Science.gov

Sample records for academic search elite

  1. The Academic Achievement of Elite Athletes at Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgakis, Steve; Evans, John Robert; Warwick, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    While sport and student-athletes have featured in the Australian education system since compulsory schooling, there has been no analysis to date of the link between academic achievement and elite student-athletes. However, this is in stark contrast to the United States of America (US), where student-athletes have been the subject of sustained…

  2. The Academic Achievement of Elite Athletes at an Australian University: Debunking the Dumb Jock Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgakis, Steve; Wilson, Rachel; Ferguson, Jamaya

    2014-01-01

    Elite athletes and their academic achievement in higher education have long been subject to considerable debate within North American scholarship. This interest proliferated especially after the release of the Knight Report (2001), which, amongst other findings, revealed a clear negative link between elite athletes and their academic achievement.…

  3. Nurturing Science's Young Elite: Westinghouse Talent Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huler, Scott

    1991-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of entering the Westinghouse Talent Search are discussed. The caliber of the contest is indicated by the accomplishments of its alumni. The careers and characteristics of past winners are described. (KR)

  4. The Frog Pond Revisited: High School Academic Context, Class Rank, and Elite College Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espenshade, Thomas J.; Hale, Lauren E.; Chung, Chang Y.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors test a "frog-pond" model of elite college admission proposed by Attewell, operationalizing high school academic context as the secondary school-average SAT score and number of Advanced Placement tests per high school senior. Data on more than 45,000 applications to three elite universities show that a high…

  5. The Academic Elite Goes to Washington, and to War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lionel

    2005-01-01

    It has become part of the conventional wisdom that a decidedly left-wing slant influences what students are taught at elite colleges and universities in America, chiefly at Ivy League institutions. This perception has been common at least since the congressional investigations in the late 1940s into Communist Party activities in the United States,…

  6. Academically Elite Students in Singapore: A Collective Moral Stance toward Aspirations and Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luke

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on a Linguistic Ethnography (Blommaert & Rampton 2011) of a group of academically elite students in Singapore. The group comprises locals born in Singapore, as well as immigrants from China and Vietnam. My informants all attended a top-ranked secondary school in Singapore. I present data from interviews and a focus group…

  7. Flaunting One's Academic Pedigree? Self-Presentation of Students from Elite French Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draelants, Hugues; Darchy-Koechlin, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    This article starts from the puzzle that although French elite institutions enjoy extremely positive and attractive images, students from these schools generally choose to conceal their academic pedigree in their daily interactions. We show that, in a context of growing inequalities of access to "grandes ecoles," the strategy of hiding…

  8. The Scholar, the Wealthy and the Powerful: Notes on Academic Culture in Elite-Focused Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertron, Caroline; Kolopp, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on our experiences of interviewing elites, this article suggests that methodological reflexivity yields insights into the construction of symbolic and social hierarchies in contextualised interactions. The paper focuses on "academic culture" as the "locus" through which power relations were experienced in interview…

  9. A comparison of visual search strategies of elite and non-elite tennis players through cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Murray, Nicholas P; Hunfalvay, Melissa

    2017-02-01

    Considerable research has documented that successful performance in interceptive tasks (such as return of serve in tennis) is based on the performers' capability to capture appropriate anticipatory information prior to the flight path of the approaching object. Athletes of higher skill tend to fixate on different locations in the playing environment prior to initiation of a skill than their lesser skilled counterparts. The purpose of this study was to examine visual search behaviour strategies of elite (world ranked) tennis players and non-ranked competitive tennis players (n = 43) utilising cluster analysis. The results of hierarchical (Ward's method) and nonhierarchical (k means) cluster analyses revealed three different clusters. The clustering method distinguished visual behaviour of high, middle-and low-ranked players. Specifically, high-ranked players demonstrated longer mean fixation duration and lower variation of visual search than middle-and low-ranked players. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that cluster analysis is a useful tool for detecting and analysing the areas of interest for use in experimental analysis of expertise and to distinguish visual search variables among participants'.

  10. Chemical Information in Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendig, Regina B.

    2009-01-01

    The author sought to determine to what extent the two search engines, Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engines), would be useful to first-year university students as the first point of searching for chemical information. Five topics were searched and the first ten records of each search result were evaluated with regard to the type of…

  11. Search strategies along the academic lifecycle.

    PubMed

    Horlings, Edwin; Gurney, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Understanding how individual scientists build a personal portfolio of research is key to understanding outcomes on the level of scientific fields, institutions, and systems. We lack the scientometric and statistical instruments to examine the development over time of the involvement of researchers in different problem areas. In this paper we present a scientometric method to map, measure, and compare the entire corpus of individual scientists. We use this method to analyse the search strategies of 43 condensed matter physicists along their academic lifecycle. We formulate six propositions that summarise our theoretical expectations and are empirically testable: (1) a scientist's work consists of multiple finite research trails; (2) a scientist will work in several parallel research trails; (3) a scientist's role in research trail selection changes along the lifecycle; (4) a scientist's portfolio will converge before it diverges; (5) the rise and fall of research trails is associated with career changes; and (6) the rise and fall of research trails is associated with the potential for reputational gain. Four propositions are confirmed, the fifth is rejected, and the sixth could not be confirmed or rejected. In combination, the results of the four confirmed propositions reveal specific search strategies along the academic lifecycle. In the PhD phase scientists work in one problem area that is often unconnected to the later portfolio. The postdoctoral phase is where scientists diversify their portfolio and their social network, entering various problem areas and abandoning low-yielding ones. A professor has a much more stable portfolio, leading the work of PhDs and postdoctoral researchers. We present an agenda for future research and discuss theoretical and policy implications.

  12. The talent process of successful academic women scientists at elite research universities in New York state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaenzig, Lisa M.

    women scientists at elite research universities in New York. A criterion sample (n=94) was selected resulting in forty-one successful academic women scientists as the study participants, representing a response rate of 43.6%. Findings include the important roles of parents, teachers, mentors and collaborators on the talent development process of the participants. The perception of the study participants was that there were multiple facilitators to their talent development process, while few barriers were acknowledged. The most important barriers cited by participants were perceptions of institutional culture and sexism. Implications for practice in both gifted and higher education are suggested, based on the findings of the study. For gifted education, these suggestions include the need to provide parental education programs emphasizing the importance of intellectual engagement at home, providing dedicated time for science in primary education, and fostering science and mathematics opportunities, particularly for girls and young women. Stressing the importance of hard work, persistence and intelligent risk-taking are also important for encouraging girls in science. For higher education, the study provides models of success of academic women scientists, outlines the importance of mentors and collaborators, and emphasizes the critical role that institutions and departments play in facilitating or impeding women's career development as academics. The current study suggests several areas for further research to continue the exploration of the talent development influences on academic women scientists. Based on the findings of this study, recommended studies include examining the differences of generational cohorts; probing the roles of collaborators/mentor colleagues; exploring differences for women from various ethnic and racial backgrounds; replicating the current study with larger populations of women scientists; investigating the role of facilitative school environments

  13. Designing Search: Effective Search Interfaces for Academic Library Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague-Rector, Susan; Ghaphery, Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries customize, support, and provide access to myriad information systems, each with complex graphical user interfaces. The number of possible information entry points on an academic library Web site is both daunting to the end-user and consistently challenging to library Web site designers. Faced with the challenges inherent in…

  14. The North Carolina State University Libraries Search Experience: Usability Testing Tabbed Search Interfaces for Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague-Rector, Susan; Ballard, Angela; Pauley, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Creating a learnable, effective, and user-friendly library Web site hinges on providing easy access to search. Designing a search interface for academic libraries can be particularly challenging given the complexity and range of searchable library collections, such as bibliographic databases, electronic journals, and article search silos. Library…

  15. Academic Users' Information Searching on Research Topics: Characteristics of Research Tasks and Search Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Jia Tina; Evans, Nina

    2011-01-01

    This project investigated how academic users search for information on their real-life research tasks. This article presents the findings of the first of two studies. The study data were collected in the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) in Brisbane, Australia. Eleven PhD students' searching behaviors on personal research topics were…

  16. Information Resource Selection of Undergraduate Students in Academic Search Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jee Yeon; Paik, Woojin; Joo, Soohyung

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to investigate the selection of information sources and to identify factors associated with the resource selection of undergraduate students for academic search tasks. Also, user perceptions of some factors, such as credibility, usefulness, accessibility and familiarity, were examined to classify resources by their…

  17. (No) Harm in Asking: Class, Acquired Cultural Capital, and Academic Engagement at an Elite University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Anthony Abraham

    2016-01-01

    How do undergraduates engage authority figures in college? Existing explanations predict class-based engagement strategies. Using in-depth interviews with 89 undergraduates at an elite university, I show how undergraduates with disparate precollege experiences differ in their orientations toward and strategies for engaging authority figures in…

  18. Trans-Local Academic Credentials and the (Re)production of Financial Elites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sarah; Appleyard, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which credentials from a range of education providers are used to (re)produce transnational financial elites in London's international financial district. Extant research has examined the long-standing relationship between educational background and entry into these financial labour markets. Far less attention has…

  19. The European Research Elite: A Cross-National Study of Highly Productive Academics in 11 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on a rare scholarly theme of highly productive academics, statistically confirming their pivotal role in knowledge production across 11 systems studied. The upper 10% of highly productive academics in 11 European countries studied (N = 17,211) provide on average almost half of all academic knowledge production. In contrast…

  20. Searching for the Next Generation of Teacher Educators: Assessing the Success of Academic Searches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twombly, Susan B.; Wolf-Wendel, Lisa; Williams, James; Green, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    In light of a documented shortage of candidates for teacher education faculty positions, this article explores the academic labor market for teacher education faculty using job announcements from the Chronicle of Higher Education and a survey of search chairs to examine the qualifications sought. The authors conclude that the demand for teacher…

  1. Use of an Academic Library Web Site Search Engine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2002-01-01

    Describes an analysis of the search engine logs of Southern Illinois University, Carbondale's library to determine how patrons used the site search. Discusses results that showed patrons did not understand the function of the search and explains improvements that were made in the Web site and in online reference services. (Author/LRW)

  2. Finding Your Voice: Talent Development Centers and the Academic Talent Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushneck, Amy S.

    2012-01-01

    Talent Development Centers are just one of many tools every family, teacher, and gifted advocate should have in their tool box. To understand the importance of Talent Development Centers, it is essential to also understand the Academic Talent Search Program. Talent Search participants who obtain scores comparable to college-bound high school…

  3. Higher Education Leadership in Russia: A Case Study of Mid-Level Academic Management at an Elite State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Justine; Pogosian, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Head of Department (HoD) role at an elite State university in Russia. It draws upon documentary analysis of government texts and focus groups with both HoDs and lecturers. It concludes that most HoDs are invited to apply for the role by more senior university colleagues. Once in post, they are offered a range of helpful…

  4. On Anti-Elite Prime Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M"Uller, Tom

    2007-09-01

    An odd prime number p is called anti-elite if only finitely many Fermat numbers are quadratic non-residues to p. This concept is the exact opposite to that of elite prime numbers. We study some fundamental properties of anti-elites and show that there are infinitely many of them. A computational search among all the numbers up to 100 billion yielded 84 anti-elite primes.

  5. Google Scholar Search Performance: Comparative Recall and Precision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative evaluation of Google Scholar and 11 other bibliographic databases (Academic Search Elite, AgeLine, ArticleFirst, EconLit, GEOBASE, MEDLINE, PAIS International, POPLINE, Social Sciences Abstracts, Social Sciences Citation Index, and SocINDEX), focusing on search performance within the multidisciplinary field of…

  6. Racial/Ethnic Variations in the Consequences of Religious Participation for Academic Achievement at Elite Colleges and Universities

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Jayanti

    2014-01-01

    Research has not investigated how much of the previously documented positive association between high school religious service attendance and college grades is mediated by campus religious group participation. Nor do we know whether campus religious group involvement is an important mediator for black and Hispanic students who experience grade-lowering stereotype threat at historically white institutions. Path analyses conducted on a racially diverse sample of students at 28 elite institutions indicate that religious group involvement in college mediates the positive relationship between high school service attendance and college grades for Hispanic and to some extent black students. For Asian and white students, high school service attendance is positively associated with grades net of religious group involvement on campus. Asians frequently attending high school services on average earn a grade-point average of 0.12 points above Asians who never attended, net of controls. PMID:24855331

  7. Racial/Ethnic Variations in the Consequences of Religious Participation for Academic Achievement at Elite Colleges and Universities.

    PubMed

    Owens, Jayanti

    2014-03-01

    Research has not investigated how much of the previously documented positive association between high school religious service attendance and college grades is mediated by campus religious group participation. Nor do we know whether campus religious group involvement is an important mediator for black and Hispanic students who experience grade-lowering stereotype threat at historically white institutions. Path analyses conducted on a racially diverse sample of students at 28 elite institutions indicate that religious group involvement in college mediates the positive relationship between high school service attendance and college grades for Hispanic and to some extent black students. For Asian and white students, high school service attendance is positively associated with grades net of religious group involvement on campus. Asians frequently attending high school services on average earn a grade-point average of 0.12 points above Asians who never attended, net of controls.

  8. Academic medicine and the search for meaning and purpose.

    PubMed

    Souba, Wiley W

    2002-02-01

    The transformation of the health care industry into a marketplace governed by commercialism and free competition challenges the doctrine of medicine as a profession valuing service to the patient above financial reward. Many physicians have become disenchanted with their ability to serve as advocates for and provide care to their patients. Financial success, the measure of the marketplace, has become the dominant standard of measurement or "value" for most academic medical centers (AMCs). Many doctors report their work is less fulfilling. As a result, all three social missions-patient care, teaching, and research-are in jeopardy. The growth of modernism, preeminence of biomedical research, and dominance of a market-driven clinical enterprise will continue to pose challenges to the health care system in the United States. However, AMCs can provide the leadership and serve as the ambassadors through which the health care system can be renewed with a sense of direction and purpose. Renewal must begin with more open discourse about what we value in health care and what kind of medical profession we want to have, to include addressing questions such as: What does it mean to be an academic physician? What gives my work meaning and purpose? This kind of dialogue could easily be built into the medical students' curricula and residency training programs, with the faculty taking the lead.

  9. Searching for the Yahoos of Academia: Academic Subject Directories on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilla, Rick; Hipps, Nena; Corman, Brenda

    1999-01-01

    Presents results of research into the best of the academic subject directories, based on three general category searches--one historical, one in literature, and one in the field of science. Describes the 11 winning selections in three divided groups: winners, runners-up, and third-place contenders. (AEF)

  10. Being the Diversity Hire: Negotiating Identity in an Academic Job Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Anne K.; Horner, Pilar S.; Ortiz, Daniel Velez

    2012-01-01

    A diverse faculty is a goal of all social work programs. However, recruiting and retaining diverse faculty is often a struggle. In this article, narratives of 3 recent doctoral graduates are analyzed to identify the role that diversity played in their academic job searches. Autoethnographic analysis revealed 2 broad themes: identity and…

  11. The Personal Narrative as Academic Storytelling: A 'Search for Presence and Voice in Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre, Adalberto, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Personal narratives are powerful tools that can be used to introduce competing mindsets into the academic discourse. They are especially powerful if they challenge a master narrative that seeks to portray the weak or powerless, such as Chicanos, in negative images or social contexts. This paper uses personal narrative to examine how Chicanos…

  12. Neither Colorblind nor Oppositional: Perceived Minority Status and Trajectories of Academic Adjustment among Latinos in Elite Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Mooney, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    As more Latinos experience upward social mobility, it is increasingly necessary to challenge oppositional cultural assumptions to explain how perceived minority status barriers may influence their academic achievement. The present study builds on previous work that identified 3 distinct minority status orientations among Latino college students…

  13. The Impact of Class Absenteeism on Undergraduates' Academic Performance: Evidence from an Elite Economics School in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Aurora A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The empirical literature focusing mainly on the USA suggests that class absenteeism undermines students' academic performance and that an enforced mandatory attendance policy may be beneficial. Based on a different cultural and economic context, and using data on 146 second-year management students enrolled in a macroeconomics course at an elite…

  14. All Elite Primes Up to 250 Billion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaumont, Alain; Müller, Tom

    2006-08-01

    A prime number p is called elite if only finitely many Fermat numbers 2^(2^n)+1 are quadratic residues of p. Previously only the interval up to 10^9 was systematically searched for elite primes and 16 such primes were found. We extended this research up to 2.5*10^11 and found five further elites, among which 1,151,139,841 is the smallest and 171,727,482,881 the largest.

  15. Women in Elite Pools and Elite Positions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Patricia A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Uses characteristic education, occupation, and job experience credentials of current elites in U.S. institutions to approximate the proportion of women in the pool of potential elites. Includes breakdowns for law, Ph.D. programs, managers, accountants, and M.B.A.s. Concludes that women's representation in elite positions is consistent with their…

  16. Bridging academic science and clinical research in the search for novel targeted anti-cancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Matter, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This review starts with a brief history of drug discovery & development, and the place of Asia in this worldwide effort discussed. The conditions and constraints of a successful translational R&D involving academic basic research and clinical research are discussed and the Singapore model for pursuit of open R&D described. The importance of well-characterized, validated drug targets for the search for novel targeted anti-cancer agents is emphasized, as well as a structured, high quality translational R&D. Furthermore, the characteristics of an attractive preclinical development drug candidate are discussed laying the foundation of a successful preclinical development. The most frequent sources of failures are described and risk management at every stage is highly recommended. Organizational factors are also considered to play an important role. The factors to consider before starting a new drug discovery & development project are described, and an example is given of a successful clinical project that has had its roots in local universities and was carried through preclinical development into phase I clinical trials. PMID:26779369

  17. Inadequacy in the Writing of Academics: A Preliminary Search for Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, John K.

    The characteristics of academic writing are examined in this paper, and some remedies are suggested for correcting the "language deformities" that many academic writers persist in creating. Three categories of error to which academic writers are apt to be susceptible are discussed. The first category covers errors that are shortcomings…

  18. Secularization and Religious Change among Elite Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Park, Jerry Z.; Veliz, Phil Todd

    2008-01-01

    Sociologists of religion have often connected secularization to science, but have rarely examined the role of religion in the lives of scientists or how the sciences have changed religiously over time. Here we address this shortcoming by comparing religiosity between two samples of elite academic natural and social scientists, one in 1969 and one…

  19. Status and Future Directions of Online Search Services in Georgia Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosby, Anne Page; McKinney, Gayle

    This study evolved from a survey of all academic libraries in Georgia, designed to identify current online activities in the state's academic libraries, and to predict future directions and trends. The information was gathered to provide a pool of data for comparison, planning, management, and administration of online services, and to serve as a…

  20. Manually Classifying User Search Queries on an Academic Library Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Suzanne; Desai, Shevon; Hagedorn, Kat; Varnum, Ken; Mishra, Sonali; Piacentine, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The University of Michigan Library wanted to learn more about the kinds of searches its users were conducting through the "one search" search box on the Library Web site. Library staff conducted two investigations. A preliminary investigation in 2011 involved the manual review of the 100 most frequently occurring queries conducted…

  1. Millennial Students' Mental Models of Search: Implications for Academic Librarians and Database Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    Today's students exhibit generational differences in the way they search for information. Observations of first-year students revealed a proclivity for simple keyword or phrases searches with frequent misspellings and incorrect logic. Although no students had strong mental models of search mechanisms, those with stronger models did construct more…

  2. Searching Scientific Information on the Internet: A Dutch Academic User Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorbij, Henk J.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the use and perceived importance of the Internet among students and faculty in the Netherlands through questionnaires and focus-group interviews. Highlights include electronic journals, learning to use the Internet, search engines, needed library support, and problems with subject searching. A copy of the questionnaire is…

  3. Towards a portal and search engine to facilitate academic and research collaboration in engineering and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla Villarreal, Isaura Nathaly

    While international academic and research collaborations are of great importance at this time, it is not easy to find researchers in the engineering field that publish in languages other than English. Because of this disconnect, there exists a need for a portal to find Who's Who in Engineering Education in the Americas. The objective of this thesis is to built an object-oriented architecture for this proposed portal. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) model developed in this thesis incorporates the basic structure of a social network for academic purposes. Reverse engineering of three social networks portals yielded important aspects of their structures that have been incorporated in the proposed UML model. Furthermore, the present work includes a pattern for academic social networks..

  4. Automating academic literature searches with RSS Feeds and Google Reader(™).

    PubMed

    Dubuque, Erick M

    2011-01-01

    Behavior analytic practitioners have an ethical obligation to stay abreast of the most recent research developments in their areas of expertise. Although conducting frequent and comprehensive literature searches is one way to meet this mandate, doing so can be a time intensive process. One way to reduce the effort involved in this process is setting up automated literature and news searches using RSS feeds via programs like Google Reader(™). This paper outlines the steps necessary for setting up a Google Reader(™) account and creating customized RSS feeds based on searches of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) PubMed database and the World Wide Web.

  5. Searching for "A Third Space": A Creative Pathway towards International PhD Students' Academic Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Dely Lazarte; Baumfield, Vivienne; Reid, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Undertaking a PhD is a challenging endeavour. Pursuing a doctoral education in a "foreign" context tends to increase the demands of this intellectual venture. The nature of research-based PhD programmes, often characterised by a lack of formal curricula where academic supervision lasts several years, may add another layer of complexity.…

  6. In Search of Excellence in Education: The Political, Academic, and Curricular Leadership of Ethel T. Overby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Adah Ward; Sanders, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the educational leadership of the first African American female principal in Richmond, Virginia: Mrs. Ethel Thompson Overby. It seeks to ascertain, through a historical framework utilizing critical race theory, how this particular educational and instructional leader conceptualized academic achievement given the context of…

  7. Schools that Overcome the Disparities of Academic Achievements among Children: Searching for Japanese Effective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimizu, Kokichi

    2007-01-01

    We reported the major findings of our research based on our own academic achievement tests towards elementary school and junior high school pupils in 2002. We then pointed out the fact that the differences of achievement between social groups have been expanded. Nowadays, that issue is seen to be one of the most serious educational problems in…

  8. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years.

    PubMed

    Huijgen, Barbara C H; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13-17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for "higher-level" cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). "Lower-level" cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA's showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the "higher-level" cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p < .05). Using stepwise discriminant analysis, 62.5% of subjects was correctly assigned to one of the groups based on their metacognition, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility performance. Controlling for training hours and academic level, MANCOVA's showed differences in favor of the elite youth soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the "lower-level" cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal

  9. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M.; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13–17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for “higher-level” cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). “Lower-level” cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA’s showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the “higher-level” cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p < .05). Using stepwise discriminant analysis, 62.5% of subjects was correctly assigned to one of the groups based on their metacognition, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility performance. Controlling for training hours and academic level, MANCOVA’s showed differences in favor of the elite youth soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the “lower-level” cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the

  10. Association of Academic Physiatrists

    MedlinePlus

    Donate Member Portal Search Search » Donate | Member Portal | Sign In | Join Membership Join the AAP Coming Home Member Benefits Top 5 Reasons to Join Categories & Dues Academic Partnership Program Current Academic ...

  11. Feeding the Elite: The Evolution of Elite Pathways from Star High Schools to Elite Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeTendre, Gerald K.; Gonzalez, Roger Geertz; Nomi, Takako

    2006-01-01

    During the last 50 years, private "feeder" schools in Japan came to dominate entry into elite colleges. Intense organizational competition shaped the organizational environment and changed the pathways available to social elites. Compared to Japan, elite private feeders in the US have failed to dominate pathways into elite colleges. In…

  12. Students' Self-Regulated Learning, Online Information Evaluative Standards and Online Academic Searching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Sheng-Chau; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Online information searching strategies (OISS) used by students can be viewed as a key indicator in online learning environments. Therefore, developments in their OISS may also involve variables such as self-regulated learning (SRL) and online information evaluative standards (OIES). Three instruments, an OISS, a SRL and an OIES were used to…

  13. Elites and popular nationalism.

    PubMed

    Whitmeyer, Joseph M

    2002-09-01

    Much current theory concerning nationalism holds that elites commonly create or cause popular nationalism. In part, that thesis may be due to an overwhelming emphasis in research on nationalism on positive cases: cases where nationalism has appeared, ignoring cases where it has not. In this article, I challenge the thesis by showing numerous historical cases in which elites have promoted nationalisms that ordinary people have not adopted, or in which ordinary people have adopted a nationalism before it was taken up by elites. Even if elites do not create popular nationalism, however, they can and do shape its expression in a variety of ways, such as organizing it, providing relevant information, or providing opportunity or incentive for it. I show this through historical examples.

  14. The Small Academic Library and Its Encounter with Technology: A Study of the Use of Online Searching and CD-ROM Technology in Small Private Colleges in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selbert, Daphne

    This examination of the impact of technology on the educational role of small academic libraries focuses on the information access aspect of technology. Librarians at 26 colleges in Illinois with enrollments of under 3,000 students responded to a survey which measured the libraries' access to databases through online searching and the use of…

  15. Diversity and Senior Leadership at Elite Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasman, Marybeth; Abiola, Ufuoma; Travers, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the lack of diversity at the 8 Ivy League institutions using a Critical Race Theory lens. It includes a comprehensive literature review of the scholarship related to diversity in academe, but especially within the areas of elite institutions and administration. The article also provides data pertaining to the senior…

  16. Intelligence, Academic Self-Concept, and Information Literacy: The Role of Adequate Perceptions of Academic Ability in the Acquisition of Knowledge about Information Searching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present paper argues that adequate self-perceptions of academic ability are essential for students' realization of their intellectual potential, thereby fostering learning of complex skills, e.g., information-seeking skills. Thus, academic self-concept should moderate the relationship between intelligence and information…

  17. What Performance Characteristics Determine Elite Versus Nonelite Athletes in the Same Sport?

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Lehecka, B.J.; Naylor, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Context: There are significant data comparing elite and nonelite athletes in anaerobic field and court sports as well as endurance sports. This review delineates specific performance characteristics in the elite athlete and may help guide rehabilitation. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from April 1982 to April 2012 was undertaken for articles written in English. Additional references were accrued from reference lists of research articles. Results: In the anaerobic athlete, maximal power production was consistently correlated to elite performance. Elite performance in the endurance athlete is more ambiguous, however, and appears to be related to the dependent variable investigated in each individual study. Conclusion: In anaerobic field and court sport athletes, maximal power output is most predictive of elite performance. In the endurance athlete, however, it is not as clear. Elite endurance athletes consistently test higher than nonelite athletes in running economy, anaerobic threshold, and VO2max. PMID:24427430

  18. Globalisation of Researcher Mobility within the UK Higher Education: Explaining the Presence of Overseas Academics in the UK Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattab, Nabil; Fenton, Steve

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that the power structure that lies within the UK elite universities dictates a division of labour through which the inflows of overseas academics into the UK academic labour markets are skewed towards these elite academic institutions where they are employed primarily in research-only posts. These posts, are less valued and…

  19. Free the dinosaurs into butterfly gardens: in a search for changing the profile of the academic professional.

    PubMed

    Fatović-Ferencić, Stella

    2004-08-01

    In the present debate about academic medicine in crisis, I argue that the problem is partly the consequence of a global process of alienation and depersonalization. Technology-based medicine is one of the key players which creates unsuitable role models. In its wake and as a consequence, the profile of the academic professional must be redesigned. Academic professionals should influence more strongly not only the quality of health care but the whole mentality in our socialized world. Academia itself should also become an arena for advanced ideas, and creative power pervaded by the humanities -- a facet which has been lost.

  20. An Analysis of Scholar Athlete Attitudes and Behaviors, and Academic Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgin, Ann Savona

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine how, and to what extent, attitudes and behaviors of collegiate elite scholar athletes vary from attitudes and behaviors of non-elite scholar athletes and their academic success. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature with new information about academically successful athletes. The study…

  1. Vaccination in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Barbara C; Meyer, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Public health vaccination guidelines cannot be easily transferred to elite athletes. An enhanced benefit from preventing even mild diseases is obvious but stronger interference from otherwise minor side effects has to be considered as well. Thus, special vaccination guidelines for adult elite athletes are required. In most of them, protection should be strived for against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, measles, mumps and varicella. When living or traveling to endemic areas, the athletes should be immune against tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, poliomyelitis, typhoid fever, and meningococcal disease. Vaccination against pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae type b is only relevant in athletes with certain underlying disorders. Rubella and papillomavirus vaccination might be considered after an individual risk-benefit analysis. Other vaccinations such as cholera, rabies, herpes zoster, and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) cannot be universally recommended for athletes at present. Only for a very few diseases, a determination of antibody titers is reasonable to avoid unnecessary vaccinations or to control efficacy of an individual's vaccination (especially for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis B and, partly, hepatitis A). Vaccinations should be scheduled in a way that possible side effects are least likely to occur in periods of competition. Typically, vaccinations are well tolerated by elite athletes, and resulting antibody titers are not different from the general population. Side effects might be reduced by an optimal selection of vaccines and an appropriate technique of administration. Very few discipline-specific considerations apply to an athlete's vaccination schedule mainly from the competition and training pattern as well as from the typical geographical distribution of competitive sites.

  2. Rhinitis in Elite and Non-Elite Field Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Walker, A; Surda, P; Rossiter, M; Little, S

    2017-01-01

    Rhinitis has been demonstrated to impose a significant disease burden upon the general population. We sought to determine the prevalence of rhinitis in athletes; to investigate its relationship with co-existing allergic symptoms; and to quantify the impact of rhinitis on quality of life in the athlete.3 subgroups were studied: elite field hockey players (FHP); non-elite FHP; and a sedentary control group.Participants were asked to complete a rhinitis self-report questionnaire; the "Allergic Questionnaire for Athletes" (AQUA), and quality of life Sinonasal Outcome Test - 22 (SNOT-22).142 participants completed the study (52 elite FHP; 40 non-elite FHP; 50 controls). There was a significantly higher prevalence of rhinitis in the elite and non-elite FHP groups than the sedentary control group (52% and 43% vs. 22%, p<0.05). Mean AQUA score was significantly higher in athletes with rhinitis. Quality of life scores were significantly worse in athletes with rhinitis than those without rhinitis (p<0.05).This study suggests regular exercise is associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of rhinitis. Elite FHP were most likely to report rhinitis, but the least likely to be using regular treatment. Quality of life was negatively affected, confirming the importance of nasal health to athlete welfare.

  3. In Search of a Break in the Clouds: An Ethnographic Study of Academic and Student Affairs Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcelus, Victor J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the cultures of the academic and student affairs divisions within one selective residential liberal arts institution. Specifically, the study investigates how faculty and student affairs personnel perceive their own and each other's roles as educators on the campus and how these perceptions influence the potential for…

  4. Lost Generation of Elite Talent in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subotnik, Rena F.; Stone, Karen Maurer; Steiner, Cynthia

    2001-01-01

    A longitudinal study involving 85 winners of the Westinghouse Science Talent Search investigated variables that led to their retention or attrition in science. Results found certain family variables, appeal of other domains of study, and shrinking grant money and academic positions contributed to attrition. The influence of mentors is discussed.…

  5. Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of top-elite, elite and non-elite youth female team handball players.

    PubMed

    Moss, Samantha Louise; McWhannell, Nicola; Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Twist, Craig

    2015-01-01

    In order to maximise the potential for success, developing nations need to produce superior systems to identify and develop talent, which requires comprehensive and up-to-date values on elite players. This study examined the anthropometric and physical characteristics of youth female team handball players (16.07 ± 1.30 years) in non-elite (n = 47), elite (n = 37) and top-elite players (n = 29). Anthropometric profiling included sum of eight skinfolds, body mass, stature, girths, breadths and somatotype. Performance tests included 20 m sprint, counter-movement jump, throwing velocity, repeated shuttle sprint and jump ability test, and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1. Youth top-elite players had greater body mass, lean mass, stature, limb girths and breadths than elite and non-elite players, while only stature and flexed arm were higher in elite compared to non-elite players (all P < 0.05). Sum of skinfolds and waist-to-hip ratio were similar between groups (P > 0.05). Top-elite performed better in most performance tests compared to both elite and non-elite players (P < 0.05), although maximal and repeated 10 m sprints were similar between playing standards (P > 0.05). Elite outperformed non-elite players only in throwing velocity. The findings reveal that non-elite players compare unfavourably to top-elite international European players in many anthropometric and performance characteristics, and differ in a few characteristics compared to elite European club team players. This study is useful for emerging team handball nations in improving talent identification processes.

  6. The Use of OPAC in a Large Academic Library: A Transactional Log Analysis Study of Subject Searching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villen-Rueda, Luis; Senso, Jose A.; de Moya-Anegon, Felix

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of user searches in catalogs has been the topic of research for over four decades, involving numerous studies and diverse methodologies. The present study looks at how different types of users effect queries in the catalog of a university library. For this purpose, we analyzed log files to determine which was the most frequent type of…

  7. Information Retrieval Techniques: The Differences in Cognitive Strategies and Search Behaviors among Graduate Students in an Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Charlotte E.

    Graduate schools have been admitting more and more students older than the "traditional" 18- to 24-year-old campus population. These adult learners may come to their programs of study without formal training in library use in general or literature searches in particular. By examining various successful and unsuccessful strategies used by…

  8. Students' Search Behaviors in the Context of High School Choice: Variation by Nativity, Country of Origin, and Academic Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattin-Bajaj, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a series of multiple regressions performed to predict how closely 490 eighth grade students' approaches to searching for and selecting high schools matched the New York City Department of Education's recommendations. Results indicate that children of Latin American immigrant mothers were less likely to follow…

  9. Somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Massidda, Myosotis; Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Calò, Carla M

    2013-09-01

    The somatotyping method is especially helpful in sports in which the body could directly influence the biomechanics of movements and the performance's results. The purpose of this study was to determine the somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts and to compare it in terms of competition levels. The sample comprised 64 elite gymnasts (42 females (F), somatotype 1.4-4.4-3.2; and 22 males (M), somatotype 1.6-6.3-2.1) belonging to the Italian National Artistic Gymnastic Team (2007) at different competition levels: Allieve, Junior, and Senior. Mean whole somatotypes, by competition levels, were not significantly different in both sexes (Female gymnasts: Allieve, 1.3-4.6-3.3; Junior, 1.3-4.2-3.6; Senior, 1.7-4.2-2.7; Male gymnasts: Junior, 1.5-6.3-2.5; Senior, 1.7-6.3-1.6). Male Junior gymnasts exhibited greater ectomorphy than Senior athletes (F1,20 = 7.75, p < 0.01). Compared to other elite athletes male and female gymnasts tend to be less endomorphic and more mesomorphic. This study highlighted the peculiarities of the somatotype of Italian elite gymnasts and their strong homogeneity, evident also from the low values of somatotype attitudinal mean (SAM). The results emphasize the need for a specific somatotype to reach an elite level in sport and the need to integrate the somatotype analysis between the scientific instruments for selecting talent also in artistic gymnastics.

  10. Measuring Student Success from a Developmental Mathematics Course at an Elite Public Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Julian; Gehring, William J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper asks whether placement recommendations for a developmental math course at an elite public institution impact students' future academic performance, course-taking, and college outcomes. Researchers use these specific outcomes to measure whether developmental courses help students develop the skills necessary to succeed in college,…

  11. Pedagogy of the Privileged: Elite Universities and Dialectical Contradictions in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell, Mark; Karimova, Zulfia; Brock, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the role and function of Left academics within "elite" (i.e. Russell Group) universities within the UK. Deploying Marxist theory and critical realism, it analyses the "dialectical contradictions" experienced in such a role and reflects upon productive strategies for resisting the hegemony of neo-liberalism…

  12. "Floating Elites": Interpreting Mainland Chinese Undergraduates' Graduation Plans in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    Cross-border student migration has significant implications for host communities in terms of academic, financial and social consequences. In light of Hong Kong's thirst for human resources, this paper reports on a study that interpreted the graduation plans of a group of "elite" mainland Chinese undergraduates in a publicly funded…

  13. Teachers, and Scholars Too: Economic Scholarship at Elite Liberal Arts Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodenhorn, Howard

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of a study that ranked the economics departments of 40 elite, liberal arts colleges by number of publications. The findings suggest that at small colleges academic publishing is being given a mantle of importance previously reserved for teaching. Includes statistical tables concerning rankings and publications. (MJP)

  14. School Grades, School Context and University Degree Performance: Evidence from an Elite Scottish Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasselle, Laurence; McDougall-Bagnall, Jonathan; Smith, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates degree classification outcomes for students with SQA Higher qualifications at an elite Scottish university. Students are characterised according to a new indicator based on their secondary school's academic performance relative to the national (Scottish) average. The results show that our school context indicator provides…

  15. Self Hypnosis for Elite Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Colin P.

    A summary of the use of hypnosis in sport (Morgan 1980) has suggested that the evidence in this area is equivocal, particularly in strength, endurance, and psychomotor tasks. However, some experiments have demonstrated the potential use of hypnosis. This paper presents examples of two elite Australian athletes who achieve success using hypnosis or…

  16. How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Cory; Sierra, Tito; Boyer, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Academic libraries are turning increasingly to unified search solutions to simplify search and discovery of library resources. Unfortunately, very little research has been published on library user search behavior in single search box environments. This study examines how users search a large public university library using a prominent, single…

  17. Elite Rationalities and Curricular Form: "Meritorious" Class Reproduction in the Elite Thinking Curriculum in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Leonel; Apple, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    While much of the critical scholarship around elite schooling has focused on the students who attend elite institutions, their social class locations, privileged habituses and cultural capital, this paper foregrounds curricular form itself as a central mechanism in the (re)production of elites. Using Basil Bernstein's conceptual framework of…

  18. Previously identified patellar tendinopathy risk factors differ between elite and sub-elite volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Janssen, I; Steele, J R; Munro, B J; Brown, N A T

    2015-06-01

    Patellar tendinopathy is the most common knee injury incurred in volleyball, with its prevalence in elite athletes more than three times that of their sub-elite counterparts. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patellar tendinopathy risk factors differed between elite and sub-elite male volleyball players. Nine elite and nine sub-elite male volleyball players performed a lateral stop-jump block movement. Maximum vertical jump, training history, muscle extensibility and strength, three-dimensional landing kinematics (250 Hz), along with lower limb neuromuscular activation patterns (1500 Hz), and patellar tendon loading were collected during each trial. Multivariate analyses of variance (P < 0.05) assessed for between-group differences in risk factors or patellar tendon loading. Significant interaction effects were further evaluated using post-hoc univariate analysis of variance tests. Landing kinematics, neuromuscular activation patterns, patellar tendon loading, and most of the previously identified risk factors did not differ between the elite and sub-elite players. However, elite players participated in a higher training volume and had less quadriceps extensibility than sub-elite players. Therefore, high training volume is likely the primary contributor to the injury discrepancy between elite and sub-elite volleyball players. Interventions designed to reduce landing frequency and improve quadriceps extensibility are recommended to reduce patellar tendinopathy prevalence in volleyball players.

  19. Search Engines for Tomorrow's Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2011-01-01

    Today's scholars face an outstanding array of choices when choosing search tools: Google Scholar, discipline-specific abstracts and index databases, library discovery tools, and more recently, Microsoft's re-launch of their academic search tool, now dubbed Microsoft Academic Search. What are these tools' strengths for the emerging needs of…

  20. Return to Sport Following Shoulder Surgery in the Elite Pitcher

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Joshua D.; Frank, Jonathan M.; Jordan, Mark A.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Gupta, Anil K.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.; McCormick, Frank M.; Bach, Bernard R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The ability to return to elite pitching, performance, and clinical outcomes of shoulder surgery in elite baseball pitchers are not definitively established. Objective: To determine (1) the rate of return to sport (RTS) in elite pitchers following shoulder surgery, (2) postoperative clinical outcomes upon RTS, and (3) performance upon RTS and to compare RTS rates in different types of shoulder surgery. Data Sources: Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and checklist, Medline, SciVerse Scopus, SportDiscus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. Study Selection: Levels I-IV evidence were eligible for inclusion if performance-based (eg, RTS) and/or clinical outcome–based reporting of outcomes were reported following surgical treatment of shoulder pathology in elite pitchers (major or minor league or collegiate). Data Extraction: Subject, shoulder, and pre- and postoperative performance-based variables of interest were extracted. All shoulder surgery types were potentially inclusive (eg, open, arthroscopic, rotator cuff, labrum, biceps, acromioclavicular joint, fracture). Study methodological quality was analyzed using the Modified Coleman Methodology Score (MCMS). Results: Six studies were analyzed (287 elite male pitchers [mean age, 27 years] who underwent shoulder surgery, with 99% on the dominant, throwing shoulder). MCMS was 38 (poor). Most pitchers were professional, with a mean career length of 6.58 years and postoperative clinical follow-up of 3.62 years. In 5 of 6 studies, multiple diagnoses were addressed concomitantly at surgery. Rate of RTS was 68% at mean 12 months following surgery. Twenty-two percent of Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers never RTS in MLB. Overall performance did improve following surgery; however, this did not improve to pre-injury levels. Conclusion: In this systematic review, the rate of return to elite baseball pitching following surgery was

  1. Investigating the Perceptions of Intellectual Diversity among Socially Conservative Christian Seniors at Elite U.S. Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brow, Mark V.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of intellectual diversity at elite U.S. universities through the lens of the socially conservative Christian senior. Closely aligned with the principle of academic freedom, intellectual diversity is a foundational value putatively espoused by most if not all colleges and universities in the US. Although…

  2. Pathways to an Elite Education: Application, Admission, and Matriculation to New York City's Specialized High Schools. Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Sean P.; Baker-Smith, Christine

    2015-01-01

    New York City's elite public specialized high schools have a long history of offering a rigorous college preparatory education to the City's most academically talented students. Though immensely popular and highly selective, their policy of admitting students on the basis of a single entrance exam has been heavily criticized. Many argue, for…

  3. What's behind the Name? The Intensification of Co-Branding in Elite US Colleges of Business and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mars, Matthew M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents research that draws attention to the intensification of co-branding within elite US graduate colleges of business and education. A robust set of descriptive data collected and analyzed according to a content analysis strategy is used to develop an initial understanding of the trend of naming of colleges and academic units in…

  4. Biogeography-based particle swarm optimization with fuzzy elitism and its applications to constrained engineering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Weian; Li, Wuzhao; Zhang, Qun; Wang, Lei; Wu, Qidi; Ren, Hongliang

    2014-11-01

    In evolutionary algorithms, elites are crucial to maintain good features in solutions. However, too many elites can make the evolutionary process stagnate and cannot enhance the performance. This article employs particle swarm optimization (PSO) and biogeography-based optimization (BBO) to propose a hybrid algorithm termed biogeography-based particle swarm optimization (BPSO) which could make a large number of elites effective in searching optima. In this algorithm, the whole population is split into several subgroups; BBO is employed to search within each subgroup and PSO for the global search. Since not all the population is used in PSO, this structure overcomes the premature convergence in the original PSO. Time complexity analysis shows that the novel algorithm does not increase the time consumption. Fourteen numerical benchmarks and four engineering problems with constraints are used to test the BPSO. To better deal with constraints, a fuzzy strategy for the number of elites is investigated. The simulation results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Night Thoughts on Academic Searches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachtenberg, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    When a university, or any organization, and its recruiting firm set out to find a new leader, they usually begin and end in a delusion. They declare their intention to find the best person for the job and, once all the sorting and sifting are done, they announce that they have indeed found the best person for the job. The odds are they have done…

  6. Competition and Cooperation, Equality and Elites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flew, Antony

    1983-01-01

    Cooperation and competition are often seen as polar opposites; yet they are not necessarily in opposition. Similarly, quality and elitism are not opposed if the goal of equality is seen as equality of opportunity rather than equality of outcome and the elite are the product of fair competition. (IS)

  7. Exploring Biographical Learning in Elite Soccer Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2014-01-01

    Qualified and skilled sport coaches are vital to the development of sport in general and of elite sport in particular. Research suggests that the development of coaching expertise in elite sport is a complex matter involving mediated, unmediated and internal learning situations. However, it is less clear to what extent and in which ways these…

  8. Students of the New Global Elite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandrick, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Universities in the United States and elsewhere are increasingly enrolling an elite group of international students who not only are able to pay the high tuition and other expenses of U.S.-based universities, but also are personally familiar with several countries and cultures. These students are part of a new global economic and cultural elite.…

  9. Weight-control behaviour and weight-concerns in young elite athletes – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Weight-control behaviour is commonly observed in a wide range of elite sports, especially leanness sports, where control over body weight is crucial for high peak performance. Nonetheless, there is only a fine line between purely functional behaviour and clinically relevant eating disorders. Especially the rapid form of weight manipulation seems to foster later eating disorders. So far, most studies have focussed on adult athletes and concentrated on manifest eating disorders. In contrast, our review concentrates on young athletes and weight-control behaviour as a risk factor for eating disorders. An electronic search according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) Statement was performed using Pubmed, PsychInfo and Spolit. The following search terms were used: weight-control, weight-control behaviour, weight gain, weight loss, pathogenic weight-control behaviour and weight-concerns, each of them combined with elite athlete, young elite athlete, adolescent elite athlete and elite sports. Overall, data are inconsistent. In general, athletes do not seem to be at a higher risk for pathogenic weight concerns and weight-control behaviour. It does seem to be more prevalent in leanness sports, though. There is evidence for pathogenic weight-control behaviour in both genders; male athletes mostly trying to gain weight whereas females emphasise weight reduction. There is not enough data to make predictions about connections with age of onset. Young elite athletes do show weight-control behaviour with varying degrees of frequency and severity. In particular, leanness sports seem to be a risk factor for weight manipulation. Further research is needed for more details and possible connections. PMID:24999399

  10. Weight-control behaviour and weight-concerns in young elite athletes - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Werner, Anne; Thiel, Ansgar; Schneider, Sven; Mayer, Jochen; Giel, Katrin E; Zipfel, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Weight-control behaviour is commonly observed in a wide range of elite sports, especially leanness sports, where control over body weight is crucial for high peak performance. Nonetheless, there is only a fine line between purely functional behaviour and clinically relevant eating disorders. Especially the rapid form of weight manipulation seems to foster later eating disorders. So far, most studies have focussed on adult athletes and concentrated on manifest eating disorders. In contrast, our review concentrates on young athletes and weight-control behaviour as a risk factor for eating disorders. An electronic search according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) Statement was performed using Pubmed, PsychInfo and Spolit. The following search terms were used: weight-control, weight-control behaviour, weight gain, weight loss, pathogenic weight-control behaviour and weight-concerns, each of them combined with elite athlete, young elite athlete, adolescent elite athlete and elite sports. Overall, data are inconsistent. In general, athletes do not seem to be at a higher risk for pathogenic weight concerns and weight-control behaviour. It does seem to be more prevalent in leanness sports, though. There is evidence for pathogenic weight-control behaviour in both genders; male athletes mostly trying to gain weight whereas females emphasise weight reduction. There is not enough data to make predictions about connections with age of onset. Young elite athletes do show weight-control behaviour with varying degrees of frequency and severity. In particular, leanness sports seem to be a risk factor for weight manipulation. Further research is needed for more details and possible connections.

  11. Response to "The Academic Elite in Library Science..."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcia J

    1998-01-01

    Refutes the claim that top-rated programs in library science tend to maintain and enhance their reputation by hiring their own and each other's graduates and that this pattern of inbreeding was likely to be harmful to the field. Concludes convincing evidence was not provided and the true situation may be other than claimed. (PEN)

  12. Overtraining and elite young athletes.

    PubMed

    Winsley, Richard; Matos, Nuno

    2011-01-01

    In comparison to adults, our knowledge of the overtraining syndrome in elite young athletes is lacking. The evidence indicates an incidence rate of ∼20-30%, with a relatively higher occurrence seen in individual sport athletes, females and those competing at the highest representative levels. The most commonly reported symptoms are similar to those observed in over trained adult athletes: increased perception of effort during exercise, frequent upper respiratory tract infections, muscle soreness, sleep disturbances, loss of appetite, mood disturbances, shortness of temper, decreased interest in training and competition, decreased self-confidence, inability to concentrate. The association between training load and overtraining is unclear, and underlines the importance of taking a holistic approach when trying to treat or prevent overtraining in the young athlete so that both training and non-training stressors are considered. Of particular relevance to the issue of overtraining in the elite young athlete are the development of a unidimensional identity, the lack of autonomy, disempowerment, perfectionist traits, conditional love, and unrealistic expectations. Overtraining syndrome is a complex phenomenon with unique and multiple antecedents for each individual; therefore, an open-minded and comprehensive perspective is needed to successfully treat/prevent this in the young athlete.

  13. Elite male faculty in the life sciences employ fewer women.

    PubMed

    Sheltzer, Jason M; Smith, Joan C

    2014-07-15

    Women make up over one-half of all doctoral recipients in biology-related fields but are vastly underrepresented at the faculty level in the life sciences. To explore the current causes of women's underrepresentation in biology, we collected publicly accessible data from university directories and faculty websites about the composition of biology laboratories at leading academic institutions in the United States. We found that male faculty members tended to employ fewer female graduate students and postdoctoral researchers (postdocs) than female faculty members did. Furthermore, elite male faculty--those whose research was funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, who had been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, or who had won a major career award--trained significantly fewer women than other male faculty members. In contrast, elite female faculty did not exhibit a gender bias in employment patterns. New assistant professors at the institutions that we surveyed were largely comprised of postdoctoral researchers from these prominent laboratories, and correspondingly, the laboratories that produced assistant professors had an overabundance of male postdocs. Thus, one cause of the leaky pipeline in biomedical research may be the exclusion of women, or their self-selected absence, from certain high-achieving laboratories.

  14. Researchers, elites, and people in a rapidly changing world.

    PubMed

    Galtung, J

    1983-01-01

    The paper locates the problem of research ethics in a "value-free" science that has made researchers value-blind, insufficiently able to foresee possible negative consequences of what they do, but very able to design strategies to agree to structures that protect them. The intellectual style of a given research community enters as a key variable, and most intellectual styles are seen as ways of making scientific findings less threatening by focusing on data with little interpretation or speculation with little documentation. The famous Wilkes/Gleditsch case in Norway is cited as an example of research that offered both data (obtained from open sources) and interpretation, and was met with disapproval and sentence. The moral problem of value conflicts can best be understood by studying researchers in a social setting, together with elites and people. Only if researchers were on top and truth were the supreme value would the researchers' situation be unproblematic. But philosopher-kings, however omniscient and omnipotent, are rarely benevolent, and the very fact of concentrating so much on top leads to highly unacceptable societies, by demobilizing the rest, turning them into clients. Hence, researchers will live with their problems of being tempted into sins of commission--to pursue destructive knowledge--and sins of omission--not to pursue constructive knowledge, and not to pursue unpleasant truths, not because they want this, but because the structure leads them in that direction. Most researchers probably want security, academic freedom, and relevance, and the problem is this: Elites offer security and relevance, not academic freedom; universities offer security and academic freedom, not relevance; people may offer relevance, but neither security, nor freedom. In a rapidly changing world the interconnections and possibly destructive effects of research far away in space and time have become more evident, at the same time as formerly rich and dominating countries

  15. The Chronotype of Elite Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Gregory D.; Halson, Shona L.; Sargent, Charli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were (i) to compare the chronotype distribution of elite athletes to a young adult population and (ii) to determine if there was a tendency for athletes to select and/or participate in sports which suited their chronotype. A total of 114 elite athletes from five sports (cricket, cycling, hockey, soccer and triathlon) participated in this study. The participants’ chronotype, sleepiness, sleep satisfaction and sleep quality were determined using the Horne and Östberg Morningness and Eveningness questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and questions concerning their sleep satisfaction and quality. All questionnaires were administered during a typical training phase that was not in the lead up to competition and/or post competition. No differences between chronotype group for sleepiness, sleep satisfaction or sleep quality were found. There was a significantly higher proportion of triathletes that were morning and intermediate types compared to the control group χ2 (2) = 7.5, p = 0.02. A significant relationship between sport and chronotype group (χ2(4)=15.9, p = 0.04) was observed, with a higher frequency of morning types involved in sports that required morning training. There was a clear indication that athletes tended to select and pursue sports that suited their chronotype. This was evident by the amount of morning types involved in morning sports. Given that athletes are more likely to pursue and excel in sports which suit their chronotype, it is recommended that coaches consider the athlete’s chronotype during selection processes or if possible design and implement changes to training schedules to either suit the athletes’ chronotype or the timing of an upcoming competition. PMID:28031772

  16. Self-regulation and performance level of elite and non-elite youth soccer players.

    PubMed

    Toering, T T; Elferink-Gemser, M T; Jordet, G; Visscher, C

    2009-12-01

    In learning and development, self-regulation can be described as the extent to which individuals are metacognitively, motivationally, and behaviourally proactive participants in their learning process (Zimmerman, 1989, 2006). We examined the relationship between self-regulation and performance level in elite (n = 159) and non-elite (n = 285) youth soccer players aged 11-17 years (mean 14.5 years, s = 1.4). The players completed a questionnaire that assessed planning, self-monitoring, evaluation, reflection, effort, and self-efficacy. A logistic regression analysis was performed (controlling for age) to determine which self-regulatory aspects were associated with players' performance level (elite vs. non-elite). High scores on reflection and effort were associated with a higher level of performance. Findings suggest that elite players may be more aware of their strong and weak points as well as better able to translate this awareness into action. In addition, elite players appear to be more willing to invest effort into practice and competition. It is suggested that these better developed self-regulatory skills may translate into a more effective learning environment and ultimately result in an increased capacity for performance in elite players relative to their non-elite peers.

  17. Academic Blogging: Academic Practice and Academic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkup, Gill

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale study which investigates the role of blogging in professional academic practice in higher education. It draws on interviews with a sample of academics (scholars, researchers and teachers) who have blogs and on the author's own reflections on blogging to investigate the function of blogging in academic practice…

  18. Re-Searching Secondary Teacher Trainees in Distance Education and Face-to-Face Mode: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Mamta; Gakhar, Sudesh

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and…

  19. Libraries and the Search for Academic Excellence. Proceedings of the Arden House Symposium (New York, New York, March 15-17, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1987

    In the introductory paper Patricia Senn Breivik provides background information on and an overview of a national symposium. This introduction is followed by the full text of nine papers presented at the symposium: (1) "The Academic Library and Education for Leadership" (Major R. Owens, U.S. House of Representatives); (2) "Academic…

  20. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  1. Search Engines for Tomorrow's Scholars, Part Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2012-01-01

    This two-part article considers how well some of today's search tools support scholars' work. The first part of the article reviewed Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic Search using a modified version of Carole L. Palmer, Lauren C. Teffeau, and Carrier M. Pirmann's framework (2009). Microsoft Academic Search is a strong contender when…

  2. Rest in underperforming elite competitors.

    PubMed Central

    Koutedakis, Y; Budgett, R; Faulmann, L

    1990-01-01

    This study examines the effects of 3-5 weeks of physical rest on selected physical, physiological and psychological parameters obtained from 12 Olympic but latterly underperforming competitors and their matched control subjects. Cardiorespiratory data were directly determined from their work to volitional exhaustion on either a treadmill, cycle, or rowing ergometer. Anaerobic power and capacity were evaluated through modified Wingate tests. For psychometric assessments, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was used. For the Olympic competitors, one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant increases (p less than 0.05) in body weight, maximum respiratory exchange ratio, maximum oxygen consumption, and heart rate at the anaerobic threshold, following the rest period. There was also a significant reduction in fatigue and mood profile score, and a significant increase in vigour. No significant changes were found in the matched control subjects. The present data show that resting for 3-5 weeks assists underperforming elite competitors to improve their aerobic performance. PMID:2097024

  3. ELITE: ensemble of optimal input-pruned neural networks using TRUST-TECH.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Chiang, Hsiao-Dong

    2011-01-01

    The ensemble of optimal input-pruned neural networks using TRUST-TECH (ELITE) method for constructing high-quality ensemble through an optimal linear combination of accurate and diverse neural networks is developed. The optimization problems in the proposed methodology are solved by a global optimization a global optimization method called TRansformation Under Stability-reTraining Equilibrium Characterization (TRUST-TECH), whose main features include its capability in identifying multiple local optimal solutions in a deterministic, systematic, and tier-by-tier manner. ELITE creates a diverse population via a feature selection procedure of different local optimal neural networks obtained using tier-1 TRUST-TECH search. In addition, the capability of each input-pruned network is fully exploited through a TRUST-TECH-based optimal training. Finally, finding the optimal linear combination weights for an ensemble is modeled as a nonlinear programming problem and solved using TRUST-TECH and the interior point method, where the issue of non-convexity can be effectively handled. Extensive numerical experiments have been carried out for pattern classification on the synthetic and benchmark datasets. Numerical results show that ELITE consistently outperforms existing methods on the benchmark datasets. The results show that ELITE can be very promising for constructing high-quality neural network ensembles.

  4. The Minor Roads to Excellence: Positive Action, Outreach Policies and the New Positioning of Elite High Schools in France and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allouch, Annabelle; Buisson-Fenet, Helene

    2009-01-01

    Increased academic attention has been drawn to democratisation in higher education, following the implementation of affirmative action in America. However, the models of Access policies presented by certain European educational systems deserve more attention. France and Britain share a common position on elitism, although they define it according…

  5. Elite Circulation and the Convertibility of Knowledge: Comparing Different Types and Forms of Knowledge and Degrees of Elite Circulation in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangset, Marte

    2017-01-01

    According to classical elite theory, increased circulation is related to increased integration which is thought to increase elites' power. Based on a comparative analysis of some European countries' elite education systems, recruitment to elite positions and degrees of circulation--with a specific focus on administrative elites--this article…

  6. Jumping Together: Apprenticeship Learning among Elite Trampoline Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Ole; Ravn, Susanne; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Elite athletes often take part in group trainings and use teammates as learning resources. Despite this, research on the training and learning of elite athletes tends to characterise this training and learning as primarily individual. Purpose: This study, explores interrelated learning processes among elite athletes by exploring the…

  7. Elite Schools, Postcolonial Chineseness and Hegemonic Masculinities in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Daniel P. S.

    2015-01-01

    The educational reproduction of elite masculinity in postcolonial societies has not been properly studied. This is partly because the postcolonial masculinities of non-western elites are accomplished through the cultivation of naturalized practices signifying the body politic of the nation-state. In Singapore, same-sex elite schools of colonial…

  8. Elites and Panic: More to Fear than Fear Itself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Lee; Chess, Caron

    2008-01-01

    Attributions of panic are almost exclusively directed at members of the general public. Here, we inquire into the relationships between elites and panic. We review current research and theorizing about panic, including problems of identifying when it has occurred. We propose three relationships: elites fearing panic, elites causing panic and…

  9. First Job Search of Residents in the United States: A Survey of Anesthesiology Trainees' Interest in Academic Positions in Cities Distant from Previous Residences.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Franklin; De Oliveira, Gildasio S; McCarthy, Robert J

    2016-01-15

    We surveyed anesthesiology residents to evaluate the predictive effect of prior residence on desired location for future practice opportunities. One thousand five hundred United States anesthesiology residents were invited to participate. One question asked whether they intend to enter academic practice when they graduate from their residency/fellowship training. The analysis categorized the responses into "surely yes" and "probably" versus "even," "probably not," and "surely no." "After finishing your residency/fellowship training, are you planning to look seriously (e.g., interview) at jobs located more than a 2-hour drive from a location where you or your family (e.g., spouse or partner/significant other) have lived previously?" Responses were categorized into "very probably" and "somewhat probably" versus "somewhat improbably" and "not probable." Other questions explored predictors of the relationships quantified using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve) ± its standard error. Among the 696 respondents, 36.9% (N = 256) would "probably" consider an academic practice. Fewer than half of those (P < 0.0001) would "very probably" consider a distant location (31.6%, 99% CI 24.4%-39.6%). Respondents with prior formal research training (e.g., PhD or Master's) had greater interest in academic practice at a distant location (AUC 0.63 ± 0.03, P = 0.0002). Except among respondents with formal research training, a good question to ask a job applicant is whether the applicant or the applicant's family has previously lived in the area.

  10. Scaphoid fracture in the elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Mark R; Leibman, Matthew I; Ruchelsman, David E

    2012-08-01

    Scaphoid fracture remains a common, potentially devastating, injury that can impair upper extremity function. Early recognition with proper imaging and treatment provides the best opportunity to heal and return to a normal activity level. Surgical treatment offers the patient a quicker return to the rehabilitation of the extremity and therefore an earlier return to elite play. There is evidence that healing occurs faster if the fractured scaphoid is fixed with internal fixation. Absolute compliance by the athlete and the training program that surrounds the athlete is critical to protect the wrist while maintaining the necessary conditioning of an elite athlete.

  11. Academic writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.

    2003-10-01

    The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.

  12. Cardiac Damage Biomarkers Following a Triathlon in Elite and Non-elite Triathletes.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Ho; Kim, Kwi-Baek; Han, Jin; Ji, Jin-Goo; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate cardiac damage biomarkers after a triathlon race in elite and non-elite athlete groups. Fifteen healthy men participated in the study. Based on performance, they were divided into elite athlete group (EG: n=7) and non-elite athlete group (NEG: n=8). Participants' blood samples were obtained during four periods: before, immediately, 2 hours and 7 days after finishing the race. creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-myoglobin (CK-MB), myoglobin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in both groups immediately after, and 2 hours after finishing the race (p<.05). CK, CK-MB, and myoglobin were completely recovered after 7 days (p<.05). Hematocrit (Hct) was significantly decreased in both groups (p<.05) 7 days after the race. LDH was significantly decreased in the EG (p<.05) only 7 days after the race. Homoglobin (Hb) was significantly decreased in the NEG (p<.05) only 2 hours after the race. Although cardiac troponin T (cTnT) was significantly increased in the EG but not in the NEG 2hours after the race (p<.05), there was no group-by-time interaction. cTnT was completely recovered in both groups 7 days after the race. In conclusion, cardiac damage occurs during a triathlon race and, is greater in elite than in non-elite. However, all cardiac damage markers return to normal range within 1 week.

  13. A Career Assistance Program for Elite Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petitpas, Al; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a career assistance program to assist elite athletes (n=142) in coping with the transition out of active sport competition. Uses a lifespan development framework to describe formulation of the program. Presents outline of program and discusses implications for counseling. Notes feedback from participants has been positive and the…

  14. Physiological profiles of elite judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Emerson; Del Vecchio, Fabrício B; Matsushigue, Karin A; Artioli, Guilherme G

    2011-02-01

    To be successful in international competitions, judo athletes must achieve an excellent level of physical fitness and physical condition during training. This article reviews the physiological profiles of elite judo athletes from different sex, age and weight categories. Body fat is generally low for these athletes, except for the heavyweight competitors. In general, elite judo athletes presented higher upper body anaerobic power and capacity than non-elite athletes. Lower body dynamic strength seems to provide a distinction between elite and recreational judo players, but not high-level judo players competing for a spot on national teams. Even maximal isometric strength is not a discriminant variable among judo players. However, more studies focusing on isometric strength endurance are warranted. Although aerobic power and capacity are considered relevant to judo performance, the available data do not present differences among judo athletes from different competitive levels. Typical maximal oxygen uptake values are around 50-55 mL/kg/min for male and 40-45 mL/kg/min for female judo athletes. As for other variables, heavyweight competitors presented lower aerobic power values. The typical differences commonly observed between males and females in the general population are also seen in judo athletes when analysing anaerobic power and capacity, aerobic power, and maximal strength and power. However, further research is needed concerning the differences among the seven weight categories in which judo athletes compete.

  15. What Is an Elite Boarding School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaztambide-Fernandez, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    This article brings attention to the rarefied world of elite boarding schools. Despite their reputation for excellence, these unique educational institutions remain largely outside the gaze of educational researchers and the scope of public debates about education. One reason for this absence is a lack of knowledge about what exactly defines an…

  16. Nutrition Education for Elite Female Runners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Nancy; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A survey of the dietary habits of 115 elite female runners revealed that some did not eat wisely, pointing out nutrition education needs for these subjects in the areas of sweets, vitamin and mineral supplementation, intake of red meat, body weight and body image, eating disorders, calorie intake, and amenorrhea and stress fractures. (Author/CB)

  17. Heart Rates of Elite Synchronized Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemma, Karen Erickson; Wells, Christine L.

    1987-01-01

    Heart rates were recorded by radiotelemetry in ten elite and national-class synchronized swimmers as they performed competitive figures of high degrees of difficulty. The focus was on changes in heart rates and electrocardiogram patterns for each body position, especially those requiring facial immersion and breath-holding. (Author/MT)

  18. Motivational Traits of Elite Young Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Craig; Meyers, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Among the most overlooked aspects in the development of elite young soccer players is that of specific psychological traits. Of those traits, motivation has important implications for programs whose objectives are identification and cultivation of young, skilled performers. The growth in popularity of soccer by youth and the successes experienced…

  19. Asymmetry of Muscle Strength in Elite Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drid, Patrik; Drapsin, Miodrag; Trivic, Tatjana; Lukac, Damir; Obadov, Slavko; Milosevic, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    "Study aim": To determine muscle strength variables in elite judoists and wrestlers since thigh muscle strength and bilaterally balanced flexor-to-extensor ratio minimise injury risk and are desirable for achieving sport successes. "Material and methods": Judoists, wrestlers and untrained subjects, 10 each, were subjected to isokinetic strength…

  20. [Iron and performance in elite athletes].

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Elisa; Cristani, Alessandro

    2006-09-01

    The negative relationship between performance and iron deficiency anemia is well known. There is still debate in the literature on the exercise-induced iron loss and if low iron store, even in the absence of frank anemia, can adversely affected performance of elite athletes. We analyse the physiologic changes induced by strong exercise, the diagnostic problems and therapeutic supplementation.

  1. [The "peer-review" process in biomedical journals: characteristics of "Elite" reviewers].

    PubMed

    Alfonso, F

    2010-01-01

    The "peer-review" system is used to improve the quality of submitted scientific papers and provides invaluable help to the Editors in their decision-making process. The "peer-review" system remains the cornerstone of the scientific process and, therefore, its quality should be closely monitored. The profile of the "elite" reviewers has been described, but further studies are warranted to better identify their main characteristics. A major challenge, not only for Editors but also for medical scientific societies as a whole, is to continue to guarantee the excellence in the "peer-review" process and to ensure that it receives adequate academic recognition.

  2. CUE USAGE IN VOLLEYBALL: A TIME COURSE COMPARISON OF ELITE, INTERMEDIATE AND NOVICE FEMALE PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Vaeyens, R; Zeuwts, L; Philippaerts, R; Lenoir, M

    2014-01-01

    This study compared visual search strategies in adult female volleyball players of three levels. Video clips of the attack of the opponent team were presented on a large screen and participants reacted to the final pass before the spike. Reaction time, response accuracy and eye movement patterns were measured. Elite players had the highest response accuracy (97.50 ± 3.5%) compared to the intermediate (91.50 ± 4.7%) and novice players (83.50 ± 17.6%; p<0.05). Novices had a remarkably high range of reaction time but no significant differences were found in comparison to the reaction time of elite and intermediate players. In general, the three groups showed similar gaze behaviour with the apparent use of visual pivots at moments of reception and final pass. This confirms the holistic model of image perception for volleyball and suggests that expert players extract more information from parafoveal regions. PMID:25609887

  3. How Academic Is Academic Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kym; Ling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    University provision for academic development is well established in the USA, UK and many other countries. However, arrangements for its provision and staffing vary. In Australia, there has been a trend towards professional rather than academic staff appointments. Is this appropriate? In this paper, the domains of academic development work are…

  4. Airway dysfunction in elite swimmers: prevalence, impact, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Mitch

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of airway dysfunction in elite swimmers is among the highest in elite athletes. The traditional view that swimmers naturally gravitate toward swimming because of preexisting respiratory disorders has been challenged. There is now sufficient evidence that the higher prevalence of bronchial tone disorders in elite swimmers is not the result of a natural selection bias. Rather, the combined effects of repeated chlorine by-product exposure and chronic endurance training can lead to airway dysfunction and atopy. This review will detail the underpinning causes of airway dysfunction observed in elite swimmers. It will also show that airway dysfunction does not prevent success in elite level swimming. Neither does it inhibit lung growth and might be partially reversible when elite swimmers retire from competition.

  5. Airway dysfunction in elite swimmers: prevalence, impact, and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lomax, Mitch

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of airway dysfunction in elite swimmers is among the highest in elite athletes. The traditional view that swimmers naturally gravitate toward swimming because of preexisting respiratory disorders has been challenged. There is now sufficient evidence that the higher prevalence of bronchial tone disorders in elite swimmers is not the result of a natural selection bias. Rather, the combined effects of repeated chlorine by-product exposure and chronic endurance training can lead to airway dysfunction and atopy. This review will detail the underpinning causes of airway dysfunction observed in elite swimmers. It will also show that airway dysfunction does not prevent success in elite level swimming. Neither does it inhibit lung growth and might be partially reversible when elite swimmers retire from competition. PMID:27274324

  6. A Comparison of the Developmental Experiences of Elite and Sub-Elite Swimmers: Similar Developmental Histories Can Lead to Differences in Performance Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Michael B.; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Edmonds, William A.; Castillo, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    The current study fills a void in the literature that investigates the factors required for elite athlete development. Previous studies have (a) illustrated psychological and physiological differences between elites and non-elites; "or" (b) described the psychological and physiological developmental experiences of elite performers. The…

  7. The Egyptian Military Elite: An Operational Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    borneiof common experience and Cconn& social background; (2) Therq-mi-1it - seek the political universe in perpetual conflict-They--.>avJ will continue...elite has a common approach to decision making borne of common experience and common social background. 2) The Egyptian military sees the political... experience affects the military’s operational code. The historical analysis is divided into four time periods: 1955-61, 1961-67, 1967-73, 1973-75. The

  8. Whither Elite Cohesion in Mexico: A Comment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    the problem of elite cohesion, including the mechanisms-- especially the camarilla system--whereby balance and equilibrium, control and cooptation...Generacicnes: Los Protagonistas de Ia Reforma y la Revoluci(n Mexicana, Secretaria de Educacion Pblica, Consejo Nacional de Fomento Educat ivo, Mexico City...loyalty and discipline toward the system as a whole, and especially its apex, the president, and its key institution, the PRI. All this looks different

  9. Academic Bullies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2008-01-01

    Many professors have been traumatized by academic bullies. Unlike bullies at school, the academic bully plays a more subtle game. Bullies may spread rumors to undermine a colleague's credibility or shut their target out of social conversations. The more aggressive of the species cuss out co-workers, even threatening to get physical. There is…

  10. Are Bibliographic Management Software Search Interfaces Reliable?: A Comparison between Search Results Obtained Using Database Interfaces and the EndNote Online Search Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgibbons, Megan; Meert, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The use of bibliographic management software and its internal search interfaces is now pervasive among researchers. This study compares the results between searches conducted in academic databases' search interfaces versus the EndNote search interface. The results show mixed search reliability, depending on the database and type of search…

  11. The Search for Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fattal, Laura Felleman

    2004-01-01

    Practical and academic, the interrelationship of the visual and performing arts opens unique frontiers to aesthetic pioneers. Divergent in aim from the historic search for similar tonalities between the Synchronists and Stravinsky or atonal musicians of the 1950s-70s and minimalist painters and sculptors, the present use of the visual arts as a…

  12. Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De George, Richard T.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that Martin Michaelson's proposal in "Should Untenured as Well as Tenured Faculty Be Guaranteed Academic Freedom? A Few Observations," despite its good intentions, is seriously flawed and if adopted in preference to existing standards will weaken rather than strengthen academic freedom. (EV)

  13. Elite formation under occupation: the internal stratification of palestinian elites in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

    PubMed

    Mazawi, A E; Yogev, A

    1999-09-01

    This paper examines the internal stratification of Palestinian elites in the West Bank and Gaza Strip under Israeli occupation. Our general aim is to clarify the extent to which social and political subordination to outside rule influences the development of indigenous elites in stateless societies. In contrast to nation-state societies, such elites may be horizontally stratified into a wider range of institutional settings, and vertically stratified by anti-occupation activism alongside the attainment of occupational prestige. In addition, context-specific determinants of their stratification patterns, such as refugee status, regionality, and country in which educational credentials were acquired, should be considered. A secondary content analysis of interviews conducted by the Palestinian Panorama centre with 249 elite members reveals, that the vertical stratification of Palestinian elites along occupational attainment and anti-occupation activism constitutes two quite independent status dimensions. A multinomial logit regression shows that, horizontally, elite groups are embedded in four distinct types of institutional activity, further demonstrating the multi-faceted formation of Palestinian elites. Contextual resources, such as refugee versus non-refugee status, regionality, and the acquiring of Western credentials, have differential effects on the vertical and horizontal stratification of Palestinian elites. The implications of these findings for further research on elite formation in the post-Oslo Palestinian society and in other stateless societies are discussed in conclusion.

  14. Managing pressure: patterns of appraisals and coping strategies of non-elite and elite athletes during competition.

    PubMed

    Calmeiro, Luis; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Eccles, David William

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare moment-to-moment appraisals and coping strategies of 4 non-elite and 2 elite male trap shooters during competitions and in particular during periods of competition perceived as critical to performance. Appraisals and coping patterns of trap shooters were captured via verbal reports of thinking provided between sets of shots during major competitions. Verbal reports were coded according to an appraisal and coping typology. Coded data as well as shooting performance data were subjected to a sequential analysis of probabilities of pairs of events. Fewer reports of negative appraisals (NEGAs) and more frequent reports of problem-focused coping (PFC) were observed among both elite athletes compared to non-elite athletes. After making a NEGA, non-elite shooters often progressed to the next target without attempting to cope, whereas elite shooters used both PFC and emotion-focused coping (EFC) before proceeding to the next target. After missing a target, the non-elite athletes used more EFC than expected. These results indicate that elite athletes are more likely to cope with NEGAs than non-elite athletes using a wider variety of coping strategies. Athletes might benefit from increased awareness of the potentially detrimental impact of NEGAs on performance and by integrating coping strategies within preparatory routines.

  15. Lessons for the Academic Introvert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Ben

    2005-01-01

    A former vice president for academic affairs at a small college in New England describes his experiences of searching for a job in the nonacademic field, the failure of which led him to seek guidance from a career-counselor. Their assessment revealed that he was an introvert and suggested that his preferred approach to confronting new people and…

  16. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  17. The Role of Student Academic Beliefs in Perceptions of Instructor Ideological Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linvill, Darren L.; Grant, Will J.

    2017-01-01

    A common perception exists in the media that university instructors are a liberal elite who use their positions to instill a biased perspective in their students. Exploring student attitudes in the United States and Australia, the present study examined how students' academic beliefs are related to their inferences of instructor ideological bias…

  18. Academic Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Presents design features of the Renner Middle School (Plano, Texas) where the sprawling suburbs have been kept at bay while creating the atmosphere of an academic village. Photos and a floor plan are provided. (GR)

  19. Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Building data is given for the following academic libraries: (1) Rosary College, River Forest, Illinois; (2) Abilene Christian College, Abilene, Texas; (3) University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California. (MF)

  20. ECMS--Educational Contest Management System for Selecting Elite Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Thorsten

    2004-01-01

    Selecting elite students out of a huge collective is a difficult task. The main problem is to provide automated processes to reduce human work. ECMS (Educational Contest Management System) is an online tool approach to help--fully or partly automated--with the task of selecting such elite students out of a mass of candidates. International tests…

  1. Beyond Anti-Elitism: Black Studies and the Pedagogical Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jane Anna

    2010-01-01

    "Elitism" is frequently invoked among the pantheon of "isms" actively to be disavowed. Indeed the charge of elitism often takes the form of reiteration, of identifying yet another manifestation of adherence to traditional standards steeped in discrimination by sex, race, and class, this time in their institutional guises in the merit credited to…

  2. Factors that Influence Career Decision-Making among Elite Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Gerard J.; McGregor-Bayne, Heather

    2008-01-01

    A common belief about elite athletes is that they invest so much effort into the pursuit of their athletic careers that they fail to develop good career decision-making skills. Recent findings challenge that belief. The present study investigated career decision-making difficulties among 117 elite Australian athletes. Participants completed…

  3. Researching Elite Education: Affectively Inferred Belongings, Desires and Exclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects on key moments occurring during the course of a three-year study of elite girls' education, with a focus on the power relations that emerged between researchers and elites within the context in which the study was conducted. Central to our analysis is a focus on the affective dimensions of interaction between the researcher and…

  4. The Transnational Track: State Sponsorship and Singapore's Oxbridge Elite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Rebecca; Nylander, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the process of transnational institutional matching between elite institutions in Singapore and Great Britain, and the role of state-sponsored scholarships in enabling this process as political and administrative elites are selected and groomed. Using data gathered from in-depth interviews conducted with Singaporean…

  5. Environmentalism and elitism: a conceptual and empirical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Denton E.; Dunlap, Riley E.

    1986-09-01

    The frequent charge that environmentalism is “elitist” is examined conceptually and empirically. First, the concept of elitism is analyzed by distinguishing between three types of accusations made against the environmental movement: (a) compositional elitism suggests that environmentalists are drawn from privileged socioeconomic strata, (b) ideological elitism suggests that environmental reforms are a subterfuge for distributing benefits to environmentalists and/or costs to others, and (c) impact elitism suggests that environmental reforms, whether intentionally or not, do in fact have regressive social impacts. The evidence bearing on each of the three types of elitism is examined in some detail, and the following conclusions are drawn: Compositional elitism is an exaggeration, for although environmentalists are typically above average in socioeconomic status (as are most sociopolitical activists), few belong to the upper class. Ideological elitism may hold in some instances, but environmentalists have shown increasing sensitivity to equity concerns and there is little evidence of consistent pursuit of self-interest. Impact elitism is the most important issue, and also the most difficult to assess. It appears that there has been a general tendency for environmental reforms to have regressive impacts. However, it is increasingly recognized that problems such as workplace pollution and toxic waste contamination disproportionately affect the lower socioeconomic strata, and thus reforms aimed at such problems will likely have more progressive impacts.

  6. Digital Media and "Girling" at an Elite Girls' School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Claire

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I draw on Judith Butler's notion of performativity to investigate the role of digital technologies in processes of gendered subjectification (or "girling") in elite girls' education. Elite girls' schooling is a site where the potential of digital technologies in mediating student-led constructions and explorations of…

  7. Elite and Status Attainment Models of Inequality of Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myles, John F.; Srensen, Aage B.

    1975-01-01

    With changes in method, analysis of the process of attainment of various occupations and sub-sets of occupations such as elites can bring about the desired comparability between elite and status attainment studies of equality of opportunity. (Author/AM)

  8. Academic dentistry.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Vivian E; Horner, Keith

    2008-07-01

    Since 1988, thirteen dental schools have provided dental undergraduate programmes within the United Kingdom (UK). In 2006, two new dental schools were created supporting dental education in the community. A further new dental school in Scotland will be accepting students in autumn 2008. In the past 25 years, extensive reorganisation of the NHS has resulted in long-term implications for the training of medical and dental academic staff. The number of academic clinicians is below the minimum viable level and external constraints, combined with a lack of suitable applicants, have led to a moratorium on academic recruitment within some Dental Schools. A detailed review of the historical and associated factors which have led to the problems presently besetting academic dentistry are discussed along with the initiatives introduced in the last 10 years to revitalise the speciality. Also, the present and future outlook for academic dentistry in other countries are discussed. Opinion is divided as to the appropriate setting for the training of undergraduate students between those who support community-based dental education and those who believe dental education should remain within research led dental establishments. External factors are moulding an unsatisfactory situation that is proving increasingly unattractive to the potential dental academic and the case for reform is obvious.

  9. Concussion among Swedish elite ice hockey players.

    PubMed Central

    Tegner, Y; Lorentzon, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of concussion in Swedish ice hockey and to establish a uniform grading and treatment model for concussions of different severity. METHODS: Frequency of concussion was investigated in two studies, one retrospective and one prospective. In the retrospective study, all Swedish elite ice hockey players (n = 265) were asked to answer a questionnaire on the number and treatment of previous concussions. Only concussions diagnosed by a doctor were recorded. The questionnaire was completed by 227 players (86%). In the prospective study, all injuries including concussions occurring during game and practice in the Swedish Elite League (n = 12 teams) were recorded during four years. The causes of injury, referees judgements, diagnosis, treatment, and time absent from ice hockey were registered on special cards. RESULTS: In the retrospective study, 51 out of 227 players (22%) in the Swedish Elite League reported at least one concussion. In the prospective study, 52 concussions were reported. The incidence of a concussion is at least one concussion every year/team or a yearly risk of about 5% for a player to sustain a concussion. Most concussions occurred during league play (81%). Body contact (checking or boarding) was the most common cause of concussions. The players were absent from full training and play on a mean of 6 d. CONCLUSIONS: As this injury is potentially dangerous it must be treated seriously according to a simple treatment model presented. In cases of repeated concussions during the same season, a longer period of time away from play is suggested. In players who have sustained several concussions over the years a thorough medical examination including EEG, CT/MRI, and neuropsychological tests should be performed. If any of these is pathological the player should be advised to give up ice hockey. PMID:8889123

  10. Utilizing a Culture of Trust to Promote Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulsart, Robyn; McCarthy, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    A simple Internet search of "academic dishonesty" reveals a continuing conversation among individuals within the academic community who are asking what academic dishonesty is, who is cheating, why students are cheating, and how we stop them from cheating. This article addresses these questions and provides a model for creating a culture of trust…

  11. [Organic injuries in doped elite sports men].

    PubMed

    Vitoria Ortiz, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    The technical level of the sportsmen in different Sports increases every year. The athletic records reach new heights and the margin between success and failure in the world of sports becomes smaller. Therefore, trainers and sportsmen look for this small difference to secure the victory. They may try to get the support from ergogenetic substances (to improve the performance). Some of these supports may benefit the performance but others may have lethal consequences. The author presents the consequences in human body of the elite sportsman who have used prohibited substances to improve the sport performance.

  12. Moving Elite Athletes Forward: Examining the Status of Secondary School Elite Athlete Programmes and Available Post-School Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study focused specifically on examining the status of and the promotion of two elite athlete programmes (EAPs), the students/elite athlete selection process and available post-school options. The research was guided by Michel Foucault's work in understanding the relationship between power and knowledge. Participants,…

  13. The Weaknesses of Full-Text Searching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a theoretical critique of the deficiencies of full-text searching in academic library databases. Because full-text searching relies on matching words in a search query with words in online resources, it is an inefficient method of finding information in a database. This matching fails to retrieve synonyms, and it also retrieves…

  14. Multitasking Information Seeking and Searching Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Amanda; Ozmutlu, H. Cenk; Ozmutlu, Seda

    2002-01-01

    Presents findings from four studies of the prevalence of multitasking information seeking and searching by Web (via the Excite search engine), information retrieval system (mediated online database searching), and academic library users. Highlights include human information coordinating behavior (HICB); and implications for models of information…

  15. Library Instruction and Online Database Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercado, Heidi

    1999-01-01

    Reviews changes in online database searching in academic libraries. Topics include librarians conducting all searches; the advent of end-user searching and the need for user instruction; compact disk technology; online public catalogs; the Internet; full text databases; electronic information literacy; user education and the remote library user;…

  16. Academic self-concept and academic achievement: relations and causal ordering.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Herbert W; Martin, Andrew J

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. A positive self-concept is valued as a desirable outcome in many disciplines of psychology as well as an important mediator to other outcomes. AIMS. The present review examines support for the reciprocal effects model (REM) that posits academic self-concept (ASC) and achievement are mutually reinforcing, each leading to gains in the other - and its extension to other achievement domains. METHOD. We review theoretical, methodological, and empirical support for the REM. Critical features in this research are a theoretical emphasis on multidimensional perspectives that focus on specific components of self-concept and a methodological focus on a construct validity approach to evaluating the REM. RESULTS. Consistent with these distinctions, REM research and a comprehensive meta-analysis show that prior ASC has direct and indirect effects on subsequent achievement, whilst the effects of self-esteem and other non-academic components of self-concept are negligible. We then provide an overview of subsequent support for the generality of the REM for: young children, cross-cultural, health (physical activity), and non-elite (gymnastics) and elite (international swimming championships) sport. CONCLUSION. This research is important in demonstrating that increases in ASC lead to increases in subsequent academic achievement and other desirable educational outcomes. Findings confirm that not only is self-concept an important outcome variable in itself, it also plays a central role in affecting other desirable educational outcomes. Implications for educational practice are discussed.

  17. Temporal associations between individual changes in hormones, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men.

    PubMed

    Crewther, B T; Carruthers, J; Kilduff, L P; Sanctuary, C E; Cook, C J

    2016-09-01

    To advance our understanding of the hormonal contribution to athletic performance, we examined the temporal associations between individual changes in testosterone (T) and/or cortisol (C) concentrations, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men. Two male cohorts classified as elites (n = 12) and non-elites (n = 12) completed five testing sessions over a six-week period. The athletes were tested for salivary T, C, T/C ratio, self-perceived training motivation, countermovement jump (CMJ) height and isometric mid-thigh pull peak force (IMTP PF), after which an actual training workout was performed. The elite men reported higher motivation to train and they produced greater CMJ height overall, whereas the non-elites had higher pooled T levels (p < 0.05). No significant group differences in C concentrations, T/C ratio or IMTP PF were found. The individual changes in T levels were positively associated with training motivation in the elite men only (p = 0.033), but the hormonal and motivation measures did not predict CMJ height or IMTP PF in either group. The monitoring of elite and non-elite men across a short training block revealed differences in T levels, motivation and lower-body power, which may reflect training and competitive factors in each group. Despite having lower T levels, the elite athletes showed better linkage between pre-training T fluctuations and subsequent motivation to train. The nature of the performance tests (i.e. single repetition trials) could partly explain the lack of an association with the hormonal and motivational measures.

  18. Temporal associations between individual changes in hormones, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, J; Kilduff, LP; Sanctuary, CE; Cook, CJ

    2016-01-01

    To advance our understanding of the hormonal contribution to athletic performance, we examined the temporal associations between individual changes in testosterone (T) and/or cortisol (C) concentrations, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men. Two male cohorts classified as elites (n = 12) and non-elites (n = 12) completed five testing sessions over a six-week period. The athletes were tested for salivary T, C, T/C ratio, self-perceived training motivation, countermovement jump (CMJ) height and isometric mid-thigh pull peak force (IMTP PF), after which an actual training workout was performed. The elite men reported higher motivation to train and they produced greater CMJ height overall, whereas the non-elites had higher pooled T levels (p < 0.05). No significant group differences in C concentrations, T/C ratio or IMTP PF were found. The individual changes in T levels were positively associated with training motivation in the elite men only (p = 0.033), but the hormonal and motivation measures did not predict CMJ height or IMTP PF in either group. The monitoring of elite and non-elite men across a short training block revealed differences in T levels, motivation and lower-body power, which may reflect training and competitive factors in each group. Despite having lower T levels, the elite athletes showed better linkage between pre-training T fluctuations and subsequent motivation to train. The nature of the performance tests (i.e. single repetition trials) could partly explain the lack of an association with the hormonal and motivational measures. PMID:27601775

  19. International travel and the elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Pipe, Andrew L

    2011-01-01

    International travel is a frequent occurrence in the life of the elite athlete; such travel can pose challenges to the sport medicine practitioner. Travel is also the reality of many recreational level or sub-elite athletes as opportunities for international competition and training proliferate. An appreciation of the range of responsibilities associated with the preparation for and the strategies to facilitate such travel is essential for any physician charged with the care of athletes and teams. An appreciation of (1) the medical and public health challenges associated with competition in a particular setting; (2) the requirements for vaccination and immunization; (3) the strategies for the management of jet lag and climatic or environmental extremes; (4) the range of supplies and equipment necessary for travel to certain locales; (5) the need to ensure the availability of ample familiar and nutritious foods; (6) the potential need for specialty care in strange settings; (7) the management of common travel-associated illness; and (8) the challenges associated with the evacuation of an injured athlete are fundamental to the successful management of international travel involving athletes and teams. The adoption of a methodical approach to pre-trip planning can ensure an enhanced travel experience, illness-free training and competition, and facilitate optimal performance.

  20. Supplement Use of Elite Australian Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gregory; Slater, Gary; Burke, Louise M

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the influence the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) Sport Supplement Program had on supplement practices of elite Australian swimmers, comparing those guided by the Program with others in the same national team. Thirty-nine elite swimmers (13 AIS, 26 Other; 20 female, 19 male; age 21.8 ± 3.3 y) completed a questionnaire investigating supplement use. Ninety-seven percent of swimmers reported taking supplements or sports foods over the preceding 12 months. AIS swimmers reported using more total brands (p = .02) and supplements considered Ergogenic (p = .001) than Other swimmers who used more supplements considered to be lacking scientific support (p = .028). Swimmers rated the risk of a negative outcome from the use of supplements available in Australia (Mdn = 3.0) as less than the risk of supplements from international sources (Mdn = 4.0; p < .001). AIS swimmers were more likely to report dietitians (p < .001) and sports physicians (p = .017) as advisors of their supplement use. Other swimmers more frequently reported fellow athletes as a source of supplement advice (p = .03). AIS swimmers sourced a greater percentage of their supplements from an organized program (94 ± 16%) compared with Other (40 ± 32%; p < .001) who sourced a greater percentage (30 ± 30%) of their dietary supplements from supermarkets. These findings suggest that swimmers influenced by this sport supplement program more frequently use supplements that are recommended by allied health trained individuals, classified as evidence based and provided by the program.

  1. China Academic Library and Information System: An Academic Library Consortium in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, Longji; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Hongyang

    2000-01-01

    Describes CALIS (China Academic Library and Information System), a nationwide academic library consortium funded primarily by the Chinese government to serve multiple resource-sharing functions among the participating libraries, including online searching, interlibrary loan, document delivery, and coordinated purchasing and cataloging, by…

  2. Representing refugees: the role of elites in Burundi refugee society.

    PubMed

    Sommers, M

    1995-03-01

    Among Burundi refugees in Tanzania, men who have a university education and know English or French are most likely to represent their concerns to officials, particularly those from UNHCR. Officials consequently learn about the perspectives of refugees from these men. Based upon findings from two years of field research in Tanzania, the history of relations between ethnic Hutu elites and the peasantry in Burundi is outlined and it is explained why education has assumed such pronounced significance in Burundi refugee society. The use of ethnicity as a political tool for elite refugees is also described. It is concluded that elite refugees may not, as is often claimed, represent the refugee majority.

  3. Effect of Antiretroviral Therapy on HIV Reservoirs in Elite Controllers

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Tae-Wook; Shawn Justement, J.; Murray, Danielle; Kim, Connie J.; Blazkova, Jana; Hallahan, Claire W.; Benko, Erika; Costiniuk, Cecilia T.; Kandel, Gabor; Ostrowski, Mario; Kaul, Rupert; Moir, Susan; Casazza, Joseph P.; Koup, Richard A.; Kovacs, Colin; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2013-01-01

    Elite controllers suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viremia to below the limit of detection in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, precise frequencies of CD4+ T cells carrying replication-competent HIV and/or the dynamics of the infectious viral reservoirs in response to initiation and discontinuation of ART in elite controllers are unknown. We show that the size of the pool of CD4+ T cells harboring infectious HIV diminished significantly after initiation of ART and rebounded to baseline upon cessation of therapy. Our data provide compelling evidence that persistent viral replication occurs in untreated elite controllers even in the absence of detectable plasma viremia. PMID:23847057

  4. KINEMATICS THAT DIFFERENTIATE THE BEACH FLAGS START BETWEEN ELITE AND NON-ELITE SPRINTERS

    PubMed Central

    Vickery, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study differentiated the kinematics of the beach flags sprint start between five elite (three males, two females; age = 21.2 ± 2.6 years; height = 1.71 ± 0.04 m; mass = 66.2 ± 5.9 kg) and five non-elite (three males, two females; age = 20.4 ± 1.7 years; height = 1.69 ± 0.08 meters [m]; mass = 61.6 ± 5.7 kilograms) sprinters. A high-speed camera filmed the start. Timing gates recorded the 0-2, 0-5, and 0-20 m intervals. Data included body position during the start and at take-off; start time; first step length; and sprint times. A Mann-Whitney U-test determined significant (p < 0.05) between-group differences; effect sizes (ES) were also calculated. Elite sprinters had a greater take-off trajectory angle (p = 0.01; ES = 2.57), and were faster over the 0-2 (p = 0.02; ES = 1.77), 0-5 (p = 0.05; ES = 1.20), and 0-20 m (p = 0.02; ES = 1.83) intervals. Large effects were found for: greater take-off swing leg hip flexion (ES = 1.13) and trunk lean (ES = 1.37); longer duration start time (ES = 1.33); and longer first step length (ES = 1.23) in elite sprinters. A longer start time assists with force generation, which in conjunction with increased hip flexion, could translate to a longer first step. Increased trunk lean shifts the take-off trajectory angle towards the horizontal. A greater trajectory angle at start take-off, which could be advantageous for force production during sprint performance, is likely necessary for beach flags. PMID:24744496

  5. Island of the Sun: Elite and Non-Elite Observations of the June Solstice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearborn, David S. P.; Bauer, Brian S.

    In Inca times (AD 1400-1532), two small islands in Lake Titicaca had temples dedicated to the sun and the moon. Colonial documents indicate that the islands were the focus of large-scale pilgrimages. Recent archaeoastronomical work suggests that rituals, attended by both elites and commoners, were held on the Island of the Sun to observe the setting sun on the June solstice.

  6. Leading Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlehurst, Robin

    This book aims to increase the level of interest and understanding of leadership within the academic context and to demonstrate the relevance of leadership for contemporary United Kingdom universities. The book considers the concept of leadership and its appropriateness and usefulness for nonprofit professional organizations such as universities,…

  7. Academic Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Linda

    2013-01-01

    As colleges and universities become even more complex organizations, advancement professionals need to have the skills, experience, and academic credentials to succeed in this ever-changing environment. Advancement leaders need competencies that extend beyond fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing. The author encourages…

  8. Academic Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally…

  9. What are the people's attitudes toward spinal cord injury victims (from common to elite)

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinigolafshani, Zahra; Abedi, Heidarali; Ahmadi, Fazlolah

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the acutely fatal and prevalent crises in all societies is acute spinal cord injury. Individuals with a spinal cord injury are prone to numerous challenges, perturbation, and acute mental distresses. One of their concerns, often expressed generally and in the form of a complaint, is how people deal with them. The present study aims to analyze the experiences and interactions of the disabled with the society and to achieve a deep clarification of their internal attitudes and realistic approaches in various social classes (from common people to elite). Materials and Methods: The present study is a part of a greater research with a classical grounded theory approach conducted on 12 successful and nationally and internationally popular disabled people. Sampling was firstly purposive and then continued with snowball sampling. The data were collected by open deep interviews which were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The obtained data were analyzed by Graneheim content analysis method. Results: The findings obtained through analysis of the interviews yielded the theme of a socially suppressing attitude which contained four subthemes of compassionate attitude, disability attitude, inhuman attitude, and atonement attitude. Conclusions: The results showed that both groups of common, and educated and elite classes of Iranian society have identically suppressing attitudes and interactions toward spinal cord injury victims. It seems that traditional attitudes yet preponderate academic and scientific knowledge in Iranian society. This gap needs notable attention of all the Iranians, especially policy makers and social personalities. PMID:24949065

  10. Video Q&A: State-of-the-art therapy for the elite and non-elite athlete: an interview with Mike Carmont

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this video Q&A, Mr Mike Carmont answers questions about state-of-the-art treatments for elite athletes, and the progress and challenges behind translating these into successful therapies for the non-elite athlete. PMID:24438069

  11. Video Q&A: state-of-the-art therapy for the elite and non-elite athlete: an interview with Mike Carmont.

    PubMed

    Carmont, Michael R

    2014-01-17

    In this video Q&A, Mr Mike Carmont answers questions about state-of-the-art treatments for elite athletes, and the progress and challenges behind translating these into successful therapies for the non-elite athlete.

  12. Injuries in elite Taekwondo Poomsae athletes.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Ingar, Anas; Jaffery, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Poomsae is the only non-contact and no opponent form of Taekwondo. The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the type and rate of injuries in elite Canadian Poomsae athletes. Strain and joint dysfunction were the most common types of injuries in Poomsae. Lower limb and back were the most common area of injury in females and males respectively. Females with a lower rank in experience level (DAN≤ 3) were more likely to suffer from chronic overuse injuries compared to their male counterparts, who reported more acute injuries. Athletes ≤40 years of age were more prone to acute injuries compared to athletes over 40. As result of reflection on this study a Poomsae Injury Report Form was developed.

  13. Injuries in elite Taekwondo Poomsae athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Ingar, Anas; Jaffery, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Poomsae is the only non-contact and no opponent form of Taekwondo. The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the type and rate of injuries in elite Canadian Poomsae athletes. Strain and joint dysfunction were the most common types of injuries in Poomsae. Lower limb and back were the most common area of injury in females and males respectively. Females with a lower rank in experience level (DAN≤ 3) were more likely to suffer from chronic overuse injuries compared to their male counterparts, who reported more acute injuries. Athletes ≤40 years of age were more prone to acute injuries compared to athletes over 40. As result of reflection on this study a Poomsae Injury Report Form was developed. PMID:28065994

  14. Competition Nutrition Practices of Elite Ultramarathon Runners.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerff, Trent

    2016-02-01

    Anecdotal claims have suggested that an increasing number of ultramarathoners purposely undertake chronic low-carbohydrate (CHO) ketogenic diets while training, and race with very low CHO intakes, as a way to maximize fat oxidation and improve performance. However, very little empirical evidence exists on specific fueling strategies that elite ultramarathoners undertake to maximize race performance. The study's purpose was to characterize race nutrition habits of elite ultramarathon runners. Three veteran male ultrarunners (M ± SD; age 35 ± 2 years; mass 59.5 ± 1.7 kg; 16.7 ± 2.5 hr 100-mi. best times) agreed to complete a competition- specific nutrition intake questionnaire for 100-mi. races. Verbal and visual instructions were used to instruct the athletes on portion sizes and confirm dietary intake. Throughout 2014, the athletes competed in 16 ultramarathons with a total of 8 wins, including the prestigious Western States Endurance Run 100-miler (14.9 hr). The average prerace breakfast contained 70 ± 16 g CHO, 29 ± 20 g protein, and 21 ± 8 g fat. Athletes consumed an average of 1,162 ± 250 g of CHO (71 ± 20g/hr), with minor fat and protein intakes, resulting in caloric intakes totaling 5,530 ± 1,673 kcals (333 ± 105 kcals/hr) with 93% of calories coming from commercial products. Athletes also reported consuming 912 ± 322 mg of caffeine and 6.9 ± 2.4 g of sodium. Despite having limited professional nutritional input into their fueling approaches, all athletes practiced fueling strategies that maximize CHO intake and are congruent with contemporary evidence-based recommendations.

  15. Elite US college admissions: could the quest for admission increase overuse injury risk?

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Yang, Jingzhen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: This commentary addresses the intriguing correspondence of two trends. First, we describe the increasing selectivity for undergraduate admission to elite colleges and universities in the United States and an apparent preference for “angular” applicants who have demonstrated tremendous accomplishment in a single non-academic pursuit such as music, athletics, or the arts. Second, we describe an apparent increase in overuse injuries among American children and adolescents, a trend that many experts attribute to specialization within a single athletic, musical or artistic pursuit among youth who in previous generations were more “generalist” in their extracurricular activities. It is premature to demonstrate causality and suggest increasing college selectivity has led to increasing rates of overuse injuries, but we speculate there may be a causal relation present and encourage scholarly research on the topic. PMID:27130516

  16. Attributes of top elite team-handball players.

    PubMed

    Massuça, Luís M; Fragoso, Isabel; Teles, Júlia

    2014-01-01

    Researchers in the field of excellence in sport performance are becoming increasingly focused on the study of sport-specific characteristics and requirements. In accordance with this, the purposes of this study were (a) to examine the morphologic-, fitness-, handball-specific skills and psychological and "biosocial" differences between top elite and nontop elite team-handball players and (b) to investigate the extent to which they may be used to identify top elite team-handball players. One hundred sixty-seven adult male team-handball players were studied and divided in 2 groups: top elite (n = 41) and nontop elite (n = 126). Twenty-eight morphologic-, 9 fitness-, 1 handball-specific skills and 2 psychological-based and 2 "biosocial"-based attributes were used. Top elite and nontop elite groups were compared for each variable of interest using Student's t-test, and 5 logistic regression analyses were performed with the athlete's performance group (top elite or nontop elite) as the dependent variable and the variables of each category as predictors. The results showed that (a) body mass, waist girth, radiale-dactylion length, midstylion-dactylion length, and absolute muscle mass (morphologic model); (b) 30-m sprint time, countermovement jump height and average power, abdominal strength and the class of performance in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test (fitness model); (c) offensive power (specific-skills model); (d) ego-based motivational orientation (psychological model); (e) socioeconomic status and the energy spent (for week) in handball activity (biosocial model); significantly (p < 0.05) contributed to predict the probability of an athlete to be a top elite team-handball player. Moreover, the fitness model exhibited higher percentages of correct classification (i.e., 91.5%) than all the other models did. This study provided (a) the rational to reduce the battery of tests for evaluation purposes, and (b) the initial step to work on building a

  17. The key to success in elite athletes? Explicit and implicit motor learning in youth elite and non-elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Verburgh, L; Scherder, E J A; van Lange, P A M; Oosterlaan, J

    2016-09-01

    In sports, fast and accurate execution of movements is required. It has been shown that implicitly learned movements might be less vulnerable than explicitly learned movements to stressful and fast changing circumstances that exist at the elite sports level. The present study provides insight in explicit and implicit motor learning in youth soccer players with different expertise levels. Twenty-seven youth elite soccer players and 25 non-elite soccer players (aged 10-12) performed a serial reaction time task (SRTT). In the SRTT, one of the sequences must be learned explicitly, the other was implicitly learned. No main effect of group was found for implicit and explicit learning on mean reaction time (MRT) and accuracy. However, for MRT, an interaction was found between learning condition, learning phase and group. Analyses showed no group effects for the explicit learning condition, but youth elite soccer players showed better learning in the implicit learning condition. In particular, during implicit motor learning youth elite soccer showed faster MRTs in the early learning phase and earlier reached asymptote performance in terms of MRT. Present findings may be important for sports because children with superior implicit learning abilities in early learning phases may be able to learn more (durable) motor skills in a shorter time period as compared to other children.

  18. Association between ACE D allele and elite short distance swimming.

    PubMed

    Costa, Aldo Matos; Silva, António José; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; Louro, Hugo; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Breitenfeld, Luiza

    2009-08-01

    The influence of ACE gene on athletic performance has been widely explored, and most of the published data refers to an I/D polymorphism leading to the presence (I allele) or absence (D allele) of a 287-bp sequence in intron 16, determining ACE activity in serum and tissues. A higher I allele frequency has been reported among elite endurance athletes, while the D allele was more frequent among those engaged in more power-orientated sports. However, on competitive swimming, the reproducibility of such associations is controversial. We thus compared the ACE genotype of elite swimmers with that of non-elite swimming cohort and of healthy control subjects. We thus sought an association of the ACE genotype of elite swimmers with their competitive distance. 39 Portuguese Olympic swimming candidates were classified as: short (<200 m) and middle (400-1,500 m) distance swimmers, respectively. A group of 32 non-elite swimmers were studied and classified as well, and a control group (n = 100) was selected from the Portuguese population. Chelex 100 was used for DNA extraction and genotype was determined by PCR-RFLP methods. We found that ACE genotype distribution and allelic frequency differs significantly by event distance only among elite swimmers (P < or = 0.05). Moreover, the allelic frequency of the elite short distance swimmers differed significantly from that of the controls (P = 0.021). No associations were found between middle distance swimmers and controls. Our results seem to support an association between the D allele and elite short distance swimming.

  19. Academia and the Search for Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorner, Peter

    1982-01-01

    History provides examples of how academic communities responded to serious social problems and tensions: by intentionally or unintentionally aggravating them, withdrawing, or searching for solutions. (AVAIL: Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, 1922 University Ave., Madison, WI 53705)

  20. Picturing Success: Young Femininities and the (Im)Possibilities of Academic Achievement in Selective, Single-Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade it is young women who have come to be widely understood as the bearers of educational qualifications. It is girls who are now seen to have "the world at their feet" and to be able to attain the glittering prizes of academic success associated with elite universities and top occupations. And it is upper-middle-class…

  1. ACE and AGTR1 polymorphisms in elite rhythmic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Alessandra; Sapere, Nadia; Piazza, Marina; Aquino, Giovanna; Iuliano, Enzo; Intrieri, Mariano; Calcagno, Giuseppe

    2013-02-01

    In the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, Alu deletion, in intron 16, is associated with higher concentrations of ACE serum activity and this may be associated with elite sprint and power performance. The Alu insertion is associated with lower ACE levels and this could lead to endurance performance. Moreover, recent studies have identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the angiotensin type 1 receptor gene AGTR1, which seems to be related to ACE activity. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of the ACE and the AGTR1 gene polymorphisms in 28 Italian elite rhythmic gymnasts (age range 21 ± 7.6 years), and compare them to 23 middle level rhythmic gymnasts (age range 17 ± 10.9 years). The ACE D allele was significantly more frequent in elite athletes than in the control population (χ(2)=4.07, p=0.04). Comparisons between the middle level and elite athletes revealed significant differences (p<0.0001) for the ACE DD genotype (OR=6.48, 95% confidence interval=1.48-28.34), which was more frequent in elite athletes. There were no significant differences in the AGTR1 A/C genotype or allele distributions between the middle level and elite athletes. In conclusion, the ACE D allele genotype could be a contributing factor to high-performance rhythmic gymnastics that should be considered in athlete development and could help to identify which skills should be trained for talent promotion.

  2. Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure in Japanese elite female athletes.

    PubMed

    Ohya, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Chino, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2017-04-01

    Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP) is a common measurement of inspiratory muscle strength, which is often used in a variety of exercises to evaluate the effects of inspiratory muscle training. The characteristics of MIP in elite female athletes remain unclear. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of MIP at rest in a variety of sport-specific elite female athletes. We also aimed to clarify if there is a sex difference of MIP in elite athletes. We studied 169 Japanese elite female athletes and 301 Japanese elite male athletes. MIP was assessed using a portable autospirometer with a handheld mouth pressure meter. Female athletes who regularly experienced exercise-induced inspiratory muscle fatigue tended to have higher MIP values. The mean absolute MIP value in females was significantly lower than that in males. However, when this value was expressed relative to body mass, this difference disappeared. Our findings provide essential information for prescribed, sport-specific, inspiratory muscle training in elite female athletes.

  3. Pregnancy in Spanish elite sportswomen: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pascual, Beatriz; Alvarez-Harris, Sara; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2016-06-20

    Pregnancy and motherhood have been historically considered as reasons why elite sportswomen may end their sport careers. During pregnancy, the safety of both mother and baby has been identified as a key reason for ceasing sport participation. Recent "official" statistics on how many elite athletes are mothers suggest that pregnancy, motherhood, and sport could be no longer mutually exclusive. The aim of this qualitative phenomenological study was to describe the lived pregnancy of Spanish elite sportswomen. Spanish elite sportswomen (n = 20) aged between 18 and 65 years that had been pregnant during their sporting professional career and after the end of their pregnancy had taken up again their professional sporting career for at least one year were included. Data were collected from May 2010 to April 2012 using in-depth personal interviews, investigator's field notes, and extracts from the participants' personal letters. Identified themes included: (1) choosing the right moment; (2) fears and doubts; and (3) justifying physical exercise. By giving voice to these elite Spanish sportswomen, their pregnancy experiences are made visible, which might help to gain a better understanding into their expectations and develop policies and practices focused on elite sportswomen during and after pregnancy.

  4. Search Cloud

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/cloud.html Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this page, ... chest pa and lateral Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search cloud ...

  5. Elites and Ethnic Boundary Maintenance: A Study of the Roles of Elites in Chinatown, New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Bernard

    1977-01-01

    The traditional elite, born in China, is over 50 years old, owns Chinese-type businesses, derives its power from family name and territorial dialect associations, and leads a traditional Chinese life-style. The new elite, born in the U.S., is 25 to 50 years of age, works in social service agencies, and leads an American middle class life-style.…

  6. Challenging Google, Microsoft Unveils a Search Tool for Scholarly Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft has introduced a new search tool to help people find scholarly articles online. The service, which includes journal articles from prominent academic societies and publishers, puts Microsoft in direct competition with Google Scholar. The new free search tool, which should work on most Web browsers, is called Windows Live Academic Search…

  7. A review of the risk factors for lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Bowerman, Erin Anne; Whatman, Chris; Harris, Nigel; Bradshaw, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to review the evidence for selected risk factors of lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers. An electronic search of key databases from 1969 to July 2013 was conducted using the keywords dancers, ballet dancers, athletes, adolescent, adolescence, young, injury, injuries, risk, overuse, lower limb, lower extremity, lower extremities, growth, maturation, menarche, alignment, and biomechanics. Thirteen published studies were retained for review. Results indicated that there is a high incidence of lower extremity overuse injuries in the target population. Primary risk factors identified included maturation, growth, and poor lower extremity alignment. Strong evidence from well-designed studies indicates that young elite female ballet dancers suffer from delayed onset of growth, maturation, menarche, and menstrual irregularities. However, there is little evidence that this deficit increases the risk of overuse injury, with the exception of stress fractures. Similarly, there is minimal evidence linking poor lower extremity alignment to increased risk of overuse injury. It is concluded that further prospective, longitudinal studies are required to clarify the relationship between growth, maturation, menarche, and lower extremity alignment, and the risk of lower extremity overuse injury in young elite female ballet dancers.

  8. Talent Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Linda Kreger, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Talent searches are discussed in this journal theme issue, with two feature articles and several recurring columns. "Talent Search: A Driving Force in Gifted Education," by Paula Olszewski-Kubilius, defines what a talent search is, how the Talent Search was developed by Dr. Julian Stanley at Johns Hopkins University in Maryland, the…

  9. Hodgkin's Lymphoma in an elite endurance athlete.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Muser, Klaus; Hirschberger, Barbara; Roecker, Kai; Dickhuth, Hans Herrmann; Pottgiesser, Torben

    2008-03-01

    Cancer is a life-threatening condition. We describe the case of a 22-yr-old world-class endurance athlete who presented with mild local lymphadenopathy but without any systemic complaints or impaired performance. He was subsequently diagnosed with stage III A (S) Hodgkin's lymphoma. A complete physiological workup before the diagnosis revealed high aerobic capacity. Immediately after six courses of escalated BEACOPP chemotherapy in an identical test setting, aerobic capacity was markedly reduced (-42%), mainly because of a decrease in total hemoglobin mass (-37%), despite maintaining a certain amount of endurance training. Other potentially performance-limiting systems such as heart, lung, or aerobic metabolism did not show any signs of impairment. Two months after chemotherapy, the athlete had recovered his hemoglobin mass, and his aerobic performance was almost back to pretherapy levels. This case illustrates that advanced malignancies can be present in elite athletes without affecting performance, and that aerobic capacity can be regained within a short time after systemic chemotherapy.

  10. Nutritional status of Brazilian elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Valéria Cristina Provenza; Amancio, Olga Maria Silverio

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the body composition, dietary intake, use of nutritional supplements, and biochemical status of 8 Brazilian male elite swimmers, aged 18-21 years, participants at a national swimming competition. Data from the athletes were obtained through a 4-day food record, a fasting blood sample, and anthropometric measurements. The anthropometric results showed that body composition was compatible with sport category. The dietary assessment showed an adequate ingestion of calories, vitamins, and mineral, with the exception of calcium, for which only half of the sample reached the recommendation. The results also indicated low carbohydrate and high protein and cholesterol intakes. Of the swimmers, 62.5% and 25% consumed synthetic aminoacids and antioxidants supplements, respectively. The biochemical indices of the nutritional status were within normal limits in all swimmers, with the exception of creatine-kinase, which was above the recommended level, indicating muscle degradation probably due to poor carbohydrate intake. In conclusion, the results suggest the importance of nutritional education to promote a balanced intake, provide all nutrients in optimal amounts, inhibit unnecessary ingestion of nutritional supplements, maintain ideal performance, and improve the swimmers' health status.

  11. Physiological characteristics of elite kayak paddlers.

    PubMed

    Tesch, P A

    1983-06-01

    Elite flat-water kayak paddlers were characterized with regard to body composition, muscle strength and endurance for upper-body exercise. Furthermore, maximal oxygen uptake was measured during three types of exercise: treadmill running, arm cranking and outdoor paddling. Blood samples for subsequent lactate analysis were collected not only after maximal exercises but also during training sessions and post 1000 m racing. In comparison with other groups of athletes known to exhibit great upper-body muscle strength, kayakers were found to possess high values for shoulder strength, endurance and anaerobic capacity. Total body maximal oxygen uptake averaged (+/- SD) 5.36 +/- 0.25 l X min-1. The values for arm cranking and paddling were 4.30 +/- 0.29 l X min-1 and 4.67 +/- 0.16 l X min-1. High blood lactate levels were noticed under training conditions and post competition (11.0-17.5 mmol X l-1). Taken together, the present study suggests success in flat-water kayak racing to require great upper-body muscle strength, anaerobic capacity and endurance in addition to high aerobic power.

  12. Acceleration profiles in elite Australian soccer.

    PubMed

    Varley, M C; Aughey, R J

    2013-01-01

    We quantified the acceleration and high-velocity running of elite Australian soccer players. We hypothesised that high-intensity activity would be underestimated when excluding acceleration during match analysis given its high metabolic demand and occurrence at low velocities. Player movements were observed from 29 players (forwards and central and wide defenders and midfielders) during domestic Australian competition using 5-Hz global positioning system. Effort occurrence were determined for high-velocity running, sprinting and maximal accelerations. The commencement and final velocity of maximal accelerations were also identified. Players undertook an 8~fold greater number of maximal accelerations than sprints per game (65±21 vs. 8±5). Of maximal accelerations ~98% commenced from a starting velocity lower than what would be considered high-velocity running while ~85% did not cross the high-velocity running threshold. The number of efforts performed in all categories were position dependent (P<0.001). Wide defenders performed more maximal accelerations (P<0.006) and central defenders and midfielders performed less sprints compared to all other positions (P<0.02). Maximal accelerations are frequently undertaken during a match often occurring at low velocities. Excluding maximal accelerations in match analysis research may underestimate the amount of high-intensity movements undertaken. Additionally positional differences in high-intensity movements should be accounted for when developing specific conditioning drills.

  13. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes.

    PubMed

    Roos, Lilian; Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries.

  14. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Lilian; Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries. PMID:26258134

  15. The role of self-interest in elite bargaining.

    PubMed

    LeVeck, Brad L; Hughes, D Alex; Fowler, James H; Hafner-Burton, Emilie; Victor, David G

    2014-12-30

    One of the best-known and most replicated laboratory results in behavioral economics is that bargainers frequently reject low offers, even when it harms their material self-interest. This finding could have important implications for international negotiations on many problems facing humanity today, because models of international bargaining assume exactly the opposite: that policy makers are rational and self-interested. However, it is unknown whether elites who engage in diplomatic bargaining will similarly reject low offers because past research has been based almost exclusively on convenience samples of undergraduates, members of the general public, or small-scale societies rather than highly experienced elites who design and bargain over policy. Using a unique sample of 102 policy and business elites who have an average of 21 y of practical experience conducting international diplomacy or policy strategy, we show that, compared with undergraduates and the general public, elites are actually more likely to reject low offers when playing a standard "ultimatum game" that assesses how players bargain over a fixed resource. Elites with more experience tend to make even higher demands, suggesting that this tendency only increases as policy makers advance to leadership positions. This result contradicts assumptions of rational self-interested behavior that are standard in models of international bargaining, and it suggests that the adoption of global agreements on international trade, climate change, and other important problems will not depend solely on the interests of individual countries, but also on whether these accords are seen as equitable to all member states.

  16. Capturing the Elite in Marine Conservation in Northeast Kalimantan.

    PubMed

    Kusumawati, Rini; Visser, Leontine

    This article takes the existence of power networks of local elites as a social fact of fundamental importance and the starting point for the study of patronage in the governance of the coastal waters of East Kalimantan. We address the question of how to capture the elites for project implementation, rather than assuming the inevitability of elite capture of project funds. We analyze the multiple-scale networks of local power holders (punggawa) and the collaboration and friction between the political-economic interests and historical values of local actors and the scientific motivations of international environmental organizations. We describe how collaboration and friction between members of the elite challenge models that categorically exclude or co-opt local elites in foreign projects. In-depth ethnographic study of these networks shows their resilience through flows of knowledge and power in a highly volatile coastal environment. Results indicate the need for inclusion in decision making of local entrepreneurs, and - indirectly - their dependents in decentralized coastal governance.

  17. Declining frequency of blood donation among elites in Maiduguri, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S G; Gamas, M G; Kagu, M B

    2006-09-01

    This study evaluated the causes of declining frequency of voluntary blood donations among educated elites as seen at the blood bank of University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria, over the last decade. The number of blood units received from educated elite donors during a 10-year period (1995-2004) at the blood bank were determined and expressed as percentages of total donations collected annually. The reasons for elite donor default were obtained through the use of questionnaires filled by defaulting donors. The proportion of educated elite donations steadily fell from 28% in 1995 to 7% in 2004. Reasons for defaulting from voluntary blood donations included fear for HIV screening in 86.7% of respondents, economic hardship/poor nourishment in 50.6% of respondents, changed address/logistic difficulties in 4.8% of respondents and ill health in 2.4% of respondents. Therefore, the steady fall in the proportion of elite donors over the years was mainly due to fear of HIV screening coupled with economic difficulties. Hence, there is the need to review our donor campaign strategy with respect to predonation counseling for HIV, initiate regular haematinics supplementation for donors and introduce sustainable mobile donor clinic services for distant donors. Further more, there is the need for a functional national blood transfusion service in Nigeria.

  18. Neural correlates of motor imagery for elite archers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yongmin; Lee, Jae-Jun; Seo, Jee-Hye; Song, Hui-Jin; Kim, Yang-Tae; Lee, Hui Joong; Kim, Hye Jung; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Woojong; Woo, Minjung; Kim, Jin Gu

    2011-05-01

    Motor imagery is a mental rehearsal of simple or complex motor acts without overt body movement. It has been proposed that the association between performance and the mental rehearsal period that precedes the voluntary movement is an important point of difference between highly trained athletes and beginners. We compared the activation maps of elite archers and nonarchers during mental rehearsal of archery to test whether the neural correlates of elite archers were more focused and efficiently organised than those of nonarchers. Brain activation was measured using functional MRI in 18 right-handed elite archers and 18 right-handed nonarchers. During the active functional MRI imagery task, the participants were instructed to mentally rehearse their archery shooting from a first-person perspective. The active imagery condition was tested against the nonmotor imagery task as a control condition. The results showed that the premotor and supplementary motor areas, and the inferior frontal region, basal ganglia and cerebellum, were active in nonarchers, whereas elite archers showed activation primarily in the supplementary motor areas. In particular, our result of higher cerebellar activity in nonarchers indicates the increased participation of the cerebellum in nonarchers when learning an unfamiliar archery task. Therefore, the difference in cerebellar activation between archers and nonarchers provides evidence of the expertise effect in the mental rehearsal of archery. In conclusion, the relative economy in the cortical processes of elite archers could contribute to greater consistency in performing the specific challenge in which they are highly practised.

  19. Response amendment in fencing: differences between elite and novice subjects.

    PubMed

    Williams, L R; Walmsley, A

    2000-08-01

    Reaction time (RT), movement time (MT), total response time (RMT), and accuracy of 3 elite and 3 novice fencers were studied under a dual response paradigm requiring a full lunge. Electromyographic activity (EMG) from selected arm and leg muscles was used to compare response profiles of the two groups. Although the elite subjects had slower MTs, their faster RTs resulted in significantly shorter total response times. The EMG analysis showed that in comparison to the novice subjects, onset of muscle activity was significantly faster for the elite group in five of the six muscles studied. In addition, the elite subjects showed more coherent muscle synergies and more consistent patterns of muscle coordination. Although the requirement to change targets (signalled by the arrival of a second stimulus) led to slightly more target misses for the elite group, the overall frequency was low, which indicates that it did not pose difficulty for either group. The present findings show that measures of response timing and neuromuscular coordination differentiate skill level in the fencing lunge and draw attention to practical implications for skill assessment and training.

  20. Sprinters in the Course of a Marathon: Withdrawal from Elite Competitive Sport in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudrak, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain, using a multi-case study approach, why some young elite athletes, who have shown extraordinary talent in childhood, leave competitive sport in adolescence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five young elite athletes who decided to withdraw from elite sport. Interview data were analyzed using the…

  1. Reach for the Stars: A Constellational Approach to Ethnographies of Elite Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Howard

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a method for examining elite schools in a global setting by appropriating Theodor Adorno's constellational approach. I contend that arranging ideas and themes in a non-deterministic fashion can illuminate the social reality of elite schools. Drawing on my own fieldwork at an elite school in Argentina, I suggest that local and…

  2. The Burden of Responsibility: Elite Students' Understandings of Civic Participation in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Elder statesman Lee Kuan Yew maintains that a society ruled by elites is necessary to provide for high growth and social progress. Elitism conjures a class divide; an ongoing concern is a disconnection between elite and the citizens it has to represent. In the tradition of political socialization, and using the case study approach, this article…

  3. Staying Ahead of the Game: The Globalising Practices of Elite Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Fahey, Johannah

    2014-01-01

    How are elite schools caught up in the changing processes of globalisation? Is globalisation a new phenomenon for them? This paper focuses on the globalising practices that selected elite schools adopt. It also explores how globalisation is impacting on the social purposes of elite schools, which conventionally have been to serve privileged social…

  4. Access through the Ages at an Elite Boarding School: A Case Study of Phillips Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    This study is about access for low-income students at an elite boarding school. As "feeder schools" to elite colleges and universities, elite boarding schools play a significant role in determining which students will be in the upper class in America; however, little is known about the history of low-income students at these schools. The…

  5. Old Elite Schools, History and the Construction of a New Imaginary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2014-01-01

    Elite schools established in the nineteenth century in the image of British public schools now face intense competition from newly established elite schools. Located within the broader research project that this special issue discusses, this paper examines some of the ways in which an old elite school in India has sought to utilise is history to…

  6. Embodying "Britishness": The (Re)Making of the Contemporary Nigerian Elite Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayling, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Existing studies on the role of schooling in the formation and (re)production of elite identity have focused almost entirely on the reproduction strategies of Western elites. Consequently, the distinction strategies employed by non-western elite parents to maintain and/or advance their class positioning--via their children--have remained largely…

  7. Homophily in the career mobility of China's political elite.

    PubMed

    Opper, Sonja; Nee, Victor; Brehm, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    We argue that leadership promotion in China's political elite relies on homophily for signals of trustworthiness and future cooperative behavior more than on economic performance. We first point to the limitation of the economic performance argument from within the framework of China's specific M-form state structure, and then we proffer a sociological explanation for why higher-level elites in China rely on homophilous associations in recruiting middle-level elites to the top positions of state. Using a unique dataset covering China's provincial leaders from 1979 to 2011, we develop a homophily index focusing on joint origin, joint education and joint work experience. We trace personal similarities in these respects between provincial leaders and members of China's supreme decision-making body, the Politbureau's Standing Committee. We then provide robust evidence confirming the persisting impact of homophilous associations on promotion patterns in post-reform China.

  8. Overcoming barriers in online workshop development: an ELITE experience.

    PubMed

    Talcott, Kimberly S; O'Donnell, John M; Burns, Helen K

    2013-06-01

    The Emerging Learning and Integrated Technologies Education (ELITE) Faculty Development Program created eight online workshops to assist nurse educators in using technology within their organization's nurse education program. Continuing education units were provided for completion of the individual online workshops. The ELITE program worked through several barriers to transform content that was previously presented during face-to-face workshops into standalone online offerings. Barriers and implementation strategies for the on-site to online transition included restructuring workshop objectives, keeping current with rapid technology changes, altering a course management system to meet the needs of the program and the learner, and crafting independent practice opportunities for the online learner. The online workshop development experience of the ELITE program may assist other continuing education and staff development professionals who are updating their program offerings or pursuing online education for the first time.

  9. Biomechanical comparison between elite female and male baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yungchien; Fleisig, Glenn S; Simpson, Kathy J; Andrews, James R

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify the biomechanical features of elite female baseball pitching. Kinematics and kinetics of eleven elite female baseball pitchers were reported and compared with eleven elite male pitchers. Results suggested that females share many similarities with males in pitching kinematics, with a few significant differences. Specifically, at the instant of stride foot contact, a female pitcher had a shorter and more open stride and less separation between pelvis orientation and upper torso orientation. From foot contact to ball release, a female pitcher produced lower peak angular velocity for throwing elbow extension and stride knee extension. Ball velocity was lower for the female. Foot contact to ball release took more time for a female pitcher. Maximal proximal forces at the shoulder and elbow joints were less for a female pitcher.

  10. Control of ventilation in elite synchronized swimmers.

    PubMed

    Bjurström, R L; Schoene, R B

    1987-09-01

    Synchronized swimmers perform strenuous underwater exercise during prolonged breath holds. To investigate the role of the control of ventilation and lung volumes in these athletes, we studied the 10 members of the National Synchronized Swim Team including an olympic gold medalist and 10 age-matched controls. We evaluated static pulmonary function, hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory drives, and normoxic and hyperoxic breath holding. Synchronized swimmers had an increased total lung capacity and vital capacity compared with controls (P less than 0.005). The hypoxic ventilatory response (expressed as the hyperbolic shape parameter A) was lower in the synchronized swimmers than controls with a mean value of 29.2 +/- 2.6 (SE) and 65.6 +/- 7.1, respectively (P less than 0.001). The hypercapnic ventilatory response [expressed as S, minute ventilation (1/min)/alveolar CO2 partial pressure (Torr)] was no different between synchronized swimmers and controls. Breath-hold duration during normoxia was greater in the synchronized swimmers, with a mean value of 108.6 +/- 4.8 (SE) vs. 68.03 +/- 8.1 s in the controls (P less than 0.001). No difference was seen in hyperoxic breath-hold times between groups. During breath holding synchronized swimmers demonstrated marked apneic bradycardia expressed as either absolute or heart rate change from basal heart rate as opposed to the controls, in whom heart rate increased during breath holds. Therefore the results show that elite synchronized swimmers have increased lung volumes, blunted hypoxic ventilatory responses, and a marked apneic bradycardia that may provide physiological characteristics that offer a competitive advantage for championship performance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Bone Mineral Density in Elite DanceSport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Kruusamäe, Helena; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2016-03-01

    This study compared bone mineral density (BMD) variables of female and male elite dancesport athletes with untrained control subjects of the same gender. Sixty-six elite dancesport athletes (M 33, F 33) and 64 untrained controls (M 34, F 31) participated in this study. Elite dancesport athletes were dancing couples competing at the international level. Whole-body bone mineral content and whole-body, forearm, lumbar-spine, and femoral-neck BMD, as well as whole-body fat mass and fat free mass, were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no differences (p>0.05) in height and body mass between dancers and controls of the same gender, but percent body fat was lower (p<0.05) in dancers of both genders than in untrained controls. Elite dancesport athletes had significantly higher femoral-neck BMD, and male dancers also higher whole-body BMD values when compared with controls of the same gender. All other measured bone mineral values did not differ between the groups of the same gender. In addition, training experience was positively correlated with whole-body BMD (r=0.27; p<0.05) in dancesport athletes. Based on this study, it can be concluded that elite dancesport athletes have higher BMD values at the weight-bearing site (femoral-neck BMD), while other measured areas and whole-body bone mineral values do not differ from the corresponding values of healthy sedentary controls of the same gender. According to our results, low BMD is not an issue for elite female dancesport athletes, despite their lower percent body fat values.

  12. School Gardens Enhance Academic Performance and Dietary Outcomes in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berezowitz, Claire K.; Bontrager Yoder, Andrea B.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schools face increasing demands to provide education on healthy living and improve core academic performance. Although these appear to be competing concerns, they may interact beneficially. This article focuses on school garden programs and their effects on students' academic and dietary outcomes. Methods: Database searches in CABI,…

  13. HIV-1 elite controllers: beware of super-infections.

    PubMed

    Clerc, Olivier; Colombo, Sara; Yerly, Sabine; Telenti, Amalio; Cavassini, Matthias

    2010-04-01

    Super- and co-infection with HIV-1 are generally associated with accelerated disease progression. We report on the outcome of super-infection in two HIV-1 infected individuals previously known as elite controllers. Both presented an acute retroviral syndrome following super-infection and showed an immuno-virological progression thereafter. Host genotyping failed to reveal any of the currently recognized protective factors associated with slow disease progression. This report indicates that elite controllers should be informed of the risk of super-infection, and illustrates the complexity of mounting broad anti-HIV immunity.

  14. Management of syndesmosis injuries in the elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Mak, May Fong; Gartner, Louise; Pearce, Christopher J

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the basics and evidence base thus far on syndesmosis injuries, focusing on its management in the elite sporting population. A syndesmosis injury or "high ankle sprain" is a significant injury, especially in the elite athlete. Among all ankle sprains, the syndesmotic injury is most predictive of persistent symptoms in the athletic population. Late diagnosis of unstable syndesmosis injuries leads to a poor outcome and delayed return to sports. A high index of suspicion and an understanding of the mechanism of injury is required to ensure an early diagnosis. Incomplete/inaccurate reduction leads to a poor outcome.

  15. Imaging of muscle injury in the elite athlete

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J C; Mitchell, A W M; Healy, J C

    2012-01-01

    Injuries to muscle in the elite athlete are common and may be responsible for prolonged periods of loss of competitive activity. The implications for the athlete and his/her coach and team may be catastrophic if the injury occurs at a critical time in the athlete's diary. Imaging now plays a crucial role in diagnosis, prognostication and management of athletes with muscle injuries. This article discusses the methods available to clinicians and radiologists that are used to assess skeletal muscle injury. The spectrum of muscle injuries sustained in the elite athlete population is both discussed and illustrated. PMID:22496067

  16. Imaging of muscle injury in the elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Lee, J C; Mitchell, A W M; Healy, J C

    2012-08-01

    Injuries to muscle in the elite athlete are common and may be responsible for prolonged periods of loss of competitive activity. The implications for the athlete and his/her coach and team may be catastrophic if the injury occurs at a critical time in the athlete's diary. Imaging now plays a crucial role in diagnosis, prognostication and management of athletes with muscle injuries. This article discusses the methods available to clinicians and radiologists that are used to assess skeletal muscle injury. The spectrum of muscle injuries sustained in the elite athlete population is both discussed and illustrated.

  17. Examining elite Parasport athletes with sport involvement and sports equipment.

    PubMed

    Hambrick, Marion E; Hums, Mary A; Bower, Glenna G; Wolff, Eli A

    2015-01-01

    Elite athletes require the most advanced sports equipment to maintain their competitive edge, but manufacturers cannot always satisfy these athletes' specific equipment needs. Sport involvement can influence sports-equipment selections and is described as the process by which individuals rely on attitudes and belief systems to make sports-related consumption decisions. This study involved semistructured interviews with 5 elite Parasport athletes to identify and analyze the role of sport involvement in their selection of sports equipment. The results revealed that the athletes identified product limitations, created a collaborative environment, and promoted a culture of innovation to develop new sports products and address existing limitations. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  18. Confidential Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Linda Chion

    2003-01-01

    Will the stealth superintendent hunt in Cincinnati become tomorrow's standard approach? Search consultants and superintendents offer their views on how far confidentiality should go. Also includes a search firm's process for shielding identities and a confidentiality pledge. (MLF)

  19. Suspicionless Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    In a federal case involving a vice-principal's pat-down search of middle-school students in a cafeteria (for a missing pizza knife), the court upheld the search, saying it was relatively unintrusive and met "TLO's" reasonable-suspicion standards. Principals need reasonable justification for searching a group. (Contains 18 references.)…

  20. Partition search

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    We introduce a new form of game search called partition search that incorporates dependency analysis, allowing substantial reductions in the portion of the tree that needs to be expanded. Both theoretical results and experimental data are presented. For the game of bridge, partition search provides approximately as much of an improvement over existing methods as {alpha}-{beta} pruning provides over minimax.

  1. Kinesiology Faculty Citations across Academic Rank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Citations to research reports are used as a measure for the influence of a scholar's research line when seeking promotion, grants, and awards. The current study documented the distributions of citations to kinesiology scholars of various academic ranks. Google Scholar Citations was searched for user profiles using five research interest areas…

  2. Academic detailing.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations.

  3. Academic medicine amenities unit: developing a model to integrate academic medical care with luxury hotel services.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David W; Kagan, Sarah H; Abramson, Kelly Brennen; Boberick, Cheryl; Kaiser, Larry R

    2009-02-01

    The interface between established values of academic medicine and the trend toward inpatient amenities units requires close examination. Opinions of such units can be polarized, reflecting traditional reservations about the ethical dilemma of offering exclusive services only to an elite patient group. An amenities unit was developed at the University of Pennsylvania Health System in 2007, using an approach that integrated academic medicine values with the benefits of philanthropy and service excellence to make amenities unit services available to all patients. Given inherent internal political concerns, a broadly based steering committee of academic and hospital leadership was developed. An academically appropriate model was conceived, anchored by four principles: (1) integration of academic values, (2) interdisciplinary senior leadership, (3) service excellence, and (4) recalibrated occupancy expectations based on multiple revenue streams. Foremost is ensuring the same health care is afforded all patients throughout the hospital, thereby overcoming ethical challenges and optimizing teaching experiences. Service excellence frames the service ethic for all staff, and this, in addition to luxury hotel-style amenities, differentiates the style and feel of the unit from others in the hospital. Recalibrated occupancy creates program viability given revenue streams redefined to encompass gifts and patient revenue, including both reimbursement and self-pay. The medical-surgical amenities patient-care unit has enjoyed a successful first year and a growing stream of returning patients and admitting physicians. Implications for other academic medical centers include opportunities to extrapolate service excellence throughout the hospital and to cultivate philanthropy to benefit services throughout the medical center.

  4. Valuing and Evaluating Teaching in Academic Hiring: A Multidisciplinary, Cross-Institutional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meizlish, Deborah; Kaplan, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Within academe, there is much interest in the workings of the academic marketplace. Efforts to understand how the process unfolds occupy both researchers and participants. Clearly, the search process is complex. This article contributes to one's understanding by systematically examining how teaching is valued and assessed by search committees. As…

  5. Leadership styles of elite Dixie youth baseball coaches.

    PubMed

    Bennett, G; Maneval, M

    1998-12-01

    Chelladurai and Saleh's Leadership Scale for Sports was administered to 52 elite Dixie Youth baseball coaches. Analyses indicated that subjects scored high in positive feedback, training and instruction, and social support, moderate in democratic behavior, and low in autocratic behavior. These results seem to support the validity of using the scale to compare coaching behavior.

  6. Management Studies Educational Knowledge: Technical, Elite or Political?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hordern, Jim

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on the technical, elite and political interpretations of the purpose of management, to identify demands for particular forms of educational knowledge in the management studies curriculum. The varied character of this knowledge is discussed using Bernsteinian concepts of verticality, grammaticality, classification and framing, and…

  7. The Relative Age Effect in Elite Sport: The French Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delorme, Nicolas; Boiche, Julie; Raspaud, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is considered a common phenomenon in elite sport. However, it has not been examined systematically in previous research, and the mechanisms likely to generate or to limit such an effect are little understood. This paper investigates the prevalence of the RAE in French professional championship-level players, taking…

  8. Social Class and Elite University Education: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nathan Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The United States experienced a tremendous expansion of higher education after the Second World War. However, this expansion has not led to a substantial reduction to class inequalities at elite universities, where the admissions process is growing even more selective. In his classic studies of French education and society, Pierre Bourdieu…

  9. Elite Professional Education and Problems of Regional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavrikov, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    This article emphasizes the regional development in today's Russia and focuses on the current state of the system of higher education. The concept of elite professional education is used as a means of social mobility and an instrument for the formation of the social structure of a particular region. What prompted this approach was an analysis of…

  10. France's grandes écoles accused of elitism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellemans, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    Physicists in France have backed government plans to open up the country's elite grandes écoles to more students from poorer backgrounds. The government wants to allow up to 30% of students to be given free scholarships in an attempt to broaden the social mix of the student body. The physicists say this would not lead to a lowering of standards.

  11. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence. Although, these athletes apparently undergo sufficient physical activity to develop healthy bones, it is possible that other...

  12. Physiological profiles of elite off-road and road cyclists.

    PubMed

    Wilber, R L; Zawadzki, K M; Kearney, J T; Shannon, M P; Disalvo, D

    1997-08-01

    There are minimal scientific data describing international caliber off-road cyclists (mountain bikers), particularly as they compare physiologically with international caliber road cyclists. Elite female (N = 10) and male (N = 10) athletes representing the United States National Off-Road Bicycle Association (NORBA) Cross-Country Team were compared with elite female (N = 10) and male (N = 10) athletes representing the United States Cycling Federation (USCF) National Road Team. Submaximal and maximal exercise responses were evaluated during the "championship" phase of the training year when athletes were in peak condition. All physiological tests were conducted at 1860 m. Among the female athletes, physiological responses at lactate threshold (LT) and during maximal exercise (MAX) were similar between NORBA and USCF cyclists with two exceptions: 1) USCF cyclists demonstrated a significantly greater (P < 0.05) absolute (16%) and relative (10%) maximal aerobic power, and 2) MAX heart rate was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for the USCF athletes (6%). Among the male athletes, physiological responses at LT and MAX were similar between NORBA and USCF cyclists with two exceptions: 1) USCF cyclists produced significantly greater (P < 0.05) absolute (18%) and relative (16%) power at LT, and 2) USCF cyclists produced significantly greater (P < 0.05) absolute (12%) and relative (10%) power at MAX. These data suggest that, in general, elite off-road cyclists possess physiological profiles that are similar to elite road cyclists.

  13. Physical performance of elite and subelite Spanish female futsal players

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Arias, JA; Carrasco-Poyatos, M; Alcaraz, PE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the parameters distinguishing top female futsal players from lower level players. Twenty-seven female futsal players participated in the study, composed of professional first division (elite; n = 15) players and semi-professional second division players (sub-elite; n = 14). Active and passive straight leg raise tests, isokinetic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 60° · s-1 angular velocity, squat and counter movement jumps, 30 m sprint, 30 m agility, repeated sprint ability test and maximum ball speed during shooting were measured. The elite players were more agile and kicked harder than sub-elite players in maximum ball speed during the shooting test (P ≤ 0.05). However, no significant differences between teams were observed in active and passive hamstring flexibility, jumping ability, repeated sprint ability test, 30 m sprint time, H/Q ratio and absolute and relative torque from 60° · s-1 angular velocity. Based on these findings we conclude that agility and maximum ball speed during shooting may be important determinant factors of Spanish female futsal actions and could distinguish ability at high-level games. PMID:27601786

  14. Disruptive Events: Elite Education and the Discursive Production of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the discursive production of violence in the context of educational markets. Drawing on a larger study of sexually violent incidents that occurred in an elite private boys' school in Sydney, Australia, in 2000, the paper examines disciplinary traditions and communicative practices surrounding these events. Insights from Michel…

  15. Morphogenetic variability during selection of elite water polo players.

    PubMed

    Cvjeticanin, Suzana; Marinkovic, Dragoslav

    2009-07-01

    In this population-genetic study, we compared morphological and genetic variability of a control group of individuals with that of developing and elite water polo players from Serbia, using a test of determination of homozygously recessive characteristics in humans (HRC-test). Comparisons of the frequencies of ABO and Rh blood types were also made for the groups examined. The degree of genetic homozygosity showed not only statistically significant differences in the mean values obtained for the studied samples (control group 5.1 +/- 0.2; emerging water polo players 3.5 +/- 0.1; elite water polo players 1.9 +/- 0.3 HRCs, out of 20 analysed characteristics), but also differences in the type of distribution, as well as the presence of specific combinations of such traits. During identification of swimming talents, the degree of genetic homozygosity showed a significant decrease, from 4.8 +/- 0.3 in the group of pre-competitive young boys, to 2.7 +/- 0.3 in selected adult team members, to only 1.9 +/- 0.3 in elite water polo players. In the group of pre-competitive young individuals, all characteristics tested also had homo-recessive combinations, while in the group of elite water polo players only 8 of 20 traits were expressed as homozygously recessive. In the group of elite water polo players, who were World and European champions as well as Olympic champions, the frequencies of the A and B blood types were low, AB was absent, and the frequency of the O blood type was high at 72.2% (i.e., almost twice the expected percentage).

  16. The role of self-interest in elite bargaining

    PubMed Central

    LeVeck, Brad L.; Hughes, D. Alex; Fowler, James H.; Hafner-Burton, Emilie; Victor, David G.

    2014-01-01

    One of the best-known and most replicated laboratory results in behavioral economics is that bargainers frequently reject low offers, even when it harms their material self-interest. This finding could have important implications for international negotiations on many problems facing humanity today, because models of international bargaining assume exactly the opposite: that policy makers are rational and self-interested. However, it is unknown whether elites who engage in diplomatic bargaining will similarly reject low offers because past research has been based almost exclusively on convenience samples of undergraduates, members of the general public, or small-scale societies rather than highly experienced elites who design and bargain over policy. Using a unique sample of 102 policy and business elites who have an average of 21 y of practical experience conducting international diplomacy or policy strategy, we show that, compared with undergraduates and the general public, elites are actually more likely to reject low offers when playing a standard “ultimatum game” that assesses how players bargain over a fixed resource. Elites with more experience tend to make even higher demands, suggesting that this tendency only increases as policy makers advance to leadership positions. This result contradicts assumptions of rational self-interested behavior that are standard in models of international bargaining, and it suggests that the adoption of global agreements on international trade, climate change, and other important problems will not depend solely on the interests of individual countries, but also on whether these accords are seen as equitable to all member states. PMID:25512497

  17. Web Search Studies: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Web Search Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Michael

    Perhaps the most significant tool of our internet age is the web search engine, providing a powerful interface for accessing the vast amount of information available on the world wide web and beyond. While still in its infancy compared to the knowledge tools that precede it - such as the dictionary or encyclopedia - the impact of web search engines on society and culture has already received considerable attention from a variety of academic disciplines and perspectives. This article aims to organize a meta-discipline of “web search studies,” centered around a nucleus of major research on web search engines from five key perspectives: technical foundations and evaluations; transaction log analyses; user studies; political, ethical, and cultural critiques; and legal and policy analyses.

  18. Feature extraction of performance variables in elite half-pipe snowboarding using body mounted inertial sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, J. W.; Small, J. W.; James, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Recent analysis of elite-level half-pipe snowboard competition has revealed a number of sport specific key performance variables (KPV's) that correlate well to score. Information on these variables is difficult to acquire and analyse, relying on collection and labour intensive manual post processing of video data. This paper presents the use of inertial sensors as a user-friendly alternative and subsequently implements signal processing routines to ultimately provide automated, sport specific feedback to coaches and athletes. The author has recently shown that the key performance variables (KPV's) of total air-time (TAT) and average degree of rotation (ADR) achieved during elite half-pipe snowboarding competition show strong correlation with an athlete's subjectively judged score. Utilising Micro-Electrochemical System (MEMS) sensors (tri-axial accelerometers) this paper demonstrates that air-time (AT) achieved during half-pipe snowboarding can be detected and calculated accurately using basic signal processing techniques. Characterisation of the variations in aerial acrobatic manoeuvres and the associated calculation of exact degree of rotation (DR) achieved is a likely extension of this research. The technique developed used a two-pass method to detect locations of half-pipe snowboard runs using power density in the frequency domain and subsequently utilises a threshold based search algorithm in the time domain to calculate air-times associated with individual aerial acrobatic manoeuvres. This technique correctly identified the air-times of 100 percent of aerial acrobatic manoeuvres within each half-pipe snowboarding run (n = 92 aerial acrobatic manoeuvres from 4 subjects) and displayed a very strong correlation with a video based reference standard for air-time calculation (r = 0.78 +/- 0.08; p value < 0.0001; SEE = 0.08 ×/÷ 1.16; mean bias = -0.03 +/- 0.02s) (value +/- or ×/÷ 95% CL).

  19. The Academic Mind at the Top: The Political Behavior and Values of Faculty Elites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipset, Seymour Martin

    1982-01-01

    Faculty surveys of the honorific academies and of American professors indicate that the former are more liberal politically than the latter, including those at the most distinguished institutions. Theories of intellectual creativity and political socialization are applied to these findings. Available from Elsevier Publishing, 52 Vanderbilt Avenue,…

  20. The academic elite in health services administration: linkages among top-ranked graduate programs.

    PubMed

    Bair, J H; Barrons, J C

    1997-01-01

    The eleven top-ranked graduate programs in health services administration, based on a national survey of deans, top administrators, and senior faculty, were linked to one another by hiring one another's graduates. It is suggested that this linkage helps these programs maintain and enhance their prestige.

  1. The academic elite in marketing: linkages among top-ranked graduate programs.

    PubMed

    Bair, J H; Bair, K E

    2001-02-01

    The 10 top-ranked graduate programs in marketing, based on a national survey of deans and top administrators, were linked to one another by these programs hiring one another's graduates. Approximately one-half of the faculty members in these 10 programs had graduated from one of these same 10 programs. It is suggested that this linkage helps these programs to maintain and enhance their prestige.

  2. Academic elite in accounting: linkages among top-ranked graduate programs.

    PubMed

    Bair, Jeffrey H

    2002-06-01

    The 10 top-ranked graduate programs in accounting, based on a national survey of deans and top administrators, were linked to one another by hiring in the programs one another's graduates. Almost one-half (45.9%) of the faculty members in these 10 programs (N = 172) had graduated from one of these 10 programs. It is suggested that this linkage helps these programs to maintain and enhance their prestige.

  3. Elite Capture and Corruption in two Villages in Bengkulu Province, Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Anton

    This paper examines leadership, elite capture and corruption in two villages in Sumatra. It compares implementation and outcomes of several conservation and development projects in the context of democratization and decentralization reforms introduced in Indonesia since 1998. In examining aspects of elite control and elite capture, this paper focuses on the activities of local elites, particularly village officials, who use their positions to monopolize planning and management of projects that were explicitly intended to incorporate participatory and accountability features. While elites' use of authority and influence to benefit personally from their roles clearly reflects elite capture, there are nonetheless members of elite groups in these case studies who use their control of projects to broad community benefit. In both villages there is considerable friction between villagers and elites as well as among members of the local elite themselves over control of local resources. Differences in the structure of these cross-cutting internal relationships and of ties between local authorities and outside government and non-government agents largely explain the differences in degree of elite capture and its outcomes in the two cases.

  4. Legal Training and the Reshaping of French Elite: Lessons from an Ethnography of Law Classes in Two French Elite Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israël, Liora; Vanneuville, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The article examines the nature of contemporary legal training in two French elite higher education institutions--one dedicated to prepare for legal careers in the economic field, the other one to train top civil servants--in order to assess the role of legal knowledge in the shaping of French contemporary elites. Based on observations of law…

  5. Yo-Yo IR2 testing of elite and sub-elite soccer players: performance, heart rate response and correlations to other interval tests.

    PubMed

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Bendiksen, Mads; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Castagna, Carlo; Krustrup, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    We examined performance, heart rate response and construct validity of the Yo-Yo IR2 test by testing 111 elite and 92 sub-elite soccer players from Norway and Denmark. VO₂max, Yo-Yo IR1 and repeated sprint tests (RSA) (n = 51) and match-analyses (n = 39) were also performed. Yo-Yo IR2 and Yo-Yo IR1 performance was 41 and 25% better (P < 0.01) for elite than sub-elite players, respectively, and heart rate after 2 and 4 min of the Yo-Yo IR2 test was 20 and 15 bpm (9 and 6% HRmax), respectively, lower (P < 0.01) for elite players. RSA performance and VO₂max was not different between competitive levels (P > 0.05). For top-teams, Yo-Yo IR2 performance (28%) and sprinting distance (25%) during match were greater (P < 0.05) than for bottom-teams. For elite and sub-elite players, Yo-Yo IR2 performance was correlated (P < 0.05) with Yo-Yo IR1 performance (r = 0.74 and 0.76) and mean RSA time (r = -0.74 and -0.34). We conclude that the Yo-Yo IR2 test has a high discriminant and concurrent validity, as it discriminates between players of different within- and between-league competitive levels and is correlated to other frequently used intermittent elite soccer tests.

  6. Maximising performance in triathlon: applied physiological and nutritional aspects of elite and non-elite competitions.

    PubMed

    Bentley, David J; Cox, Gregory R; Green, Daniel; Laursen, Paul B

    2008-07-01

    Triathlon is a sport consisting of sequential swimming, cycling and running. The main diversity within the sport of triathlon resides in the varying event distances, which creates specific technical, physiological and nutritional considerations for athlete and practitioner alike. The purpose of this article is to review physiological as well as nutritional aspects of triathlon and to make recommendations on ways to enhance performance. Aside from progressive conditioning and training, areas that have shown potential to improve triathlon performance include drafting when possible during both the swim and cycle phase, wearing a wetsuit, and selecting a lower cadence (60-80 rpm) in the final stages of the cycle phase. Adoption of a more even racing pace during cycling may optimise cycling performance and induce a "metabolic reserve" necessary for elevated running performance in longer distance triathlon events. In contrast, drafting in swimming and cycling may result a better tactical approach to increase overall performance in elite Olympic distance triathlons. Daily energy intake should be modified to reflect daily training demands to assist triathletes in achieving body weight and body composition targets. Carbohydrate loading strategies and within exercise carbohydrate intake should reflect the specific requirements of the triathlon event contested. Development of an individualised fluid plan based on previous fluid balance observations may assist to avoid both dehydration and hyponatremia during prolonged triathlon racing.

  7. The Prevalence and Impact of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Menorrhagia) in Elite and Non-Elite Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bruinvels, Georgie; Burden, Richard; Brown, Nicola; Richards, Toby; Pedlar, Charles

    2016-01-01

    To identify the prevalence and impact of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in exercising females where anemia may have a significant effect on training and performance a ‘Female Health Questionnaire’ was designed incorporating a validated diagnostic HMB series, demographics, exercise ability data, training status, anemia, iron supplementation and whether the menstrual cycle had affected training and performance. The survey was conducted in two stages; initially online, advertised via social media, and then repeated via face-to-face interviews with runners registered for the 2015 London Marathon. 789 participants responded to the online survey, and 1073 completed the survey at the marathon. HMB was reported by half of those online (54%), and by more than a third of the marathon runners (36%). Surprisingly, HMB was also prevalent amongst elite athletes (37%). Overall, 32% of exercising females reported a history of anemia, and 50% had previously supplemented with iron. Only a minority (22%) had sought medical advice. HMB is highly prevalent in exercising females, associated with self-reported anemia, increased use of iron supplementation and a perceived negative impact on performance. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of HMB, iron deficiency and anemia in exercising females. PMID:26901873

  8. The Prevalence and Impact of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Menorrhagia) in Elite and Non-Elite Athletes.

    PubMed

    Bruinvels, Georgie; Burden, Richard; Brown, Nicola; Richards, Toby; Pedlar, Charles

    2016-01-01

    To identify the prevalence and impact of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in exercising females where anemia may have a significant effect on training and performance a 'Female Health Questionnaire' was designed incorporating a validated diagnostic HMB series, demographics, exercise ability data, training status, anemia, iron supplementation and whether the menstrual cycle had affected training and performance. The survey was conducted in two stages; initially online, advertised via social media, and then repeated via face-to-face interviews with runners registered for the 2015 London Marathon. 789 participants responded to the online survey, and 1073 completed the survey at the marathon. HMB was reported by half of those online (54%), and by more than a third of the marathon runners (36%). Surprisingly, HMB was also prevalent amongst elite athletes (37%). Overall, 32% of exercising females reported a history of anemia, and 50% had previously supplemented with iron. Only a minority (22%) had sought medical advice. HMB is highly prevalent in exercising females, associated with self-reported anemia, increased use of iron supplementation and a perceived negative impact on performance. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of HMB, iron deficiency and anemia in exercising females.

  9. Power Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskin, David

    1997-01-01

    Compares six leading Web search engines (AltaVista, Excite, HotBot, Infoseek, Lycos, and Northern Light), looking at the breadth of their coverage, accuracy, and ease of use, and finds a clear favorite of the six. Includes tips that can improve search results. (AEF)

  10. Academic Probation Intervention through Academic Assistance Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preuss, Michael; Switalski, Rachael

    2008-01-01

    Retaining and aiding students on academic probation is a concern for all institutions of higher education. Students placed on academic probation by Rockingham Community College (RCC) have been encouraged to participate in an intervention program since the summer of 2006. When treated as an aggregate, the data regarding the program indicates that…

  11. Analysis of elite variety tag SNPs reveals an important allele in upland rice.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Jun; Zhang, Shilai; Dong, Yang; He, Weiming; Zhang, Jing; Deng, Xianneng; Zhang, Yesheng; Li, Xin; Li, Baoye; Huang, Wangqi; Wan, Wenting; Yu, Yang; Li, Qiong; Li, Jun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Bo; Tao, Dayun; Zhang, Gengyun; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xun; Hu, Fengyi; Wang, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Elite crop varieties usually fix alleles that occur at low frequencies within non-elite gene pools. Dissecting these alleles for desirable agronomic traits can be accomplished by comparing the genomes of elite varieties with those from non-elite populations. Here we deep-sequence six elite rice varieties and use two large control panels to identify elite variety tag single-nucleotide polymorphism alleles (ETASs). Guided by this preliminary analysis, we comprehensively characterize one protein-altering ETAS in the 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase gene of the IRAT104 upland rice variety. This allele displays a drastic frequency difference between upland and irrigated rice, and a selective sweep is observed around this allele. Functional analysis indicates that in upland rice, this allele is associated with significantly higher abscisic acid levels and denser lateral roots, suggesting its association with upland rice suitability. This report provides a potential strategy to mine rare, agronomically important alleles.

  12. A modified estimation distribution algorithm based on extreme elitism.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shujun; de Silva, Clarence W

    2016-12-01

    An existing estimation distribution algorithm (EDA) with univariate marginal Gaussian model was improved by designing and incorporating an extreme elitism selection method. This selection method highlighted the effect of a few top best solutions in the evolution and advanced EDA to form a primary evolution direction and obtain a fast convergence rate. Simultaneously, this selection can also keep the population diversity to make EDA avoid premature convergence. Then the modified EDA was tested by means of benchmark low-dimensional and high-dimensional optimization problems to illustrate the gains in using this extreme elitism selection. Besides, no-free-lunch theorem was implemented in the analysis of the effect of this new selection on EDAs.

  13. Nutrition and Supplements for Elite Open-Weight Rowing.

    PubMed

    Boegman, Susan; Dziedzic, Christine E

    2016-01-01

    Competitive rowing events are raced over 2,000 m requiring athletes to have highly developed aerobic and anaerobic systems. Elite rowers therefore undertake training sessions focused on lactate tolerance, strength and power as well as aerobic and anaerobic capacity development, that can amount to a 24-h training week. The training stimuli and consequent metabolic demands of each session in a rowing training program differ depending on type, length, and intensity. Nutrition guidelines for endurance- and power-based sports should be drawn upon; however, individualized and flexible nutrition plans are critical to successfully meet the daily, weekly, and cyclic nutrient requirements of a rower. This review will provide an overview of key nutritional strategies to optimize training and enhance adaptation, and briefly discuss supplement strategies that may support health and enhance performance in elite rowing.

  14. A physiological profile of elite Canadian freestyle wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Sharratt, M T; Taylor, A W; Song, T M

    1986-06-01

    There has been an improvement in Canadian freestyle wrestling performance over the past five years. Medals are now being won at World and Olympic competitions. The present investigation provides baseline physiological data which have been used in the prescription of individual training programs for these athletes. This information is also available to the coaches and contributes to the strategy for individual matches. Generally, the Canadian wrestlers have a physiological profile similar to elite wrestlers from other countries. Maximal aerobic power is comparable to or greater than previously reported values. Needle biopsies reveal exceptionally large fast twitch fibre areas in vastus lateralis. However, anaerobic capacity and upper body strength are less than values reported for other elite athletes.

  15. An Estimation of Difficulty for Academic Books using Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Yuki; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko

    A collaborate filtering has been generally used as a method which recommends items to customers. However, recommending academic books, it need to consider difficulty of them and individual amount of knowledge as well as user's preference. If the recommendation method considers only user's preference, they might regret after buying or reading recommended book because it won't match user's appropriate level. In this paper, we focus on academic books and propose a method which estimates the difficulty of academic books using user's reviews. Estimating difficulty of books will support users to search and recommend academic books that match user's skill. Moreover, we evaluated applying our method to academic text books about C programming Language. We verified that our method is more effective than traditional methods for academic books.

  16. Academic Inbreeding in Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael H.

    1977-01-01

    Academic inbreeding, the employment for faculty positions of persons who receive their graduate training at the same academic institution, is considered detrimental to an institution's academic environment. Results of a study conducted at 54 universities revealed that almost half the faculty (48 percent) in collegiate nursing programs are drawn…

  17. The Academic Adviser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I explore the idea that "academic" advisers are "academics" who play a major role in connecting the general education curriculum to the students' experience as well as connecting the faculty to the students' holistic experience of the curriculum. The National Academic Advising Association Concept of Academic…

  18. What Is Academic Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…

  19. Osteoporotic fracture in an elite male Kenyan athlete.

    PubMed

    Pollock, N; Hamilton, B

    2008-12-01

    An elite Kenyan runner presented with a tibial fracture sustained during an international cross-country race. There was no clear history of symptoms suggestive of preceding overload and no radiological features of stress fracture. He was found to have sustained an osteoporotic, insufficiency fracture. There are no previous case reports of an osteoporotic fracture in a male athlete. Possible aetiologies and directions for future investigation are presented.

  20. Differences in Cardiac Parameters Among Elite Rowers and Subelite Rowers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    changes in cardiac structure and function. Left ventricular (LV) hyper- trophy and dilation (6,26), right ventricular (RV) dilation (9,35), and left...athletes relevance to differentiating physiologic left ventricular hypertrophy from hyper- trophic cardiomyopathy . J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51(23):2256–62...6): 700–2, A9. 27. Pelliccia A, Culasso F, Di Paolo FM, Maron BJ. Physiologic left ventricular cavity dilatation in elite athletes. Ann Intern Med

  1. Autonomic nervous system activities during motor imagery in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Kazuo; Maeshima, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI), a mental simulation of voluntary motor actions, has been used as a training method for athletes for many years. It is possible that MI techniques might similarly be useful as part of rehabilitative strategies to help people regain skills lost as a consequence of diseases or stroke. Mental activity and stress induce several different autonomic responses as part of the behavioral response to movement (e.g., motor anticipation) and as part of the central planning and preprogramming of movement. However, the interrelationships between MI, the autonomic responses, and the motor system have not yet been worked out. The authors compare a number of autonomic responses (respiration, heart rate, electro skin resistance) and motoneuron excitability (soleus H-reflex) in elite and nonelite speed skaters during MI. In contrast to the nonelite athletes, MI of elite speed skaters is characterized by larger changes in heart rate and respiration, a greater reliance on an internal perspective for MI, a more vivid MI, a more accurate correspondence between the MI and actual race times, and decreased motoneuron excitability. Two observations suggest that the changes in the autonomic responses and motoneuron excitability for the elite speed skaters are related to the effects of central motor programming: (1) there was no correlation between the autonomic responses for MI and those recorded during mental arithmetic; and (2) mental arithmetic did not significantly alter motoneuron activity. It is suggested that in elite speed skaters, the descending neural mechanisms that reduce motoneuron excitability are activated even when full, vivid MI is performed internally. These inhibitory responses of the motor system may enhance actual motor performance under conditions of remarkably high mental stress, such as that which occurs in the Olympic games.

  2. Sleep Hygiene and Recovery Strategies in Elite Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Nédélec, Mathieu; Halson, Shona; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset; Ahmaidi, Said; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    In elite soccer, players are frequently exposed to various situations and conditions that can interfere with sleep (e.g., playing night matches interspersed with 3 days; performing activities demanding high levels of concentration close to bedtime; use of products containing caffeine or alcohol in the period preceding bedtime; regular daytime napping throughout the week; variable wake-up times or bedtime), potentially leading to sleep deprivation. We outline simple, practical, and pharmaceutical-free sleep strategies that are coordinated to the constraints of elite soccer in order to promote sleep. Sleep deprivation is best alleviated by sleep extension; however, sleep hygiene strategies (i.e., consistent sleep pattern, appropriate napping, and active daytime behaviors) can be utilized to promote restorative sleep. Light has a profound impact on sleep, and sleep hygiene strategies that support the natural environmental light-dark cycle (i.e., red-light treatment prior to sleep, dawn-simulation therapy prior to waking) and prevent cycle disruption (i.e., filtering short wavelengths prior to sleep) may be beneficial to elite soccer players. Under conditions of inordinate stress, techniques such as brainwave entrainment and meditation are promising sleep-promoting strategies, but future studies are required to ascertain the applicability of these techniques to elite soccer players. Consuming high-electrolyte fluids such as milk, high-glycemic index carbohydrates, some forms of protein immediately prior to sleep, as well as tart cherry juice concentrate and tryptophan may promote rehydration, substrate stores replenishment, muscle-damage repair and/or restorative sleep. The influence of cold water immersion performed close to bedtime on subsequent sleep is still debated. Conversely, the potential detrimental effects of sleeping medication must be recognized. Sleep initiation is influenced by numerous factors, reinforcing the need for future research to identify such

  3. Asian Military Elites and the Development of Viable Political Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-02-18

    The United States should recognize these elites as significant elements of their societies whose competence is not limited to purely military...could reverse the trend toward total chaos. The choice appeared to lie between the army, many of whose officers had been trained in the United ...military oligarchies in power for the foreseeable future. Thus, the caretakers and the reformer place the United States in a singular dilemma. Our

  4. The coaching preferences of elite athletes competing at Universiade '83.

    PubMed

    Terry, P C

    1984-12-01

    The study investigated the coaching preferences of 95 male and 65 female elite athletes competing at Universiade '83 (Edmonton, Canada). Preferred coaching behaviour (PCB) was measured using a version of the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). Preference scores were analyzed on the basis of sex, age, nationality, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that males prefer significantly more Autocratic behaviour than females (p = .039). Also, athletes in team sports prefer significantly more Training behaviour (p = .001), Autocratic behaviour (p less than .001), and Rewarding behaviour (p = .017), and significantly less Democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and Social Support behaviour (p = .002) than athletes in individual sports. No significant differences in PCB attributable to the age or nationally of the athlete were found. In addition, data collected in a previous study (Terry and Howe, 1984), which examined the PCB of 'club' athletes, was included to facilitate a comparison of club v elite athletes. A MANOVA showed that elite athletes prefer significantly more Democratic behaviour (p = .01) and Social Support behaviour (p = .001), and significantly less Rewarding behaviour (p = .01) than athletes at a 'club' level. Although differences between subject groups were found, it can be concluded that athletes generally tend to favour coaches who "often" display Training behaviour and Rewarding behaviour, "occasionally" display Democratic behaviour and Social Support behaviour, and "seldom" display Autocratic behaviour.

  5. MtDNA haplogroups and elite Korean athlete status.

    PubMed

    Kim, K C; Cho, H I; Kim, W

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation has recently been suggested to have an association with athletic performance or physical endurance. Since mtDNA is haploid and lacks recombination, specific mutations in the mtDNA genome associated with human exercise tolerance or intolerance arise and remain in particular genetic backgrounds referred to as haplogroups. To assess the possible contribution of mtDNA haplogroup-specific variants to differences in elite athletic performance, we performed a population-based study of 152 Korean elite athletes [77 sprint/power athletes (SPA) and 75 endurance/middle-power athletes (EMA)] and 265 non-athletic controls (CON). The overall haplogroup distribution of EMA differed significantly from CON (p<0.01), but that of SPA did not. The EMA have an excess of haplogroups M* (OR 4.38, 95% CI 1.63-11.79, p=0.003) and N9 (OR 2.32, 95% CI 0.92-5.81, p=0.042), but a dearth of haplogroup B (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.09-0.75, p=0.003) compared with the CON. Thus, our data imply that specific mtDNA lineages may provide a significant effect on elite Korean endurance status, although functional studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to further substantiate these findings.

  6. Biolistic transformation of elite genotypes of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).

    PubMed

    King, Zachary R; Bray, Adam L; Lafayette, Peter R; Parrott, Wayne A

    2014-02-01

    Transformation of elite switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) genotypes would facilitate the characterization of genes related to cell wall recalcitrance to saccharification. However, transformation of explants from switchgrass plants has remained difficult. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a biolistic transformation protocol for elite genotypes. Three switchgrass genotypes (ST1, ST2, and AL2) were previously selected for tissue culture responsiveness. One genotype, SA37, was selected for further use due to its improved formation of callus amenable to transformation. Various medium sets were compared and a previously published medium set provided cultures with >96 % embryogenic callus, and data on transient and stable gene expression of RFP were used to optimize biolistic parameters, and further validate the switchgrass (PvUbi1) promoter. SA37 proved to be the most transformable, whereas eight transgenic calli on average were recovered per bombardment of 20 calli (40 % efficiency) when using a three-day day preculture step, 0.6 M osmotic adjustment medium, 4,482 kPa rupture disks and 0.4 μm gold particles which traveled 9 cm before hitting the target callus tissue. Regenerability was high, especially for ST2, for which it is possible to recover on average over 400 plants per half-gram callus tissue. It is now possible to routinely and efficiently engineer elite switchgrass genotypes using biolistic transformation.

  7. Neural processes distinguishing elite from expert and novice athletes.

    PubMed

    Callan, Daniel E; Naito, Eiichi

    2014-12-01

    This commentary builds on a companion article in which Kim et al compare brain activation in elite, expert, and novice archers during a simulated target aiming task (Kim et al. 2014. Cogn Behav Neurol. 27:173-182). With the archery study as our starting point, we address 4 neural processes that may be responsible in general for elite athletes' superior performance over experts and novices: neural efficiency, cortical expansion, specialized processes, and internal models. In Kim et al's study, the elite archers' brains showed more activity in the supplementary motor area and the cerebellum than those of the novices and experts, and showed minimal widespread activity, especially in frontal areas involved with executive control. Kim et al's results are consistent with the idea of specialized neural processes that help coordinate motor planning and control. As athletes become more skilled, these processes may mediate the reduction in widespread activity in regions mapping executive control, and may produce a shift toward more automated processing. Kim et al's finding that activity in the cerebellum rose with increasing skill is consistent both with expansion of the finger representational area in the cerebellum and with internal models that simulate how archers manipulate the bow and arrow when aiming. Kim et al prepare the way for testing of neuromodulation techniques to improve athletic performance, refine highly technical job skills, and rehabilitate patients.

  8. Osteitis pubis: can early return to elite competition be contemplated?

    PubMed Central

    Jardí, Jaume; Rodas, Gil; Pedret, Carles; Til, Lluis; Cusí, Manuel; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Del Buono, Angelo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose In elite athletes, osteitis pubis is a common painful degenerative process of the pubic symphysis and surrounding soft tissues and tendons. We report the diagnostic pathway and the rehabilitation protocol of six elite athletes with osteitis pubis in three different sports, and compare protocol stages and time to return to competition. Methods 6 athletes (2 soccer, 2 basketball, 2 rugby players) were diagnosed with osteitis pubis stage III and IV according to Rodriguez classification using standard clinical and imaging criteria. After performing a baseline lumbo-pelvic assessment, the rehabilitation protocol described by Verrall was adapted to each individual athlete. Results The length of time for each stage of the protocol was as follows; Stage 1 (rest from sport) was 26 +/− 5 days, Stage 2 (to achieve pain free running), 18 +/− 5 days, Stage 3 (squad training) 63 +/− 7, Stage 4 (return to competition) 86 +/− 15. Soccer players took longer to return to competition than basketball and rugby players. No recurrences were reported at 2 year follow-up. Conclusion The protocol presented ensures a safe return to elite athletes. The time from diagnosis to full recovery is longer in football players, and seems to increase with age. PMID:25147768

  9. Determinants of labour migration of elite sport coaches.

    PubMed

    Orlowski, Johannes; Wicker, Pamela; Breuer, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Previous research examining labour migration in sport focused on athletes in professional team sports. The purpose of this study is to analyse the factors influencing the migration probability of elite sport coaches in Germany (i.e. national coaches, state coaches, and coaches at Olympic training bases). From a theoretical perspective, labour migration of athletes is affected by economic, social, political, competitive, geographic and cultural factors. This study examines whether these factors can be applied to coaches. Primary data were collected using an online survey of elite sport coaches in Germany. Applying a conjoint design, respondents were presented with 10 migration scenarios leading to a sample size of n = 1860 for the empirical analysis. In the scenarios, the coaching position openings abroad differed in terms of income level, contract length, weekly workload, responsibility for personnel, reputation of coaching job, career perspectives, sporting performance of athletes, distance from Germany, and predominant job language. Coaches were asked for their migration probability contingent on the specific scenario. On average, migration probability was 24.2%. The results of regression analysis showed that higher income, contracts of longer duration, responsibility for personnel and speaking the respective language significantly increased the migration probability, while distances of nine flight hours and more, lower reputation and career perspectives reduced it. The findings have implications for policy-makers: they indicate in what areas the situation of coaches needs improvement to increase the likelihood of retaining elite sport coaches in the German sport system.

  10. Long-term training adaptations in elite male volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Jeremy M; Newton, Robert U

    2012-08-01

    Several investigations have demonstrated differences in anthropometry, jump performance, and strength variables between developmental and elite-level volleyball players. However, within the elite level of play, the magnitude of change that can occur with training is unclear. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the anthropometric, vertical jump, and strength quality changes over 2 years in a group of national team volleyball players. Fourteen national team volleyball players (age, 23.0 ± 4.1 years; height, 1.98 ± 0.07 m; weight, 91.7 ± 7.9 kg) began and completed this study. Participants had all played international matches (representing Australia) before the examination time period and continued to do so during the international season. Anthropometry (stature, mass, and sum of 7 skinfolds), vertical jump measures (countermovement vertical jump; depth jump from 0.35 m, DJ; spike jump, SPJ, all including arm swing), and lower-body power (jump squat at body mass, and jump squat + 50% body weight, JS50) measures were tested before and at the conclusion of the investigation period. Significant (p < 0.05) improvements were observed in sum of 7 skinfolds, DJ, SPJ, and JS50 performance, with large magnitude changes (d > 0.70) in the sum of 7 skinfolds reduction, SPJ, and leg extensor power. This study has demonstrated that elite male volleyball players can improve leanness and power, which contribute to improvements in vertical jump.

  11. White matter plasticity in the cerebellum of elite basketball athletes

    PubMed Central

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Ye Na; Kwon, Soonwook; Lee, Nam Joon

    2015-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies indicate that learning a novel motor skill induces plastic changes in the brain structures of both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) that are associated with a specific practice. We previously reported an increased volume of vermian lobules VI-VII (declive, folium, and tuber) in elite basketball athletes who require coordination for dribbling and shooting a ball, which awakened the central role of the cerebellum in motor coordination. However, the precise factor contributing to the increased volume was not determined. In the present study, we compared the volumes of the GM and WM in the sub-regions of the cerebellar vermis based on manual voxel analysis with the ImageJ program. We found significantly larger WM volumes of vermian lobules VI-VII (declive, folium, and tuber) in elite basketball athletes in response to long-term intensive motor learning. We suggest that the larger WM volumes of this region in elite basketball athletes represent a motor learning-induced plastic change, and that the WM of this region likely plays a critical role in coordination. This finding will contribute to gaining a deeper understanding of motor learning-evoked WM plasticity. PMID:26770877

  12. Study on Human Recognition by Ear Image Based on Genetic Local Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Tsurusawa, Hidenobu; Yuizono, Takaya; Sato, Kiminori; Nakayama, Shigeru

    An individual recognition system using the genetic local search with respect to ear images has been examined. We generated a set of individuals which are ramdomly selected from the ear images consisted of 50 registrants, and carried out genetic operations to the set of the individuals in order to lead to new generation. The local search is applied to some top elites with the best fitnesses in the new generation. The best fitness is searched between some positions selected near the elite position. Individual recognition experiment using the ear image with the uncertain data was carried out in respect of the method. As the result, it is noted that the registrant recognition rate was 100 percent, and it became 100 percent, at the un-registrant denial rate.

  13. Prediction of Tennis Performance in Junior Elite Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Tamara; Huijgen, Barbara C.H.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Predicting current and future tennis performance can lead to improving the development of junior tennis players. The aim of this study is to investigate whether age, maturation, or physical fitness in junior elite tennis players in U13 can explain current and future tennis performance. The value of current tennis performance for future tennis performance is also investigated. A total of 86 junior elite tennis players (boys, n = 44; girls, n = 42) U13 (aged: 12.5 ± 0.3 years), and followed to U16, took part in this study. All players were top-30 ranked on the Dutch national ranking list at U13, and top-50 at U16. Age, maturation, and physical fitness, were measured at U13. A principal component analysis was used to extract four physical components from eight tests (medicine ball throwing overhead and reverse, ball throwing, SJ, CMJas, Sprint 5 and 10 meter, and the spider test). The possible relationship of age, maturation, and the physical components; “upper body power”, “lower body power”, “speed”, and “agility” with tennis performance at U13 and U16 was analyzed. Tennis performance was measured by using the ranking position on the Dutch national ranking list at U13 and U16. Regression analyses were conducted based on correlations between variables and tennis performance for boys and girls, separately. In boys U13, positive correlations were found between upper body power and tennis performance (R2 is 25%). In girls, positive correlations between maturation and lower body power with tennis performance were found at U13. Early maturing players were associated with a better tennis performance (R2 is 15%). In girls U16, only maturation correlated with tennis performance (R2 is 13%); later-maturing girls at U13 had better tennis performances at U16. Measuring junior elite tennis players at U13 is important for monitoring their development. These measurements did not predict future tennis performance of junior elite tennis players three years later

  14. Aerobic Development of Elite Youth Ice Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Jeff R; Cordingley, Dean M; MacDonald, Peter B

    2015-11-01

    Ice hockey is a physiologically complex sport requiring aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism. College and professional teams often test aerobic fitness; however, there is a paucity of information regarding aerobic fitness of elite youth players. Without this knowledge, training of youth athletes to meet the standards of older age groups and higher levels of hockey may be random, inefficient, and or effective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness of elite youth hockey players. A retrospective database review was performed for 200 male AAA hockey players between the ages of 13 and 17 (age, 14.4 ± 1.2 years; height, 174.3 ± 8.5 cm; body mass, 67.2 ± 11.5 kg; body fat, 9.8 ± 3.5%) before the 2012-13 season. All subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer, whereas expired air was collected by either a Parvo Medics TrueOne 2400 or a CareFusion Oxycon Mobile metabolic cart to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). Body mass, absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and the power output achieved during the last completed stage increased in successive age groups from age 13 to 15 years (p ≤ 0.05). Ventilatory threshold (VT) expressed as a percentage of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and the heart rate (HR) at which VT occurred decreased between the ages of 13 and 14 years (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at which VT occurred increased from the age of 14-15 years. There were no changes in relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max or HRmax between any successive age groups. The aerobic fitness levels of elite youth ice hockey players increased as players age and mature physically and physiologically. However, aerobic fitness increased to a lesser extent at older ages. This information has the potential to influence off-season training and maximize the aerobic fitness of elite amateur hockey players, so that these players can meet standards set by advanced elite age groups.

  15. Beyond Text Queries and Ranked Lists: Faceted Search in Library Catalogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Since the adoption of faceted search in a small number of academic libraries in 2006, faceted library catalogs have gained popularity in many academic and public libraries. This dissertation seeks to understand whether faceted search improves the interactions between searchers and library catalogs and to understand ways that facets are used in…

  16. Academic Self-Concept, Autonomous Academic Motivation, and Academic Achievement: Mediating and Additive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guay, Frederic; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Roy, Amelie; Litalien, David

    2010-01-01

    Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between…

  17. Searching with the Google Search Appliance (GSA)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Guidance and search help resource listing examples of common queries that can be used in the Google Search Appliance search request, including examples of special characters, or query term seperators that Google Search Appliance recognizes.

  18. Comparison of Physical and Physiological Profiles in Elite and Amateur Young Wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Demirkan, Erkan; Koz, Mitat; Kutlu, Mehmet; Favre, Mike

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the physical and physiological determinants of wrestling success between elite and amateur male wrestlers. The wrestlers (N = 126) were first assigned to 3 groups based on their competitive level (top elite, elite, and amateur) and then to 6 groups according to their body mass (light, middle, and heavy weight) and their competitive level (elite and amateur). Top elite and elite wrestlers had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more training experiences and maximal oxygen uptake compared with the amateur group. In separating weight classes, light- and middle-weight elite (MWE) wrestlers had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more training experience (7-20%) compared with the light- and middle-weight amateur (MWA) wrestlers. No significant differences were detected between elite and amateur groups (light-, middle-, and heavy-weight wrestlers) for age, body mass, height, body mass index, and body fat (p > 0.05), with the exception of height for heavy wrestlers. Leg average and peak power values (in watts and watts per kilogram) in MWE were higher than MWA (6.5 and 13%, p ≤ 0.05). Relative leg average power value in heavy-weight elite (HWE) (in watts per kilogram) was higher than heavy-weight amateur (HWA) (9.6%, p ≤ 0.05). It was seen that elite wrestlers in MWE and HWE statistically possessed a higher V̇O2max (12.5 and 11.4%, respectively) than amateur middle- and heavy-weight wrestlers (p ≤ 0.05). The results of this study suggest that training experience, aerobic endurance, and anaerobic power and capacity will give a clear advantage for the wrestlers to take part in the elite group.

  19. Conceptual Models for Search Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, D. G.; Efthimiadis, E. N.

    Search engines have entered popular culture. They touch people in diverse private and public settings and thus heighten the importance of such important social matters as information privacy and control, censorship, and equitable access. To fully benefit from search engines and to participate in debate about their merits, people necessarily appeal to their understandings for how they function. In this chapter we examine the conceptual understandings that people have of search engines by performing a content analysis on the sketches that 200 undergraduate and graduate students drew when asked to draw a sketch of how a search engine works. Analysis of the sketches reveals a diverse range of conceptual approaches, metaphors, representations, and misconceptions. On the whole, the conceptual models articulated by these students are simplistic. However, students with higher levels of academic achievement sketched more complete models. This research calls attention to the importance of improving students' technical knowledge of how search engines work so they can be better equipped to develop and advocate policies for how search engines should be embedded in, and restricted from, various private and public information settings.

  20. Belief Structure and Foreign Policy: Comparing Dimensions of Elite and Mass Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldendick, Robert, And Others

    1981-01-01

    This study compares the dimensions of elite (political leaders) and mass (general public) opinions towards foreign policy. A factor analysis revealed the elite's five major concerns (internationalism, international organization, Americanism, defense spending, and interventionism) and an overall preference for structured approaches. The masses also…

  1. Modeling College Women's Perceptions of Elite Leadership Positions with Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeagley, Emily E.; Subich, Linda M.; Tokar, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The utility of Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) for predicting college women's interests and goals for positions of elite leadership was examined with 156 undergraduate women at a public university. They completed measures of elite leadership self-efficacy expectations, outcome expectations, interests, and goals.…

  2. Gender Power in Elite Schools: Methodological Insights from Researcher Reflexive Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Joan; Weiner, Gaby

    2014-01-01

    The main task of this paper is to understand the methodological insights from researchers' reflexive accounts about the production of gender in the specific practices of three Scottish elite schools. Accordingly, the paper poses three questions: How is gender re/constructed through the specific practices of these elite schools? What insights into…

  3. Structure of Physical Self-Concept: Elite Athletes and Physical Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) was administered to 1,514 elite athletes and nonelite high school students. Physical self-concept was higher for the elite athletes, but gender differences were smaller in this group. Results support the usefulness of the PSDQ and extend understanding of self-concept in school settings. (SLD)

  4. Internationalising Practices and Representations of the "'Other" in Second-Level Elite Schools in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtois, Aline

    2016-01-01

    While Irish elite schools have adopted some internationalising practices, international students are often erased from their "public faces". Based on interviews and analysis of schools' websites, this paper argues that Brooks and Waters' [2014. "The Hidden Internationalism of Elite English Schools." "Sociology,"…

  5. To Perceive and to Be Perceived: Challenges of Ethnography in Elite Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercader, Patricia; Weber, Rebecca; Durif-Varembont, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a larger study on "Gender practices and violence between peers: the stakes of mixed-sex education", this paper examines the methodological challenges specific to carrying out ethnography in an elite high school. The researcher's subjective experience in the field reveals the power dynamics at play in the elite setting. We also…

  6. Discursive Obstruction and Elite Opposition to Environmental Activism in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Thomas E.; Adams, Alison E.; Cable, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    Extant research on social movements has highlighted activists' discursive tactics to challenge the state, yet little analytical attention focuses on elite efforts to dominate the discourse arena through the deployment of oppositional frames. This paper analyzes elite oppositional framing surrounding the placement of a highway bypass in the Czech…

  7. Coaches' Coaching Competence in Relation to Athletes' Perceived Progress in Elite Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, Frode; Federici, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at whether higher levels of perceived coaching competencies focusing on relational issues, were associated with higher satisfaction among elite athletes with their progress in sport. In order to explore this, we investigated elite athletes' perceptions of their coaches' coaching competence (CCS) and how these perceptions related…

  8. Elite Repudiation of the R-Word and Public Opinion about Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Monique L.; Simplican, Stacy Clifford

    2015-01-01

    Part of the motivation for encouraging elite stakeholders--like governments, professionals, and advocacy groups--to replace the language of "mental retardation" with "intellectual disability" (ID) is the belief that elite endorsement could undermine negative attitudes and influence the public to follow suit. We examine the…

  9. Dietary Habits and Physical Self-Concept of Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boros, Szilvia

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To identify main differences in nutrient patterns, food preferences and physical self-concept between the world's elite rhythmic gymnasts and untrained controls. Material and methods: A group of elite rhythmic gymnasts (n = 103) aged 15-21 years volunteered to participate in the study during the 2003 World Championships in Rhythmic…

  10. Japanese Elites and Foreign Policy in the Era of Emerging Asian Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Louis J.

    1996-01-01

    Explicates the mercantilist ideology of the Japanese elite and its impact on Japanese trade policy. Offers a textured portrait of the world view of a particular elite: Japan's technocrats. Reveals a nationalist ideology that is not advertised by its adherents, especially to foreign observers such as in the United States. (MJP)

  11. Movement Demands and Metabolic Power Comparisons Between Elite and Subelite Australian Footballers.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Richard J; Watsford, Mark L; Austin, Damien J; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the differences in movement demands and metabolic power output of elite and subelite Australian football (AF) players and quantified the movement profiles of a subelite AF competition. Movement variables were collected from AF players using Global Positioning System devices over 2 AF League (elite) and North East Australian Football League (NEAFL, subelite) seasons. A total of 500 files were collected from 37 elite and subelite nomadic AF players. NEAFL players covered 13,547 m at an average speed of 124.5 m·min(-1). Elite players performed more high-speed running (5.7-6.3%) and high acceleration and deceleration efforts (1.9-14.7%, p ≤ 0.05). The elite players had a higher mean metabolic power output (3.2%) and time spent at the very high power zone (15.9%, p ≤ 0.05). In contrast, elite players recorded a lower total match duration than the subelite players (4%, p ≤ 0.05). The contrasting amount of high-intensity activities performed by the 2 groups demonstrates the need to alter the training programs of subelite players to ensure they are capable of meeting the demands of elite football. The differences in match duration suggest that reducing subelite players' match time through increasing their rotations would assist the replication of movement profiles of elite players.

  12. Career Evolution and Knowledge of Elite Coaches of Swimmers with a Physical Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cregan, Kerry; Bloom, Gordon A.; Reid, Greg

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade there has been an increase in empirical research on coaches of elite able-bodied athletes, while coaches of athletes with a disability have generally been overlooked. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to address this oversight by examining the career evolution and knowledge of these coaches. Six elite coaches of…

  13. On Being a Living Contradiction: The Struggle of an Elite Intercollegiate Christian Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gregg; Sagas, Michael; Fleming, David; Von Roenn, Sean

    2005-01-01

    While some research has been conducted on the manner in which Christian athletes utilize their faith to cope with the dominant culture of winning, there appears to be a relative paucity of investigation on the manner in which elite coaches function in this environment. The purpose of this study was to describe an elite intercollegiate coach's…

  14. A Public Secret: "Education for Quality" and Suicide among Chinese Elite University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bregnbaek, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on anthropological fieldwork undertaken at two elite universities in Beijing. It addresses the paradoxical situation of the many instances of suicide among Chinese elite university students in Beijing, which constitute a public secret. The pressure of education weighs heavily on the shoulders of China's only child in each…

  15. Immune Control Despite Protracted Lymphopenia After Chemoradiation in an Elite Controller

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Kim A.; Jackson, Dvone C.; Piotrowski, Anna; Grossman, Stuart; Blankson, Joel N.

    2016-01-01

    Elite controllers are human immunodeficiency virus-1–positive individuals capable of sustaining undetectable viral loads without treatment. We present the case of an elite controller diagnosed with extensive stage small cell lung cancer who maintained a viral load of <20 copies/mL despite the development of severe treatment-related lymphopenia. PMID:26949716

  16. Preparing for Power in Elite Boarding Schools and in Working-Class Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Elite boarding schools endeavor to instill in their students elite-class solidarity, strong beliefs in both meritocracy and the essential rightness of the status quo, and practical political know-how. Each of these objectives is wholly compatible with the self-interest of their students and their families. In the vast majority of working-class…

  17. The role of community in the development of elite handball and football players in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rossing, N N; Nielsen, A B; Elbe, A-M; Karbing, D S

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the place of early development in a sample of Danish male elite and youth handball and football players. The sample included 366 handball and football players from the elite Danish league in the season 2011-2012 and a comparison sample of youth players under the age of 12 from 2003, including 147,221 football and 26,290 handball players. Odds ratio analysis showed that both population size and density significantly affected the proportional number of youth players per community and the odds of athletes reaching an elite level in football and handball. The odds for youth player registrations in both handball and football increased in rural in contrast to urban communities. However, elite football players primarily came from communities of high density (>1000 pop./km(2)), whereas elite handball players primarily came from less densely populated communities (100 to <250 pop./km(2)). Furthermore, there seems to be a relation between representation of elite and talent clubs in different communities and the probability of becoming an elite player in both sports. The limited number of elite players in both sports from rural communities may be due to national talent development strategies that do not incorporate development support for clubs in rural areas. Additionally, the results of the study clearly suggest the need to include the youth player population to advance research findings in birthplace effect studies.

  18. Personality of Elite Male and Female Chess Players and Its Relation to Chess Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollstadt-Klein, Sabine; Grimm, Oliver; Kirsch, Peter; Bilalic, Merim

    2010-01-01

    Whereas a lot of studies examine cognitive processes in chess players, personality profiles of elite chess players are still not described well. The aim of this study was to examine personality of strong chess experts and its influence on chess skill. We tested elite male and female chess players with Freiburg Personality Inventory Revised…

  19. Elite Colleges Must Give Low-Income Students the Tools to Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Julio

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on his personal experience applying to an elite university and working with low-income students at Smith College, the author outlines the assets and challenges low-income students bring to these schools. He discusses the conditions necessary for such students to achieve in an elite environment, focusing on the following four…

  20. Computerized Online Bibliographic Searching. SPEC Kit #154.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocker, Susan

    For this kit, 106 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) academic libraries were surveyed concerning: (1) current administration/organization; (2) evaluation; (3) patron relations; (4) services; and (5) the impact of online searching on collections. Responses were received from 83 libraries, many of which contributed sample materials. Analyses of…

  1. 75 FR 452 - Tenneco, Inc.; Including On-Site Workers From Elite Staffing, Inc.; Cozad, NE; Tenneco, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...] Tenneco, Inc.; Including On-Site Workers From Elite Staffing, Inc.; Cozad, NE; Tenneco, Inc.; Including On-Site Leased Workers of Elite Staffing, Inc.; Monroe, MI; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To... include on-site leased workers from Elite Staffing, Inc. The Notice of amendment will soon be published...

  2. The Academic Structure in Japan: Institutional Hierarchy and Academic Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arimoto, Akira

    The characteristics of the Japanese academic structure are examined with attention to the evolution of institutional hierarchy, the closed academic structure, and the effects of the academic structure upon academic research. The evolution of Japan's institutional hierarchy in academics has been tightly related to factors of nationalism,…

  3. Publishing and academic promotion.

    PubMed

    Dixon, A K

    2009-09-01

    Clearly, academic endeavour has to be the single most important criterion for appointment to an academic position and for subsequent promotion. It is rare for excellence either in teaching or clinical practice to offset a poor publication record. However, the pressure to publish and gain related grant income can lead to problems in the normal academic pursuits of a department or institution. These and other related issues will be explored in this editorial.

  4. Requirements for effective academic leadership in Iran: A Nominal Group Technique exercise

    PubMed Central

    Bikmoradi, Ali; Brommels, Mats; Shoghli, Alireza; Sohrabi, Zohreh; Masiello, Italo

    2008-01-01

    Background During the last two decades, medical education in Iran has shifted from elite to mass education, with a considerable increase in number of schools, faculties, and programs. Because of this transformation, it is a good case now to explore academic leadership in a non-western country. The objective of this study was to explore the views on effective academic leadership requirements held by key informants in Iran's medical education system. Methods A nominal group study was conducted by strategic sampling in which participants were requested to discuss and report on requirements for academic leadership, suggestions and barriers. Written notes from the discussions were transcribed and subjected to content analysis. Results Six themes of effective academic leadership emerged: 1)shared vision, goal, and strategy, 2) teaching and research leadership, 3) fair and efficient management, 4) mutual trust and respect, 5) development and recognition, and 6) transformational leadership. Current Iranian academic leadership suffers from lack of meritocracy, conservative leaders, politicization, bureaucracy, and belief in misconceptions. Conclusion The structure of the Iranian medical university system is not supportive of effective academic leadership. However, participants' views on effective academic leadership are in line with what is also found in the western literature, that is, if the managers could create the premises for a supportive and transformational leadership, they could generate mutual trust and respect in academia and increase scientific production. PMID:18430241

  5. Partnerships with Academic Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes how professional and continuing higher education units can develop and sustain successful partnerships with academic departments in order to deliver educational programs effectively to students.

  6. Anthropometric Injury Risk Factors in Elite-standard Youth Soccer.

    PubMed

    Kemper, G L J; van der Sluis, A; Brink, M S; Visscher, C; Frencken, W G P; Elferink-Gemser, M T

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether an increased risk of injury occurrence can be determined through frequent anthropometric measurements in elite-standard youth soccer players. Over the course of one season, we followed 101 male elite-standard youth soccer players between 11 and 19 years of age. Height and body mass were monitored at monthly measurement intervals and fat percentage was assessed every 3 months by use of the sum of skinfold method. Growth in height (cm), alternations in body mass index (kg/m(2)), fat percentage and fat-free mass index (kg/m(2)) were calculated. Injuries were recorded in accordance with the recommendations of the FIFA Consensus Model for Injury Registration. Odds ratio scores and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using binary logistic regression analyses. The following anthropometric injury risk factors were identified: ≥ 0.6 centimeter growth per month (p=0.03; OR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.06-2.52), ≥ 0.3 kg/m(2) increase of body mass index value per month (p=0.03; OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.04-2.49) and low fat percentage; i. e., < 7% for players aged 11-16 and < 5% for players over 16 years (p=0.01; OR=1.81; 95% CI: 1.18-2.76). Individual monitoring of anthropometrics provides useful information to determine increased risk of injury occurrence in elite-standard youth soccer.

  7. Movement Demands of Elite U20 International Rugby Union Players

    PubMed Central

    Drawer, Scott; Eager, Robin; Taylor, Neil; Cook, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify movement demands of elite international age grade (U20) rugby union players during competitive tournament match play. Forty elite professional players from an U20 international performance squad were monitored using 10Hz global positioning systems (GPS) during 15 international tournament matches during the 2014/15 and 2015/16 seasons. Data on distances, velocities, accelerations, decelerations, high metabolic load (HML) distance and efforts, and number of sprints were derived. Data files from players who played over 60 min (n = 161) were separated firstly into Forwards and Backs, and more specifically into six positional groups; FR—Front Row (prop & hooker), SR—Second Row, BR—Back Row (Flankers & No.8), HB—Half Backs (scrum half & outside half), MF—Midfield (centres), B3 –Back Three (wings & full back) for match analysis. Analysis revealed significant differences between forwards and backs positions. Backs scored higher on all variables measured with the exception of number of moderate accelerations, decelerations (no difference). The centres covered the greatest total distance with the front row covering the least (6.51 ± 0.71 vs 4.97 ± 0.75 km, p < 0.001). The front row also covered the least high speed running (HSR) distance compared to the back three (211.6 ± 112.7 vs 728.4 ± 150.2 m, p < 0.001) who covered the most HSR distance, affirming that backs cover greater distances but forwards have greater contact loads. These findings highlight for the first time differences in the movement characteristics of elite age grade rugby union players specific to positional roles. PMID:27055230

  8. Movement Demands of Elite U20 International Rugby Union Players.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Daniel; Shearer, David A; Drawer, Scott; Eager, Robin; Taylor, Neil; Cook, Christian; Kilduff, Liam P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify movement demands of elite international age grade (U20) rugby union players during competitive tournament match play. Forty elite professional players from an U20 international performance squad were monitored using 10 Hz global positioning systems (GPS) during 15 international tournament matches during the 2014/15 and 2015/16 seasons. Data on distances, velocities, accelerations, decelerations, high metabolic load (HML) distance and efforts, and number of sprints were derived. Data files from players who played over 60 min (n = 161) were separated firstly into Forwards and Backs, and more specifically into six positional groups; FR--Front Row (prop & hooker), SR--Second Row, BR--Back Row (Flankers & No.8), HB--Half Backs (scrum half & outside half), MF--Midfield (centres), B3--Back Three (wings & full back) for match analysis. Analysis revealed significant differences between forwards and backs positions. Backs scored higher on all variables measured with the exception of number of moderate accelerations, decelerations (no difference). The centres covered the greatest total distance with the front row covering the least (6.51 ± 0.71 vs 4.97 ± 0.75 km, p < 0.001). The front row also covered the least high speed running (HSR) distance compared to the back three (211.6 ± 112.7 vs 728.4 ± 150.2 m, p < 0.001) who covered the most HSR distance, affirming that backs cover greater distances but forwards have greater contact loads. These findings highlight for the first time differences in the movement characteristics of elite age grade rugby union players specific to positional roles.

  9. Energy Balance during Taekwondo Practice in Elite Male Taekwondo Players

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang Ok; Garber, Carol Ewing; Lee, Sukho; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to evaluate energy expenditure and dietary intake of nutrients during Taekwondo practice in elite Korean male Taekwondo players. Methods: Elite Korean male high school (high school player: HP; n = 59) and college players (college player: CP; n = 58) wore an accelerometer to measure energy expenditure and recorded their daily dietary intake for nutritional analysis over the course of five days. Results: Nutritional adequacy ratios for total energy (0.82), vitamin C (0.97), calcium (0.78), and folate (0.75) were below recommended levels for all players. When comparing daily nutrient intake and energy expenditure between HP and CP, the HP group had significantly higher total calorie intake (402.7 kcal, p < 0.001), calcium (126.3 mg, p = 0.018), phosphorus (198.0 mg, p = 0.002), iron (1.3 mg, p = 0.002), and vitamin B2 (0.4 mg, p < 0.001) than the CP group. Although there was no significant difference in the estimated energy requirement during Taekwondo practice, the total energy expenditure (151.2 kcal, p = 0.001), total activity counts (130,674 counts, p = 0.038) and energy expenditure during Taekwondo practice (257.7 kcal, p < 0.001) were significantly higher in the HP than in the CP. Conclusion: The results indicate that a sports nutrition program based on energy balance is necessary to achieve optimal health and performance in elite male Taekwondo players. PMID:26064838

  10. Effects of simulated and real altitude exposure in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Eileen Y; Aughey, Robert J; Anson, Judith M; Hopkins, Will G; Pyne, David B

    2010-02-01

    The effect of repeated exposures to natural and simulated moderate altitude on physiology and competitive performance of elite athletes warrants further investigation. This study quantified changes in hemoglobin mass, performance tests, and competitive performance of elite swimmers undertaking a coach-prescribed program of natural and simulated altitude training. Nine swimmers (age 21.1 +/- 1.4 years, mean +/- SD) completed up to four 2-week blocks of combined living and training at moderate natural altitude (1,350 m) and simulated live high-train low (2,600-600 m) altitude exposure between 2 National Championships. Changes in hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), 4-mM lactate threshold velocity, and 2,000 m time trial were measured. Competition performance of these swimmers was compared with that of 9 similarly trained swimmers (21.1 +/- 4.1 years) who undertook no altitude training. Each 2-week altitude block on average produced the following improvements: Hbmass, 0.9% (90% confidence limits, +/-0.8%); 4-mM lactate threshold velocity, 0.9% (+/-0.8%); and 2,000 m time trial performance, 1.2% (+/-1.6%). The increases in Hbmass had a moderate correlation with time trial performance (r = 0.47; +/-0.41) but an unclear correlation with lactate threshold velocity (r = -0.23; +/-0.48). The altitude group did not swim faster at National Championships compared with swimmers who did not receive any altitude exposure, the difference between the groups was not substantial (-0.5%; +/-1.0%). A coach-prescribed program of repeated altitude training and exposure elicited modest changes in physiology but did not substantially improve competition performance of elite swimmers. Sports should investigate the efficacy of their altitude training program to justify the investment.

  11. Elite triathletes in 'Ironman Hawaii' get older but faster.

    PubMed

    Gallmann, Dalia; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2014-02-01

    The age of peak performance has been well investigated for elite athletes in endurance events such as marathon running, but not for ultra-endurance (>6 h) events such as an Ironman triathlon covering 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42 km running. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in the age and performances of the annual top ten women and men at the Ironman World Championship the 'Ironman Hawaii' from 1983 to 2012. Age and performances of the annual top ten women and men in overall race time and in each split discipline were analyzed. The age of the annual top ten finishers increased over time from 26 ± 5 to 35 ± 5 years (r (2) = 0.35, P < 0.01) for women and from 27 ± 2 to 34 ± 3 years (r (2) = 0.28, P < 0.01) for men. Overall race time of the annual top ten finishers decreased across years from 671 ± 16 to 566 ± 8 min (r (2) = 0.44, P < 0.01) for women and from 583 ± 24 to 509 ± 6 min (r (2) = 0.41, P < 0.01) for men. To conclude, the age of annual top ten female and male triathletes in the 'Ironman Hawaii' increased over the last three decades while their performances improved. These findings suggest that the maturity of elite long-distance triathletes has changed during this period and raises the question of the upper limits of the age of peak performance in elite ultra-endurance performance.

  12. Mental Health in Sport (MHS): Improving the Early Intervention Knowledge and Confidence of Elite Sport Staff

    PubMed Central

    Sebbens, Joshua; Hassmén, Peter; Crisp, Dimity; Wensley, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Mental illnesses are as prevalent among elite athletes as in the general population. Despite this, there is little research examining how to enhance mental health literacy or helping behaviors in elite sport environments. A Mental Health in Sport (MHS) workshop was therefore developed and its effects on mental health literacy and confidence studied in 166 coaches and support staff working with elite athletes and teams in Australia. Results indicated that participants increased their knowledge of the signs and symptoms of common mental illnesses and were more confident in helping someone who may be experiencing a mental health problem. We conclude that even a very brief intervention can be effective in improving the mental health literacy and confidence of key persons in elite sport environments, and may promote early intervention and timely referral of elite athletes with mental health concerns to appropriate professionals. PMID:27445887

  13. Mental Health in Sport (MHS): Improving the Early Intervention Knowledge and Confidence of Elite Sport Staff.

    PubMed

    Sebbens, Joshua; Hassmén, Peter; Crisp, Dimity; Wensley, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Mental illnesses are as prevalent among elite athletes as in the general population. Despite this, there is little research examining how to enhance mental health literacy or helping behaviors in elite sport environments. A Mental Health in Sport (MHS) workshop was therefore developed and its effects on mental health literacy and confidence studied in 166 coaches and support staff working with elite athletes and teams in Australia. Results indicated that participants increased their knowledge of the signs and symptoms of common mental illnesses and were more confident in helping someone who may be experiencing a mental health problem. We conclude that even a very brief intervention can be effective in improving the mental health literacy and confidence of key persons in elite sport environments, and may promote early intervention and timely referral of elite athletes with mental health concerns to appropriate professionals.

  14. The Sweet Spot of a Nonacademic Job Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Alexandra M.

    2012-01-01

    Because academic culture frowns on Ph.D.'s who consider leaving the ivory tower, most of those who jump ship find themselves at a loss as to where and how to begin a job search. Yet a nonacademic job search is actually quite similar to a standard research project. Both require advance planning, substantial research, collating evidence for an…

  15. Air quality and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Kenneth W; Sue-Chu, Malcolm

    2013-08-01

    A higher prevalence of airway hyperresponsiveness, airway remodeling, and asthma has been identified among athletes who compete and train in environmental conditions of cold dry air and/or high air pollution. Repeated long-duration exposure to cold/dry air at high minute ventilation rates can cause airway damage. Competition or training at venues close to busy roadways, or in indoor ice arenas or chlorinated swimming pools, harbors a risk for acute and chronic airway disorders from high pollutant exposure. This article discusses the effects of these harsh environments on the airways, and summarizes potential mechanisms and prevalence of airway disorders in elite athletes.

  16. Distortion of body image among elite female dancers.

    PubMed

    Pierce, E F; Daleng, M L

    1998-12-01

    To examine body image and possible distortion of body image among elite female dancers 10 members of a professional ballet company rated both current and ideal body shape. In addition, an objective measure of body composition was obtained via skinfold techniques. t tests indicated that the mean rating for current body image was significantly higher than the rating for ideal, despite the fact that body-composition measures for all subjects were in an "ideal" range according to normative standards. Analysis indicated a high distortion of body image among these dancers and support psychophysiological concerns previously raised.

  17. Prediction of Tennis Performance in Junior Elite Tennis Players.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Tamara; Huijgen, Barbara C H; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Predicting current and future tennis performance can lead to improving the development of junior tennis players. The aim of this study is to investigate whether age, maturation, or physical fitness in junior elite tennis players in U13 can explain current and future tennis performance. The value of current tennis performance for future tennis performance is also investigated. A total of 86 junior elite tennis players (boys, n = 44; girls, n = 42) U13 (aged: 12.5 ± 0.3 years), and followed to U16, took part in this study. All players were top-30 ranked on the Dutch national ranking list at U13, and top-50 at U16. Age, maturation, and physical fitness, were measured at U13. A principal component analysis was used to extract four physical components from eight tests (medicine ball throwing overhead and reverse, ball throwing, SJ, CMJas, Sprint 5 and 10 meter, and the spider test). The possible relationship of age, maturation, and the physical components; "upper body power", "lower body power", "speed", and "agility" with tennis performance at U13 and U16 was analyzed. Tennis performance was measured by using the ranking position on the Dutch national ranking list at U13 and U16. Regression analyses were conducted based on correlations between variables and tennis performance for boys and girls, separately. In boys U13, positive correlations were found between upper body power and tennis performance (R(2) is 25%). In girls, positive correlations between maturation and lower body power with tennis performance were found at U13. Early maturing players were associated with a better tennis performance (R(2) is 15%). In girls U16, only maturation correlated with tennis performance (R(2) is 13%); later-maturing girls at U13 had better tennis performances at U16. Measuring junior elite tennis players at U13 is important for monitoring their development. These measurements did not predict future tennis performance of junior elite tennis players three years later. Future

  18. The Elite Athlete and Strenuous Exercise in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pivarnik, James M; Szymanski, Linda M; Conway, Michelle R

    2016-09-01

    Highly trained women continue to exercise during pregnancy, but there is little information available to guide them, and their health care providers, in how to maximize performance without jeopardizing the maternal-fetal unit. Available evidence focusing on average women who perform regular vigorous exercise suggests that this activity is helpful in preventing several maladies of pregnancy, with little to no evidence of harm. However, some studies have shown that there may be a limit to how intense an elite performer should exercise during pregnancy. Health care providers should monitor these women athletes carefully, to build trust and understanding.

  19. Positional Match Running Performance in Elite Gaelic Football.

    PubMed

    Malone, Shane; Solan, Barry; Collins, Kieran D; Doran, Dominic A

    2016-08-01

    Malone, S, Solan, B, Collins, KD, and Doran, DA. Positional match running performance in elite Gaelic football. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2292-2298, 2016-There is currently limited information available on match running performance in Gaelic football. The objective of the current study was to report on the match running profile of elite male Gaelic football and assess positional running performance. In this observational study, 50 elite male Gaelic football players wore 4-Hz global positioning systems units (VX Sports) across 30 competitive games with a total of 215 full game data sets collected. Activity was classed according to total distance, high-speed distance (≥17 km·h), sprint distance (≥22 km·h), mean velocity (km·h), peak velocity (km·h), and number of accelerations. The average match distance was 8,160 ± 1,482 m, reflective of a relative distance of 116 ± 21 m·min, with 1,731 ± 659 m covered at high speed, which is reflective of a relative high-speed distance of 25 ± 9 m·min. The observed sprint distance was 445 ± 169 m distributed across 44 sprint actions. The peak velocity was 30.3 ± 1.8 km·h with a mean velocity of 6.5 ± 1.2 km·h. Players completed 184 ± 40 accelerations, which represent 2.6 ± 0.5 accelerations per minute. There were significant differences between positional groups for both total running distance, high-speed running distance, and sprint distance, with midfielders covering more total and high-speed running distance, compared with other positions (p < 0.001). There was a reduction in high-speed and sprint distance between the first and second half (p < 0.001). Reductions in running performance were position dependent with the middle 3 positions experiencing the highest decrement in performance. The current study is the first to communicate a detailed description of match running performance during competitive elite Gaelic football match play.

  20. Axion Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikivie, Pierre

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION TO AXION PHYSICS * THE COSMOLOGICAL AXION ENERGY DENSITY * The contribution from initial vacuum misalignment * The contribution from cosmic axion strings * THE CAVITY DETECTOR OF GALACTIC HALO AXIONS * THE PHASE SPACE STRUCTURE OF COLD DARK MATTER HALOS * TELESCOPE SEARCH FOR THE 2γ DECAY OF RELIC AXIONS * A SOLAR AXION DETECTOR * ACKNOWLEDGEMENT * REFERENCES

  1. Oral health of elite athletes and association with performance: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, P; Di Iorio, A; Cole, E; Tanday, A; Needleman, I

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to systematically review the epidemiology of oral disease and trauma in the elite athlete population and to investigate the impact of oral health on sporting performance. Methods Authors searched Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to October 2013), Ovid EMBASE (1980 to October 2013), EBSCO SPORTDiscus (up to October 2013) and OpenGrey (http://www.opengrey.eu). No date or language restrictions were applied. Papers were included if they evaluated the oral health of professional athletes. The methodological quality of papers was evaluated using a modification of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results The literature search led to 9858 potentially relevant citations. Following a set of predefined exclusion criteria, 34 studies remained. Twenty-six studies reported on dental trauma, which ranged in prevalence from 14% to 47% varying by sport and country. Sixteen studies considered the oral health of athletes and reported high prevalence of oral diseases: dental caries 15–75%, dental erosion 36–85%, periodontal disease 15%. In four studies, a range between 5% and 18% of athletes reported negative impact of oral health or trauma on performance. The methodological quality of included studies was generally low. Conclusions Within the limits of the review, oral health of athletes is poor. We hypothesise that poor oral health associates with self-reported performance; however, this needs to be tested. Further studies on representative samples of athletes are needed to assess the size of the problem of poor oral health as well as to investigate the possible impact on performance using objective measures of performance. PMID:25388551

  2. Assessment of myocardial function in elite athlete's heart at rest - 2D speckle tracking echocardiography in Korean elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Eun, Lucy Youngmin; Chae, Hyun Wook

    2016-12-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Korean elite soccer players' myocardial function using the conventional and advanced speckle tracking imaging to compare the difference with the normal controls. We used 2D echocardiography speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) to evaluate LV regional strain in 29 elite soccer players compared to 29 age-matched healthy controls. Conventional, tissue Doppler, and STI echocardiography was performed, for strain at base and apex, rotation and torsion. There is no difference in longitudinal strain (-17.6 ± 1.8 vs -17.3 ± 2.9, p = ns), and basal radial strain. However, the significant increases were noticed in basal circumferential strain (-17.5 ± 2.6 vs -15.5 ± 8.9, p = 0.05), apical radial strain (33.1 ± 20.5 vs 22.5 ± 19.4, p = 0.02), and apical circumferential strain in soccer players (-21.4 ± 4.8 vs -16.8 ± 7.6, p = 0.005). Soccer players showed the higher rotation at base (-3.9 ± 1.9 vs -2.6 ± 3.2, p = 0.03), and apex (6.98 ± 2.62 vs 6.21 ± 3.81, p = 0.05), higher torsion (10.9 ± 3.7 vs 8.8 ± 6.3, p = 0.05). In conclusion, the elite soccer players' heart demonstrated the unique ventricular adaptation. These alterations could benefit the cardiovascular adjustment to exercise without much loss of myocardial energy expenditure.

  3. Academic Women in Protest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodore, Athena

    This paper is an exploratory inquiry into some aspects of protest for sex equality by academic women. The analysis is based on published and unpublished information on sex discrimination in academia, as well as a sample of 65 cases of academic women obtained from a pilot survey. Following introductory material, Part II emphasizes patterns of…

  4. Thinking Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis

    2016-01-01

    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  5. Leaving the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzius, Jeff; Ard, Allyson

    2006-01-01

    A survey was distributed to former academic librarians to determine why they left the field and which career they pursued afterward. Results suggest that former academic librarians are unhappy with administration, image, and salary. Time spent as librarians helped individuals in their new careers.

  6. Impulsivity and Academic Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderman, Eric M.; Cupp, Pamela K.; Lane, Derek

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relations between academic cheating and impulsivity in a large sample of adolescents enrolled in high school health education classes. Results indicated that impulsivity predicts academic cheating for students who report extensive involvement in cheating. However, students who engage in extensive cheating are less likely…

  7. Understanding Academic Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on the psychological theories of self-efficacy and the self-concept to understand students' self-confidence in academic study in higher education as measured by the Academic Behavioural Confidence scale (ABC). In doing this, expectancy-value theory and self-efficacy theory are considered and contrasted with self-concept and…

  8. Marketing Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  9. Academic Freedom Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the author's enduring concerns about the concept of academic freedom is with semantics. It has seemed to him that one of the biggest difficulties with discussions of academic freedom (as with many conversations about "value-laden" terms such as "democracy," "equity," and "justice") is that people begin from different positions and with…

  10. The Academic Generation Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronzek, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The current generation gap in academia is different--fundamentally shaped by the structural problems of academic employment. The job market has especially exacerbated tensions between senior and junior faculty by ratcheting up expectations and requirements at every stage of the academic career. The disparities have been mentioned often enough to…

  11. Becoming an Academic Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angervall, Petra; Gustafsson, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The neo-liberal restructuring of academia justifies research concerning what constitutes academic work, what it means to be an academic researcher and how researchers manoeuvre in academia. The aim of this article is to investigate how this reshaping of higher education affects how research careers are formed and impacts on "becoming…

  12. Recalibrating Academic Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yancey, George

    2012-01-01

    Whether political and/or religious academic bias exists is a question with important ramifications for the educational institutions. Those arguing for the presence of such bias contend that political conservatives and the highly religious in academia are marginalized and face discrimination. The question of academic bias tends to be cast in a…

  13. Reconceptualizing Academic Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vantine, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, more and more independent schools have established academic support programs and learning centers to address their students' individual learning needs. Perhaps not surprisingly, as the number of students being evaluated has increased, even more families have requested academic accommodations and services for their children.…

  14. Nutritional practices of elite female surfers during training and competition.

    PubMed

    Felder, J M; Burke, L M; Lowdon, B J; Cameron-Smith, D; Collier, G R

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the dietary practices of 10 elite female surfers. Four- and five-day food diaries completed over competition and training periods demonstrated energy intakes (mean +/- SD) of 9,468 kJ (+/- 2,007) and 8,397 kJ (+/- 1,831), respectively. This level of energy intake was less than that estimated for the requirements of surfing. Female surfers' carbohydrate intakes failed to meet the recommendations, and suboptimal zinc intake was observed with 90% of subjects not meeting the Australian RDI. Comparisons between competition and training demonstrated that carbohydrate (g and g/kg body weight) and confectionary (g) intakes were significantly higher (p < .05) and protein intake was significantly lower (p < .05) during competition. These results show that although body fat stores were not compromised (mean 22%), self-reported energy, carbohydrate, and nutrient intakes were marginal in elite female surfers. Questionnaires revealed that 90% of surfers did not have good nutritional habits while traveling, which was compounded by a lack of knowledge of nutritional practices.

  15. Relationships between injury and success in elite Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate and type of injury in elite Canadian Taekwondo athletes, before and during competition and to investigate the relationship between past injuries, injuries during competition and success. This retrospective case-series study incorporated Taekwondo injuries sustained by 75 male and female elite Canadian Taekwondo athletes over 10 years and its relationship to athletes' success by means of gaining medals during competition. A logistic regression model (using the Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) method) was used to investigate the relationship between injuries and success. Injury rate was associated with performance after holding variables constant (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.124, P = 0.039). Moreover, with each additional injury per match, competitors were 88% (1-0.124) less likely to win a medal. Although not statistically significant, additional injuries prior to competition were associated with a 30% increase in medal prevalence (OR = 1.299, P = 0.203). When comparing athletes (gender, tournament difficulty, injury variables), a competitor who is one year older is 10% less likely to medal (OR = 0.897, P = 0.068). When an additional injury occurred during competition, the athlete was 88% less likely to win a medal. Prevention, correct diagnosis, and immediate therapeutic intervention by qualified health care providers are important.

  16. A multivariate analysis of kinanthropometric profiles of elite female orienteers.

    PubMed

    Creagh, U; Reilly, T

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relevance of various kinanthropometric features of elite female orienteers in terms of success at the Student World Orienteering Championships (SWOC)(1992). Participants at this competition were divided into successful (final placing in top 35; n = 12) and less successful (final placing below 35; n = 11) competitors. A non-orienteering reference group was used to enable the identification of any sport specific factors. Measurements of the orienteering group were taken during the week of the SWOC and included 5 skinfold thicknesses, 2 limb girths, 2 bone breadths, 3 proportional lengths and 3 physical tests (grip strength, leg strength, flexibility). Using the results of these, percent adiposity, somatotypes and various anthropometric indices were also obtained. Age and adiposity variables were found to correlate significantly with competitive performance (p < 0.01). Discriminant function analysis successfully distinguished between the successful and less successful orienteers (Wilks' Lambda = 0.603; p < 0.01). There was no difference (p > 0.05) between the orienteering group and the reference group for the majority of the proportionality measures and similarily in the results of the physical tests. Adiposity values were higher in the non-orienteers. In conclusion, body composition measures discriminated between successful and less successful orienteers at a major event at an elite level. The primary difference between the orienteers and the reference group was in body composition rather than linear or proportional measures.

  17. Why young elite athletes fear failure: consequences of failure.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Sam S; Lavallee, David; Spray, Christopher M

    2007-09-01

    Fear of failure can have negative effects on children in achievement settings, affecting many aspects of their lives. Perceiving the consequences of failure to be aversive provides the basis for fear of failure, and the anticipation of a threatening outcome elicits fear. Problems attributed to fear of failure in achievement settings are prevalent. Sport is a popular and significant achievement domain for children and adolescents and there is a lack of research on fear of failure in sport among this age group. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate fear of failure in the sport domain among young elite athletes, and to explore their perceptions of the consequences of failure. Interviews were conducted individually with nine athletes aged 14 - 17 years (5 males, 4 females). Analysis identified and organized perceived consequences of failure into themes and categories. Results revealed that the most commonly perceived aversive consequences of failure were diminished perception of self, no sense of achievement, and the emotional cost of failure. These findings are consistent with those reported in adult population, suggesting the potential for generalizing existing results to young elite athletes.

  18. Adolescent elite athletes' cigarette smoking, use of snus, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to examine cigarette smoking, use of snus, alcohol, and performance-enhancing illicit drugs among adolescent elite athletes and controls, and possible gender and sport group differences. First-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. Totally, 602 athletes (89%) and 354 (84%) controls completed the questionnaire. More controls than athletes were smoking, using snus, and drinking alcohol. Competing in team sports was associated with use of snus [odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 4.7] and a similar percentage of male and female handball (22.2% vs 18.8%) and soccer players (15.7% vs 15.0%) reported using snus. For controls, not participating in organized sport was a predictor for smoking (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.9). Female athletes were more prone to drink alcohol than males (46.3% vs 31.0%, P < 0.001). Only, 1.2% athletes and 2.8% controls reported use of performance-enhancing illicit drugs. In conclusion, use of legal drugs is less common among athletes, but this relationship depends on type of sport and competition level. The association between team sports and use of snus suggests that sport subcultures play a role.

  19. Fitness Profiles of Elite Portuguese Rugby Union Players

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Luís; Morais, Tomaz; Rocha, Henrique; James, Nic

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the fitness profiles of senior elite Portuguese rugby players. Forty-six senior Portuguese rugby players, classified as backs (n=22; age 26.2±2.8) and forwards (n=24; age 26.7±2.9) were assessed during physical testing sessions carried out for the Portuguese National rugby team. The body composition, maximum strength and anaerobic capacity of players are hypothesized to be important physical characteristics as successful performance in rugby is predicated on the ability to undertake skilled behaviours both quickly and whilst withstanding large forces when in contact situations. No absolute differences were found between the backs and forwards for the speed performance variables although positional differences were found across all speeds when assessed relative to body mass since the forwards were significantly heavier. Coaches and the management team can use this information for monitoring progressive improvements in the physiological capacities of rugby players. These physical characteristics of elite rugby players provide normative profiles for specific positions and should form the basis of developmental programmes for adolescents. PMID:25114750

  20. Association mapping in an elite maize breeding population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxin; Gowda, Manje; Steinhoff, Jana; Maurer, Hans Peter; Würschum, Tobias; Longin, Carl Friedrich Horst; Cossic, Frédéric; Reif, Jochen Christoph

    2011-09-01

    Association mapping (AM) is a powerful approach to dissect the genetic architecture of quantitative traits. The main goal of our study was to empirically compare several statistical methods of AM using data of an elite maize breeding program with respect to QTL detection power and possibility to correct for population stratification. These models were based on the inclusion of cofactors (Model A), cofactors and population effect (Model B), and SNP effects nested within populations (Model C). A total of 930 testcross progenies of an elite maize breeding population were field-evaluated for grain yield and grain moisture in multi-location trials and fingerprinted with 425 SNP markers. For grain yield, population stratification was effectively controlled by Model A. For grain moisture with a high ratio of variance among versus within populations, Model B should be applied in order to avoid potential false positives. Model C revealed large differences among allele substitution effects for trait-associated SNPs across multiple plant breeding populations. This heterogeneous SNP allele substitution effects have a severe impact for genomic selection studies, where SNP effects are often assumed to be independent of the genetic background.

  1. Precompetition warm-up in elite and subelite rhythmic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Laura; Di Cagno, Alessandra; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Battaglia, Claudia; Piazza, Marina; Baldari, Carlo

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which precompetition warm-up methodologies resulted in the best overall performance in rhythmic gymnastics. The coaches of national and international clubs (60 elite and 90 subelite) were interviewed. The relationship between sport performance and precompetition warm-up routines was examined. A total of 49% of the coaches interviewed spent more than 1 hour to prepare their athletes for the competition, including 45 minutes dedicated to warm-up exercises. In spite of previous studies' suggestions, the time between the end of warm-up and the beginning of competition was more than 5 minutes for 68% of those interviewed. A slow run was the activity of choice used to begin the warm-up (96%). Significant differences between elite and subelite gymnasts were found concerning the total duration of warm-up, duration of slow running, utilization of rhythmic steps and leaps during the warm-up, the use of dynamic flexibility exercises, competition performances repetition (p < 0.01), and utilization of imagery (p < 0.05). A precompetition warm-up in rhythmic gymnastics would include static stretching exercises at least 60 minutes prior to the competition starting time and the active stretching exercises alternated with analytic muscle strengthening aimed at increasing muscle temperature. Rhythmic gymnastics coaches at all levels can use this data as a review of precompetition warm-up practices and a possible source of new ideas.

  2. Kinanthropometric comparison between young elite kayakers and canoeists.

    PubMed

    Alacid, Fernando; Marfell-Jones, Michael; Muyor, José Maria; López-Miñarro, Pedro Angel; Martínez, Ignacio

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this study were to describe and compare kinanthropometric characteristics of elite young kayakers and canoeists and to compare their proportionality with Olympic paddlers. One hundred and twenty young elite sprint paddlers (66 kayakers and 58 canoeists), aged 13- and 14-years-old, were assessed using a battery of 32 anthropometric dimensions. Somatotypes, Phantom Z-scores and corrected girths were calculated. Comparison between kayakers and canoeists showed that kayakers had greater height, body weight, sitting height, arm span and upper body lengths, breadths and girths than canoeists. Higher proportional humerus breadth and arm girths were also found in kayakers. However, canoeists had higher Z-scores in femur breadth. Olympic paddlers had higher proportional dimensions in upper body girths, and biacromial breadth in both disciplines. Mean somatotypes of kayakers were best described as balanced mesomorphs, while canoeists were ecto-mesomorphs. Differences between kayak and canoe paddlers may be explained by the continual need for physical development in kayakers, in order to remain competitive, compared to the young canoeists' need to place much greater emphasis on the development of their technical ability. The data provided in this study could be used as a guideline for talent identification in sprint canoeing and kayaking.

  3. Rayada specialty: the forgotten resource of elite features of rice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Crop domestication and thereafter gradual selection or directional breeding have narrowed the genetic diversity of elite varieties and even promoted gathering of deleterious mutations in their stress response mechanisms, whereas local ecotypes, landraces and wild relatives still growing on native environment and preferences keep the genetic diversities for features like stress tolerance. Rayada is such an exceptional ecotype, variant of typical deepwater rice, completely endemic to certain areas of Madhumati river tracts of Bangladesh and still shares some features of wild rices. Multiple physiological features of Rayadas are distinctly different from typical deepwater rice. Tolerance to prolonged flood, submergence and cold are special features along with strong photoperiod sensitivity and lack of dormancy. Moreover, longer root system and prompt recovery capacity make it as an elite resource of stress tolerance. However, it has long been neglected because of mainly its long life cycle and poor yield. This review examines the specialty of Rayada rice and the potential use of its unique traits. PMID:24359642

  4. Elite synchronized swimmers display decreased energy availability during intensified training.

    PubMed

    Schaal, K; Tiollier, E; Le Meur, Y; Casazza, G; Hausswirth, C

    2016-07-01

    Elite synchronized swimmers follow high-volume training regimen that result in elevated rates of exercise energy expenditure (ExEE). While adequate energy intake (EI) is important to optimize recovery, a number of sport-specific constraints may lead to chronically low energy availability (EA = EI-ExEE). This study aimed to quantify changes in EA, endocrine markers of energy conservation, and perceived fatigue in synchronized swimmers, during a week of baseline training followed by 4 weeks of intensified training (IT). EI, ExEE, and body composition were measured in nine swimmers at Baseline, midpoint (ITWK2 ), and end of IT (ITWK4 ). Waking saliva samples were obtained to measure [leptin]s , [ghrelin]s , and [cortisol]s . Fatigue ratings were provided daily. ExEE increased by 27% during IT. Swimmers increased EI from Baseline to ITWK2 , but decreased it significantly from ITWK2 to ITWK4 . EA, fat mass, and [leptin]s decreased from Baseline to ITWK4 , while [ghrelin]s increased significantly. Fatigue at ITWK4 was inversely correlated with Baseline EI and EA. The significant decrease in EA was accompanied by endocrine signs of energy conservation in elite swimmers. As perceived fatigue was associated with low EA, particular attention should be paid to these athletes' energy intake during phases of heavy training.

  5. Caffeine supplementation and reactive agility in elite youth soccer players.

    PubMed

    Jordan, J Bradley; Korgaokar, Ajit; Farley, Richard S; Coons, John M; Caputo, Jennifer L

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the effects of caffeine supplementation (6 mg·kg-1) on performance of a reactive agility test (RAT) in 17 elite, male, youth (M = 14 y) soccer players. Using a double-blind, repeated-measures design, players completed 4 days of testing on the RAT after a standardized warm-up. On day 1, anthropometric measurements were taken and players were accommodated to the RAT. On day 2, baseline performance was established. Caffeine or placebo conditions were randomly assigned on day 3 and the condition was reversed on day 4. Players completed 3 randomized trials of the RAT on days 2, 3, and 4 with at least 1 trial to the players' dominant and nondominant sides. There were no significant differences among conditions in reaction time (RT) to the dominant side, heart rates at any point of measurement, or ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) after completion of the warm-up. Caffeine produced faster RT to the nondominant side (P = .041) and higher RPE at the conclusion of the RAT (P = .013). The effect on the total time (TT) to complete the agility test to the nondominant side approached significance (P = .051). Sprint time and TT to either side did not differ. Caffeine supplementation may provide ergogenic benefit to elite, male, youth soccer players.

  6. High-intensity and resistance training and elite young athletes.

    PubMed

    Ratel, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Although in the past resistance and high-intensity exercise training among young children was the subject of numerous controversies, it is now well-documented that this training mode is a safe and effective means of developing maximal strength, maximal power output and athletic performance in youth, provided that exercises are performed with appropriate supervision and precautions. Muscular strength and power output values measured from vertical jump and Wingate anaerobic tests are higher in elite than in non-elite young athletes and normal children, and the specific training effects on maximal power output normalised for body size are clearly more distinct before puberty. At present, there is no scientific evidence to support the view that high-intensity and/or resistance training might hinder growth and maturation in young children. Pre-pubertal growth is not adversely affected by sport at a competitive level and anthropometric factors are of importance for choice of sport in children. However, coaches, teachers and parents should be aware that unsupervised high-intensity and resistance training programmes involving maximal loads or too frequently repeated resistance exercises increase the risk of injury. Resistance training alone is an effective additional means of developing athletic performance throughout planned youth sports training programmes. Strategies for enhancing the effectiveness and safety of youth resistance and high-intensity exercise training are discussed in this chapter.

  7. Propagation of elite rescue dogs by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun Ju; Choi, Jin; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Geon A; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Yoo Bin; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the efficiency of two oocyte activation culture media to produce cloned dogs from an elite rescue dog and to analyze their behavioral tendencies. In somatic cell nuclear transfer procedure, fused couplets were activated by calcium ionophore treatment for 4 min, cultured in two media: modified synthetic oviduct fluid (mSOF) with 1.9 mmol/L 6-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) (SOF-DMAP) or porcine zygote medium (PZM-5) with 1.9 mmol/L DMAP (PZM-DMAP) for 4 h, and then were transferred into recipients. After embryo transfer, pregnancy was detected in one out of three surrogate mothers that received cloned embryos from the PZM-DMAP group (33.3%), and one pregnancy (25%) was detected in four surrogate mothers receiving cloned embryos from the SOF-DMAP group. Each pregnant dog gave birth to one healthy cloned puppy by cesarean section. We conducted the puppy aptitude test with two cloned puppies; the two cloned puppies were classified as the same type, accepting humans and leaders easily. The present study indicated that the type of medium used in 6-DMAP culture did not increase in cloning efficiency and dogs cloned using donor cells derived from one elite dog have similar behavioral tendencies.

  8. Isokinetic strength during knee flexion and extension in elite fencers.

    PubMed

    Poulis, I; Chatzis, S; Christopoulou, K; Tsolakis, Ch

    2009-06-01

    The relation of leg preference and muscular strength in elite fencers was examined. The dominant and nondominant extensor and flexor muscles of 30 elite fencers (M age = 18.2 yr., SD = 2.0 yr.; M height = 173 cm, SD=7.4 cm; M weight = 62.7 kg, SD=8.9 kg), who were members of the Greek national team, and 14 healthy, young, sedentary adults (8 men, 6 women; M age 23.4 yr., SD = 1.9; M height = 169 cm, SD = 10.5 cm; M weight = 66.3 kg, SD = 9.9) were tested for concentric isokinetic contraction at slow (30 to 60 degrees/sec.) and fast (240 degrees/sec.) angular velocities. Significant multivariate differences were found between groups for knee extension, angle of knee extension, knee flexion, and flexor/extensor peak torque ratio. In contrast, no significant difference was found between the dominant and nondominant legs. There was no significant difference in the flexor/extensor peak torque ratio among any of the concentric angular velocities tested. These findings suggest that long-term training in fencing influences the strength characteristics of the lower limbs.

  9. Y chromosome haplogroups of elite Ethiopian endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Moran, Colin N; Scott, Robert A; Adams, Susan M; Warrington, Samantha J; Jobling, Mark A; Wilson, Richard H; Goodwin, William H; Georgiades, Evelina; Wolde, Bezabhe; Pitsiladis, Yannis P

    2004-11-01

    Favourable genetic endowment has been proposed as part of the explanation for the success of East African endurance athletes, but no evidence has yet been presented. The Y chromosome haplogroup distribution of elite Ethiopian athletes (n=62) was compared with that of the general Ethiopian population (n=95) and a control group from Arsi (a region producing a disproportionate number of athletes; n=85). Athletes belonged to three groups: marathon runners (M; n=23), 5-km to 10-km runners (5-10K; n=21) and other track and field athletes (TF; n=18). DNA was extracted from buccal swabs and haplogroups were assigned after the typing of binary markers in multiplexed minisequencing reactions. Frequency differences between groups were assessed by using contingency exact tests and showed that Y chromosome haplogroups are not distributed amongst elite Ethiopian endurance runners in the same proportions as in the general population, with statistically significant (P<0.05) differences being found in four of the individual haplogroups. The geographical origins and languages of the athletes and controls suggest that these differences are less likely to be a reflection of population structure and that Y chromosome haplogroups may play a significant role in determining Ethiopian endurance running success.

  10. Higgs Searches

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Krisztian

    2009-11-01

    We present the status and prospects of Higgs searches at the Tevatron and the LHC. Results from the Tevatron are using up to 5 fb{sup -} of data collected with the CDF and D0 detectors. The major contributing processes include associated production (WH {yields} l{nu}bb, ZH {yields} {nu}{nu}bb, ZH {yields} llbb) and gluon fusion (gg {yields} H {yields} WW{sup (*)}). Improvements across the full mass range resulting from the larger data sets, improved analyses techniques and increased signal acceptance are discussed. Recent results exclude the SM Higgs boson in a mass range of 160 < m{sub H} < 170 GeV. Searches for the neutral MSSM Higgs boson in the region 90 < m{sub A} < 200 GeV exclude tan {beta} values down to 30 for several benchmark scenarios.

  11. Doping in sport: a review of elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

    2013-06-01

    Doping in sport is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied mainly from a biomedical point of view, even though psychosocial approaches are also key factors in the fight against doping. This phenomenon has evolved greatly in recent years, and greater understanding of it is essential for developing efficient prevention programmes. In the psychosocial approach, attitudes are considered an index of doping behaviour, relating the use of banned substances to greater leniency towards doping. The aim of this review is to gather and critically analyse the most recent publications describing elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport, to better understand the foundations provided by the previous work, and to help develop practical strategies to efficiently combat doping. For this purpose, we performed a literature search using combinations of the terms "doping", "sport", "elite athletes", "attitudes", "beliefs", "knowledge", "drugs", and "performance-enhancing substances" (PES). A total of 33 studies were subjected to comprehensive assessment using articles published between 2000 and 2011. All of the reports focused on elite athletes and described their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport. The initial reasons given for using banned substances included achievement of athletic success by improving performance, financial gain, improving recovery and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, as well as the idea that others use them, or the "false consensus effect". Although most athletes acknowledge that doping is cheating, unhealthy and risky because of sanctions, its effectiveness is also widely recognized. There is a general belief about the inefficacy of anti-doping programmes, and athletes criticise the way tests are carried out. Most athletes consider the severity of punishment is appropriate or not severe enough. There are some differences between sports, as team-based sports and sports requiring motor skills could be less

  12. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  13. Winning the game: brain processes in expert, young elite and amateur table tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Sebastian; Brölz, Ellen; Scholz, David; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Keune, Philipp M.; Hautzinger, Martin; Birbaumer, Niels; Strehl, Ute

    2014-01-01

    This study tested two hypotheses: (1) compared with amateurs and young elite, expert table tennis players are characterized by enhanced cortical activation in the motor and fronto-parietal cortex during motor imagery in response to table tennis videos; (2) in elite athletes, world rank points are associated with stronger cortical activation. To this aim, electroencephalographic data were recorded in 14 expert, 15 amateur and 15 young elite right-handed table tennis players. All subjects watched videos of a serve and imagined themselves responding with a specific table tennis stroke. With reference to a baseline period, power decrease/increase of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) during the pretask- and task period indexed the cortical activation/deactivation (event-related desynchronization/synchronization, ERD/ERS). Regarding hypothesis (1), 8–10 Hz SMR ERD was stronger in elite athletes than in amateurs with an intermediate ERD in young elite athletes in the motor cortex. Regarding hypothesis (2), there was no correlation between ERD/ERS in the motor cortex and world rank points in elite experts, but a weaker ERD in the fronto-parietal cortex was associated with higher world rank points. These results suggest that motor skill in table tennis is associated with focused excitability of the motor cortex during reaction, movement planning and execution with high attentional demands. Among elite experts, less activation of the fronto-parietal attention network may be necessary to become a world champion. PMID:25386126

  14. Is Elite Sport (Really) Bad for You? Can We Answer the Question?

    PubMed Central

    Lebrun, Florence; Collins, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Elite athletes are not immune to mental health issues. Yet, quality research on mental health in elites has so far been limited. Thus, while research on mental health emphasises the prevalence and nature of disorders in the general population, its extent in elite performers remains unclear. Indeed, the prevalence of mental conditions cannot be accurately calculated in elite athletes due to a lack of diagnostic criteria and screening tools specifically adapted to this unique population. Researchers and practitioners are, therefore, confronted with biases reflecting the use of clinical norms and instruments initially developed for the general population. Furthermore, without considering the athlete persona as well as the sport culture in which elites play, there is a risk of under- or over-estimating the prevalence of mental health issues in high-performance environments. Due to the unique characteristics surrounding an elite athlete’s life, we therefore suggest a change of perspective: moving from the usual normal-versus-pathological to a functional-versus-dysfunctional approach. Implications for future research and practice are discussed, most notably examining practitioners’ expertise in diagnosing and treating elite performers. PMID:28316585

  15. Is Elite Sport (Really) Bad for You? Can We Answer the Question?

    PubMed

    Lebrun, Florence; Collins, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Elite athletes are not immune to mental health issues. Yet, quality research on mental health in elites has so far been limited. Thus, while research on mental health emphasises the prevalence and nature of disorders in the general population, its extent in elite performers remains unclear. Indeed, the prevalence of mental conditions cannot be accurately calculated in elite athletes due to a lack of diagnostic criteria and screening tools specifically adapted to this unique population. Researchers and practitioners are, therefore, confronted with biases reflecting the use of clinical norms and instruments initially developed for the general population. Furthermore, without considering the athlete persona as well as the sport culture in which elites play, there is a risk of under- or over-estimating the prevalence of mental health issues in high-performance environments. Due to the unique characteristics surrounding an elite athlete's life, we therefore suggest a change of perspective: moving from the usual normal-versus-pathological to a functional-versus-dysfunctional approach. Implications for future research and practice are discussed, most notably examining practitioners' expertise in diagnosing and treating elite performers.

  16. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Level 1) to discriminate elite junior Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Veale, James P; Pearce, Alan J; Carlson, John S

    2010-05-01

    The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery (IR) Test is currently used to assess endurance performance in team sport athletes. However, to date, no data has been presented on its application to an elite junior Australian football (AF) playing group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (IR1) ability to discriminate between junior AF players at two different playing standards and a group of non-athletic healthy males. Sixty age matched participants (16.6+/-0.5 years) spread over three groups (20 per group): elite junior footballers; sub-elite junior footballers; and non-athletic healthy males participated in this study. Participants undertook a single Yo-Yo test performance on an indoor basketball court for each group. A one-way ANOVA with Scheffe's post hoc analysis revealed the elite junior footballers covered a significantly greater total distance (p<0.001) and completed a significantly greater number of high-intensity efforts (p<0.001) in comparison to their sub-elite counterparts, whilst both AF groups performed significantly better (p<0.001) than the non-athletic healthy males. This study demonstrates the ability of the Yo-Yo IR1 to discriminate endurance performance between elite and sub-elite AF players, whilst further distinguishing AF players from a non-athletic healthy control group.

  17. The Resilience of Recently Graduated and Unemployed Dutch Academics in Coping with the Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker, Jeroen J. H.; Amsing, Hilda T. A.; Hahurij, Lisa; Wichgers, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Some years after the world-wide crisis starting in 2008, also many recently graduated Dutch academics were confronted with the problem of how to cope with getting a job. This article focuses on the coping strategies they use when searching after a job, spending the day, and coping with limited financial means. 91 graduated academics completed a…

  18. The Internet as a Source of Academic Research Information: Findings of Two Pilot Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibirige, Harry M.; DePalo, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of information available on the Internet focuses on two pilot studies that investigated how academic users perceive search engines and subject-oriented databases as sources of topical information. Highlights include information seeking behavior of academic users; undergraduate users; graduate users; faculty; and implications for…

  19. Career Choice in Academic Medicine: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Straus, Sharon E; Straus, Christine; Tzanetos, Katina

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To review systematically the evidence about what factors influence the decision to choose or not choose a career in academic medicine. DESIGN A systematic review of relevant literature from 1990 to May 2005. DATA SOURCES Searches of The Cochrane Library, Medline (using Ovid and PubMed) from 1990 to May 2005, and EMBASE from 1990 to May 2005 were completed to identify relevant studies that explored the influential factors. Additional articles were identified from searching the bibliographies of retrieved articles. SELECTION OF STUDIES We attempted to identify studies that included residents, fellows, or staff physicians. No restrictions were placed on the study methodologies identified and all articles presenting empirical evidence were retrieved. For cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies, minimum inclusion criteria were the presence of defined groups, and the ability to extract relevant data. For surveys that involved case series, minimum inclusion criteria were a description of the population, and the availability of extractable data. Minimum inclusion criteria for qualitative studies were descriptions of the sampling strategy and methods. RESULTS The search identified 251 abstracts; 25 articles were included in this review. Completion of an MD with a graduate degree or fellowship program is associated with a career in academic medicine. Of the articles identified in this review, this finding is supported by the highest quality of evidence. Similarly, the completion of research and publication of this research in medical school and residency are associated with a career in academic medicine. The desire to teach, conduct research, and the intellectual stimulation and challenge provided in academia may also persuade people to choose this career path. The influence of a role model or a mentor was reported by physicians to impact their decision making. Trainees' interest in academic medicine wanes as they progress through their residency

  20. International migration among Egyptian elites: where they've been; where they're going?

    PubMed

    Sell, R R

    1990-01-01

    Aspects of the international migration of Egypt's urban educated elite are examined using data from a 1987 survey of 874 Egyptian university students. "Specific questions considered are: What has been the migration experience of these elites? In what ways has this experience changed over time and what changes are likely to occur in the future? What are some of the characteristics of the potential participants in these changes? How do answers to these questions vary among different segments of this elite and what can be inferred about the class nature of Egyptian migration processes?"

  1. The Elite: A high speed, low-cost general aviation aircraft for Aeroworld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rueter, Amy; Fay, Jonathan; Staudmeister, Douglas; Avis, Daniel; Le, Tuan; Stem, Steven

    1994-01-01

    The Elite is a six passenger, general aviation aircraft targeted at the upper middle class private pilot. The Elite is a low wing, conventional monoplane utilizing rudder, ailerons, and a stabilator. The Elite will create a new class of aircraft in Aeroworld. This class of aircraft will demonstrate a substantial improvement in cruise speed over the current existing commercial fleet of aircraft in Aeroworld. This new class will be capable of servicing all existing airstrips in Aeroworld, including rough and short airways. The drivers of this design were aesthetics, a high cruise speed, and take-off distance.

  2. Game and Training Load Differences in Elite Junior Australian Football

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Brendan; Cook, Jill; Kidgell, Dawson J.; Gastin, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Game demands and training practices within team sports such as Australian football (AF) have changed considerably over recent decades, including the requirement of coaching staff to effectively control, manipulate and monitor training and competition loads. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the differences in external and internal physical load measures between game and training in elite junior AF. Twenty five male, adolescent players (mean ±SD: age 17.6 ± 0.5 y) recruited from three elite under 18 AF clubs participated. Global positioning system (GPS), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) data were obtained from 32 game files during four games, and 84 training files during 19 training sessions. Matched-pairs statistics along with Cohen’s d effect size and percent difference were used to compare game and training events. Players were exposed to a higher physical load in the game environment, for both external (GPS) and internal (HR, Session-RPE) load parameters, compared to in-season training. Session time (d = 1.23; percent difference = 31.4% (95% confidence intervals = 17.4 – 45.4)), total distance (3.5; 63.5% (17.4 – 45.4)), distance per minute (1.93; 33.0% (25.8 – 40.1)), high speed distance (2.24; 77.3% (60.3 – 94.2)), number of sprints (0.94; 43.6% (18.9 – 68.6)), mean HR (1.83; 14.3% (10.5 – 18.1)), minutes spent above 80% of predicted HRmax (2.65; 103.7% (89.9 – 117.6)) and Session-RPE (1.22; 48.1% (22.1 – 74.1)) were all higher in competition compared to training. While training should not be expected to fully replicate competition, the observed differences suggest that monitoring of physical load in both environments is warranted to allow comparisons and evaluate whether training objectives are being met. Key points Physical loads, including intensity, are typically lower in training compared to competition in junior elite Australian football. Monitoring of player loads in team sports should include both

  3. Academic Capitalism and Academic Culture: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Pilar; Berger, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    This case study investigated the impact of academic capitalism on academic culture by examining the perspectives of faculty members in an American academic department with significant industrial funding. The results of this study indicate that faculty members believe that the broad integrity of the academic culture remains unaffected in this…

  4. An Academic Curriculum Will Close the Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa

    2012-01-01

    America's unyielding academic achievement gap has been a national priority for a long time; yet, some schools have succeeded with academically disadvantaged youth. Usually, these institutions embrace a culture of success and follow an academic curriculum that is grounded in core knowledge and scholastic vocabulary. Academically disadvantaged…

  5. Academic freedom and academic-industry relationships in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Streiffer, Robert

    2006-06-01

    Commercial academic-industry relationships (AIRs) are widespread in biotechnology and have resulted in a wide array of restrictions on academic research. Objections to such restrictions have centered on the charge that they violate academic freedom. I argue that these objections are almost invariably unsuccessful. On a consequentialist understanding of the value of academic freedom, they rely on unfounded empirical claims about the overall effects that AIRs have on academic research. And on a rights-based understanding of the value of academic freedom, they rely on excessively lavish assumptions about the kinds of activities that academic freedom protects.

  6. The Shattered Stereotype: The Academic Library in Technological Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Constance L.

    In academic libraries, neither technical services, public services, nor administration has escaped the impact of online information systems. Online catalogs, network systems, interlibrary lending, database searches, circulation control, automated technical processes, and an increasing number of non-book materials are part of a technological…

  7. Social, Mental, Academic and Physical Development in Groups Doing Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nas, Kazim; Temel, Veysel; Akpinar, Selahattin; Akpinar, Oznur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show whether sport has an effect on education/academic success and social, mental and physical development or not. The search involves 160 students studying at Physical Education and Sports High School at Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University. Graded quintet likert type questionnaire was used as a measuring means. The first…

  8. Maintaining Academic Integrity in On-Line Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heberling, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of academic cheating and plagiarism focuses on occurrences in online courses, based on experiences at Baker College (Michigan). Highlights include tools to fight plagiarism; using search engines to detect plagiarism; digital paper mills; plagiarism detection companies; and the role of administrators and faculty. (LRW)

  9. The Process of Finding Your First Academic Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Michelle R.

    Graduate students face a myriad of tasks as they prepare to enter the academic job market. Tips on how to complete a successful job search--from advice about preparing application materials and finding available positions to knowledge about what to expect during the interview--are provided in this paper. It opens with a discussion of applicant…

  10. Neglected lesser tuberosity avulsion in an adolescent elite gymnast.

    PubMed

    Paxinos, Odysseas; Karavasili, Alexandra; Manolarakis, Manolis; Paxinos, Thrasivoulos; Papavasiliou, Athanasios

    2014-07-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old elite gymnast who presented with recurring pain in the left shoulder after training. The athlete recalled an injury to the shoulder 2 years ago. Clinically a localized tenderness to the anterior shoulder and loss of strength and range of motion was noted. Imaging investigation suggested a neglected lesser tuberosity avulsion. The athlete was treated with open excision of the deformed tuberosity and direct repair of the subscapularis to the humeral head. Following a careful postoperative rehabilitation protocol the athlete was able to return to unrestricted gymnastics after 6 months. After surgery the athlete followed a intense rehabilitation program that allowed him to return to sports at 6 months. At 5-years follow-up, the athlete was asymptomatic and competing at an international level. Avulsion fractures of the lesser tuberosity are extremely rare injuries with significant shoulder disability if left untreated. Anatomic repair can yield excellent results, even in neglected cases.

  11. Accuracy of genomic selection in European maize elite breeding populations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Liu, Wenxin; Würschum, Tobias; Maurer, Hans P; Longin, Friedrich H; Ranc, Nicolas; Reif, Jochen C

    2012-03-01

    Genomic selection is a promising breeding strategy for rapid improvement of complex traits. The objective of our study was to investigate the prediction accuracy of genomic breeding values through cross validation. The study was based on experimental data of six segregating populations from a half-diallel mating design with 788 testcross progenies from an elite maize breeding program. The plants were intensively phenotyped in multi-location field trials and fingerprinted with 960 SNP markers. We used random regression best linear unbiased prediction in combination with fivefold cross validation. The prediction accuracy across populations was higher for grain moisture (0.90) than for grain yield (0.58). The accuracy of genomic selection realized for grain yield corresponds to the precision of phenotyping at unreplicated field trials in 3-4 locations. As for maize up to three generations are feasible per year, selection gain per unit time is high and, consequently, genomic selection holds great promise for maize breeding programs.

  12. Accounting for elite indoor 200 m sprint results

    PubMed Central

    Usherwood, James R; Wilson, Alan M

    2005-01-01

    Times for indoor 200 m sprint races are notably worse than those for outdoor races. In addition, there is a considerable bias against competitors drawn in inside lanes (with smaller bend radii). Centripetal acceleration requirements increase average forces during sprinting around bends. These increased forces can be modulated by changes in duty factor (the proportion of stride the limb is in contact with the ground). If duty factor is increased to keep limb forces constant, and protraction time and distance travelled during stance are unchanging, bend-running speeds are reduced. Here, we use results from the 2004 Olympics and World Indoor Championships to show quantitatively that the decreased performances in indoor competition, and the bias by lane number, are consistent with this ‘constant limb force’ hypothesis. Even elite athletes appear constrained by limb forces. PMID:17148323

  13. Factors impacting participation of European elite deaf athletes in sport.

    PubMed

    Kurková, Petra; Válková, Hana; Scheetz, Nanci

    2011-03-01

    This study examine 53 European elite deaf athletes for their family's hearing status, use of hearing aids, communication preference, education in integrated or segregated settings, family members' encouragement for participation in sports, coach preference (hearing or deaf), and conditions for competitive events with deaf or hearing athletes. These data were gathered through semi-structured interviews administered in the athlete's native language. Deaf athletes reported that when given the opportunity to compete with hearing athletes, it enhanced their opportunity for competition. Participating in sports with hearing athletes played an important role in the integration of deaf athletes into mainstream society. If adaptations to communication can be made in these integrated settings, the ability of deaf athletes to participate in such settings will increase.

  14. The Rewards of Academic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies of academic leadership confirm what many academic leaders know from personal experience: academic leadership is a complex and demanding role with significant stress and high burnout and turnover rates (Brown, 2002; Brown and Moshavi, 2002). In the light of these issues, an exploration of the nature of academic leadership and its…

  15. Academic Writing and Tacit Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elton, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    The genre of academic writing is discipline dependent, so that neither specialists in academic writing nor practising academics in a discipline can, independently of each other, provide students with the necessary help to develop the ability to write in their academic disciplines. Furthermore, the rules are largely tacit, i.e. they are not…

  16. Osteitis pubis in elite athletes: Diagnostic and therapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    Angoules, Antonios G

    2015-01-01

    Osteitis pubis (OP) is a debilitating overuse syndrome characterizing by pelvic pain and local tenderness over the pubic symphysis commonly encountered in athletes often involved in kicking, twisting and cutting activities in sports such as soccer and rugby and to a lesser degree distance running. It is a common source of groin pain in elite athletes attributable to pubis sympysis instability as the result of microtrauma caused by repetitive muscle strains on pubic bones. Diagnosis is based mainly on detailed sports history and a meticulous clinical examination, although occasionally is difficult to distinguish this nosological entity from other pathologies affecting the involved area which may occur concomitantly in the same patient. Radiologic examinations such as plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging and 3 phase bone isotope scanning may be helpful to differentiate from other clinical entities with similar clinical presentation. Most cases respond well to conservative treatment which includes several physical modalities and especially a progressive rehabilitation programmed individualized to each one of patients diagnosed with OP. Local injection therapies have been also been proposed as a non-operative therapeutic option for the efficient management of these patients. In refractory cases, surgical therapeutic strategies are warranted. These include several open or minimally invasive surgical interventions such as arthroscopic or open symphysis curettage, wedge or total resection of pubic sympysis, polypropylene mesh placement and pubic fusion. In this review a critical analysis of OP in elite athletes is performed with special focus on current concepts of diagnosis and management of this source of athletic groin pain. PMID:26495244

  17. Sport-specific influences on respiratory patterns in elite athletes

    PubMed Central

    Durmic, Tijana; Lazovic, Biljana; Djelic, Marina; Lazic, Jelena Suzic; Zikic, Dejan; Zugic, Vladimir; Dekleva, Milica; Mazic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in lung function among sports that are of a similar nature and to determine which anthropometric/demographic characteristics correlate with lung volumes and flows. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving elite male athletes (N = 150; mean age, 21 ± 4 years) engaging in one of four different sports, classified according to the type and intensity of exercise involved. All athletes underwent full anthropometric assessment and pulmonary function testing (spirometry). RESULTS: Across all age groups and sport types, the elite athletes showed spirometric values that were significantly higher than the reference values. We found that the values for FVC, FEV1, vital capacity, and maximal voluntary ventilation were higher in water polo players than in players of the other sports evaluated (p < 0.001). In addition, PEF was significantly higher in basketball players than in handball players (p < 0.001). Most anthropometric/demographic parameters correlated significantly with the spirometric parameters evaluated. We found that BMI correlated positively with all of the spirometric parameters evaluated (p < 0.001), the strongest of those correlations being between BMI and maximal voluntary ventilation (r = 0.46; p < 0.001). Conversely, the percentage of body fat correlated negatively with all of the spirometric parameters evaluated, correlating most significantly with FEV1 (r = −0.386; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the type of sport played has a significant impact on the physiological adaptation of the respiratory system. That knowledge is particularly important when athletes present with respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea, cough, and wheezing. Because sports medicine physicians use predicted (reference) values for spirometric parameters, the risk that the severity of restrictive disease or airway obstruction will be underestimated might be greater for athletes. PMID:26785960

  18. Quiet eye training facilitates competitive putting performance in elite golfers.

    PubMed

    Vine, Samuel J; Moore, Lee J; Wilson, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a brief quiet eye (QE) training intervention aimed at optimizing visuomotor control and putting performance of elite golfers under pressure, and in real competition. Twenty-two elite golfers (mean handicap 2.7) recorded putting statistics over 10 rounds of competitive golf before attending training individually. Having been randomly assigned to either a QE training or Control group, participants were fitted with an Applied Science Laboratories Mobile Eye tracker and performed 20 baseline (pre-test) putts from 10 ft. Training consisted of video feedback of their gaze behavior while they completed 20 putts; however the QE-trained group received additional instructions related to maintaining a longer QE period. Participants then recorded their putting statistics over a further 10 competitive rounds and re-visited the laboratory for retention and pressure tests of their visuomotor control and putting performance. Overall, the results were supportive of the efficacy of the QE training intervention. QE duration predicted 43% of the variance in putting performance, underlying its critical role in the visuomotor control of putting. The QE-trained group maintained their optimal QE under pressure conditions, whereas the Control group experienced reductions in QE when anxious, with subsequent effects on performance. Although their performance was similar in the pre-test, the QE-trained group holed more putts and left the ball closer to the hole on missed putts than their Control group counterparts in the pressure test. Importantly, these advantages transferred to the golf course, where QE-trained golfers made 1.9 fewer putts per round, compared to pre-training, whereas the Control group showed no change in their putting statistics. These results reveal that QE training, incorporated into a pre-shot routine, is an effective intervention to help golfers maintain control when anxious.

  19. Lane bias in elite-level swimming competition.

    PubMed

    Brammer, Christopher; Cornett, Andrew; Stager, Joel

    2017-02-01

    Performance outcomes at the 2013 World Swimming Championship were previously shown to be biased depending on the swimmer's lane assignment. The purpose of this study was to determine if this kind of bias was unique, and if not, if the bias was related to the temporary or permanent nature of the pool. The effect of lane on the average odd-length split minus the preceding even-length split in the 800- and 1500-m freestyle events, and on the relative change from qualifying to preliminary performance in the 50-m events, was determined for 16 other elite-level competitions. Depending on the swimmers' direction, split times were on average 0.16 s slower or faster in at least one lane at each of the 16 competitions, and in 49% of all lanes analysed. In 5 competitions, swimmers were shown to be faster in a majority of lanes in one direction as compared to the other. Analysis of the 50-m events at these 5 competitions indicate that preliminary performances were between 0.5 and 0.9% slower or faster than qualifying times, which is consistent with the direction effect observed in the distance freestyle events. Further, lane biases occur more often in temporary pools (70% of lanes) than in permanent pools (35% of lanes), with water currents as the most plausible cause. The prevalence of lane bias at elite-level swimming competition highlights the need for the implementation of policies and procedures to prevent such bias from occurring again in the future.

  20. Game-induced fatigue patterns in elite female soccer.

    PubMed

    Krustrup, Peter; Zebis, Mette; Jensen, Jack M; Mohr, Magni

    2010-02-01

    The purpose was to examine the fatigue pattern of elite female soccer players after competitive games. Soccer players (n = 23) from the Danish women Premier League performed a countermovement vertical jump test, a repeated 30-m sprint test, and the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) test at rested state and after a competitive game. Average heart rate during the game was 86 +/- 1% of maximal heart rate with no differences between halves. Blood lactate was 5.1 +/- 0.5 mmol.L after the first half, which was higher (p < 0.05) than after the second half (2.7 +/- 0.4 mmol.L). Yo-Yo IE2 performance was 484 +/- 50 m after the game, which was 62% lower (p < 0.05) than at rested state (1,265 +/- 133 m). Average sprinting time of three 30-m sprints was 5.06 +/- 0.06 seconds after the game, which was 4% slower (p < 0.05) than at rest (4.86 +/- 0.06 seconds). No game-induced effect was observed on vertical jump performance. Significant inverse correlations were observed between Yo-Yo IE2 test performance and fatigue index during the repeated sprint test both at rest (r = -0.76, p < 0.05) and after the game (r = -0.66, p < 0.05). The study demonstrates that the type of fatigue that occurs after a female soccer game does cause marked impairment in intense intermittent exercise and repeated sprint performance but does not affect vertical jump performance. These findings support the notion that decrements in distance covered by sprinting and high-speed running toward the end of elite female games are caused by fatigue.

  1. Anthropometric Characteristics and Physical Performance of Colombian Elite Male Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Velez, Robinson; Argothyd, Rodrigo; Meneses-Echavez, Jose Francisco; Beatriz Sanchez-Puccini, Maria; Lopez-Alban, Carlos Alejandro; Cohen, Daniel Dylan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Wrestling was an important part of the ancient Olympic Games and is still one of the most popular events of the modern Olympic Games. Studies indicate that general physiologic profile of successful wrestlers is high anaerobic power and capacity, muscular strength, above average aerobic power, exceptional flexibility, fat free mass, and a mesomorphic somatotype. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics and physical performance of elite male wrestlers. Patients and Methods: The Colombian Wrestling Team was evaluated while in preparation for the Olympic Games (n = 21; age, 27.9 ± 6.7 years). Athletes were tested on anthropometric and fitness parameters: body composition, somatotype distribution according to Heath-Carter, aerobic capacity, vertical jump, and anaerobic power. Results: The evaluations showed a mean body fat percentage of 13.6% ± 3.0% (95% CI, 12.2%-15%), muscle mass of 46.4% ± 2.2% (95% CI, 45.4%-47.4%), Ponderal index of 41.0 ± 1.8 (95% CI, 40.2-41.8), body adiposity index (BAI) 25.1 ± 3.6 (95% CI, 23.5-26.8), and somatotype distribution mesomorphic-ectomorph (5.3-1.6-3.8). Mean aerobic capacity was 45.9 ± 6.6 mL/kg/min (95% CI, 42.8-48.9), vertical jump was 36.4 ± 6.6 cm (95% CI, 11.8-16.6), and anaerobic power was 92.6 ± 19.5 kg/s (95% CI, 83.7-101.5). Conclusions: These results provided a profile of elite wrestlers that could be used as training targets for developing athletes. The results may also provide information for training and tactical planning. PMID:25741411

  2. Application of altitude/hypoxic training by elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Wilber, Randall L

    2007-09-01

    At the Olympic level, differences in performance are typically less than 0.5%. This helps explain why many contemporary elite endurance athletes in summer and winter sport incorporate some form of altitude/hypoxic training within their year-round training plan, believing that it will provide the "competitive edge" to succeed at the Olympic level. The purpose of this paper is to describe the practical application of altitude/hypoxic training as used by elite athletes. Within the general framework of the paper, both anecdotal and scientific evidence will be presented relative to the efficacy of several contemporary altitude/hypoxic training models and devices currently used by Olympic-level athletes for the purpose of legally enhancing performance. These include the three primary altitude/hypoxic training models: 1) live high+train high (LH+TH), 2) live high+train low (LH+TL), and 3) live low+train high (LL+TH). The LH+TL model will be examined in detail and will include its various modifications: natural/terrestrial altitude, simulated altitude via nitrogen dilution or oxygen filtration, and hypobaric normoxia via supplemental oxygen. A somewhat opposite approach to LH+TL is the altitude/hypoxic training strategy of LL+TH, and data regarding its efficacy will be presented. Recently, several of these altitude/hypoxic training strategies and devices underwent critical review by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) for the purpose of potentially banning them as illegal performance-enhancing substances/methods. This paper will conclude with an update on the most recent statement from WADA regarding the use of simulated altitude devices.

  3. Anthropometric Profiling of New Zealand Junior Elite Triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Bhargav; Dave, Asmi; Kotecha, Nilesh; Oates, Myrtle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The triathlon involves a combination of three separate disciplines-swimming, cycling and running. To date, very few studies have been conducted on the anthropometric characteristics of the New Zealand junior elite triathletes. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between physical traits of calf girth or sum of eight skinfolds (anthropometry) and running or cycling performances in the triathlon event. Methods Eleven junior elite triathletes (6 females, 5 males; (Av. age: 17) who were selected for the New Zealand national squad, were examined in this cross-sectional study. All athletes were measured for the complete anthropometric profile, as per the International Society for Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) guidelines. It was then correlated with the cycling and running performances using interclass correlation (ICC) with 90% confidence interval (CI) limits. Results A non-significant positive correlation observed between eight skinfolds tests on running performance (ICC: 0.10; 90% CI: −0.68–0.77; p>0.05) and biking performance (ICC: 0.15; 90% CI: −0.65–0.79; p>0.05), suggested athletes with greater body fat may render a better athletic performance. Conversely, a significant negative correlation was observed between calf girth and running performance (ICC:−0.66; 90% CI: −0.94 – −0.12; p<0.05) and a non-significant negative correlation was observed between calf girth and cycling performance (ICC:−0.94; 90% CI: −0.97– 0.68; p>0.05). Conclusion Anthropometric data can help in predicting an ideal body profile. This research indicates the similarities and differences of the New Zealand junior profile and the world junior profile. PMID:27504176

  4. Sport Injuries in Elite Paralympic Swimmers With Visual Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marilia Magno e; Bilzon, James; Duarte, Edison; Gorla, Jose; Vital, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Context: Visually impaired athletes sustain overuse injuries in the lower limbs, but the pattern of injuries may vary according to the sport. The characteristics of sports injuries in visually impaired swimmers are unknown. Objective: To determine the characteristics and epidemiologic measures (prevalence, clinical incidence, and incidence rate) of sports injuries in visually impaired elite national swimmers and to assess differences among visual classes and between sexes. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: International Paralympic competitions held between 2004 and 2008. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-eight elite, visually impaired swimmers (19 males, 9 females) from the Brazilian Paralympic Team participated in this study. Twelve were visual class S11 (blind swimmers), 12 were S12 (low-vision swimmers), and 4 were S13 (low-vision swimmers). Intervention(s): A standardized report form was used to collect data during 5 competitions. This was endorsed by 2 Brazilian sports governing bodies. Main Outcome Measures: The characteristics, prevalence, clinical incidence, and incidence rate of injuries were calculated. Results: Eighteen athletes reported 41 sports injuries, with a prevalence of 64%, clinical incidence of 1.5 injuries per athlete, and an incidence rate of 0.3 injuries per athlete per competition. Overuse injuries (80%) were more frequent than traumatic injuries (20%). The clinical incidence and prevalence varied according to sex and visual class, but no statistical differences were observed (P > .05). The highest proportion of injuries was in the trunk (46.34%), followed by the upper limbs (34.15%). The shoulders (29.27%) were most affected, followed by the thoracic (21.95%) and lumbar spine (17.07%). Spasm (36.59%) was the most frequent diagnosis, followed by tendinopathy (26.83%). Conclusions: Visually impaired swimmers had a relatively high proportion of overuse injuries, predominantly associated with muscle spasm in the spine and

  5. Aerobic power and peak power of elite America's Cup sailors.

    PubMed

    Neville, Vernon; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2009-05-01

    Big-boat yacht racing is one of the only able bodied sporting activities where standing arm-cranking ('grinding') is the primary physical activity. However, the physiological capabilities of elite sailors for standing arm-cranking have been largely unreported. The purpose of the study was to assess aerobic parameters, VO(2peak) and onset of blood lactate (OBLA), and anaerobic performance, torque-crank velocity and power-crank velocity relationships and therefore peak power (P (max)) and optimum crank-velocity (omega(opt)), of America's Cup sailors during standing arm-cranking. Thirty-three elite professional sailors performed a step test to exhaustion, and a subset of ten grinders performed maximal 7 s isokinetic sprints at different crank velocities, using a standing arm-crank ergometer. VO(2peak) was 4.7 +/- 0.5 L/min (range 3.6-5.5 L/min) at a power output of 332 +/- 44 W (range 235-425 W). OBLA occurred at a power output of 202 +/- 31 W (61% of W(max)) and VO(2) of 3.3 +/- 0.4 L/min (71% of VO(2peak)). The torque-crank velocity relationship was linear for all participants (r = 0.9 +/- 0.1). P (max) was 1,420 +/- 37 W (range 1,192-1,617 W), and omega(opt) was 125 +/- 6 rpm. These data are among the highest upper-body anaerobic and aerobic power values reported. The unique nature of these athletes, with their high fat-free mass and specific selection and training for standing arm cranking, likely accounts for the high values. The influence of crank velocity on peak power implies that power production during on-board 'grinding' may be optimised through the use of appropriate gear-ratios and the development of efficient gear change mechanisms.

  6. The elite athlete - assessing body shape, size, proportion and composition.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D A; Ackland, T R; Schreiner, A B

    1995-03-01

    In the quest to optimize performance of the elite athlete the sport scientist has sought to determine the ideal physique for a given sport or event. For some sports, specific structural characteristics offer definite performance advantages; for example in rowing, in addition to height, a large arm span has been identified as important. In other sports. such as long distance running, low levels of adiposity or 'fatness' appear to be linked with faster running times. There are four areas where appraisal of the athlete's physique can provide useful information: (1) identification of talented athletes; (2) to assess and monitor the growing athlete; (3) to monitor training and performance; and (4) to determine 'race weight' in weight-category sports. As a research tool a particular method must be reliable and valid. Other considerations include how expensive the method is, if it is suitable for a field situation and if large amounts of data on a number of subjects can be collected quickly. The method should be safe for both the athlete and the tester and provide useful feedback for the athlete or coach. Anthropometry, with training is able to fulfil most of these criteria and is the most widely used method of physique assessment in sports science. Large anthropometric data bases have been collected on elite athletes at Olympic games and world championships according to a standard protocol. Kinanthropometry, which has developed from anthropometry, is concerned with measurement and evaluation of different aspects of human movement and individual variation in body shape, size, proportion and composition. For the assessment of adiposity a sum of skinfolds, usually over six sites, is most commonly used rather than percentage body fat formulae. Muscle mass can be assessed indirectly through girth and corrected girth measurements. Limb lengths and breadths are used to assess skeletal structure and proportional differences in limb size. The anthropometric methods most commonly

  7. Physiological profile of elite Iranian junior freestyle wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Bahman; Curby, David G; Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Moghadasi, Mehrzad

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to describe the physiological profile of elite Iranian junior freestyle wrestlers. Seventy elite wrestlers (age 19.8 +/- 0.9 years) who were invited to the national training camps, based on their top 10 national ranking, participated in this study. The physiological profile included body weight, flexibility (sit and reach test), maximal oxygen consumption (Bruce protocol), maximal anaerobic power of the legs (Wingate test), muscular endurance and strength (bench press, squat, pull-ups, push-ups, grip strength, and bent-knee sit-up test), speed (40-m sprint), agility (4 x 9-m shuttle run), and body composition (7-site skinfold). The major results (mean +/- SD) are as follows: body weight (kg): 77.5 +/- 19.8; flexibility (cm): 38.2 +/- 3.94; maximal oxygen consumption (ml kg(-1) min(-1)): 50.5 +/- 4.7; maximal anaerobic power of the legs (W): 455.5 +/- 87.6; 1-repetition maximum bench press (weight lifted kg body weight(-1)): 1.4 +/- 0.15; 1-repetition maximum squat (weight lifted kg body weight): 1.7 +/- 0.2; push-ups (n): 66.9 +/- 7.6; pull-ups (n): 31.6 +/- 9.7; grip strength (force in kg body weight kg(-1)) 1.02 +/- 0.11; bent-knee sit-ups (n): 66.5 +/- 8; speed (s): 5.07 +/- 0.17; agility (s): 8.7 +/- 0.25; and body fat (%): 10.6 +/- 3.8. The present study provides baseline physiological data that have been used in the prescription of individual training programs for these athletes. This information is also available to the coaches and can contribute to the general strategy employed by a wrestler and for a specific match.

  8. Web Search Engines: Search Syntax and Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Marydee

    2002-01-01

    Presents a chart that explains the search syntax, features, and commands used by the 12 most widely used general Web search engines. Discusses Web standardization, expanded types of content searched, size of databases, and search engines that include both simple and advanced versions. (LRW)

  9. Review of Sports Performance Research with Youth, Collegiate, and Elite Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.; Woods, Kathryn E.; Reed, Derek D.

    2011-01-01

    This brief review summarizes translational and intervention research in the area of sports performance. We describe studies with youth, collegiate, and elite athletes; identify recent trends; and propose recommendations for future research.

  10. The Role of Universities in Stimulating Regional Development and Educating Global Elites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuklinski, Antoni

    2001-01-01

    Examines the role of European universities as a motor for regional development and progress, and suggests that the best universities, having acquired world status, will have as a stated or unstated goal the education of global elites. (EV)

  11. Physiological Changes in Elite Male Distance Runners Training for Olympic Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, D. E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Nine elite male distance runners were evaluated by comprehensive periodic monitoring of selected blood chemistry variables, percent body fat and lean body mass, and cardiopulmonary performance as they prepared for the 1984 Olympic Summer Games. Results are discussed. (MT)

  12. A cross-sectional lower-body power profile of elite and subelite Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Caia, Johnpaul; Doyle, Tim L A; Benson, Amanda C

    2013-10-01

    Australian football (AF) is a sport which requires a vast array of physiological qualities, including high levels of strength and power. However, the power characteristics of AF players, particularly at the subelite level have not been extensively studied with further investigation warranted to understand the power capabilities and training requirements of elite and subelite AF groups. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to develop a lower-body power profile of elite and subelite AF players. Eighteen elite and 12 subelite AF players completed a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat test to determine maximal lower-body strength, and countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) testing to assess lower-body muscular power performance. Maximal lower-body strength was not statistically different between groups (p > 0.05). Elite players produced greater levels of peak power for CMJ at loads of 0, 30 (p < 0.05), and 40% (p < 0.01) of 1RM in comparison to subelite players. Squat jump peak power was statistically different between groups at 0, 20, 30, and 40% (p < 0.01) of 1RM; with elite players producing greater power than their subelite counterparts at all measured loads for SJ. Findings from this investigation demonstrate that elite AF players are able to generate greater levels of lower-body power than subelite AF players, despite no significant differences existing in maximal lower-body strength or body mass. As lower-body power levels clearly differentiate elite and subelite AF players, emphasis may be placed on improving the power levels of subelite players, particularly those aspiring to reach the elite level.

  13. Hospitalization Rates and Reasons Among HIV Elite Controllers and Persons With Medically Controlled HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Trevor A.; Gebo, Kelly A.; Blankson, Joel N.; Korthuis, P. Todd; Yehia, Baligh R.; Rutstein, Richard M.; Moore, Richard D.; Sharp, Victoria; Nijhawan, Ank E.; Mathews, W. Christopher; Hanau, Lawrence H.; Corales, Roberto B.; Beil, Robert; Somboonwit, Charurut; Edelstein, Howard; Allen, Sara L.; Berry, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Elite controllers spontaneously suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viremia but also demonstrate chronic inflammation that may increase risk of comorbid conditions. We compared hospitalization rates and causes among elite controllers to those of immunologically intact persons with medically controlled HIV. Methods. For adults in care at 11 sites from 2005 to 2011, person-years with CD4 T-cell counts ≥350 cells/mm2 were categorized as medical control, elite control, low viremia, or high viremia. All-cause and diagnostic category-specific hospitalization rates were compared between groups using negative binomial regression. Results. We identified 149 elite controllers (0.4%) among 34 354 persons in care. Unadjusted hospitalization rates among the medical control, elite control, low-viremia, and high-viremia groups were 10.5, 23.3, 12.6, and 16.9 per 100 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for demographic and clinical factors, elite control was associated with higher rates of all-cause (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.77 [95% confidence interval, 1.21–2.60]), cardiovascular (3.19 [1.50–6.79]) and psychiatric (3.98 [1.54–10.28]) hospitalization than was medical control. Non–AIDS-defining infections were the most common reason for admission overall (24.1% of hospitalizations) but were rare among elite controllers (2.7%), in whom cardiovascular hospitalizations were most common (31.1%). Conclusions. Elite controllers are hospitalized more frequently than persons with medically controlled HIV and cardiovascular hospitalizations are an important contributor. PMID:25512624

  14. The Experience of Depression during the Careers of Elite Male Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Steve; Hannigan, Barbara; Campbell, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The topic of depression during the career of elite male athletes has been the subject of much public interest and attention in recent years. Despite numerous debates and personal disclosures within the media, there is a dearth of published research directly exploring the phenomenon. This study sought to explore how elite male athletes experience depression during their sporting careers. Eight former/current elite male athletes who had previously publically self-identified as having experienced depression while participating in sport were recruited for this study. A qualitative methodology was employed and each participant was interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Data analysis which was conducted using descriptive and interpretive thematic analysis uncovered three domains: (1) The emergence of depression, (2) The manifestation of symptoms of depression, and (3) Adaptive and Maladaptive proceesses of recovery. Findings from the current study reveal the nature of how male athletes experience, express, and respond to depression during their careers. Additionally, this is influenced by a myriad of factors embedded in the masculine elite sport environment. Implications are discussed particularly in relation to atypical expressions of depression not necessarily reflected on or in standard diagnostic criteria. Future research is encouraged to examine in depth moderating factors (e.g., athletic sense of identity and masculine elite sport environments) for the relationship between depression and participation in elite sport. PMID:27486418

  15. Clinical outcomes and antiretroviral therapy in 'elite' controllers: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Trevor A; Hatano, Hiroyu

    2015-04-01

    Elite controllers naturally suppress HIV viraemia below the level of detection using standard methods, but demonstrate persistent inflammation and low-level viraemia that is detectable via ultrasensitive assays. These factors may contribute to an increased risk of non-AIDS-related morbidity and mortality among elite controllers. Data suggest that cardiovascular disease may be of particular concern in elite controllers, as evidenced by an increased burden of subclinical cardiovascular disease upon radiographic screening and an elevated rate of hospitalisations for cardiovascular disease as compared to non-controllers who are treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Widespread use of ART among non-controllers has led to significant declines in morbidity and mortality, but guidelines are generally silent on the role of ART in the care of elite controllers. Multiple small studies have demonstrated that laboratory markers of inflammation, immune activation and HIV burden improve after initiation of ART in elite controllers. Clinicians must consider these potential benefits of ART when deciding whether to initiate treatment in asymptomatic elite controllers.

  16. The Experience of Depression during the Careers of Elite Male Athletes.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Steve; Hannigan, Barbara; Campbell, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    The topic of depression during the career of elite male athletes has been the subject of much public interest and attention in recent years. Despite numerous debates and personal disclosures within the media, there is a dearth of published research directly exploring the phenomenon. This study sought to explore how elite male athletes experience depression during their sporting careers. Eight former/current elite male athletes who had previously publically self-identified as having experienced depression while participating in sport were recruited for this study. A qualitative methodology was employed and each participant was interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Data analysis which was conducted using descriptive and interpretive thematic analysis uncovered three domains: (1) The emergence of depression, (2) The manifestation of symptoms of depression, and (3) Adaptive and Maladaptive proceesses of recovery. Findings from the current study reveal the nature of how male athletes experience, express, and respond to depression during their careers. Additionally, this is influenced by a myriad of factors embedded in the masculine elite sport environment. Implications are discussed particularly in relation to atypical expressions of depression not necessarily reflected on or in standard diagnostic criteria. Future research is encouraged to examine in depth moderating factors (e.g., athletic sense of identity and masculine elite sport environments) for the relationship between depression and participation in elite sport.

  17. Formative Measurement and Academic Research: In Search of Measurement Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Andrew M.; Chang, Jerry Cha-Jan; Fuller, Mark A.; Torkzadeh, Gholamreza

    2011-01-01

    The use of causal indicators to formatively measure latent constructs appears to be on the rise, despite what appears to be a troubling lack of consistency in their application. Scholars in any discipline are responsible not only for advancing theoretical knowledge in their domain of study but also for addressing methodological issues that…

  18. Worked Examples in Teaching Queries for Searching Academic Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kickham-Samy, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The worked-example effect, an application of cognitive load theory, is a well-supported method of instruction for well-structured problems (Chandler and Sweller, 1991; Cooper and Sweller, 1987; Sweller and Cooper, 1985; Tuovinen & Sweller, 1999; Ward and Sweller, 1990). One limitation is expertise-reversal effect, where advanced students…

  19. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xi; Tian, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture…

  20. Bioethics and academic freedom.

    PubMed

    Singer, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The author describes the events surrounding his attempts to lecture on the subject of euthanasia in West Germany in June 1989. Singer, who defends the view that active euthanasia for some newborns with handicaps may be ethically permissible, had been invited to speak to professional and academic groups. Strong public protests against Singer and his topic led to the cancellation of some of his engagements, disruptions during others, and harrassment of the German academics who had invited him to speak. These incidents and the subject of euthanasia became matters of intense national debate in West Germany, but there was little public or academic support for Singer's right to be heard. Singer argues that bioethics and bioethicists must have the freedom to challenge conventional moral beliefs, and that the events in West Germany illustrate the grave danger to that freedom from religious and political intolerance.

  1. Measurement of academic entitlement.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian K

    2013-10-01

    Members of Generation Y, or Millennials, have been accused of being lazy, whiny, pampered, and entitled, particularly in the college classroom. Using an equity theory framework, eight items from a measure of work entitlement were adapted to measure academic entitlement in a university setting in three independent samples. In Study 1 (n = 229), confirmatory factor analyses indicated good model fit to a unidimensional structure for the data. In Study 2 (n = 200), the questionnaire predicted unique variance in university satisfaction beyond two more general measures of dispositional entitlement. In Study 3 (n = 161), the measure predicted unique variance in perceptions of grade fairness beyond that which was predicted by another measure of academic entitlement. This analysis provides evidence of discriminant, convergent, incremental, concurrent criterion-related, and construct validity for the Academic Equity Preference Questionnaire.

  2. Academic medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Burger, Edward J; Ziganshina, Lilia; Ziganshin, Airat U

    2004-12-01

    Academic medicine, along with professionalism of the medical community in Russia underwent a remarkable evolution from the Revolution through the decline of the Soviet Union. The Soviet period brought about an enormous expansion of numbers of admissions to medical schools and a corresponding increase in the number of new physicians. Academic medical institutions were separated from institutions of higher learning in general and medical science was separated from the mainstream of science. Many of these features have been reversed in the past 14 years and re-professionalization of medicine has resumed.

  3. Exercise-induced bronchospasm in the elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Kenneth W; Jenkinson, David M

    2002-01-01

    The term exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) describes the acute transient airway narrowing that occurs during and most often after exercise in 10 to 50% of elite athletes, depending upon the sport examined. Although multiple factors are unquestionably involved in the EIB response, airway drying caused by a high exercise-ventilation rate is primary in most cases. The severity of this reaction reflects the allergic predisposition of the athlete, the water content of the inspired air, the type and concentration of air pollutants inspired, and the intensity (or ventilation rate) of the exercise. The highest prevalence of EIB is seen in winter-sport populations, where athletes are chronically exposed to cold dry air and/or environmental pollutants found in indoor ice arenas. When airway surface liquid lost during the natural warming and humidification process of respiration is not replenished at a rate equal to the loss, the ensuing osmolarity change stimulates the release of inflammatory mediators and results in bronchospasm; this cascade of events is exacerbated by airway inflammation and airway remodelling. The acute EIB response is characterised by airway smooth muscle contraction, membrane swelling, and/or mucus plug formation. Evidence suggests that histamine, leukotrienes and prostanoids are likely mediators for this response. Although the presence of symptoms and a basic physical examination are marginally effective, objective measures of lung function should be used for accurate and reliable diagnosis of EIB. Diagnosis should include baseline spirometry, followed by an appropriate bronchial provocation test. To date, the best test to confirm EIB may simply be standard pulmonary function testing before and after high-intensity dry air exercise. A 10% post-challenge fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second is used as diagnostic criteria. The goal of medical intervention is to limit EIB exacerbation and allow the athlete to train and compete symptom free

  4. Isokinetic leg strength and power in elite handball players.

    PubMed

    González-Ravé, José M; Juárez, Daniel; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A; Clemente-Suarez, Vicente J; Martinez-Valencia, María A; Abian-Vicen, Javier

    2014-06-28

    Isokinetic strength evaluation of the knee flexion and extension in concentric mode of contraction is an important part of the comprehensive evaluation of athletes. The aims of this study were to evaluate the isokinetic knee peak torque in both the extension and flexion movement in the dominant and non-dominant leg, and the relationship with jumping performance. Twelve elite male handball players from the top Spanish handball division voluntary participated in the study (age 27.68 ± 4.12 years; body mass 92.89 ± 12.34 kg; body height 1.90 ± 0.05 m). The knee extensor and flexor muscle peak torque of each leg were concentrically measured at 60º/s and 180º/s with an isokinetic dynamometer. The Squat Jump and Countermovement Jump were performed on a force platform to determine power and vertical jump height. Non-significant differences were observed between legs in the isokinetic knee extension (dominant= 2.91 ± 0.53 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 2.70 ± 0.47 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.90 ± 0.31 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.83 ± 0.29 Nm/kg at 180º/s) and flexion peak torques (dominant = 1.76 ± 0.29 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.72 ± 0.39 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.30 ± 0.23 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.27 ± 0.35 Nm/kg at 180º/s). Low and non-significant correlation coefficients were found between the isokinetic peak torques and vertical jumping performance (SJ = 31.21 ± 4.32 cm; CMJ = 35.89 ± 4.20 cm). Similar isokinetic strength was observed between the legs; therefore, no relationship was found between the isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torques as well as vertical jumping performance in elite handball players.

  5. The large lungs of elite swimmers: an increased alveolar number?

    PubMed

    Armour, J; Donnelly, P M; Bye, P T

    1993-02-01

    In order to obtain further insight into the mechanisms relating to the large lung volumes of swimmers, tests of mechanical lung function, including lung distensibility (K) and elastic recoil, pulmonary diffusion capacity, and respiratory mouth pressures, together with anthropometric data (height, weight, body surface area, chest width, depth and surface area), were compared in eight elite male swimmers, eight elite male long distance athletes and eight control subjects. The differences in training profiles of each group were also examined. There was no significant difference in height between the subjects, but the swimmers were younger than both the runners and controls, and both the swimmers and controls were heavier than the runners. Of all the training variables, only the mean total distance in kilometers covered per week was significantly greater in the runners. Whether based on: (a) adolescent predicted values; or (b) adult male predicted values, swimmers had significantly increased total lung capacity ((a) 145 +/- 22%, (mean +/- SD) (b) 128 +/- 15%); vital capacity ((a) 146 +/- 24%, (b) 124 +/- 15%); and inspiratory capacity ((a) 155 +/- 33%, (b) 138 +/- 29%), but this was not found in the other two groups. Swimmers also had the largest chest surface area and chest width. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was largest in the swimmers ((b) 122 +/- 17%) and FEV1 as a percentage of forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC)% was similar for the three groups. Pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLCO) was also highest in the swimmers (117 +/- 18%). All of the other indices of lung function, including pulmonary distensibility (K), elastic recoil and diffusion coefficient (KCO), were similar. These findings suggest that swimmers may have achieved greater lung volumes than either runners or control subjects, not because of greater inspiratory muscle strength, or differences in height, fat free mass, alveolar distensibility, age at start of training or sternal length or

  6. Caffeine Ingestion Improves Repeated Freestyle Sprints in Elite Male Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Goods, Paul S.R.; Landers, Grant; Fulton, Sacha

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a moderate dose of caffeine to improve repeat-sprint performance in elite freestyle sprinters. Nine highly trained male swimmers performed 6 x 75 m freestyle sprints on two occasions 1-h after consuming either 3 mg·kg-1 caffeine (CAF), or placebo, in a cross-over manner. Capillary blood samples for the analysis of blood lactate concentration and pH were collected after the 1st, 3rd, and 5th sprint, while heart rate and perceived exertion (RPE) were collected after every sprint. There was a moderate effect for improved mean sprint time in the CAF condition (0.52 s; 1.3%; d = 0.50). When assessed individually, there was a large effect for improved performance in sprints 3 (1.00 s; 2.5%; d = 1.02) and 4 (0.84 s; 2.1%; d = 0.84) in CAF compared to placebo, with worthwhile performance improvement found for each of the first 5 sprints. There was a significant treatment effect for higher blood lactate concentration for CAF (p = 0.029), and a significant treatment*time effect for reduced pH in the CAF condition (p = 0.004). Mean heart rate (167 ± 9 bpm vs 169 ± 7 bpm) and RPE (17 ± 1 vs 17 ± 1) were not different between placebo and CAF trials, respectively. This investigation is the first to demonstrate enhanced repeat-sprint ability in swimmers following acute caffeine ingestion. It appears likely that the combination of a moderate dose of caffeine (3-6 mg·kg-1) with trained athletes is most likely to enhance repeat-sprint ability in various athletic populations; however, the exact mechanism(s) for an improved repeat-sprint ability following acute caffeine ingestion remain unknown. Key points A moderate dose of caffeine (3 mg·kg-1) ingested 1 h before a repeat-sprint freestyle set significantly improves mean sprint time in elite swimmers. The combination of at least a moderate dose of caffeine (>3 mg·kg-1) with trained athletes appears the most likely to result in ergogenic benefit to anaerobic

  7. Analysis of fatigue development during elite male handball matches.

    PubMed

    Póvoas, Susana C A; Ascensão, António A M R; Magalhães, José; Seabra, André F T; Krustrup, Peter; Soares, José M C; Rebelo, António N C

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at describing the physiological demands and fatigue development during elite male handball matches. Our hypothesis was that players perform multiple high-intensity activities during periods of the game and develop temporary and end-match neuromuscular fatigue. Time-motion analyses and heart rate (HR) recordings were performed in 40 players during 12 competitive matches. Blood samples were collected, and sprint, jump, and intermittent exercise performance (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 test [YYIE2]) was assessed for 18 players at baseline conditions and after 2 competitive matches, and additional blood sampling and testing were performed for 12 of these players during a friendly match. The time spent with high-intensity running (4.4 ± 2.0 to 3.1 ± 1.7%), the frequency of demanding actions (61 ± 5 to 54 ± 6), and the time with HR above 80% HRmax (62 ± 21 to 41 ± 17%) were lowered from the first to the second half. Average blood lactate during the match was 3.6 ± 2.1 (1.3-8.6) mM. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA), glycerol, glucose, and uric acid increased (p ≤ 0.05) during the first half and plasma FFA and glycerol increased further (p ≤ 0.05) during the second half. After an intense period in the second half, sprint performance was decreased by 3.9 ± 4.9%. After the match, YYIE2 (33.4 ± 8.7%), vertical jump (7.4 ± 6.5%), and 20-m sprint performance (1.6 ± 2.6%) was lower (p ≤ 0.05) than at baseline. This study showed that the intensity is high in certain periods during elite male handball games and that physical performance is impaired both temporarily during and toward the end of games confirming our hypothesis. These findings enables physical trainers and coaches to plan and design proper game-specific training exercises aiming at delaying both temporary and end-game fatigue and strengthen the physiological rationale for the need for substitutions in various stages of match-play.

  8. Isokinetic muscle strength and hiking performance in elite sailors.

    PubMed

    Aagaard, P; Beyer, N; Simonsen, E B; Larsson, B; Magnusson, S P; Kjaer, M

    1998-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the isokinetic strength profile and its relation to hiking performance in male (SM, n = 15) and female (SF, n = 6) elite sailors compared to a group of male control subjects (CM, n = 8) similar in age, anthropometry and level of fitness. Eccentric knee extension strength was higher in SM compared to CM (P < 0.01). Furthermore, SM were stronger during trunk extension (P < 0.05), but not during trunk flexion compared to CM. Overall muscle strength was lower in SF compared to SM (P < 0.01) and CM (P < 0.05), except for eccentric knee extension strength, where SF and CM did not differ (P > 0.05). Hiking performance correlated to maximal eccentric and isometric knee extensor strength in SF (rs = 0.83-0.88, P < 0.05) and in CM (rs = 0.73-0.77, P < 0.05) and to maximal eccentric knee extensor strength at high velocity in SM (rs = 0.46-0.54, P < 0.05). For a subgroup of hikers in SM (n = 8), hiking performance correlated to maximal isometric-eccentric knee extensor strength (rs = 0.67-0.74, P < 0.05), whereas no correlations emerged for the non-hikers (n = 7). Few correlations were observed between hiking performance and maximal concentric trunk flexor strength (rs = 0.69-0.92, P < 0.05). Unexpectedly, in SM correlations also were observed between hiking performance and maximal strength of the trunk extensors (rs = 0.46-0.53, hiker subgroup: rs = 0.64-0.67, P < 0.05). In conclusion, notably high levels of maximal eccentric knee extensor strength were observed for the male and female elite sailors examined in the present study. Furthermore, the present results suggest that hiking performance depends in part on maximal isometric-eccentric knee extensor strength. The maximal strength of the trunk extensors, which potentially stabilizes the lower back and spine, also seems to have some importance for the hiking performance of top-level sailors.

  9. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  10. Cultural Complicities: Elitism, Heteronormativity and Violence in the Education Marketplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue

    2007-01-01

    Educational discourse in Australia has been dramatically altered in recent decades as neoliberal choice policies favouring an increasingly marketized, tiered educational landscape have witnessed a burgeoning of private sector schooling. In this climate, many perceive private sector schooling as providing moral, social and academic benefits beyond…

  11. Modeling Preferential Admissions at Elite Liberal Arts Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockburn, Sally; Hewitt, Gordon; Kelly, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a model that simulates the effects of varying preferential admissions policies on the academic profile of a set of 35 small liberal arts colleges. An underlying assumption is that all schools in the set use the same ratio of preferential to non-preferential admissions. The model predicts that even drastic changes…

  12. Using recovery modalities between training sessions in elite athletes: does it help?

    PubMed

    Barnett, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Achieving an appropriate balance between training and competition stresses and recovery is important in maximising the performance of athletes. A wide range of recovery modalities are now used as integral parts of the training programmes of elite athletes to help attain this balance. This review examined the evidence available as to the efficacy of these recovery modalities in enhancing between-training session recovery in elite athletes. Recovery modalities have largely been investigated with regard to their ability to enhance the rate of blood lactate removal following high-intensity exercise or to reduce the severity and duration of exercise-induced muscle injury and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Neither of these reflects the circumstances of between-training session recovery in elite athletes. After high-intensity exercise, rest alone will return blood lactate to baseline levels well within the normal time period between the training sessions of athletes. The majority of studies examining exercise-induced muscle injury and DOMS have used untrained subjects undertaking large amounts of unfamiliar eccentric exercise. This model is unlikely to closely reflect the circumstances of elite athletes. Even without considering the above limitations, there is no substantial scientific evidence to support the use of the recovery modalities reviewed to enhance the between-training session recovery of elite athletes. Modalities reviewed were massage, active recovery, cryotherapy, contrast temperature water immersion therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, compression garments, stretching, electromyostimulation and combination modalities. Experimental models designed to reflect the circumstances of elite athletes are needed to further investigate the efficacy of various recovery modalities for elite athletes. Other potentially important factors associated with recovery, such as the rate of post-exercise glycogen synthesis and the role

  13. High-intensity activity profiles of elite soccer players at different performance levels.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul S; Di Mascio, Michele; Peart, Dan; Olsen, Peter; Sheldon, Bill

    2010-09-01

    The aims of the study were to (a) determine the high-intensity activity patterns of soccer players at different performance levels and playing positions, (b) investigate temporary and end game fatigue in elite domestic and international soccer matches, and (c) quantify acceleration and maximal running speed profiles of elite soccer players. Elite domestic (n = 100) and international (n = 10) soccer players were analyzed using a multicamera computerized tracking system. No differences were found for high-intensity running distance (2,520 +/- 678 vs. 2,745 +/- 332 m), mean recovery time (67 +/- 15 vs. 71 +/- 26 seconds), or maximal running speed (7.76 +/- 0.31 vs. 7.66 +/- 0.34 mxs-1). The distance covered in high-intensity running irrespective of playing level was 18% lower (p < 0.05) in the last than in the first 15-minute period of the game (391 +/- 117 vs. 478 +/- 141 m). The decline in high-intensity running immediately after the most intense 5-minute period was similar between international (222 +/- 33 vs. 109 +/- 37 m or 51% decline) and elite domestic (243 +/- 81 vs. 114 +/- 51 m or 53% decline) players. Wide midfielders, central midfielders, fullbacks, and attackers covered a greater (p < 0.01) distance in high-intensity running than central defenders (3,243 +/- 625, 2,949 +/- 435, 2,806 +/- 408, 2,618 +/- 745 vs. 2,034 +/- 284 m). Results demonstrate that high-intensity running is reduced during various periods of elite soccer matches, and high-intensity activity profiles and fatigue patterns are similar between international and elite domestic players but vary markedly between playing positions. These data provide valuable information to the fitness coach regarding the high-intensity active profile of elite soccer players that could be used to develop soccer-specific training drills.

  14. Gender Differences in Academic Productivity and Academic Career Choice Among Urology Residents

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Glen; Villalta, Jacqueline D.; Weiss, Dana A.; Carroll, Peter R.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Gender disparities have long existed in medicine but they have not been well examined in urology. We analyzed a large cohort of graduating urology residents to investigate gender disparities in academic productivity, as measured by peer reviewed publications and academic career choice. Materials and Methods We assembled a list of urology residents who graduated from 2002 through 2008 who were affiliated with the top 50 urology hospitals, as ranked by 2009 U.S. News & World Report. PubMed® was queried to determine the publication output of each resident during the last 3 years of residency. We used an Internet search to determine the fellowship training, career choice and academic rank of each subject. Gender effects on each factor were evaluated. Results A total of 459 male (84.5%) and 84 female (15.5%) residents were included in analysis. During residency women produced fewer total publications (average 3.0 vs 4.8, p = 0.01) and fewer as first author (average 1.8 vs 2.5, p = 0.03) than men. A higher proportion of women than men underwent fellowship training (54.8% vs 48.5%, p =0.29) and ultimately chose an academic career (40.5% vs 33.3%, p = 0.20), although these differences were not statistically significant. Of residents who chose an academic career a higher proportion of men than women (24.7% vs 2.9%, p = 0.01) obtained associate vs assistant professor rank. Conclusions Women produced fewer peer reviewed publications than men during residency but they were equally likely to undergo fellowship training and choose an academic career. During the study period a higher proportion of men achieved associate professor rank. PMID:22902027

  15. 'Net Search Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Suzanne S.

    1997-01-01

    Provides strategies for effective Internet searches. Categorizes queries into four types and describes tools: subject lists; indexes/directories; keyword search engines; Usenet newsgroups; and special purpose search tools. Discusses the importance of deciphering information and adjusting to changes. (AEF)

  16. Is Your Academic Library Pinning? Academic Libraries and Pinterest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Academic libraries are flocking to online social networking sites in an effort to meet users where they are. Pinterest is the latest of these rapidly growing online social networking tools. The author of this article reports results from a survey on academic libraries' presence on Pinterest. The survey found most academic library pinboards are in…

  17. Academic Practice in Transition: Hidden Stories of Academic Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchman, Deborah; King, Sharron

    2009-01-01

    Academic work is becoming increasingly restrictive and controlled as tertiary institutions move towards a more corporate managerialistic mode of operating. This paper uses a narrative lens to explore the ways in which academic staff make sense of this new environment. In particular, it compares academic staff's stories of their worklife with the…

  18. Academic buoyancy: Towards an understanding of students' everyday academic resilience.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew J; Marsh, Herbert W

    2008-02-01

    Academic buoyancy is developed as a construct reflecting everyday academic resilience within a positive psychology context and is defined as students' ability to successfully deal with academic setbacks and challenges that are typical of the ordinary course of school life (e.g., poor grades, competing deadlines, exam pressure, difficult schoolwork). Data were collected from 598 students in Years 8 and 10 at five Australian high schools. Half-way through the school year and then again at the end of the year, students were asked to rate their academic buoyancy as well as a set of hypothesized predictors (self-efficacy, control, academic engagement, anxiety, teacher-student relationship) in the area of mathematics. Multilevel modeling found that the bulk of variance in academic buoyancy was explained at the student level. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling showed that (a) Time 1 anxiety (negatively), self-efficacy, and academic engagement significantly predict Time 1 academic buoyancy; (b) Time 2 anxiety (negatively), self-efficacy, academic engagement, and teacher-student relationships explain variance in Time 2 academic buoyancy over and above that explained by academic buoyancy at Time 1; and (c) of the significant predictors, anxiety explains the bulk of variance in academic buoyancy.

  19. Academic Buoyancy: Towards an Understanding of Students' Everyday Academic Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2008-01-01

    Academic buoyancy is developed as a construct reflecting everyday academic resilience within a positive psychology context and is defined as students' ability to successfully deal with academic setbacks and challenges that are typical of the ordinary course of school life (e.g., poor grades, competing deadlines, exam pressure, difficult…

  20. Collaborative search in electronic health records

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Qiaozhu; Hanauer, David A

    2011-01-01

    Objective A full-text search engine can be a useful tool for augmenting the reuse value of unstructured narrative data stored in electronic health records (EHR). A prominent barrier to the effective utilization of such tools originates from users' lack of search expertise and/or medical-domain knowledge. To mitigate the issue, the authors experimented with a ‘collaborative search’ feature through a homegrown EHR search engine that allows users to preserve their search knowledge and share it with others. This feature was inspired by the success of many social information-foraging techniques used on the web that leverage users' collective wisdom to improve the quality and efficiency of information retrieval. Design The authors conducted an empirical evaluation study over a 4-year period. The user sample consisted of 451 academic researchers, medical practitioners, and hospital administrators. The data were analyzed using a social-network analysis to delineate the structure of the user collaboration networks that mediated the diffusion of knowledge of search. Results The users embraced the concept with considerable enthusiasm. About half of the EHR searches processed by the system (0.44 million) were based on stored search knowledge; 0.16 million utilized shared knowledge made available by other users. The social-network analysis results also suggest that the user-collaboration networks engendered by the collaborative search feature played an instrumental role in enabling the transfer of search knowledge across people and domains. Conclusion Applying collaborative search, a social information-foraging technique popularly used on the web, may provide the potential to improve the quality and efficiency of information retrieval in healthcare. PMID:21486887

  1. Injuries and overuse syndromes in competitive and elite bodybuilding.

    PubMed

    Siewe, J; Marx, G; Knöll, P; Eysel, P; Zarghooni, K; Graf, M; Herren, C; Sobottke, R; Michael, J

    2014-10-01

    Competitive bodybuilding is a weightlifting sport similar to powerlifting, strongman competition and Olympic weightlifting, which aims to increase muscle mass, symmetry, and body definition. Although data regarding rates of injury, overuse syndromes and pain during routine training is available for these other disciplines, it is rare for competitive bodybuilding. The aim of this study was to investigate rates of injury, pain during workouts and/or overuse syndromes, as well as the influence of particular intrinsic and external factors. Data was collected using questionnaires from 71 competitive and elite bodybuilders. The information included training routines and prior injuries. Participants were recruited from bodybuilding clubs in Germany. 45.1% of athletes reported symptoms while training. The overall injury rate was computed to be 0.12 injuries per bodybuilder per year (0.24 injuries per 1 000 h of bodybuilding). Athletes over 40 exhibited higher rates of injury (p=0.029). Other investigated parameters showed no effects. Most injuries occurred in the shoulder, elbow, lumbar spine and knee regions. A large proportion of bodybuilders complained of pain not resulting in interruptions of training/competition. The injury rate is low compared to other weightlifting disciplines such as powerlifting, Olympic weightlifting or strongman competition. In comparison to team or contact sports the injury rate is minimal.

  2. Experiences of returning to elite beach volleyball after shoulder injury

    PubMed Central

    Bele, Sofie; Östenberg, Anna Hafsteinsson; Sjöström, Rita; Alricsson, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine beach volleyball players’ experience regarding shoulder injury and how it affects their return to play. To achieve the research aims a qualitative design with semi-structured interviews had been conducted, five elite beach volleyball players, four men and one woman aged 27–42 participated in the study. All participants had suffered a severe shoulder injury, with absence from training and competing for at least 28 days. The findings of this study indicate that it is the individual’s inner motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community, family, teammate and coach that are the most important factors when going through rehabilitation and getting back to playing beach volleyball after a shoulder injury. All participants had been affected by their injury in some way; some of the participants had been affected in a positive way since they had become mentally stronger and had developed better volleyball technique after rehabilitation. The conclusions of this study indicate that there are three distinct factors that increase the chances of getting back to playing beach volleyball after shoulder injury; it is the players’ self motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community. PMID:26331135

  3. Strength, speed and power characteristics of elite rugby league players.

    PubMed

    de Lacey, James; Brughelli, Matt E; McGuigan, Michael R; Hansen, Keir T

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article was to compare strength, speed, and power characteristics between playing position (forwards and backs) in elite rugby league players. A total of 39 first team players (height, 183.8 ± 5.95 cm; body mass, 100.3 ± 10.7 kg; age, 24 ± 3 years) from a National Rugby League club participated in this study. Testing included 10-, 40-m sprint times, sprint mechanics on an instrumented nonmotorized treadmill, and concentric isokinetic hip and knee extension and flexion. Backs, observed to have significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lighter body mass (effect size [ES] = 0.98), were significantly faster (10-m ES = 1.26; 40-m ES = 1.61) and produced significantly greater relative horizontal force and power (ES = 0.87 and 1.04) compared with forwards. However, no significant differences were found between forwards and backs during relative isokinetic knee extension, knee flexion, relative isokinetic hip extension, flexion, prowler sprints, sprint velocity, contact time, or flight time. The findings demonstrate that backs have similar relative strength in comparison with forwards, but run faster overground and produce significantly greater relative horizontal force and power when sprinting on a nonmotorized instrumented treadmill. Developing force and power in the horizontal direction may be beneficial for improving sprint performance in professional rugby league players.

  4. Nutritional Adaptations in Elite Soccer Referees: First Evidence and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Lore; Deleuze, Thomas; Pereira, Bruno; Thivel, David

    2015-01-01

    Although the physiological cost of refereeing has been already studied in the literature, especially in soccer umpires, it remains unknown whether referees spontaneously adapt their energy intake during game days. Six national soccer referees completed 24-hour dietary recalls (assisted by the SU.VI.MAX copybook) during a control day (CON) and a day with a game (GAME). The stress level and hunger feelings were assessed using visual analogue scales. Total energy intake, energy derived from macronutrients and energy intake at each meal were analyzed using the Bilnuts nutrition software. Total daily energy intake was not significantly different between conditions (CON: 2270 ± 535 vs. GAME: 2782 ± 293). Energy derived from fat and protein was not different between conditions but the participants ingested more calories derived from carbohydrates during the GAME day (45.5 ± 5.9% vs. 54.9 ± 5.5%, respectively, p<0.05). The calories ingested during snacking were significantly increased during GAME compared with CON (p<0.05). The stress level was significantly higher during GAME and especially before the breakfast, lunch and snack (p<0.05). Hunger feeling was not different between conditions. Referring leads to nutritional adaptations in elite soccer umpires, who tend to increase their energy intake mainly during snacking, by increasing their carbohydrate consumption. PMID:26240651

  5. Athlete burnout in elite sport: a self-determination perspective.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, Chris; Hodge, Ken; Rose, Elaine

    2009-06-01

    Using self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) as the theoretical framework, we examined potential antecedents of athlete burnout in 201 elite Canadian athletes (121 females, 80 males; mean age 22.9 years). Employing a cross-sectional design, our primary aims were to investigate the relationships between behavioural regulations and athlete burnout and to examine whether self-determined motivation mediated relationships between basic needs satisfaction and athlete burnout. Our self-determination theory-derived hypotheses were largely supported. Relationships among athlete burnout and behavioural regulations mostly varied according to their rank on the self-determination continuum, with less self-determined motives showing positive associations and more self-determined motives showing negative correlations with burnout. The basic needs of competence and autonomy, plus self-determined motivation, accounted for significant amounts of variance in athlete burnout symptoms (exhaustion, R(2) = 0.31; devaluation, R(2) = 0.49; reduced accomplishment, R(2) = 0.61; global burnout, R(2) = 0.74). Self-determined motivation fully mediated the relationships that competence and autonomy had with exhaustion. Analyses showed indirect relationships between these two needs and devaluation, through their associations with self-determined motivation. Motivation partially mediated the needs-reduced sense of accomplishment relationships, but the direct effects were more prominent than the indirect effects.

  6. Exploring attitudes toward eating disorders among elite athlete support personnel.

    PubMed

    McArdle, S; Meade, M M; Moore, P

    2016-09-01

    To date, little is known about the beliefs, attitudes, and experiences of athlete support personnel (ASP) working in elite sport toward disordered eating (DE) and eating disorders (EDs). This study seeks to explore this area of mental health, employing an attribution model of stigma as a conceptual lens. Interviews were undertaken with 14 service providers (seven males and seven females) working in high-performance sport in Ireland. In contrast to previous research in the general population, findings revealed that sport-based personnel, in the main, did not hold the individual responsible for the development of their eating disorder. The predominant emotional response of those who had worked with an athlete with a known or suspected eating disorder was anxiety and worry. In line with the findings of previous studies with other health professionals, negative views on the prognosis of those with EDs were expressed by the ASP. Furthermore, confidentiality was found to be a significant barrier to bringing athletes' disclosure of problematic eating or exercise behavior to the fore. The findings of this study add to the limited research exploring attitudes toward EDs in sport and highlights the importance of greater education and openness toward this particular mental health problem.

  7. Genetic composition of yield heterosis in an elite rice hybrid.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; Chen, Ying; Yao, Wen; Zhang, Chengjun; Xie, Weibo; Hua, Jinping; Xing, Yongzhong; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhang, Qifa

    2012-09-25

    Heterosis refers to the superior performance of hybrids relative to the parents. Utilization of heterosis has contributed tremendously to the increased productivity in many crops for decades. Although there have been a range of studies on various aspects of heterosis, the key to understanding the biological mechanisms of heterotic performance in crop hybrids is the genetic basis, much of which is still uncharacterized. In this study, we dissected the genetic composition of yield and yield component traits using data of replicated field trials of an "immortalized F(2)" population derived from an elite rice hybrid. On the basis of an ultrahigh-density SNP bin map constructed with population sequencing, we calculated single-locus and epistatic genetic effects in the whole genome and identified components pertaining to heterosis of the hybrid. The results showed that the relative contributions of the genetic components varied with traits. Overdominance/pseudo-overdominance is the most important contributor to heterosis of yield, number of grains per panicle, and grain weight. Dominance × dominance interaction is important for heterosis of tillers per plant and grain weight and has roles in yield and grain number. Single-locus dominance has relatively small contributions in all of the traits. The results suggest that cumulative effects of these components may adequately explain the genetic basis of heterosis in the hybrid.

  8. Psychological effects of chronic injury in elite athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Shuer, M L; Dietrich, M S

    1997-01-01

    Many athletes train in a constant state of pain or injury while meeting the demands of an elite level program. It is hypothesized that the emotional distress experienced by athletes with chronic injuries is not inconsequential. A self-report battery, the Impact of Event Scale, was administered to 280 inter-collegiate athletes at a division I institution in an attempt to examine their response to chronic injury. Of the 280, 134 (48%) had been injured by study definition, with 117 (42%) meeting the criteria for chronic injury. Athletes with chronic injury scored on the Intrusion subscale of the Impact of Event Scale in the range of those who had experienced natural disasters, but scored higher (P < .05) on the Avoidance/Denial subscale. Their Avoidance subscale scores were similar to those of a group of orthopedic patients who required hospital admission with surgical fixation. Female athletes' Avoidance scores were significantly higher than those of their male peers (P < .05), but no gender differences were seen in intrusive thoughts. Subsets of athletes defined by the duration of injury showed no significant differences on subscale scores. It appears extraordinary that athletes should score in the realm of groups traumatized by natural disasters in intrusive thought and higher in avoidance thought when referring to their chronic injury. Although some attention has been focused on psychiatric intervention for acutely injured athletes or those who have undergone surgical treatment, the psychological needs of athletes struggling with chronic "minor" injuries also appear to merit consideration. Images Figure 1. PMID:9109326

  9. The dynamics of elite paddling on a kayak simulator.

    PubMed

    Michael, Jacob S; Rooney, Kieron B; Smith, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    During kayak paddling, athletes attempt to maximize kayak velocity with the generation of optimal paddle forces. The aim of the current study was to examine ten elite kayakers and identify a number of key biomechanical performance variables during maximal paddling on a custom kayak simulator. These included analysing the effect of side (left and right) and period (beginning, middle, and end of the kayak simulation) on paddle force, paddle angle, mechanical efficiency, and stroke timing data. Paddle kinetics and kinematics were measured with strain gauge force transducers attached to either end of the ergometer paddle and using a 3D motion analysis system respectively. Results indicated a significantly greater mechanical efficiency during the right paddle stroke compared with the left (P < 0.025). In addition, analysing the effect of period, peak paddle force demonstrated a significant reduction when comparing the beginning to the middle and end of the simulated race respectively (P < 0.025). Examination of individual force profiles revealed considerable individuality, with significant variation in the time course of force application. Analysis of the profiles presented may provide meaningful feedback for kayakers and their coaches.

  10. Repercussions of transition out of elite sport on body image.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Bilard, Jean

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychological repercussions of transition out of elite sport from a bodily point of view. We hypothesized that the passage from a bodily over-investment to a more sedentary state would have an effect on body satisfaction. 16 Transitioning Athletes following the Sydney Olympic Games were compared with 16 Active Athletes two times during the transition period using the Body-Image Questionnaire of Bruchon-Schweitzer. Qualitative data in the form of interviews provided a complement to the quantitative data. Analysis yielded no significant differences 1 1/2 mo. after career termination between the two groups but showed a decrease in body satisfaction between 1 1/2 and 5 mo. after career termination for Transitioning Athletes, with a significant between-group difference at 5 mo. The Transitioning Athletes initially reported weight gain and uncertainty about their real physical capacities but also a continued social recognition that maintained body satisfaction. Over time, however, they were increasingly aware of this bodily deterioration, as ongoing exercise served as a reality test. Added to this were perceived decreases in social value as well as disturbing somatic manifestations. The result was a substantial effect on body satisfaction.

  11. Determinants of elite-level air rifle shooting performance.

    PubMed

    Ihalainen, S; Kuitunen, S; Mononen, K; Linnamo, V

    2016-03-01

    This study focused on identifying the most important factors determining performance in elite-level air rifle shooting technique. Forty international- and national-level shooters completed a simulated air rifle shooting competition series. From a total of 13 795 shots in 319 tests, shooting score and 17 aiming point trajectory variables were measured with an optoelectronic device and six postural balance variables were measured with force platform. Principal component analysis revealed six components in the air rifle shooting technique: aiming time, stability of hold, measurement time, cleanness of triggering, aiming accuracy, and timing of triggering. Multiple regression analysis identified four of those, namely stability of hold, cleanness of triggering, aiming accuracy, and timing of triggering as the most important predictors of shooting performance, accounting for 81% of the variance in shooting score. The direct effect of postural balance on performance was small, accounting for less than 1% of the variance in shooting score. Indirectly, the effect can be greater through a more stable holding ability, to which postural balance was correlated significantly (R = 0.55, P < 0.001). The results of the present study can be used in assessing athletes' technical strengths and weaknesses and in directing training programs on distinct shooting technical components.

  12. Performance analysis of elite men's and women's wheelchair basketball teams.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Javier; Molik, Bartosz; Szyman, Robert J; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify which game-related statistics discriminate winning and losing teams in men's and women's elite wheelchair basketball. The sample comprised all the games played during the Beijing Paralympics 2008 and the World Wheelchair Basketball Championship 2010. The game-related statistics from the official box scores were gathered and data were analysed in 2 groups: balanced games (final score differences ≤ 12 points) and unbalanced games (final score differences >13 points). Discriminant analysis allowed identifying the successful 2-point field-goals and free-throws, the unsuccessful 3-point field-goals and free-throws, the assists and fouls received as discriminant statistics between winning and losing teams in men's balanced games. In women's games, the teams were discriminated only by the successful 2-point field-goals. Linear regression analysis showed that the quality of opposition had great effects in final point differential. The field-goals percentage and free-throws rate were the most important factors in men's games, and field-goals percentage and offensive rebounding percentage in women's games. The identified trends allow improving game understanding and helping wheelchair basketball coaches to plan accurate practice sessions and, ultimately, deciding better in competition.

  13. Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep.

    PubMed

    Halson, Shona L

    2014-05-01

    Sleep has numerous important physiological and cognitive functions that may be particularly important to elite athletes. Recent evidence, as well as anecdotal information, suggests that athletes may experience a reduced quality and/or quantity of sleep. Sleep deprivation can have significant effects on athletic performance, especially submaximal, prolonged exercise. Compromised sleep may also influence learning, memory, cognition, pain perception, immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, changes in glucose metabolism and neuroendocrine function as a result of chronic, partial sleep deprivation may result in alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, appetite, food intake and protein synthesis. These factors can ultimately have a negative influence on an athlete's nutritional, metabolic and endocrine status and hence potentially reduce athletic performance. Research has identified a number of neurotransmitters associated with the sleep-wake cycle. These include serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid, orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, cholinergic, galanin, noradrenaline, and histamine. Therefore, nutritional interventions that may act on these neurotransmitters in the brain may also influence sleep. Carbohydrate, tryptophan, valerian, melatonin and other nutritional interventions have been investigated as possible sleep inducers and represent promising potential interventions. In this review, the factors influencing sleep quality and quantity in athletic populations are examined and the potential impact of nutritional interventions is considered. While there is some research investigating the effects of nutritional interventions on sleep, future research may highlight the importance of nutritional and dietary interventions to enhance sleep.

  14. Theme: Teaching Academically Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Maynard J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Will We Serve the Academically Disadvantaged?" (Iverson); "Using Centers of Learning to Reach Academically Disadvantaged Students" (Gentry); "Georgia's Special Lamb Project Adoption Program" (Farmer); "Teacher Expectations" (Powers); "Providing Instruction for Special Populations" (Jewell); and "The Educational Reform Movement and…

  15. The Specter of Academic Malpractice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Carol

    1978-01-01

    The concept of academic malpractice is discussed in terms of student gains in consumerism regarding institutional accountability, and in terms of faculty rights to academic freedom and relationships with administrators. (LBH)

  16. Student Health and Academic Achievement

    MedlinePlus

    ... Evaluation FAQs Additional Evaluation Resources Health & Academics Anti-Bullying Policies and Enumeration: An Infobrief for Local Education ... 11 Resources Health and Academics Data and Statistics Bullying and Absenteeism: Information for State and Local Education ...

  17. Online Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastin, David F.; Peszka, Jennifer; Lilly, Deborah R.

    2009-01-01

    Psychology students completed a task with reinforcement for successful performance. We tested academic integrity under randomly assigned conditions of check mark acknowledgment of an honor pledge, typed honor pledge, or no pledge. Across all conditions, 14.1% of students inflated their self-reported performance (i.e., cheated). We found no…

  18. States Address Academic Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2005-01-01

    State and local officials are slowly untangling complicated webs of accountability, testing, and graduation policies, hoping to give thousands of students displaced by Hurricane Katrina a better handle on their academic standing. While officials in Texas, Tennessee, and Alabama offered some guidance to such students, school leaders in…

  19. Academic Leaders as Thermostats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kekale, Jouni

    2003-01-01

    University of Jones launched a two-year development and training project on academic management and leadership in the beginning of 2002. Open seminars were arranged for heads for departments, deans and administrative managers. In addition, personnel administration started pilot projects with two departments in co-operation with the Finnish…

  20. Developing (Authentic?) Academic Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to consider whether the notion of authenticity is useful or meaningful in the context of developing academics as writers. Design/methodology/approach: The approach taken is that of a reflective essay. Recent texts on authenticity in higher education are examined whilst a transactional theory of writing is also considered…

  1. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  2. Arizona Academic Standards, Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8);…

  3. Academics in Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimpson, Catharine R.

    2004-01-01

    Academic literature has magnitude when it presents a character so robust that he or she takes off from the page and lands to nest in ordinary parlance. Three contrasting examples described in this article are: (1) "Moo," by Jane Smiley; (2) "The Human Stain," by Philip Roth; and (3) "The Crazed," by Ha Jin. Significantly, all three of these…

  4. The American Academic Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.

    This collection focuses on the forces that have worked together to create the U.S. system of higher education. Contributors consider the development of the university system, the present role of the university, and the future of higher education. The chapters are: (1) "How the Academic Profession Is Changing" (Arthur Levine); (2) "Small Worlds,…

  5. Spawning Academic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Vernon

    This paper briefly describes initiation of academic programming in the area of student development and transplantation of that programming into departmental and college curricula. Obvious advantages of this approach include placing student development courses in tne hands of staff who know students best, insuring the courses' continued existence,…

  6. Bilingualism and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Wen-Jui

    2012-01-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort, this study examines the role that bilingualism plays in children's academic developmental trajectories during their early school years, with particular attention on the school environment (N = 16,380). Growth-curve results showed that despite starting with lower math scores in…

  7. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  8. Towards Transnational Academic Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to current debates on the relationship between globalisation and higher education. The main argument of the paper is that we are currently witnessing transnationalisation of academic capitalism. This argument is illustrated by examining the collaboration between transnational corporations and research universities, and how…

  9. Academic Program Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinebaug Valley Community Coll., Danielson, CT.

    During the spring 1981 semester, Quinebaug Valley Community College (QVCC) conducted a survey of high school students and influential members of the community to obtain assessments of the need for various academic programs at QVCC. Questionnaires were distributed to nine high schools, where juniors and seniors were asked to indicate their possible…

  10. Academic Libraries in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  11. Changing the Academic Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, Erica

    2004-01-01

    The article examines the ways in which rationalities of risk currently work to produce the academic as a self-managing worker within the 'post-welfare' university as a risk-conscious organization. It explores how risk minimization as audit (individual, departmental, organizational), engages all individuals within the university in doing particular…

  12. Confronting Academic Snobbery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Brian; Sørensen, Majken Jul

    2014-01-01

    Snobbery in academia can involve academics, general staff, students and members of the public, and can be based on degrees, disciplines, cliques and other categories. Though snobbery is seldom treated as a significant issue, it can have damaging effects on morale, research and public image. Strategies against snobbery include avoidance, private…

  13. Kinesics in Academic Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Susan Lewis

    Although nonverbal behaviors have been shown to be learned, meaningful, systematic, and sometimes culture bound, kinesics, the science of body behavioral communication, has been a neglected factor in second language instruction and research, particularly in the area of academic listening. This paper describes steps taken to develop materials,…

  14. Consumer Rights in Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vago, Stephen

    1979-01-01

    Attempts in both academia and the legal arena to delineate the concepts of academic fraud and malpractice and to develop the positive implications of the student as a responsible consumer may lead to the establishment of a more appropriate student-institution relationship for today's highly diversified and demanding college learners. (Author/EB)

  15. Academic Bankruptcy. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Amy Berk; Lewis, Anne C.

    In an effort to improve student achievement in low-performing districts, 22 states have developed academic bankruptcy laws, allowing them to intervene in districts that consistently fail to satisfy state education performance standards. This policy brief presents an overview of these statutes. The text offers a comparative summary of state…

  16. Academic Listening: Research Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, John, Ed.

    A collection of essays address a variety of issues in listening in the academic context, particularly in a foreign or second language. Articles include: "Research of Relevance to Second Language Lecture Comprehension--An Overview" (John Flowerdew); "Expectation-Driven Understanding in Information Systems Lecture Comprehension" (Steve Tauroza,…

  17. Reframing Academic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolman, Lee G.; Gallos, Joan V.

    2011-01-01

    In "Reframing Academic Leadership," the authors offer higher education leaders a provocative and pragmatic guide for: (1) Crafting dynamic institutions where the whole is greater than the sum of the parts; (2) Creating campus environments that facilitate creativity and commitment; (3) Forging alliances and partnerships in service of the mission;…

  18. Corporate Management Invades Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Robert M.

    Measures taken to cut costs at the expense of the faculty and the loss in academic quality are shown to be part of a well-organized plan being adopted throughout higher education. Problems have arisen from the activities of the private or semi-private corporate consulting organization in higher education. Taken as a whole, the uncritical use of…

  19. Academic Standards in Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    A+ Education Partnership, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Education policymakers and educators in Alabama are committed to improving the state's public education system to ensure that students gain the knowledge and skills they need to graduate from high school ready for real life. The state is on the path to implementing higher academic standards--the College and Career Ready Standards--which lay a…

  20. Arizona Academic Standards: Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Readiness…

  1. Academic Work and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Reading current accounts of higher education demonstrates the flux and damage of rapid neoliberal changes to the type and conduct of academic work. Opening the Times Higher Education magazine on the 28 April 2011 shows articles about cuts in staffing and undergraduate provision in England, concerns about the quality of for-profit higher education…

  2. Paul Piccone: Outside Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Russell

    2008-01-01

    Today the academic world--open to Jews, women, and other previously excluded groups--has been completely revamped. Or has it? Despite the changes, is it possible the institution still promotes the mediocre and demotes the extraordinary? The life and work of Paul Piccone bear on this question--and others. Piccone, who died of cancer in 2004 at 64,…

  3. Minnesota Academic Standards: Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Department of Education, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This document contains all of the Minnesota kindergarten academic standards in the content areas of Arts, English Language Arts, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies. For each content area there is a short overview followed by a coding diagram of how the standards are organized and displayed. This document is adapted from the official versions…

  4. Academic Library Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Fred

    This examination of the philosophy and objectives of academic library reference services provides an overview of the major reference approaches to fulfilling the following primary objectives of reference services: (1) providing accurate answers to patrons' questions and/or helping patrons find sources to pursue their research needs; (2) building…

  5. A New Academic Vocabulary List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Dee; Davies, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article presents our new Academic Vocabulary List (AVL), derived from a 120-million-word academic subcorpus of the 425-million-word Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA; Davies 2012). We first explore reasons why a new academic core list is warranted, and why such a list is still needed in English language education. We also provide…

  6. Academic Freedom Requires Constant Vigilance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, academic freedom has been understood as an individual right and a negative liberty. As William Tierney and Vincente Lechuga explain, "Academic freedom, although an institutional concept, was vested in the individual professor." The touchstone document on academic freedom, the American Association of University Professor's (AAUP)…

  7. Academic Freedom: A Precarious Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaNear, John A.

    Academic freedom is an elusive concept. Many university and college faculty members who purport to possess its protections believe they have a solid understanding of its nature and of the individual rights secured by academic freedom. There is some consensus on the meaning of the term in the academic universe. This concurrence of understanding is…

  8. Academic Advising: A Resource Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, David S., Ed.

    Materials and services related to improving the academic advising process compose this manual developed to aid colleges and universities. Part One (Introduction to Advising) covers: the definition and importance of academic advising; basic elements in developing and implementing a successful advising program; delivery of academic advising; and…

  9. Academic Freedom and Indentured Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Discussion of academic freedom usually focuses on faculty, and it usually refers to speech. That is the gist of the 1915 "General Report of the Committee on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure," appearing in the inaugural AAUP "Bulletin" as a kind of mission statement. Given the conditions of the American system of higher education--decentralized…

  10. Predicting Academic Entitlement in Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohr-Preston, Sara; Boswell, Stefanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Academic entitlement (AE) is a common source of frustration for college personnel. This investigation examined predictors (self-concept, academic dishonesty, locus of control, and family functioning) of AE in male and female college students. Academic dishonesty and the interaction between locus of control and family functioning significantly…

  11. Law School Academic Support Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangerin, Paul T.

    1989-01-01

    This article attempts to bridge a perceived gap between legal education and education theory as well as the gap between academic counseling and independent learning by examining law school academic support programs. The article argues that a multidisciplinary analysis provides a helpful basis for evaluating academic support programs that address…

  12. Economic Status of Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perret, Robert; Young, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines some of the factors affecting the current economic status of academic librarians, as well as the history of changes in that economic picture. Issues discussed include the ranking of beginning academic librarian salaries in comparison to others in the profession, historical differences between academic librarian salaries and…

  13. The Scholarship of Academic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggins, Heather, Ed.; Macdonald, Ranald, Ed.

    The selections in this book address the concept and nature of academic development and examine research into and within the field. Following an introduction, "Developing a Scholarship of Academic Development: Setting the Context," by Ranald Macdonald, the chapters of part 1, "Conceptualizing Academic Development," are: (2)…

  14. Life Stress and Academic Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shu-Hui; Huang, Yun-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Stress has been shown to negatively affect learning. Academic burnout is a significant problem associated with poor academic performance. Although there has been increased attention on these two issues, literature on the relationship between students' life stress and burnout is relatively limited. This study surveys academic burnout and life…

  15. Appreciative Assessment in Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Ye; Hutson, Bryant

    2016-01-01

    Academic advising is one of the key functions in higher education. While there has been a development of advising practices in the past decade, the assessment of academic advising practices is far from satisfactory. In this article, we review major academic advising approaches and key characteristics of quality assessment practices. Based on the…

  16. Academic Freedom: Crisis and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Stephanie A.; Kemerer, Frank R.

    This document was prepared to inform teachers about their academic freedom rights and to assist teachers who are confronted with a potential academic freedom issue. It provides (1) an essay which outlines the issues, (2) a list of significant decisions of the U.S. Courts of Appeals and their implications, (3) steps to follow when academic freedom…

  17. Understanding Academic Identity through Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billot, Jennie; King, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Metaphors used by higher education teachers in their narratives of academic life provide insight into aspects of academic identity. Drawing on an international study of leader/follower dynamics, the teachers' narratives reveal how academics interpret their interactions with leaders; the perceived distance between expectations and experience, and…

  18. Another Discussion about Academic Corruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Changgeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on…

  19. Genetic algorithms with memory- and elitism-based immigrants in dynamic environments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengxiang

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the genetic algorithm community has shown a growing interest in studying dynamic optimization problems. Several approaches have been devised. The random immigrants and memory schemes are two major ones. The random immigrants scheme addresses dynamic environments by maintaining the population diversity while the memory scheme aims to adapt genetic algorithms quickly to new environments by reusing historical information. This paper investigates a hybrid memory and random immigrants scheme, called memory-based immigrants, and a hybrid elitism and random immigrants scheme, called elitism-based immigrants, for genetic algorithms in dynamic environments. In these schemes, the best individual from memory or the elite from the previous generation is retrieved as the base to create immigrants into the population by mutation. This way, not only can diversity be maintained but it is done more efficiently to adapt genetic algorithms to the current environment. Based on a series of systematically constructed dynamic problems, experiments are carried out to compare genetic algorithms with the memory-based and elitism-based immigrants schemes against genetic algorithms with traditional memory and random immigrants schemes and a hybrid memory and multi-population scheme. The sensitivity analysis regarding some key parameters is also carried out. Experimental results show that the memory-based and elitism-based immigrants schemes efficiently improve the performance of genetic algorithms in dynamic environments.

  20. Injury incidence in a men's elite bandy league: an epidemiological study of a full regular season.

    PubMed

    Timpka, T; Risto, O; Borg, K; Johansson, J

    2007-12-01

    Bandy is a popular European winter team-sport. The best bandy teams participate in semi-professional leagues, where the play-off games attract more than 10,000 spectators. Injury patterns in elite bandy have not been investigated previously. The aim of this study is to examine the incidence and types of injuries sustained during elite bandy games for men. Twelve of the 16 teams in the Swedish elite bandy league during the 2002 season participated in the study. In total, 36 injuries were recorded, corresponding to 7.3 injuries/1000 player game hours and 5.7 injuries/1000 athlete exposures. Collision was the most common injury cause (47%), while contusion was the most common injury type (25%), followed by fracture (22%) and ligament rupture (19%). The study showed that the injury incidence in elite bandy is low, but also that the injuries that are still sustained are relatively severe. This pattern can be explained by the fact that even though bandy rules do not allow body checks, collisions between skaters moving at high speeds still cause the majority of injuries. Further studies of the injury rehabilitation practices, and the implementation and evaluation of safety programs in elite bandy are warranted.

  1. Sustaining corporate class consciousness across the new liquid managerial elite in Britain.

    PubMed

    Davis, Aeron

    2017-04-01

    This article asks: how is class consciousness and cohesiveness amongst the UK business elite maintained in the twenty-first century? Elite studies traditionally sought to account for the construction and circulation of dominant ideology through exclusive education systems, institutional board interlocks and club memberships. The problem is that business elite membership of all these institutions has been steady declining in recent decades. Contemporary corporate elites now appear more mobile and fragmented in an age of globalization. However, class cohesion amongst business leaders appears as strong as ever after decades of neoliberal policy hegemony. So, how are such ideas, norms and values circulated and maintained? This study tried to answer this question drawing on a set of 30 semi-structured interviews with top UK CEOs and a demographic audit of current FTSE 100 CEOs. The findings suggest that three additional means of achieving business elite coherence have become more significant: professional business education, semi-formal but regular meeting sites, and specialist business media.

  2. Response timing in the lunge and target change in elite versus medium-level fencers.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Davila, Marcos; Rojas, Francisco J; Antonio, Raquel; Navarro, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to examine the differences between two groups of fencers with different levels of competition, elite and medium level. The timing parameters of the response reaction have been compared together with the kinetic variables which determine the sequence of segmented participation used during the lunge with a change in target during movement. A total of 30 male sword fencers participated, 13 elite and 17 medium level. Two force platforms recorded the horizontal component of the force and the start of the movement. One system filmed the movement in 3D, recording the spatial positions of 11 markers, while another system projected a mobile target over a screen. For synchronisation, an electronic signal enabled all the systems to be started simultaneously. Among the timing parameters of the reaction response, the choice reaction time (CRT) to the target change during the lunge was measured. The results revealed differences between the groups regarding the flight time, horizontal velocity at the end of the acceleration phase, and the length of the lunge, these being higher for the elite group, as well as other variables related to the temporal sequence of movement. No significant differences have been found in the simple reaction time or in CRT. According to the literature, the CRT appears to improve with sports practice, although this factor did not differentiate the elite from medium-level fencers. The coordination of fencing movements, that is, the right technique, constitutes a factor that differentiates elite fencers from medium-level ones.

  3. Relation between training-induced left ventricular hypertrophy and risk for ventricular tachyarrhythmias in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Biffi, Alessandro; Maron, Barry J; Di Giacinto, Barbara; Porcacchia, Paolo; Verdile, Luisa; Fernando, Fredrick; Spataro, Antonio; Culasso, Francesco; Casasco, Maurizio; Pelliccia, Antonio

    2008-06-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relation between the magnitude of training-induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and the frequency and complexity of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in a large population of elite athletes without cardiovascular abnormalities. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias are a common finding in athletes, but it is unresolved as to whether the presence or magnitude of LV hypertrophy is a determinant of these arrhythmias in athletes without cardiovascular abnormalities. From 738 athletes examined at a national center for the evaluation of elite Italian athletes, 175 consecutive elite athletes with 24-hour ambulatory (Holter) electrocardiographic recordings (but without cardiovascular abnormalities and symptoms) were selected for the study group. Echocardiographic studies were performed during periods of peak training. Athletes were arbitrarily divided into 4 groups according to the frequency and complexity of ventricular arrhythmias during Holter electrocardiographic monitoring. No statistically significant relation was evident between LV mass (or mass index) and the grade or frequency of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. In addition, a trend was noted in those athletes with the most frequent and complex ventricular ectopy toward lower calculated LV mass. In conclusion, ventricular ectopy in elite athletes is not directly related to the magnitude of physiologic LV hypertrophy. These data offer a measure of clinical reassurance regarding the benign nature of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in elite athletes and the expression of athlete's heart.

  4. 77 FR 16890 - In the Matter of ProElite, Inc. and Universal Guardian Holdings, Inc.: Order of Suspension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of ProElite, Inc. and Universal Guardian Holdings, Inc.: Order of Suspension of... current and accurate information concerning the securities of ProElite, Inc. because it has not filed...

  5. Personalization and Competition in Elite Schools in Buenos Aires: School Strategies for the Production and Legitimization of Dominant Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the strategies found in two elite secondary institutions in Buenos Aires designed to legitimise the selection of students aspiring to become members of the elite. The first are personalization strategies where teachers and students work together with the aim of facilitating success in examinations. The second are strategies…

  6. The Awareness and Educational Status on Oral Health of Elite Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study with Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgur, Bahar Odabas

    2016-01-01

    In this cross-sectional survey, this study aimed to determine the factors associated with oral health of elite athletes and to determine the clustering tendency of the variables by dendrogram, and to determine the relationship between predefined clusters and see how these clusters can converge. A total of 97 elite (that is, top-level performing)…

  7. Academic Buoyancy and Academic Resilience: Exploring "Everyday" and "Classic" Resilience in the Face of Academic Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Academic buoyancy has been defined as a capacity to overcome setbacks, challenges, and difficulties that are part of everyday academic life. Academic resilience has been defined as a capacity to overcome acute and/or chronic adversity that is seen as a major threat to a student's educational development. This study is the first to examine the…

  8. Online Database Searching Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Alice C.; Parker, Joan M.

    Designed primarily for use by first-time searchers, this workbook provides an overview of online searching. Following a brief introduction which defines online searching, databases, and database producers, five steps in carrying out a successful search are described: (1) identifying the main concepts of the search statement; (2) selecting a…

  9. Search Alternatives and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    Internet search has become a routine computing activity, with regular visits to a search engine--usually Google--the norm for most people. The vast majority of searchers, as recent studies of Internet search behavior reveal, search only in the most basic of ways and fail to avail themselves of options that could easily and effortlessly improve…

  10. Multimedia Web Searching Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmutlu, Seda; Spink, Amanda; Ozmutlu, H. Cenk

    2002-01-01

    Examines and compares multimedia Web searching by Excite and FAST search engine users in 2001. Highlights include audio and video queries; time spent on searches; terms per query; ranking of the most frequently used terms; and differences in Web search behaviors of U.S. and European Web users. (Author/LRW)

  11. Reliability and validity of a dual-task test for skill proficiency in roundhouse kicks in elite taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Dai, Jing; Chen, I-Fan; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Chang, Chen-Kang

    2015-01-01

    The dual-task methodology, conducting two tasks simultaneously, may provide better validity than the traditional single-task tests in the environment that is closely related to real sport competitions. The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability and validity of a dual-task test that aims to measure the reaction time and skill proficiency in roundhouse kicks in elite and sub-elite taekwondo athletes. The dual-task results were compared to those in the single-task movements with various levels of complexity. The single-task movements A, B, and C were composed of one, three, and five roundhouse kicks, respectively. The dual-task movement D was composed of movement C and a push of a button in response to a light stimulus as the secondary task. The subjects were 12 elite and 12 sub-elite male taekwondo athletes. The test included four movements with five repeats of each movement in a randomized order. Each subject conducted the same test on two consecutive days. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed moderate-to-high correlation in the premotor time (ICC =0.439-0.634 in elite and ICC =0.681-0.824 in sub-elite), motor time (ICC =0.861-0.956 in elite and ICC =0.721-0.931 in sub-elite), and reaction time (ICC =0.692 in elite and ICC =0.676 in sub-elite) in the secondary task in both groups. The elite athletes had significantly faster premotor time than their sub-elite counterparts in all the four movements (all P<0.05). The largest difference lies in the reaction time in the secondary task, in which the elite group (0.248±0.026 seconds) was 33.0% faster than the sub-elite group (0.370±0.081 seconds) (P<0.001). This study shows that the test developed in this study has reasonable reliability and validity in both single- and dual-task methods. In addition, the dual-task method may be a more appropriate way to assess the reaction time and skill proficiency in taekwondo athletes.

  12. Academics and competing interests in H1N1 influenza media reporting

    PubMed Central

    Mandeville, Kate L; O'Neill, Sam; Brighouse, Andrew; Walker, Alice; Yarrow, Kielan; Chan, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Background Concerns have been raised over competing interests (CoI) among academics during the 2009 to 2010 A/H1N1 pandemic. Media reporting can influence public anxiety and demand for pharmaceutical products. We assessed CoI of academics providing media commentary during the early stages of the pandemic. Methods We performed a retrospective content analysis of UK newspaper articles on A/H1N1 influenza, examining quoted sources. We noted when academics made a risk assessment of the pandemic and compared this with official estimations. We also looked for promotion or rejection of the use of neuraminidase inhibitors or H1N1-specific vaccine. We independently searched for CoI for each academic. Results Academics were the second most frequently quoted source after Ministers of Health. Where both academics and official agencies estimated the risk of H1N1, one in two academics assessed the risk as higher than official predictions. For academics with CoI, the odds of a higher risk assessment were 5.8 times greater than those made by academics without CoI (Wald p value=0.009). One in two academics commenting on the use of neuraminidase inhibitors or vaccine had CoI. The odds of CoI in academics promoting the use of neuraminidase inhibitors were 8.4 times greater than for academics not commenting on their use (Fisher's exact p=0.005). Conclusions There is evidence of CoI among academics providing media commentary during the early H1N1 pandemic. Heightened risk assessments, combined with advocacy for pharmaceutical products to counter this risk, may lead to increased public anxiety and demand. Academics should declare, and journalists report, relevant CoI for media interviews. PMID:24218071

  13. Relationship between sprint ability and loaded/unloaded jump tests in elite sprinters.

    PubMed

    Loturco, Irineu; DʼAngelo, Ricardo A; Fernandes, Victor; Gil, Saulo; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Kitamura, Katia; Nakamura, Fabio Y

    2015-03-01

    The neuromechanical determinants of sprint running performance have been investigated in team sports athletes and non-elite sprinters. The aim of this study was to quantify the relationships between kinetic and performance parameters, obtained in loaded and unloaded vertical and horizontal jumps, and sprinting in elite athletes. Twenty-two sprinters performed squat jumps, countermovement jumps, horizontal jumps, and jump squats with different loads on a force platform, in addition to a 50-m sprint. Results indicated that jumping height and distance in vertical and horizontal jumps are more strongly correlated (R ≈ 0.81) to sprinting speed than the respective peak forces (R ≈ 0.36). Furthermore, the optimum load generating the maximum power in the jump squat is also highly correlated to sprint performance (R ≈ 0.72). These results reveal that vertical and horizontal jump tests may be used by coaches for assessing and monitoring qualities related to sprinting performance in elite sprinters.

  14. Open elite? Social mobility, marriage, and family in Florence, 1282-1494.

    PubMed

    Padgett, John F

    2010-01-01

    This article statistically analyzes quantitative data from numerous sources in order to assess changes in marriage patterns, family structure, and rates of social mobility during the period from 1282 to 1494. During this period, three systems of social stratification coexisted -- wealth, political office, and age of family -- but these contending status systems were not consistent in their rankings of families. Each status system was conservative in the sense that elite families at the top of that hierarchy married each other in order to stabilize their position. But because of inconsistency in rankings, contradiction within the elite opened up the Florentine marriage system to widespread upward social mobility by new men. In their own families, successful new men aggressively imitated their economically and politically declining status superiors. Sharp class divisions thereby blurred into continuous and negotiable status gradients. These open-elite patterns of social mobility, present throughout the early Florentine Renaissance, were most extreme during the Albizzi regime, immediately following the Ciompi Revolt.

  15. Proximal rectus femoris avulsion in an elite, olympic-level sprinter.

    PubMed

    Langer, Phillip R; Selesnick, Harlan

    2010-11-01

    Quadriceps injuries, ranging from simple strains to disabling muscle ruptures, are common athletic injuries. The rectus femoris is the most commonly injure portion of the quadriceps musculature. This article is, to our knowledge, the first report of a proximal rectus femoris avulsion in an elite, Olympic-level 100-meter sprinter, acutely managed with surgical repair. Several key factors must be considered and carefully assessed when determining the appropriate course of management (ie, deciding between operative and nonoperative treatment): amount of distal retraction of the tendon, severity of associated soft-tissue trauma, physical examination, and postoperative goals (eg, return to elite-level competitive sports involving running or kicking vs resuming basic activities of daily living). We believe that these factors in our elite, high-performance athlete dictated an operative course of management.

  16. Strength and power characteristics in English elite rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Comfort, Paul; Graham-Smith, Phillip; Matthews, Martyn J; Bamber, Chris

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this article is to present data on the strength and power characteristics of forwards and backs in a squad of elite English rugby league players and compare these findings to previously published literature from Australia. Participants were elite English rugby league players (n = 18; height 184.16 ± 5.76 cm; body mass 96.87 ± 10.92 kg, age 21.67 ± 4.10 years) who were all regular first team players for an English Superleague club. Testing included 5-, 10-, 20-m sprint times, agility, vertical jump, 40-kg squat jump, isometric squat, concentric and eccentric isokinetic knee flexion and extension. Independent t-tests were performed to compare results between forwards and backs, with paired samples t-tests used to compare bilateral differences from isokinetic assessments and agility tests. Forwards demonstrated significantly (p < 0.05) greater body mass (102.15 ± 7.5 kg), height (186.30 ± 5.47 cm), power during the 40-kg jump squat (2,106 ± 421 W), isometric force (3,122 ± 611 N) and peak torque during left concentric isokinetic knee extension (296.1 ± 54.2 N·m) compared to the backs (86.30 ± 8.97 kg; 179.87 ± 3.72 cm; 1,709 ± 286 W; 2,927 ± 607 N; 241.7 ± 35.2 N·m, respectively). However, no significant differences (p > 0.05) were noted between forwards and backs during right concentric isokinetic knee extension (274.8 ± 37.7 and 246.8 ± 25.8 N·m), concentric isokinetic knee flexion for both left (158.8 ± 28.6 and 141.0 ± 22. 7 N·m) and right legs (155.3 ± 22.9 and 128.0 ± 23.9 N·m), eccentric isokinetic knee flexion and extension, hamstring quadriceps ratios, or vertical jump (37.25 ± 4.35 and 40.33 ± 6.38 cm). In comparison, relative measures demonstrated that backs performed significantly better compared to the forwards during the 40-kg jump squat (20.71 ± 5.15 and 19.91 ± 3.91 W·kg⁻¹) and the isometric squat (34.32 ± 7.9 and 30.65 ± 5.34 N·kg⁻¹). Bilateral comparisons revealed no significant differences (p > 0

  17. Bilingualism and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Han, Wen-Jui

    2012-01-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort, this study examines the role that bilingualism plays in children's academic developmental trajectories during their early school years, with particular attention on the school environment (N = 16,380). Growth-curve results showed that despite starting with lower math scores in kindergarten, Mixed Bilingual children fully closed the math gap with their White English Monolingual peers by fifth grade. However, because non-English-Dominant Bilinguals and non-English Monolinguals started kindergarten with significantly lower reading and math scores compared to their English Monolingual peers, by fifth grade the former groups still had significantly lower scores. School-level factors explained about one third of the reductions in the differences in children's academic performance.

  18. Academic urban legends

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Many of the messages presented in respectable scientific publications are, in fact, based on various forms of rumors. Some of these rumors appear so frequently, and in such complex, colorful, and entertaining ways that we can think of them as academic urban legends. The explanation for this phenomenon is usually that authors have lazily, sloppily, or fraudulently employed sources, and peer reviewers and editors have not discovered these weaknesses in the manuscripts during evaluation. To illustrate this phenomenon, I draw upon a remarkable case in which a decimal point error appears to have misled millions into believing that spinach is a good nutritional source of iron. Through this example, I demonstrate how an academic urban legend can be conceived and born, and can continue to grow and reproduce within academia and beyond. PMID:25272616

  19. Academic urban legends.

    PubMed

    Rekdal, Ole Bjørn

    2014-08-01

    Many of the messages presented in respectable scientific publications are, in fact, based on various forms of rumors. Some of these rumors appear so frequently, and in such complex, colorful, and entertaining ways that we can think of them as academic urban legends. The explanation for this phenomenon is usually that authors have lazily, sloppily, or fraudulently employed sources, and peer reviewers and editors have not discovered these weaknesses in the manuscripts during evaluation. To illustrate this phenomenon, I draw upon a remarkable case in which a decimal point error appears to have misled millions into believing that spinach is a good nutritional source of iron. Through this example, I demonstrate how an academic urban legend can be conceived and born, and can continue to grow and reproduce within academia and beyond.

  20. Academic nightmares: Predatory publishing.

    PubMed

    Van Nuland, Sonya E; Rogers, Kem A

    2016-12-02

    Academic researchers who seek to publish their work are confronted daily with a barrage of e-mails from aggressive marketing campaigns that solicit them to publish their research with a specialized, often newly launched, journal. Known as predatory journals, they often promise high editorial and publishing standards, yet their exploitive business models, poor quality control, and minimal overall transparency victimize those researchers with limited academic experience and pave the way for low-quality articles that threaten the foundation of evidence-based research. Understanding how to identify these predatory journals requires thorough due diligence on the part of the submitting authors, and a commitment by reputable publishers, institutions, and researchers to publicly identify these predators and eliminate them as a threat to the careers of young scientists seeking to disseminate their work in scholarly journals. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.