, María A; Abian-Vicen, Javier

    2014-06-28

    Isokinetic strength evaluation of the knee flexion and extension in concentric mode of contraction is an important part of the comprehensive evaluation of athletes. The aims of this study were to evaluate the isokinetic knee peak torque in both the extension and flexion movement in the dominant and non-dominant leg, and the relationship with jumping performance. Twelve elite male handball players from the top Spanish handball division voluntary participated in the study (age 27.68 ± 4.12 years; body mass 92.89 ± 12.34 kg; body height 1.90 ± 0.05 m). The knee extensor and flexor muscle peak torque of each leg were concentrically measured at 60º/s and 180º/s with an isokinetic dynamometer. The Squat Jump and Countermovement Jump were performed on a force platform to determine power and vertical jump height. Non-significant differences were observed between legs in the isokinetic knee extension (dominant= 2.91 ± 0.53 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 2.70 ± 0.47 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.90 ± 0.31 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.83 ± 0.29 Nm/kg at 180º/s) and flexion peak torques (dominant = 1.76 ± 0.29 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.72 ± 0.39 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.30 ± 0.23 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.27 ± 0.35 Nm/kg at 180º/s). Low and non-significant correlation coefficients were found between the isokinetic peak torques and vertical jumping performance (SJ = 31.21 ± 4.32 cm; CMJ = 35.89 ± 4.20 cm). Similar isokinetic strength was observed between the legs; therefore, no relationship was found between the isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torques as well as vertical jumping performance in elite handball players. PMID:25114749

  8. Isokinetic Leg Strength and Power in Elite Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    González-Ravé, José M.; Juárez, Daniel; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A.; Clemente-Suarez, Vicente J; Martinez-Valencia, María A; Abian-Vicen, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Isokinetic strength evaluation of the knee flexion and extension in concentric mode of contraction is an important part of the comprehensive evaluation of athletes. The aims of this study were to evaluate the isokinetic knee peak torque in both the extension and flexion movement in the dominant and non-dominant leg, and the relationship with jumping performance. Twelve elite male handball players from the top Spanish handball division voluntary participated in the study (age 27.68 ± 4.12 years; body mass 92.89 ± 12.34 kg; body height 1.90 ± 0.05 m). The knee extensor and flexor muscle peak torque of each leg were concentrically measured at 60º/s and 180º/s with an isokinetic dynamometer. The Squat Jump and Countermovement Jump were performed on a force platform to determine power and vertical jump height. Non-significant differences were observed between legs in the isokinetic knee extension (dominant= 2.91 ± 0.53 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 2.70 ± 0.47 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.90 ± 0.31 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.83 ± 0.29 Nm/kg at 180º/s) and flexion peak torques (dominant = 1.76 ± 0.29 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.72 ± 0.39 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.30 ± 0.23 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.27 ± 0.35 Nm/kg at 180º/s). Low and non-significant correlation coefficients were found between the isokinetic peak torques and vertical jumping performance (SJ = 31.21 ± 4.32 cm; CMJ = 35.89 ± 4.20 cm). Similar isokinetic strength was observed between the legs; therefore, no relationship was found between the isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torques as well as vertical jumping performance in elite handball players. PMID:25114749

  9. California Redefines Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trow, Martin A.

    2003-01-01

    In the spring of 2003, University of California President Richard Atkinson forwarded to the U.C. Academic Senate a proposed revision of the existing regulation bearing on how university teachers should treat contentious and disputed issues, both political and academic, in their classrooms. The existing regulation on this matter, APM-010, had been…

  10. Understanding Academic Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on the psychological theories of self-efficacy and the self-concept to understand students' self-confidence in academic study in higher education as measured by the Academic Behavioural Confidence scale (ABC). In doing this, expectancy-value theory and self-efficacy theory are considered and contrasted with self-concept and…

  11. The Academic Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chickering, Arthur W.

    This report shows the results of a questionnaire on academic experiences, administered to students at four different colleges. Included in the term "academic experiences" are such factors as mental activities in class and in studying for class, the role of the teacher, motivation for studying, feelings about courses, and patterns of work. Two main…

  12. Marketing Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  13. Patterns of Academic Procrastination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Victor; Mensink, David; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Uses the Academic Procrastination Questionnaire to measure procrastination and six possible patterns underlying it among undergraduate students. Finds that the most common patterns for clients involved Evaluation Anxiety or being Discouraged/Depressed, or Dependent. Supports individualized assessment and solutions for academic procrastination. (SC)

  14. The Academic Dean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Lee H.

    1981-01-01

    The role of the academic dean, role conflicts, and the occupational experiences and performance of deans are considered. Role conflict for academic deans is related to clashing constituencies, role ambiguity, lack of correspondence between organization requirements and the personalities of incumbent deans, changing organizational needs over time,…

  15. The Academic Generation Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronzek, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The current generation gap in academia is different--fundamentally shaped by the structural problems of academic employment. The job market has especially exacerbated tensions between senior and junior faculty by ratcheting up expectations and requirements at every stage of the academic career. The disparities have been mentioned often enough to…

  16. Academic Libraries in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deale, H. Vail

    1973-01-01

    Iranian librarianship is in the embryonic stages of development, especially with respect to modern and functional academic libraries. In three major areas--personnel, resources, and physical facilities--the academic libraries are deficient compared with Western standards. (16 references) (Author)

  17. Understanding Academic Misconduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Julia M. Christensen; McCabe, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    Research suggests that the majority of U.S. undergraduate students have engaged in some form of misconduct while completing their academic work, despite knowing that such behaviour is ethically or morally wrong. U.S.-based studies have also identified myriad personal and institutional factors associated with academic misconduct. Implicit in some…

  18. Academic Freedom Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the author's enduring concerns about the concept of academic freedom is with semantics. It has seemed to him that one of the biggest difficulties with discussions of academic freedom (as with many conversations about "value-laden" terms such as "democracy," "equity," and "justice") is that people begin from different positions and with…

  19. Gender and Academic Integrity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendershott, Anne; Drinan, Patrick F.; Cross, Megan

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the academic integrity climate of a mid-sized, comprehensive, private university. Seeks to assess gender differences in motivations surrounding cheating behaviors among 532 undergraduate students. Findings indicate that while both males and females are reluctant to report instances of academic dishonesty that they witness, there…

  20. Academic and Vocational Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villeneuve, Phyllis, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This manual describes pilot projects designed to explore and support academic vocational integration. In conjunction with the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, FACTC (Faculty Association of Community and Technical Colleges) sponsored an array of pilot projects during the fall of 1995. Vocational and academic faculty from…

  1. Academic Freedom and Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a personal history of the author's own relationships with the concept of academic freedom. The article is subdivided into 3 prehistories, 7 incidents, 3 disjunctions, and 3 myths. The author discusses the complications of politics, culture, and academic freedom in one career.

  2. Academic Researchers Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergom, Inger; Waltman, Jean; August, Louise; Hollenshead, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Non-tenure-track (NTT) research faculty are perhaps the most under-recognized group of academic professionals on the campuses today, despite their increasingly important role within the expanding academic research enterprise. The American Association for the Advancement of Science reports that the amount of federal spending on R&D has more than…

  3. Reconceptualizing Academic Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vantine, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, more and more independent schools have established academic support programs and learning centers to address their students' individual learning needs. Perhaps not surprisingly, as the number of students being evaluated has increased, even more families have requested academic accommodations and services for their children.…

  4. Arbitration in Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Questions and issues critical to an understanding of arbitration in higher education are discussed. Aspects of the academic arbitration model are defined. The following four topics are examined: (1) the procedural similarities and differences between academic arbitration and the industrial model; (2) the possible inherent conflict between academic…

  5. Thinking Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis

    2016-01-01

    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  6. Recalibrating Academic Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yancey, George

    2012-01-01

    Whether political and/or religious academic bias exists is a question with important ramifications for the educational institutions. Those arguing for the presence of such bias contend that political conservatives and the highly religious in academia are marginalized and face discrimination. The question of academic bias tends to be cast in a…

  7. Confidential Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Linda Chion

    2003-01-01

    Will the stealth superintendent hunt in Cincinnati become tomorrow's standard approach? Search consultants and superintendents offer their views on how far confidentiality should go. Also includes a search firm's process for shielding identities and a confidentiality pledge. (MLF)

  8. Savvy Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacso, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Explains desktop metasearch engines, which search the databases of several search engines simultaneously. Reviews two particular versions, the Copernic 2001 Pro and the BullsEye Pro 3, comparing costs, subject categories, display capabilities, and layout for presenting results. (LRW)

  9. From I-Search to iSearch 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvey, Tara L.; Phillips, Nathan C.; Bigelow, Emily C.; Smith, Blaine E.; Pfaff, Erin; Colt, Walt; Leander, Kevin M.; Dalton, Bridget; Ma, Jasmine Y.

    2011-01-01

    This classroom narrative proposes a process for reinventing academic research and writing in secondary schools for the 21st Century. We build on Macrorie's (1988) I-Search paper, drawing on affordances of Web 2.0 technologies and culture, to initiate the iSearch 2.0 process. iSearch 2.0 consists of four phases: 1) messing about and trying on…

  10. Web Search Studies: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Web Search Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Michael

    Perhaps the most significant tool of our internet age is the web search engine, providing a powerful interface for accessing the vast amount of information available on the world wide web and beyond. While still in its infancy compared to the knowledge tools that precede it - such as the dictionary or encyclopedia - the impact of web search engines on society and culture has already received considerable attention from a variety of academic disciplines and perspectives. This article aims to organize a meta-discipline of “web search studies,” centered around a nucleus of major research on web search engines from five key perspectives: technical foundations and evaluations; transaction log analyses; user studies; political, ethical, and cultural critiques; and legal and policy analyses.

  11. Suspicionless Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    In a federal case involving a vice-principal's pat-down search of middle-school students in a cafeteria (for a missing pizza knife), the court upheld the search, saying it was relatively unintrusive and met "TLO's" reasonable-suspicion standards. Principals need reasonable justification for searching a group. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)

  12. Dewey Searches!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity for young children that helps them conduct subject searches using an automated system that allows customization of access to a library's collection. Explains a timed game that makes use of subject searching and word searching on the topic of dinosaurs. (LRW)

  13. Analytical Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses analytical searching, a process that enables searchers of electronic resources to develop a planned strategy by combining words or phrases with Boolean operators. Defines simple and complex searching, and describes search strategies developed with Boolean logic and truncation. Provides guidelines for teaching students analytical…

  14. Partition search

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    We introduce a new form of game search called partition search that incorporates dependency analysis, allowing substantial reductions in the portion of the tree that needs to be expanded. Both theoretical results and experimental data are presented. For the game of bridge, partition search provides approximately as much of an improvement over existing methods as {alpha}-{beta} pruning provides over minimax.

  15. Injuries and overuse syndromes in competitive and elite bodybuilding.

    PubMed

    Siewe, J; Marx, G; Knöll, P; Eysel, P; Zarghooni, K; Graf, M; Herren, C; Sobottke, R; Michael, J

    2014-10-01

    Competitive bodybuilding is a weightlifting sport similar to powerlifting, strongman competition and Olympic weightlifting, which aims to increase muscle mass, symmetry, and body definition. Although data regarding rates of injury, overuse syndromes and pain during routine training is available for these other disciplines, it is rare for competitive bodybuilding. The aim of this study was to investigate rates of injury, pain during workouts and/or overuse syndromes, as well as the influence of particular intrinsic and external factors. Data was collected using questionnaires from 71 competitive and elite bodybuilders. The information included training routines and prior injuries. Participants were recruited from bodybuilding clubs in Germany. 45.1% of athletes reported symptoms while training. The overall injury rate was computed to be 0.12 injuries per bodybuilder per year (0.24 injuries per 1 000 h of bodybuilding). Athletes over 40 exhibited higher rates of injury (p=0.029). Other investigated parameters showed no effects. Most injuries occurred in the shoulder, elbow, lumbar spine and knee regions. A large proportion of bodybuilders complained of pain not resulting in interruptions of training/competition. The injury rate is low compared to other weightlifting disciplines such as powerlifting, Olympic weightlifting or strongman competition. In comparison to team or contact sports the injury rate is minimal. PMID:24886919

  16. Performance analysis of elite men's and women's wheelchair basketball teams.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Javier; Molik, Bartosz; Szyman, Robert J; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify which game-related statistics discriminate winning and losing teams in men's and women's elite wheelchair basketball. The sample comprised all the games played during the Beijing Paralympics 2008 and the World Wheelchair Basketball Championship 2010. The game-related statistics from the official box scores were gathered and data were analysed in 2 groups: balanced games (final score differences ≤ 12 points) and unbalanced games (final score differences >13 points). Discriminant analysis allowed identifying the successful 2-point field-goals and free-throws, the unsuccessful 3-point field-goals and free-throws, the assists and fouls received as discriminant statistics between winning and losing teams in men's balanced games. In women's games, the teams were discriminated only by the successful 2-point field-goals. Linear regression analysis showed that the quality of opposition had great effects in final point differential. The field-goals percentage and free-throws rate were the most important factors in men's games, and field-goals percentage and offensive rebounding percentage in women's games. The identified trends allow improving game understanding and helping wheelchair basketball coaches to plan accurate practice sessions and, ultimately, deciding better in competition. PMID:24506819

  17. Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep.

    PubMed

    Halson, Shona L

    2014-05-01

    Sleep has numerous important physiological and cognitive functions that may be particularly important to elite athletes. Recent evidence, as well as anecdotal information, suggests that athletes may experience a reduced quality and/or quantity of sleep. Sleep deprivation can have significant effects on athletic performance, especially submaximal, prolonged exercise. Compromised sleep may also influence learning, memory, cognition, pain perception, immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, changes in glucose metabolism and neuroendocrine function as a result of chronic, partial sleep deprivation may result in alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, appetite, food intake and protein synthesis. These factors can ultimately have a negative influence on an athlete's nutritional, metabolic and endocrine status and hence potentially reduce athletic performance. Research has identified a number of neurotransmitters associated with the sleep-wake cycle. These include serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid, orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, cholinergic, galanin, noradrenaline, and histamine. Therefore, nutritional interventions that may act on these neurotransmitters in the brain may also influence sleep. Carbohydrate, tryptophan, valerian, melatonin and other nutritional interventions have been investigated as possible sleep inducers and represent promising potential interventions. In this review, the factors influencing sleep quality and quantity in athletic populations are examined and the potential impact of nutritional interventions is considered. While there is some research investigating the effects of nutritional interventions on sleep, future research may highlight the importance of nutritional and dietary interventions to enhance sleep. PMID:24791913

  18. Orofacial injuries and mouth guard use in elite commando fighters.

    PubMed

    Zadik, Yehuda; Levin, Liran

    2008-12-01

    The incidence, etiology, and consequences of orofacial injuries during service were evaluated among active duty elite commando fighters in the Israel Defense Forces. Male fighters (N = 280) were interviewed. Orofacial injuries were reported by 76 (27.1%) participants, with tooth injuries as the most common: 40 (52.6%) suffered from dental fracture and 6 (7.9%) from subluxation/luxation. Overall incidence was 85.5 cases per 1,000 fighter-years. Most injuries occurred in an isolated training or operational field. Overall, 162 participants (57.9%) received a boil-and-bite mouth guard during recruitment, but only 49 (30.2%) used it regularly during training and sport activities. The prevalence of injuries among fighters who reported regular mouth guard use was smaller than among fighters who reported of no regular use (20.4% vs. 28.6%, respectively; p < 0.001). Commando fighters are highly predisposed to dental trauma, resulting in the interference of their continuous daily activity. Military health care professionals and commanders should promote mouth protection devices for high-risk populations. PMID:19149336

  19. Nutritional Adaptations in Elite Soccer Referees: First Evidence and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Metz, Lore; Deleuze, Thomas; Pereira, Bruno; Thivel, David

    2015-06-27

    Although the physiological cost of refereeing has been already studied in the literature, especially in soccer umpires, it remains unknown whether referees spontaneously adapt their energy intake during game days. Six national soccer referees completed 24-hour dietary recalls (assisted by the SU.VI.MAX copybook) during a control day (CON) and a day with a game (GAME). The stress level and hunger feelings were assessed using visual analogue scales. Total energy intake, energy derived from macronutrients and energy intake at each meal were analyzed using the Bilnuts nutrition software. Total daily energy intake was not significantly different between conditions (CON: 2270 ± 535 vs. GAME: 2782 ± 293). Energy derived from fat and protein was not different between conditions but the participants ingested more calories derived from carbohydrates during the GAME day (45.5 ± 5.9% vs. 54.9 ± 5.5%, respectively, p<0.05). The calories ingested during snacking were significantly increased during GAME compared with CON (p<0.05). The stress level was significantly higher during GAME and especially before the breakfast, lunch and snack (p<0.05). Hunger feeling was not different between conditions. Referring leads to nutritional adaptations in elite soccer umpires, who tend to increase their energy intake mainly during snacking, by increasing their carbohydrate consumption. PMID:26240651

  20. Biomechanical determinants of elite rowing technique and performance.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, E M; Bull, A M J; McGregor, A H

    2015-04-01

    In rowing, the parameters of injury, performance, and technique are all interrelated and in dynamic equilibrium. Whilst rowing requires extreme physical strength and endurance, a high level of skill and technique is essential to enable an effective transfer of power through the rowing sequence. This study aimed to determine discrete aspects of rowing technique, which strongly influence foot force production and asymmetries at the foot-stretchers, as these are biomechanical parameters often associated with performance and injury risk. Twenty elite female rowers performed an incremental rowing test on an instrumented rowing ergometer, which measured force at the handle and foot-stretchers, while three-dimensional kinematic recordings of the ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar-pelvic joints were made. Multiple regression analyses identified hip kinematics as a key predictor of foot force output (R(2)  = 0.48), whereas knee and lumbar-pelvic kinematics were the main determinants in optimizing the horizontal foot force component (R(2)  = .41). Bilateral asymmetries of the foot-stretchers were also seen to significantly influence lumbar-pelvic kinematics (R(2)  = 0.43) and pelvic twisting (R(2)  = 0.32) during the rowing stroke. These results provide biomechanical evidence toward aspects of technique that can be modified to optimize force output and performance, which can be of direct benefit to coaches and athletes. PMID:25039605

  1. Determinants of elite-level air rifle shooting performance.

    PubMed

    Ihalainen, S; Kuitunen, S; Mononen, K; Linnamo, V

    2016-03-01

    This study focused on identifying the most important factors determining performance in elite-level air rifle shooting technique. Forty international- and national-level shooters completed a simulated air rifle shooting competition series. From a total of 13 795 shots in 319 tests, shooting score and 17 aiming point trajectory variables were measured with an optoelectronic device and six postural balance variables were measured with force platform. Principal component analysis revealed six components in the air rifle shooting technique: aiming time, stability of hold, measurement time, cleanness of triggering, aiming accuracy, and timing of triggering. Multiple regression analysis identified four of those, namely stability of hold, cleanness of triggering, aiming accuracy, and timing of triggering as the most important predictors of shooting performance, accounting for 81% of the variance in shooting score. The direct effect of postural balance on performance was small, accounting for less than 1% of the variance in shooting score. Indirectly, the effect can be greater through a more stable holding ability, to which postural balance was correlated significantly (R = 0.55, P < 0.001). The results of the present study can be used in assessing athletes' technical strengths and weaknesses and in directing training programs on distinct shooting technical components. PMID:25850700

  2. Exploring attitudes toward eating disorders among elite athlete support personnel.

    PubMed

    McArdle, S; Meade, M M; Moore, P

    2016-09-01

    To date, little is known about the beliefs, attitudes, and experiences of athlete support personnel (ASP) working in elite sport toward disordered eating (DE) and eating disorders (EDs). This study seeks to explore this area of mental health, employing an attribution model of stigma as a conceptual lens. Interviews were undertaken with 14 service providers (seven males and seven females) working in high-performance sport in Ireland. In contrast to previous research in the general population, findings revealed that sport-based personnel, in the main, did not hold the individual responsible for the development of their eating disorder. The predominant emotional response of those who had worked with an athlete with a known or suspected eating disorder was anxiety and worry. In line with the findings of previous studies with other health professionals, negative views on the prognosis of those with EDs were expressed by the ASP. Furthermore, confidentiality was found to be a significant barrier to bringing athletes' disclosure of problematic eating or exercise behavior to the fore. The findings of this study add to the limited research exploring attitudes toward EDs in sport and highlights the importance of greater education and openness toward this particular mental health problem. PMID:26134346

  3. Experiences of returning to elite beach volleyball after shoulder injury.

    PubMed

    Bele, Sofie; Östenberg, Anna Hafsteinsson; Sjöström, Rita; Alricsson, Marie

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine beach volleyball players' experience regarding shoulder injury and how it affects their return to play. To achieve the research aims a qualitative design with semi-structured interviews had been conducted, five elite beach volleyball players, four men and one woman aged 27-42 participated in the study. All participants had suffered a severe shoulder injury, with absence from training and competing for at least 28 days. The findings of this study indicate that it is the individual's inner motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community, family, teammate and coach that are the most important factors when going through rehabilitation and getting back to playing beach volleyball after a shoulder injury. All participants had been affected by their injury in some way; some of the participants had been affected in a positive way since they had become mentally stronger and had developed better volleyball technique after rehabilitation. The conclusions of this study indicate that there are three distinct factors that increase the chances of getting back to playing beach volleyball after shoulder injury; it is the players' self motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community. PMID:26331135

  4. Experiences of returning to elite beach volleyball after shoulder injury

    PubMed Central

    Bele, Sofie; Östenberg, Anna Hafsteinsson; Sjöström, Rita; Alricsson, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine beach volleyball players’ experience regarding shoulder injury and how it affects their return to play. To achieve the research aims a qualitative design with semi-structured interviews had been conducted, five elite beach volleyball players, four men and one woman aged 27–42 participated in the study. All participants had suffered a severe shoulder injury, with absence from training and competing for at least 28 days. The findings of this study indicate that it is the individual’s inner motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community, family, teammate and coach that are the most important factors when going through rehabilitation and getting back to playing beach volleyball after a shoulder injury. All participants had been affected by their injury in some way; some of the participants had been affected in a positive way since they had become mentally stronger and had developed better volleyball technique after rehabilitation. The conclusions of this study indicate that there are three distinct factors that increase the chances of getting back to playing beach volleyball after shoulder injury; it is the players’ self motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community. PMID:26331135

  5. The activity profile of elite male amateur boxing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Philip; Benson, Peter R; Pitty, James D; Connorton, Andrew J; Waldock, Robert

    2015-01-01

    An activity profile of competitive 3 × 3-min elite-level amateur boxing was created from video footage of 29 Olympic final and semifinal bouts in 39 male boxers (mean ± SD) age 25.1 ± 3.6 y, height 178.3 ± 10.4 cm, and body mass 69.7 ± 16.5 kg. Boxing at this level requires the ability to maintain an activity rate of ~1.4 actions/s, consisting of ~20 punches, ~2.5 defensive movements, and ~47 vertical hip movements, all per minute, over 3 subsequent rounds lasting ~200 s each. Winners had higher total punches landed (P = .041) and a lower ratio of punches thrown to landed (P = .027) than losers in round 3. The hook rear-hand landed was also higher for winners than losers in round 2 (P = .038) and round 3 (P = .016), and defensive movements were used less by winners (P = .036). However, the results suggest that technical discrimination between winners and losers is difficult; bout outcome may be more dependent on which punch is "lucky" enough to be scored by the judges or who appears to be dominant on the day. This study gives both boxers and coaches a good idea of where subelite boxers need to aim if they want to become among the best amateur boxers in the world. PMID:24912199

  6. Psychological effects of chronic injury in elite athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Shuer, M L; Dietrich, M S

    1997-01-01

    Many athletes train in a constant state of pain or injury while meeting the demands of an elite level program. It is hypothesized that the emotional distress experienced by athletes with chronic injuries is not inconsequential. A self-report battery, the Impact of Event Scale, was administered to 280 inter-collegiate athletes at a division I institution in an attempt to examine their response to chronic injury. Of the 280, 134 (48%) had been injured by study definition, with 117 (42%) meeting the criteria for chronic injury. Athletes with chronic injury scored on the Intrusion subscale of the Impact of Event Scale in the range of those who had experienced natural disasters, but scored higher (P < .05) on the Avoidance/Denial subscale. Their Avoidance subscale scores were similar to those of a group of orthopedic patients who required hospital admission with surgical fixation. Female athletes' Avoidance scores were significantly higher than those of their male peers (P < .05), but no gender differences were seen in intrusive thoughts. Subsets of athletes defined by the duration of injury showed no significant differences on subscale scores. It appears extraordinary that athletes should score in the realm of groups traumatized by natural disasters in intrusive thought and higher in avoidance thought when referring to their chronic injury. Although some attention has been focused on psychiatric intervention for acutely injured athletes or those who have undergone surgical treatment, the psychological needs of athletes struggling with chronic "minor" injuries also appear to merit consideration. Images Figure 1. PMID:9109326

  7. American Professors: The Decline of a Cultural Elite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gusfield, Joseph

    1975-01-01

    Author attempted to point to some of the aspects of the changing structure of American universities and the ways in which they have had a bearing on the contemporary position of professors in American academic, educational, and cultural life. (Author/RK)

  8. Black Economists: An "Elite Clan of Warrior Intellectuals."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffins, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Black economists feel even more isolation and frustration than many African American academics and PhDs, because they continually confront the contradictions between economic theory and blacks' daily experience. The proportion of African Americans with PhDs in economics is very low relative to the undergraduates who study economics or have degrees…

  9. Cultural Complicities: Elitism, Heteronormativity and Violence in the Education Marketplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue

    2007-01-01

    Educational discourse in Australia has been dramatically altered in recent decades as neoliberal choice policies favouring an increasingly marketized, tiered educational landscape have witnessed a burgeoning of private sector schooling. In this climate, many perceive private sector schooling as providing moral, social and academic benefits beyond…

  10. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  11. The Ethical Academic: Academics as Public Intellectuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, American sociologist Robert Neelly Bellah (Bellah, et al., 1986: 303) critiqued the growing isolation of intellectuals within universities and called for a return to "social science as public philosophy." Little seems to have changed. My thirty-seven year experience at the University of Alberta suggests that academics see…

  12. Reengineering Academic Medical Centers: Reengineering Academic Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korn, David

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of academic medical centers (AMCs) looks at: change due to heavy federal funding in recent decades; adverse consequences, including deemphasis on education in favor of research and clinical service delivery, and discrepancies between AMC internal and external labor markets; and challenges to medical education in research, education, and…

  13. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  14. Identification of the sites of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and neprilysin adduction using a linear trap quadrapole Velos Pro-Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Qian, Jiao; Liu, Jianxu; Zhao, Ruimin; Li, Bowei; Wang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-βdegrading enzyme neprilysin (NEP) plays a pivotal role in eliminating Aβ The oxidized modification of NEP by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) may reduce the clearance of Aβ in cultured cells and Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. The aim of this research is to study whether HNE could modify the NEP protein and identify the specific sites of HNE-NEP modification using a linear trap quadrapole (LTQ) Velos Pro-Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer. NEP activity was determined after SH-SY5Y cells had incubated with HNE (20 μM) for 24 hours. To identify the sites of NEP modification, samples of both native and HNE-modified NEP digested by trypsin were analyzed using a LTQ Velos Pro-Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer. The NEP peptide sequence information from the fragment ion masses was used to search for the sites of NEP adduction. HNE-treated cells showed a 60% loss of NEP activity. NEP was covalently adducted at Lys 93, Lys 472 by HNE via Michael addition. Compared to the control group, the sites of modified peptide in NEP showed a consistent 156 Da increased in m/z, which provides sequence information and might contribute to further studies on drug design and the therapeutics of AD. PMID:27553735

  15. A Study of Science Education Positions, Search Process, and Hiring Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Germann, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze science education searches and hiring practices for faculty positions listed in The Chronicle of Higher Education for an academic year. Chairs of searches completed a survey about successful and unsuccessful searches. Over 70% of searches were successful in hiring new science education faculty with 33%…

  16. Barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking for young elite athletes: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adolescents and young adults experience a high level of mental disorders, yet tend not to seek help. Research indicates that there are many barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for young people in the general community. However there are limited data available for young elite athletes. This study aims to determine what young elite athletes perceive as the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for common mental health problems. Methods Fifteen elite athletes aged 16–23 years each participated in one of three focus group discussions. In addition to written data, verbal responses were audio taped, transcribed and thematically analysed. Results Participants’ written and verbal data suggested that stigma was the most important perceived barrier to seeking help for young elite athletes. Other notable barriers were a lack of mental health literacy, and negative past experiences of help-seeking. Facilitators to help-seeking were encouragement from others, having an established relationship with a provider, pleasant previous interactions with providers, the positive attitudes of others, especially their coach, and access to the internet. Conclusions Intervention strategies for improving help-seeking in young elite athletes should focus on reducing stigma, increasing mental health literacy, and improving relations with potential providers. PMID:23009161

  17. Injury profile among elite male youth soccer players in a Swedish first league

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Tania; Östenberg, Anna Hafsteinsson; Alricsson, Marie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the injury profile among elite male youth soccer players in a Swedish first league during two seasons. The present cohort study is based on data collected during the 2013–2014 seasons. In total, 43 young elite male soccer players, aged 15 to 19 yr, were prospectively followed regarding injuries, time of exposure, injury location, type of injury, and injury severity. The overall incidence of injury in the present study was estimated to 6.8 injuries per 1,000 exposure hours and 15.5 and 5.6 injuries per 1,000 hr for matches and training, respectively. The single most common injury subtype was muscle strain (53%). The hip and groin were the most common locations for injuries. Thirty-one percent of the injuries were classified as severe injury and caused >28 days absence from training and match play. Both the injury incidence and the number of serious injury seems to be relatively high in youth elite players according to this study. Although the injury incidence seems to be slightly lower than in adult elite players the injuries seem to be more traumatic in youth elite players. PMID:27162769

  18. Beyond Text Queries and Ranked Lists: Faceted Search in Library Catalogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Since the adoption of faceted search in a small number of academic libraries in 2006, faceted library catalogs have gained popularity in many academic and public libraries. This dissertation seeks to understand whether faceted search improves the interactions between searchers and library catalogs and to understand ways that facets are used in…

  19. An Academic Curriculum Will Close the Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa

    2012-01-01

    America's unyielding academic achievement gap has been a national priority for a long time; yet, some schools have succeeded with academically disadvantaged youth. Usually, these institutions embrace a culture of success and follow an academic curriculum that is grounded in core knowledge and scholastic vocabulary. Academically disadvantaged…

  20. Academic Capitalism and Academic Culture: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Pilar; Berger, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    This case study investigated the impact of academic capitalism on academic culture by examining the perspectives of faculty members in an American academic department with significant industrial funding. The results of this study indicate that faculty members believe that the broad integrity of the academic culture remains unaffected in this…

  1. Career Choice in Academic Medicine: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Straus, Sharon E; Straus, Christine; Tzanetos, Katina

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To review systematically the evidence about what factors influence the decision to choose or not choose a career in academic medicine. DESIGN A systematic review of relevant literature from 1990 to May 2005. DATA SOURCES Searches of The Cochrane Library, Medline (using Ovid and PubMed) from 1990 to May 2005, and EMBASE from 1990 to May 2005 were completed to identify relevant studies that explored the influential factors. Additional articles were identified from searching the bibliographies of retrieved articles. SELECTION OF STUDIES We attempted to identify studies that included residents, fellows, or staff physicians. No restrictions were placed on the study methodologies identified and all articles presenting empirical evidence were retrieved. For cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies, minimum inclusion criteria were the presence of defined groups, and the ability to extract relevant data. For surveys that involved case series, minimum inclusion criteria were a description of the population, and the availability of extractable data. Minimum inclusion criteria for qualitative studies were descriptions of the sampling strategy and methods. RESULTS The search identified 251 abstracts; 25 articles were included in this review. Completion of an MD with a graduate degree or fellowship program is associated with a career in academic medicine. Of the articles identified in this review, this finding is supported by the highest quality of evidence. Similarly, the completion of research and publication of this research in medical school and residency are associated with a career in academic medicine. The desire to teach, conduct research, and the intellectual stimulation and challenge provided in academia may also persuade people to choose this career path. The influence of a role model or a mentor was reported by physicians to impact their decision making. Trainees' interest in academic medicine wanes as they progress through their residency

  2. Body type and performance of elite cuban baseball players.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Wiliam; Ríos, Andrés; Echevarría, Ivis; Martínez, Miriam; Miñoso, Julio; Rodríguez, Dialvis

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Appropriate stature and adequate somatotype are not the only attributes determining athletic performance, but they are important prerequisites for sports participation and success. However, there is scant literature on baseball players' kinanthropometric profiles and their association with performance. Given that Cuban baseball players have been among the world's top performers in recent decades, characterization of their morphological features linked to their performance may contribute to developing the evidence base in this area. Objective Describe the kinanthropometric profile related to sports performance of elite Cuban baseball players, classified by playing position. Methods Body composition, somatotype, proportionality, and performance were measured in 100 elite baseball players grouped by playing position and performance. Data from the 2002-2003 baseball season was gathered for players participating in the 43rd Cuban National Baseball Series (November 2003-May 2004). Slugging percentage (SLG) was used to measure performance of all players except pitchers, whose performance was measured as end-of-season win-loss record. Mean and standard deviation values were calculated for anthropometric and performance results, presented in tables for comparison. ANOVA and MANOVA analyses were applied to determine magnitudes of difference between the variables studied, as well as statistical significance of the differences established (p≤0.05 and p≤0.01). Results Performance and body type varied by playing position, and statistically significant differences were found in performance, body composition and somatotype variables between some positions. No significant differences in proportionality were found. First basemen and outfielders (center, left, and right fielders) were the best offensive players with the highest mean SLG, body weight and muscle mass values. Infielders (second basemen, shortstops, and third basemen) had the lowest mean body weight and

  3. Mechanical Risk Factors for Stress Fracture in Elite Runners

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Kenneth; Wilcox-Fogel, Nathan; Trikha, Rishi; Tenforde, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Bone stress injuries (BSI) are responsible for significant missed competition and training in distance runners. A recent review of our institution’s injury database revealed that one-fifth of NCAA-level runners sustained one or more BSI over a three-year period. While much is known about certain risk factors for stress injury such as the Female Athlete Triad, little is known about biomechanical risk factors including dynamic loading of the foot during running differs between athletes with history of BSI and those without. The aims of this study were: 1) characterize the dynamic loading patterns of elite distance runners during athletic movement, 2) determine the difference in dynamic loading magnitude and location in runners who have history of a BSI compared to non-injured runners and 3) establish a database to be used for follow-up evaluation. We hypothesized that athletes with a history of BSI in the lower extremity apply greater dynamic loads during athletic movements compared to uninjured athletes. Methods: We recruited 40 healthy varsity distance runners (16 females, 24 males) from our institution to participate in the study. Dynamic foot loading data was collected on all athletes using a validated wireless insole pressure measurement system during a series of athletic movements (e.g., walking, running and lateral cutting). Data was collected for contact area, maximum force, peak pressure, maximum mean pressure and force-time integral at each of eleven foot regions during each athletic movement. All force and pressure data were normalized to body weight. Injury history and other potential risk factors of interest were collected by self-report questionnaire and chart review. All BSI occurred as a result of participation of running, diagnosed by a physician and confirmed with advanced imaging. Mean values were calculated for each variable and foot region in each athlete and paired t-tests were performed for injury history comparisons. Results: A

  4. 77 FR 16890 - In the Matter of ProElite, Inc. and Universal Guardian Holdings, Inc.: Order of Suspension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of ProElite, Inc. and Universal Guardian Holdings, Inc.: Order of Suspension of... current and accurate information concerning the securities of ProElite, Inc. because it has not filed...

  5. 75 FR 452 - Tenneco, Inc.; Including On-Site Workers From Elite Staffing, Inc.; Cozad, NE; Tenneco, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Federal Register on February 2, 2009 (74 FR Number 5871). The Department issued an amended certification... Employment and Training Administration Tenneco, Inc.; Including On-Site Workers From Elite Staffing, Inc.; Cozad, NE; Tenneco, Inc.; Including On-Site Leased Workers of Elite Staffing, Inc.; Monroe, MI;...

  6. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium in U.S. Elite Winter Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on genetic diversity and population structure of elite wheat breeding lines promotes effective use of genetic resources. We analyzed 205 elite wheat breeding lines from major winter wheat breeding programs in the U.S.A. using 245 markers across the wheat genomes. This collection showed a...

  7. The Resilience of Recently Graduated and Unemployed Dutch Academics in Coping with the Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker, Jeroen J. H.; Amsing, Hilda T. A.; Hahurij, Lisa; Wichgers, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Some years after the world-wide crisis starting in 2008, also many recently graduated Dutch academics were confronted with the problem of how to cope with getting a job. This article focuses on the coping strategies they use when searching after a job, spending the day, and coping with limited financial means. 91 graduated academics completed a…

  8. An Exploratory Study of the Academic Resume and Employment Interview Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Earl E.; Mrozla, Bridget A.

    A study examined the academic hiring process from the perspectives of department heads, search committee members, and newly hired faculty. Respondents, 349 academic professionals at a large university in the Midwest, completed a questionnaire developed for the study to determine (1) the importance and ordering of information categories on academic…

  9. The Internet as a Source of Academic Research Information: Findings of Two Pilot Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibirige, Harry M.; DePalo, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of information available on the Internet focuses on two pilot studies that investigated how academic users perceive search engines and subject-oriented databases as sources of topical information. Highlights include information seeking behavior of academic users; undergraduate users; graduate users; faculty; and implications for…

  10. Kinematic characteristics of elite men's 50 km race walking.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Brian; Bissas, Athanassios; Drake, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Race walking is an endurance event which also requires great technical ability, particularly with respect to its two distinguishing rules. The 50 km race walk is the longest event in the athletics programme at the Olympic Games. The aims of this observational study were to identify the important kinematic variables in elite men's 50 km race walking, and to measure variation in those variables at different distances. Thirty men were analysed from video data recorded during a World Race Walking Cup competition. Video data were also recorded at four distances during the European Cup Race Walking and 12 men analysed from these data. Two camcorders (50 Hz) recorded at each race for 3D analysis. The results of this study showed that walking speed was associated with both step length (r=0.54,P=0.002) and cadence (r=0.58,P=0.001). While placing the foot further ahead of the body at heel strike was associated with greater step lengths (r=0.45,P=0.013), it was also negatively associated with cadence (r= -0.62,P<0.001). In the World Cup, knee angles ranged between 175 and 186° at initial contact and between 180 and 195° at midstance. During the European Cup, walking speed decreased significantly (F=9.35,P=0.002), mostly due to a decrease in step length between 38.5 and 48.5 km (t=8.59,P=0.014). From this study, it would appear that the key areas a 50 km race walker must develop and coordinate are step length and cadence, although it is also important to ensure legal walking technique is maintained with the onset of fatigue. PMID:23679143

  11. Plyometric training performance in elite-oriented prepubertal female gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Marina, Michel; Jemni, Monem

    2014-04-01

    We studied the effectiveness of a combined strength and plyometric training program (experimental period) on jumping performance when compared with a training routine on apparatus (control period) over 2 successive gymnastics training seasons. Nine female elite-orientated gymnasts (around 30-hour training per week) were participated in the study. The study was based on a 20-month longitudinal design covering 2 training seasons separated by a competitive period and transition periods. Each season included 1 control and 1 experimental period (CtrlΔ1 + ExΔ1 and CtrlΔ2 + ExΔ2, respectively). Before and after each control and experimental period, we assessed plyometric performance by means of drop jumps (DJs) from 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 cm. The jump performance variables considered were flight time (FT), contact time (CT), flight-contact ratio (FC), and estimated mechanical power (also called Bosco expression [BE]), all of which were expressed as raw data and normalized (expressed as a percentage) with respect to the recordings at the beginning of each period of analysis. Flight time was the only variable to increase not only during both experimental periods but also during both controls. Our results confirmed larger relative increments of all the variables (FT, CT, BE, and FC), except for CT at DJs of 80 and 100 cm, during the experimental periods than during their respective previous control periods. Despite the additive effect of growth, development, and maturation, the gymnasts were not able to maintain the DJ performance accomplished during ExΔ1, thereby confirming detraining during the competitive and transition periods. We conclude that a combination of heavy resistance training with high impact plyometric jumps is effective in prepubertal gymnasts, despite their initial high level of physical conditioning. PMID:24088867

  12. The secret garden? Elite metropolitan geographies in the contemporary UK

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Niall; Savage, Mike

    2015-01-01

    There is an enduring, indeed increasing awareness of the role of spatial location in defining and reinforcing inequality in this country and beyond. In the UK, much of the debate around these issues has focussed on the established trope of a long-standing ‘north-south divide’, a divide which appears to have deepened in recent decades with the inexorable de-industrialisation of northern Britain presented in stark counterpoint to the burgeoning concentration of wealth in London and the south-east, driven by the financial and ancillary services sectors. Due to a lack of available data, such debates have tended to focus solely on economic inequalities between places, and until now there was little understanding of how these disparities played out in the social and cultural domains. This paper significantly advances our understanding of the true meaning of spatial inequality in the UK by broadening that definition to encompass not only the economic, but also the social and cultural arenas, using data available from the BBC's Great British Class Survey experiment. We argue that these data shine a light not only on the economic inequalities between different parts of the country which existing debates have already uncovered but to understand how these are both reinforced and mediated across the social and cultural dimensions. Fundamentally, we concur with a great many others in seeing London and the south-east as a vortex for economic accumulation but it is also much more than that; it is a space where the coming together of intense economic, social and cultural resources enables the crystallisation of particular and nuanced forms of elite social class formations, formations in which place is not incidental but integral to their very existence. PMID:26640301

  13. Dribbling determinants in sub-elite youth soccer players.

    PubMed

    Zago, Matteo; Piovan, Andrea Gianluca; Annoni, Isabella; Ciprandi, Daniela; Iaia, F Marcello; Sforza, Chiarella

    2016-01-01

    Dribbling speed in soccer is considered critical to the outcome of the game and can assist in the talent identification process. However, little is known about the biomechanics of this skill. By means of a motion capture system, we aimed to quantitatively investigate the determinants of effective dribbling skill in a group of 10 Under-13 sub-elite players, divided by the median-split technique according to their dribbling test time (faster and slower groups). Foot-ball contacts cadence, centre of mass (CoM), ranges of motion (RoM), velocity and acceleration, as well as stride length, cadence and variability were computed. Hip and knee joint RoMs were also considered. Faster players, as compared to slower players, showed a 30% higher foot-ball cadence (3.0 ± 0.1 vs. 2.3 ± 0.2 contacts · s(-1), P < 0.01); reduced CoM mediolateral (0.91 ± 0.05 vs. 1.14 ± 0.16 m, P < 0.05) and vertical (0.19 ± 0.01 vs. 0.25 ± 0.03 m, P < 0.05) RoMs; higher right stride cadence (+20%, P < 0.05) with lower variability (P < 0.05); reduced hip and knee flexion RoMs (P < 0.05). In conclusion, faster players are able to run with the ball through a shorter path in a more economical way. To effectively develop dribbling skill, coaches are encouraged to design specific practices where high stride frequency and narrow run trajectories are required. PMID:26067339

  14. Dietary intake at competition in elite Olympic combat sports.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Stefan; Berg, Christina M

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate elite female (n = 21) and male (n = 47) combat sports athletes' (n = 68; mean age (± SD) 21.3 ± 3.8 years; mean height 177 ± 10.2 cm) dietary intake between weigh-in and the first bout in Olympic combat sports. The data were collected at 6 separate tournaments and measurements included estimated food records, time for recovery, and body weight (BW) at weigh-in and first match. In total, 33 athletes participated in wrestling and taekwondo, sports with extended recovery times, and 35 athletes in judo and boxing, sports with limited recovery time. The results displayed that despite a mean consumption of food and drinks corresponding to 4.2 kg, the athletes only regained an average of 1.9 kg BW during recovery. Water accounted for 86% of the total intake. For each liter of water consumed, athletes gained 0.57 kg BW, when excluding heavy weight athletes (n = 5). Carbohydrate consumption was 5.5 g/kg BW, compared with the recommended 8-10 g/kg BW. In total, one-quarter of the consumed water originated from carbohydrate-rich drinks. Given the average recovery time of 18 (wrestling, taekwondo) versus 8 hr (judo, boxing), the former group consumed twice the amount of water, carbohydrates, protein, and fat as the latter group. In conclusion, a large proportion of the participants did not meet the recovery nutrition guidelines for carbohydrates. In addition, the discrepancy between nutrient intake and weight gain points to the physiological barriers to retaining fluids during a limited recovery time after engaging in weight making practices. PMID:23980253

  15. Academics explore humidity's benefits.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Dave

    2008-11-01

    The effects of humidification on hospital superbugs are being explored by some of the UK's top academics, in what Dave Mortimer, national sales manager for Vapac Humidity Control, explains are the UK's first such studies. PMID:19044148

  16. Resources for Academic Advising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Virginia N.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of resources available to assist college faculty in academic advising tasks are listed, including books, professional journals, annotated bibliographies, reports, monographs, conferences, and organizations. Some items are annotated. Addresses are provided for organizations. (MSE)

  17. Women in Academic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Thibault, George E

    2016-08-01

    More than a decade ago, women achieved parity with men in the number of matriculants to medical school, nearly one-third of the faculty of medical schools were women, and there were some women deans and department chairs. These trends were promising, but today there are still significant differences in pay, academic rank, and leadership positions for women compared with men in academic medicine. Though there has been progress in many areas, the progress is too slow to achieve previously recommended goals, such as 50% women department chairs by 2025 and 50% women deans by 2030.The author points to the findings presented in the articles from the Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers in this issue, as well as research being published elsewhere, as an evidence base for the ongoing discussion of gender equity in academic medicine. More attention to culture and the working environment will be needed to achieve true parity for women in academic medical careers. PMID:27306968

  18. Academic Bankruptcy by Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Arthur D.

    1986-01-01

    The advantages and requirements for offering a second chance to students who have failed, by forgiving a poor academic record, are discussed and supported by findings from a survey of institutions and the results of several experimental programs. (MSE)

  19. Relationship between sprint ability and loaded/unloaded jump tests in elite sprinters.

    PubMed

    Loturco, Irineu; DʼAngelo, Ricardo A; Fernandes, Victor; Gil, Saulo; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Kitamura, Katia; Nakamura, Fabio Y

    2015-03-01

    The neuromechanical determinants of sprint running performance have been investigated in team sports athletes and non-elite sprinters. The aim of this study was to quantify the relationships between kinetic and performance parameters, obtained in loaded and unloaded vertical and horizontal jumps, and sprinting in elite athletes. Twenty-two sprinters performed squat jumps, countermovement jumps, horizontal jumps, and jump squats with different loads on a force platform, in addition to a 50-m sprint. Results indicated that jumping height and distance in vertical and horizontal jumps are more strongly correlated (R ≈ 0.81) to sprinting speed than the respective peak forces (R ≈ 0.36). Furthermore, the optimum load generating the maximum power in the jump squat is also highly correlated to sprint performance (R ≈ 0.72). These results reveal that vertical and horizontal jump tests may be used by coaches for assessing and monitoring qualities related to sprinting performance in elite sprinters. PMID:25162648

  20. Investigating eating disorders in elite gymnasts: conceptual, ethical and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jacinta; Bloodworth, Andrew; McNamee, Mike; Hewitt, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    Elite gymnastics, and other sports where athletes and coaches are particularly concerned with aesthetic considerations, weight and shape, are fields within which the risk of eating disorders may be unusually high. Adolescent gymnasts, developing their own sense of self, at a time of life where body image concerns are common, often compete at the very top of the sport with a need to maintain a body shape and weight optimal for elite performance. Research into this field should address the range of sociological and ethical aspects of eating disorders in elite sport, their prevalence as well as the ethos of the sport itself. This paper addresses a range of conceptual, ethical and methodological issues relevant to conducting research in this sensitive yet important field. PMID:24533496

  1. Evidence-based Medicine Search: a customizable federated search engine

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, Paul J.; Howse, David K.; Keim, Samuel M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports on the development of a tool by the Arizona Health Sciences Library (AHSL) for searching clinical evidence that can be customized for different user groups. Brief Description: The AHSL provides services to the University of Arizona's (UA's) health sciences programs and to the University Medical Center. Librarians at AHSL collaborated with UA College of Medicine faculty to create an innovative search engine, Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) Search, that provides users with a simple search interface to EBM resources and presents results organized according to an evidence pyramid. EBM Search was developed with a web-based configuration component that allows the tool to be customized for different specialties. Outcomes/Conclusion: Informal and anecdotal feedback from physicians indicates that EBM Search is a useful tool with potential in teaching evidence-based decision making. While formal evaluation is still being planned, a tool such as EBM Search, which can be configured for specific user populations, may help lower barriers to information resources in an academic health sciences center. PMID:18379665

  2. Perspectives on academic dishonesty.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, M J; Lowenstein, A J

    1990-01-01

    Academic dishonest behaviors, such as lying, cheating, and plagiarism, are destructive and must be recognized and addressed early in the development of professional nurses. Faculty must be concerned with the relationship between student integrity in the classroom and clinical or professional behaviors. The authors discuss student motivation and attitudes toward unethical practices, faculty responses, and responsibilities when these incidents arise, and strategies for preventing academic dishonesty. PMID:2216065

  3. The Rewards of Academic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies of academic leadership confirm what many academic leaders know from personal experience: academic leadership is a complex and demanding role with significant stress and high burnout and turnover rates (Brown, 2002; Brown and Moshavi, 2002). In the light of these issues, an exploration of the nature of academic leadership and its…

  4. Academic Freedom and Organisational Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes prominent current arguments on academic freedom's endangerment by managerialism and discusses their limitations. Defines a new vision of academic freedom informed by thinking on globalization. Presents findings from interviews with Australian faculty about academic freedom and discusses ways to ensure that academic freedom endures in…

  5. The Scholarship of Academic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggins, Heather, Ed.; Macdonald, Ranald, Ed.

    The selections in this book address the concept and nature of academic development and examine research into and within the field. Following an introduction, "Developing a Scholarship of Academic Development: Setting the Context," by Ranald Macdonald, the chapters of part 1, "Conceptualizing Academic Development," are: (2) "Academic Development: A…

  6. Academic Writing and Tacit Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elton, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    The genre of academic writing is discipline dependent, so that neither specialists in academic writing nor practising academics in a discipline can, independently of each other, provide students with the necessary help to develop the ability to write in their academic disciplines. Furthermore, the rules are largely tacit, i.e. they are not…

  7. Health in Elite Sports from a Salutogenetic Perspective: Athletes' Sense of Coherence

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Jochen; Thiel, Ansgar

    2014-01-01

    Objective Considering the high number of stressors encountered in the context of elite sports, a high sense of coherence (SOC) is crucial to allow athletes to maintain their health from both short- and long-term perspectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate SOC in a population of elite athletes, focusing on identification of subsets of athletes with particularly high and low SOC scores, and any related predictors. The elite athletes' SOC scores were also evaluated for differences with those of the general population of Germany; whether a correlation between SOC and subjective health existed was additionally examined. Method In total, 698 male and female elite athletes, drawn from Germany's highest-level national track and field squads, and first and second division handball teams, completed a survey that included the SOC-L9 Scale and measures of subjective health, sociodemographic information, and the number of injury lay-offs experienced during the athletes' careers to date. Results Classification tree analysis reveals six contrast groups with varying SOC scores. Several interacting factors determine the group to which an athlete belongs. Together with overuse injuries, additional factors are age, gender, and completed/not completed apprenticeship/degree. Female athletes aged between 19 and 25, who had already been subject to lay-offs due to overuse injuries, comprise the group with the lowest SOC scores. Overall, the SOC of elite athletes is slightly lower than in the general population. In accordance with other studies, a stronger SOC is also correlated significantly with better global subjective health. Conclusion The identification of contrast groups with varying SOC scores contributes to the development of more targeted salutogenetic health promotion programs. Such programs would ideally include learning modules pertaining to coping with overuse injuries, as well as social support systems aiming to effectively combine education and

  8. Training adaptation and heart rate variability in elite endurance athletes: opening the door to effective monitoring.

    PubMed

    Plews, Daniel J; Laursen, Paul B; Stanley, Jamie; Kilding, Andrew E; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) is often considered a convenient non-invasive assessment tool for monitoring individual adaptation to training. Decreases and increases in vagal-derived indices of HRV have been suggested to indicate negative and positive adaptations, respectively, to endurance training regimens. However, much of the research in this area has involved recreational and well-trained athletes, with the small number of studies conducted in elite athletes revealing equivocal outcomes. For example, in elite athletes, studies have revealed both increases and decreases in HRV to be associated with negative adaptation. Additionally, signs of positive adaptation, such as increases in cardiorespiratory fitness, have been observed with atypical concomitant decreases in HRV. As such, practical ways by which HRV can be used to monitor training status in elites are yet to be established. This article addresses the current literature that has assessed changes in HRV in response to training loads and the likely positive and negative adaptations shown. We reveal limitations with respect to how the measurement of HRV has been interpreted to assess positive and negative adaptation to endurance training regimens and subsequent physical performance. We offer solutions to some of the methodological issues associated with using HRV as a day-to-day monitoring tool. These include the use of appropriate averaging techniques, and the use of specific HRV indices to overcome the issue of HRV saturation in elite athletes (i.e., reductions in HRV despite decreases in resting heart rate). Finally, we provide examples in Olympic and World Champion athletes showing how these indices can be practically applied to assess training status and readiness to perform in the period leading up to a pinnacle event. The paper reveals how longitudinal HRV monitoring in elites is required to understand their unique individual HRV fingerprint. For the first time, we demonstrate how

  9. Body Segment Inertial Parameters of elite swimmers Using DXA and indirect Methods

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Marcel; LYTTLE, Andrew; EL-SALLAM, Amar; BENJANUVATRA, Nat; BLANKSBY, Brian

    2013-01-01

    As accurate body segment inertial parameters (BSIPs) are difficult to obtain in motion analysis, this study computed individual BSIPs from DXA scan images. Therefore, by co-registering areal density data with DXA grayscale image, the relationship between pixel color gradient and the mass within the pixel area could be established. Thus, one can calculate BSIPs, including segment mass, center of mass (COM) and moment of inertia about the sagittal axis (Ixx). This technique calculated whole body mass very accurately (%RMSE of < 1.5%) relatively to results of the generic DXA scanner software. The BSIPs of elite male and female swimmers, and young adult Caucasian males (n = 28), were computed using this DXA method and 5 other common indirect estimation methods. A 3D surface scan of each subject enabled mapping of key anthropometric variables required for the 5 indirect estimation methods. Mass, COM and Ixx were calculated for seven body segments (head, trunk, head + trunk, upper arm, forearm, thigh and shank). Between-group comparisons of BSIPs revealed that elite female swimmers had the lowest segment masses of the three groups (p < 0.05). Elite male swimmers recorded the greatest inertial parameters of the trunk and upper arms (p < 0.05). Using the DXA method as the criterion, the five indirect methods produced errors greater than 10% for at least one BSIP in all three populations. Therefore, caution is required when computing BSIPs for elite swimmers via these indirect methods, DXA accurately estimated BSIPs in the frontal plane. Key Points Elite swimmers have significantly different body segment inertial parameters than young adult Caucasian males. The errors computed from indirect BSIP estimation methods are large regardless whether applied to elite swimmers or young adult Caucasian males. No indirect estimation method consistently performed best. PMID:24421737

  10. Genes for elite power and sprint performance: ACTN3 leads the way.

    PubMed

    Eynon, Nir; Hanson, Erik D; Lucia, Alejandro; Houweling, Peter J; Garton, Fleur; North, Kathryn N; Bishop, David J

    2013-09-01

    The ability of skeletal muscles to produce force at a high velocity, which is crucial for success in power and sprint performance, is strongly influenced by genetics and without the appropriate genetic make-up, an individual reduces his/her chances of becoming an exceptional power or sprinter athlete. Several genetic variants (i.e. polymorphisms) have been associated with elite power and sprint performance in the last few years and the current paradigm is that elite performance is a polygenic trait, with minor contributions of each variant to the unique athletic phenotype. The purpose of this review is to summarize the specific knowledge in the field of genetics and elite power performance, and to provide some future directions for research in this field. Of the polymorphisms associated with elite power and sprint performance, the α-actinin-3 R577X polymorphism provides the most consistent results. ACTN3 is the only gene that shows a genotype and performance association across multiple cohorts of elite power athletes, and this association is strongly supported by mechanistic data from an Actn3 knockout mouse model. The angiotensin-1 converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism (ACE I/D, registered single nucleotide polymorphism [rs]4646994), angiotensinogen (AGT Met235Thr rs699), skeletal adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD1) Gln(Q)12Ter(X) [also termed C34T, rs17602729], interleukin-6 (IL-6 -174 G/C, rs1800795), endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3 -786 T/C, rs2070744; and Glu298Asp, rs1799983), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARA Intron 7 G/C, rs4253778), and mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 Ala55Val, rs660339) polymorphisms have also been associated with elite power performance, but the findings are less consistent. In general, research into the genetics of athletic performance is limited by a small sample size in individual studies and the heterogeneity of study samples, often including athletes from multiple

  11. Circulating Monocytes Are Not a Major Reservoir of HIV-1 in Elite Suppressors▿

    PubMed Central

    Spivak, Adam M.; Salgado, Maria; Rabi, S. Alireza; O'Connell, Karen A.; Blankson, Joel N.

    2011-01-01

    Circulating HIV-1-infected monocytes have been identified in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy and may represent an important barrier to viral eradication. The nature of these cells in HIV-1-infected patients who maintain undetectable viral loads and preserved CD4+ T cell counts without antiretroviral therapy (known as elite controllers or elite suppressors [ES]) is unknown. We describe here infrequent recovery of proviral HIV-1 DNA from circulating monocytes relative to CD4+ T cells in ES, despite permissiveness of these cells to HIV-1 viral entry ex vivo. Thus, monocytes do not appear to be a major reservoir of HIV-1 in ES. PMID:21795348

  12. Sustained Elite Suppression of Replication Competent HIV-1 in a Patient Treated With Rituximab Based Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, Stephanie; Dinoso, Jason B.; Marsh, Julia A.; DeZern, Amy E.; O’Connell, Karen A; Spivak, Adam M.; Alwood, Karla; Durand, Christine M.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Blankson, Joel N.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of elite control of HIV-1 replication is not fully understood. While immunosuppression due to rituximab based chemotherapy has been associated with increased replication of HBV, CMV, and HIV-1, control of replication-competent HIV-1 was maintained in an elite controller/suppressor treated with a regimen that included vincristine, cyclophosphamide, prednisone, four rounds of plasmapheresis and ten cycles of rituximab. The data suggests that de-novo antibody responses do not play a significant role in the control of viral replication in these patients. PMID:21550842

  13. Maintaining Academic Integrity in On-Line Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heberling, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of academic cheating and plagiarism focuses on occurrences in online courses, based on experiences at Baker College (Michigan). Highlights include tools to fight plagiarism; using search engines to detect plagiarism; digital paper mills; plagiarism detection companies; and the role of administrators and faculty. (LRW)

  14. Social, Mental, Academic and Physical Development in Groups Doing Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nas, Kazim; Temel, Veysel; Akpinar, Selahattin; Akpinar, Oznur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show whether sport has an effect on education/academic success and social, mental and physical development or not. The search involves 160 students studying at Physical Education and Sports High School at Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University. Graded quintet likert type questionnaire was used as a measuring means. The first…

  15. Analysis of Dehydration and Strength in Elite Badminton Players

    PubMed Central

    Abián-Vicén, Javier; Del Coso, Juan; González-Millán, Cristina; Salinero, Juan José; Abián, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Background The negative effects of dehydration on aerobic activities are well established. However, it is unknown how dehydration affects intermittent sports performance. The purpose of this study was to identify the level of dehydration in elite badminton players and its relation to muscle strength and power production. Methodology Seventy matches from the National Spanish badminton championship were analyzed (46 men’s singles and 24 women’s singles). Before and after each match, jump height and power production were determined during a countermovement jump on a force platform. Participants’ body weight and a urine sample were also obtained before and after each match. The amount of liquid that the players drank during the match was also calculated by weighing their individual drinking bottles. Results and Discussion Sweat rate during the game was 1.14±0.46 l/h in men and 1.02±0.64 l/h in women. The players rehydrated at a rate of 1.10±0.55 l/h and 1.01±0.44 l/h in the male and female groups respectively. Thus, the dehydration attained during the game was only 0.37±0.50% in men and 0.32±0.83% in women. No differences were found in any of the parameters analyzed during the vertical jump (men: from 31.82±5.29 to 32.90±4.49 W/kg; p>0.05, women: from 26.36±4.73 to 27.25±4.44 W/kg; p>0.05). Post-exercise urine samples revealed proteinuria (60.9% of cases in men and 66.7% in women), leukocyturia (men = 43.5% and women = 50.0%) and erythrocyturia (men = 50.0% and women = 21.7%). Conclusions Despite a moderate sweat rate, badminton players adequately hydrated during a game and thus the dehydration attained was low. The badminton match did not cause muscle fatigue but it significantly increased the prevalence of proteinuria, leukocyturia and erythrocyturia. PMID:22666396

  16. Thermoregulatory demands of elite professional America's Cup yacht racing.

    PubMed

    Neville, V; Gant, N; Folland, J P

    2010-06-01

    America's Cup yacht racing predominantly occurs during the summer months under hot and humid conditions, with athletes exposed to the environment for prolonged periods, and yet the thermoregulatory responses to competitive sailing are largely unappreciated. This study aimed to assess the thermoregulatory responses to elite professional big-boat yacht racing, according to crew position and upwind and downwind sailing. Intestinal (T(core)) and skin temperature, fluid balance and regional sweat compositions were measured in two America's Cup crews (n=32) during 100 min of racing. The environmental conditions were as follows: 32 degrees C, 52% RH and 5 m/s wind speed. Subjective race intensity was moderate. Bowmen recorded the greatest elevation in the heart rate (184 +/- 10 beats/min) and T(core) (39.2 degrees C, P<0.01). Both heart rate and T(core) were higher during downwind sailing (P<0.001). Regional skin temperatures were significantly different according to site (P=0.05), with tibia being the lowest (33.3 +/- 1.2 degrees C). The mean sweat loss during racing was 1.34 +/- 0.58 L/h (range: 0.44-2.40 L/h), with bowmen experiencing the greatest loss of sweat (3.7 +/- 0.9% of body mass). The mean fluid intake was highly correlated to sweat loss (r=0.74, P<0.001), with 72 +/- 41% of sweat losses replaced. The mean sodium concentration of sweat was 27.2 +/- 9.2 mmol/L (range: 12.0-43.5 mmol/L) and the total NaCl loss during sailing was 3.8 +/- 2.4 g (range 0.7-10.0 g). America's Cup sailing is a demanding sport that presents considerable challenges to thermoregulation, fluid and electrolyte balance. Certain crew roles (bowmen) present an increased risk of developing exertional heat illness, and for the majority of crew downwind sailing results in greater thermal strain than upwind sailing - which may have implications for clothing selection and boat design. PMID:19558386

  17. Life Span Exercise Among Elite Intercollegiate Student Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, Shawn C.; Romano, Russell; Azen, Stanley P.; Schroeder, E. Todd; Salem, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite prominent public attention, data on life span health and exercise outcomes among elite, competitive athletes are sparse and do not reflect the diversity of modern athletes. Hypothesis: Life span exercise behavior differs between National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student athletes and a nonathlete control group. Sustained exercise is associated with improved cardiopulmonary health outcomes. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiology study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: A total of 496 students and alumni (age range, 17-84 year) at a large, NCAA Division I university, including student athletes and an age- and sex-matched nonathlete control group, completed anonymous, self-report health and exercise questionnaires. Age-stratified, cross-sectional analysis evaluated previous week’s total exercise volume (ExVol), self-rated exercise importance (ExImp), and compliance with American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) exercise guidelines for healthy adults. The association of ACSM guideline compliance with lifetime cardiopulmonary health outcomes was also assessed. Results: Current student athletes reported significantly greater ExVol (P < 0.001. Cohen d = 0.99, probability of clinically important difference [pCID] >99.5%), ExImp (P < 0.001, d = 1.96, pCID = 96%), and likelihood of compliance with ACSM guidelines (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] = 30.6, 11.0-84.6) compared with nonathletes. No significant differences were found between alumni student athletes and nonathletes. Alumni student athletes demonstrated substantially lower ExVol (P < 0.001, d = –0.94, pCID >99.5%) and guideline compliance (OR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.05-0.19) compared with current student athletes, whereas nonathletes had similar exercise behavior across the life span. Among alumni, ACSM guideline compliance was associated with significant attenuation of cardiopulmonary health concerns (P = 0.02, d = –0.50, pCID = 14%) independent

  18. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xi; Tian, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture…

  19. Low back pain status in elite and semi-elite Australian football codes: a cross-sectional survey of football (soccer), Australian rules, rugby league, rugby union and non-athletic controls

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Wayne; Pollard, Henry; Daff, Chris; Odell, Andrew; Garbutt, Peter; McHardy, Andrew; Hardy, Kate; Dragasevic, George

    2009-01-01

    Background Our understanding of the effects of football code participation on low back pain (LBP) is limited. It is unclear whether LBP is more prevalent in athletic populations or differs between levels of competition. Thus it was the aim of this study to document and compare the prevalence, intensity, quality and frequency of LBP between elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group. Methods A cross-sectional survey of elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group was performed. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire incorporating the Quadruple Visual Analogue Scale (QVAS) and McGill Pain Questionnaire (short form) (MPQ-SF), along with additional questions adapted from an Australian epidemiological study. Respondents were 271 elite players (mean age 23.3, range 17–39), 360 semi-elite players (mean age 23.8, range 16–46) and 148 non-athletic controls (mean age 23.9, range 18–39). Results Groups were matched for age (p = 0.42) and experienced the same age of first onset LBP (p = 0.40). A significant linear increase in LBP from the non-athletic group, to the semi-elite and elite groups for the QVAS and the MPQ-SF was evident (p < 0.001). Elite subjects were more likely to experience more frequent (daily or weekly OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.29–2.42) and severe LBP (discomforting and greater OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.29–2.38). Conclusion Foolers in Australia have significantly more severe and frequent LBP than a non-athletic group and this escalates with level of competition. PMID:19371446

  20. A Further Search for Social Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Martin E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    1983-01-01

    A behavioral effectiveness criterion was employed to conceptually and operationally define social intelligence. Using Keating's "A Search for Social Intelligence" as a methodological model, the present study examined four measures of academic intelligence and six measures of social intelligence using three different correlational procedures.…

  1. Talent Search. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Talent Search" aims to help low-income and first-generation college students (those whose parents do not have four-year college degrees) complete high school and gain access to college through a combination of services designed to improve academic achievement and increase access to financial aid. Services include test taking and study skills…

  2. The Sweet Spot of a Nonacademic Job Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Alexandra M.

    2012-01-01

    Because academic culture frowns on Ph.D.'s who consider leaving the ivory tower, most of those who jump ship find themselves at a loss as to where and how to begin a job search. Yet a nonacademic job search is actually quite similar to a standard research project. Both require advance planning, substantial research, collating evidence for an…

  3. Increasing Functional Variability in the Preparatory Phase of the Takeoff Improves Elite Springboard Diving Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barris, Sian; Farrow, Damian; Davids, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research demonstrating that specific performance outcome goals can be achieved in different ways is functionally significant for springboard divers whose performance environment can vary extensively. This body of work raises questions about the traditional approach of balking (terminating the takeoff) by elite divers aiming to…

  4. Fish oil supplementation reduces severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Mickleborough, Timothy D; Murray, Rachael L; Ionescu, Alina A; Lindley, Martin R

    2003-11-15

    In elite athletes, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) may respond to dietary modification, thereby reducing the need for pharmacologic treatment. Ten elite athletes with EIB and 10 elite athletes without EIB (control subjects) participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover study. Subjects entered the study on their normal diet, and then received either fish oil capsules containing 3.2 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 2.2 g docohexaenoic acid (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid [PUFA] diet; n = 5) or placebo capsules containing olive oil (placebo diet; n = 5) taken daily for 3 weeks. Diet had no effect on preexercise pulmonary function in either group or on postexercise pulmonary function in control subjects. However, in subjects with EIB, the n-3 PUFA diet improved postexercise pulmonary function compared with the normal and placebo diets. FEV1 decreased by 3 +/- 2% on n-3 PUFA diet, 14.5 +/- 5% on placebo diet, and 17.3 +/- 6% on normal diet at 15 minutes postexercise. Leukotriene (LT)E4, 9alpha, 11beta-prostaglandin F2, LTB4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1beta, all significantly decreased on the n-3 PUFA diet compared with normal and placebo diets and after the exercise challenge. These data suggest that dietary fish oil supplementation has a markedly protective effect in suppressing EIB in elite athletes, and this may be attributed to their antiinflammatory properties. PMID:12904324

  5. Uncovering Hidden Dimensions of Australian Early Childhood Policy History: Insights from Interviews with Policy "Elites"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Helen; Sumsion, Jennifer; Press, Frances

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the value of elite interviews as a frequently overlooked methodology in investigations of policymaking in early childhood education and care (ECEC). We contextualise the discussion within a study that examines constructions of quality in Australian ECEC policymaking between 1972 and 2009. We conclude that, despite their…

  6. 75 FR 11937 - Elite Enclosure Co., LLC, Fort Laramie, OH; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Elite Enclosure Co., LLC, Fort Laramie, OH; Notice of Termination of... response to a petition filed on November 12, 2009 by a Company Official on behalf of workers of...

  7. Bullshit as Resistance: Justifying Unearned Privilege among Students at an Elite Boarding School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaztambide-Fernandez, Ruben

    2011-01-01

    Resistance is typically framed around the experiences of youth with oppression within institutions and through "intersecting" systems of domination. Resistance among those who benefit the most from current institutional arrangements, like students attending elite schools, has rarely been considered in how resistance is theorized. This postcard is…

  8. Elite Education and the State in France: Durable Ties and New Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zanten, Agnès; Maxwell, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Employing a Weberian understanding of the centrality of a strong bureaucracy in the modern nation-state, this article examines the relationship between the state and elite education in France. Through a historical analysis and an examination of two current issues facing education--widening participation and pressures to internationalise--we…

  9. Legitimating Status: Perceptions of Meritocracy and Inequality among Undergraduates at an Elite British University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warikoo, Natasha Kumar; Fuhr, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Given the frequent critiques of elite universities for admitting low numbers of state school graduates and, more recently, British Afro-Caribbean students, how do students attending those universities make meaning of the admissions process? Through an analysis of 46 one-on-one in-depth interviews with undergraduates attending Oxford University, we…

  10. Research on improvement strategies of elite culture, mass culture and the comprehensive quality of undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongling

    2011-10-01

    This article, placed the comprehensive quality improvement of undergraduates under the background of elite culture and mass culture, analyzed the influences and challenges brought by elite culture and mass culture on the undergraduate education from multiple perspectives of philosophy, ethics, economics, education, sociology and etc. and combing some foreign developed countries' experiences proposed the principles should be insisted by high schools in the context of elite culture and mass culture. With the development of times, undergraduate education should also constantly develop into new historical starting points and thoroughly reform the undergraduate education from content to essence, perception to format with a globalized horizon, so as to be able to reflect the time characteristics and better promote the overall development of undergraduates. Exactly based on such a view, this article, on the premise of full recognition that the flourishing and development of elite culture and mass culture has promoted China into a multicultural situation, proposed the principles for university moral education, such as education should promote the integration of undergraduate multi-values, sticking to the integration of unary guidance with diverse development, insisting on seeking common points while reserving differences and harmony but with differences, and etc.

  11. "Body Work--Regulation of a Swimmer Body": An Autoethnography from an Australian Elite Swimmer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Jenny; DinanThompson, Maree

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to studies on sociology and the body by exploring my bodily experiences as an Australian elite swimmer in an autoethnographic framework. More specifically, it focuses on the relationship between the regulatory practices of others on my body and my development of self-regulatory practices. The stories in this paper reveal…

  12. The influence of surface on the running velocities of elite and amateur orienteer athletes.

    PubMed

    Hébert-Losier, K; Jensen, K; Mourot, L; Holmberg, H-C

    2014-12-01

    We compared the reduction in running velocities from road to off-road terrain in eight elite and eight amateur male orienteer athletes to investigate whether this factor differentiates elite from amateur athletes. On two separate days, each subject ran three 2-km time trials and three 20-m sprints "all-out" on a road, on a path, and in a forest. On a third day, the running economy and maximal aerobic power of individuals were assessed on a treadmill. The elite orienteer ran faster than the amateur on all three surfaces and at both distances, in line with their better running economy and aerobic power. In the forest, the elites ran at a slightly higher percentage of their 2-km (∼3%) and 20-m (∼4%) road velocities. Although these differences did not exhibit traditional statistical significance, magnitude-based inferences suggested likely meaningful differences, particularly during 20-m sprinting. Of course, cognitive, mental, and physical attributes other than the ability to run on different surfaces are required for excellence in orienteering (e.g., a high aerobic power). However, we suggest that athlete-specific assessment of running performance on various surfaces and distances might assist in tailoring training and identifying individual strengths and/or weaknesses in an orienteer. PMID:24673160

  13. Maize Haploid Induction and Doubling II – Experience with Exotic and Elite Maize Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a follow-up to our previous study, second year information will be presented addressing questions on haploid induction and doubling, utilizing exotic and elite maize. These projects result from collaborations between Iowa State Doubled Haploid Facility (http://www.plantbreeding.iastate.edu/DHF/D...

  14. Dispositions of Elite-Level Australian Rugby Coaches towards Game Sense: Characteristics of Their Coaching Habitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard L.; Evans, John Robert

    2013-01-01

    Bourdieu's analytic concept of "habitus" has provided a valuable means of theorising coach development but is yet to be operationalised in empirical research. This article redresses this oversight by drawing on a larger study that inquired into how the "coaching 'habitus'" of elite-level Australian and New…

  15. Rural Students' Experiences in a Chinese Elite University: Capital, Habitus and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, He

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on a qualitative case study and deploying Bourdieu's thinking tools, this article attempts to understand rural students' subjectivities and practices in a Chinese elite university, relating the types and volumes of capital they possessed to the process of position-takings. It contextualises their experiences against the backdrop…

  16. "Class Work:" Producing Privilege and Social Mobility in Elite US Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois; Cipollone, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon two ethnographic studies of affluent and elite co-educational secondary schools in the United States, Weis and Cipollone spotlight the explicit "class work" of a now highly insecure middle/upper middle class, as they attempt to maintain advantage via entrance to particularly located post-secondary destinations. Affirming the…

  17. Impact of intense training and rapid weight changes on salivary parameters in elite female Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, M-L; Ko, M-H; Chang, C-K; Chou, K-M; Fang, S-H

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the cumulative effects of prolonged intensive training with or without rapid weight changes (RWC) on salivary parameters of elite female Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. Ten elite female Taiwanese TKD athletes (ages: 21.3 ± 1.2 years of age, Ht 164.4 ± 5.6 cm) volunteered to participate in this study. Resting saliva samples were collected at 28-, 14-, 7-, and 1 day before and 1-, 7-, 21 days after a national competition. The levels of salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA), cortisol, and lactoferrin were measured. In analyzing the anthropometric data, we found that a significant proportion (50%) of elite female TKD athletes had RWC shortly before and after a national competition. The participants were allocated either to the RWC or to the non-RWC group according to their weight change profiles. Our results showed that levels of sIgA and cortisol of athletes with RWC were significantly modulated during the study period. However, athletes without RWC only showed reduced lactoferrin after competition. The results presented here demonstrate that intensive training in combination with RWC affects the mucosal immunity and disrupts the cortisol stress response of elite female TKD athletes. PMID:20456682

  18. Career Funneling: How Elite Students Learn to Define and Desire ''Prestigious'' Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Amy J.; Davis, Daniel B.; Bloom, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Elite universities are credited as launch points for the widest variety of meaningful careers. Yet, year after year at the most selective universities, nearly half the graduating seniors head to a surprisingly narrow band of professional options. Over the past few decades, this has largely been into the finance and consulting sectors, but…

  19. Everything starts with an 'E': exclusion, ethnicity and elite formation in contemporary English clubland.

    PubMed

    Measham, Fiona; Hadfield, Phil

    2009-01-01

    Early Club Studies emphasised the inclusiveness of club cultures and the PLUR ethos of 'peace, love, unity and respect' alongside a polarised characterisation of nightlife contexts, as either commercial, alcohol-oriented nightclubs offering 'mainstream' pop music, or 'authentic'/'alternative' underground dance clubs associated with widespread illicit drug use. This paper adds to the growing body of research problematising these simplistic characterisations of club cultures and leisure venues across the night-time economy, emphasising elements of fragmentation and segregation alongside the continued importance of social structure and resultant social and spatial exclusion. The authors explore how informal processes - such as club launches, internet promotions and dress codes - together result in the production and reproduction of two contrasting forms of English clubland elites: 'cultural elites' produced through the social, cultural and spatial exclusion of electronic dance music of black origin and its minority ethnic, working class and lower income followers from Manchester city centre dance clubs; and 'consumer elites' produced through the economic and cultural exclusion of working class and lower income club-goers from nightclubs in London's West End. The complex and interweaving practices of cultural distinction and structural discrimination which produce such elites are often closely intertwined with the formal and informal regulation, marginalization and criminalization of specific cultural forms. The paper therefore argues for the construction of more nuanced conceptual understandings of the social divisions and inequalities within nightlife and in studies of young people's leisure opportunities more generally. PMID:20011992

  20. The Media, Elite Conflict, and Risk Perception in Nuclear Energy Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Stanley; Lichter, S. Robert

    The argument undergirding this essay is that the new environmental movement in the United States is partly a symbolic issue. Some liberal or radical members of key strategic elites who are alienated from the social and political system are drawn to concrete issues which serve as a surrogate for a real criticism of the hegemonic structure. The…

  1. Career Decision Making for Young Elite Athletes: Are We Ahead on Points?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albion, Majella J.; Fogarty, Gerard J.

    2005-01-01

    A comparison is made between the career decision making of secondary school students who are also elite athletes and a sample of non-athlete students. The 226 athletes (111 females, 115 males) in the study were on sporting scholarships with the Australian Institute of Sport or state/territory institutions. Measures used included the "Career…

  2. The potential role of myostatin and neurotransmission genes in elite sport performances.

    PubMed

    Filonzi, L; Franchini, N; Vaghi, M; Chiesa, S; Marzano, F Nonnis

    2015-09-01

    Elite athletes are those who represent their sport at such major competition as the Olympic Games or World contests. The most outstanding athletes appear to emerge as a result of endogenous biologic characteristics interacting with exogenous influences of the environment, often described as a 'Nature and Nurture' struggle. In this work, we assessed the contribution given by 4 genes involved in muscles development (MSTN) and behavioural insights (5HTT, DAT and MAOA) to athletic performances. As for neurotransmission, 5HTT, DAT and MAOA genes have been considered as directly involved in the management of aggressiveness and anxiety. Genotypes and allelic frequencies of 5HTTLPR, MAOA-u VNTR, DAT VNTR and MSTN K153R were determined in 50 elite athletes and compared with 100 control athletes. In this work we found a significant correlation between the dopamine transporter genotype 9/9 and allele 9 and elite sport performances. On the contrary, no association was found between muscle development regulation or serotonin pathway and elite performances. Our data, for the first time, suggest a strong role of dopamine neurotransmitter in determining sport success, highlighting the role of emotional control and psycological management to reach high-level performances. PMID:26333399

  3. How Is Postsecondary Education Associated with Membership in the American Corporate Elite?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Molly C.

    2011-01-01

    This study contributes to the discussion around the value of a college degree and associated career advantages by considering how postsecondary education contributes to the attainment of the most powerful and prestigious positions in the American corporate world. Guided by a conceptual framework informed by status attainment, power elite, and…

  4. Physiological Responses During Matches and Profile of Elite Pencak Silat Exponents

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Tan, Benedict; Teh, Kong Chuan

    2002-01-01

    This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study describing the physiological responses during competitive matches and profile of elite exponents of an emerging martial art sport, pencak silat. Thirty exponents (21 males and 9 females) were involved in the study. Match responses (i.e. heart rate (HR) throughout match and capillary blood lactate concentration, [La], at pre-match and at the end of every round) were obtained during actual competitive duels. Elite silat exponents’ physiological attributes were assessed via anthropometry, vertical jump, isometric grip strength, maximal oxygen uptake, and the Wingate 30 s anaerobic test of the upper and lower body, in the laboratory. The match response data showed that silat competitors’ mean HR was > 84% of estimated HR maximum and levels of [La] ranged from 6.7 - 18.7 mMol-1 during matches. This suggests that competitive silat matches are characterised by high aerobic and anaerobic responses. In comparison to elite taekwondo and judo athletes’ physiological characteristics, elite silat exponents have lower aerobic fitness and grip strength, but greater explosive leg power (vertical jump). Generally, they also possessed a similar anaerobic capability in the lower but markedly inferior anaerobic capability in the upper body. PMID:24748847

  5. The Gift Economy of Elite Schooling: The Changing Contours and Contradictions of Privileged Benefaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Fahey, Johannah

    2015-01-01

    Privileged benefaction in elite schools and the moral dilemmas, contradictions and power politics involved are the focus of this paper. The notion of "the gift" provides our analytical lens. We concentrate on two girls' schools--one in South Africa and one in England. These were both built, in various ways, on the British model of…

  6. Negotiating Identity: Elite Institutions, Low-Income First Generation College Students, and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondini, Ashley C.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education reports that students who are the first in their families to pursue an undergraduate education comprise a minority of the student population at public four-year educational institutions, and comprise an even smaller percentage at elite, private four-year institutions (Engle, Bermeo, and O'Brien 2006). This…

  7. Enlightenment and Attitudes of the Nigerian Elite on the Roles of Languages in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegbite, Wale

    2003-01-01

    This study describes the effect of enlightenment on attitudes of the Nigerian elite to the roles assigned to English and indigenous languages in Nigeria. From the results of a preliminary investigation into the attitudes of undergraduate students in a Nigerian University, it was presumed that enlightenment of citizens on the importance of…

  8. "The Smokescreen of Meritocracy": Elite Education in Ireland and the Reproduction of Class Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Margaret; Power, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite generally being neglected in sociological research, the study of elite schooling provides valuable insights into how educational exclusion operates. The predominance of the privately educated in key leadership positions highlights the extent to which such exclusive schools act as conduits of privilege, where they not alone determine a…

  9. Talent identification and selection in elite youth football: An Australian context.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Donna; Larkin, Paul; Mark Williams, A

    2016-10-01

    We identified the perceptual-cognitive skills and player history variables that differentiate players selected or not selected into an elite youth football (i.e. soccer) programme in Australia. A sample of elite youth male football players (n = 127) completed an adapted participation history questionnaire and video-based assessments of perceptual-cognitive skills. Following data collection, 22 of these players were offered a full-time scholarship for enrolment at an elite player residential programme. Participants selected for the scholarship programme recorded superior performance on the combined perceptual-cognitive skills tests compared to the non-selected group. There were no significant between group differences on the player history variables. Stepwise discriminant function analysis identified four predictor variables that resulted in the best categorization of selected and non-selected players (i.e. recent match-play performance, region, number of other sports participated, combined perceptual-cognitive performance). The effectiveness of the discriminant function is reflected by 93.7% of players being correctly classified, with the four variables accounting for 57.6% of the variance. Our discriminating model for selection may provide a greater understanding of the factors that influence elite youth talent selection and identification. PMID:26923813

  10. Transfer Access from Community Colleges and the Distribution of Elite Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Alicia C.; Cheslock, John J.; Melguizo, Tatiana

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study that improves the authors' understanding of the potential impact of expanded community college transfer access to elite institutions by examining a variety of key questions using two national databases with complementary strengths. By estimating the number of low-income community college students currently transferring…

  11. A Standardized, Evidence-Based Massage Therapy Program for Decentralized Elite Paracyclists: Creating the Model†

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ann B.; Trilk, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Evidence suggests that para-athletes are injured more often than able-bodied athletes. The benefits of massage therapy for these disabled athletes are yet to be explored. This paper documents the process followed for creating a massage program for elite paracycling athletes with the goal to assess effects on recovery, rest, performance, and quality of life both on and off the bike. Setting Massage therapists’ private practices throughout the United States. Participants A United States Paracycling team consisting of 9 elite athletes: 2 spinal cord injury, 2 lower limb amputation, 1 upper limb amputation, 1 transverse myelitis, 1 stroke, 1 traumatic brain injury, and 1 visually impaired. Design The process used to develop a massage therapy program for para-cyclists included meetings with athletes, coaching staff, team exercise physiologist, and sports massage therapists; peer-reviewed literature was also consulted to address specific health conditions of para-athletes. Results Team leadership and athletes identified needs for quicker recovery, better rest, and improved performance in elite paracyclists. This information was used to generate a conceptual model for massage protocols, and led to creation of the intake and exit questionnaires to assess patient health status and recovery. Forms also were created for a general health intake, therapist information, and a therapist’s SOAAP notes. Discussion The conceptual model and questionnaires developed herein will help to operationalize an exploratory study investigating the feasibility of implementing a standardized massage therapy program for a decentralized elite paracycling team. PMID:26388960

  12. A Cultural Mismatch: The Experience of First-Generation College Students in Elite Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    "First-generation" college students, whose parents have not attended college, are an increasing presence at elite colleges and universities. Admitting these students, however, is not enough to ensure that they can take full advantage of the opportunities available to them in college and succeed there. Indeed, research indicates that…

  13. "Thousands Waiting at Our Gates": Moral Character, Legitimacy and Social Justice in Irish Elite Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtois, Aline

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how Irish elite schools negotiate change and maintain their legitimacy in times of economic turmoil and rising social inequality. The paper argues that they have not bowed before the demands of democratisation or economic globalisation. Instead they continue to maintain a high level of social closure and control diversity…

  14. The Ability of Elite Table Tennis Players with Intellectual Disabilities to Adapt Their Service/Return

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Biesen, Debbie; Verellen, Joeri; Meyer, Christophe; Mactavish, Jennifer; Van de Vliet, Peter; Vanlandewijck, Yves

    2010-01-01

    In this study the ability of elite table tennis players with intellectual disability (ID) to adapt their service/return to specific ball spin characteristics was investigated. This was done by examining the performance of 39 players with ID and a reference group of 8 players without ID on a standardized table tennis specific test battery. The…

  15. Cultivating National Leaders in an Elite School: Deploying the Transnational in the National Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Aaron; Kenway, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the leadership cultivation practices of one elite school in Singapore. We point to the links between the habitus of the Singapore state and that of the school showing how different components of the school's leadership curriculum deploy the transnational in order to produce leaders for the nation. In essence, we argue that the…

  16. Doing Class Analysis in Singapore's Elite Education: Unravelling the Smokescreen of "Meritocratic Talk"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the specificity of the education-class nexus in an elite independent school in Singapore. It seeks to unravel the puzzle that meritocracy is dogmatically believed in Singapore in spite of evidences that point to the contrary. The paper draws on discursive (analysis of media materials) and institutional (analysis of interview…

  17. Cross-Talk: The Role of Homophily and Elite Bias in Civic Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weare, Christopher; Musso, Juliet; Jun, Kyu-Nahm

    2009-01-01

    We examine the manner in which voluntary associations expose individuals to differing perspectives, or "cross-talk." Specifically we develop hypotheses based on the interactive roles of elite bias and homophily in structuring networks of democratic participation and test them on social network data of Los Angeles neighborhood councils. We find…

  18. Negotiation and Capital: Athletes' Use of Power in an Elite Men's Rowing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Laura; Jones, Robyn; Cassidy, Tania

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine how power is given, acquired and used by athletes in the elite sporting context. It focuses on a top-level athlete's reactions to the behaviors of his coaches and how such actions contribute to the creation of a coaching climate, which both influences and "houses" coaching. The paper centers on Sean (a…

  19. The New Policy on Hyperandrogenism in Elite Female Athletes is not about “Sex Testing”

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Francisco J.; Martínez-Patiño, María José; Vilain, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In April 2011, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the International Association of Athletic Federations (IAAF) updated their regulations regarding female elite athletes with hyperandrogenism: Females whose testosterone levels crossed into the male range could not compete with other females unless it is shown that they are resistant to the effects of testosterone. Although the new rule is a marked improvement over past attempts to ensure that males were not trying to compete as women in elite competition, there have been several criticisms leveled against the new regulations. Here we offer our reactions to claims that the new regulation promotes a sex-verification test, claims that intersex athletes will automatically be disqualified from competition, and proposals to either divide athletes based on variables beyond sex or completely eliminate sex groupings. Although elite sports can never achieve a perfect, level playing-field, there should be parameters within which athletes must adhere for a given sport. Yet, elite athletes themselves should play a decisive role in what is best for their sport. PMID:23320653

  20. The Exporting and Franchising of Elite English Private Schools: The Emerging "Second Wave"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunnell, Tristan

    2008-01-01

    The past decade has seen the emergence, predominantly in Thailand and mainland China, of a form of educational institution that has had little scholarly attention or generic identification. This paper shows how the ad hoc and opportunistic franchising of elite English private schools, beginning with the hyper-capitalist exportation of the Dulwich…

  1. Elite International Schools in the Global South: Transnational Space, Class Relationalities and the "Middling" International Schoolteacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarc, Paul; Mishra Tarc, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    The elite international school is a rich site for sociological inquiry in global times. In this paper, we conceptualize the international school as a transnational space of agonist social class-making given the dynamic positioning of the complement of international school actors. We position international schoolteachers in the middle of these…

  2. Framing Quality Physical Education: The Elite Sport Model or Sport Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, David

    2004-01-01

    It is commonplace for politicians and the media to refer to elite sport as a means of framing discussions about physical education. This point is demonstrated by reference to recent policy documents and media reports containing statements by Tony Blair and Tessa Jowell. Their collective perspective is labelled the commonsense consensus on physical…

  3. "Role Models" among Elite Young Male Rugby League Players in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Scott; Hardman, Alun; Jones, Carwyn; Sheridan, Heather

    2005-01-01

    There is a taken-for-granted acceptance that sports stars have responsibilities as "role models", yet the concept of a "role model" is unclear. The present study addressed the choice of "role models" amongst elite young British rugby league players, and the reasons for their choices. During the summer of 2002 under-13 and under-14 participants of…

  4. Registration of isogenic HMW-GS Ax1 protein deficient lines of an elite wheat variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of isogenic wheat lines deficient in high-molecular weight subunit (HMW-GS) proteins encoded on the A-genome of an elite variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by USDA-ARS at the Western Regional Research Center in Albany, CA. This set of A-genome encoded HMW-GS defi...

  5. Evaluation of Elite Breeding Lines for Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty four elite breeding lines from breeding programs in the southeast region including 8 from Arkansas, 4 from North Carolina, 6 from Virginia, and 6 from University of Georgia were evaluated with Ernie and Coker 9835 as resistant and susceptible control respectively under misted conditions in Gr...

  6. Genomewide association study for beta-glucan content in North American elite oat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome wide-association studies (GWAS) can be a useful approach to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling complex traits in crop plants. Oat (Avena sativa L.) beta-glucan is a soluble dietary fiber and has been shown to have positive health benefits. We report a GWAS involving 446 elite oa...

  7. A Comment on Class Productions in Elite Secondary Schools in Twenty-First-Century Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois

    2014-01-01

    In this closing essay, Lois Weis offers a broad overview of the contributions of this Special Issue on class production in elite secondary schools in the twenty-first-century global context. Drawing upon her own research within US privileged secondary schools, Weis explores the contemporary social, economic and political landscape as connected to…

  8. Privilege: The Making of an Adolescent Elite at St. Paul's School. Princeton Studies in Cultural Sociology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Shamus Rahman

    2012-01-01

    As one of the most prestigious high schools in the nation, St. Paul's School in Concord, New Hampshire, has long been the exclusive domain of America's wealthiest sons. But times have changed. Today, a new elite of boys and girls is being molded at St. Paul's, one that reflects the hope of openness but also the persistence of inequality. In…

  9. Approaching Methodology Creatively: Problematizing Elite Schools' "Best Practice" through a Film about Perfection and Imperfection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Johannah; Prosser, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Elite schools around the world aspire to produce perfect students and yet there are always obstacles to this perfection being achieved. In this paper, we suggest that this process of perfectionism and obstruction can best be understood using a methodology that looks to the creative arts, rather than the usual social science orthodoxies. Our focus…

  10. Effect of Maximal Aerobic Power on Match Performance in Elite Soccer Referees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castagna, Carlo; D'Ottavio, Stefano

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether soccer referees' maximal aerobic power could influence match performance (exercise intensity) during highly competitive games. Analysis of data from observations and monitoring of elite-level referees demonstrated the positive influence of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in determining both the total amount of distance covered…

  11. Receiving Video-Based Feedback in Elite Ice-Hockey: A Player's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Lee J.; Potrac, Paul; Groom, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide some rich insights into how an elite ice-hockey player responded to his coaches' pedagogical delivery of video-based feedback sessions. Data for this study were gathered through a series of in-depth, semi-structured interviews and a reflective log relating to those interviews. The interviews were…

  12. Social Comparison and Peer Effects at an Elite College. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goethals, George R.

    A study was conducted to see whether peer effects could be observed among 102 undergraduates at Williams College, an elite four-year liberal arts school. The study explored whether students in the bottom third of their class, with average Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) scores of about 1300, would perform better in writing about newspaper…

  13. Latitude distribution of track and field elite athletes in China mainland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Zhang; Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Cui, Li-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Yang; Jin, Hua

    2006-01-01

    The civilization theories prevailed among people are the theories paying attention to the geographical factors. In this paper, the latitude distribution of track and field elite athletes in China mainland has been studied in terms of the biological effects of sunlight. The China mainland is divided into seven latitude zones according to the absolute latitude value so that the larger the zone number is, the larger the distance from the Equator. The elite athletes are classified into speed-type, jump-type, strength-type and endurance-type so that the latitude distribution can be discussed in terms of exercise physiology. The latitude distribution shows that the elite athletes of speed-type or jump-type prefer to the zones of low latitude, and the elite athletes of strength-type or endurance-type prefer to the zones of high latitude. These phenomena can be understood by the effects of sunlight on exercise physiological index such as skeletal muscle fibre types.

  14. Mothers of the Race: The Elite Schools for German Girls under the Nazi Dictatorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Gregory Paul

    2004-01-01

    In a seeming contradiction of earlier education policy and ideology, the Nazi regime opened three elite schools for girls beginning in 1938. These relatively short-lived and little known institutions symbolized a Nazi penchant for the schooling of females as a preparation for motherhood and a means of preserving racial bloodlines. Drawing from…

  15. Peer Social Networks among Low-Income Students at an Elite College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines peer social networks among low-income students at an elite college. A qualitative case study used semistructured individual interviews to consider how peer social networks are constructed and developed, the importance of these networks, and which institutional facilitators promote and inhibit same- and cross-class peer social…

  16. Social Support and Recovery from Sport Injury: Elite Skiers Share Their Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianco, Theresa

    2001-01-01

    Interviewed elite skiers who had recovered from serious injuries about stress associated with injury and the role of social support in recovery. Skiers needed various types of emotional, informational, and tangible support from the occurrence of injury through the return to full activity. Treatment team members, ski team members and home support…

  17. Elite International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme Schools and Inter-Cultural Understanding in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ewan; Lee, Moosung

    2014-01-01

    The number of International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) schools has increased rapidly in China in recent years. However, access to schools offering the IBDP remains restricted to a relatively elite minority of China's population due to enrolment barriers for Chinese nationals and relatively high school fees. An implication is that…

  18. Secularization or Socialization? A Study of Student Religiosity at an Elite University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nathan D.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the author analyzed panel data on elite university students to test prominent explanations for how college attendance affects religious identities and behaviors. Results from random-effects logistic regression showed that in-college religiosity was primarily a function of pre-college religious background. While the secularization…

  19. Elite Female Business Students in China and Norway: Job-Related Values and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordhaug, Odd; Gooderham, Paul; Zhang, Xian; Liu, Yali; Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the work-related values, preferences, and future expectations among female students at two elite business schools in China and Norway. The paper argues that while gender theory predicts no significant differences between these two groups, both cultural and economic development theory imply fundamental differences. The…

  20. Big data and tactical analysis in elite soccer: future challenges and opportunities for sports science.

    PubMed

    Rein, Robert; Memmert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Until recently tactical analysis in elite soccer were based on observational data using variables which discard most contextual information. Analyses of team tactics require however detailed data from various sources including technical skill, individual physiological performance, and team formations among others to represent the complex processes underlying team tactical behavior. Accordingly, little is known about how these different factors influence team tactical behavior in elite soccer. In parts, this has also been due to the lack of available data. Increasingly however, detailed game logs obtained through next-generation tracking technologies in addition to physiological training data collected through novel miniature sensor technologies have become available for research. This leads however to the opposite problem where the shear amount of data becomes an obstacle in itself as methodological guidelines as well as theoretical modelling of tactical decision making in team sports is lacking. The present paper discusses how big data and modern machine learning technologies may help to address these issues and aid in developing a theoretical model for tactical decision making in team sports. As experience from medical applications show, significant organizational obstacles regarding data governance and access to technologies must be overcome first. The present work discusses these issues with respect to tactical analyses in elite soccer and propose a technological stack which aims to introduce big data technologies into elite soccer research. The proposed approach could also serve as a guideline for other sports science domains as increasing data size is becoming a wide-spread phenomenon. PMID:27610328

  1. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm in an elite rower.

    PubMed

    O'heireamhoin, S; Baker, J F; Neligan, M

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) affecting the volar forearm compartment of an elite rower. CECS of the forearm is a less well recognised entity than lower limb CECS. We describe a typical history and detail a potential treatment. PMID:23198215

  2. Reconceptualising Elite Athlete Programmes: "Undoing" the Politics of Labelling in Health and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Seth

    2015-01-01

    High-performance sport is a big business, with nations such as Australia and New Zealand dedicating hundreds of millions of dollars in the development of facilities and in creating sporting centres of excellence. Historically, high-performance sport and elite athlete programmes (EAPs) were regulated to an extra-curricular space in schools or local…

  3. Auditing Chinese Higher Education? The Perspectives of Returnee Scholars in an Elite University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Lin

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon fieldwork conducted in an elite Chinese university and English language literature of audit culture in higher education against the backdrop of Chinese higher education in transition, this paper has discovered that Chinese higher education is undergoing an auditing process. However, this Chinese audit regime is not only guarded by a…

  4. Alleles conferring improved fiber quality from EMS mutagenesis of elite cotton genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elite gene pool of cotton (Gossypium spp.) has less diversity than those of most other major crops, making identification of novel alleles important to ongoing crop improvement. A total of 3,164 M5 lines resulting from ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis of two G. hirsutum breeding lines, TAM 94L...

  5. Microsatellite Variations of Elite Setaria Varieties Released during Last Six Decades in China

    PubMed Central

    Schnable, James C.; Niu, Zhengang; Wang, Chunfang; Li, Yuhui; Wang, Shujun; Wang, Suying; Liu, Jinrong; Guo, Erhu; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

    2015-01-01

    Crop improvement is a multifaceted micro-evolutionary process, involving changes in breeding approaches, planting configurations and consumption preferences of human beings. Recent research has started to identify the specific genes or genomic regions correlate to improved agronomic traits, however, an apparent blank between the genetic structure of crop elite varieties and their improving histories in diverse modern breeding programs is still in existence. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) was one of the earliest cereal crops to be domesticated and served as a staple crop for early civilizations in China, where it is still widely grown today. In the present trial, a panel of foxtail millet elite varieties, which were released in the last sixty years in different geographical regions of China, was characterized using microsatellite markers (SSRs). A clear separation of two subpopulations corresponding to the two eco-geographical regions of foxtail millet production in China was identified by the dataset, which also indicated that in more recently released elite varieties, large quantities of accessions have been transferred from spring-sowing to summer-sowing ecotypes, likely as a result of breeding response to planting configurations. An association mapping study was conducted to identify loci controlling traits of major agronomic interest. Furthermore, selective sweeps involved in improvement of foxtail millet were identified as multi-diverse minor effect loci controlling different agronomic traits during the long-term improvement of elite varieties. Our results highlight the effect of transition of planting configuration and breeding preference on genetic evolvement of crop species. PMID:25932649

  6. Evaluation and haplotype analysis of elite synthetic hexaploid wheat lines for resistance to Hessian fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW), derived from tetraploid wheat ' Aegilops tauschii hybrid, is an excellent source of resistance genes for various diseases and insects in wheat. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the elite SHW lines developed at the International Maize and Wheat Improvemen...

  7. Evaluation of elite southern maturity soybean breeding lines for drought tolerant traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is a major reason for crop loss. Breeding efforts in soybean have addressed this problem through the selection of elite genetic lines which have improved yielding ability during water stress. However, the physiological and genetic basis for the improved yields of these genotypes is largely...

  8. Measurement of academic entitlement.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian K

    2013-10-01

    Members of Generation Y, or Millennials, have been accused of being lazy, whiny, pampered, and entitled, particularly in the college classroom. Using an equity theory framework, eight items from a measure of work entitlement were adapted to measure academic entitlement in a university setting in three independent samples. In Study 1 (n = 229), confirmatory factor analyses indicated good model fit to a unidimensional structure for the data. In Study 2 (n = 200), the questionnaire predicted unique variance in university satisfaction beyond two more general measures of dispositional entitlement. In Study 3 (n = 161), the measure predicted unique variance in perceptions of grade fairness beyond that which was predicted by another measure of academic entitlement. This analysis provides evidence of discriminant, convergent, incremental, concurrent criterion-related, and construct validity for the Academic Equity Preference Questionnaire. PMID:24597456

  9. Technical match characteristics and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in male elite team handball.

    PubMed

    Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Madsen, Klavs; Aagaard, Per

    2015-02-01

    Modern team handball match-play imposes substantial physical and technical demands on elite players. However, only limited knowledge seems to exist about the specific working requirements in elite team handball. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the physical demands imposed on male elite team handball players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry. Based on continuous video recording of individual players during elite team handball match-play (62 tournament games, ∼4 players per game), computerized technical match analysis was performed in male elite team handball players along with anthropometric measurements over a 6 season time span. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, tackles, technical errors, and defense errors) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., hard or light tackles, type of shot, claspings, screenings, and blockings). Players showed 36.9 ± 13.1 (group mean ± SD) high-intense technical playing actions per match with a mean total effective playing time of 53.85 ± 5.87 minutes. In offense, each player performed 6.0 ± 5.2 fast breaks, received 34.5 ± 21.3 tackles in total, and performed in defense 3.7 ± 3.5 blockings, 3.9 ± 3.0 claspings, and 5.8 ± 3.6 hard tackles. Wing players (84.5 ± 5.8 kg, 184.9 ± 5.7 cm) were less heavy and smaller (p < 0.001) than backcourt players (94.7 ± 7.1 kg, 191.9 ± 5.4 cm) and pivots (99.4 ± 6.2 kg, 194.8 ± 3.6 cm). In conclusion, modern male elite team handball match-play is characterized by a high number of short-term, high-intense intermittent technical playing actions. Indications of technical fatigue were observed. Physical demands differed between playing positions with wing players performing more fast breaks and less physical confrontations with opponent players than backcourt players and pivots. Body anthropometry seemed to have an important influence on playing performance

  10. Anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of elite junior tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez‐Muñoz, Cristóbal; Sanz, David; Zabala, Mikel

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to describe the anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of elite male and female junior tennis players, to compare the anthropometric data, body composition and somatotype of the first 12 elite junior tennis players on the ranking with the lower ranked players, and to establish an anthropometric profile chart for elite junior tennis players. Methods A total of 123 (57 males and 66 females) elite junior tennis players participated in this study. The athletes were divided into two groups, the first 12 and the lower ranked players, according to gender. A total of 17 anthropometric variables were recorded of each subject. Results There were no significant differences in height and weight between the first 12 and the lower ranked boys, while the first 12 girls were significantly taller than the lower ranked girls (p = 0.009). Significant differences were found for humeral and femoral breadths between the first 12 and the lower ranked girls (p = 0.000; p = 0.004, respectively). The mean (SD) somatotype of elite male junior tennis players could be defined as ectomesomorphic (2.4 (0.7), 5.2 (0.8), 2.9 (0.7)) and the mean (SD) somatotype of elite female junior tennis players evaluated could be defined as endomesomorphic (3.8 (0.9), 4.6 (1.0), 2.4 (1.0)). No significant differences were found in somatotype components between the first 12 and the lower ranked players of both genders. Conclusions When comparing the first 12 and the lower ranked elite junior tennis players of both genders, no significant differences were observed in any measured item for the boys. By contrast, significant differences were observed in height and humeral and femoral breadths between the first 12 and the lower ranked girls, whereby the first 12 were taller and had wider humeral and femoral breadths than the lower ranked players. These differences could influence the playing style of junior female players. PMID:17957016

  11. Searching for Higher Education Leadership: Advice for Candidates and Search Committees. ACE/Praeger Series on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdall, Jean A.

    2007-01-01

    This book offers sample documents for candidates as well as for the search committees, and includes a substantive bibliography. From her vantage point outside the institution, the author is able to provide a unique point of view and insightful comments on the complex and often daunting process of the academic executive search. Key selling points…

  12. Academic medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Burger, Edward J; Ziganshina, Lilia; Ziganshin, Airat U

    2004-12-01

    Academic medicine, along with professionalism of the medical community in Russia underwent a remarkable evolution from the Revolution through the decline of the Soviet Union. The Soviet period brought about an enormous expansion of numbers of admissions to medical schools and a corresponding increase in the number of new physicians. Academic medical institutions were separated from institutions of higher learning in general and medical science was separated from the mainstream of science. Many of these features have been reversed in the past 14 years and re-professionalization of medicine has resumed. PMID:15578798

  13. The aging of elite male athletes: age-related changes in performance and skeletal muscle structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, John A.; Davis, Carol S.; Mendias, Christopher L.; Brooks, Susan V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The paper addresses the degree to which the attainment of the status as an elite athlete in different sports ameliorates the known age-related losses in skeletal muscle structure and function. Design The retrospective design, based on comparisons of published data on former elite and masters athletes and data on control subjects, assessed the degree to which the attainment of ‘elite and masters athlete status’ ameliorated the known age-related changes in skeletal muscle structure and function. Setting Institutional. Participants Elite male athletes. Interventions Participation in selected individual and team sports. Main Outcome Measurements Strength, power, VO2 max and performance. Results For elite athletes in all sports, as for the general population, age-related muscle atrophy begins at about 50 years of age. Despite the loss of muscle mass, elite athletes who maintain an active life style age gracefully with few health problems. Conversely, those who lapse into inactivity regress toward general population norms for fitness, weight control, and health problems. Elite athletes in the dual and team sports have careers that rarely extend into the thirties. Conclusions Life long physical activity does not appear to have any impact on the loss in fiber number. The loss of fibers can be buffered to some degree by hypertrophy of fibers that remain. Surprisingly, the performance of elite athletes in all sports appears to be impaired before the onset of the fiber loss. Even with major losses in physical capacity and muscle mass, the performance of elite and masters athletes is remarkable. PMID:19001883

  14. Conceptual Models for Search Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, D. G.; Efthimiadis, E. N.

    Search engines have entered popular culture. They touch people in diverse private and public settings and thus heighten the importance of such important social matters as information privacy and control, censorship, and equitable access. To fully benefit from search engines and to participate in debate about their merits, people necessarily appeal to their understandings for how they function. In this chapter we examine the conceptual understandings that people have of search engines by performing a content analysis on the sketches that 200 undergraduate and graduate students drew when asked to draw a sketch of how a search engine works. Analysis of the sketches reveals a diverse range of conceptual approaches, metaphors, representations, and misconceptions. On the whole, the conceptual models articulated by these students are simplistic. However, students with higher levels of academic achievement sketched more complete models. This research calls attention to the importance of improving students' technical knowledge of how search engines work so they can be better equipped to develop and advocate policies for how search engines should be embedded in, and restricted from, various private and public information settings.

  15. The World Anti-Doping Code: can you have asthma and still be an elite athlete?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Key points The World Anti-Doping Code (the Code) does place some restrictions on prescribing inhaled β2-agonists, but these can be overcome without jeopardising the treatment of elite athletes with asthma. While the Code permits the use of inhaled glucocorticoids without restriction, oral and intravenous glucocorticoids are prohibited, although a mechanism exists that allows them to be administered for acute severe asthma. Although asthmatic athletes achieved outstanding sporting success during the 1950s and 1960s before any anti-doping rules existed, since introduction of the Code’s policies on some drugs to manage asthma results at the Olympic Games have revealed that athletes with confirmed asthma/airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) have outperformed their non-asthmatic rivals. It appears that years of intensive endurance training can provoke airway injury, AHR and asthma in athletes without any past history of asthma. Although further research is needed, it appears that these consequences of airway injury may abate in some athletes after they have ceased intensive training. The World Anti-Doping Code (the Code) has not prevented asthmatic individuals from becoming elite athletes. This review examines those sections of the Code that are relevant to respiratory physicians who manage elite and sub-elite athletes with asthma. The restrictions that the Code places or may place on the prescription of drugs to prevent and treat asthma in athletes are discussed. In addition, the means by which respiratory physicians are able to treat their elite asthmatic athlete patients with drugs that are prohibited in sport are outlined, along with some of the pitfalls in such management and how best to prevent or minimise them. PMID:27408633

  16. ACTN3 R577X genotype is associated with sprinting in elite Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Mikami, E; Fuku, N; Murakami, H; Tsuchie, H; Takahashi, H; Ohiwa, N; Tanaka, H; Pitsiladis, Y P; Higuchi, M; Miyachi, M; Kawahara, T; Tanaka, M

    2014-02-01

    The ACTN3 R577X genotype has been found to associate with sprint/power phenotypes in all elite athlete cohorts investigated. This association has not been extensively studied in elite Asian athletes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the association between the ACTN3 R577X genotype and elite Japanese track and field athlete status. 299 elite Japanese track and field athletes (134 sprint/power athletes; 165 endurance/middle-power athletes) and 649 Japanese controls were genotyped for the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism. All athletes were of national or international level. Sprint/power athletes showed a higher frequency of RR + RX genotype than controls (111/134 [82.8%] vs. 478/649 [73.7%], P = 0.025 under the R-dominant model), while there was no significant difference between endurance/middle-power athletes and controls (126/165 [76.4%] vs. 478/649 [73.7%], P = 0.48 under the R-dominant model). Sprinters with the RR + RX genotype had significantly faster personal best times for the 100 m than those with XX genotype (10.42 ± 0.05 s vs. 10.64 ± 0.09 s, P = 0.042); no such association was found in the 400 m sprinters (47.02 ± 0.36 s vs. 47.56 ± 0.99 s, P = 0.62). ACTN3 R577X genotype is associated with sprint/power performance in elite Japanese track and field athletes, especially short sprint performance. PMID:23868678

  17. Judgment of actions in experts: a high-resolution EEG study in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Del Percio, Claudio; Rossini, Paolo M; Marzano, Nicola; Iacoboni, Marco; Infarinato, Francesco; Lizio, Roberta; Piazza, Marina; Pirritano, Mirella; Berlutti, Giovanna; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2009-04-01

    The present study tested the two following hypotheses: (i) compared to non-athletes, elite athletes are characterized by a reduced cortical activation during the judgment of sporting observed actions; (ii) in elite athletes, a good judgment of observed sporting actions is related to a low cortical activation. To address these issues, electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded in 15 elite rhythmic gymnasts and 13 non-gymnasts. They observed a series of 120 rhythmic gymnastic videos. At the end of each video, the subjects had to judge the artistic/athletic level of the exercise by a scale from 0 to 10. The mismatch between their judgment and that of the coach indexed the degree of action judgment. The EEG cortical sources were estimated by sLORETA. With reference to a pre-stimulus period, the power decrease of alpha (8-12 Hz) rhythms during the videos indexed the cortical activation (event related desynchronization, ERD). Regarding the hypothesis (i), low- and high-frequency alpha ERD was lower in amplitude in the elite rhythmic gymnasts compared to the non-gymnasts in occipital and temporal areas (ventral pathway) and in dorsal pathway. Regarding the hypothesis (ii), in the elite rhythmic gymnasts high-frequency alpha ERD was higher in amplitude with the videos characterized by a high judgment error than those characterized by a low judgment error; this was true in inferior posterior parietal and ventral premotor areas ("mirror" pathway). These results globally suggest that the judgment of observed sporting actions is related to low amplitude of alpha ERD, as a possible index of spatially selective cortical activation ("neural efficiency"). PMID:19111623

  18. Muscle coordination during breaststroke swimming: Comparison between elite swimmers and beginners.

    PubMed

    Vaz, João R; Olstad, Bjørn Harald; Cabri, Jan; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro; Hug, François

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to compare muscle coordination strategies of the upper and lower limb muscles between beginners and elite breaststroke swimmers. Surface electromyography (EMG) of eight muscles was recorded in 16 swimmers (8 elite, 8 beginners) during a 25 m swimming breaststroke at 100% of maximal effort. A decomposition algorithm was used to identify the muscle synergies that represent the temporal and spatial organisation of muscle coordination. Between-groups indices of similarity and lag times were calculated. Individual muscle patterns were moderately to highly similar between groups (between-group indices range: 0.61 to 0.84). Significant differences were found in terms of lag time for pectoralis major (P < 0.05), biceps brachii, rectus femoris and tibialis anterior (P < 0.01), indicating an earlier activation for these muscles in beginners compared to elites (range: -13.2 to -3.8% of the swimming cycle). Three muscle synergies were identified for both beginners and elites. Although their composition was similar between populations, the third synergy exhibited a high within-group variability. Moderate to high indices of similarity were found for the shape of synergy activation coefficients (range: 0.63 to 0.88) but there was a significant backward shift (-8.4% of the swimming cycle) in synergy #2 for beginners compared to elites. This time shift suggested differences in the global arm-to-leg coordination. These results indicate that the synergistic organisation of muscle coordination during breaststroke swimming is not profoundly affected by expertise. However, specific timing adjustments were observed between lower and upper limbs. PMID:26878097

  19. Academic Buoyancy: Towards an Understanding of Students' Everyday Academic Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2008-01-01

    Academic buoyancy is developed as a construct reflecting everyday academic resilience within a positive psychology context and is defined as students' ability to successfully deal with academic setbacks and challenges that are typical of the ordinary course of school life (e.g., poor grades, competing deadlines, exam pressure, difficult…

  20. Is Your Academic Library Pinning? Academic Libraries and Pinterest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Academic libraries are flocking to online social networking sites in an effort to meet users where they are. Pinterest is the latest of these rapidly growing online social networking tools. The author of this article reports results from a survey on academic libraries' presence on Pinterest. The survey found most academic library pinboards are in…