Science.gov

Sample records for academic search tasks

  1. Academic Users' Information Searching on Research Topics: Characteristics of Research Tasks and Search Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Jia Tina; Evans, Nina

    2011-01-01

    This project investigated how academic users search for information on their real-life research tasks. This article presents the findings of the first of two studies. The study data were collected in the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) in Brisbane, Australia. Eleven PhD students' searching behaviors on personal research topics were…

  2. Recalling academic tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Franklin Gno

    This study was focused on what students remembered about five middle school science tasks when they were juniors and seniors in high school. Descriptions of the five tasks were reconstructed from available artifacts and teachers' records, notes and recollections. Three of the five tasks were "authentic" in the sense that students were asked to duplicate the decisions practitioners make in the adult world. The other two tasks were more typical school tasks involving note taking and preparation for a quiz. All five tasks, however, involved use of computers. Students were interviewed to examine what and how well they recalled the tasks and what forms or patterns of recall existed. Analysis of their responses indicated that different kinds of tasks produced different levels of recall. Authentically situated tasks were remembered much better than routine school tasks. Further, authentic tasks centered on design elements were recalled better than those for which design was not as pivotal. Patterns of recall indicated that participants most often recalled the decisions they made, the scenarios of the authentically situated tasks, the consequences of their tasks and the social contexts of the classroom. Task events, in other words, appeared to form a framework upon which students constructed stories of the tasks. The more salient the events, the richer the story, the deeper and more detailed the recall of the task. Thus, authentic tasks appeared to lend themselves to creating stories better than regular school tasks and therefore such tasks were recalled better. Implications of these patterns of recall are discussed with respect to issues of school learning and assessment.

  3. Task-Based Information Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakkari, Pertti

    2003-01-01

    Reviews studies on the relationship between task performance and information searching by end-users, focusing on information searching in electronic environments and information retrieval systems. Topics include task analysis; task characteristics; search goals; modeling information searching; modeling search goals; information seeking behavior;…

  4. Searching for Electronic Journal Articles to Support Academic Tasks. A Case Study of the Use of the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakkari, Pertti; Talja, Sanna

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: We analyse how academic status and discipline influence the major search methods used by university academic staff for obtaining electronic articles for teaching, research and keeping up to date in their field. Method: The data consist of a nationwide Web-survey of the end-users of FinELib, The Finnish National Electronic Library.…

  5. Correlates of academic procrastination: discomfort, task aversiveness, and task capability.

    PubMed

    Milgram, N; Marshevsky, S; Sadeh, C

    1995-03-01

    The relationships among five aspects of academic procrastination--behavioral delay, personal upset about the delay, task aversiveness, task capability, and the desire to reduce behavioral delay--were investigated in 10th-grade Israeli students (N = 195). Upset about delay was weakly related to delay itself, and--unlike delay--was strongly related to perceived capability to perform academic tasks and to the desire to change delaying behavior. Students delayed more on academic tasks labeled unpleasant than pleasant, were neutral in between, and were correspondingly more upset about the former than the latter. They more frequently acknowledged reasons for academic procrastination that were less threatening to their self-image (e.g., problems in time management) than reasons that were more threatening (e.g., lack of ability). Interest in reducing delay is related more to self-perceived ability to handle tasks than to time spent procrastinating or reasons given for procrastinating.

  6. Assessment and Intervention for Academic Task Attack Strategy Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, R. T.; Lee, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Many students who underachieve in schools may not be learning as effectively as they could. Direct assessments such as the Academic Competence Evaluation Scales (ACES), School Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory (SMALSI), and the Academic Task Attack Checklist System (ATACS) can be used to evaluate students' knowledge and use of…

  7. Shaping Academic Task Engagement with Percentile Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athens, Elizabeth S.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; St. Peter Pipkin, Claire C.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of percentile schedules as a method of quantifying the shaping procedure in an educational setting. We compared duration of task engagement during baseline measurements for 4 students to duration of task engagement during a percentile schedule. As a secondary purpose, we examined the influence on…

  8. Shaping academic task engagement with percentile schedules.

    PubMed

    Athens, Elizabeth S; Vollmer, Timothy R; Pipkin, Claire C St Peter

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of percentile schedules as a method of quantifying the shaping procedure in an educational setting. We compared duration of task engagement during baseline measurements for 4 students to duration of task engagement during a percentile schedule. As a secondary purpose, we examined the influence on shaping of manipulations of the number of observations used to determine the criterion for reinforcement (the m parameter of the percentile formula). Results showed that the percentile formula was most effective when a relatively large m value (20 observations) was used.

  9. Shaping Academic Task Engagement with Percentile Schedules

    PubMed Central

    Athens, Elizabeth S; Vollmer, Timothy R; St. Peter Pipkin, Claire C

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of percentile schedules as a method of quantifying the shaping procedure in an educational setting. We compared duration of task engagement during baseline measurements for 4 students to duration of task engagement during a percentile schedule. As a secondary purpose, we examined the influence on shaping of manipulations of the number of observations used to determine the criterion for reinforcement (the m parameter of the percentile formula). Results showed that the percentile formula was most effective when a relatively large m value (20 observations) was used. PMID:17970261

  10. Chemical Information in Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendig, Regina B.

    2009-01-01

    The author sought to determine to what extent the two search engines, Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engines), would be useful to first-year university students as the first point of searching for chemical information. Five topics were searched and the first ten records of each search result were evaluated with regard to the type of…

  11. Academic Calendar Task Force Report to the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    This report presents the findings of a study done by a college-wide task force at the College of DuPage (Illinois) on academic calendar formats in an effort to determine whether to retain the quarter system or convert to another calendar. A brief introduction gives the background to the issue at DuPage. A section on procedures explains that the…

  12. Effects of Payoff and Task Context on Academic Risk Taking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Margaret M.; Chou, Fen-Chang

    1991-01-01

    Fourth grade Taiwan students (94 males and 97 females) completed 2 cognitive risk-taking tasks with variable payoff or fixed payoff in a game or test context. Both variable payoff and game context increased the level of academic risk taking. Results are discussed concerning interactions between ability and risk taking. (SLD)

  13. Presenting Chained and Discrete Tasks as Non-Targeted Information when Teaching Discrete Academic Skills through Small Group Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkenstine, Karen Jones; Collins, Belva C.; Schuster, John W.; Kleinert, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Special education teachers often search for effective strategies to teach a variety of skills to students with moderate to severe disabilities through small group instruction. The investigators examined the acquisition of academic skills as well as chained and discrete tasks presented as nontargeted information by a small group of students with…

  14. Task demands determine the specificity of the search template.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Mary J; Farid, Hany

    2012-01-01

    When searching for an object, an observer holds a representation of the target in mind while scanning the scene. If the observer repeats the search, performance may become more efficient as the observer hones this target representation, or "search template," to match the specific demands of the search task. An effective search template must have two characteristics: It must reliably discriminate the target from the distractors, and it must tolerate variability in the appearance of the target. The present experiment examined how the tolerance of the search template is affected by the search task. Two groups of 18 observers trained on the same set of stimuli blocked either by target image (block-by-image group) or by target category (block-by-category group). One or two days after training, both groups were tested on a related search task. The pattern of test results revealed that the two groups of observers had developed different search templates, and that the templates of the block-by-category observers better captured the general characteristics of the category. These results demonstrate that observers match their search templates to the demands of the search task.

  15. A Distributed Information Analysis for Information Search Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yang; Zhang, Jiajie

    2005-01-01

    Information search in a distributed environment is an interactive process that involves both retrieval and the processing of information across users and artifacts. How the information is distributed across internal representations and external representations affects the efficacy of information search. Using a human-centered method called UFuRT, we developed an information search model and a taxonomy of search tasks. We further developed several prototypes of information search interfaces with different patterns of distributed information and investigated the relations between search tasks and interface types. The results from the analyses show that UFuRT is a useful process that not only provides design guidelines but also generates estimates of representational efficiencies, task complexities and user behavioral outcomes. PMID:16779252

  16. Designing Search: Effective Search Interfaces for Academic Library Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague-Rector, Susan; Ghaphery, Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries customize, support, and provide access to myriad information systems, each with complex graphical user interfaces. The number of possible information entry points on an academic library Web site is both daunting to the end-user and consistently challenging to library Web site designers. Faced with the challenges inherent in…

  17. The Effects of Interspersed Maintenance Tasks on Academic Performance in a Severe Childhood Stroke Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegel, Lynn Kern; Koegel, Robert L.

    1986-01-01

    The study examined effects of task-sequencing variables on the academic performance of an 8-year-old severe stroke victim. Previously acquired (maintenance) task trials were systematically interspersed among new (acquisition) task trials. Results showed improvements in both academic responding and subjective ratings of motivation in spelling,…

  18. Urban search and rescue medical teams: FEMA Task Force System.

    PubMed

    Barbera, J A; Lozano, M

    1993-01-01

    Recent national and international disasters involving collapsed structures and trapped casualties (Mexico City; Armenia; Iran; Philippines; Charleston, South Carolina; Loma Prieta, California; and others) have provoked a heightened national concern for the development of an adequate capability to respond quickly and effectively to this type of calamity. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has responded to this need by developing an Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) Response System, a national system of multi-disciplinary task forces for rapid deployment to the site of a collapsed structure incident. Each 56-person task force includes a medical team capable of providing advanced emergency medical care both for task force members and for victims located and reached by the sophisticated search, rescue, and technical components of the task force. This paper reviews the background and development of urban search and rescue, and describes the make-up and function of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Task Force medical teams.

  19. Interactional Concerns in Implementing Group Tasks: Addressing Silence, Dominance, and Off-Task Talk in an Academic Writing Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Bal Krishna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the teacher role in mediating the task and the learner in an advanced academic writing class. Having identified three verbal (non-)participation patterns of students in collaborative tasks (silence, dominance, and off-task talk), I examine how these interactional concerns are understood and addressed by English as a second…

  20. The North Carolina State University Libraries Search Experience: Usability Testing Tabbed Search Interfaces for Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague-Rector, Susan; Ballard, Angela; Pauley, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Creating a learnable, effective, and user-friendly library Web site hinges on providing easy access to search. Designing a search interface for academic libraries can be particularly challenging given the complexity and range of searchable library collections, such as bibliographic databases, electronic journals, and article search silos. Library…

  1. Effects of Cognitive Training on Academic and On-Task Behavior of Hyperactive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Marie I.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    1980-01-01

    The results suggest that cognitive training specifically designed to promote generalization to classroom tasks can improve the classroom behavior and academic achievement of hyperactive children. (Author)

  2. Toddlers Benefit from Labeling on an Executive Function Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Stephanie E.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Although labeling improves executive function (EF) performance in children older than 3 years, the results from studies with younger children have been equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance in a computerized multistep multilocation search task with older 2-year-olds. The correct search location was either (a) not marked by a…

  3. Eye Movements Reveal How Task Difficulty Moulds Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Angela H.; Hulleman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments we investigated the relationship between eye movements and performance in visual search tasks of varying difficulty. Experiment 1 provided evidence that a single process is used for search among static and moving items. Moreover, we estimated the functional visual field (FVF) from the gaze coordinates and found that its size…

  4. Global Statistical Learning in a Visual Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John L.; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Locating a target in a visual search task is facilitated when the target location is repeated on successive trials. Global statistical properties also influence visual search, but have often been confounded with local regularities (i.e., target location repetition). In two experiments, target locations were not repeated for four successive trials,…

  5. Reinforcing saccadic amplitude variability in a visual search task.

    PubMed

    Paeye, Céline; Madelain, Laurent

    2014-11-20

    Human observers often adopt rigid scanning strategies in visual search tasks, even though this may lead to suboptimal performance. Here we ask whether specific levels of saccadic amplitude variability may be induced in a visual search task using reinforcement learning. We designed a new gaze-contingent visual foraging task in which finding a target among distractors was made contingent upon specific saccadic amplitudes. When saccades of rare amplitudes led to displaying the target, the U values (measuring uncertainty) increased by 54.89% on average. They decreased by 41.21% when reinforcing frequent amplitudes. In a noncontingent control group no consistent change in variability occurred. A second experiment revealed that this learning transferred to conventional visual search trials. These results provide experimental support for the importance of reinforcement learning for saccadic amplitude variability in visual search.

  6. Oculomotor control in a sequential search task.

    PubMed

    Trukenbrod, Hans A; Engbert, Ralf

    2007-08-01

    Using a serial search paradigm, we observed several effects of within-object fixation position on spatial and temporal control of eye movements: the preferred viewing location, launch site effect, the optimal viewing position, and the inverted optimal viewing position of fixation duration. While these effects were first identified by eye-movement studies in reading, our approach permits an analysis of the functional relationships between the effects in a different paradigm. Our results demonstrate that the fixation position is an important predictor of the subsequent saccade by influencing both fixation duration and the selection of the next saccade target.

  7. Development and Validation of an Admission Test Designed to Assess Samples of Performance on Academic Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanilon, Jenny; Segers, Mien; Vedder, Paul; Tillema, Harm

    2009-01-01

    This study illustrates the development and validation of an admission test, labeled as Performance Samples on Academic Tasks in Educational Sciences (PSAT-Ed), designed to assess samples of performance on academic tasks characteristic of those that would eventually be encountered by examinees in an Educational Sciences program. The test was based…

  8. The Center for Talented Youth Talent Search and Academic Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Linda B.; Albert, Mary Elizabeth; Brody, Linda E.

    2005-01-01

    Through annual talent searches based on the model developed by Julian Stanley, the Johns Hopkins Center for Talented Youth (CTY) seeks to identify, assess and recognize students with advanced academic abilities. CTY has also developed extensive programs and services to meet the needs of these students. Having grown steadily in response to…

  9. The Educational, Fiscal, and Access Implications of the Fall Academic Calendar. The Report of the Academic Calendar Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, William B.

    In 1991, California's San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) formed a task force to investigate the effects of adopting academic calendars that end either before or after the winter holidays. To gather information, the task force performed a grade distribution analysis among district college students to determine the impact of fall semester…

  10. Attention Capacity and Task Difficulty in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Liqiang; Pashler, Harold

    2005-01-01

    When a visual search task is very difficult (as when a small feature difference defines the target), even detection of a unique element may be substantially slowed by increases in display set size. This has been attributed to the influence of attentional capacity limits. We examined the influence of attentional capacity limits on three kinds of…

  11. Task-focused behavior mediates the associations between supportive interpersonal environments and students' academic performance.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, Noona; Pakarinen, Eija; Vasalampi, Kati; Silinskas, Gintautas; Aunola, Kaisa; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2014-04-01

    In the longitudinal study presented here, we tested the theoretical assumption that children's task-focused behavior in learning situations mediates the associations between supportive interpersonal environments and academic performance. The sample consisted of 2,137 Finnish-speaking children. Data on supportive interpersonal environments (characterized by authoritative parenting, positive teacher affect toward the child, and peer acceptance) were gathered in Grade 1. The children's task-focused behavior was measured in Grades 2 and 3, and academic performance was measured in Grades 1 and 4. The results supported our assumption by showing that all three supportive environments were positively associated with children's subsequent academic performance via increased task-focused behavior in learning situations. These findings suggest that students' academic performance can be promoted by increasing the support they receive from peers, parents, and teachers because such increased support leads to better task focus in learning tasks. PMID:24532054

  12. Three scenarios of ranking inconsistencies involving search tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xin; Samuelson, Frank W.; Zeng, Rongping; Sahiner, Berkman

    2016-03-01

    Our previous work on assessment of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) image quality revealed inconsistencies in ranking the reconstruction algorithms' performances for a location-known-exactly (LKE) detection and a location-unknown searching task. Such results made us wonder that ranking inconsistencies may not be rare phenomena at all. In this work, we conducted a small literature review that involved three publications (He, Samuelson, Zeng and Sahiner SPIE 2016; Park, Kupinski, Clarkson and Barrett, IPMI 2003 and JOSA 2005). These publications compared the LKE and search performance for a variety of observers using the AUC value as the performance criterion (human observers, CHOs for detection, scanning CHOs for search, and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo ideal observer for detection and search). We categorized the experimental findings into three types of ranking inconsistencies: 1) Ranking inconsistencies in LKE and search tasks; 2) human/ideal observer ranking inconsistencies; and 3) LKE/search ranking inconsistencies in the presence of signal variability. The empirical evidence presented in this work suggested that ranking inconsistencies for imaging systems existed, but these inconsistencies often do not draw enough attention in the literature.

  13. Measuring Search Efficiency in Complex Visual Search Tasks: Global and Local Clutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Melissa R.; Lohrenz, Maura C.; Trafton, J. Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Set size and crowding affect search efficiency by limiting attention for recognition and attention against competition; however, these factors can be difficult to quantify in complex search tasks. The current experiments use a quantitative measure of the amount and variability of visual information (i.e., clutter) in highly complex stimuli (i.e.,…

  14. Convergent and Divergent Computer-Mediated Communication Tasks in an English for Academic Purposes Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Daniel O.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of technology-mediated tasks in an English for academic purposes (EAP) curriculum at a Japanese university. The course addressed the needs of English majors at the school by enabling more efficient completion of academic work, including essay writing. One way that technology supported this goal was through…

  15. Eye fixation related potentials in a target search task.

    PubMed

    Healy, Graham; Smeaton, Alan F

    2011-01-01

    Typically BCI (Brain Computer Interfaces) are found in rehabilitative or restorative applications, often allowing users a medium of communication that is otherwise unavailable through conventional means. Recently, however, there is growing interest in using BCI to assist users in searching for images. A class of neural signals often leveraged in common BCI paradigms are ERPs (Event Related Potentials), which are present in the EEG (Electroencephalograph) signals from users in response to various sensory events. One such ERP is the P300, and is typically elicited in an oddball experiment where a subject's attention is orientated towards a deviant stimulus among a stream of presented images. It has been shown that these types of neural responses can be used to drive an image search or labeling task, where we can rank images by examining the presence of such ERP signals in response to the display of images. To date, systems like these have been demonstrated when presenting sequences of images containing targets at up to 10 Hz, however, the target images in these tasks do not necessitate any kind of eye movement for their detection because the targets in the images are quite salient. In this paper we analyse the presence of discriminating EEG signals when they are offset to the time of eye fixations in a visual search task where detection of target images does require eye fixations.

  16. Searching for the Next Generation of Teacher Educators: Assessing the Success of Academic Searches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twombly, Susan B.; Wolf-Wendel, Lisa; Williams, James; Green, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    In light of a documented shortage of candidates for teacher education faculty positions, this article explores the academic labor market for teacher education faculty using job announcements from the Chronicle of Higher Education and a survey of search chairs to examine the qualifications sought. The authors conclude that the demand for teacher…

  17. The Administrative Tasks and Professional Development Needs of Heads of Academic Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonsdale, Alan J.; Bardsley, W. Neil

    The range of administrative tasks performed by 679 heads of academic departments in Australian colleges of advanced education was surveyed, along with the perceptions of the administrators of their professional development needs. In addition to information about the respondent's appointment and experience, a questionnaire addressed 83 tasks,…

  18. How Do I Know What I Can Do? Anticipating Expectancy of Success Regarding Novel Academic Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorges, Julia; Göke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background: After graduation from secondary school, academic tasks (i.e., learning contents) are no longer structured in terms of school subjects (i.e., English, mathematics). Therefore, learners lack past performance and mastery experience to inform their expectancy of success (i.e., ability beliefs) regarding novel tasks. Aims: In this paper, we…

  19. Role of Academic Self-Efficacy in Moderating the Relation between Task Importance and Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nie, Youyan; Lau, Shun; Liau, Albert K.

    2011-01-01

    Emphasizing task importance, which is regarded as a way of motivating engaged behavior, may increase an individual's anxiety. The present research investigated whether academic self-efficacy could moderate the maladaptive relation between task importance and test anxiety. 1978 and 1670 Grade 9 Singaporean students participated in a survey related…

  20. Analytic Guided-Search Model of Human Performance Accuracy in Target- Localization Search Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstein, Miguel P.; Beutter, Brent R.; Stone, Leland S.

    2000-01-01

    Current models of human visual search have extended the traditional serial/parallel search dichotomy. Two successful models for predicting human visual search are the Guided Search model and the Signal Detection Theory model. Although these models are inherently different, it has been difficult to compare them because the Guided Search model is designed to predict response time, while Signal Detection Theory models are designed to predict performance accuracy. Moreover, current implementations of the Guided Search model require the use of Monte-Carlo simulations, a method that makes fitting the model's performance quantitatively to human data more computationally time consuming. We have extended the Guided Search model to predict human accuracy in target-localization search tasks. We have also developed analytic expressions that simplify simulation of the model to the evaluation of a small set of equations using only three free parameters. This new implementation and extension of the Guided Search model will enable direct quantitative comparisons with human performance in target-localization search experiments and with the predictions of Signal Detection Theory and other search accuracy models.

  1. Delaying Academic Tasks? Predictors of Academic Procrastination among Asian International Students in American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunyoung; Alhaddab, Taghreed A.; Aquino, Katherine C.; Negi, Reema

    2016-01-01

    Existing body of research indicates that both cognitive and non-cognitive factors contribute to college students' tendency of academic procrastination. However, little attention has been paid to the likelihood of academic procrastination among Asian international college students. Given the need for empirical research on why Asian international…

  2. Task Specificity and the Influence of Memory on Visual Search: Comment on Vo and Wolfe (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingworth, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Recent results from Vo and Wolfe (2012b) suggest that the application of memory to visual search may be task specific: Previous experience searching for an object facilitated later search for that object, but object information acquired during a different task did not appear to transfer to search. The latter inference depended on evidence that a…

  3. Task-irrelevant stimulus salience affects visual search.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Dominique; Zoaris, Loren

    2009-05-01

    The relative contributions of stimulus salience and task-related goals in guiding attention remain an issue of debate. Several studies have demonstrated that top-down factors play an important role, as they often override capture by salient irrelevant objects. However, Yantis and Egeth [Yantis, S., & Egeth, H. E. (1999). On the distinction between visual salience and stimulus-driven attentional capture. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 25, 661-676.] have made the more radical claim that salience plays no role in visual search unless the observer adopts an attentional set for singletons or "singleton-detection mode". We reexamine their claim while disentangling effects of stimulus salience from effects of attentional set and inter-trial repetition. The results show that stimulus salience guides attention even when salience is task irrelevant.

  4. Training and subjective workload in a category search task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1986-01-01

    This study examined automaticity as a means by which training influences mental workload. Two groups were trained in a category search task. One group received a training paradigm designed to promote the development of automaticity; the other group received a training paradigm designed to prohibit it. Resultant performance data showed the expected improvement as a result of the development of automaticity. Subjective workload assessments mirrored the performance results in most respects. The results supported the position that subjective mental workload assessments may be sensitive to the effect of training when it produces a lower level of cognitive load.

  5. Assessing Integrated Writing Tasks for Academic Purposes: Promises and Perils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Alister

    2013-01-01

    The five studies presented in this special issue offer unique evidence, analyses, and theoretical rationales for assessment tasks that involve writing in reference to information from source material with substantial content. I review the five studies in respect to five "promises" and five "perils," concluding that, collectively, the promises were…

  6. The effects of interspersed maintenance tasks on academic performance in a severe childhood stroke victim.

    PubMed

    Koegel, L K; Koegel, R L

    1986-01-01

    We examined the effects of task-sequencing variables on the academic performance of an 8-year-old severe stroke victim. Within a multiple baseline design, previously acquired (maintenance) task trials were systematically interspersed at designated points in treatment among new (acquisition) task trials. The results showed improvements in both academic responding and subjective ratings of motivation in each of four treated areas (spelling, reading, word-finding, and memory). Social validation data obtained from standardized school placement examinations suggested marked improvement in a variety of related areas of academic functioning. Results suggest that children suffering severe strokes may be capable of learning more than has previously been suspected, and that behavioral treatments may improve such children's functioning.

  7. Sex differences in spatial memory using serial and search tasks.

    PubMed

    Shah, Darshna S; Prados, Jose; Gamble, Jasmin; De Lillo, Carlo; Gibson, Claire L

    2013-11-15

    The present study assessed the spatial abilities of male and female human participants using different versions of the non-navigational Corsi block-tapping test (CBT) and a search task. Males performed significantly better than females on the standard manual version of the CBT; however, the standard CBT does not allow discrimination between spatial memory span and the role of spatial organisational factors (structure, path length and presence of crossings) in the sequences to recall. These organisational factors were assessed, therefore, in an experiment in which 7-block-sequences had to be recalled in a computerised version of the CBT. No sex differences in performance were observed on the computerised CBT, indicating that males do not make better use of spatial organisational principles. Accordingly, sex differences observed in the manual CBT are likely to rely upon differences in memory span between males and females. In the search task, participants could locate a goal by reference to a Euclidian space (the geometry of a virtual enclose) or to proximal non-geometric cues. Both male and female participants showed a preference for the non-geometric cues, which overshadowed learning about the geometric cues when the two sets were available simultaneously during the training stage. These results indicate that sex differences do exist in those tests which are dependent on memory span. Sex differences were absent, however, in spatial organisational skills or in the usage of Euclidian and egocentric strategies to solve problems relying on spatial ability.

  8. Effects of white noise on off-task behavior and academic responding for children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Cook, Andrew; Bradley-Johnson, Sharon; Johnson, C Merle

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of white noise played through headphones on off-task behavior, percentage of items completed, and percentage of items completed correctly for 3 students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Headphones plus white noise were associated with decreases in off-task behavior relative to baseline and headphones-only (no white noise) control conditions. Little change in academic responding occurred across conditions for all participants.

  9. Local search to improve coordinate-based task mapping

    DOE PAGES

    Balzuweit, Evan; Bunde, David P.; Leung, Vitus J.; Finley, Austin; Lee, Alan C. S.

    2015-10-31

    We present a local search strategy to improve the coordinate-based mapping of a parallel job’s tasks to the MPI ranks of its parallel allocation in order to reduce network congestion and the job’s communication time. The goal is to reduce the number of network hops between communicating pairs of ranks. Our target is applications with a nearest-neighbor stencil communication pattern running on mesh systems with non-contiguous processor allocation, such as Cray XE and XK Systems. Utilizing the miniGhost mini-app, which models the shock physics application CTH, we demonstrate that our strategy reduces application running time while also reducing the runtimemore » variability. Furthermore, we further show that mapping quality can vary based on the selected allocation algorithm, even between allocation algorithms of similar apparent quality.« less

  10. Local search to improve coordinate-based task mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Balzuweit, Evan; Bunde, David P.; Leung, Vitus J.; Finley, Austin; Lee, Alan C. S.

    2015-10-31

    We present a local search strategy to improve the coordinate-based mapping of a parallel job’s tasks to the MPI ranks of its parallel allocation in order to reduce network congestion and the job’s communication time. The goal is to reduce the number of network hops between communicating pairs of ranks. Our target is applications with a nearest-neighbor stencil communication pattern running on mesh systems with non-contiguous processor allocation, such as Cray XE and XK Systems. Utilizing the miniGhost mini-app, which models the shock physics application CTH, we demonstrate that our strategy reduces application running time while also reducing the runtime variability. Furthermore, we further show that mapping quality can vary based on the selected allocation algorithm, even between allocation algorithms of similar apparent quality.

  11. The Importance of Graduate Program Experiences to Faculty Self-Efficacy for Academic Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Claire H.; Dolly, John P.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present results from a qualitative study involving recent faculty hires in a college of education at a research university. The focus of the study is experiences that relate to faculty confidence levels for successfully completing academic tasks. The study involves semi-structured interviews for data collection and an inductive…

  12. Relations among Epistemological Beliefs, Academic Achievement, and Task Performance in Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodewyk, Ken R.

    2007-01-01

    Students with differing profiles of epistemological beliefs--their beliefs about personal epistemology, intelligence, and learning--vary in thinking, reasoning, motivation, and use of strategies while working on academic tasks, each of which affect learning. This study examined students' epistemological beliefs according to gender, school…

  13. Effectiveness of Using iPads to Increase Academic Task Completion by Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Patricia; Lewis, M. E. B.; Donehower, Claire; Stone, David

    2014-01-01

    This single subject design study (ABAB) investigated the effects of using iPads in a classwide academic intervention to increase independent task completion and basic math skills of seven students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) enrolled in a special education school. The study also examined the advantages of and challenges to using…

  14. Growth Trajectories of Task Value and Self-Efficacy across an Academic Semester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcus Lee; Edwards, Ordene V.; Dai, Ting

    2014-01-01

    Many scholars have argued that motivation is dynamic and malleable across time and contexts. In this article, we investigated changes in undergraduates' task value and self-efficacy across an academic semester. Sixty three undergraduate students completed the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire across five time points in their…

  15. How Are Task Reflexivity and Intercultural Sensitivity Related to the Academic Performance of MBA Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyubovnikova, Joanne; Napiersky, Uwe; Vlachopoulos, Panos

    2015-01-01

    Higher education in business school environments is increasingly focused on how to best equip students with the skills necessary for leadership in the global workplace. This paper examines the impact of two particularly important cognitive capabilities--task reflexivity and intercultural sensitivity, on academic performance in an MBA programme. It…

  16. Task specificity and the influence of memory on visual search: comment on Võ and Wolfe (2012).

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, Andrew

    2012-12-01

    Recent results from Võ and Wolfe (2012b) suggest that the application of memory to visual search may be task specific: Previous experience searching for an object facilitated later search for that object, but object information acquired during a different task did not appear to transfer to search. The latter inference depended on evidence that a preview task did not improve later search, but Võ and Wolfe used a relatively insensitive, between-subjects design. Here, we replicated the Võ and Wolfe study using a within-subject manipulation of scene preview. A preview session (focused either on object location memory or on the assessment of object semantics) reliably facilitated later search. In addition, information acquired from distractors in a scene-facilitated search when the distractor later became the target. Instead of being strongly constrained by task, visual memory is applied flexibly to guide attention and gaze during visual search.

  17. Where Is It? How Deaf Adolescents Complete Fact-Based Internet Search Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chad E.

    2007-01-01

    An exploratory study was designed to describe Internet search behaviors of deaf adolescents who used Internet search engines to complete fact-based search tasks. The study examined search behaviors of deaf high school students such as query formation, query modification, Web site identification, and Web site selection. Consisting of two fact-based…

  18. The effects of task difficulty on visual search strategy in virtual 3D displays.

    PubMed

    Pomplun, Marc; Garaas, Tyler W; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing the factors that determine our choice of visual search strategy may shed light on visual behavior in everyday situations. Previous results suggest that increasing task difficulty leads to more systematic search paths. Here we analyze observers' eye movements in an "easy" conjunction search task and a "difficult" shape search task to study visual search strategies in stereoscopic search displays with virtual depth induced by binocular disparity. Standard eye-movement variables, such as fixation duration and initial saccade latency, as well as new measures proposed here, such as saccadic step size, relative saccadic selectivity, and x-y target distance, revealed systematic effects on search dynamics in the horizontal-vertical plane throughout the search process. We found that in the "easy" task, observers start with the processing of display items in the display center immediately after stimulus onset and subsequently move their gaze outwards, guided by extrafoveally perceived stimulus color. In contrast, the "difficult" task induced an initial gaze shift to the upper-left display corner, followed by a systematic left-right and top-down search process. The only consistent depth effect was a trend of initial saccades in the easy task with smallest displays to the items closest to the observer. The results demonstrate the utility of eye-movement analysis for understanding search strategies and provide a first step toward studying search strategies in actual 3D scenarios. PMID:23986539

  19. The effects of task difficulty on visual search strategy in virtual 3D displays.

    PubMed

    Pomplun, Marc; Garaas, Tyler W; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-08-28

    Analyzing the factors that determine our choice of visual search strategy may shed light on visual behavior in everyday situations. Previous results suggest that increasing task difficulty leads to more systematic search paths. Here we analyze observers' eye movements in an "easy" conjunction search task and a "difficult" shape search task to study visual search strategies in stereoscopic search displays with virtual depth induced by binocular disparity. Standard eye-movement variables, such as fixation duration and initial saccade latency, as well as new measures proposed here, such as saccadic step size, relative saccadic selectivity, and x-y target distance, revealed systematic effects on search dynamics in the horizontal-vertical plane throughout the search process. We found that in the "easy" task, observers start with the processing of display items in the display center immediately after stimulus onset and subsequently move their gaze outwards, guided by extrafoveally perceived stimulus color. In contrast, the "difficult" task induced an initial gaze shift to the upper-left display corner, followed by a systematic left-right and top-down search process. The only consistent depth effect was a trend of initial saccades in the easy task with smallest displays to the items closest to the observer. The results demonstrate the utility of eye-movement analysis for understanding search strategies and provide a first step toward studying search strategies in actual 3D scenarios.

  20. Brief Report: Eye Movements during Visual Search Tasks Indicate Enhanced Stimulus Discriminability in Subjects with PDD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, Chantal; van Ewijk, Lizet; van Engeland, Herman; Hooge, Ignace

    2008-01-01

    Subjects with PDD excel on certain visuo-spatial tasks, amongst which visual search tasks, and this has been attributed to enhanced perceptual discrimination. However, an alternative explanation is that subjects with PDD show a different, more effective search strategy. The present study aimed to test both hypotheses, by measuring eye movements…

  1. The Academic Diligence Task (ADT): Assessing Individual Differences in Effort on Tedious but Important Schoolwork.

    PubMed

    Galla, Brian M; Plummer, Benjamin D; White, Rachel E; Meketon, David; D'Mello, Sidney K; Duckworth, Angela L

    2014-10-01

    The current study reports on the development and validation of the Academic Diligence Task (ADT), designed to assess the tendency to expend effort on academic tasks which are tedious in the moment but valued in the long-term. In this novel online task, students allocate their time between solving simple math problems (framed as beneficial for problem solving skills) and, alternatively, playing Tetris or watching entertaining videos. Using a large sample of high school seniors (N = 921), the ADT demonstrated convergent validity with self-report ratings of Big Five conscientiousness and its facets, self-control and grit, as well as discriminant validity from theoretically unrelated constructs, such as Big Five extraversion, openness, and emotional stability, test anxiety, life satisfaction, and positive and negative affect. The ADT also demonstrated incremental predictive validity for objectively measured GPA, standardized math and reading achievement test scores, high school graduation, and college enrollment, over and beyond demographics and intelligence. Collectively, findings suggest the feasibility of online behavioral measures to assess noncognitive individual differences that predict academic outcomes.

  2. The Academic Diligence Task (ADT): Assessing Individual Differences in Effort on Tedious but Important Schoolwork

    PubMed Central

    Galla, Brian M.; Plummer, Benjamin D.; White, Rachel E.; Meketon, David; D’Mello, Sidney K.; Duckworth, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study reports on the development and validation of the Academic Diligence Task (ADT), designed to assess the tendency to expend effort on academic tasks which are tedious in the moment but valued in the long-term. In this novel online task, students allocate their time between solving simple math problems (framed as beneficial for problem solving skills) and, alternatively, playing Tetris or watching entertaining videos. Using a large sample of high school seniors (N = 921), the ADT demonstrated convergent validity with self-report ratings of Big Five conscientiousness and its facets, self-control and grit, as well as discriminant validity from theoretically unrelated constructs, such as Big Five extraversion, openness, and emotional stability, test anxiety, life satisfaction, and positive and negative affect. The ADT also demonstrated incremental predictive validity for objectively measured GPA, standardized math and reading achievement test scores, high school graduation, and college enrollment, over and beyond demographics and intelligence. Collectively, findings suggest the feasibility of online behavioral measures to assess noncognitive individual differences that predict academic outcomes. PMID:25258470

  3. The Impact of Task Demands on Fixation-Related Brain Potentials during Guided Search.

    PubMed

    Ries, Anthony J; Touryan, Jon; Ahrens, Barry; Connolly, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Recording synchronous data from EEG and eye-tracking provides a unique methodological approach for measuring the sensory and cognitive processes of overt visual search. Using this approach we obtained fixation related potentials (FRPs) during a guided visual search task specifically focusing on the lambda and P3 components. An outstanding question is whether the lambda and P3 FRP components are influenced by concurrent task demands. We addressed this question by obtaining simultaneous eye-movement and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures during a guided visual search task while parametrically modulating working memory load using an auditory N-back task. Participants performed the guided search task alone, while ignoring binaurally presented digits, or while using the auditory information in a 0, 1, or 2-back task. The results showed increased reaction time and decreased accuracy in both the visual search and N-back tasks as a function of auditory load. Moreover, high auditory task demands increased the P3 but not the lambda latency while the amplitude of both lambda and P3 was reduced during high auditory task demands. The results show that both early and late stages of visual processing indexed by FRPs are significantly affected by concurrent task demands imposed by auditory working memory.

  4. The Impact of Task Demands on Fixation-Related Brain Potentials during Guided Search

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Barry; Connolly, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Recording synchronous data from EEG and eye-tracking provides a unique methodological approach for measuring the sensory and cognitive processes of overt visual search. Using this approach we obtained fixation related potentials (FRPs) during a guided visual search task specifically focusing on the lambda and P3 components. An outstanding question is whether the lambda and P3 FRP components are influenced by concurrent task demands. We addressed this question by obtaining simultaneous eye-movement and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures during a guided visual search task while parametrically modulating working memory load using an auditory N-back task. Participants performed the guided search task alone, while ignoring binaurally presented digits, or while using the auditory information in a 0, 1, or 2-back task. The results showed increased reaction time and decreased accuracy in both the visual search and N-back tasks as a function of auditory load. Moreover, high auditory task demands increased the P3 but not the lambda latency while the amplitude of both lambda and P3 was reduced during high auditory task demands. The results show that both early and late stages of visual processing indexed by FRPs are significantly affected by concurrent task demands imposed by auditory working memory. PMID:27286248

  5. Effects of cognitive training on academic and on-task behavior of hyperactive children.

    PubMed

    Cameron, M I; Robinson, V M

    1980-09-01

    A cognitive traning program that taught both self-instructional and self-management skills was used with three 7- to 8-year-old hyperactive children. A muultiple baseline across individuals design was used to evaluate the effects of training on on-task behavior and math accuracy. There were significant changes in math accuracy for all subjects, and two subjects showed significant improvements in on-task behavior. Evidence suggesting generalization to untrained behaviors was shown by an increase in self-correction or oral reading for all subjects. The results suggest that cognitive training specifically designed to promote generalization of classroom tasks can improve the classroom behavior and academic achievement of hyperactive children. PMID:7410738

  6. Children's Use of the Yahooligans! Web Search Engine: I. Cognitive, Physical, and Affective Behaviors on Fact-based Search Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilal, Dania

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a research project that investigated seventh grade science students' cognitive, affective, and physical behaviors as they used the Yahooligans! search engine to find information on a specific search task. Describes measurement techniques that included software, interviews, and questionnaires, and discusses implications for user training…

  7. CD-ROM--A Viable Alternative to Online Searching for Academic Libraries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubbeld, Catherine E.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of CD-ROM as an alternative to online searching for academic libraries focuses on a comparison between online and CD-ROM costs at the University of Natal (South Africa) library. Other factors examined include funding methods; user fees; staff involvement; user training; user access, including search intermediaries and networking; and…

  8. Use of an Academic Library Web Site Search Engine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2002-01-01

    Describes an analysis of the search engine logs of Southern Illinois University, Carbondale's library to determine how patrons used the site search. Discusses results that showed patrons did not understand the function of the search and explains improvements that were made in the Web site and in online reference services. (Author/LRW)

  9. Object Boundaries Influence Toddlers' Performance in a Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shutts, Kristin; Keen, Rachel; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has shown that young children have difficulty searching for a hidden object whose location depends on the position of a partly visible physical barrier. Across four experiments, we tested whether children's search errors are affected by two variables that influence adults' object-directed attention: object boundaries and…

  10. What a Difference a Tag Cloud Makes: Effects of Tasks and Cognitive Abilities on Search Results Interface Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwizdka, Jacek

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The goal of this study is to expand our understanding of the relationships between selected tasks, cognitive abilities and search result interfaces. The underlying objective is to understand how to select search results presentation for tasks and user contexts Method: Twenty three participants conducted four search tasks of two types…

  11. Effects of targets embedded within words in a visual search task

    PubMed Central

    Grabbe, Jeremy W.

    2014-01-01

    Visual search performance can be negatively affected when both targets and distracters share a dimension relevant to the task. This study examined if visual search performance would be influenced by distracters that affect a dimension irrelevant from the task. In Experiment 1 within the letter string of a letter search task, target letters were embedded within a word. Experiment 2 compared targets embedded in words to targets embedded in nonwords. Experiment 3 compared targets embedded in words to a condition in which a word was present in a letter string, but the target letter, although in the letter string, was not embedded within the word. The results showed that visual search performance was negatively affected when a target appeared within a high frequency word. These results suggest that the interaction and effectiveness of distracters is not merely dependent upon common features of the target and distracters, but can be affected by word frequency (a dimension not related to the task demands). PMID:24855497

  12. A group-based tasks allocation algorithm for the optimization of long leave opportunities in academic departments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyono Obono, S. D.; Basak, Sujit Kumar

    2011-12-01

    The general formulation of the assignment problem consists in the optimal allocation of a given set of tasks to a workforce. This problem is covered by existing literature for different domains such as distributed databases, distributed systems, transportation, packets radio networks, IT outsourcing, and teaching allocation. This paper presents a new version of the assignment problem for the allocation of academic tasks to staff members in departments with long leave opportunities. It presents the description of a workload allocation scheme and its algorithm, for the allocation of an equitable number of tasks in academic departments where long leaves are necessary.

  13. Memory under pressure: secondary-task effects on contextual cueing of visual search.

    PubMed

    Annac, Efsun; Manginelli, Angela A; Pollmann, Stefan; Shi, Zhuanghua; Müller, Hermann J; Geyer, Thomas

    2013-11-04

    Repeated display configurations improve visual search. Recently, the question has arisen whether this contextual cueing effect (Chun & Jiang, 1998) is itself mediated by attention, both in terms of selectivity and processing resources deployed. While it is accepted that selective attention modulates contextual cueing (Jiang & Leung, 2005), there is an ongoing debate whether the cueing effect is affected by a secondary working memory (WM) task, specifically at which stage WM influences the cueing effect: the acquisition of configural associations (e.g., Travis, Mattingley, & Dux, 2013) versus the expression of learned associations (e.g., Manginelli, Langer, Klose, & Pollmann, 2013). The present study re-investigated this issue. Observers performed a visual search in combination with a spatial WM task. The latter was applied on either early or late search trials--so as to examine whether WM load hampers the acquisition of or retrieval from contextual memory. Additionally, the WM and search tasks were performed either temporally in parallel or in succession--so as to permit the effects of spatial WM load to be dissociated from those of executive load. The secondary WM task was found to affect cueing in late, but not early, experimental trials--though only when the search and WM tasks were performed in parallel. This pattern suggests that contextual cueing involves a spatial WM resource, with spatial WM providing a workspace linking the current search array with configural long-term memory; as a result, occupying this workspace by a secondary WM task hampers the expression of learned configural associations.

  14. Predictors of early growth in academic achievement: the head-toes-knees-shoulders task

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Megan M.; Cameron, Claire E.; Duncan, Robert; Bowles, Ryan P.; Acock, Alan C.; Miao, Alicia; Pratt, Megan E.

    2014-01-01

    Children's behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control) are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) by assessing construct validity, including relations to EF measures, and predictive validity to academic achievement growth between prekindergarten and kindergarten. In the fall and spring of prekindergarten and kindergarten, 208 children (51% enrolled in Head Start) were assessed on the HTKS, measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory (WM), and inhibitory control, and measures of emergent literacy, mathematics, and vocabulary. For construct validity, the HTKS was significantly related to cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control in prekindergarten and kindergarten. For predictive validity in prekindergarten, a random effects model indicated that the HTKS significantly predicted growth in mathematics, whereas a cognitive flexibility task significantly predicted growth in mathematics and vocabulary. In kindergarten, the HTKS was the only measure to significantly predict growth in all academic outcomes. An alternative conservative analytical approach, a fixed effects analysis (FEA) model, also indicated that growth in both the HTKS and measures of EF significantly predicted growth in mathematics over four time points between prekindergarten and kindergarten. Results demonstrate that the HTKS involves cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control, and is substantively implicated in early achievement, with the strongest relations found for growth in achievement during kindergarten and associations with emergent mathematics. PMID:25071619

  15. Predictors of early growth in academic achievement: the head-toes-knees-shoulders task.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Megan M; Cameron, Claire E; Duncan, Robert; Bowles, Ryan P; Acock, Alan C; Miao, Alicia; Pratt, Megan E

    2014-01-01

    Children's behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control) are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) by assessing construct validity, including relations to EF measures, and predictive validity to academic achievement growth between prekindergarten and kindergarten. In the fall and spring of prekindergarten and kindergarten, 208 children (51% enrolled in Head Start) were assessed on the HTKS, measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory (WM), and inhibitory control, and measures of emergent literacy, mathematics, and vocabulary. For construct validity, the HTKS was significantly related to cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control in prekindergarten and kindergarten. For predictive validity in prekindergarten, a random effects model indicated that the HTKS significantly predicted growth in mathematics, whereas a cognitive flexibility task significantly predicted growth in mathematics and vocabulary. In kindergarten, the HTKS was the only measure to significantly predict growth in all academic outcomes. An alternative conservative analytical approach, a fixed effects analysis (FEA) model, also indicated that growth in both the HTKS and measures of EF significantly predicted growth in mathematics over four time points between prekindergarten and kindergarten. Results demonstrate that the HTKS involves cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control, and is substantively implicated in early achievement, with the strongest relations found for growth in achievement during kindergarten and associations with emergent mathematics. PMID:25071619

  16. The Development of Landmark and Beacon Use in Young Children: Evidence from a Touchscreen Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Jennifer E.

    2006-01-01

    Children ages 2, 3 and 4 years participated in a novel hide-and-seek search task presented on a touchscreen monitor. On beacon trials, the target hiding place could be located using a beacon cue, but on landmark trials, searching required the use of a nearby landmark cue. In Experiment 1, 2-year-olds performed less accurately than older children…

  17. Examining age differences in performance of a complex information search and retrieval task.

    PubMed

    Czaja, S J; Sharit, J; Ownby, R; Roth, D L; Nair, S

    2001-12-01

    This study examined age differences in performance of a complex information search and retrieval task by using a simulated real-world task typical of those performed by customer service representatives. The study also investigated the influence of task experience and the relationships between cognitive abilities and task performance. One hundred seventeen participants from 3 age groups, younger (20-39 years). middle-aged (40-59 years), and older (60-75 years), performed the task for 3 days. Significant age differences were found for all measures of task performance with the exception of navigational efficiency and number of problems correctly navigated per attempt. There were also effects of task experience. The findings also indicated significant direct and indirect relations between component cognitive abilities and task performance.

  18. Examining age differences in performance of a complex information search and retrieval task.

    PubMed

    Czaja, S J; Sharit, J; Ownby, R; Roth, D L; Nair, S

    2001-12-01

    This study examined age differences in performance of a complex information search and retrieval task by using a simulated real-world task typical of those performed by customer service representatives. The study also investigated the influence of task experience and the relationships between cognitive abilities and task performance. One hundred seventeen participants from 3 age groups, younger (20-39 years). middle-aged (40-59 years), and older (60-75 years), performed the task for 3 days. Significant age differences were found for all measures of task performance with the exception of navigational efficiency and number of problems correctly navigated per attempt. There were also effects of task experience. The findings also indicated significant direct and indirect relations between component cognitive abilities and task performance. PMID:11766912

  19. Effects of paired-object affordance in search tasks across the adult lifespan.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Melanie; Stainton, Alexandra; Rotshtein, Pia

    2016-06-01

    The study investigated the processes underlying the retrieval of action information about functional object pairs, focusing on the contribution of procedural and semantic knowledge. We further assessed whether the retrieval of action knowledge is affected by task demands and age. The contribution of procedural knowledge was examined by the way objects were selected, specifically whether active objects were selected before passive objects. The contribution of semantic knowledge was examined by manipulating the relation between targets and distracters. A touchscreen-based search task was used testing young, middle-aged, and elderly participants. Participants had to select by touching two targets among distracters using two search tasks. In an explicit action search task, participants had to select two objects which afforded a mutual action (e.g., functional pair: hammer-nail). Implicit affordance perception was tested using a visual color-matching search task; participants had to select two objects with the same colored frame. In both tasks, half of the colored targets also afforded an action. Overall, middle-aged participants performed better than young and elderly participants, specifically in the action task. Across participants in the action task, accuracy was increased when the distracters were semantically unrelated to the functional pair, while the opposite pattern was observed in the color task. This effect was enhanced with increased age. In the action task all participants utilized procedural knowledge, i.e., selected the active object before the passive object. This result supports the dual-route account from vision to action. Semantic knowledge contributed to both the action and the color task, but procedural knowledge associated with the direct route was primarily retrieved when the task was action-relevant. Across the adulthood lifespan, the data show inverted U-shaped effects of age on the retrieval of action knowledge. Age also linearly increased the

  20. Dementia alters standing postural adaptation during a visual search task in older adult men.

    PubMed

    Jor'dan, Azizah J; McCarten, J Riley; Rottunda, Susan; Stoffregen, Thomas A; Manor, Brad; Wade, Michael G

    2015-04-23

    This study investigated the effects of dementia on standing postural adaptation during performance of a visual search task. We recruited 16 older adults with dementia and 15 without dementia. Postural sway was assessed by recording medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) center-of-pressure when standing with and without a visual search task; i.e., counting target letter frequency within a block of displayed randomized letters. ML sway variability was significantly higher in those with dementia during visual search as compared to those without dementia and compared to both groups during the control condition. AP sway variability was significantly greater in those with dementia as compared to those without dementia, irrespective of task condition. In the ML direction, the absolute and percent change in sway variability between the control condition and visual search (i.e., postural adaptation) was greater in those with dementia as compared to those without. In contrast, postural adaptation to visual search was similar between groups in the AP direction. As compared to those without dementia, those with dementia identified fewer letters on the visual task. In the non-dementia group only, greater increases in postural adaptation in both the ML and AP direction, correlated with lower performance on the visual task. The observed relationship between postural adaptation during the visual search task and visual search task performance--in the non-dementia group only--suggests a critical link between perception and action. Dementia reduces the capacity to perform a visual-based task while standing and thus, appears to disrupt this perception-action synergy.

  1. Vigilance and task load - In search of the inverted U

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, E. L.; Curry, R. E.; Faustina, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The 'Inverted-U Hypothesis' states that for a given task, there is an optimal level of workload or demand that yields the highest level of performance. A departure in either direction will result in a monotonically lower performance level, hence an inverted-U-shaped relationship between task demand and quality of performance. Most studies to date have failed to demonstrate the left-hand branch of the curve, that is, the regime in which performance presumably rises as load increases. The purpose of this study was to explore whether low-level additional demand on the monitor would result in improved performance. Four groups of subjects performed a visual monitoring task for 48 min, then two of the four groups were given additional tasks, and a third had potentially distracting information on its display. Results indicated that the two groups with additional demand detected more signals than did the control group or the control-plus-distraction group. There were no significant differences in false alarms.

  2. The Role of Exploratory Talk in Classroom Search Engine Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Simon; Mercer, Neil

    2015-01-01

    While search engines are commonly used by children to find information, and in classroom-based activities, children are not adept in their information seeking or evaluation of information sources. Prior work has explored such activities in isolated, individual contexts, failing to account for the collaborative, discourse-mediated nature of search…

  3. Repetition and Diversification in Multi-Session Task Oriented Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Sarah K.

    2013-01-01

    As the number of documents and the availability of information online grows, so to can the difficulty in sifting through documents to find what we're searching for. Traditional Information Retrieval (IR) systems consider the query as the representation of the user's needs, and as such are limited to the user's ability to describe the information…

  4. Academic task persistence of normally achieving ADHD and control boys: performance, self-evaluations, and attributions.

    PubMed

    Hoza, B; Pelham, W E; Waschbusch, D A; Kipp, H; Owens, J S

    2001-04-01

    The authors examined academic task persistence, pretask expectancies, self-evaluations, and attributions of boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as compared with control boys. Participants were 83 ADHD boys and 66 control boys, all normally achieving. Prior to the task, performance expectancies were assessed. After a success-failure manipulation with find-a-word puzzles, performance on subsequent trials, self-evaluations, and attributions were evaluated. Compared with controls, ADHD boys solved fewer test puzzles, quit working more often, and found fewer words on a generalization task. Consistent with these behavioral findings, research assistants rated ADHD boys as less effortful and less cooperative than control boys. Although ADHD boys did not differ significantly from controls in their posttask self-evaluations, they did differ significantly from controls in some aspects of their attributions. Attributional data indicated that ADHD boys endorsed luck as a reason for success more strongly and lack of effort as a reason for failure less strongly than controls. PMID:11393604

  5. There's Waldo! A Normalization Model of Visual Search Predicts Single-Trial Human Fixations in an Object Search Task.

    PubMed

    Miconi, Thomas; Groomes, Laura; Kreiman, Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    When searching for an object in a scene, how does the brain decide where to look next? Visual search theories suggest the existence of a global "priority map" that integrates bottom-up visual information with top-down, target-specific signals. We propose a mechanistic model of visual search that is consistent with recent neurophysiological evidence, can localize targets in cluttered images, and predicts single-trial behavior in a search task. This model posits that a high-level retinotopic area selective for shape features receives global, target-specific modulation and implements local normalization through divisive inhibition. The normalization step is critical to prevent highly salient bottom-up features from monopolizing attention. The resulting activity pattern constitues a priority map that tracks the correlation between local input and target features. The maximum of this priority map is selected as the locus of attention. The visual input is then spatially enhanced around the selected location, allowing object-selective visual areas to determine whether the target is present at this location. This model can localize objects both in array images and when objects are pasted in natural scenes. The model can also predict single-trial human fixations, including those in error and target-absent trials, in a search task involving complex objects.

  6. The Cross-Lagged Relations between Children's Academic Skill Development, Task-Avoidance, and Parental Beliefs about Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magi, Katrin; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the cross-lagged associations between children's academic skill development, task-avoidant behaviour in the context of homework, and parental beliefs about their child's success from kindergarten to Grade 2. The participants were 1267 children. The children's pre-skills were assessed at the end of the…

  7. Comparison of Teachers' and School Psychologists' Accuracy in Assigning Basic Academic Tasks to Underlying CHC-Model Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petruccelli, Meredith Lohr; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Thurman, S. Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Teacher perceptions of their students' cognitive abilities affect the referrals they make and intervention strategies they implement. In this study, teachers and school psychologists were asked to sort basic academic tasks into categories on the basis of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad cognitive abilities, such as fluid reasoning and…

  8. The Impact of Computer-Mediated and Traditional Academic Task Presentation on the Performance and Behaviour of Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Rebecca; Lewis, Vicky

    2005-01-01

    This project aimed to examine whether the use of computers could have a positive impact on the performance of academic tasks and their behaviour whilst completing them of children with ADHD. This small exploratory study therefore investigated the impact of the use of a laptop computer, with and without stimulating animations and features…

  9. Pointing to Parallels in Ability-Related Differences in the Use of Metacognition in Academic and Psychomotor Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martini, Rose; Shore, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers a brief review of the use of metacognition by proficient and poor performers in academic and psychomotor tasks as well as highlights the parallels and provides directions for future research. Metacognition is knowledge about one's own cognitive processes [Flavell, J.H. (1979). "Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area…

  10. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' legislative activities and the Joint Medical Library Association/Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Legislative Task Force.

    PubMed

    Zenan, Joan S

    2003-04-01

    The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' (AAHSL's) involvement in national legislative activities and other advocacy initiatives has evolved and matured over the last twenty-five years. Some activities conducted by the Medical Library Association's (MLA's) Legislative Committee from 1976 to 1984 are highlighted to show the evolution of MLA's and AAHSL's interests in collaborating on national legislative issues, which resulted in an agreement to form a joint legislative task force. The history, work, challenges, and accomplishments of the Joint MLA/AAHSL Legislative Task Force, formed in 1985, are discussed.

  11. Fruitful visual search: inhibition of return in a virtual foraging task.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Laura E; Ambinder, Michael S; Hsieh, Brendon; Levinthal, Brian; Crowell, James A; Irwin, David E; Kramer, Arthur F; Lleras, Alejandro; Simons, Daniel J; Wang, Ranxiao Frances

    2006-10-01

    Inhibition of return (IOR) has long been viewed as a foraging facilitator in visual search. We investigated the contribution of IOR in a task that approximates natural foraging more closely than typical visual search tasks. Participants in a fully immersive virtual reality environment manually searched an array of leaves for a hidden piece of fruit, using a wand to select and examine each leaf location. Search was slower than in typical IOR paradigms, taking seconds instead of a few hundred milliseconds. Participants also made a speeded response when they detected a flashing leaf that either was or was not in a previously searched location. Responses were slower when the flashing leaf was in a previously searched location than when it was in an unvisited location. These results generalize IOR to an approximation of a naturalistic visual search setting and support the hypothesis that IOR can facilitate foraging. The experiment also constitutes the first use of a fully immersive virtual reality display in the study of IOR. PMID:17328391

  12. A Comparison of Role/Task/Environment Stress Experienced By Beginning Academic and Career-Technical Teachers in Southwestern Ohio Career-Technical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerlin, Timothy F.

    This study investigated whether academic or career-technical teachers perceived greater role, task, and environmental stress in a career center setting. Participants were academic and career-technical teachers employed by a career center schools district in southwest Ohio. A total of 24 academic and 50 career-technical teachers, all of whom had…

  13. Academic Task Demand in the 21st-Century, High-Stakes-Accountability School: Mapping the Journey from Poor [To Fair to Good to Great] to Excellent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szczesiul, Stacy Agee; Nehring, James; Carey, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on theoretical and empirical research concerning the relationship between academic work and student learning, this article explores the following questions: What skills are required to execute the academic tasks teachers assign on a daily basis? How do teachers and administrators interpret the task demands represented in instructional…

  14. In Search of the Optimal Path: How Learners at Task Use an Online Dictionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Marie-Josee

    2012-01-01

    We have analyzed circa 180 navigation paths followed by six learners while they performed three language encoding tasks at the computer using an online dictionary prototype. Our hypothesis was that learners who follow an "optimal path" while navigating within the dictionary, using its search and look-up functions, would have a high chance of…

  15. Differences in the Processing of Prefixes and Suffixes Revealed by a Letter-Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Ziegler, Johannes C.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A letter-search task was used to test the hypothesis that affixes are chunked during morphological processing and that such chunking might operate differently for prefixes and suffixes. Participants had to detect a letter target that was embedded either in a prefix or suffix (e.g., "R" in "propoint" or "filmure") or…

  16. Hybrid self organizing migrating algorithm - Scatter search for the task of capacitated vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davendra, Donald; Zelinka, Ivan; Senkerik, Roman; Jasek, Roman; Bialic-Davendra, Magdalena

    2012-11-01

    One of the new emerging application strategies for optimization is the hybridization of existing metaheuristics. The research combines the unique paradigms of solution space sampling of SOMA and memory retention capabilities of Scatter Search for the task of capacitated vehicle routing problem. The new hybrid heuristic is tested on the Taillard sets and obtains good results.

  17. Hand Movement Deviations in a Visual Search Task with Cross Modal Cuing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Asli; Aslan, Hurol

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the cross-modal effects of an auditory organization on a visual search task and to investigate the influence of the level of detail in instructions describing or hinting at the associations between auditory stimuli and the possible locations of a visual target. In addition to measuring the participants'…

  18. Low Target Prevalence Is a Stubborn Source of Errors in Visual Search Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Horowitz, Todd S.; Van Wert, Michael J.; Kenner, Naomi M.; Place, Skyler S.; Kibbi, Nour

    2007-01-01

    In visual search tasks, observers look for targets in displays containing distractors. Likelihood that targets will be missed varies with target prevalence, the frequency with which targets are presented across trials. Miss error rates are much higher at low target prevalence (1%-2%) than at high prevalence (50%). Unfortunately, low prevalence is…

  19. Letter search does not affect semantic priming in a probe naming task.

    PubMed

    Küper, Kristina; Heil, Martin

    2008-11-01

    The normally robust semantic priming effect observed in lexical decision is usually reduced to the point of being absent, when a letter search has to be performed on the prime. It has been argued that semantic activation is thus not an automatic process but rather cognitively controlled and therefore adaptable to task demands. We examined the effects of letter search priming on pronunciation times and found a reliable semantic priming effect, following letter search that was not affected at all relative to a standard condition, where participants silently read the prime. Thus the nature of the prime task did not seem to affect the processing mode employed, semantic access occurred even though attention was focused on surface properties of the prime.

  20. Evaluation of children with ADHD on the Ball-Search Field Task

    PubMed Central

    Rosetti, Marcos F.; Ulloa, Rosa E.; Vargas-Vargas, Ilse L.; Reyes-Zamorano, Ernesto; Palacios-Cruz, Lino; de la Peña, Francisco; Larralde, Hernán; Hudson, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Searching, defined for the purpose of the present study as the displacement of an individual to locate resources, is a fundamental behavior of all mobile organisms. In humans this behavior underlies many aspects of everyday life, involving cognitive processes such as sustained attention, memory and inhibition. We explored the performance of 36 treatment-free children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 132 children from a control school sample on the ecologically based ball-search field task (BSFT), which required them to locate and collect golf balls in a large outdoor area. Children of both groups enjoyed the task and were motivated to participate in it. However, performance showed that ADHD-diagnosed subjects were significantly less efficient in their searching. We suggest that the BSFT provides a promising basis for developing more complex ecologically-derived tests that might help to better identify particular cognitive processes and impairments associated with ADHD. PMID:26805450

  1. How effective are drug treatments for children with ADHD at improving on-task behaviour and academic achievement in the school classroom? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vibhore; Brogan, Ellen; Mulvaney, Caroline; Grainge, Matthew; Stanton, Wendy; Sayal, Kapil

    2013-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a significant impact on children's classroom behaviour, daily functioning and experience of school life. However, the effects of drug treatment for ADHD on learning and academic achievement are not fully understood. This review was undertaken to describe the effects of methylphenidate, dexamfetamine, mixed amfetamine salts and atomoxetine on children's on-task behaviour and their academic performance, and to perform a meta-analysis to quantify these effects. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials comparing drug treatment for ADHD against (i) no drug treatment, (ii) baseline (in crossover trials), or (iii) placebo; reporting outcomes encompassing measures of educational achievement within the classroom environment. Forty-three studies involving a pooled total of 2,110 participants were identified for inclusion. Drug treatment benefited children in the amount of school work that they completed, by up to 15%, and less consistently improved children's accuracy in specific types of academic assignments, such as arithmetic. Similar improvements were seen in classroom behaviour, with up to 14% more of children's time spent "on task". Methylphenidate, dexamfetamine and mixed amfetamine formulations all showed beneficial effects on children's on-task behaviour and academic work completion. Atomoxetine was examined in two studies, and was found to have no significant effect. These review findings suggest that medication for ADHD has the potential to improve children's learning and academic achievement. PMID:23179416

  2. Predicting Performance on Academic and Non-Academic Tasks: A Comparison of Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Job, Jenelle M.; Klassen, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) are less accurate in predicting academic performance than normally achieving (NA) adolescents and display a tendency to overestimate their level of performance (e.g., Klassen, 2007). However, no studies have been conducted investigating whether this overestimation is…

  3. Performance in a Visual Search Task Uniquely Predicts Reading Abilities in Third-Grade Hong Kong Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Duo; Chen, Xi; Chung, Kevin K. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the performance in a visual search task and reading ability in 92 third-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. The visual search task, which is considered a measure of visual-spatial attention, accounted for unique variance in Chinese character reading after controlling for age, nonverbal intelligence,…

  4. Searching in the middle-Capuchins' (Cebus apella) and bonobos' (Pan paniscus) behavior during a spatial search task.

    PubMed

    Potì, Patrizia; Kanngiesser, Patricia; Saporiti, Martina; Amiconi, Alessandra; Bläsing, Bettina; Call, Josep

    2010-01-01

    In this study we show that bonobos and capuchin monkeys can learn to search in the middle of a landmark configuration in a small-scale space. Five bonobos (Pan paniscus) and 2 capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were tested in a series of experiments with the expansion test paradigm. The primates were trained to search in the middle of a 4- or 2-landmark configuration, and were then tested with the same configuration expanded. Neither species searched in the middle of the expanded 4-landmark configuration. When presented with a 2-landmark configuration and a constant or variable inter-landmark training distance, the subjects sometimes searched preferentially in the middle of the expanded configuration. We discuss 2 alternative explanations of the results: extracting a middle rule or averaging between different goal-landmark vectors. In any case, compared to adult humans, primates appear highly constrained in their abilities to search in the middle of a configuration of detached landmarks. We discuss some of the factors that may influence the primates' behavior in this task.

  5. Congruency effects in the letter search task: semantic activation in the absence of priming.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Keith A; Bosco, Frank A

    2007-04-01

    Semantic priming is typically eliminated when participants perform a letter search on the prime, suggesting that semantic activation is conditional upon one's attentional goals. However, in such studies, semantic activation (or the lack thereof) is not measured during the letter search task itself but, instead, is inferred on the basis of the responses given to a later target. In the present study, direct online evidence for semanticactivation was tested using words whose meaning should bias either a positive or a negative response (e.g.,present vs. absent). In Experiment 1, a semantic congruency effect was obtained, with faster responses when the word meaning matched the required response. Experiment 2 replicated the congruency effect while, simultaneously, showing the elimination of semantic priming. It is concluded that letter search does not affect the initiation of semantic activation. Possible accounts for the elimination of priming following letter search include activation-based suppression and transfer-inappropriate processing.

  6. Neural correlates of context-dependent feature conjunction learning in visual search tasks.

    PubMed

    Reavis, Eric A; Frank, Sebastian M; Greenlee, Mark W; Tse, Peter U

    2016-06-01

    Many perceptual learning experiments show that repeated exposure to a basic visual feature such as a specific orientation or spatial frequency can modify perception of that feature, and that those perceptual changes are associated with changes in neural tuning early in visual processing. Such perceptual learning effects thus exert a bottom-up influence on subsequent stimulus processing, independent of task-demands or endogenous influences (e.g., volitional attention). However, it is unclear whether such bottom-up changes in perception can occur as more complex stimuli such as conjunctions of visual features are learned. It is not known whether changes in the efficiency with which people learn to process feature conjunctions in a task (e.g., visual search) reflect true bottom-up perceptual learning versus top-down, task-related learning (e.g., learning better control of endogenous attention). Here we show that feature conjunction learning in visual search leads to bottom-up changes in stimulus processing. First, using fMRI, we demonstrate that conjunction learning in visual search has a distinct neural signature: an increase in target-evoked activity relative to distractor-evoked activity (i.e., a relative increase in target salience). Second, we demonstrate that after learning, this neural signature is still evident even when participants passively view learned stimuli while performing an unrelated, attention-demanding task. This suggests that conjunction learning results in altered bottom-up perceptual processing of the learned conjunction stimuli (i.e., a perceptual change independent of the task). We further show that the acquired change in target-evoked activity is contextually dependent on the presence of distractors, suggesting that search array Gestalts are learned. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2319-2330, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Distinguishing between target and nontarget fixations in a visual search task using fixation-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Reuderink, Boris; Vincent, Joris; van Gerven, Marcel A J; van Erp, Jan B F

    2013-01-01

    The P300 event-related potential (ERP) can be used to infer whether an observer is looking at a target or not. Common practice in P300 experiments and applications is that observers are asked to fixate their eyes while stimuli are presented. We investigated the possibility to differentiate between single target and nontarget fixations in a target search task involving eye movements by using EEG epochs synchronized to fixation onset (fixation-related potentials: FRPs). Participants systematically scanned search displays consisting of six small Landolt Cs in search of Cs with a particular orientation. After each search display, they indicated whether and where target Cs had been presented. As expected, an FRP component consistent with the P300 reliably distinguished between target and nontarget fixations. It was possible to classify single FRPs into target and nontarget FRPs above chance (on average 62% correct, where 50% would be chance). These results are the first step to practical applications such as covertly monitoring observers' interests and supporting search tasks.

  8. Relationships among Individual Task Self-Efficacy, Self-Regulated Learning Strategy Use and Academic Performance in a Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kimberly; Narayan, Anupama

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates relationships between self-efficacy, self-regulated learning strategy use and academic performance. Participants were 96 undergraduate students working on projects with three subtasks (idea generation task, methodical task and data collection) in a blended learning environment. Task self-efficacy was measured with…

  9. Low target prevalence is a stubborn source of errors in visual search tasks

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Horowitz, Todd S.; Van Wert, Michael J.; Kenner, Naomi M.; Place, Skyler S.; Kibbi, Nour

    2009-01-01

    In visual search tasks, observers look for targets in displays containing distractors. Likelihood that targets will be missed varies with target prevalence, the frequency with which targets are presented across trials. Miss error rates are much higher at low target prevalence (1–2%) than at high prevalence (50%). Unfortunately, low prevalence is characteristic of important search tasks like airport security and medical screening where miss errors are dangerous. A series of experiments show this prevalence effect is very robust. In signal detection terms, the prevalence effect can be explained as a criterion shift and not a change in sensitivity. Several efforts to induce observers to adopt a better criterion fail. However, a regime of brief retraining periods with high prevalence and full feedback allows observers to hold a good criterion during periods of low prevalence with no feedback. PMID:17999575

  10. Using Ontology Search Engines to support Users and Intelligent Systems solving a range of tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleeman, D.; Thomas, E.; Aiken, A.

    The paper describes several classes of tasks namely solving word problems, and classifying datasets using machine learning techniques, where the tasks may not be solvable because the information provided is incomplete. We explore the situation where one has a central concept and the missing information can either be a further descriptor / field of that concept or a (distantly) related concept. We describe how an ontology search engine has assisted in solving such problems, by summarizing the frequency of occurrence of descriptors found in a group of relevant ontologies, and by reporting which concepts are related to the central concept. The search engine used in this work has been ONTOSEARCH2. We further speculate about how such a "concept web" might be used to support the analysis and generation of natural language texts as well as spoken language.

  11. Using mixed-initiative human-robot interaction to bound performance in a search task

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis W. Nielsen; Douglas A. Few; Devin S. Athey

    2008-12-01

    Mobile robots are increasingly used in dangerous domains, because they can keep humans out of harm’s way. Despite their advantages in hazardous environments, their general acceptance in other less dangerous domains has not been apparent and, even in dangerous environments, robots are often viewed as a “last-possible choice.” In order to increase the utility and acceptance of robots in hazardous domains researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory have both developed and tested novel mixed-initiative solutions that support the human-robot interactions. In a recent “dirty-bomb” experiment, participants exhibited different search strategies making it difficult to determine any performance benefits. This paper presents a method for categorizing the search patterns and shows that the mixed-initiative solution decreased the time to complete the task and decreased the performance spread between participants independent of prior training and of individual strategies used to accomplish the task.

  12. Locomotion and Task Demands Differentially Modulate Thalamic Audiovisual Processing during Active Search.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Ross S; Hancock, Kenneth E; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Polley, Daniel B

    2015-07-20

    Active search is a ubiquitous goal-driven behavior wherein organisms purposefully investigate the sensory environment to locate a target object. During active search, brain circuits analyze a stream of sensory information from the external environment, adjusting for internal signals related to self-generated movement or "top-down" weighting of anticipated target and distractor properties. Sensory responses in the cortex can be modulated by internal state, though the extent and form of modulation arising in the cortex de novo versus an inheritance from subcortical stations is not clear. We addressed this question by simultaneously recording from auditory and visual regions of the thalamus (MG and LG, respectively) while mice used dynamic auditory or visual feedback to search for a hidden target within an annular track. Locomotion was associated with strongly suppressed responses and reduced decoding accuracy in MG but a subtle increase in LG spiking. Because stimuli in one modality provided critical information about target location while the other served as a distractor, we could also estimate the importance of task relevance in both thalamic subdivisions. In contrast to the effects of locomotion, we found that LG responses were reduced overall yet decoded stimuli more accurately when vision was behaviorally relevant, whereas task relevance had little effect on MG responses. This double dissociation between the influences of task relevance and movement in MG and LG highlights a role for extrasensory modulation in the thalamus but also suggests key differences in the organization of modulatory circuitry between the auditory and visual pathways.

  13. From Foreground to Background: How Task-Neutral Context Influences Contextual Cueing of Visual Search.

    PubMed

    Zang, Xuelian; Geyer, Thomas; Assumpção, Leonardo; Müller, Hermann J; Shi, Zhuanghua

    2016-01-01

    Selective attention determines the effectiveness of implicit contextual learning (e.g., Jiang and Leung, 2005). Visual foreground-background segmentation, on the other hand, is a key process in the guidance of attention (Wolfe, 2003). In the present study, we examined the impact of foreground-background segmentation on contextual cueing of visual search in three experiments. A visual search display, consisting of distractor 'L's and a target 'T', was overlaid on a task-neutral cuboid on the same depth plane (Experiment 1), on stereoscopically separated depth planes (Experiment 2), or spread over the entire display on the same depth plane (Experiment 3). Half of the search displays contained repeated target-distractor arrangements, whereas the other half was always newly generated. The task-neutral cuboid was constant during an initial training session, but was either rotated by 90° or entirely removed in the subsequent test sessions. We found that the gains resulting from repeated presentation of display arrangements during training (i.e., contextual-cueing effects) were diminished when the cuboid was changed or removed in Experiment 1, but remained intact in Experiments 2 and 3 when the cuboid was placed in a different depth plane, or when the items were randomly spread over the whole display but not on the edges of the cuboid. These findings suggest that foreground-background segmentation occurs prior to contextual learning, and only objects/arrangements that are grouped as foreground are learned over the course of repeated visual search. PMID:27375530

  14. From Foreground to Background: How Task-Neutral Context Influences Contextual Cueing of Visual Search.

    PubMed

    Zang, Xuelian; Geyer, Thomas; Assumpção, Leonardo; Müller, Hermann J; Shi, Zhuanghua

    2016-01-01

    Selective attention determines the effectiveness of implicit contextual learning (e.g., Jiang and Leung, 2005). Visual foreground-background segmentation, on the other hand, is a key process in the guidance of attention (Wolfe, 2003). In the present study, we examined the impact of foreground-background segmentation on contextual cueing of visual search in three experiments. A visual search display, consisting of distractor 'L's and a target 'T', was overlaid on a task-neutral cuboid on the same depth plane (Experiment 1), on stereoscopically separated depth planes (Experiment 2), or spread over the entire display on the same depth plane (Experiment 3). Half of the search displays contained repeated target-distractor arrangements, whereas the other half was always newly generated. The task-neutral cuboid was constant during an initial training session, but was either rotated by 90° or entirely removed in the subsequent test sessions. We found that the gains resulting from repeated presentation of display arrangements during training (i.e., contextual-cueing effects) were diminished when the cuboid was changed or removed in Experiment 1, but remained intact in Experiments 2 and 3 when the cuboid was placed in a different depth plane, or when the items were randomly spread over the whole display but not on the edges of the cuboid. These findings suggest that foreground-background segmentation occurs prior to contextual learning, and only objects/arrangements that are grouped as foreground are learned over the course of repeated visual search.

  15. Ideal and visual-search observers: accounting for anatomical noise in search tasks with planar nuclear imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Anando; Gifford, Howard C.

    2015-03-01

    Model observers have frequently been used for hardware optimization of imaging systems. For model observers to reliably mimic human performance it is important to account for the sources of variations in the images. Detection-localization tasks are complicated by anatomical noise present in the images. Several scanning observers have been proposed for such tasks. The most popular of these, the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) incorporates anatomical variations through covariance matrices. We propose the visual-search (VS) observer as an alternative to the CHO to account for anatomical noise. The VS observer is a two-step process which first identifies suspicious tumor candidates and then performs a detailed analysis on them. The identification of suspicious candidates (search) implicitly accounts for anatomical noise. In this study we present a comparison of these two observers with human observers. The application considered is collimator optimization for planar nuclear imaging. Both observers show similar trends in performance with the VS observer slightly closer to human performance.

  16. Searching for excellence & diversity: increasing the hiring of women faculty at one academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Jennifer T; Fine, Eve; Pribbenow, Christine Maidl; Handelsman, Jo; Carnes, Molly

    2010-06-01

    One opportunity to realize the diversity goals of academic health centers comes at the time of hiring new faculty. To improve the effectiveness of search committees in increasing the gender diversity of faculty hires, the authors created and implemented a training workshop for faculty search committees designed to improve the hiring process and increase the diversity of faculty hires at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. They describe the workshops, which they presented in the School of Medicine and Public Health between 2004 and 2007, and they compare the subsequent hiring of women faculty in participating and nonparticipating departments and the self-reported experience of new faculty within the hiring process. Attendance at the workshop correlates with improved hiring of women faculty and with a better hiring experience for faculty recruits, especially women. The authors articulate successful elements of workshop implementation for other medical schools seeking to increase gender diversity on their faculties.

  17. Searching for Excellence & Diversity: Increasing the Hiring of Women Faculty at One Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Jennifer T.; Fine, Eve; Pribbenow, Christine Maidl; Handelsman, Jo; Carnes, Molly

    2014-01-01

    One opportunity to realize the diversity goals of academic health centers comes at the time of hiring new faculty. To improve the effectiveness of search committees in increasing the gender diversity of faculty hires, the authors created and implemented a training workshop for faculty search committees designed to improve the hiring process and increase the diversity of faculty hires at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. They describe the workshops, which they presented in the School of Medicine and Public Health between 2004 and 2007, and they compare the subsequent hiring of women faculty in participating and nonparticipating departments and the self-reported experience of new faculty within the hiring process. Attendance at the workshop correlates with improved hiring of women faculty and with a better hiring experience for faculty recruits, especially women. The authors articulate successful elements of workshop implementation for other medical schools seeking to increase gender diversity on their faculties. PMID:20505400

  18. The effects of visual realism on search tasks in mixed reality simulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cha; Rincon, Gustavo A; Meyer, Greg; Höllerer, Tobias; Bowman, Doug A

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the validity of Mixed Reality (MR) Simulation by conducting an experiment studying the effects of the visual realism of the simulated environment on various search tasks in Augmented Reality (AR). MR Simulation is a practical approach to conducting controlled and repeatable user experiments in MR, including AR. This approach uses a high-fidelity Virtual Reality (VR) display system to simulate a wide range of equal or lower fidelity displays from the MR continuum, for the express purpose of conducting user experiments. For the experiment, we created three virtual models of a real-world location, each with a different perceived level of visual realism. We designed and executed an AR experiment using the real-world location and repeated the experiment within VR using the three virtual models we created. The experiment looked into how fast users could search for both physical and virtual information that was present in the scene. Our experiment demonstrates the usefulness of MR Simulation and provides early evidence for the validity of MR Simulation with respect to AR search tasks performed in immersive VR.

  19. Hybrid Symbiotic Organisms Search Optimization Algorithm for Scheduling of Tasks on Cloud Computing Environment.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Mohammed; Ngadi, Md Asri

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing has attracted significant attention from research community because of rapid migration rate of Information Technology services to its domain. Advances in virtualization technology has made cloud computing very popular as a result of easier deployment of application services. Tasks are submitted to cloud datacenters to be processed on pay as you go fashion. Task scheduling is one the significant research challenges in cloud computing environment. The current formulation of task scheduling problems has been shown to be NP-complete, hence finding the exact solution especially for large problem sizes is intractable. The heterogeneous and dynamic feature of cloud resources makes optimum task scheduling non-trivial. Therefore, efficient task scheduling algorithms are required for optimum resource utilization. Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS) has been shown to perform competitively with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The aim of this study is to optimize task scheduling in cloud computing environment based on a proposed Simulated Annealing (SA) based SOS (SASOS) in order to improve the convergence rate and quality of solution of SOS. The SOS algorithm has a strong global exploration capability and uses fewer parameters. The systematic reasoning ability of SA is employed to find better solutions on local solution regions, hence, adding exploration ability to SOS. Also, a fitness function is proposed which takes into account the utilization level of virtual machines (VMs) which reduced makespan and degree of imbalance among VMs. CloudSim toolkit was used to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method using both synthetic and standard workload. Results of simulation showed that hybrid SOS performs better than SOS in terms of convergence speed, response time, degree of imbalance, and makespan. PMID:27348127

  20. Hybrid Symbiotic Organisms Search Optimization Algorithm for Scheduling of Tasks on Cloud Computing Environment.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Mohammed; Ngadi, Md Asri

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing has attracted significant attention from research community because of rapid migration rate of Information Technology services to its domain. Advances in virtualization technology has made cloud computing very popular as a result of easier deployment of application services. Tasks are submitted to cloud datacenters to be processed on pay as you go fashion. Task scheduling is one the significant research challenges in cloud computing environment. The current formulation of task scheduling problems has been shown to be NP-complete, hence finding the exact solution especially for large problem sizes is intractable. The heterogeneous and dynamic feature of cloud resources makes optimum task scheduling non-trivial. Therefore, efficient task scheduling algorithms are required for optimum resource utilization. Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS) has been shown to perform competitively with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The aim of this study is to optimize task scheduling in cloud computing environment based on a proposed Simulated Annealing (SA) based SOS (SASOS) in order to improve the convergence rate and quality of solution of SOS. The SOS algorithm has a strong global exploration capability and uses fewer parameters. The systematic reasoning ability of SA is employed to find better solutions on local solution regions, hence, adding exploration ability to SOS. Also, a fitness function is proposed which takes into account the utilization level of virtual machines (VMs) which reduced makespan and degree of imbalance among VMs. CloudSim toolkit was used to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method using both synthetic and standard workload. Results of simulation showed that hybrid SOS performs better than SOS in terms of convergence speed, response time, degree of imbalance, and makespan.

  1. Hybrid Symbiotic Organisms Search Optimization Algorithm for Scheduling of Tasks on Cloud Computing Environment

    PubMed Central

    Abdullahi, Mohammed; Ngadi, Md Asri

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing has attracted significant attention from research community because of rapid migration rate of Information Technology services to its domain. Advances in virtualization technology has made cloud computing very popular as a result of easier deployment of application services. Tasks are submitted to cloud datacenters to be processed on pay as you go fashion. Task scheduling is one the significant research challenges in cloud computing environment. The current formulation of task scheduling problems has been shown to be NP-complete, hence finding the exact solution especially for large problem sizes is intractable. The heterogeneous and dynamic feature of cloud resources makes optimum task scheduling non-trivial. Therefore, efficient task scheduling algorithms are required for optimum resource utilization. Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS) has been shown to perform competitively with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The aim of this study is to optimize task scheduling in cloud computing environment based on a proposed Simulated Annealing (SA) based SOS (SASOS) in order to improve the convergence rate and quality of solution of SOS. The SOS algorithm has a strong global exploration capability and uses fewer parameters. The systematic reasoning ability of SA is employed to find better solutions on local solution regions, hence, adding exploration ability to SOS. Also, a fitness function is proposed which takes into account the utilization level of virtual machines (VMs) which reduced makespan and degree of imbalance among VMs. CloudSim toolkit was used to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method using both synthetic and standard workload. Results of simulation showed that hybrid SOS performs better than SOS in terms of convergence speed, response time, degree of imbalance, and makespan. PMID:27348127

  2. Locomotion and task demands differentially modulate thalamic audiovisual processing during active search

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Ross S.; Hancock, Kenneth E.; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.; Polley, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Active search is a ubiquitous goal-driven behavior wherein organisms purposefully investigate the sensory environment to locate a target object. During active search, brain circuits analyze a stream of sensory information from the external environment, adjusting for internal signals related to self-generated movement or “top-down” weighting of anticipated target and distractor properties. Sensory responses in the cortex can be modulated by internal state [1–9], though the extent and form of modulation arising in the cortex de novo versus an inheritance from subcortical stations is not clear [4, 8–12]. We addressed this question by simultaneously recording from auditory and visual regions of the thalamus (MG and LG, respectively) while mice used dynamic auditory or visual feedback to search for a hidden target within an annular track. Locomotion was associated with strongly suppressed responses and reduced decoding accuracy in MG but a subtle increase in LG spiking. Because stimuli in one modality provided critical information about target location while the other served as a distractor, we could also estimate the importance of task relevance in both thalamic subdivisions. In contrast to the effects of locomotion, we found that LG responses were reduced overall yet decoded stimuli more accurately when vision was behaviorally relevant, whereas task relevance had little effect on MG responses. This double dissociation between the influences of task relevance and movement in MG and LG highlights a role for extrasensory modulation in the thalamus but also suggests key differences in the organization of modulatory circuitry between the auditory and visual pathways. PMID:26119749

  3. Face adaptation does not improve performance on search or discrimination tasks.

    PubMed

    Ng, Minna; Boynton, Geoffrey M; Fine, Ione

    2008-01-04

    The face adaptation effect, as described by M. A. Webster and O. H. MacLin (1999), is a robust perceptual shift in the appearance of faces after a brief adaptation period. For example, prolonged exposure to Asian faces causes a Eurasian face to appear distinctly Caucasian. This adaptation effect has been documented for general configural effects, as well as for the facial properties of gender, ethnicity, expression, and identity. We began by replicating the finding that adaptation to ethnicity, gender, and a combination of both features induces selective shifts in category appearance. We then investigated whether this adaptation has perceptual consequences beyond a shift in the perceived category boundary by measuring the effects of adaptation on RSVP, spatial search, and discrimination tasks. Adaptation had no discernable effect on performance for any of these tasks.

  4. Do economic equality and generalized trust inhibit academic dishonesty? Evidence from state-level search-engine queries.

    PubMed

    Neville, Lukas

    2012-04-01

    What effect does economic inequality have on academic integrity? Using data from search-engine queries made between 2003 and 2011 on Google and state-level measures of income inequality and generalized trust, I found that academically dishonest searches (queries seeking term-paper mills and help with cheating) were more likely to come from states with higher income inequality and lower levels of generalized trust. These relations persisted even when controlling for contextual variables, such as average income and the number of colleges per capita. The relation between income inequality and academic dishonesty was fully mediated by generalized trust. When there is higher economic inequality, people are less likely to view one another as trustworthy. This lower generalized trust, in turn, is associated with a greater prevalence of academic dishonesty. These results might explain previous findings on the effectiveness of honor codes.

  5. The development of landmark and beacon use in young children: evidence from a touchscreen search task.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Jennifer E

    2006-01-01

    Children ages 2, 3 and 4 years participated in a novel hide-and-seek search task presented on a touchscreen monitor. On beacon trials, the target hiding place could be located using a beacon cue, but on landmark trials, searching required the use of a nearby landmark cue. In Experiment 1, 2-year-olds performed less accurately than older children on landmark trials but performed equivalently on beacon trials. In Experiment 2, the number of items on the screen was reduced and 2-year-olds' performance improved. Use of the landmark transformation technique in Experiment 3 revealed that older children formed a more precise landmark-target spatial relationship than 2-year-olds. Experiment 4 showed that the transformation itself was not responsible for the youngest participants' decreased accuracy in Experiment 3. Overall, beacons were utilized effectively by all participants, but the use of landmark cues is refined between the ages of 2 and 4.

  6. Strategies in the information search process: interaction among task structure, knowledge, and source.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Simona; Burigo, Michele

    2008-07-01

    The authors explored the information search strategies of 145 individuals in the predecisional stage. Decision-making participants selected pieces of information from a list including relevant and irrelevant data. The authors investigated the influence of the individual's knowledge and information source. In Experiment 1, the authors experimentally manipulated the information source reliability. The results revealed that participants tended to use a sequential strategy when the authors presented information as supplied by a reliable source. In Experiment 2, the authors analyzed the interaction between information source and the individuals' knowledge. When participants believed the source to be reliable, even knowledgeable participants adopted a strategy as sequential as that chosen by naive individuals. In Experiment 3, a mediational model corroborated the hypothesis that the search strategy affects the final judgment. The results were consistent with the constructivist framework, which emphasizes the role of individual, task, and context in the decision-making process.

  7. Effects of White Noise on Off-Task Behavior and Academic Responding for Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Andrew; Bradley-Johnson, Sharon; Johnson, C. Merle

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of white noise played through headphones on off-task behavior, percentage of items completed, and percentage of items completed correctly for 3 students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Headphones plus white noise were associated with decreases in off-task behavior relative to baseline and…

  8. Visual Information and Support Surface for Postural Control in Visual Search Task.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chia-Chun; Yang, Chih-Mei

    2016-10-01

    When standing on a reduced support surface, people increase their reliance on visual information to control posture. This assertion was tested in the current study. The effects of imposed motion and support surface on postural control during visual search were investigated. Twelve participants (aged 21 ± 1.8 years; six men and six women) stood on a reduced support surface (45% base of support). In a room that moved back and forth along the anteroposterior axis, participants performed visual search for a given letter in an article. Postural sway variability and head-room coupling were measured. The results of head-room coupling, but not postural sway, supported the assertion that people increase reliance on visual information when standing on a reduced support surface. Whether standing on a whole or reduced surface, people stabilized their posture to perform the visual search tasks. Compared to a fixed target, searching on a hand-held target showed greater head-room coupling when standing on a reduced surface.

  9. From Foreground to Background: How Task-Neutral Context Influences Contextual Cueing of Visual Search

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Xuelian; Geyer, Thomas; Assumpção, Leonardo; Müller, Hermann J.; Shi, Zhuanghua

    2016-01-01

    Selective attention determines the effectiveness of implicit contextual learning (e.g., Jiang and Leung, 2005). Visual foreground-background segmentation, on the other hand, is a key process in the guidance of attention (Wolfe, 2003). In the present study, we examined the impact of foreground-background segmentation on contextual cueing of visual search in three experiments. A visual search display, consisting of distractor ‘L’s and a target ‘T’, was overlaid on a task-neutral cuboid on the same depth plane (Experiment 1), on stereoscopically separated depth planes (Experiment 2), or spread over the entire display on the same depth plane (Experiment 3). Half of the search displays contained repeated target-distractor arrangements, whereas the other half was always newly generated. The task-neutral cuboid was constant during an initial training session, but was either rotated by 90° or entirely removed in the subsequent test sessions. We found that the gains resulting from repeated presentation of display arrangements during training (i.e., contextual-cueing effects) were diminished when the cuboid was changed or removed in Experiment 1, but remained intact in Experiments 2 and 3 when the cuboid was placed in a different depth plane, or when the items were randomly spread over the whole display but not on the edges of the cuboid. These findings suggest that foreground-background segmentation occurs prior to contextual learning, and only objects/arrangements that are grouped as foreground are learned over the course of repeated visual search. PMID:27375530

  10. Relationships among gender, cognitive style, academic major, and performance on the Piaget water-level task.

    PubMed

    Hammer, R E; Hoffer, N; King, W L

    1995-06-01

    Many researchers have found that more college-age adults than would be expected fail Piaget's water-level task, with women failing more frequently than men. It has been hypothesized that differences in cognitive style may account for performance differences on the water-level task. In the present study, 27 male and 27 female architectural students and 27 male and 27 female liberal-arts students were assessed for their performance on both Piaget's Water-level Task and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test. No difference was found in performance of male and female architectural students on either task, but male liberal-arts students scored significantly higher than female liberal-arts students on both measures. A disembedding cognitive style predicted success on the water-level task for the architectural students but not for the liberal arts students.

  11. Age and distraction are determinants of performance on a novel visual search task in aged Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, Shikha; Christie, Lori-Ann; De Rivera, Christina; Araujo, Joseph A; Milgram, Norton W; Cotman, Carl W

    2012-02-01

    Aging has been shown to disrupt performance on tasks that require intact visual search and discrimination abilities in human studies. The goal of the present study was to determine if canines show age-related decline in their ability to perform a novel simultaneous visual search task. Three groups of canines were included: a young group (N = 10; 3 to 4.5 years), an old group (N = 10; 8 to 9.5 years), and a senior group (N = 8; 11 to 15.3 years). Subjects were first tested for their ability to learn a simple two-choice discrimination task, followed by the visual search task. Attentional demands in the task were manipulated by varying the number of distracter items; dogs received an equal number of trials with either zero, one, two, or three distracters. Performance on the two-choice discrimination task varied with age, with senior canines making significantly more errors than the young. Performance accuracy on the visual search task also varied with age; senior animals were significantly impaired compared to both the young and old, and old canines were intermediate in performance between young and senior. Accuracy decreased significantly with added distracters in all age groups. These results suggest that aging impairs the ability of canines to discriminate between task-relevant and -irrelevant stimuli. This is likely to be derived from impairments in cognitive domains such as visual memory and learning and selective attention.

  12. Eighth Graders' Web Searching Strategies and Outcomes: The Role of Task Types, Web Experiences and Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Yi-Wen; Shih, Meilun; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2008-01-01

    This study reported an investigation of eighth graders' (14-year-olds) web searching strategies and outcomes, and then analyzed their correlations with students' web experiences, epistemological beliefs, and the nature of searching tasks. Eighty-seven eighth graders were asked to fill out a questionnaire for probing epistemological beliefs (from…

  13. The Effects of Synchronous Text-Based Computer-Mediated Communication Tasks on the Development of L2 and Academic Literacy: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jinrong

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation examines how synchronous text-based computer-mediated communication (SCMC) tasks may affect English as a Second Language (ESL) learners' development of second language (L2) and academic literacy. The study is motivated by two issues concerning the use of SCMC tasks in L2 writing classes. First, although some of the alleged…

  14. Developmental Dynamics between Children's Externalizing Problems, Task-Avoidant Behavior, and Academic Performance in Early School Years: A 4-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Pakarinen, Eija; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the associations among children's externalizing problems, task-avoidant behavior, and academic performance in early school years. The participants were 586 children (43% girls, 57% boys). Data pertaining to externalizing problems (teacher ratings) and task-avoidant behaviors (mother and teacher ratings) were…

  15. La formation aux techniques du travail universitaire et la notion de tache (Training in the Techniques of Academic Work and the Notion of Task).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, M. K.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses questions concerning training students in techniques of academic work and use of the English language in this context. These questions, currently researched at the English Language Center of King Abdulaziz University, focus on the notion of task as a minimal pedagogic unit, and on task-objective coordination criteria. Societe Nouvelle…

  16. Examining the Domain-Specificity of Metacognition Using Academic Domains and Task-Specific Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Brianna M.; Berman, Ashleigh F.

    2013-01-01

    Metacognition refers to students' knowledge and regulation of cognition, as well as their accuracy in predicting their academic performance. This study addressed two major questions: 1) how do metacognitive knowledge, regulation and accuracy differ across domains?, and 2) how do students' individual differences relate to their reported…

  17. Educational Morality: A Task of Resisting the Economic Corruption of Academic Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Allen, George H.

    Although the United States leads the world in spending for education, the quality of education is under attack from all quarters. On college campuses, the perceived necessity to maintain enrollment levels, and a post-60's reluctance to be selective in admissions contributed to waning academic standards. Economic interests have become the dominant…

  18. Predictors of Early Growth in Academic Achievement: The Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Megan M.; Cameron, Claire E.; Duncan, Robert; Bowles, Ryan P.; Acock, Alan C.; Miao, Alicia; Pratt, Megan E.

    2014-01-01

    Children's behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control) are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) by…

  19. Addressing Task Avoidance in Middle School Students: Academic Behavior Check-In/Check-Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turtura, Jessica E.; Anderson, Cynthia M.; Boyd, R. Justin

    2014-01-01

    Multitier prevention systems consist of a continuum of interventions to address the needs of all students. Within such systems, Tier I supports are in place for all students and are designed to enhance prosocial (social behavior interventions) and academic (instructional interventions) skills. Tier II interventions supplement the Tier I…

  20. A new task format for investigating information search and organization in multiattribute decisions.

    PubMed

    Ettlin, Florence; Bröder, Arndt; Henninger, Mirka

    2015-06-01

    In research on multiattribute decisions, information is typically preorganized in a well-structured manner (e.g., in attributes-by-options matrices). Participants can therefore conveniently identify the information needed for the decision strategy they are using. However, in everyday decision situations, we often face information that is not well-structured; that is, we not only have to search for, but we also need to organize the information. This latter aspect--subjective information organization--has so far largely been neglected in decision research. The few exceptions used crude experimental manipulations, and the assessment of subjective organization suffered from laborious methodology and a lack of objectiveness. We introduce a new task format to overcome these methodological issues, and we provide an organization index (OI) to assess subjective organization of information objectively and automatically. The OI makes it possible to assess information organization on the same scale as the strategy index (SI) typically used for assessing information search behavior. A simulation study shows that the OI has a similar distribution as the SI but that the two indices are a priori largely independent. In a validation experiment with instructed strategy use, we demonstrate the usefulness of the task to trace decision processes in multicue inference situations.

  1. Organizing Academic and Communication Task Components Using a Model of Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    The Cummins model of language proficiency is applied to analyzing communication tasks for hearing-impaired students. The model has been found to facilitate individualization in situations where teachers are required to modify lessons spontaneously. (DB)

  2. Performance on the Hamilton search task, and the influence of lateralization, in captive orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica).

    PubMed

    Cussen, Victoria A; Mench, Joy A

    2014-07-01

    Psittacines are generally considered to possess cognitive abilities comparable to those of primates. Most psittacine research has evaluated performance on standardized complex cognition tasks, but studies of basic cognitive processes are limited. We tested orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica) on a spatial foraging assessment, the Hamilton search task. This task is a standardized test used in human and non-human primate studies. It has multiple phases, which require trial and error learning, learning set breaking, and spatial memory. We investigated search strategies used to complete the task, cognitive flexibility, and long-term memory for the task. We also assessed the effects of individual strength of motor lateralization (foot preference) and sex on task performance. Almost all (92%) of the parrots acquired the task. All had significant foot preferences, with 69% preferring their left foot, and showed side preferences contralateral to their preferred limb during location selection. The parrots were able to alter their search strategies when reward contingencies changed, demonstrating cognitive flexibility. They were also able to remember the task over a 6-month period. Lateralization had a significant influence on learning set acquisition but no effect on cognitive flexibility. There were no sex differences. To our knowledge, this is the first cognitive study using this particular species and one of the few studies of cognitive abilities in any Neotropical parrot species.

  3. The Achievement and Social Adjustment of Accelerated Students: The Impact of Academic Talent Search after Seven Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Terry A.

    Academic Talent Search (ATS) provided advanced instruction in a 6-week summer school for talented middle school students on the campus of California State University, Sacramento. A survey was conducted to examine the long-term impact of the ATS program on students over a period of 7 years. Data were collected pertaining to high school and college…

  4. Academic Tasks to Identify Students with Reading Disability in Malayalam among Upper Primary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, K. Abdul; Remia, K. R.

    2013-01-01

    This study is to identify tasks which can be used to spot students with Reading Disability in Malayalam among Upper Primary students. It used secondary data collected from students of Kerala. Students were categorized as dyslexic and low achievers based on their performance in reading, writing and arithmetic tests. Data on performance of normal…

  5. Task Force on Undergraduate Curricula Development. Report. Academic Programs Publication Series Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

    A task force studied the undergraduate program at the College of Agriculture and the School of Forest Resources and Conservation at the University of Florida, ranging from recruitment techniques and strategies designed to attract students to the college to strategies to recognize and reward quality teaching at the undergraduate level. Data were…

  6. The boundary conditions of priming of visual search: from passive viewing through task-relevant working memory load.

    PubMed

    Kristjánsson, Arni; Saevarsson, Styrmir; Driver, Jon

    2013-06-01

    Priming of visual search has a dominating effect upon attentional shifts and is thought to play a decisive role in visual stability. Despite this importance, the nature of the memory underlying priming remains controversial. To understand more fully the necessary conditions for priming, we contrasted passive versus active viewing of visual search arrays. There was no priming from passive viewing of search arrays, while it was strong for active search of the same displays. Displays requiring no search resulted in no priming, again showing that search is needed for priming to occur. Finally, we introduced working memory load during visual search in an effort to disrupt priming. The memorized items had either the same colors as or different colors from the visual search items. Retaining items in working memory inhibited priming of the working memory task-relevant colors, while little interference was observed for unrelated colors. The picture that emerges of priming is that it requires active attentional processing of the search items in addition to the operation of visual working memory, where the task relevance of the working memory load plays a key role.

  7. A Heuristic Distributed Task Allocation Method for Multivehicle Multitask Problems and Its Application to Search and Rescue Scenario.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wanqing; Meng, Qinggang; Chung, Paul W H

    2016-04-01

    Using distributed task allocation methods for cooperating multivehicle systems is becoming increasingly attractive. However, most effort is placed on various specific experimental work and little has been done to systematically analyze the problem of interest and the existing methods. In this paper, a general scenario description and a system configuration are first presented according to search and rescue scenario. The objective of the problem is then analyzed together with its mathematical formulation extracted from the scenario. Considering the requirement of distributed computing, this paper then proposes a novel heuristic distributed task allocation method for multivehicle multitask assignment problems. The proposed method is simple and effective. It directly aims at optimizing the mathematical objective defined for the problem. A new concept of significance is defined for every task and is measured by the contribution to the local cost generated by a vehicle, which underlies the key idea of the algorithm. The whole algorithm iterates between a task inclusion phase, and a consensus and task removal phase, running concurrently on all the vehicles where local communication exists between them. The former phase is used to include tasks into a vehicle's task list for optimizing the overall objective, while the latter is to reach consensus on the significance value of tasks for each vehicle and to remove the tasks that have been assigned to other vehicles. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed method is able to provide a conflict-free solution and can achieve outstanding performance in comparison with the consensus-based bundle algorithm. PMID:25879980

  8. Bridging academic science and clinical research in the search for novel targeted anti-cancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Matter, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This review starts with a brief history of drug discovery & development, and the place of Asia in this worldwide effort discussed. The conditions and constraints of a successful translational R&D involving academic basic research and clinical research are discussed and the Singapore model for pursuit of open R&D described. The importance of well-characterized, validated drug targets for the search for novel targeted anti-cancer agents is emphasized, as well as a structured, high quality translational R&D. Furthermore, the characteristics of an attractive preclinical development drug candidate are discussed laying the foundation of a successful preclinical development. The most frequent sources of failures are described and risk management at every stage is highly recommended. Organizational factors are also considered to play an important role. The factors to consider before starting a new drug discovery & development project are described, and an example is given of a successful clinical project that has had its roots in local universities and was carried through preclinical development into phase I clinical trials. PMID:26779369

  9. Bridging academic science and clinical research in the search for novel targeted anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Matter, Alex

    2015-12-01

    This review starts with a brief history of drug discovery & development, and the place of Asia in this worldwide effort discussed. The conditions and constraints of a successful translational R&D involving academic basic research and clinical research are discussed and the Singapore model for pursuit of open R&D described. The importance of well-characterized, validated drug targets for the search for novel targeted anti-cancer agents is emphasized, as well as a structured, high quality translational R&D. Furthermore, the characteristics of an attractive preclinical development drug candidate are discussed laying the foundation of a successful preclinical development. The most frequent sources of failures are described and risk management at every stage is highly recommended. Organizational factors are also considered to play an important role. The factors to consider before starting a new drug discovery & development project are described, and an example is given of a successful clinical project that has had its roots in local universities and was carried through preclinical development into phase I clinical trials. PMID:26779369

  10. Inadequacy in the Writing of Academics: A Preliminary Search for Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, John K.

    The characteristics of academic writing are examined in this paper, and some remedies are suggested for correcting the "language deformities" that many academic writers persist in creating. Three categories of error to which academic writers are apt to be susceptible are discussed. The first category covers errors that are shortcomings in…

  11. Self-Handicapping Prior to Academic-Oriented Tasks in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Medication Effects and Comparisons with Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Craig, Rebecca; Pelham, William E., Jr.; King, Sara

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with and without ADHD and examined whether stimulant medication influenced self-handicapping. Participants were 61 children ages 6 to 13, including 22 children with ADHD tested after taking a placebo, 21 children with ADHD tested after taking stimulant medication,…

  12. Training Children with Developmentally Disabilities and Severe Behavior Problems to Use Self-Management Procedures to Sustain Attention to Preacademic/Academic Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapadia, Shireen; Fantuzzo, John W.

    1988-01-01

    Three children (ages 8, 12, and 14) with developmental disabilities and severe behavior problems were successfully trained to use self-management procedures to sustain attention to preacademic/academic tasks. A prompting ribbon (motorized red/green ribbon) was designed to help the children visually monitor time while increasing sustained…

  13. Effect of Exposure to an Authentic Pedagogical Task on Student Academic Performance, Student Perceptions of Pedagogical Authenticity and Higher Order Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Marlin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an authentic pedagogical (AP) task on measurements of student academic performance, student perceptions of pedagogical authenticity, and higher order thinking in undergraduate psychology courses. In this quasi-experimental design, comprehensive final exam scores, student ratings on the…

  14. Helping Female Juveniles Improve their On-Task Behavior and Academic Performance Using a Self-Management Procedure in a Correctional Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Stacy; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to teach female juvenile offenders with disabilities a self-management procedure to help improve on-task behavior and academic performance during independent practice of math calculation facts. Students were taught to set goals and were provided with incentives for goal attainment. A reversal single-case design…

  15. Redesigning residency training in internal medicine: the consensus report of the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine Education Redesign Task Force.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Frederick J; Weinberger, Steven E; Fitzgibbons, John P; Glassroth, Jeffrey; Duffy, F Daniel; Clayton, Charles P

    2007-12-01

    Because of numerous criticisms of the content and structure of residency training, redesigning graduate medical education (GME) has become a high priority for the internal medicine community. From 2005 to 2007, the leadership of the internal medicine community, working under the auspices of the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine Education Redesign Task Force, developed six recommendations it will pursue to improve residency education: (1) focus education around a "core" of internal medicine, which provides the framework for both the structure and content of residents' educational experiences, (2) fully adopt competency-based evaluation and advancement, which will enhance training by focusing on individual learners' needs, (3) allow for increased, resident-centered education beyond the internal medicine core, because different types of practice require customized knowledge and skills, (4) improve ambulatory training by providing patient-centered longitudinal care that addresses the conflict between inpatient and outpatient responsibilities, (5) use new faculty models that emphasize the creation of a core faculty, and (6) align institutional and programmatic resources with the goals of redesign, balancing the clinical mission of the institution with the educational goals of residency training. Adoption of these recommendations will require significant efforts, including pilot projects, faculty development, changes in accreditation requirements, and modifications of GME funding systems. Opportunities are ample for individual programs to develop creative approaches based on the framework for educational redesign outlined in this article, and for these educational and clinical redesign initiatives to work hand-in-hand for the benefit of patients, faculty, trainees, and institutions.

  16. Part-time careers in academic internal medicine: a report from the association of specialty professors part-time careers task force on behalf of the alliance for academic internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Linzer, Mark; Warde, Carole; Alexander, R Wayne; Demarco, Deborah M; Haupt, Allison; Hicks, Leroi; Kutner, Jean; Mangione, Carol M; Mechaber, Hilit; Rentz, Meridith; Riley, Joanne; Schuster, Barbara; Solomon, Glen D; Volberding, Paul; Ibrahim, Tod

    2009-10-01

    To establish guidelines for more effectively incorporating part-time faculty into departments of internal medicine, a task force was convened in early 2007 by the Association of Specialty Professors. The task force used informal surveys, current literature, and consensus building among members of the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine to produce a consensus statement and a series of recommendations. The task force agreed that part-time faculty could enrich a department of medicine, enhance workforce flexibility, and provide high-quality research, patient care, and education in a cost-effective manner. The task force provided a series of detailed steps for operationalizing part-time practice; to do so, key issues were addressed, such as fixed costs, malpractice insurance, space, cross-coverage, mentoring, career development, productivity targets, and flexible scheduling. Recommendations included (1) increasing respect for work-family balance, (2) allowing flexible time as well as part-time employment, (3) directly addressing negative perceptions about part-time faculty, (4) developing policies to allow flexibility in academic advancement, (5) considering part-time faculty as candidates for leadership positions, (6) encouraging granting agencies, including the National Institutes of Health and Veterans Administration, to consider part-time faculty as eligible for research career development awards, and (7) supporting future research in "best practices" for incorporating part-time faculty into academic departments of medicine. PMID:19881429

  17. The contribution of apparent and inherent usability to a user's satisfaction in a searching and browsing task on the Web.

    PubMed

    Fu, Limin; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2002-05-15

    Previous research found that apparent and inherent usability had big influences on user's acceptance of computer systems. This research extended these findings to the area of user's satisfaction. The study investigated the impact of inherent and apparent usability on user's satisfaction of Web page designs while the two main tasks on the World Wide Web, searching and browsing, were performed. The results indicated that inherent usability was the main factor contributing to user's satisfaction in both searching and browsing. General principles and specific recommendations for the design and evaluation of Web page designs are derived from these findings. PMID:12061966

  18. Effects of Arm Weight on C-Not-B Task Performance: Implications for the Motor Inhibitory Deficit Account of Search Failures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riviere, James; Lecuyer, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Toddlers have been found to fail on a three-location search task involving the invisible displacements of an object, namely the C-not-B task. In this task, a child is shown the experimenter's hand that contains a toy. The toy then successively disappears under the three cloths (A, B, then C). The examiner silently releases the toy under the second…

  19. A Systematic Understanding of Successful Web Searches in Information-Based Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Mingming

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to research how Chinese university students solve information-based problems. With the Search Performance Index as the measure of search success, participants were divided into high, medium and low-performing groups. Based on their web search logs, these three groups were compared along five dimensions of the search…

  20. Ranking inconsistencies in the assessment of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) reconstruction algorithms using a location-known task and a search task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xin; Zeng, Rongping; Samuelson, Frank; Sahiner, Berkman

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we validated a task-based performance figure-of-merit (FOM) by investigating ranking inconsistencies due to lurking variable/factors. We applied a falsifiable search assessment theory to assessing digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) image quality using a scanning channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) on a simulated DBT dataset. We compared the performance of five reconstruction algorithms: filter back projection (FBP), maximum likelihood (ML), simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART), total-variation regularized least square estimator (TVLS) with strong and mild regularization settings. The results showed that the location-known-exactly (LKE) detection performance was almost identical for the five reconstruction algorithms. However the search characteristic as described by effective set size (M*) and search AUC value, ranked them differently. To falsify/corroborate our evaluations on search characteristic and performance, we conducted an image-size test. This test demonstrated an agreement between theoretical predictions and empirically measured observer performance in absolute performance levels, except for the ML algorithm. We concluded that evidence corroborated our evaluations, except that for the ML algorithm where our evaluation was wrong. Further investigation of the wrong evaluation in the ML case revealed a lurking variable that affected system performance ranking in search when AUC value was used as the FOM. This further confirmed that our evaluation in its current form for the ML algorithm was indeed wrong. We also noted that the ranking inconsistencies exist even when the AUC value was used as the FOM, and the falsifiable nature of M* allowed such inconsistencies to be identified.

  1. Of "what" and "where" in a natural search task: Active object handling supports object location memory beyond the object's identity.

    PubMed

    Draschkow, Dejan; Võ, Melissa L-H

    2016-08-01

    Looking for as well as actively manipulating objects that are relevant to ongoing behavioral goals are intricate parts of natural behavior. It is, however, not clear to what degree these two forms of interaction with our visual environment differ with regard to their memory representations. In a real-world paradigm, we investigated if physically engaging with objects as part of a search task influences identity and position memory differently for task-relevant versus irrelevant objects. Participants equipped with a mobile eye tracker either searched for cued objects without object interaction (Find condition) or actively collected the objects they found (Handle condition). In the following free-recall task, identity memory was assessed, demonstrating superior memory for relevant compared to irrelevant objects, but no difference between the Handle and Find conditions. Subsequently, location memory was inferred via times to first fixation in a final object search task. Active object manipulation and task-relevance interacted in that location memory for relevant objects was superior to irrelevant ones only in the Handle condition. Including previous object recall performance as a covariate in the linear mixed-model analysis of times to first fixation allowed us to explore the interaction between remembered/forgotten object identities and the execution of location memory. Identity memory performance predicted location memory in the Find but not the Handle condition, suggesting that active object handling leads to strong spatial representations independent of object identity memory. We argue that object handling facilitates the prioritization of relevant location information, but this might come at the cost of deprioritizing irrelevant information. PMID:27165170

  2. Statistical learning modulates the direction of the first head movement in a large-scale search task.

    PubMed

    Won, Bo-Yeong; Lee, Hyejin J; Jiang, Yuhong V

    2015-10-01

    Foraging and search tasks in everyday activities are often performed in large, open spaces, necessitating head and body movements. Such activities are rarely studied in the laboratory, leaving important questions unanswered regarding the role of attention in large-scale tasks. Here we examined the guidance of visual attention by statistical learning in a large-scale, outdoor environment. We used the orientation of the first head movement as a proxy for spatial attention and examined its correspondence with reaction time (RT). Participants wore a lightweight camera on a baseball cap while searching for a coin on the concrete floor of a 64-m(2) outdoor space. We coded the direction of the first head movement at the start of a trial. The results showed that the first head movement was highly sensitive to the location probability of the coin and demonstrated more rapid adjustment to changes in environmental statistics than RTs did. Because the first head movement occurred ten times faster than the search RT, these results show that visual statistical learning affected attentional orienting early in large-scale tasks.

  3. Statistical learning modulates the direction of the first head movement in a large-scale search task.

    PubMed

    Won, Bo-Yeong; Lee, Hyejin J; Jiang, Yuhong V

    2015-10-01

    Foraging and search tasks in everyday activities are often performed in large, open spaces, necessitating head and body movements. Such activities are rarely studied in the laboratory, leaving important questions unanswered regarding the role of attention in large-scale tasks. Here we examined the guidance of visual attention by statistical learning in a large-scale, outdoor environment. We used the orientation of the first head movement as a proxy for spatial attention and examined its correspondence with reaction time (RT). Participants wore a lightweight camera on a baseball cap while searching for a coin on the concrete floor of a 64-m(2) outdoor space. We coded the direction of the first head movement at the start of a trial. The results showed that the first head movement was highly sensitive to the location probability of the coin and demonstrated more rapid adjustment to changes in environmental statistics than RTs did. Because the first head movement occurred ten times faster than the search RT, these results show that visual statistical learning affected attentional orienting early in large-scale tasks. PMID:26160317

  4. Age-dependent behavioral strategies in a visual search task in baboons (Papio papio) and their relation to inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Fagot, Joël; Bonté, Elodie; Hopkins, William D

    2013-05-01

    A computerized visual search task was presented to 18 guinea baboons (Papio papio) ranging from 2.7 to 14.3 years of age. The task, inspired from Hick's (1952) task, required detection of a target among a variable number of distractors equidistant to a start button. The reaction times (RTs) and movement times both increased with the number of distractors expressed in bits of information. However, the slope of RT per bit function correlated positively with age, whereas a negative correlation was found for the movement time slopes. In Experiment 2, the same baboons were required to inhibit an ongoing manual pointing toward a target stimulus, to reengage in a new point as a consequence of a change in target location. Results revealed a more accurate performance in the adults, suggesting that differences in behavioral strategies in Experiment 1 can be accounted for by a greater inhibitory control of the adult participants. Implications of these results are discussed regarding the relation between attention, inhibitory control, and behavioral strategies in monkeys, and the general significance of RT slopes in visual search tasks.

  5. Very slow search and reach: failure to maximize expected gain in an eye-hand coordination task.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hang; Morvan, Camille; Etezad-Heydari, Louis-Alexandre; Maloney, Laurence T

    2012-01-01

    We examined an eye-hand coordination task where optimal visual search and hand movement strategies were inter-related. Observers were asked to find and touch a target among five distractors on a touch screen. Their reward for touching the target was reduced by an amount proportional to how long they took to locate and reach to it. Coordinating the eye and the hand appropriately would markedly reduce the search-reach time. Using statistical decision theory we derived the sequence of interrelated eye and hand movements that would maximize expected gain and we predicted how hand movements should change as the eye gathered further information about target location. We recorded human observers' eye movements and hand movements and compared them with the optimal strategy that would have maximized expected gain. We found that most observers failed to adopt the optimal search-reach strategy. We analyze and describe the strategies they did adopt.

  6. Manually Classifying User Search Queries on an Academic Library Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Suzanne; Desai, Shevon; Hagedorn, Kat; Varnum, Ken; Mishra, Sonali; Piacentine, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The University of Michigan Library wanted to learn more about the kinds of searches its users were conducting through the "one search" search box on the Library Web site. Library staff conducted two investigations. A preliminary investigation in 2011 involved the manual review of the 100 most frequently occurring queries conducted…

  7. Millennial Students' Mental Models of Search: Implications for Academic Librarians and Database Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    Today's students exhibit generational differences in the way they search for information. Observations of first-year students revealed a proclivity for simple keyword or phrases searches with frequent misspellings and incorrect logic. Although no students had strong mental models of search mechanisms, those with stronger models did construct more…

  8. Task-Dependent Changes in Frontal-Parietal Activation and Connectivity During Visual Search.

    PubMed

    Maximo, Jose O; Neupane, Ajaya; Saxena, Nitesh; Joseph, Robert M; Kana, Rajesh K

    2016-05-01

    Visual search is an important skill in navigating and locating objects (a target) among distractors in our environment. Efficient and faster target detection involves reciprocal interaction between a viewer's attentional resources as well as salient target characteristics. The neural correlates of visual search have been extensively investigated over the last decades, suggesting the involvement of a frontal-parietal network comprising the frontal eye fields (FEFs) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS). In addition, activity and connectivity of these network changes as the visual search become complex and more demanding. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the modulation of the frontal-parietal network in response to cognitive demand in 22 healthy adult participants. In addition to brain activity, changes in functional connectivity and effective connectivity in this network were examined in response to easy and difficult visual search. Results revealed significantly increased activation in FEF, IPS, and supplementary motor area, more so in difficult search than in easy search. Functional and effective connectivity analyses showed enhanced connectivity in the frontal-parietal network during difficult search and enhanced information transfer from left to right hemisphere during the difficult search process. Our overall findings suggest that cognitive demand significantly increases brain resources across all three measures of brain processing. In sum, we found that goal-directed visual search engages a network of frontal-parietal areas that are modulated in relation to cognitive demand.

  9. Learning from Student Experiences for Online Assessment Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayyum, M. Asim; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of the Internet for open Web searches is common among university students in academic learning tasks. The tools used by students to find relevant information for online assessment tasks were investigated and their information seeking behaviour was documented to explore the impact on assessment design. Method: A mixed methods…

  10. Contributing to the Community: The Economic Significance of Academic Health Centers and Their Role in Neighborhood Development. Report IV. Report of the Task Force on Academic Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Fund, New York, NY.

    This report is a selective analysis and assessment of quantitative data and field studies that reflect the economic role of the Academic Health Center (AHC) in the urban economy and in neighborhood revitalization. It describes the effect of a variety of cooperative efforts between local community organizations and AHCs, which usually include a…

  11. Towards a portal and search engine to facilitate academic and research collaboration in engineering and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla Villarreal, Isaura Nathaly

    While international academic and research collaborations are of great importance at this time, it is not easy to find researchers in the engineering field that publish in languages other than English. Because of this disconnect, there exists a need for a portal to find Who's Who in Engineering Education in the Americas. The objective of this thesis is to built an object-oriented architecture for this proposed portal. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) model developed in this thesis incorporates the basic structure of a social network for academic purposes. Reverse engineering of three social networks portals yielded important aspects of their structures that have been incorporated in the proposed UML model. Furthermore, the present work includes a pattern for academic social networks..

  12. Searching Scientific Information on the Internet: A Dutch Academic User Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorbij, Henk J.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the use and perceived importance of the Internet among students and faculty in the Netherlands through questionnaires and focus-group interviews. Highlights include electronic journals, learning to use the Internet, search engines, needed library support, and problems with subject searching. A copy of the questionnaire is…

  13. In Search of the Effects of Academic Achievement in Postgraduation Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donhardt, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between academic achievement and the financial success of baccalaureate recipients in the workplace is the focal point of an investigation that covers the first 3 years following graduation. Employment activity and quarterly earnings of university baccalaureate recipients were tracked in a comprehensive study that merged state…

  14. Data Base Royalty Fees and the Growth of Online Search Services in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John Brewster; Knapp, Sara D.

    1981-01-01

    Views increasing costs in the form of royalties as an obstacle to the development of online services in academic libraries. Increased volume, creative pricing, and alternate charging algorithms are suggested for containing costs. Comments of vendors and database producers are included. (RAA)

  15. In Search of Excellence in Education: The Political, Academic, and Curricular Leadership of Ethel T. Overby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Adah Ward; Sanders, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the educational leadership of the first African American female principal in Richmond, Virginia: Mrs. Ethel Thompson Overby. It seeks to ascertain, through a historical framework utilizing critical race theory, how this particular educational and instructional leader conceptualized academic achievement given the context of…

  16. What Top-Down Task Sets Do for Us: An ERP Study on the Benefits of Advance Preparation in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eimer, Martin; Kiss, Monika; Nicholas, Susan

    2011-01-01

    When target-defining features are specified in advance, attentional target selection in visual search is controlled by preparatory top-down task sets. We used ERP measures to study voluntary target selection in the absence of such feature-specific task sets, and to compare it to selection that is guided by advance knowledge about target features.…

  17. Self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): medication effects and comparisons with controls.

    PubMed

    Waschbusch, Daniel A; Craig, Rebecca; Pelham, William E; King, Sara

    2007-04-01

    Examined self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with and without ADHD and examined whether stimulant medication influenced self-handicapping. Participants were 61 children ages 6 to 13, including 22 children with ADHD tested after taking a placebo, 21 children with ADHD tested after taking stimulant medication, and 18 non-ADHD controls. Participants completed three measures of self handicapping and also completed self-evaluations of their performance. Results showed greater self handicapping and more positive self-evaluations in children with ADHD than in controls regardless of medication condition. Findings suggest children with ADHD may use self handicapping to ameliorate the effects of experiencing high rates of academic failure.

  18. Search for Autonomy in Motor Task Learning in Physical Education University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno Murcia, Juan Antonio; Lacarcel, Jose Antonio Vera; Del Villar Alvarez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The study focused on discovering the influence that an autonomous motor task learning programme had on the improvement of perceived competence, intrinsic regulation, incremental belief and motivational orientations. The study was performed with two groups of participants (n = 22 and n = 20) aged between 19 and 35 years. The instruments used were…

  19. Searching for New Answers: The Application of Task-Technology Fit to E-Textbook Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhart, Natalie; Peak, Daniel A.; Prybutok, Victor R.

    2015-01-01

    Students have been slow to adopt e-textbooks even though they are often less expensive than traditional textbooks. Prior e-textbook research has focused on adoption behavior, with little research to date on how students perceive e-textbooks fitting their needs. This work builds upon Task-Technology Fit (TTF) and Consumer Acceptance and Use of…

  20. The Effect of Task and Personal Relevance on Credibility Judgements while Searching on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkyla, Adrius Viktoras

    2010-01-01

    People can view the Internet as an endless source of information although it is not known how individuals might evaluate the credibility of information that is presented on websites. A methodology is needed to incorporate how the information seeking task, as well as the level of personal relevance, influences the criteria individuals use to…

  1. The Information Search Process: A Study of Elements Associated with Meaningful Research Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study at a Michigan high school that investigated elements that contributed to a meaningful library research task. Highlights include information literacy; students' feelings of satisfaction and achievement; student questionnaires and student and teacher interviews; group work; and process instruction. (LRW)

  2. The Information Search Process: A Study of Elements Associated with Meaningful Research Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated research projects at a secondary professional development school to determine successful task factors. Results show that student choice of topic, group work, topics related to course content, clear communication by teachers of goals and evaluation methods, and process instruction were related to student…

  3. In Search of the Freedom to Grow: Report of the Physical Education/Athletics Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Karla

    Many physical educators, administrators, and parents argue that it makes little sense to spend time and money building athletic programs for young women when they are not interested in pursuing sports activities. Such an attitude is explored in this Task Force report questioning what roles, if any, physical education teachers have predetermined…

  4. The Effect of Altering the Context Clues in Prose on Reading Rate in a Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Esther U.

    1977-01-01

    To determine whether the connectedness of prose passages had any effect on the behavior of readers who searched for information in the passages, the behavior of readers who saw the normal arrangement of a passage was contrasted with the behavior of readers who saw the random arrangement of the passage. (HOD)

  5. Object Function Facilitates Infants' Object Individuation in a Manual Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingo, Osman S.; Krojgaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the importance of object function (action-object-outcome relations) on object individuation in infancy. Five experiments examined the ability of 9.5- and 12-month-old infants to individuate simple geometric objects in a manual search design. Experiments 1 through 4 (12-month-olds, N = 128) provided several combinations of…

  6. Design and Implementation of Cancellation Tasks for Visual Search Strategies and Visual Attention in School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tsui-Ying; Huang, Ho-Chuan; Huang, Hsiu-Shuang

    2006-01-01

    We propose a computer-assisted cancellation test system (CACTS) to understand the visual attention performance and visual search strategies in school children. The main aim of this paper is to present our design and development of the CACTS and demonstrate some ways in which computer techniques can allow the educator not only to obtain more…

  7. Computer vision enhances mobile eye-tracking to expose expert cognition in natural-scene visual-search tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, Tommy P.; Cahill, Nathan D.; Tarduno, John A.; Jacobs, Robert A.; Pelz, Jeff B.

    2014-02-01

    Mobile eye-tracking provides the fairly unique opportunity to record and elucidate cognition in action. In our research, we are searching for patterns in, and distinctions between, the visual-search performance of experts and novices in the geo-sciences. Traveling to regions resultant from various geological processes as part of an introductory field studies course in geology, we record the prima facie gaze patterns of experts and novices when they are asked to determine the modes of geological activity that have formed the scene-view presented to them. Recording eye video and scene video in natural settings generates complex imagery that requires advanced applications of computer vision research to generate registrations and mappings between the views of separate observers. By developing such mappings, we could then place many observers into a single mathematical space where we can spatio-temporally analyze inter- and intra-subject fixations, saccades, and head motions. While working towards perfecting these mappings, we developed an updated experiment setup that allowed us to statistically analyze intra-subject eye-movement events without the need for a common domain. Through such analyses we are finding statistical differences between novices and experts in these visual-search tasks. In the course of this research we have developed a unified, open-source, software framework for processing, visualization, and interaction of mobile eye-tracking and high-resolution panoramic imagery.

  8. Peerwise Provides Significant Academic Benefits to Biological Science Students across Diverse Learning Tasks, but with Minimal Instructor Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, H. A.; Shields, C.; Finnegan, D. J.; Higham, J.; Simmen, M. W.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that student engagement with PeerWise, an online tool that allows students to author and answer multiple-choice questions (MCQs), is associated with enhanced academic performance across diverse assessment types on a second year Genetics course. Benefits were consistent over three course deliveries, with differential benefits…

  9. Policy Manual for a Computerized Search Service in an Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, William J.

    This proposed policy manual for the computerized information retrieval service of the University of Houston System outlines policies for specific elements of its operation: (1) users--who is/is not eligible for service and for equipment use; (2) cost--rates charged; (3) responsibilities of searchers--maintenance of searching skills, scheduling of…

  10. Students' Self-Regulated Learning, Online Information Evaluative Standards and Online Academic Searching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Sheng-Chau; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Online information searching strategies (OISS) used by students can be viewed as a key indicator in online learning environments. Therefore, developments in their OISS may also involve variables such as self-regulated learning (SRL) and online information evaluative standards (OIES). Three instruments, an OISS, a SRL and an OIES were used to…

  11. A Handbook for the Introduction of On-Line Bibliographic Search Services Into Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, David M.

    A handbook is provided for library administrators who are planning to install commercially available on-line interactive search services. It includes guidelines for selecting and organizing the service, staffing, training and orientation, preparing the service sites, promotion and user education, finance, data collection, and service evaluation.…

  12. Retrieval Effectiveness of Surname-Title-Word Searches for Known Items by Academic Library Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, Frederick G.; Moran, Barbara B.; Barden, John R.

    1999-01-01

    Reports the findings of an experiment using a simulated title page, author surnames, and title words, one-third of which were selected by each of the three authors, to determine the frequency of one-screen displays when used to search for known items in an implied Boolean retrieval system. (Author/AEF)

  13. Literature search, review, and compilation of data for chemical and radiochemical sensors: Task 1 report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    During the next several decades, the US Department of Energy is expected to spend tens of billions of dollars in the characterization, cleanup, and monitoring of DOE`s current and former installations that have various degrees of soil and groundwater contamination made up of both hazardous and mixed wastes. Each of these phases will require site surveys to determine type and quantity of hazardous and mixed wastes. It is generally recognized that these required survey and monitoring efforts cannot be performed using traditional chemistry methods based on laboratory evaluation of samples from the field. For that reason, a tremendous push during the past decade or so has been made on research and development of sensors. This report contains the results of an extensive literature search on sensors that are used or have applicability in environmental and waste management. While restricting the search to a relatively small part of the total chemistry spectrum, a sizable body of reference material is included. Results are presented in tabular form for general references obtained from data base searches, as narrative reviews of relevant chapters from proceedings, as book reviews, and as reviews of journal articles with particular relevance to the review. Four broad sensor types are covered: electrochemical processes, piezoelectric devices, fiber optics, and radiochemical processes. The topics of surface chemistry processes and biosensors are not treated separately because they often are an adjunct to one of the four sensors listed. About 1,000 tabular entries are listed, including selected journal articles, reviews of conference/meeting proceedings, and books. Literature to about mid-1992 is covered.

  14. A Multi-Area Stochastic Model for a Covert Visual Search Task.

    PubMed

    Schwemmer, Michael A; Feng, Samuel F; Holmes, Philip J; Gottlieb, Jacqueline; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Decisions typically comprise several elements. For example, attention must be directed towards specific objects, their identities recognized, and a choice made among alternatives. Pairs of competing accumulators and drift-diffusion processes provide good models of evidence integration in two-alternative perceptual choices, but more complex tasks requiring the coordination of attention and decision making involve multistage processing and multiple brain areas. Here we consider a task in which a target is located among distractors and its identity reported by lever release. The data comprise reaction times, accuracies, and single unit recordings from two monkeys' lateral interparietal area (LIP) neurons. LIP firing rates distinguish between targets and distractors, exhibit stimulus set size effects, and show response-hemifield congruence effects. These data motivate our model, which uses coupled sets of leaky competing accumulators to represent processes hypothesized to occur in feature-selective areas and limb motor and pre-motor areas, together with the visual selection process occurring in LIP. Model simulations capture the electrophysiological and behavioral data, and fitted parameters suggest that different connection weights between LIP and the other cortical areas may account for the observed behavioral differences between the animals. PMID:26287613

  15. Building and evaluating an informatics tool to facilitate analysis of a biomedical literature search service in an academic medical center library.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Elizabeth G; Oelschlegel, Sandra; Vaughn, Cynthia J; Lindsay, J Michael; Hurst, Sachiko M; Earl, Martha

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes an informatics tool to analyze a robust literature search service in an academic medical center library. Structured interviews with librarians were conducted focusing on the benefits of such a tool, expectations for performance, and visual layout preferences. The resulting application utilizes Microsoft SQL Server and .Net Framework 3.5 technologies, allowing for the use of a web interface. Customer tables and MeSH terms are included. The National Library of Medicine MeSH database and entry terms for each heading are incorporated, resulting in functionality similar to searching the MeSH database through PubMed. Data reports will facilitate analysis of the search service.

  16. PeerWise provides significant academic benefits to biological science students across diverse learning tasks, but with minimal instructor intervention.

    PubMed

    McQueen, H A; Shields, C; Finnegan, D J; Higham, J; Simmen, M W

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that student engagement with PeerWise, an online tool that allows students to author and answer multiple-choice questions (MCQs), is associated with enhanced academic performance across diverse assessment types on a second year Genetics course. Benefits were consistent over three course deliveries, with differential benefits bestowed on groups of different prior ability. A rating scheme, to assess the educational quality of students' questions, is presented and demonstrates that our students are able intuitively to make such quality assessments, and that the process of authoring high quality questions alone does not explain the academic benefits. We further test the benefits of providing additional PeerWise support and conclude that PeerWise works efficiently with minimal intervention, and can be reliably assessed using automatically generated PeerWise scores.

  17. Looking for a face in the crowd: fixation-related potentials in an eye-movement visual search task.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, Lisandro N; Kamienkowski, Juan E; Varatharajah, Alexander; Sigman, Mariano; Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian; Ison, Matias J

    2014-04-01

    Despite the compelling contribution of the study of event related potentials (ERPs) and eye movements to cognitive neuroscience, these two approaches have largely evolved independently. We designed an eye-movement visual search paradigm that allowed us to concurrently record EEG and eye movements while subjects were asked to find a hidden target face in a crowded scene with distractor faces. Fixation event-related potentials (fERPs) to target and distractor stimuli showed the emergence of robust sensory components associated with the perception of stimuli and cognitive components associated with the detection of target faces. We compared those components with the ones obtained in a control task at fixation: qualitative similarities as well as differences in terms of scalp topography and latency emerged between the two. By using single trial analyses, fixations to target and distractors could be decoded from the EEG signals above chance level in 11 out of 12 subjects. Our results show that EEG signatures related to cognitive behavior develop across spatially unconstrained exploration of natural scenes and provide a first step towards understanding the mechanisms of target detection during natural search.

  18. Dynamic Modulation of Local Population Activity by Rhythm Phase in Human Occipital Cortex During a Visual Search Task

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kai J.; Hermes, Dora; Honey, Christopher J.; Sharma, Mohit; Rao, Rajesh P. N.; den Nijs, Marcel; Fetz, Eberhard E.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Hebb, Adam O.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Makeig, Scott; Leuthardt, Eric C.

    2010-01-01

    Brain rhythms are more than just passive phenomena in visual cortex. For the first time, we show that the physiology underlying brain rhythms actively suppresses and releases cortical areas on a second-to-second basis during visual processing. Furthermore, their influence is specific at the scale of individual gyri. We quantified the interaction between broadband spectral change and brain rhythms on a second-to-second basis in electrocorticographic (ECoG) measurement of brain surface potentials in five human subjects during a visual search task. Comparison of visual search epochs with a blank screen baseline revealed changes in the raw potential, the amplitude of rhythmic activity, and in the decoupled broadband spectral amplitude. We present new methods to characterize the intensity and preferred phase of coupling between broadband power and band-limited rhythms, and to estimate the magnitude of rhythm-to-broadband modulation on a trial-by-trial basis. These tools revealed numerous coupling motifs between the phase of low-frequency (δ, θ, α, β, and γ band) rhythms and the amplitude of broadband spectral change. In the θ and β ranges, the coupling of phase to broadband change is dynamic during visual processing, decreasing in some occipital areas and increasing in others, in a gyrally specific pattern. Finally, we demonstrate that the rhythms interact with one another across frequency ranges, and across cortical sites. PMID:21119778

  19. Intelligence, Academic Self-Concept, and Information Literacy: The Role of Adequate Perceptions of Academic Ability in the Acquisition of Knowledge about Information Searching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present paper argues that adequate self-perceptions of academic ability are essential for students' realization of their intellectual potential, thereby fostering learning of complex skills, e.g., information-seeking skills. Thus, academic self-concept should moderate the relationship between intelligence and information…

  20. Spatial learning in golden hamsters: Relationship between food-searching strategies and difficulty of the task.

    PubMed

    Ammassari-Teule, M; Durup, H

    1982-12-01

    In an elevated maze consisting of three reconvergent radial arms, golden hamsters were tested with the same experimental rule: to choose each path without repeating any choice. However, variations of procedure concerning (a) the location of the reward in the maze, and (b) reinforcement contingencies, were introduced in order to define several problems involving variable levels of difficulty. The relationship between response strategies and difficulty of the task was then studied. The common learning criterion was the achievement of three consecutive correct daily sessions, each session corresponding to a particular sequence (pattern) of choices of paths. Response strategies were studied by analyzing the patterns obtained over the three final sessions in which an animal reached the learning criterion. Such a set of patterns (triplet) could be heterogeneous (patterns all different), mixed (two identical patterns, one different) or stereotyped (identical patterns). No relationship was found between the mean level of difficulty presented by each learning problem and the occurrence of a particular type of triplet. However, in each situation, mixed triplets were the most frequently recorded and corresponded to the medium individual speeds of learning whereas heterogeneous triplets corresponded to rapid successes and stereotyped triplets to delayed successes. These findings indicate that, whatever the problem designed to be tested in a three-arm maze, the various forms of solutions reflect different individual adaptative mechanisms. PMID:24923500

  1. The Effects of Preferred Activities during Academic Work Breaks on Task Engagement and Negatively Reinforced Destructive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, Jennifer J.; Goddard, Carol; Hoch, Hannah

    2002-01-01

    Destructive behavior of 9-year-old with learning disabilities was evaluated in a functional analysis. The effects of extinction, negative reinforcement, and negative reinforcement combined with access to preferred activities were compared on behavior and task engagement. Engagement occurred most and destructive behavior occurred least when…

  2. A larger brain confers a benefit in a spatial mate search learning task in male guppies

    PubMed Central

    Corral-Lopez, Alberto; Amcoff, Mirjam; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    Brain size varies dramatically among vertebrates, and selection for increased cognitive abilities is thought to be the key force underlying the evolution of a large brain. Indeed, numerous comparative studies suggest positive relationships between cognitively demanding aspects of behavior and brain size controlled for body size. However, experimental evidence for the link between relative brain size and cognitive ability is surprisingly scarce and to date stems from a single study on brain size selected guppies (Poecilia reticulata), where large-brained females were shown to outperform small-brained females in a numerical learning assay. Because the results were inconclusive for males in that study, we here use a more ecologically relevant test of male cognitive ability to investigate whether or not a relatively larger brain increases cognitive ability also in males. We compared mate search ability of these artificially selected large- and small-brained males in a maze and found that large-brained males were faster at learning to find a female in a maze. Large-brained males decreased the time spent navigating the maze faster than small-brained males and were nearly twice as fast through the maze after 2 weeks of training. Our results support that relatively larger brains are better also for males in some contexts, which further substantiates that variation in vertebrate brain size is generated through the balance between energetic costs and cognitive benefits. PMID:25825587

  3. Factors that influence negative summation in a spatial-search task with pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Leising, Kenneth J.; Sawa, Kosuke; Blaisdell, Aaron P.

    2012-01-01

    A variant of the standard conditioned inhibition procedure was used to evaluate landmark-based spatial search in a touchscreen preparation. Pigeons were given compound trials with one landmark (A) positioned in a consistent spatial relationship to a hidden goal and another landmark (B) positioned randomly with respect to A and the hidden goal (AB+). On half of the non-reinforced inhibitory trials, A was paired with landmark X (AX−) and on the remaining trials B was paired with Y (BY−). All subjects were also given reinforced trials with a transfer excitor (T+). During conditioned inhibition training, subjects showed no change in overall responding during AX− trials but did show a decrease in the number of pecks to the goal location signaled by A. During non-reinforced summation tests with landmark T, X had a greater suppressive effect than did Y on overall responding but the percentage of pecks at the goal did not differ unless X was positioned near the expected goal signaled by T. These data demonstrate that the effectiveness of a stimulus trained as an inhibitor is dependent on the strength of the association between its training excitor (A) and the US, as well as, the spatial arrangement of stimuli during testing. PMID:22503862

  4. Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Intake Levels during Pregnancy and Infant Performance on a Novel Object Search Task at 22 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Alison; Sirois, Sylvain; Wearden, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated maternal prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake and infant cognitive development at 22 months. Estimates for second- and third-trimester maternal DHA intake levels were obtained using a comprehensive Food Frequency Questionnaire. Infants (n = 67) were assessed at 22 months on a novel object search task. Mothers'…

  5. Iconicity Influences How Effectively Minimally Verbal Children with Autism and Ability-Matched Typically Developing Children Use Pictures as Symbols in a Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Calum; Allen, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous word learning studies suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder may have difficulty understanding pictorial symbols. Here we investigate the ability of children with autism spectrum disorder and language-matched typically developing children to contextualize symbolic information communicated by pictures in a search task that did…

  6. The Face in the Crowd Effect Unconfounded: Happy Faces, Not Angry Faces, Are More Efficiently Detected in Single- and Multiple-Target Visual Search Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, D. Vaughn; Anderson, Uriah S.; Mortensen, Chad R.; Neufeld, Samantha L.; Neel, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Is it easier to detect angry or happy facial expressions in crowds of faces? The present studies used several variations of the visual search task to assess whether people selectively attend to expressive faces. Contrary to widely cited studies (e.g., Ohman, Lundqvist, & Esteves, 2001) that suggest angry faces "pop out" of crowds, our review of…

  7. Use of Electronic Journals by Library and Information Science Faculty Members in Performing Various Academic Tasks: A Field Study Performed at the School of Information Sciences at the University of Pittsburgh (Modified Version)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abouserie, Hossam Eldin Mohamed Refaat

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and investigate the ways faculty at The School of Information Science at the University of Pittsburgh use electronic journals to obtain information to support their academic tasks, teaching, research and services. Library and Information Sciences faculty at the University of Pittsburgh were chosen as the…

  8. Building and evaluating an informatics tool to facilitate analysis of a biomedical literature search service in an academic medical center library.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Elizabeth G; Oelschlegel, Sandra; Vaughn, Cynthia J; Lindsay, J Michael; Hurst, Sachiko M; Earl, Martha

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes an informatics tool to analyze a robust literature search service in an academic medical center library. Structured interviews with librarians were conducted focusing on the benefits of such a tool, expectations for performance, and visual layout preferences. The resulting application utilizes Microsoft SQL Server and .Net Framework 3.5 technologies, allowing for the use of a web interface. Customer tables and MeSH terms are included. The National Library of Medicine MeSH database and entry terms for each heading are incorporated, resulting in functionality similar to searching the MeSH database through PubMed. Data reports will facilitate analysis of the search service. PMID:23869631

  9. Where can we find future K-12 science and math teachers? a search by academic year, discipline, and academic performance level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moin, Laura J.; Dorfield, Jennifer K.; Schunn, Christian D.

    2005-11-01

    Responding to the increasing math and science teacher shortage in the United States, this study intended to determine which science, engineering, and math (SEM) majors during which years in their undergraduate education and from which academic performance levels are most interested in K-12 teaching. Results may aid policymakers and practitioners in making most effective use of this traditional undergraduate candidate pool when designing K-12 science and math teacher recruitment programs. A survey of SEM majors from two research-oriented, urban universities is used to assess participants' interest in K-12 teaching both compared to other career choices and in isolation. Results indicate that the more successful targets for K-12 teacher recruitment include (1) SEM undergraduates in their junior and senior years independent of SEM major, (2) SEM undergraduates with mid-academic performance levels independent of SEM major and academic year, and (3) math majors followed by natural science majors and, as least promising targets, engineering majors. Results remain independent from gender and ethnicity variables.

  10. Metacognition in Student Academic Writing: A Longitudinal Study of Metacognitive Awareness and Its Relation to Task Perception, Self-Regulation, and Evaluation of Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negretti, Raffaella

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a novel approach to the investigation of student academic writing. It applies theories of metacognition and self-regulated learning to understand how beginning academic writers develop the ability to participate in the communicative practices of academic written communication and develop rhetorical consciousness. The study…

  11. Spatial and temporal dynamics of visual search tasks distinguish subtypes of unilateral spatial neglect: Comparison of two cases with viewer-centered and stimulus-centered neglect.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Katsuhiro; Kato, Kenji; Tsuji, Tetsuya; Shindo, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Liu, Meigen

    2016-08-01

    We developed a computerised test to evaluate unilateral spatial neglect (USN) using a touchscreen display, and estimated the spatial and temporal patterns of visual search in USN patients. The results between a viewer-centered USN patient and a stimulus-centered USN patient were compared. Two right-brain-damaged patients with USN, a patient without USN, and 16 healthy subjects performed a simple cancellation test, the circle test, a visuomotor search test, and a visual search test. According to the results of the circle test, one USN patient had stimulus-centered neglect and a one had viewer-centered neglect. The spatial and temporal patterns of these two USN patients were compared. The spatial and temporal patterns of cancellation were different in the stimulus-centered USN patient and the viewer-centered USN patient. The viewer-centered USN patient completed the simple cancellation task, but paused when transferring from the right side to the left side of the display. Unexpectedly, this patient did not exhibit rightward attention bias on the visuomotor and visual search tests, but the stimulus-centered USN patient did. The computer-based assessment system provided information on the dynamic visual search strategy of patients with USN. The spatial and temporal pattern of cancellation and visual search were different across the two patients with different subtypes of neglect.

  12. Automatic semantic activation is no myth: semantic context effects on the N400 in the letter-search task in the absence of response time effects.

    PubMed

    Heil, Martin; Rolke, Bettina; Pecchinenda, Anna

    2004-12-01

    The claim that semantic activation is an automatic process was recently called a myth, on the basis of the finding that if letter search is performed on a prime word, semantic priming effects on response time are eliminated, whereas repetition effects are preserved. The absence of semantic activation, however, cannot be validly inferred from the lack of response time effects, and converging evidence is needed. To this end, we examined the event-related potential correlate of priming, the N400 amplitude modulation, in a letter-search priming paradigm. Our experiment replicated the response time effects and demonstrated that the N400 amplitude successfully differentiates cross-case repetition priming, semantic priming, and neutral conditions. The results clearly indicate that the meaning of the prime word was processed and that semantic activation indeed was present in the letter-search task. The notion that semantic activation is an automatic process should not be abandoned prematurely.

  13. A Comparison of the Use of Text Summaries, Plain Thumbnails, and Enhanced Thumbnails for Web Search Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Allison; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Morrison, Julie B.; Faulring, Andrew; Pirolli, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of Web search strategies focuses on a comparative study of textual and graphical summarization mechanisms applied to search engine results. Suggests that thumbnail images (graphical summaries) can increase efficiency in processing results, and that enhanced thumbnails (augmented with readable textual elements) had more consistent…

  14. In Search of a Break in the Clouds: An Ethnographic Study of Academic and Student Affairs Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcelus, Victor J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the cultures of the academic and student affairs divisions within one selective residential liberal arts institution. Specifically, the study investigates how faculty and student affairs personnel perceive their own and each other's roles as educators on the campus and how these perceptions influence the potential for…

  15. Task I: Dark Matter Search Experiments with Cryogenic Detectors: CDMS-I and CDMS-II Task II: Experimental Study of Neutrino Properties: EXO and KamLAND

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrera, Blas; Gratta, Giorgio

    2013-08-30

    Dark Matter Search - During the period of performance, our group continued the search for dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles or WIMPs. As a key member of the CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search) collaboration, we completed the CDMS II experiment which led the field in sensitivity for more than five years. We fabricated all detectors, and participated in detector testing and verification. In addition, we participated in the construction and operation of the facility at the Soudan Underground Laboratory and played key roles in the data acquisition and analysis. Towards the end of the performance period, we began operating the SuperCDMS Soudan experiment, which consists of 15 advanced Ge (9 kg) detectors. The advanced detector design called iZIP grew out of our earlier DOE Particle Detector R&D program which demonstrated the rejection of surface electrons to levels where they are no longer the dominant source of background. Our group invented this advanced design and these larger detectors were fabricated on the Stanford campus in collaboration with the SLAC CDMS group and the Santa Clara University group. The sensitivity reach is expected to be up to 5 times better than CDMS II after two years of operation. We will check the new limits on WIMPs set by XENON100, and we expect improved sensitivity for light mass WIMPs beyond that of any other existing experiment. Our group includes the Spokesperson for SuperCDMS and continues to make important contributions to improvements in the detector technology which are enabling the very low trigger thresholds used to explore the low mass WIMP region. We are making detailed measurements of the charge transport and trapping within Ge crystals, measuring the diffusive trapping distance of the quasiparticle excitations within the Al phonon collector fins on the detector surface, and we are contributing to the development of much improved detector Monte Carlos which are essential to guide the detector

  16. The effects of task difficulty, novelty and the size of the search space on intrinsically motivated exploration.

    PubMed

    Baranes, Adrien F; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Gottlieb, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Devising efficient strategies for exploration in large open-ended spaces is one of the most difficult computational problems of intelligent organisms. Because the available rewards are ambiguous or unknown during the exploratory phase, subjects must act in intrinsically motivated fashion. However, a vast majority of behavioral and neural studies to date have focused on decision making in reward-based tasks, and the rules guiding intrinsically motivated exploration remain largely unknown. To examine this question we developed a paradigm for systematically testing the choices of human observers in a free play context. Adult subjects played a series of short computer games of variable difficulty, and freely choose which game they wished to sample without external guidance or physical rewards. Subjects performed the task in three distinct conditions where they sampled from a small or a large choice set (7 vs. 64 possible levels of difficulty), and where they did or did not have the possibility to sample new games at a constant level of difficulty. We show that despite the absence of external constraints, the subjects spontaneously adopted a structured exploration strategy whereby they (1) started with easier games and progressed to more difficult games, (2) sampled the entire choice set including extremely difficult games that could not be learnt, (3) repeated moderately and high difficulty games much more frequently than was predicted by chance, and (4) had higher repetition rates and chose higher speeds if they could generate new sequences at a constant level of difficulty. The results suggest that intrinsically motivated exploration is shaped by several factors including task difficulty, novelty and the size of the choice set, and these come into play to serve two internal goals-maximize the subjects' knowledge of the available tasks (exploring the limits of the task set), and maximize their competence (performance and skills) across the task set.

  17. The effects of task difficulty, novelty and the size of the search space on intrinsically motivated exploration.

    PubMed

    Baranes, Adrien F; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Gottlieb, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Devising efficient strategies for exploration in large open-ended spaces is one of the most difficult computational problems of intelligent organisms. Because the available rewards are ambiguous or unknown during the exploratory phase, subjects must act in intrinsically motivated fashion. However, a vast majority of behavioral and neural studies to date have focused on decision making in reward-based tasks, and the rules guiding intrinsically motivated exploration remain largely unknown. To examine this question we developed a paradigm for systematically testing the choices of human observers in a free play context. Adult subjects played a series of short computer games of variable difficulty, and freely choose which game they wished to sample without external guidance or physical rewards. Subjects performed the task in three distinct conditions where they sampled from a small or a large choice set (7 vs. 64 possible levels of difficulty), and where they did or did not have the possibility to sample new games at a constant level of difficulty. We show that despite the absence of external constraints, the subjects spontaneously adopted a structured exploration strategy whereby they (1) started with easier games and progressed to more difficult games, (2) sampled the entire choice set including extremely difficult games that could not be learnt, (3) repeated moderately and high difficulty games much more frequently than was predicted by chance, and (4) had higher repetition rates and chose higher speeds if they could generate new sequences at a constant level of difficulty. The results suggest that intrinsically motivated exploration is shaped by several factors including task difficulty, novelty and the size of the choice set, and these come into play to serve two internal goals-maximize the subjects' knowledge of the available tasks (exploring the limits of the task set), and maximize their competence (performance and skills) across the task set. PMID:25352771

  18. The effects of task difficulty, novelty and the size of the search space on intrinsically motivated exploration

    PubMed Central

    Baranes, Adrien F.; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Gottlieb, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Devising efficient strategies for exploration in large open-ended spaces is one of the most difficult computational problems of intelligent organisms. Because the available rewards are ambiguous or unknown during the exploratory phase, subjects must act in intrinsically motivated fashion. However, a vast majority of behavioral and neural studies to date have focused on decision making in reward-based tasks, and the rules guiding intrinsically motivated exploration remain largely unknown. To examine this question we developed a paradigm for systematically testing the choices of human observers in a free play context. Adult subjects played a series of short computer games of variable difficulty, and freely choose which game they wished to sample without external guidance or physical rewards. Subjects performed the task in three distinct conditions where they sampled from a small or a large choice set (7 vs. 64 possible levels of difficulty), and where they did or did not have the possibility to sample new games at a constant level of difficulty. We show that despite the absence of external constraints, the subjects spontaneously adopted a structured exploration strategy whereby they (1) started with easier games and progressed to more difficult games, (2) sampled the entire choice set including extremely difficult games that could not be learnt, (3) repeated moderately and high difficulty games much more frequently than was predicted by chance, and (4) had higher repetition rates and chose higher speeds if they could generate new sequences at a constant level of difficulty. The results suggest that intrinsically motivated exploration is shaped by several factors including task difficulty, novelty and the size of the choice set, and these come into play to serve two internal goals—maximize the subjects' knowledge of the available tasks (exploring the limits of the task set), and maximize their competence (performance and skills) across the task set. PMID:25352771

  19. The Effects of Partner-Check Self-Recording of On-Task Behavior on Academic Productivity in Children with Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohakamnu, George N.

    2010-01-01

    Due to an increase in behavior problems among school children, especially at-risk children who have problems staying on-task, there is a need for a teaching strategy that will enable children to be focused and on task in the classroom. This quantitative study investigated whether partner-check self-recording of on-task behavior will increase the…

  20. In Search of Design Principles for Developing Digital Learning and Performance Support for a Student Design Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollen, Lars; van der Meij, Hans; Leemkuil, Henny; McKenney, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A digital learning and performance support environment for university student design tasks was developed. This paper describes on the design rationale, process, and the usage results to arrive at a core set of design principles for the construction of such an environment. We present a collection of organizational, technical, and course-related…

  1. A Task-oriented Study on the Influencing Effects of Query-biased Summarization in Web Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Ryen W.; Jose, Joemon M.; Ruthven, Ian

    2003-01-01

    A task-oriented, comparative evaluation between four Web retrieval systems was performed; two using query-biased summarization, and two using the standard ranked titles/abstracts approach. Results indicate that query-biased summarization techniques appear to be more useful and effective in helping users gauge document relevance than the…

  2. Practice Makes Improvement: How Adults with Autism Out-Perform Others in a Naturalistic Visual Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Martin, Jolie M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Behrmann, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit superior performance in visual search compared to others. However, most studies demonstrating this advantage have employed simple, uncluttered images with fully visible targets. We compare the performance of high-functioning adults with ASD and matched controls on a naturalistic luggage…

  3. The Effects of Visual Discriminability and Rotation Angle on 30-Month-Olds’ Search Performance in Spatial Rotation Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Ebersbach, Mirjam; Nawroth, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Tracking objects that are hidden and then moved is a crucial ability related to object permanence, which develops across several stages in early childhood. In spatial rotation tasks, children observe a target object that is hidden in one of two or more containers before the containers are rotated around a fixed axis. Usually, 30-month-olds fail to find the hidden object after it was rotated by 180°. We examined whether visual discriminability of the containers improves 30-month-olds’ success in this task and whether children perform better after 90° than after 180° rotations. Two potential hiding containers with same or different colors were placed on a board that was rotated by 90° or 180° in a within-subjects design. Children (N = 29) performed above chance level in all four conditions. Their overall success in finding the object did not improve by differently colored containers. However, different colors prevented children from showing an inhibition bias in 90° rotations, that is, choosing the empty container more often when it was located close to them than when it was farther away: This bias emerged in the same colors condition but not in the different colors condition. Results are discussed in view of particular challenges that might facilitate or deteriorate spatial rotation tasks for young children. PMID:27812346

  4. Marketing Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  5. The Use of OPAC in a Large Academic Library: A Transactional Log Analysis Study of Subject Searching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villen-Rueda, Luis; Senso, Jose A.; de Moya-Anegon, Felix

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of user searches in catalogs has been the topic of research for over four decades, involving numerous studies and diverse methodologies. The present study looks at how different types of users effect queries in the catalog of a university library. For this purpose, we analyzed log files to determine which was the most frequent type of…

  6. Visual search behaviours and verbal reports during film-based and in situ representative tasks in volleyball.

    PubMed

    Afonso, José; Garganta, Júlio; McRobert, Allistair; Williams, Mark; Mesquita, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Several researchers have explored the processes underlying perceptual-cognitive expertise, mainly using film-based studies. However, few have compared the extent to which data from film-based settings differ from those obtained through in situ collection. This gap in the literature is a relevant concern, since scientific research is used to provide guidance for designing training programmes. In this paper, eye movement recording and verbal reports of thinking were combined to explore the processes underpinning skilled performance in a representative volleyball task involving both film-based and in situ data collection. Nine volleyball players performed as backcourt defenders while wearing an eye-tracking device and providing verbal reports of thinking after each sequence. A number of significant differences were observed between the data gathered under film-based and in situ conditions. Namely, in the in situ condition participants employed longer fixations (728.11 ± 129.27 ms) than in the film condition (659.57 ± 178.06 ms), and there were differences in the nature of the fixation locations. With respect to verbal reports, participants exhibited superior level of sophistication in the in situ condition (2.57 ± 0.50 vs. 2.30 ± 0.84 in the film condition), while denoting a greater concern with the opponents under this condition (1.00 ± 0.73) than in the film condition (0.59 ± 0.60). These differences emerged despite task design and constraints being highly similar. No differences were apparent in the number of gaze fixations and fixation locations across conditions or in the number of verbalised condition concepts. Although exploratory, our data suggest that the mechanisms underpinning skilled decision-making in sports differ between film-based and in situ conditions.

  7. Expanding School Resources and Increasing Time on Task: Effects of a Policy Experiment in Israel on Student Academic Achievement and Behavior. NBER Working Paper No. 18369

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavy, Victor

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I examine how student academic achievements and behavior were affected by a school finance policy experiment undertaken in elementary schools in Israel. Begun in 2004, the funding formula changed from a budget set per class to a budget set per student, with more weight given to students from lower socioeconomic and lower educational…

  8. Developing Academic English Language Proficiency Prototypes for 5th Grade Reading: Psychometric and Linguistic Profiles of Tasks. An Extended Executive Summary. CSE Report 720

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Alison L.; Huang, Becky H.; Shin, Hye Won; Farnsworth, Tim; Butler, Frances A.

    2007-01-01

    Within an evidentiary framework for operationally defining academic English language proficiency (AELP), linguistic analyses of standards, classroom discourse, and textbooks have led to specifications for assessment of AELP. The test development process described here is novel due to the emphasis on using linguistic profiles to inform the …

  9. Developing Academic English Language Proficiency Prototypes for 5th Grade Reading: Psychometric and Linguistic Profiles of Tasks. CSE Technical Report 727

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Alison L.; Huang, Becky H.; Shin, Hye Won; Farnsworth, Tim; Butler, Frances A.

    2007-01-01

    Within an evidentiary framework for operationally defining academic English language proficiency (AELP), linguistic analyses of standards, classroom discourse, and textbooks have led to specifications for assessment of AELP. The test development process described here is novel due to the emphasis on using linguistic profiles to inform the …

  10. Iconicity influences how effectively minimally verbal children with autism and ability-matched typically developing children use pictures as symbols in a search task.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Calum; Allen, Melissa L

    2015-07-01

    Previous word learning studies suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder may have difficulty understanding pictorial symbols. Here we investigate the ability of children with autism spectrum disorder and language-matched typically developing children to contextualize symbolic information communicated by pictures in a search task that did not involve word learning. Out of the participant's view, a small toy was concealed underneath one of four unique occluders that were individuated by familiar nameable objects or unfamiliar unnamable objects. Children were shown a picture of the hiding location and then searched for the toy. Over three sessions, children completed trials with color photographs, black-and-white line drawings, and abstract color pictures. The results reveal zero group differences; neither children with autism spectrum disorder nor typically developing children were influenced by occluder familiarity, and both groups' errorless retrieval rates were above-chance with all three picture types. However, both groups made significantly more errorless retrievals in the most-iconic photograph trials, and performance was universally predicted by receptive language. Therefore, our findings indicate that children with autism spectrum disorder and young typically developing children can contextualize pictures and use them to adaptively guide their behavior in real time and space. However, this ability is significantly influenced by receptive language development and pictorial iconicity.

  11. The Influence of Number of A Trials on 2-Year-Olds' Behavior in Two A-Not-B-Type Search Tasks: A Test of the Hierarchical Competing Systems Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcovitch, Stuart; Zelazo, Philip David

    2006-01-01

    Age-appropriate modifications of the A-not-B task were used to examine 2-year-olds' search behavior. Several theories predict that A-not-B errors will increase as a function of number of A trials. However, the hierarchical competing systems model (Marcovitch & Zelazo, 1999) predicts that although the ratio of perseverative to nonperseverative…

  12. The electronic academic journals on the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiumei

    This paper provides helpful information on how to search the electronic academic journals and how to download them on the Internet. In addition, several famous domestic and foreign database systems of electronic academic journals are recommended.

  13. Interrupted Visual Searches Reveal Volatile Search Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Y. Jeremy; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated memory from interrupted visual searches. Participants conducted a change detection search task on polygons overlaid on scenes. Search was interrupted by various disruptions, including unfilled delay, passive viewing of other scenes, and additional search on new displays. Results showed that performance was unaffected by…

  14. Libraries and the Search for Academic Excellence. Proceedings of the Arden House Symposium (New York, New York, March 15-17, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1987

    In the introductory paper Patricia Senn Breivik provides background information on and an overview of a national symposium. This introduction is followed by the full text of nine papers presented at the symposium: (1) "The Academic Library and Education for Leadership" (Major R. Owens, U.S. House of Representatives); (2) "Academic Libraries and…

  15. Search Engines for Tomorrow's Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2011-01-01

    Today's scholars face an outstanding array of choices when choosing search tools: Google Scholar, discipline-specific abstracts and index databases, library discovery tools, and more recently, Microsoft's re-launch of their academic search tool, now dubbed Microsoft Academic Search. What are these tools' strengths for the emerging needs of…

  16. Night Thoughts on Academic Searches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachtenberg, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    When a university, or any organization, and its recruiting firm set out to find a new leader, they usually begin and end in a delusion. They declare their intention to find the best person for the job and, once all the sorting and sifting are done, they announce that they have indeed found the best person for the job. The odds are they have done…

  17. Academic Blogging: Academic Practice and Academic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkup, Gill

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale study which investigates the role of blogging in professional academic practice in higher education. It draws on interviews with a sample of academics (scholars, researchers and teachers) who have blogs and on the author's own reflections on blogging to investigate the function of blogging in academic practice…

  18. How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Cory; Sierra, Tito; Boyer, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Academic libraries are turning increasingly to unified search solutions to simplify search and discovery of library resources. Unfortunately, very little research has been published on library user search behavior in single search box environments. This study examines how users search a large public university library using a prominent, single…

  19. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  20. Fostering Academic Vocabulary Use in Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brun-Mercer, Nicole; Zimmerman, Cheryl Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Though research has established a relationship between vocabulary knowledge and academic success and identified features to guide the L2 word learner through academic tasks (see Nation, 2013), less is known regarding student perceptions of academic vocabulary and the conscious decision-making process of these learners while they are writing. In…

  1. The Third Language of Academic English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwiers, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    Academic language is the linguistic glue that holds the tasks, texts, and tests of school together. If students can't use this glue well, their academic work is likely to fall apart. According to the author of this article, "academic language" is defined as the set of words and phrases that (1) describe content-area knowledge and procedures; (2)…

  2. Interactive Decision Support for Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to support academic advising, which plays a crucial role in student success and retention. The paper focuses on one of the most challenging tasks involved in academic advising: individual course scheduling. This task includes not only careful planning for different courses over several semesters according to students'…

  3. Academic Freedom in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.; Lechuga, Vicente M.

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, academic freedom was a foundational value for the academy in the United States. The concept of academic freedom pertains to the right of faculty to enjoy considerable autonomy in their research and teaching. The assumption that drives academic freedom is that the country benefits when faculty are able to search for…

  4. Academic writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.

    2003-10-01

    The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.

  5. Academic Jibberish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about academic jibberish. Alfie Kohn states that a great deal of academic writing is incomprehensible even to others in the same area of scholarship. Academic Jibberish may score points for the writer but does not help research or practice. The author discusses jibberish as a career strategy that impresses those…

  6. Re-Searching Secondary Teacher Trainees in Distance Education and Face-to-Face Mode: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Mamta; Gakhar, Sudesh

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and…

  7. How Academic Is Academic Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kym; Ling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    University provision for academic development is well established in the USA, UK and many other countries. However, arrangements for its provision and staffing vary. In Australia, there has been a trend towards professional rather than academic staff appointments. Is this appropriate? In this paper, the domains of academic development work are…

  8. In Search for Instructional Techniques to Maximize the Use of Germane Cognitive Resources: A Case of Teaching Complex Tasks in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sliva, Yekaterina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce an instructional technique for teaching complex tasks in physics, test its effectiveness and efficiency, and understand cognitive processes taking place in learners' minds while they are exposed to this technique. The study was based primarily on cognitive load theory (CLT). CLT determines the amount of…

  9. The effects of brief visual interruption tasks on drivers' ability to resume their visual search for a pre-cued hazard.

    PubMed

    Borowsky, Avinoam; Horrey, William J; Liang, Yulan; Garabet, Angela; Simmons, Lucinda; Fisher, Donald L

    2016-08-01

    Driver visual distraction is known to increase the likelihood of being involved in a crash, especially for long glances inside the vehicle. The detrimental impact of these in-vehicle glances may carry over and disrupt the ongoing processing of information after the driver glances back up on the road. This study explored the effect of different types of visual tasks inside the vehicle on the top-down processes that guide the detection and monitoring of road hazards after the driver glances back towards the road. Using a driving simulator, 56 participants were monitored with an eye tracking system while they navigated various hazardous scenarios in one of four experimental conditions. In all conditions, a potential hazard was visible 4-5s before the driver could strike the potential hazard were it to materialize. All interruptions were exactly two seconds in length. After the interruption the potential hazard again became visible for about a half-second after which the driver passed by the hazard. The nature of the in-vehicle visual interruption presented to the participants was varied across conditions: (1) Visual interruptions comprised of spatial, driving unrelated, tasks; (2) visual interruptions comprised of non-spatial, driving unrelated, tasks; (3) visual interruptions with no tasks added; and (4) no visual interruptions. In the first three conditions drivers glancing on the forward roadway was momentarily interrupted (either with or without a task) just after the potential hazard first became visible by the occurrence of an in-vehicle task lasting two seconds. In the last condition (no interruptions) the driver could not see the potential hazard after it just became visible because of obstructions in the built or natural environment. The obstruction (like the interruption) lasted for two seconds. In other words, across all conditions the hazard was visible, then became invisible, and finally became visible again. Importantly, the results show that the

  10. Search Engines for Tomorrow's Scholars, Part Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2012-01-01

    This two-part article considers how well some of today's search tools support scholars' work. The first part of the article reviewed Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic Search using a modified version of Carole L. Palmer, Lauren C. Teffeau, and Carrier M. Pirmann's framework (2009). Microsoft Academic Search is a strong contender when…

  11. Academic Bullies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2008-01-01

    Many professors have been traumatized by academic bullies. Unlike bullies at school, the academic bully plays a more subtle game. Bullies may spread rumors to undermine a colleague's credibility or shut their target out of social conversations. The more aggressive of the species cuss out co-workers, even threatening to get physical. There is…

  12. Academic Decathlon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of California School Administrators.

    This position paper from the Research, Evaluation, and Accreditation Committee of the Association of California School Administrators (ACSA) presents a description of the Academic Decathlon program and offers recommendations for improving the program and ways that ACSA can assist the program. The description of the Academic Decathlon, a ten-event…

  13. Assessing Executive Functions in Preschoolers Using Shape School Task

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Marta; Ros, Laura; Medina, Gloria; Ricarte, Jorge J.; Latorre, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been a growing interest in the study of the development of executive functions (EF) in preschool children due to their relationship with different cognitive, psychological, social and academic domains. Early detection of individual differences in executive functioning can have major implications for basic and applied research. Consequently, there is a key need for assessment tools adapted to preschool skills: Shape School has been shown to be a suitable task for this purpose. Our study uses Shape School as the main task to analyze development of inhibition, task-switching and working memory in a sample of 304 preschoolers (age range 3.25–6.50 years). Additionally, we include cognitive tasks for the evaluation of verbal variables (vocabulary, word reasoning and short-term memory) and performance variables (picture completion and symbol search), so as to analyze their relationship with EFs. Our results show age-associated improvements in EFs and the cognitive variables assessed. Furthermore, correlation analyses reveal positive relationships between EFs and the other cognitive variables. More specifically, using structural equation modeling and including age direct and indirect effects, our results suggest that EFs explain to a greater extent performance on verbal and performance tasks. These findings provide further information to support research that considers preschool age to be a crucial period for the development of EFs and their relationship with other cognitive processes. PMID:27729896

  14. Visual search.

    PubMed

    Chan, Louis K H; Hayward, William G

    2013-07-01

    Visual search is the act of looking for a predefined target among other objects. This task has been widely used as an experimental paradigm to study visual attention, and because of its influence has also become a subject of research itself. When used as a paradigm, visual search studies address questions including the nature, function, and limits of preattentive processing and focused attention. As a subject of research, visual search studies address the role of memory in search, the procedures involved in search, and factors that affect search performance. In this article, we review major theories of visual search, the ways in which preattentive information is used to guide attentional allocation, the role of memory, and the processes and decisions involved in its successful completion. We conclude by summarizing the current state of knowledge about visual search and highlight some unresolved issues. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:415-429. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1235 The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  15. In search for instructional techniques to maximize the use of germane cognitive resources: A case of teaching complex tasks in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliva, Yekaterina

    The purpose of this study was to introduce an instructional technique for teaching complex tasks in physics, test its effectiveness and efficiency, and understand cognitive processes taking place in learners' minds while they are exposed to this technique. The study was based primarily on cognitive load theory (CLT). CLT determines the amount of total cognitive load imposed on a learner by a learning task as combined intrinsic (invested in comprehending task complexity) and extraneous (wasteful) cognitive load. Working memory resources associated with intrinsic cognitive load are defined as germane resources caused by element interactivity that lead to learning, in contrast to extraneous working memory resources that are devoted to dealing with extraneous cognitive load. However, the amount of learner's working memory resources actually devoted to a task depends on how well the learner is engaged in the learning environment. Since total cognitive load has to stay within limits of working memory capacity, both extraneous and intrinsic cognitive load need to be reduced. In order for effective learning to occur, the use of germane cognitive resources should be maximized. In this study, the use of germane resources was maximized for two experimental groups by providing a learning environment that combined problem-solving procedure with prompts to self-explain with and without completion problems. The study tested three hypotheses and answered two research questions. The first hypothesis predicting that experimental treatments would reduce total cognitive load was not supported. The second hypothesis predicting that experimental treatments would increase performance was supported for the self-explanation group only. The third hypothesis that tested efficiency measure as adopted from Paas and van Merrienboer (1993) was not supported. As for the research question of whether the quality of self-explanations would change with time for the two experimental conditions, it was

  16. Psychophysics in a Web browser? Comparing response times collected with JavaScript and Psychophysics Toolbox in a visual search task.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Joshua R; Motz, Benjamin A

    2016-03-01

    Behavioral researchers are increasingly using Web-based software such as JavaScript to conduct response time experiments. Although there has been some research on the accuracy and reliability of response time measurements collected using JavaScript, it remains unclear how well this method performs relative to standard laboratory software in psychologically relevant experimental manipulations. Here we present results from a visual search experiment in which we measured response time distributions with both Psychophysics Toolbox (PTB) and JavaScript. We developed a methodology that allowed us to simultaneously run the visual search experiment with both systems, interleaving trials between two independent computers, thus minimizing the effects of factors other than the experimental software. The response times measured by JavaScript were approximately 25 ms longer than those measured by PTB. However, we found no reliable difference in the variability of the distributions related to the software, and both software packages were equally sensitive to changes in the response times as a result of the experimental manipulations. We concluded that JavaScript is a suitable tool for measuring response times in behavioral research. PMID:25761390

  17. Psychophysics in a Web browser? Comparing response times collected with JavaScript and Psychophysics Toolbox in a visual search task.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Joshua R; Motz, Benjamin A

    2016-03-01

    Behavioral researchers are increasingly using Web-based software such as JavaScript to conduct response time experiments. Although there has been some research on the accuracy and reliability of response time measurements collected using JavaScript, it remains unclear how well this method performs relative to standard laboratory software in psychologically relevant experimental manipulations. Here we present results from a visual search experiment in which we measured response time distributions with both Psychophysics Toolbox (PTB) and JavaScript. We developed a methodology that allowed us to simultaneously run the visual search experiment with both systems, interleaving trials between two independent computers, thus minimizing the effects of factors other than the experimental software. The response times measured by JavaScript were approximately 25 ms longer than those measured by PTB. However, we found no reliable difference in the variability of the distributions related to the software, and both software packages were equally sensitive to changes in the response times as a result of the experimental manipulations. We concluded that JavaScript is a suitable tool for measuring response times in behavioral research.

  18. Individual Values, Learning Routines and Academic Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Franziska; Hofer, Manfred; Fries, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Academic procrastination, the tendency to postpone learning activities, is regarded as a consequence of postmodern values that are prominent in post-industrialized societies. When students strive for leisure goals and have no structured routines for academic tasks, delaying strenuous learning activities becomes probable. Aims: The…

  19. Task breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlich, Jane

    1990-01-01

    The topics concerning the Center for Space Construction (CSC) space construction breakdown structure are presented in viewgraph form. It is concluded that four components describe a task -- effecting, information gathering, analysis, and regulation; uncertainties effect the relative amount of information gathering and analysis that occurs; and that task timing requirements drive the 'location in time' of cognition.

  20. Academic Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Presents design features of the Renner Middle School (Plano, Texas) where the sprawling suburbs have been kept at bay while creating the atmosphere of an academic village. Photos and a floor plan are provided. (GR)

  1. Graphic Novel Collections in Academic ARL Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Cassie

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which ARL academic libraries collect graphic novels. Using a core list of 176 titles developed from winners of major comics industry awards and a library-focused "best of" list, the holdings of 111 ARL academic libraries were searched using the libraries' online catalogs. Results suggest that most of the…

  2. Parallel Processing in Visual Search Asymmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosher, Barbara Anne; Han, Songmei; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2004-01-01

    The difficulty of visual search may depend on assignment of the same visual elements as targets and distractors-search asymmetry. Easy C-in-O searches and difficult O-in-C searches are often associated with parallel and serial search, respectively. Here, the time course of visual search was measured for both tasks with speed-accuracy methods. The…

  3. Report on task assignment No. 3 for the Waste Package Project; Parts A & B, ASME pressure vessel codes review for waste package application; Part C, Library search for reliability/failure rates data on low temperature low pressure piping, containers, and casks with long design lives

    SciTech Connect

    Trabia, M.B.; Kiley, M.; Cardle, J.; Joseph, M.

    1991-07-01

    The Waste Package Project Research Team, at UNLV, has four general required tasks. Task one is the management, quality assurance, and overview of the research that is performed under the cooperative agreement. Task two is the structural analysis of spent fuel and high level waste. Task three is an American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Pressure Vessel Code review for waste package application. Finally, task four is waste package labeling. This report includes preliminary information about task three (ASME Pressure Vessel Code review for Waste package Application). The first objective is to compile a list of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code that can be applied to waste package containers design and manufacturing processes. The second objective is to explore the use of these applicable codes to the preliminary waste package container designs. The final objective is to perform a library search for reliability and/or failure rates data on low pressure, low temperature, containers and casks with long design lives.

  4. Lessons for the Academic Introvert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Ben

    2005-01-01

    A former vice president for academic affairs at a small college in New England describes his experiences of searching for a job in the nonacademic field, the failure of which led him to seek guidance from a career-counselor. Their assessment revealed that he was an introvert and suggested that his preferred approach to confronting new people and…

  5. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  6. Cognitive Training in Academically Deficient ADDH Boys Receiving Stimulant Medication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abikoff, Howard; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-four stimulant-treated, academically deficient, and attention deficit disordered, hyperactive (ADDH) boys (ages 7-12) participated in a 16-week, intensive cognitive training program focusing on academic skills and tasks. Intervention did not enhance self-esteem and there was poor agreement between teacher ratings of academic competence and…

  7. Purpose of Engagement in Academic Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtinger, Einat; Kaplan, Avi

    2011-01-01

    "Academic self-regulation" refers to the self-generated, reflective, and strategic engagement in academic tasks (Zimmerman, 2000). Self-regulation is crucial for academic success, particularly in higher education, where students are required to take increased responsibility for their learning and where the diversity of courses and activities may…

  8. Exploring Different Types of Academic Delayers: A Latent Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunschel, Carola; Patrzek, Justine; Fries, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we explored whether there are different types of academic delayers (i.e., types of students who delay academic tasks). Latent profile analysis based on 554 university students' reasons for academic delay revealed four distinct types: inconspicuous, successful pressure-seeking, worried/anxious, and discontent with studies. The types…

  9. Utilizing a Culture of Trust to Promote Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulsart, Robyn; McCarthy, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    A simple Internet search of "academic dishonesty" reveals a continuing conversation among individuals within the academic community who are asking what academic dishonesty is, who is cheating, why students are cheating, and how we stop them from cheating. This article addresses these questions and provides a model for creating a culture of trust…

  10. Flexible learning and use of multiple-landmark information by pigeons (Columba livia) in a touch screen-based goal searching task.

    PubMed

    Ushitani, Tomokazu; Jitsumori, Masako

    2011-08-01

    Three touch screen-based experiments were conducted to investigate whether pigeons would learn to use configural information about a goal's location in relation to a multiple-landmark array. In Experiment 1, 4 pigeons (Columba livia) were trained to peck a computer monitor at a location that constituted the third vertex of a hypothetical triangle defined by 2 different landmarks. The landmarks appeared in 3 orientations during the training, and the pigeons' goal-searching ability easily transferred to the landmarks presented in 3 novel orientations. Each landmark was asymmetric, so we next examined whether the pigeons used (a) the small-scale, local orientation information that could be inferred from each landmark individually, or (b) the large-scale, configural information that could be inferred from the spatial arrangement of multiple landmarks taken as a whole. Even when each single landmark appeared by itself, the pigeons were able to locate the goal accurately, suggesting that the large-scale, configural information was not essential. However, when 1 landmark locally pointed to a location that was consistent with the triangular configuration and the other landmark locally pointed to a different location, the pigeons predominantly pecked at the configurally array-consistent location. These results suggest that the pigeons redundantly learned both the large-scale, configural strategy and the local, single-landmark strategy, but they mainly used the latter information, and used the former information solely to disambiguate conflicts when the 2 landmarks pointed toward different targets. Such flexible learning and use of redundant information may reflect the pigeons' adaptation to unstable wild environments during their evolutionary history.

  11. Academic Risk Taking, Development, and External Constraint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Margaret M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Academic risk taking--the selection of schoollike tasks ranging in difficulty and probability of success--was examined for 602 students in grades 4, 6, and 8 in Taiwan. Results of a self-report measure of tolerance for failure and a risk-taking task are discussed concerning self-enhancement versus self-assessment goals, metacognitive skills, and…

  12. Academic Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Linda

    2013-01-01

    As colleges and universities become even more complex organizations, advancement professionals need to have the skills, experience, and academic credentials to succeed in this ever-changing environment. Advancement leaders need competencies that extend beyond fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing. The author encourages…

  13. Academic Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally negative practice.…

  14. Academic Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Burton R.

    With fragmentation the dominant trend in academic settings around the world, the larger wholes of profession, enterprise, and system are less held together by integrative ideology. Strong ideological bonding is characteristic of the parts, primarily the disciplines. The larger aggregations are made whole mainly by formal superstructure, many…

  15. Academic Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William R.

    The internal politics of colleges and the influence of a current emphasis on efficiency on the traditional independence of the academician are analyzed. It is suggested that the academician does not work in the same differentiated, and therefore interdependent, way as someone in industry or a bureaucracy. Academic activity is segmented, which…

  16. Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Brian G.

    The strength of academic freedom has always depended upon historical circumstances. In the United States, higher education began with institutions founded and controlled by religious sects. The notion of who gets educated and to what ends expanded as American democracy expanded. By the 1980's, legitimate calls for equality became a general…

  17. Sustaining Motivation and Academic Goals: The Invaluable Role of Academic Delay of Gratification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    A study examined college students' academic delay of gratification, that is, their preference for an immediately available option (go to a concert the day before a test) or a delayed alternative (stay home studying for a test). Differential explanations of academic delay of gratification between task, performance approach, and performance-avoid…

  18. Teaching Effectiveness, Course Evaluation, and Academic Performance: The Role of Academic Delay of Gratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2009-01-01

    Academic delay of gratification is a significant and positive predictor of students' final course grades, even after controlling for the effect of their rating of the course, expected grade, and degree of interest, importance, and utility of the academic task. Students' expected course grades are by far the strongest predictor of their final…

  19. Courage in the Classroom: Exploring a New Framework Predicting Academic Performance and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    In the context of 7,637 high school students, the present study explored an hypothesized formulation of academic courage (defined as perseverance in the face of academic difficulty and fear) and its role in predicting academic performance (literacy and arithmetic) and various academic engagement measures (planning, task management,…

  20. Are Bibliographic Management Software Search Interfaces Reliable?: A Comparison between Search Results Obtained Using Database Interfaces and the EndNote Online Search Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgibbons, Megan; Meert, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The use of bibliographic management software and its internal search interfaces is now pervasive among researchers. This study compares the results between searches conducted in academic databases' search interfaces versus the EndNote search interface. The results show mixed search reliability, depending on the database and type of search…

  1. Multi-Attribute Sequential Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearden, J. Neil; Connolly, Terry

    2007-01-01

    This article describes empirical and theoretical results from two multi-attribute sequential search tasks. In both tasks, the DM sequentially encounters options described by two attributes and must pay to learn the values of the attributes. In the "continuous" version of the task the DM learns the precise numerical value of an attribute when she…

  2. The Search for Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fattal, Laura Felleman

    2004-01-01

    Practical and academic, the interrelationship of the visual and performing arts opens unique frontiers to aesthetic pioneers. Divergent in aim from the historic search for similar tonalities between the Synchronists and Stravinsky or atonal musicians of the 1950s-70s and minimalist painters and sculptors, the present use of the visual arts as a…

  3. Cube search, revisited.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuetao; Huang, Jie; Yigit-Elliott, Serap; Rosenholtz, Ruth

    2015-03-16

    Observers can quickly search among shaded cubes for one lit from a unique direction. However, replace the cubes with similar 2-D patterns that do not appear to have a 3-D shape, and search difficulty increases. These results have challenged models of visual search and attention. We demonstrate that cube search displays differ from those with "equivalent" 2-D search items in terms of the informativeness of fairly low-level image statistics. This informativeness predicts peripheral discriminability of target-present from target-absent patches, which in turn predicts visual search performance, across a wide range of conditions. Comparing model performance on a number of classic search tasks, cube search does not appear unexpectedly easy. Easy cube search, per se, does not provide evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. However, search asymmetries derived from rotating and/or flipping the cube search displays cannot be explained by the information in our current set of image statistics. This may merely suggest a need to modify the model's set of 2-D image statistics. Alternatively, it may be difficult cube search that provides evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. By attributing 2-D luminance variations to a shaded 3-D shape, 3-D scene understanding may slow search for 2-D features of the target.

  4. Cube search, revisited

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuetao; Huang, Jie; Yigit-Elliott, Serap; Rosenholtz, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Observers can quickly search among shaded cubes for one lit from a unique direction. However, replace the cubes with similar 2-D patterns that do not appear to have a 3-D shape, and search difficulty increases. These results have challenged models of visual search and attention. We demonstrate that cube search displays differ from those with “equivalent” 2-D search items in terms of the informativeness of fairly low-level image statistics. This informativeness predicts peripheral discriminability of target-present from target-absent patches, which in turn predicts visual search performance, across a wide range of conditions. Comparing model performance on a number of classic search tasks, cube search does not appear unexpectedly easy. Easy cube search, per se, does not provide evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. However, search asymmetries derived from rotating and/or flipping the cube search displays cannot be explained by the information in our current set of image statistics. This may merely suggest a need to modify the model's set of 2-D image statistics. Alternatively, it may be difficult cube search that provides evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. By attributing 2-D luminance variations to a shaded 3-D shape, 3-D scene understanding may slow search for 2-D features of the target. PMID:25780063

  5. Music and academic performance.

    PubMed

    Arnaud Cabanac; Perlovsky, Leonid; Bonniot-Cabanac, Marie-Claude; Cabanac, Michel

    2013-11-01

    In a previous study we demonstrated that listening to a pleasant music while performing an academic test helped students to overcome stress, to devote more time to more stressful and more complicated task and the grades were higher. Yet, there remained ambiguities as for the causes of the higher test performance of these students: do they perform better because they hear music during their examinations, or would they perform better anyway because they are more gifted/motivated? This motivated the current study as a preliminary step toward that general question: Do students who like/perform music have better grades than the others? Our results confirmed this hypothesis: students studying music have better grades in all subjects.

  6. Motivation and academic achievement in medical students

    PubMed Central

    Yousefy, Alireza; Ghassemi, Gholamreza; Firouznia, Samaneh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite their ascribed intellectual ability and achieved academic pursuits, medical students’ academic achievement is influenced by motivation. This study is an endeavor to examine the role of motivation in the academic achievement of medical students. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional correlational study, out of the total 422 medical students, from 4th to final year during the academic year 2007–2008, at School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 344 participated in completion of the Inventory of School Motivation (ISM), comprising 43 items and measuring eight aspects of motivation. The gold standard for academic achievement was their average academic marks at pre-clinical and clinical levels. Data were computer analyzed by running a couple of descriptive and analytical tests including Pearson Correlation and Student's t-student. Results: Higher motivation scores in areas of competition, effort, social concern, and task were accompanied by higher average marks at pre-clinical as well as clinical levels. However, the latter ones showed greater motivation for social power as compared to the former group. Task and competition motivation for boys was higher than for girls. Conclusion: In view of our observations, students’ academic achievement requires coordination and interaction between different aspects of motivation. PMID:23555107

  7. The Weaknesses of Full-Text Searching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a theoretical critique of the deficiencies of full-text searching in academic library databases. Because full-text searching relies on matching words in a search query with words in online resources, it is an inefficient method of finding information in a database. This matching fails to retrieve synonyms, and it also retrieves…

  8. Multitasking Information Seeking and Searching Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Amanda; Ozmutlu, H. Cenk; Ozmutlu, Seda

    2002-01-01

    Presents findings from four studies of the prevalence of multitasking information seeking and searching by Web (via the Excite search engine), information retrieval system (mediated online database searching), and academic library users. Highlights include human information coordinating behavior (HICB); and implications for models of information…

  9. Library Instruction and Online Database Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercado, Heidi

    1999-01-01

    Reviews changes in online database searching in academic libraries. Topics include librarians conducting all searches; the advent of end-user searching and the need for user instruction; compact disk technology; online public catalogs; the Internet; full text databases; electronic information literacy; user education and the remote library user;…

  10. The Effects of Assignment Format and Choice on Task Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Youjia; Lee, David; Stansbery, Samuel; McAfee, James

    2014-01-01

    Modifying task presentation format and providing opportunities to choose are two effective procedures teachers can use to improve academic productivity for students with learning difficulties. Combining the two procedures may result in academic interventions that teachers can use without significantly changing the curriculum. The present study…

  11. A comparison of embedded total task instruction in teaching behavioral chains to massed one-on-one instruction for students with intellectual disabilities: accessing general education settings and core academic content.

    PubMed

    Jameson, J Matt; Walker, Ryan; Utley, Kristen; Maughan, Ryan

    2012-05-01

    This study is a comparison of the embedded instruction of behavioral chains with more traditional (one-on-one massed trials in special education setting) instructional procedures for teaching behavioral chains to students with significant cognitive disabilities. Although embedded instruction has emerged as a promising potential instructional procedure, no literature has examined the efficacy of embedded instructional procedures to teach more complex chained behaviors. To date, all research on embedding instruction in general education settings has focused on teaching discrete skills. This study compares instruction of embedded total task chains with more traditional (one-on-one massed trials in special education setting) instructional procedures for teaching behavioral chains. The chains targeted for instruction were selected by state core educational needs and functional skill development.

  12. A comparison of embedded total task instruction in teaching behavioral chains to massed one-on-one instruction for students with intellectual disabilities: accessing general education settings and core academic content.

    PubMed

    Jameson, J Matt; Walker, Ryan; Utley, Kristen; Maughan, Ryan

    2012-05-01

    This study is a comparison of the embedded instruction of behavioral chains with more traditional (one-on-one massed trials in special education setting) instructional procedures for teaching behavioral chains to students with significant cognitive disabilities. Although embedded instruction has emerged as a promising potential instructional procedure, no literature has examined the efficacy of embedded instructional procedures to teach more complex chained behaviors. To date, all research on embedding instruction in general education settings has focused on teaching discrete skills. This study compares instruction of embedded total task chains with more traditional (one-on-one massed trials in special education setting) instructional procedures for teaching behavioral chains. The chains targeted for instruction were selected by state core educational needs and functional skill development. PMID:22584370

  13. Performance Tasks and the Pedagogy of Broadway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Marc

    2012-01-01

    If educators want students to practice and prepare for challenges they might eventually face, there are a number of useful strategies to connect academic learning to the "real world." One is to ask students to complete what are variously called "performance tasks," "case studies," "simulations," or "project- or problem-based learning units."…

  14. Examining Response Confidence in Multiple Text Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    List, Alexandra; Alexander, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Students' confidence in their responses to a multiple text-processing task and their justifications for those confidence ratings were investigated. Specifically, 215 undergraduates responded to two academic questions, differing by type (i.e., discrete and open-ended) and by domain (i.e., developmental psychology and astrophysics), using a digital…

  15. Academic detailing.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations. PMID:21209521

  16. Research Productivity by Career Stage among Korean Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jisun

    2014-01-01

    This study explores Korean academics' changes in research productivity by career stage. Career stage in this study is defined as a specific cohort based on one's length of job experience, with those in the same stage sharing similar interests, values, needs, and tasks; it is categorized into fledglings, maturing academics, established…

  17. The Academic Researcher Role: Enhancing Expectations and Improved Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein

    2013-01-01

    This article distinguishes between six tasks related to the academic researcher role: (1) networking; (2) collaboration; (3) managing research; (4) doing research; (5) publishing research; and (6) evaluation of research. Data drawn from surveys of academic staff, conducted in Norwegian universities over three decades, provide evidence that the…

  18. Incorporating Academic Standards in Instructional Systems Design Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Charles Xiaoxue

    Almost every state is "imposing" academic standards. Helping students to meet those standards is a key task for teachers and school administrators, as well as instructional systems designers. Thus, instructional designers in the K-12 environments are facing the challenge of using appropriately and effectively academic standards in their…

  19. Working Memory Updating as a Predictor of Academic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechuga, M. Teresa; Pelegrina, Santiago; Pelaez, Jose L.; Martin-Puga, M. Eva; Justicia, M. Jose

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence supporting the importance of executive functions, and specifically working memory updating (WMU), for children's academic achievement. This study aimed to assess the specific contribution of updating to the prediction of academic performance. Two updating tasks, which included different updating components, were…

  20. Relative contributions of task-relevant and task-irrelevant dimensions in priming of pop-out.

    PubMed

    Michal, Audrey L; Lleras, Alejandro; Beck, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    Intertrial effects such as priming of pop-out (PoP) often occur for task-irrelevant dimensions as well as task-relevant dimensions, though to a weaker extent. Here we test the hypothesis that increased priming for task-relevant dimensions is due to greater passive build-up of priming for the task-relevant dimension rather than to an active filtering of task-irrelevant dimensions; if this is the case, then we should observe a positive correlation between the magnitude of task-relevant and task-irrelevant priming. We tested this hypothesis using a pop-out search task in which the task-relevant dimension was orientation and the task-irrelevant dimension was color. We found a strong, positive association between task-relevant and task-irrelevant priming across a large group of participants (N = 100); additionally, we observed increased priming over consecutive repetitions for the task-relevant dimension, whereas task-irrelevant priming was constant across multiple repetitions. As further evidence against an active filtering account, task-irrelevant priming showed no systematic relationship with visual short-term memory capacity, which has been shown to correlate with filtering ability. Together, our results suggest that task-irrelevant dimensions are co-selected rather than filtered out during target search. Further, increased task-relevant priming may reflect an enhanced representation of the task-relevant dimension that is reinforced over consecutive repetitions. PMID:25311302

  1. School Gardens Enhance Academic Performance and Dietary Outcomes in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berezowitz, Claire K.; Bontrager Yoder, Andrea B.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schools face increasing demands to provide education on healthy living and improve core academic performance. Although these appear to be competing concerns, they may interact beneficially. This article focuses on school garden programs and their effects on students' academic and dietary outcomes. Methods: Database searches in CABI,…

  2. Using Collaboration to Foster Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Lynda

    2016-01-01

    For students new to higher education, the task of developing their academic writing skills, and particularly the principles and practices of source-referencing, can be daunting. Although institutions and teachers can and do provide positive guidance on this score, all too often students veer into inadvertent plagiarism through lack of confidence…

  3. Promoting Effective Task Interpretation as an Important Work Habit: A Key to Successful Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Deborah L.; Cartier, Sylvie C.

    2004-01-01

    In this article we argue that to be successful in an academic arena, students must adopt a consistent approach to completing academic work (i.e., a work habit) that includes very carefully interpreting the demands of tasks that are presented to them in schools. To clarify why task interpretation is so critical to student success, and is thus an…

  4. The Profile of Academic Offenders: Features of Students Who Admit to Academic Dishonesty

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Liat; Davidovitch, Nitza

    2016-01-01

    Dishonesty in academic settings is a reckless behavior that is unique to students and is associated with cheat ing and plagiarism of academic tasks. Incidents involving dishonesty in higher education have increased considerably in the past decade, with regard to the extent of these practices, the types of dishonesty employed, and their prevalence. The current study examines the profile of “academic offenders”. Which types are more prone to commit academic offenses? To what degree are they “normative” and do they represent the average student with regard to personal traits, personal perceptions, features of their academic studies, risk behaviors, and health risks. The study is based on a structured anonymous questionnaire. The sample consisted of 1,432 students, of whom 899 were female (63%) and 533 male (37%). The research findings indicate a common tendency among more than one quarter of the sample reported cheating on homework and 12.5% reported cheating on tests. Strong associations were found between academic dishonesty and various personal perceptions, the academic study experience, and involvement in other risky and deviant behaviors. Significant predictors of academic dishonesty were found, i.e., self-image, ethics, grades, time devoted to homework, and deviant and daring behaviors. The research findings might help indicate policies for optimally dealing with dishonesty, maybe even before the offense is committed, by means of cooperation between academic forces. PMID:27569198

  5. The Profile of Academic Offenders: Features of Students Who Admit to Academic Dishonesty.

    PubMed

    Korn, Liat; Davidovitch, Nitza

    2016-01-01

    Dishonesty in academic settings is a reckless behavior that is unique to students and is associated with cheat    ing and plagiarism of academic tasks. Incidents involving dishonesty in higher education have increased considerably in the past decade, with regard to the extent of these practices, the types of dishonesty employed, and their prevalence. The current study examines the profile of "academic offenders". Which types are more prone to commit academic offenses? To what degree are they "normative" and do they represent the average student with regard to personal traits, personal perceptions, features of their academic studies, risk behaviors, and health risks. The study is based on a structured anonymous questionnaire. The sample consisted of 1,432 students, of whom 899 were female (63%) and 533 male (37%). The research findings indicate a common tendency among more than one quarter of the sample reported cheating on homework and 12.5% reported cheating on tests. Strong associations were found between academic dishonesty and various personal perceptions, the academic study experience, and involvement in other risky and deviant behaviors. Significant predictors of academic dishonesty were found, i.e., self-image, ethics, grades, time devoted to homework, and deviant and daring behaviors. The research findings might help indicate policies for optimally dealing with dishonesty, maybe even before the offense is committed, by means of cooperation between academic forces. PMID:27569198

  6. Kinesiology Faculty Citations across Academic Rank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Citations to research reports are used as a measure for the influence of a scholar's research line when seeking promotion, grants, and awards. The current study documented the distributions of citations to kinesiology scholars of various academic ranks. Google Scholar Citations was searched for user profiles using five research interest areas…

  7. Technology and Privacy in the Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fifarek, Aimee

    2002-01-01

    Describes potential situations where patron privacy can be endangered by the presence of information technology and how academic librarians can protect patron information and prepare patrons for safe information seeking in the online world. Discusses the USA PATRIOT Act, search warrants, and acceptable use policy. (Author/LRW)

  8. Visual Experience Enhances Infants' Use of Task-Relevant Information in an Action Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Su-hua; Kohne, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether infants' use of task-relevant information in an action task could be facilitated by visual experience in the laboratory. Twelve- but not 9-month-old infants spontaneously used height information and chose an appropriate (taller) cover in search of a hidden tall toy. After watching examples of covering events in a…

  9. Academia and the Search for Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorner, Peter

    1982-01-01

    History provides examples of how academic communities responded to serious social problems and tensions: by intentionally or unintentionally aggravating them, withdrawing, or searching for solutions. (AVAIL: Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, 1922 University Ave., Madison, WI 53705)

  10. The Video-Based Short Comment Writing Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino-Silva, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Composing from sources may no longer be the exclusive domain of reading-to-write activities. The ever-increasing presence of video technology and broadcasting in academic settings could place listening-to-write tasks on a similar footing. This article describes a listening-to-write task, the video-based short comment, which (1) uses video as…

  11. Clinician Search Behaviors May Be Influenced by Search Engine Design

    PubMed Central

    Coiera, Enrico; Zrimec, Tatjana; Compton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background Searching the Web for documents using information retrieval systems plays an important part in clinicians’ practice of evidence-based medicine. While much research focuses on the design of methods to retrieve documents, there has been little examination of the way different search engine capabilities influence clinician search behaviors. Objectives Previous studies have shown that use of task-based search engines allows for faster searches with no loss of decision accuracy compared with resource-based engines. We hypothesized that changes in search behaviors may explain these differences. Methods In all, 75 clinicians (44 doctors and 31 clinical nurse consultants) were randomized to use either a resource-based or a task-based version of a clinical information retrieval system to answer questions about 8 clinical scenarios in a controlled setting in a university computer laboratory. Clinicians using the resource-based system could select 1 of 6 resources, such as PubMed; clinicians using the task-based system could select 1 of 6 clinical tasks, such as diagnosis. Clinicians in both systems could reformulate search queries. System logs unobtrusively capturing clinicians’ interactions with the systems were coded and analyzed for clinicians’ search actions and query reformulation strategies. Results The most frequent search action of clinicians using the resource-based system was to explore a new resource with the same query, that is, these clinicians exhibited a “breadth-first” search behaviour. Of 1398 search actions, clinicians using the resource-based system conducted 401 (28.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 26.37-31.11) in this way. In contrast, the majority of clinicians using the task-based system exhibited a “depth-first” search behavior in which they reformulated query keywords while keeping to the same task profiles. Of 585 search actions conducted by clinicians using the task-based system, 379 (64.8%, 95% CI 60.83-68.55) were

  12. The Transformation of Academic Work: Facts and Analysis. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.4.07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musselin, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the main changes that have effected a transformation in the nature of academic work: on the one hand, the increasing diversification and specialisation of academic tasks, and on the other, new forms of control over academic work. An analysis of these trends leads to a discussion of the relationships between the evolution of…

  13. "It's Not a Hobby": Reconceptualizing the Place of Writing in Academic Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Rowena

    2013-01-01

    The writing activities involved in research are not fully articulated in discussions of academic work. In this context, academics say they have to disengage from other tasks in order to write, which raises fundamental questions about the place of writing in academic work. A study designed to find out more about this disengagement showed that it…

  14. An Investigation of Learning Transfer in English-for-General-Academic-Purposes Writing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Mark Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This case study involved a detailed examination of learning transfer from an English-for-general-academic-purposes writing course to tasks that involve writing in other academic courses. Data were gathered over one academic year from 11 students enrolled in the writing course. These students participated in a series of interviews and provided…

  15. Using differential reinforcement to decrease academic response latencies of an adolescent with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Heinicke, Megan R; Carr, James E; Mozzoni, Michael P

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of contingency-specifying rules and a token economy to decrease the latency to comply with academic instructions by a 16-year-old girl with acquired brain injury. Results showed that treatment was successful in reducing academic response latencies. These results replicate previous research in which differential reinforcement was used to decrease slow responding to academic tasks.

  16. Challenging Google, Microsoft Unveils a Search Tool for Scholarly Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft has introduced a new search tool to help people find scholarly articles online. The service, which includes journal articles from prominent academic societies and publishers, puts Microsoft in direct competition with Google Scholar. The new free search tool, which should work on most Web browsers, is called Windows Live Academic Search…

  17. Visual Search in a Multi-Element Asynchronous Dynamic (MAD) World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunar, Melina A.; Watson, Derrick G.

    2011-01-01

    In visual search tasks participants search for a target among distractors in strictly controlled displays. We show that visual search principles observed in these tasks do not necessarily apply in more ecologically valid search conditions, using dynamic and complex displays. A multi-element asynchronous dynamic (MAD) visual search was developed in…

  18. Academic Delay of Gratification and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2011-01-01

    The ability to delay gratification is the cornerstone of all academic achievement and education. It is by delaying gratification that learners can pursue long-term academic and career goals. In general, "delay of gratification" refers to an individual's ability to forgo immediate rewards for the sake of more valuable ones later (Mischel, 1996).…

  19. Semantic Search in the Remote Associates Test.

    PubMed

    Davelaar, Eddy J

    2015-07-01

    Searching through semantic memory may involve the use of several retrieval cues. In a verbal fluency task, the set of available cues is limited and every candidate word is a target. Individuals exhibit clustering behavior as predicted by optimal foraging theory. In another semantic search task, the remote associates task (RAT), three cues are presented and a single target word has to be found. Whereas the task has been widely studied as a task of creativity or insight problem solving, in this article, the RAT is treated as a semantic retrieval task and assessed from the perspective of information foraging theory. Experiments are presented that address the superadditive combination of cues and the anti-clustering behavior in the recall sequence. A new type of search behavior in the RAT is put forward that involves maximizing the difference in activation between target and distractors. This type of search is advantageous when the target is weak and cue patches are contaminated with strong competitors.

  20. Association of Academic Physiatrists

    MedlinePlus

    ... RFC Newsletter - Physiatry in Motion Discussion Forums FileShare Libraries Membership Directory About AAP President's Message Mission & Strategic ... children('.slide-panel.notactive').removeClass('notactive'); autoPlay();}); }); Your Academic Home for Physiatry The Association of Academic Physiatrists ( ...

  1. Success of Academic Failures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meskill, Victor P.

    1971-01-01

    The process of readmission of academically troubled students should be subjected to extensive critical analysis. The human resources represented by the college academic dropout, often overlooked in the past should be reclaimed and channeled into productive areas. (Author)

  2. Academic geriatrics in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chek Hooi; Landefeld, C Seth

    2011-11-01

    Singapore is one of the fastest-aging countries in the world. The proportion of adults aged 65 and older is projected to increase from 8.7% to 20% over the next 20 years. The country has developed various strategies to meet the needs of this increase in older adults. There is an acute shortage of geriatricians and a need to train more healthcare workers to care for older adults. Geriatric medicine is a relatively new specialty, and a small number of geriatricians have been tasked with providing an increasing load of clinical service, education, and research. Hence, there is a need to develop a cohesive structure of support for faculty development and retention, advanced specialty trainee recruitment, leadership in medical education, research, and clinical service to care for the rapidly aging population. In addition, geriatric medicine is primarily a hospital-based specialty in Singapore. There is still opportunity to collaborate and improve the academic and practice integration of geriatric medicine into primary care and intermediate and long-term care where it is most needed. PMID:22091794

  3. Writing apprehension and academic procrastination among graduate students.

    PubMed

    Onwuegbuzie, A J; Collins, K M

    2001-04-01

    Academic procrastination has been associated with both fear of failure and task aversiveness. Researchers have reported that most undergraduate and graduate students delay academic tasks. Among the latter, a large proportion report procrastination in writing term papers. Such procrastination may originate from and lead to anxiety about writing so the present purpose was to investigate the relationship between scores on Daly and Miller's 1975 Writing Apprehension Test and on the two dimensions, i.e., fear of failure and task aversiveness, of Solomon and Rothblum's 1984 Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students. Participants were 135 graduate students of varied disciplinary backgrounds. Correlations between writing apprehension and academic procrastination stemmed from fear of failure (29) and task aversiveness (.41). Implications are discussed.

  4. Academic Inbreeding in Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael H.

    1977-01-01

    Academic inbreeding, the employment for faculty positions of persons who receive their graduate training at the same academic institution, is considered detrimental to an institution's academic environment. Results of a study conducted at 54 universities revealed that almost half the faculty (48 percent) in collegiate nursing programs are drawn…

  5. What Is Academic Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…

  6. The Academic Adviser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I explore the idea that "academic" advisers are "academics" who play a major role in connecting the general education curriculum to the students' experience as well as connecting the faculty to the students' holistic experience of the curriculum. The National Academic Advising Association Concept of Academic…

  7. Bridges to Academic Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gornowich, Barbara Bernstein; Nelson, Anthony

    The materials comprise the curriculum for an introductory course in academic writing for limited English proficient adult or college students. The guide is intended for the upper end of a survival language skills course or the lowest end of an academic developmental writing sequence. The curriculum instructs students on academic life and assists…

  8. The Marketing Concept in an Academic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rešetová, Kvetoslava

    2013-01-01

    Universities, as subjects of the academic environment, are institutions with the priority of education and research. The task of the marketing concept in the academic field is to communicate with all important target groups to support a stronger position and their perception of the school. The aim of the intervention is to increase the prestige, improve awareness, support positive attitudes, and present successful results in all areas of activity. This means creation and protection of a positive image, which enables higher interest of all target groups and secures better awareness about it.

  9. Space searches with a quantum robot

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.

    2000-02-15

    Quantum robots are described as mobile quantum computers and ancillary systems that move in and interact with arbitrary environments. Their dynamics is given as tasks which consist of sequences of alternating computation and action phases. A task example is considered in which a quantum robot searches a space region to find the location of a system. The possibility that the search can be more efficient than a classical search is examined by considering use of Grover's Algorithm to process the search results. This is problematic for two reasons. One is the removal of entanglements generated by the (reversible) search process. The other is that (ignoring the entanglement problem), the search process in 2 dimensional space regions is no more efficient than a classical search. However quantum searches of higher dimensional space regions are more efficient than classical searches. Reasons why quantum robots are interesting independent of these results are briefly summarized.

  10. Search Asymmetry, Sustained Attention, and Response Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Hugh; Russell, Paul N.; Helton, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In the present experiment, we used search asymmetry to test whether the sustained attention to response task is a better measure of response inhibition or sustained attention. Participants performed feature present and feature absent target detection tasks using either a sustained attention to response task (SART; high Go low No-Go) or a…

  11. Search Cloud

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/cloud.html Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this ... of Top 110 zoster vaccine Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search ...

  12. Development of Logical Search Skills in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haake, Robert J.; Somerville, Susan C.

    1985-01-01

    Nine- to 18-month-old infants were presented with simple two-location manual search tasks involving invisible displacements of objects with sequence of displacements occurring before infants search. Results provided insights into age differences associated with development of logical search strategies, information-processing skills, and temporal…

  13. Library Searching: An Industrial User's Viewpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses library searching of chemical literature from an industrial user's viewpoint, focusing on differences between academic and industrial researcher's searching techniques of the same problem area. Indicates that industry users need more exposure to patents, work with abstracting services and continued improvement in computer searching…

  14. An Estimation of Difficulty for Academic Books using Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Yuki; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko

    A collaborate filtering has been generally used as a method which recommends items to customers. However, recommending academic books, it need to consider difficulty of them and individual amount of knowledge as well as user's preference. If the recommendation method considers only user's preference, they might regret after buying or reading recommended book because it won't match user's appropriate level. In this paper, we focus on academic books and propose a method which estimates the difficulty of academic books using user's reviews. Estimating difficulty of books will support users to search and recommend academic books that match user's skill. Moreover, we evaluated applying our method to academic text books about C programming Language. We verified that our method is more effective than traditional methods for academic books.

  15. Comparing academic and community-based hospitalists.

    PubMed

    Malkenson, David; Siegal, Eric M; Leff, Jared A; Weber, Rachel; Struck, Rhonda

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, hospitalist programs were formally introduced at both an academic and community hospital in the same city providing an opportunity to study the similarities and differences in workflows in these two settings. The data were collected using a time-flow methodology allowing the two workflows to be compared quantitatively. The results showed that the hospitalists in the two settings devoted similar proportions of their workday to the task categories studied. Most of the time was spent providing indirect patient care followed by direct patient care, travel, personal, and other. However, after adjusting for patient volumes, the data revealed that academic hospitalists spent significantly more time per patient providing indirect patient care (Academic: 54.7 +/- 11.1 min/patient, Community: 41.9 +/- 9.8 min/patient, p < 0.001). Additionally, we found that nearly half of the hospitalists' time at both settings was spent multitasking. Although we found subtle workflow differences between the academic and community programs, their similarities were more striking as well as greater than their differences. We attribute these small differences to the higher case mix index at the academic program as well greater complexity and additional communication hand-offs inherent to a tertiary academic medical center. It appears that hospitalists, irrespective of their work environment, spend far more time documenting, communicating and coordinating care than they do at the bedside raising the question, is this is a necessary feature of the hospitalist care model or should hospitalists restructure their workflow to improve outcomes?

  16. Prevalence effect in haptic search

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Kazuya; Watanabe, Ken; Takaoka, Yutaka; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Kita, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    In visual search tasks, the ratio of target-present to target-absent trials has important effects on miss rates. In this study, we examined whether the target prevalence effect occurs in a haptic search task by using artificial tactile maps. The results indicated that target prevalence has effects on miss rates, sensitivity, and criterion. Moreover, an increase in miss rates in the low-prevalence condition (10%) was strongly correlated with a decrease in search termination times (target-absent reaction times). These results suggest that the prevalence effect on haptic search is caused by a decrease in the search termination time and a shift in decision criterion and a decrease in sensitivity. PMID:23145300

  17. Learning to Model Task-Oriented Attention

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Xiaochun; Zhao, Xinbo; Wang, Jian; Yang, Yongjia

    2016-01-01

    For many applications in graphics, design, and human computer interaction, it is essential to understand where humans look in a scene with a particular task. Models of saliency can be used to predict fixation locations, but a large body of previous saliency models focused on free-viewing task. They are based on bottom-up computation that does not consider task-oriented image semantics and often does not match actual eye movements. To address this problem, we collected eye tracking data of 11 subjects when they performed some particular search task in 1307 images and annotation data of 2,511 segmented objects with fine contours and 8 semantic attributes. Using this database as training and testing examples, we learn a model of saliency based on bottom-up image features and target position feature. Experimental results demonstrate the importance of the target information in the prediction of task-oriented visual attention. PMID:27247561

  18. Why Do Students Choose Not to Follow All Instructions When Completing Assessment Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleet, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    As academics we often assume that allocating marks to a task will influence student decision-making when it comes to completing that task. Marks are used by lecturers to indicate the relative importance of each of the criteria used for marking the assessment task and we expect the student to respond to the marks' allocation. This Postcard suggests…

  19. Comparing Composing Processes in Writing-Only and Reading-to-Write Test Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakans, Lia

    2008-01-01

    The use of reading-to-write tasks for assessing academic writing in English is increasing, often replacing traditional impromptu writing-only tasks. This shift has led to a number of studies comparing the written products of these two task types. To add to this literature, this article reports on a study comparing test takers' processes in…

  20. Development of a Google-based search engine for data mining radiology reports.

    PubMed

    Erinjeri, Joseph P; Picus, Daniel; Prior, Fred W; Rubin, David A; Koppel, Paul

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a secure, Google-based data-mining tool for radiology reports using free and open source technologies and to explore its use within an academic radiology department. A Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant data repository, search engine and user interface were created to facilitate treatment, operations, and reviews preparatory to research. The Institutional Review Board waived review of the project, and informed consent was not required. Comprising 7.9 GB of disk space, 2.9 million text reports were downloaded from our radiology information system to a fileserver. Extensible markup language (XML) representations of the reports were indexed using Google Desktop Enterprise search engine software. A hypertext markup language (HTML) form allowed users to submit queries to Google Desktop, and Google's XML response was interpreted by a practical extraction and report language (PERL) script, presenting ranked results in a web browser window. The query, reason for search, results, and documents visited were logged to maintain HIPAA compliance. Indexing averaged approximately 25,000 reports per hour. Keyword search of a common term like "pneumothorax" yielded the first ten most relevant results of 705,550 total results in 1.36 s. Keyword search of a rare term like "hemangioendothelioma" yielded the first ten most relevant results of 167 total results in 0.23 s; retrieval of all 167 results took 0.26 s. Data mining tools for radiology reports will improve the productivity of academic radiologists in clinical, educational, research, and administrative tasks. By leveraging existing knowledge of Google's interface, radiologists can quickly perform useful searches.

  1. The development of organized visual search.

    PubMed

    Woods, Adam J; Göksun, Tilbe; Chatterjee, Anjan; Zelonis, Sarah; Mehta, Anika; Smith, Sabrina E

    2013-06-01

    Visual search plays an important role in guiding behavior. Children have more difficulty performing conjunction search tasks than adults. The present research evaluates whether developmental differences in children's ability to organize serial visual search (i.e., search organization skills) contribute to performance limitations in a typical conjunction search task. We evaluated 134 children between the ages of 2 and 17 on separate tasks measuring search for targets defined by a conjunction of features or by distinct features. Our results demonstrated that children organize their visual search better as they get older. As children's skills at organizing visual search improve they become more accurate at locating targets with conjunction of features amongst distractors, but not for targets with distinct features. Developmental limitations in children's abilities to organize their visual search of the environment are an important component of poor conjunction search in young children. In addition, our findings provide preliminary evidence that, like other visuospatial tasks, exposure to reading may influence children's spatial orientation to the visual environment when performing a visual search.

  2. Wilderness search strategy and tactics.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ken; Longden, Maura J; Vandergraff, Bil; Smith, William R; Weber, David C; McIntosh, Scott E; Wheeler, Albert R

    2014-06-01

    Reports of overdue persons are common for search and rescue personnel. Search incidents for missing persons are conducted following established industry standard practices, which are continuously refined through experience and the analysis of previous search operations. Throughout this process, elements of uncertainty exist, and the knowledge and experience of the searchers and search managers may influence the outcome significantly. A sound knowledge of current search tactics will help search and rescue medical providers function more effectively during search operations. Initial actions during a search incident include 3 primary tasks that must be accomplished on any search: investigation, containment, and then hasty search efforts. Concurrent with these initial actions are the establishment of the search area and a formal US National Incident Management System incident command system. That is essential for an efficient operation and will lay the groundwork for expanding the operation past the initial operational period. The goal of applying these standard search management practices is to allow searchers to maximize their efforts, reduce some of the inherent uncertainty, and most importantly, place searchers in a position to detect the missing person.

  3. Wilderness search strategy and tactics.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ken; Longden, Maura J; Vandergraff, Bil; Smith, William R; Weber, David C; McIntosh, Scott E; Wheeler, Albert R

    2014-06-01

    Reports of overdue persons are common for search and rescue personnel. Search incidents for missing persons are conducted following established industry standard practices, which are continuously refined through experience and the analysis of previous search operations. Throughout this process, elements of uncertainty exist, and the knowledge and experience of the searchers and search managers may influence the outcome significantly. A sound knowledge of current search tactics will help search and rescue medical providers function more effectively during search operations. Initial actions during a search incident include 3 primary tasks that must be accomplished on any search: investigation, containment, and then hasty search efforts. Concurrent with these initial actions are the establishment of the search area and a formal US National Incident Management System incident command system. That is essential for an efficient operation and will lay the groundwork for expanding the operation past the initial operational period. The goal of applying these standard search management practices is to allow searchers to maximize their efforts, reduce some of the inherent uncertainty, and most importantly, place searchers in a position to detect the missing person. PMID:24792134

  4. The Academic Structure in Japan: Institutional Hierarchy and Academic Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arimoto, Akira

    The characteristics of the Japanese academic structure are examined with attention to the evolution of institutional hierarchy, the closed academic structure, and the effects of the academic structure upon academic research. The evolution of Japan's institutional hierarchy in academics has been tightly related to factors of nationalism,…

  5. The effects of breakfast on behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L.; Dye, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behavior, cognitive, and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic performance or in-class behavior is available. The literature was searched for articles published between 1950–2013 indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Pubmed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE databases, and PsychINFO. Thirty-six articles examining the effects of breakfast on in-class behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents were included. The effects of breakfast in different populations were considered, including undernourished or well-nourished children and adolescents from differing socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. The habitual and acute effects of breakfast and the effects of school breakfast programs (SBPs) were considered. The evidence indicated a mainly positive effect of breakfast on on-task behavior in the classroom. There was suggestive evidence that habitual breakfast (frequency and quality) and SBPs have a positive effect on children's academic performance with clearest effects on mathematic and arithmetic grades in undernourished children. Increased frequency of habitual breakfast was consistently positively associated with academic performance. Some evidence suggested that quality of habitual breakfast, in terms of providing a greater variety of food groups and adequate energy, was positively related to school performance. However, these associations can be attributed, in part, to confounders such as SES and to methodological weaknesses such as the subjective nature of the observations of behavior in class. PMID:23964220

  6. An Exploration of Academic Reading Proficiency at the University Level: A Cross-Sectional Study of 848 Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorzycki, Meg; Howard, Pamela; Allen, Diane; Desa, Geoffrey; Rosegard, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Academic reading proficiently is characterized by the ability to perform cognitive tasks associated with interpreting text. Researchers developed an externally validated Informal Academic Reading Proficiency Test to gauge undergraduates' academic reading proficiency. A cross-sectional study of 23 classes completed the reading test in 2014. This…

  7. Partnerships with Academic Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes how professional and continuing higher education units can develop and sustain successful partnerships with academic departments in order to deliver educational programs effectively to students.

  8. Ethics and academic integrity.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2015-01-01

    Academics from across the globe must navigate ever-increasing demands for research, practice, and educational productivity. With the increased demands, nurse faculty must choose value priorities and actions that reflect academic integrity. What does it mean to choose actions that reflect personal integrity in the academic arena? This article begins an important nursing philosophical and theoretical discussion that members and future members of the discipline of nursing must reflect upon and grapple with as they consider what it potentially means to act with straight thinking and integrity in academics. PMID:25520458

  9. Dimension-Specific Intertrial Priming Effects Are Task-Specific: Evidence for Multiple Weighting Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangelov, Dragan; Muller, Hermann J.; Zehetleitner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Feature singleton search is faster when the target-defining dimension repeats across consecutive trials than when it changes (Found & Muller, 1996). However, this dimension repetition benefit (DRB) has also been demonstrated for the tasks with no search component (Mortier, Theeuwes, & Starreveld, 2005). If DRBs in the search and non-search tasks…

  10. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.C.; Arzeno, Natalia; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ryder, Jeffrey; Garcia, Yamil; Guilliams, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  11. Task Time Tracker

    2013-07-24

    This client-side web app tracks the amount of time spent on arbitrary tasks. It allosw the creation of an unlimited number of arbitrarily named tasks ans via simple interactions, tracks the amount of time spent working on the drfined tasks.

  12. Launching Complex Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…

  13. Source Evaluation, Comprehension, and Learning in Internet Science Inquiry Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Jennifer; Goldman, Susan R.; Graesser, Arthur C.; Sanchez, Christopher A.; Ash, Ivan K.; Hemmerich, Joshua A.

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments, undergraduates' evaluation and use of multiple Internet sources during a science inquiry task were examined. In Experiment 1, undergraduates had the task of explaining what caused the eruption of Mt. St. Helens using the results of an Internet search. Multiple regression analyses indicated that source evaluation significantly…

  14. The Academic Generation Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronzek, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The current generation gap in academia is different--fundamentally shaped by the structural problems of academic employment. The job market has especially exacerbated tensions between senior and junior faculty by ratcheting up expectations and requirements at every stage of the academic career. The disparities have been mentioned often enough to…

  15. Facility Focus: Academic Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Humanities Building at Rice University, the Health Sciences Center at Lake Sumter Community College, and the Norman S. and Lida M. Smith Academic Technology Center at Bentley College as examples of the importance of academic buildings in helping define campus image. Includes photographs. (EV)

  16. Academic Researchers Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergom, Inger; Waltman, Jean; August, Louise; Hollenshead, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Non-tenure-track (NTT) research faculty are perhaps the most under-recognized group of academic professionals on the campuses today, despite their increasingly important role within the expanding academic research enterprise. The American Association for the Advancement of Science reports that the amount of federal spending on R&D has more than…

  17. Becoming an Academic Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angervall, Petra; Gustafsson, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The neo-liberal restructuring of academia justifies research concerning what constitutes academic work, what it means to be an academic researcher and how researchers manoeuvre in academia. The aim of this article is to investigate how this reshaping of higher education affects how research careers are formed and impacts on "becoming…

  18. California Redefines Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trow, Martin A.

    2003-01-01

    In the spring of 2003, University of California President Richard Atkinson forwarded to the U.C. Academic Senate a proposed revision of the existing regulation bearing on how university teachers should treat contentious and disputed issues, both political and academic, in their classrooms. The existing regulation on this matter, APM-010, had been…

  19. Academic Freedom Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the author's enduring concerns about the concept of academic freedom is with semantics. It has seemed to him that one of the biggest difficulties with discussions of academic freedom (as with many conversations about "value-laden" terms such as "democracy," "equity," and "justice") is that people begin from different positions and with…

  20. Academic Identities under Threat?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the lived experience of practising academics as part of an inquiry into the vexed question of "academic identities". Identity is understood not as a fixed property, but as part of the lived complexity of a person's project. The article reports on data from a small study in one university. The data suggest that academic…

  1. Arbitration in Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Questions and issues critical to an understanding of arbitration in higher education are discussed. Aspects of the academic arbitration model are defined. The following four topics are examined: (1) the procedural similarities and differences between academic arbitration and the industrial model; (2) the possible inherent conflict between academic…

  2. Impulsivity and Academic Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderman, Eric M.; Cupp, Pamela K.; Lane, Derek

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relations between academic cheating and impulsivity in a large sample of adolescents enrolled in high school health education classes. Results indicated that impulsivity predicts academic cheating for students who report extensive involvement in cheating. However, students who engage in extensive cheating are less likely…

  3. The Academic Dean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Lee H.

    1981-01-01

    The role of the academic dean, role conflicts, and the occupational experiences and performance of deans are considered. Role conflict for academic deans is related to clashing constituencies, role ambiguity, lack of correspondence between organization requirements and the personalities of incumbent deans, changing organizational needs over time,…

  4. Understanding Academic Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on the psychological theories of self-efficacy and the self-concept to understand students' self-confidence in academic study in higher education as measured by the Academic Behavioural Confidence scale (ABC). In doing this, expectancy-value theory and self-efficacy theory are considered and contrasted with self-concept and…

  5. Academic Freedom and Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a personal history of the author's own relationships with the concept of academic freedom. The article is subdivided into 3 prehistories, 7 incidents, 3 disjunctions, and 3 myths. The author discusses the complications of politics, culture, and academic freedom in one career.

  6. Thinking Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis

    2016-01-01

    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  7. Grid Task Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Chaumin

    2007-01-01

    IPG Execution Service is a framework that reliably executes complex jobs on a computational grid, and is part of the IPG service architecture designed to support location-independent computing. The new grid service enables users to describe the platform on which they need a job to run, which allows the service to locate the desired platform, configure it for the required application, and execute the job. After a job is submitted, users can monitor it through periodic notifications, or through queries. Each job consists of a set of tasks that performs actions such as executing applications and managing data. Each task is executed based on a starting condition that is an expression of the states of other tasks. This formulation allows tasks to be executed in parallel, and also allows a user to specify tasks to execute when other tasks succeed, fail, or are canceled. The two core components of the Execution Service are the Task Database, which stores tasks that have been submitted for execution, and the Task Manager, which executes tasks in the proper order, based on the user-specified starting conditions, and avoids overloading local and remote resources while executing tasks.

  8. Female College Students' Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jennifer L; Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2013-09-01

    This longitudinal study describes women's media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heaviest. In general, media use was negatively associated with academic outcomes after controlling for prior academics and demographics. Exceptions were newspaper reading and music listening, which were positively associated with academic outcomes. There were significant indirect effects of magazine reading and social networking on GPA via academic behaviors, confidence, and problems. Results show that female college students are heavy users of new media, and that some forms of media use may adversely impact academic performance. PMID:24505554

  9. Female College Students’ Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study describes women’s media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heaviest. In general, media use was negatively associated with academic outcomes after controlling for prior academics and demographics. Exceptions were newspaper reading and music listening, which were positively associated with academic outcomes. There were significant indirect effects of magazine reading and social networking on GPA via academic behaviors, confidence, and problems. Results show that female college students are heavy users of new media, and that some forms of media use may adversely impact academic performance. PMID:24505554

  10. Confidential Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Linda Chion

    2003-01-01

    Will the stealth superintendent hunt in Cincinnati become tomorrow's standard approach? Search consultants and superintendents offer their views on how far confidentiality should go. Also includes a search firm's process for shielding identities and a confidentiality pledge. (MLF)

  11. Savvy Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacso, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Explains desktop metasearch engines, which search the databases of several search engines simultaneously. Reviews two particular versions, the Copernic 2001 Pro and the BullsEye Pro 3, comparing costs, subject categories, display capabilities, and layout for presenting results. (LRW)

  12. Does the thinking aloud condition affect the search for pulmonary nodules?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlefair, Stephen; Brennan, Patrick; Reed, Warren; Williams, Mark; Pietrzyk, Mariusz W.

    2012-02-01

    Aim: To measure the effect of thinking aloud on perceptual accuracy and visual search behavior during chest radiograph interpretation for pulmonary nodules. Background: Thinking Aloud (TA) is an empirical research method used by researchers in cognitive psychology and behavioural analysis. In this pilot study we wanted to examine whether TA had an effect on the perceptual accuracy and search patterns of subjects looking for pulmonary nodules on adult posterioranterior chest radiographs (PA CxR). Method: Seven academics within Medical Radiation Sciences at The University of Sydney participated in two reading sessions with and without TA. Their task was to localize pulmonary nodules on 30 PA CxR using mouse clicks and rank their confidence levels of nodule presence. Eye-tracking recordings were collected during both viewing sessions. Time to first fixation, duration of first fixation, number of fixations, cumulative time of fixation and total viewing time were analysed. In addition, ROC analysis was conducted on collected outcome using DBM methodology. Results: Time to first nodule fixation was significantly longer (p=0.001) and duration of first fixation was significantly shorter (p=0.043). No significant difference was observed in ROC AUC scores between control and TA conditions. Conclusion: Our results confirm that TA has little effect on perceptual ability or performance, except for prolonging the task. However, there were significant differences in visual search behavior. Future researchers in radio-diagnosis could use the think aloud condition rather than silence so as to more closely replicate the clinical scenario.

  13. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  14. Reengineering Academic Medical Centers: Reengineering Academic Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korn, David

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of academic medical centers (AMCs) looks at: change due to heavy federal funding in recent decades; adverse consequences, including deemphasis on education in favor of research and clinical service delivery, and discrepancies between AMC internal and external labor markets; and challenges to medical education in research, education, and…

  15. The Ethical Academic: Academics as Public Intellectuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, American sociologist Robert Neelly Bellah (Bellah, et al., 1986: 303) critiqued the growing isolation of intellectuals within universities and called for a return to "social science as public philosophy." Little seems to have changed. My thirty-seven year experience at the University of Alberta suggests that academics see…

  16. Slowed Search in the Context of Unimpaired Grouping in Autism: Evidence from Multiple Conjunction Search.

    PubMed

    Keehn, Brandon; Joseph, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    In multiple conjunction search, the target is not known in advance but is defined only with respect to the distractors in a given search array, thus reducing the contributions of bottom-up and top-down attentional and perceptual processes during search. This study investigated whether the superior visual search skills typically demonstrated by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) would be evident in multiple conjunction search. Thirty-two children with ASD and 32 age- and nonverbal IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children were administered a multiple conjunction search task. Contrary to findings from the large majority of studies on visual search in ASD, response times of individuals with ASD were significantly slower than those of their TD peers. Evidence of slowed performance in ASD suggests that the mechanisms responsible for superior ASD performance in other visual search paradigms are not available in multiple conjunction search. Although the ASD group failed to exhibit superior performance, they showed efficient search and intertrial priming levels similar to the TD group. Efficient search indicates that ASD participants were able to group distractors into distinct subsets. In summary, while demonstrating grouping and priming effects comparable to those exhibited by their TD peers, children with ASD were slowed in their performance on a multiple conjunction search task, suggesting that their usual superior performance in visual search tasks is specifically dependent on top-down and/or bottom-up attentional and perceptual processes.

  17. Partition search

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    We introduce a new form of game search called partition search that incorporates dependency analysis, allowing substantial reductions in the portion of the tree that needs to be expanded. Both theoretical results and experimental data are presented. For the game of bridge, partition search provides approximately as much of an improvement over existing methods as {alpha}-{beta} pruning provides over minimax.

  18. Dewey Searches!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity for young children that helps them conduct subject searches using an automated system that allows customization of access to a library's collection. Explains a timed game that makes use of subject searching and word searching on the topic of dinosaurs. (LRW)

  19. Suspicionless Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    In a federal case involving a vice-principal's pat-down search of middle-school students in a cafeteria (for a missing pizza knife), the court upheld the search, saying it was relatively unintrusive and met "TLO's" reasonable-suspicion standards. Principals need reasonable justification for searching a group. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)

  20. A Human-Centered Design and Evaluation Framework for Information Search

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yang; Zhang, Jiajie

    2005-01-01

    Information search in a distributed environment is an interactive process between the user and the artifact. How the information is distributed across the user and the artifact determines the efficacy of information search. Using a human-centered method, UFuRT, we developed an information search model and a taxonomy of search tasks. Further, we developed prototypes to investigate the relationship between search tasks and interface types. Preliminary results of analysis reveal the requirement of distributed information for search tasks and help understand the complexity of the tasks in different types of interfaces. PMID:16779046

  1. Studying Orientations and Performance on Verbal Fluency Tasks in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Eleni; Andreou, Georgia; Vlachos, Filippos

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has shown that studying orientations are important factors in determining academic performance. The main purpose of this study was to investigate how Greek students' approaches to studying in combination with gender, academic discipline, and professional degree in English affect performance on verbal fluency tasks in English as a…

  2. Task usefulness affects perception of rivalrous images.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Adrien; Mamassian, Pascal

    2010-12-01

    In bistable perception, several interpretations of the same physical stimulus are perceived in alternation. If one interpretation appears to help the observer to be successful in an auxiliary task, will that interpretation be seen more often than the other? We addressed this question using rivalrous stimuli. One of the elicited percepts presented an advantage for a separate visual search task that was run in close temporal proximity to the rivalry task. We found that the percept that was useful for the search task became dominant over the alternate percept. Observers were not aware of the manipulation that made one percept more useful, which suggests that usefulness was learned implicitly. The learning influenced only the first percept of each rivalrous presentation, but the bias persisted even when the useful percept was no longer useful. The long-lasting aspect of the effect distinguishes it from other documented attentional effects on bistable perception. Therefore, using implicit learning, we demonstrated that task usefulness can durably change the appearance of a stimulus.

  3. A Study of Science Education Positions, Search Process, and Hiring Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Germann, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze science education searches and hiring practices for faculty positions listed in The Chronicle of Higher Education for an academic year. Chairs of searches completed a survey about successful and unsuccessful searches. Over 70% of searches were successful in hiring new science education faculty with 33%…

  4. Getting Interpersonal on a University Entrance Exam Impromptu Writing Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myskow, Gordon; Gordon, Kana

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the types of audience engagement strategies used by a Japanese secondary school student in an after school course preparing for a high-stakes impromptu academic writing task on a university entrance exam. The study uses appraisal theory--the branch of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) concerned with the patterning of…

  5. Task Representation and Text Construction in Reading-to-Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Fei-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Students' interpretations of their academic writing tasks has been a central concern in the cognitive-based writing research due to the prominent role such decision-making plays in determining students' subsequent thinking and composing strategies and ultimately in shaping their textual quality. Without a comprehensive understanding of how L2…

  6. Learning Styles and Performance in Second Language Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Eleni; Andreou, Georgia; Vlachos, Filippos

    2008-01-01

    Given the paucity of research that has examined associations between learning styles and chosen academic discipline in connection with performance on different second language (L2) verbal fluency tasks, the authors undertook the current study with the aim of investigating the relationship between Greek students' learning styles and performance on…

  7. An Academic Curriculum Will Close the Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa

    2012-01-01

    America's unyielding academic achievement gap has been a national priority for a long time; yet, some schools have succeeded with academically disadvantaged youth. Usually, these institutions embrace a culture of success and follow an academic curriculum that is grounded in core knowledge and scholastic vocabulary. Academically disadvantaged…

  8. Academic Capitalism and Academic Culture: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Pilar; Berger, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    This case study investigated the impact of academic capitalism on academic culture by examining the perspectives of faculty members in an American academic department with significant industrial funding. The results of this study indicate that faculty members believe that the broad integrity of the academic culture remains unaffected in this…

  9. Gypsy Scholarship and Stress: The Plight of Written Business Communication as an Academic Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirtz, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the position of young humanists teaching courses in business writing (who job-hop in search of tenured positions or drop out of academe) as representative of "exhaustion," the final stage of Hans Selye's stress model. (SR)

  10. Sleep Deprivation and Time-on-Task Performance Decrement in the Rat Psychomotor Vigilance Task

    PubMed Central

    Oonk, Marcella; Davis, Christopher J.; Krueger, James M.; Wisor, Jonathan P.; Van Dongen, Hans P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The rat psychomotor vigilance task (rPVT) was developed as a rodent analog of the human psychomotor vigilance task (hPVT). We examined whether rPVT performance displays time-on-task effects similar to those observed on the hPVT. Design: The rPVT requires rats to respond to a randomly presented light stimulus to obtain a water reward. Rats were water deprived for 22 h prior to each 30-min rPVT session to motivate performance. We analyzed rPVT performance over time on task and as a function of the response-stimulus interval, at baseline and after sleep deprivation. Setting: The study was conducted in an academic research vivarium. Participants: Male Long-Evans rats were trained to respond to a 0.5 sec stimulus light within 3 sec of stimulus onset. Complete data were available for n = 20 rats. Interventions: Rats performed the rPVT for 30 min at baseline and after 24 h total sleep deprivation by gentle handling. Measurements and Results: Compared to baseline, sleep deprived rats displayed increased performance lapses and premature responses, similar to hPVT lapses of attention and false starts. However, in contrast to hPVT performance, the time-on-task performance decrement was not significantly enhanced by sleep deprivation. Moreover, following sleep deprivation, rPVT response times were not consistently increased after short response-stimulus intervals. Conclusions: The rat psychomotor vigilance task manifests similarities to the human psychomotor vigilance task in global performance outcomes, but not in post-sleep deprivation effects of time on task and response-stimulus interval. Citation: Oonk M, Davis CJ, Krueger JM, Wisor JP, Van Dongen HPA. Sleep deprivation and time-on-task performance decrement in the rat psychomotor vigilance task. SLEEP 2015;38(3):445–451. PMID:25515099

  11. USING DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT TO DECREASE ACADEMIC RESPONSE LATENCIES OF AN ADOLESCENT WITH ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Heinicke, Megan R; Carr, James E; Mozzoni, Michael P

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of contingency-specifying rules and a token economy to decrease the latency to comply with academic instructions by a 16-year-old girl with acquired brain injury. Results showed that treatment was successful in reducing academic response latencies. These results replicate previous research in which differential reinforcement was used to decrease slow responding to academic tasks. PMID:20514195

  12. Academic freedom and academic-industry relationships in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Streiffer, Robert

    2006-06-01

    Commercial academic-industry relationships (AIRs) are widespread in biotechnology and have resulted in a wide array of restrictions on academic research. Objections to such restrictions have centered on the charge that they violate academic freedom. I argue that these objections are almost invariably unsuccessful. On a consequentialist understanding of the value of academic freedom, they rely on unfounded empirical claims about the overall effects that AIRs have on academic research. And on a rights-based understanding of the value of academic freedom, they rely on excessively lavish assumptions about the kinds of activities that academic freedom protects.

  13. Can Low-Cost Support Programmes with Coaching Accelerate Doctoral Completion in Health Science Faculty Academics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Hilary; Bentley, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Career development for full-time Health Sciences academics through to doctoral studies is a monumental task. Many academics have difficulty completing their studies in the minimum time as well as publishing after obtaining their degree. As this problem is particularly acute in the Health Sciences, the PhD Acceleration Programme in Health Sciences…

  14. College and Academic Self-Efficacy as Antecedents for High School Dual-Credit Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmun, Cliff D.

    2013-01-01

    Do high school students who are predisposed to enroll in dual-credit courses already possess high levels of motivation or college and academic self-efficacy? Students in this study reported being academically motivated, but they did not report high levels of confidence in their ability to perform certain college-associated tasks. Of 52 items…

  15. Improving Academic Achievement of At-Risk Students in English Education and Keyboarding I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Barbara; Nelson, Denise

    This report describes a program for improving the on-task behavior of at-risk students to increase their academic achievement. The targeted population consisted of high-school students in a growing middle-class community located in a rural area of a midwestern state. The problems of academic under-achievement were documented through data including…

  16. Maintaining Motivation and Regulating Emotion: Measuring Individual Differences in Academic Volitional Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Erin J.; Garcia, Teresa

    An instrument was developed to measure the resourcefulness and self-directedness of students in maintaining their motivation on academic goal tasks. The Academic Volitional Strategy Inventory (AVSI) is a self-report instrument designed to assess the management of emotion and motivation by college students during the goal-striving process. An…

  17. Anti-Intellectual Attitudes and Academic Self-Efficacy among Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Rafik Z.

    2008-01-01

    "Anti-intellectualism" refers to a student's lack of interest in and disrespect for intellectual pursuits and critical thinking and a preference for an education experience that is practical and requires only memorization. "Academic self-efficacy" refers to a student's confidence in his or her ability to succeed in challenging academic tasks. The…

  18. Writing for the World: Wikipedia as an Introduction to Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tardy, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    As students move from writing personal essays to writing formal academic texts in English, they face several new challenges. Writing tasks in higher education often require students to draw upon outside sources and to adopt the styles and genres of academic discourse. They must conduct research, summarize and paraphrase, cite sources, adopt genre…

  19. Persistence in the Face of Academic Challenge for Economically Disadvantaged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined persistence in the face of academic challenge for economically disadvantaged children. Participants included 103 children attending Head Start preschools, as well as their caregivers and teachers. Child tasks measured persistence in the face of academic challenge as well as emergent implicit theories of intelligence. Caregiver…

  20. Beyond Text Queries and Ranked Lists: Faceted Search in Library Catalogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Since the adoption of faceted search in a small number of academic libraries in 2006, faceted library catalogs have gained popularity in many academic and public libraries. This dissertation seeks to understand whether faceted search improves the interactions between searchers and library catalogs and to understand ways that facets are used in…

  1. Peppy: Proteogenomic Search Software

    PubMed Central

    Risk, Brian A.; Spitzer, Wendy J.; Giddings, Morgan C.

    2014-01-01

    Proteogenomic searching is a useful method for identifying novel proteins, annotating genes and detecting peptides unique to an individual genome. The approach, however, can be laborious, as it often requires search segmentation and the use of several unintegrated tools. Furthermore, many proteogenomic efforts have been limited to small genomes, as large genomes can prove impractical due to the required amount of computer memory and computation time. We present Peppy, a software tool designed to perform every necessary task of proteogenomic searches quickly, accurately and automatically. The software generates a peptide database from a genome, tracks peptide loci, matches peptides to MS/MS spectra and assigns confidence values to those matches. Peppy automatically performs a decoy database generation, search and analysis to return identifications at the desired false discovery rate threshold. Written in Java for cross-platform execution, the software is fully multithreaded for enhanced speed. The program can run on regular desktop computers, opening the doors of proteogenomic searching to a wider audience of proteomics and genomics researchers. Peppy is available at http://geneffects.com/peppy. PMID:23614390

  2. Specific-Token Effects in Screening Tasks: Possible Implications for Aviation Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Washburn, David A.; Taglialatela, Lauren A.

    2005-01-01

    Screeners at airport security checkpoints perform an important categorization task in which they search for threat items in complex x-ray images. But little is known about how the processes of categorization stand up to visual complexity. The authors filled this research gap with screening tasks in which participants searched for members of target…

  3. Women in Academic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Thibault, George E

    2016-08-01

    More than a decade ago, women achieved parity with men in the number of matriculants to medical school, nearly one-third of the faculty of medical schools were women, and there were some women deans and department chairs. These trends were promising, but today there are still significant differences in pay, academic rank, and leadership positions for women compared with men in academic medicine. Though there has been progress in many areas, the progress is too slow to achieve previously recommended goals, such as 50% women department chairs by 2025 and 50% women deans by 2030.The author points to the findings presented in the articles from the Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers in this issue, as well as research being published elsewhere, as an evidence base for the ongoing discussion of gender equity in academic medicine. More attention to culture and the working environment will be needed to achieve true parity for women in academic medical careers.

  4. The Internet as a Source of Academic Research Information: Findings of Two Pilot Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibirige, Harry M.; DePalo, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of information available on the Internet focuses on two pilot studies that investigated how academic users perceive search engines and subject-oriented databases as sources of topical information. Highlights include information seeking behavior of academic users; undergraduate users; graduate users; faculty; and implications for…

  5. The Resilience of Recently Graduated and Unemployed Dutch Academics in Coping with the Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker, Jeroen J. H.; Amsing, Hilda T. A.; Hahurij, Lisa; Wichgers, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Some years after the world-wide crisis starting in 2008, also many recently graduated Dutch academics were confronted with the problem of how to cope with getting a job. This article focuses on the coping strategies they use when searching after a job, spending the day, and coping with limited financial means. 91 graduated academics completed a…

  6. Ligand scaffold hopping combining 3D maximal substructure search and molecular similarity

    PubMed Central

    Quintus, Flavien; Sperandio, Olivier; Grynberg, Julien; Petitjean, Michel; Tuffery, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Background Virtual screening methods are now well established as effective to identify hit and lead candidates and are fully integrated in most drug discovery programs. Ligand-based approaches make use of physico-chemical, structural and energetics properties of known active compounds to search large chemical libraries for related and novel chemotypes. While 2D-similarity search tools are known to be fast and efficient, the use of 3D-similarity search methods can be very valuable to many research projects as integration of "3D knowledge" can facilitate the identification of not only related molecules but also of chemicals possessing distant scaffolds as compared to the query and therefore be more inclined to scaffolds hopping. To date, very few methods performing this task are easily available to the scientific community. Results We introduce a new approach (LigCSRre) to the 3D ligand similarity search of drug candidates. It combines a 3D maximum common substructure search algorithm independent on atom order with a tunable description of atomic compatibilities to prune the search and increase its physico-chemical relevance. We show, on 47 experimentally validated active compounds across five protein targets having different specificities, that for single compound search, the approach is able to recover on average 52% of the co-actives in the top 1% of the ranked list which is better than gold standards of the field. Moreover, the combination of several runs on a single protein target using different query active compounds shows a remarkable improvement in enrichment. Such Results demonstrate LigCSRre as a valuable tool for ligand-based screening. Conclusion LigCSRre constitutes a new efficient and generic approach to the 3D similarity screening of small compounds, whose flexible design opens the door to many enhancements. The program is freely available to the academics for non-profit research at: . PMID:19671127

  7. Is There an "Academic Vocabulary"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Ken; Tse, Polly

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the notion of "academic vocabulary": the assumption that students of English for academic purposes (EAP) should study a core of high frequency words because they are common in an English academic register. We examine the value of the term by using Cox-head's (2000) Academic Word List (AWL) to explore the distribution of its…

  8. The Rewards of Academic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies of academic leadership confirm what many academic leaders know from personal experience: academic leadership is a complex and demanding role with significant stress and high burnout and turnover rates (Brown, 2002; Brown and Moshavi, 2002). In the light of these issues, an exploration of the nature of academic leadership and its…

  9. Academic Freedom and Organisational Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes prominent current arguments on academic freedom's endangerment by managerialism and discusses their limitations. Defines a new vision of academic freedom informed by thinking on globalization. Presents findings from interviews with Australian faculty about academic freedom and discusses ways to ensure that academic freedom endures in…

  10. Academic Writing and Tacit Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elton, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    The genre of academic writing is discipline dependent, so that neither specialists in academic writing nor practising academics in a discipline can, independently of each other, provide students with the necessary help to develop the ability to write in their academic disciplines. Furthermore, the rules are largely tacit, i.e. they are not…

  11. NSI security task: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tencati, Ron

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Science Internet (NSI) security task. The task includes the following: policies and security documentation; risk analysis and management; computer emergency response team; incident handling; toolkit development; user consulting; and working groups, conferences, and committees.

  12. Improving spectral library search by redefining similarity measures.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ankita; Enright, Catherine G; Madden, Michael G

    2015-05-26

    Similarity plays a central role in spectral library search. The goal of spectral library search is to identify those spectra in a reference library of known materials that most closely match an unknown query spectrum, on the assumption that this will allow us to identify the main constituent(s) of the query spectrum. The similarity measures used for this task in software and the academic literature are almost exclusively metrics, meaning that the measures obey the three axioms of metrics: (1) minimality; (2) symmetry; (3) triangle inequality. Consequently, they implicitly assume that the query spectrum is drawn from the same distribution as that of the reference library. In this paper, we demonstrate that this assumption is not necessary in practical spectral library search and that in fact it is often violated in practice. Although the reference library may be constructed carefully, it is generally impossible to guarantee that all future query spectra will be drawn from the same distribution as the reference library. Before evaluating different similarity measures, we need to understand how they define the relationship between spectra. In spectral library search, we often aim to find the constituent(s) of a mixture. We propose that, rather than asking which reference library spectra are similar to the mixture, we should ask which of the reference library spectra are contained in the given query mixture. This question is inherently asymmetric. Therefore, we should adopt a nonmetric measure. To evaluate our hypothesis, we apply a nonmetric measure formulated by Tversky [Psychol. Rev. 1977, 84, 327-352] known as the Contrast Model and compare its performance to the well-known Jaccard similarity index metric on spectroscopic data sets. Our results show that the Tversky similarity measure yields better results than the Jaccard index. PMID:25902003

  13. Improving spectral library search by redefining similarity measures.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ankita; Enright, Catherine G; Madden, Michael G

    2015-05-26

    Similarity plays a central role in spectral library search. The goal of spectral library search is to identify those spectra in a reference library of known materials that most closely match an unknown query spectrum, on the assumption that this will allow us to identify the main constituent(s) of the query spectrum. The similarity measures used for this task in software and the academic literature are almost exclusively metrics, meaning that the measures obey the three axioms of metrics: (1) minimality; (2) symmetry; (3) triangle inequality. Consequently, they implicitly assume that the query spectrum is drawn from the same distribution as that of the reference library. In this paper, we demonstrate that this assumption is not necessary in practical spectral library search and that in fact it is often violated in practice. Although the reference library may be constructed carefully, it is generally impossible to guarantee that all future query spectra will be drawn from the same distribution as the reference library. Before evaluating different similarity measures, we need to understand how they define the relationship between spectra. In spectral library search, we often aim to find the constituent(s) of a mixture. We propose that, rather than asking which reference library spectra are similar to the mixture, we should ask which of the reference library spectra are contained in the given query mixture. This question is inherently asymmetric. Therefore, we should adopt a nonmetric measure. To evaluate our hypothesis, we apply a nonmetric measure formulated by Tversky [Psychol. Rev. 1977, 84, 327-352] known as the Contrast Model and compare its performance to the well-known Jaccard similarity index metric on spectroscopic data sets. Our results show that the Tversky similarity measure yields better results than the Jaccard index.

  14. Evidence-based Medicine Search: a customizable federated search engine

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, Paul J.; Howse, David K.; Keim, Samuel M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports on the development of a tool by the Arizona Health Sciences Library (AHSL) for searching clinical evidence that can be customized for different user groups. Brief Description: The AHSL provides services to the University of Arizona's (UA's) health sciences programs and to the University Medical Center. Librarians at AHSL collaborated with UA College of Medicine faculty to create an innovative search engine, Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) Search, that provides users with a simple search interface to EBM resources and presents results organized according to an evidence pyramid. EBM Search was developed with a web-based configuration component that allows the tool to be customized for different specialties. Outcomes/Conclusion: Informal and anecdotal feedback from physicians indicates that EBM Search is a useful tool with potential in teaching evidence-based decision making. While formal evaluation is still being planned, a tool such as EBM Search, which can be configured for specific user populations, may help lower barriers to information resources in an academic health sciences center. PMID:18379665

  15. Is preschool executive function causally related to academic achievement?

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Michael T; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Voegler-Lee, Mary E

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to reevaluate the well-established result that preschoolers' performance on executive function tasks are positively associated with their performance on academic achievement tests. The current study replicated the previously established concurrent associations between children's performance on EF tasks and academic achievement tests. Specifically, children's performance on measures of inhibitory and motor control were positively associated with their performance on tests of reading, writing, and mathematics achievement (rs = .2-.5); moreover, although diminished in magnitude, most of these associations held up even after including an earlier measure of academic achievement as a covariate (rs = .1-.3). However, the application of an alternative analytic method, fixed effects analysis, a method that capitalizes on repeated measures data to control for all time stable measured and unmeasured covariates, rendered the apparent positive associations between executive function and academic achievement nonsignificant (rs = .0-.1). Taken together, these results suggest that the well-replicated association between executive function abilities and academic achievement may be spurious. Results are discussed with respect to the importance of utilizing analytic methods and research designs that facilitate strong causal inferences between executive function and academic achievement in early childhood, as well as the limitations of making curriculum development recommendations and/or public policy decisions based on studies that have failed to do so. PMID:21707258

  16. New Technologies, New Approaches to Evaluating Academic Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Peter J.; West, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Technology has enabled a proliferation of publication venues for disseminating academic work. The task of evaluating the relative quality of each of these venues is simultaneously exacerbated and resolved by the use of new technologies. In this article, the authors propose a three-pronged framework for evaluating the quality of scholarly work that…

  17. Third Graders' Performance Predictions: Calibration Deflections and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ots, Aivar

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on third grade pupils' (9 to 10 years old) ability to predict their performance in a given task and on the correspondence between the accuracy and adequacy of the predictions on the one hand, and the academic achievement on the other. The study involved 713 pupils from 29 Estonian schools. The pupils' performance predictions…

  18. Improving the Quality of Students' Academic Writing: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boscolo, Pietro; Arfe, Barbara; Quarisa, Mara

    2007-01-01

    An intervention aimed at improving academic writing--in particular, synthesis writing - was conducted with 52 undergraduate students of psychology of the University of Padua (Italy). Before and after the intervention, which lasted 12 weeks, participants were administered a questionnaire on beliefs about writing and a synthesis writing task. During…

  19. Heedful Interrelating in the Academic Discourse of Collaborative Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michelle E.; Daniel, Sarah R.

    2010-01-01

    Borrowing from the field of organizational management, we propose that heedful interrelating offers a tangible framework for thinking about the psychosocial aspects of collaboration which entail moment-to-moment cognitions and behaviors of students in order to complete a joint academic task. Using conversational analysis, our objective was to…

  20. Wisconsin's Model Academic Standards for Business. Bulletin No. 9004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This document contains standards for the academic content of the Wisconsin K-12 curriculum in the area of business. Developed by task forces of educators, parents, board of education members, and employers and employees, the standards cover content, performance, and proficiency areas. They are cross-referenced to the state standards for English…

  1. Strengthening the Teaching Self-Efficacy of Early Career Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian Colin

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study exploring teaching self-efficacy (defined as a belief in capability to execute teaching-related tasks) in a higher education context. It is based on the views of 12 early career academics (ECAs) employed at Charles Sturt University who were interviewed to learn more about how their teaching self-efficacy…

  2. No Academic Borders?: Transdisciplinarity in University Teaching and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, A. Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Transdisciplinarity has been a veritable mantra, especially in the humanities and social sciences, for twenty years or more. Yet academic structures and research application requirements still struggle to come to grips with cross-boundary research and teaching. Making universities more trans-discipline-friendly is a tricky task, however. As Wendy…

  3. Academic Procrastination Prevention/Intervention: Strategies and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachgal, Mera M.; Hansen, L. Sunny; Nutter, Kevin J.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a study of students in a college study skills course who self-reported procrastination in three critical tasks: studying for exams, writing term papers, and keeping up with weekly reading. Reports that procrastination scores were positively correlated with number of perceived barriers to academic success, including problems with time…

  4. Academic Engagement of Elementary School Children with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Douglas L.; And Others

    Variability of attention to task and its relation to instructional contexts for learning disabled (LD) children was investigated. Subjects were 24 mainstreamed elementary grade LD children. The children's behaviors relating to academic engagement and the situational contexts in which they occurred were observed and coded in both the regular class…

  5. Causal Discourse Analyzer: Improving Automated Feedback on Academic ESL Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chukharev-Hudilainen, Evgeny; Saricaoglu, Aysel

    2016-01-01

    Expressing causal relations plays a central role in academic writing. While it is important that writing instructors assess and provide feedback on learners' causal discourse, it could be a very time-consuming task. In this respect, automated writing evaluation (AWE) tools may be helpful. However, to date, there have been no AWE tools capable of…

  6. Applied Academic & Workplace Skills for Collision Repair & Refinish Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation, Herndon, VA.

    This task list of workplace skills for collision repair and refinish technicians resulted from grant from the U.S. Department of Education to the National Automotive Technician Education Foundation (NATEF) of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence. The skills list is integrated with academic skills. This document lists the…

  7. Task Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  8. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem.

  9. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem. PMID:26817556

  10. Reconsidering Visual Search

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The visual search paradigm has had an enormous impact in many fields. A theme running through this literature has been the distinction between preattentive and attentive processing, which I refer to as the two-stage assumption. Under this assumption, slopes of set-size and response time are used to determine whether attention is needed for a given task or not. Even though a lot of findings question this two-stage assumption, it still has enormous influence, determining decisions on whether papers are published or research funded. The results described here show that the two-stage assumption leads to very different conclusions about the operation of attention for identical search tasks based only on changes in response (presence/absence versus Go/No-go responses). Slopes are therefore an ambiguous measure of attentional involvement. Overall, the results suggest that the two-stage model cannot explain all findings on visual search, and they highlight how slopes of response time and set-size should only be used with caution. PMID:27551357

  11. Reconsidering Visual Search.

    PubMed

    Kristjánsson, Árni

    2015-12-01

    The visual search paradigm has had an enormous impact in many fields. A theme running through this literature has been the distinction between preattentive and attentive processing, which I refer to as the two-stage assumption. Under this assumption, slopes of set-size and response time are used to determine whether attention is needed for a given task or not. Even though a lot of findings question this two-stage assumption, it still has enormous influence, determining decisions on whether papers are published or research funded. The results described here show that the two-stage assumption leads to very different conclusions about the operation of attention for identical search tasks based only on changes in response (presence/absence versus Go/No-go responses). Slopes are therefore an ambiguous measure of attentional involvement. Overall, the results suggest that the two-stage model cannot explain all findings on visual search, and they highlight how slopes of response time and set-size should only be used with caution. PMID:27551357

  12. The Shattered Stereotype: The Academic Library in Technological Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Constance L.

    In academic libraries, neither technical services, public services, nor administration has escaped the impact of online information systems. Online catalogs, network systems, interlibrary lending, database searches, circulation control, automated technical processes, and an increasing number of non-book materials are part of a technological…

  13. Academic Libraries as Information Consumers: Implications for Policy Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Marilyn J.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the role of academic libraries in the face of rising costs and suggests implications for library policymaking. The nature and value of information are considered; pricing issues for serials, CD-ROM products, and online searching are described; and possible solutions are offered. (26 references) (LRW)

  14. Maintaining Academic Integrity in On-Line Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heberling, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of academic cheating and plagiarism focuses on occurrences in online courses, based on experiences at Baker College (Michigan). Highlights include tools to fight plagiarism; using search engines to detect plagiarism; digital paper mills; plagiarism detection companies; and the role of administrators and faculty. (LRW)

  15. Social, Mental, Academic and Physical Development in Groups Doing Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nas, Kazim; Temel, Veysel; Akpinar, Selahattin; Akpinar, Oznur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show whether sport has an effect on education/academic success and social, mental and physical development or not. The search involves 160 students studying at Physical Education and Sports High School at Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University. Graded quintet likert type questionnaire was used as a measuring means. The first…

  16. Making Individualized Instruction a Joint Academic/Industrial Venture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgwardt, Frederick C.

    A number of factors are having an impact on the relationship between academic institutions and the industrial user. These are manifested in a search for new ways in which cooperation in the development and implementation of continuing engineering education programs for the practicing engineer can be improved. This paper presents two examples of…

  17. Exploring academic procrastination among Turkish students: possible gender differences in prevalence and reasons.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan; Ferrari, Joseph R

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined the prevalence of and reasons, or excuses, for academic procrastination as a function of gender and academic grade level. In Study 1, a factor analysis of responses by 203 Turkish undergraduate students to an academic procrastination measure provided evidence of reliability and validity for the revised scale. In Study 2,784 students (363 women, 421 men; M age = 20.6 years, SD age = 1.74 years) completed the validated Turkish Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students. The results were that 52% of students self-reported frequent academic procrastination, with male students reporting more frequent procrastination on academic tasks than female students. Significantly more female students than male students reported greater academic procrastination because of fear of failure and laziness; male students reported more academic procrastination as a result of risk taking and rebellion against control than did female students.

  18. An Exploration into the Influence of Academic and Social Values, Procrastination, and Perceived School Belongingness on Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Gary J.; Tuckman, Bruce W.

    2013-01-01

    The results of a structural equation model showed that a tendency to procrastinate, assessed early in college students' first term, was positively related to social values, assessed as concerns over social exclusion, but was negatively related to academic task values and grade goal-setting. The results suggest that procrastination may be a…

  19. Psychological Issues in Online Adaptive Task Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, N. M.; Rouse, W. B.; Ward, S. L.; Frey, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Adaptive aiding is an idea that offers potential for improvement over many current approaches to aiding in human-computer systems. The expected return of tailoring the system to fit the user could be in the form of improved system performance and/or increased user satisfaction. Issues such as the manner in which information is shared between human and computer, the appropriate division of labor between them, and the level of autonomy of the aid are explored. A simulated visual search task was developed. Subjects are required to identify targets in a moving display while performing a compensatory sub-critical tracking task. By manipulating characteristics of the situation such as imposed task-related workload and effort required to communicate with the computer, it is possible to create conditions in which interaction with the computer would be more or less desirable. The results of preliminary research using this experimental scenario are presented, and future directions for this research effort are discussed.

  20. Complexity in Student Writing: The Relationship between the Task and Vocabulary Uptake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolsey, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive flexibility theory posits that some tasks or cognitive activities resist oversimplification, a lens through which the present study is cast. High school writing tasks that promote complex thinking may also promote increased uptake of academic vocabulary. The study described in this article demonstrates how essential questions and other…

  1. Second Language Writers' Strategy Use and Performance on an Integrated Reading-Listening-Writing Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hui-Chun; Plakans, Lia

    2012-01-01

    Integrated writing tasks that involve different language modalities such as reading and listening have increasingly been used as means to assess academic writing. Thus, there is a need for understanding how test-takers coordinate different skills to complete these tasks. This study explored second language writers' strategy use and its…

  2. A Comparison of Department Chair Tasks in Australia and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Mimi; Gmelch, Walter H.; Wolverton, Marvin L.; Sarros, James C.

    1999-01-01

    Compares how academic department chairs at colleges and universities in Australia and the U.S. define their tasks. Major differences noted include the propensity of U.S. chairs to think of soliciting ideas for departmental improvement as a long-term endeavor, whereas Australian chairs perceive of idea solicitation as an administrative task, and…

  3. Task Force on Education Funding Equity, Accountability, and Partnerships. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Legislative Services, Annapolis.

    In 1997, Maryland formed the Task Force on Education Funding Equity, Accountability, and Partnerships to ensure that students throughout Maryland have an equal opportunity for academic success. The Task Force's preliminary report features a comprehensive review of education funding and programs in grades K-12. The report presents membership and…

  4. Effects of a Breakfast Program on On-Task Behaviors of Vocational High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bro, Robert T.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined whether an in-school breakfast program could increase on-task behaviors of 18 high school students. Vocational and academic students participated in the program and completed surveys. Teachers collected observational data. Results indicated that the program effectively increased on-task behaviors in both settings, and that…

  5. Interaction between Task Values and Self-Efficacy on Maladaptive Achievement Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeesoo; Bong, Mimi; Kim, Sung-il

    2014-01-01

    We tested the interaction between task value and self-efficacy on defensive pessimism, academic cheating, procrastination and self-handicapping among 574 Korean 11th graders in the context of English as a foreign language. We hypothesised that perceiving high value in tasks or domains for which self-efficacy was low would pose a threat to…

  6. Power Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskin, David

    1997-01-01

    Compares six leading Web search engines (AltaVista, Excite, HotBot, Infoseek, Lycos, and Northern Light), looking at the breadth of their coverage, accuracy, and ease of use, and finds a clear favorite of the six. Includes tips that can improve search results. (AEF)

  7. Cognitive tasks in information analysis: Use of event dwell time to characterize component activities

    SciTech Connect

    Sanquist, Thomas F.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Slavich, Antoinette L.; Littlefield, Rik J.; Littlefield, Janis S.; Cowley, Paula J.

    2004-09-28

    Technology-based enhancement of information analysis requires a detailed understanding of the cognitive tasks involved in the process. The information search and report production tasks of the information analysis process were investigated through evaluation of time-stamped workstation data gathered with custom software. Model tasks simulated the search and production activities, and a sample of actual analyst data were also evaluated. Task event durations were calculated on the basis of millisecond-level time stamps, and distributions were plotted for analysis. The data indicate that task event time shows a cyclic pattern of variation, with shorter event durations (< 2 sec) reflecting information search and filtering, and longer event durations (> 10 sec) reflecting information evaluation. Application of cognitive principles to the interpretation of task event time data provides a basis for developing “cognitive signatures” of complex activities, and can facilitate the development of technology aids for information intensive tasks.

  8. Whistleblowing in academic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, R; Strain, J

    2004-01-01

    The authors present and discuss cases of academic medicine failing to address unethical behaviour in academic science and, thereby, illustrate the scope and seriousness of the problem. The Olivieri/Apotex affair is just another instance of academic medicine's dereliction in a case of scientific fraud and misconduct. Instead of vigorously supporting their faculty member in her efforts to honestly communicate her findings and to protect patients from the risks associated with the use of the study drug, the University of Toronto collaborated with the Apotex company's "stalling tactics," closed down Dr Olivieri's laboratory, harassed her, and ultimately dismissed her. The authors argue that the incentives for addressing problematic behaviour have to be revised in order to effect a change in the current pattern of response that occurs in academic medicine. An externally imposed realignment of incentives could convert the perception of the whistleblower, from their present caste as the enemy within, into a new position, as valued friend of the institution. The authors explain how such a correction could encourage appropriate reactions to scientific misconduct from academic medicine. PMID:14872069

  9. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xi; Tian, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture…

  10. Mapping the Academic Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study possessed two aims: (1) to develop and validate aclinician -friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with ADHD and (2) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Method Within a sample of 324 adolescents with DSM-IV-TR diagnosed ADHD (age M=13.07, SD=1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, inter-rater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Results Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Conclusions Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth. PMID:24933215

  11. Pandemonium and visual search.

    PubMed

    Henderson, L

    1978-01-01

    Pandemonium-like models have played a central role in theories of perceptual recognition. One model is examined which asserts that information is sorted unidirectionally through a hierarchy of increasingly abstract levels only to a depth required by the logical demands of the task and read off from the appropriate level to control response decisions. The support originally claimed for the model in terms of its application to visual search performance is questioned. It is suggested that the pervasiveness of such models is not due to their competition with alternative theories but rather to methatheoretic considerations.

  12. Women in academic medicine.

    PubMed

    Bickel, J

    2000-01-01

    Women now constitute 43% of US medical students, 37% of residents, and 27% of full-time medical school faculty. Less than 11% of women faculty are full professors, however, compared to 31% of men, and these proportions haven't changed in more than 15 years. Since the proportion of women reaching the top ranks remains relatively low, the pool of women available for leadership positions in academic medicine is still small. This review article first summarizes recent data on women's representation in academic medicine and then discusses why they are not succeeding at the same pace as men. Reasons include a complex combination of women's choices, sexism, cultural stereotypes, constraints in combining family responsibilities with professional opportunities, and lack of effective mentoring. Multiple approaches are required to overcome these "cumulative disadvantages," among them improving the gender climate at academic medical centers; the mentoring of women faculty, residents, and students; and skill-building opportunities for women.

  13. Measurement of academic entitlement.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian K

    2013-10-01

    Members of Generation Y, or Millennials, have been accused of being lazy, whiny, pampered, and entitled, particularly in the college classroom. Using an equity theory framework, eight items from a measure of work entitlement were adapted to measure academic entitlement in a university setting in three independent samples. In Study 1 (n = 229), confirmatory factor analyses indicated good model fit to a unidimensional structure for the data. In Study 2 (n = 200), the questionnaire predicted unique variance in university satisfaction beyond two more general measures of dispositional entitlement. In Study 3 (n = 161), the measure predicted unique variance in perceptions of grade fairness beyond that which was predicted by another measure of academic entitlement. This analysis provides evidence of discriminant, convergent, incremental, concurrent criterion-related, and construct validity for the Academic Equity Preference Questionnaire.

  14. Measurement of academic entitlement.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian K

    2013-10-01

    Members of Generation Y, or Millennials, have been accused of being lazy, whiny, pampered, and entitled, particularly in the college classroom. Using an equity theory framework, eight items from a measure of work entitlement were adapted to measure academic entitlement in a university setting in three independent samples. In Study 1 (n = 229), confirmatory factor analyses indicated good model fit to a unidimensional structure for the data. In Study 2 (n = 200), the questionnaire predicted unique variance in university satisfaction beyond two more general measures of dispositional entitlement. In Study 3 (n = 161), the measure predicted unique variance in perceptions of grade fairness beyond that which was predicted by another measure of academic entitlement. This analysis provides evidence of discriminant, convergent, incremental, concurrent criterion-related, and construct validity for the Academic Equity Preference Questionnaire. PMID:24597456

  15. Searching and Planning: Young Children's Reasoning about Past and Future Event Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColgan, Kerry L.; McCormack, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Six experiments examined children's ability to make inferences using temporal order information. Children completed versions of a task involving a toy zoo; one version required reasoning about past events (search task) and the other required reasoning about future events (planning task). Children younger than 5 years failed both the search and the…

  16. Distributed search engine architecture based on topic specific searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abudaqqa, Yousra; Patel, Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Indisputably, search engines (SEs) abound. The monumental growth of users performing online searches on the Web is a contending issue in the contemporary world nowadays. For example, there are tens of billions of searches performed everyday, which typically offer the users many irrelevant results which are time consuming and costly to the user. Based on the afore-going problem it has become a herculean task for existing Web SEs to provide complete, relevant and up-to-date information response to users' search queries. To overcome this problem, we developed the Distributed Search Engine Architecture (DSEA), which is a new means of smart information query and retrieval of the World Wide Web (WWW). In DSEAs, multiple autonomous search engines, owned by different organizations or individuals, cooperate and act as a single search engine. This paper includes the work reported in this research focusing on development of DSEA, based on topic-specific specialised search engines. In DSEA, the results to specific queries could be provided by any of the participating search engines, for which the user is unaware of. The important design goal of using topic-specific search engines in the research is to build systems that can effectively be used by larger number of users simultaneously. Efficient and effective usage with good response is important, because it involves leveraging the vast amount of searched data from the World Wide Web, by categorising it into condensed focused topic -specific results that meet the user's queries. This design model and the development of the DSEA adopt a Service Directory (SD) to route queries towards topic-specific document hosting SEs. It displays the most acceptable performance which is consistent with the requirements of the users. The evaluation results of the model return a very high priority score which is associated with each frequency of a keyword.

  17. HOW DO RADIOLOGISTS USE THE HUMAN SEARCH ENGINE?

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jeremy M; Evans, Karla K; Drew, Trafton; Aizenman, Avigael; Josephs, Emilie

    2016-06-01

    Radiologists perform many 'visual search tasks' in which they look for one or more instances of one or more types of target item in a medical image (e.g. cancer screening). To understand and improve how radiologists do such tasks, it must be understood how the human 'search engine' works. This article briefly reviews some of the relevant work into this aspect of medical image perception. Questions include how attention and the eyes are guided in radiologic search? How is global (image-wide) information used in search? How might properties of human vision and human cognition lead to errors in radiologic search?

  18. A Time Lag Analysis of Temporal Relations between Motivation, Academic Achievement, and Two Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Monica R.; Pasnak, Robert; Romero, Sandy L.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study employed a time lag design to assess temporal relationships between motivation, academic achievement, and cognitive development. Eighty-one children from 2 preschool programs were measured twice, with an 11-week time lag, on 2 measures of motivation (marble drop task, bean bag toss task), 2 measures of…

  19. The Relationships among Students' Commitment, Self-Esteem, Organisational Citizenship Behaviour and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaola, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most important dependent variables in education and work research, performance has been operationalised either as the proficiency with which core tasks are performed (task performance), or as extra-role behaviours that support core activities (organisational citizenship behaviours). Relative to academic performance (core academic…

  20. Self-Efficacy's Influence on Student Academic Achievement in the Medical Anatomy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoon, Jennifer Marie; Meece, Judith L.; Granger, Noelle A.

    2012-01-01

    Self-efficacy is defined as a person's beliefs in his or her own abilities to successfully complete a task and has been shown to influence student motivation and academic behaviors. More specifically, anatomical self-efficacy is defined as an individual's judgment of his or her ability to successfully complete tasks related to the anatomy…

  1. Expectations, Realities, and Perceptions of Subject Specialist Librarians' Duties in Medium-Sized Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAbee, Sonja L.; Graham, John-Bauer

    2005-01-01

    This study surveys 138 librarians in 21 medium-sized academic libraries to identify time on tasks and value of tasks to address problems between the expectations of library administrators and the perceptions of librarians to their job descriptions. The results validate that the administration's expectations are within the norm.

  2. Response Selection in Visual Search: The Influence of Response Compatibility of Nontargets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starreveld, Peter A.; Theeuwes, Jan; Mortier, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The authors used visual search tasks in which components of the classic flanker task (B. A. Eriksen & C. W. Eriksen, 1974) were introduced. In several experiments the authors obtained evidence of parallel search for a target among distractor elements. Therefore, 2-stage models of visual search predict no effect of the identity of those…

  3. A Further Search for Social Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Martin E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    1983-01-01

    A behavioral effectiveness criterion was employed to conceptually and operationally define social intelligence. Using Keating's "A Search for Social Intelligence" as a methodological model, the present study examined four measures of academic intelligence and six measures of social intelligence using three different correlational procedures.…

  4. Academic medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Burger, Edward J; Ziganshina, Lilia; Ziganshin, Airat U

    2004-12-01

    Academic medicine, along with professionalism of the medical community in Russia underwent a remarkable evolution from the Revolution through the decline of the Soviet Union. The Soviet period brought about an enormous expansion of numbers of admissions to medical schools and a corresponding increase in the number of new physicians. Academic medical institutions were separated from institutions of higher learning in general and medical science was separated from the mainstream of science. Many of these features have been reversed in the past 14 years and re-professionalization of medicine has resumed. PMID:15578798

  5. The Sweet Spot of a Nonacademic Job Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Alexandra M.

    2012-01-01

    Because academic culture frowns on Ph.D.'s who consider leaving the ivory tower, most of those who jump ship find themselves at a loss as to where and how to begin a job search. Yet a nonacademic job search is actually quite similar to a standard research project. Both require advance planning, substantial research, collating evidence for an…

  6. Google Scholar Search Performance: Comparative Recall and Precision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative evaluation of Google Scholar and 11 other bibliographic databases (Academic Search Elite, AgeLine, ArticleFirst, EconLit, GEOBASE, MEDLINE, PAIS International, POPLINE, Social Sciences Abstracts, Social Sciences Citation Index, and SocINDEX), focusing on search performance within the multidisciplinary field of…

  7. Identification and Analysis of Factors Affecting End Use Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurych, Jitka; Torok, Andrew

    Mail surveys designed to determine the current status of end user online searching were sent to three populations: 473 faculty members in 12 departments at 20 universities, online search coordinators in 89 academic libraries, and 15 library school educators. Direct interviews with 10 university faculty members were also conducted. Faculty were…

  8. Student Search Behaviour in an Online Public Access Catalogue: An Examination of "Searching Mental Models" and "Searcher Self-Concept"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willson, Rebekah; Given, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents a qualitative exploration of university students' experience of searching an online public access catalogue. The study investigated how students conceptualise their searching process, as well as how students understand themselves as seekers of information. Method: Following a search task, thirty-eight…

  9. Conceptual Models for Search Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, D. G.; Efthimiadis, E. N.

    Search engines have entered popular culture. They touch people in diverse private and public settings and thus heighten the importance of such important social matters as information privacy and control, censorship, and equitable access. To fully benefit from search engines and to participate in debate about their merits, people necessarily appeal to their understandings for how they function. In this chapter we examine the conceptual understandings that people have of search engines by performing a content analysis on the sketches that 200 undergraduate and graduate students drew when asked to draw a sketch of how a search engine works. Analysis of the sketches reveals a diverse range of conceptual approaches, metaphors, representations, and misconceptions. On the whole, the conceptual models articulated by these students are simplistic. However, students with higher levels of academic achievement sketched more complete models. This research calls attention to the importance of improving students' technical knowledge of how search engines work so they can be better equipped to develop and advocate policies for how search engines should be embedded in, and restricted from, various private and public information settings.

  10. Academic Practice in Transition: Hidden Stories of Academic Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchman, Deborah; King, Sharron

    2009-01-01

    Academic work is becoming increasingly restrictive and controlled as tertiary institutions move towards a more corporate managerialistic mode of operating. This paper uses a narrative lens to explore the ways in which academic staff make sense of this new environment. In particular, it compares academic staff's stories of their worklife with the…

  11. Academic buoyancy: Towards an understanding of students' everyday academic resilience.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew J; Marsh, Herbert W

    2008-02-01

    Academic buoyancy is developed as a construct reflecting everyday academic resilience within a positive psychology context and is defined as students' ability to successfully deal with academic setbacks and challenges that are typical of the ordinary course of school life (e.g., poor grades, competing deadlines, exam pressure, difficult schoolwork). Data were collected from 598 students in Years 8 and 10 at five Australian high schools. Half-way through the school year and then again at the end of the year, students were asked to rate their academic buoyancy as well as a set of hypothesized predictors (self-efficacy, control, academic engagement, anxiety, teacher-student relationship) in the area of mathematics. Multilevel modeling found that the bulk of variance in academic buoyancy was explained at the student level. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling showed that (a) Time 1 anxiety (negatively), self-efficacy, and academic engagement significantly predict Time 1 academic buoyancy; (b) Time 2 anxiety (negatively), self-efficacy, academic engagement, and teacher-student relationships explain variance in Time 2 academic buoyancy over and above that explained by academic buoyancy at Time 1; and (c) of the significant predictors, anxiety explains the bulk of variance in academic buoyancy. PMID:19083351

  12. Is Your Academic Library Pinning? Academic Libraries and Pinterest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Academic libraries are flocking to online social networking sites in an effort to meet users where they are. Pinterest is the latest of these rapidly growing online social networking tools. The author of this article reports results from a survey on academic libraries' presence on Pinterest. The survey found most academic library pinboards are in…

  13. Academic Buoyancy: Towards an Understanding of Students' Everyday Academic Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2008-01-01

    Academic buoyancy is developed as a construct reflecting everyday academic resilience within a positive psychology context and is defined as students' ability to successfully deal with academic setbacks and challenges that are typical of the ordinary course of school life (e.g., poor grades, competing deadlines, exam pressure, difficult…

  14. Academic buoyancy: Towards an understanding of students' everyday academic resilience.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew J; Marsh, Herbert W

    2008-02-01

    Academic buoyancy is developed as a construct reflecting everyday academic resilience within a positive psychology context and is defined as students' ability to successfully deal with academic setbacks and challenges that are typical of the ordinary course of school life (e.g., poor grades, competing deadlines, exam pressure, difficult schoolwork). Data were collected from 598 students in Years 8 and 10 at five Australian high schools. Half-way through the school year and then again at the end of the year, students were asked to rate their academic buoyancy as well as a set of hypothesized predictors (self-efficacy, control, academic engagement, anxiety, teacher-student relationship) in the area of mathematics. Multilevel modeling found that the bulk of variance in academic buoyancy was explained at the student level. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling showed that (a) Time 1 anxiety (negatively), self-efficacy, and academic engagement significantly predict Time 1 academic buoyancy; (b) Time 2 anxiety (negatively), self-efficacy, academic engagement, and teacher-student relationships explain variance in Time 2 academic buoyancy over and above that explained by academic buoyancy at Time 1; and (c) of the significant predictors, anxiety explains the bulk of variance in academic buoyancy.

  15. Academic Goal Orientation and Cardiovascular Reactivity in a Performance Situation.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Helmut K; Gramer, Margit; Paechter, Manuela; Wimmer, Sigrid; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Papousek, Ilona

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated whether students' academic goal orientation (learning goals, performance goals, work avoidance) and their individual competence beliefs (their academic self-concept) can predict motivation-related cardiovascular activation patterns in a demanding performance situation. A sample of seventy-two undergraduate students rated their academic goal orientation as well as their competence beliefs and completed a mental arithmetic task. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure, pre-ejection period (PEP) as well as cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance were monitored continuously during rest and task exposure. Students scoring higher on work avoidance showed smaller increases in HR and CO, and a smaller shortening of the PEP. A lower academic self-concept was associated with attenuated CO reactivity and a smaller shortening of the PEP. Learning and performance goals were unrelated to cardiovascular activity. The attenuated cardiac activity observed for work avoidance and competence beliefs was interpreted in terms of reduced task engagement resulting from lower success importance. PMID:25957033

  16. Task Switching in a Hierarchical Task Structure: Evidence for the Fragility of the Task Repetition Benefit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms.…

  17. Academic Library Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Fred

    This examination of the philosophy and objectives of academic library reference services provides an overview of the major reference approaches to fulfilling the following primary objectives of reference services: (1) providing accurate answers to patrons' questions and/or helping patrons find sources to pursue their research needs; (2) building…

  18. Developing (Authentic?) Academic Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to consider whether the notion of authenticity is useful or meaningful in the context of developing academics as writers. Design/methodology/approach: The approach taken is that of a reflective essay. Recent texts on authenticity in higher education are examined whilst a transactional theory of writing is also considered…

  19. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  20. Academic Burnout: One Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd-Mancillas, William R.; Johnson, Pam

    The negative effects of academic burnout on teaching, service, and research are considered, along with societal, institutional, and individual causes of burnout. Prevention and intervention for burnout are addressed, and suggestions are offered to improve faculty evaluation procedures in order to promote the use of clearer and more systematic and…

  1. Academic Standards. Fall 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Technical and Community Coll., Dover. Terry Campus.

    The Terry Campus of Delaware Technical and Community College has established academic standards to endorse competencies and skills for all courses of the technological programs. These standards eliminate conflicts and allow students to understand, from the beginning of their studies, the requirements for awarding a degree, diploma, or certificate.…

  2. Scattering Academe's Lame Ducks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Milton

    1997-01-01

    Notes the current system of finding new academic leaders for colleges and universities often brings delay and damage. Suggests an alternative method of leadership succession is needed. One proposed method would attempt to promote from within the institution; require recruitment by the appointing officer; involve faculty, students, and staff; and…

  3. Reframing Academic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolman, Lee G.; Gallos, Joan V.

    2011-01-01

    In "Reframing Academic Leadership," the authors offer higher education leaders a provocative and pragmatic guide for: (1) Crafting dynamic institutions where the whole is greater than the sum of the parts; (2) Creating campus environments that facilitate creativity and commitment; (3) Forging alliances and partnerships in service of the mission;…

  4. Academic Work and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Reading current accounts of higher education demonstrates the flux and damage of rapid neoliberal changes to the type and conduct of academic work. Opening the Times Higher Education magazine on the 28 April 2011 shows articles about cuts in staffing and undergraduate provision in England, concerns about the quality of for-profit higher education…

  5. Academic Games and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, James S.

    The aim of this paper is to give some insight into what academic simulation games are, what their goals are, how they accomplish these goals, and how they differ from other ways of teaching and learning. A game is a way of partitioning off a portion of action from the complex stream of life activities. It partitions off a set of players and…

  6. Activist Academics: What Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Sandra J.

    2013-01-01

    Four decades on from the Year of the Student, when university campuses were sites of protest and dissent, it is crucial to consider how the involvement of university academics in activist causes has changed. Using social movement frameworks this article examines how organisational, political and cultural contexts have hindered social and political…

  7. The Academic Underachiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent (Porter), Publisher, Boston, MA.

    The handbook classifies and describes over 700 programs and services for students who, due to behavioral, motivational, or organic impairments, are considered underachievers in the regular educational system. Listed by state are private schools which are primarily academic in nature; schools which are more specialized to treat and educate children…

  8. Bilingualism and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Wen-Jui

    2012-01-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort, this study examines the role that bilingualism plays in children's academic developmental trajectories during their early school years, with particular attention on the school environment (N = 16,380). Growth-curve results showed that despite starting with lower math scores in…

  9. Developmental Academic Advising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raushi, Thaddeus M.

    1993-01-01

    Describes developmental academic advising as a comprehensive, collaborative, and empowering process designed to maximize students' educational potential. Reviews basic developmental theories (i.e., psychosocial, cognitive-developmental, and person-environmental), and focussed theories dealing with adult learners, women, people of color, and gays…

  10. The American Academic Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.

    This collection focuses on the forces that have worked together to create the U.S. system of higher education. Contributors consider the development of the university system, the present role of the university, and the future of higher education. The chapters are: (1) "How the Academic Profession Is Changing" (Arthur Levine); (2) "Small Worlds,…

  11. Chief Academic Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Jay

    2001-01-01

    The emergence of a number 2 post (chief academic officer) focused on instructional leadership brings a new dynamic to the central office-particularly those headed by nontraditional superintendents. Used in universities, the CAO title lends cache. Women can get stuck in CAO positions; a few districts are eliminating them. (MLH)

  12. Academic Listening: Research Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, John, Ed.

    A collection of essays address a variety of issues in listening in the academic context, particularly in a foreign or second language. Articles include: "Research of Relevance to Second Language Lecture Comprehension--An Overview" (John Flowerdew); "Expectation-Driven Understanding in Information Systems Lecture Comprehension" (Steve Tauroza,…

  13. The Academic Chairperson's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John W.; And Others

    This book champions the importance of chairing an academic department (or division) and focuses attention on the strategies "excellent" chairs use in building a positive work environment for faculty and releasing individual faculty potential. The framework is based on human, organizational, and career development; systems theory; and interpersonal…

  14. Unique Academic Skillsets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerome, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    For the past eighty-two years, Monroe College has been committed to being a national leader in urban and international education. Established in the fall of 2004, the honors program has been transformative for the college, bringing together a wide range of professionals from across disciplines to provide innovative academic offerings. The program…

  15. Academic Standards in Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    A+ Education Partnership, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Education policymakers and educators in Alabama are committed to improving the state's public education system to ensure that students gain the knowledge and skills they need to graduate from high school ready for real life. The state is on the path to implementing higher academic standards--the College and Career Ready Standards--which lay a…

  16. Academic Advising as Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Edward R.

    1981-01-01

    One possible solution to the problem academic advising is to conceive of it not as the singular province of any one group, whether teaching faculty or counselors. Advising is seen as not the activity of teachers only, but as an integral part of teaching. (MLW)

  17. Changing the Academic Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, Erica

    2004-01-01

    The article examines the ways in which rationalities of risk currently work to produce the academic as a self-managing worker within the 'post-welfare' university as a risk-conscious organization. It explores how risk minimization as audit (individual, departmental, organizational), engages all individuals within the university in doing particular…

  18. Academic Bankruptcy. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Amy Berk; Lewis, Anne C.

    In an effort to improve student achievement in low-performing districts, 22 states have developed academic bankruptcy laws, allowing them to intervene in districts that consistently fail to satisfy state education performance standards. This policy brief presents an overview of these statutes. The text offers a comparative summary of state…

  19. Academic Leaders as Thermostats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kekale, Jouni

    2003-01-01

    University of Jones launched a two-year development and training project on academic management and leadership in the beginning of 2002. Open seminars were arranged for heads for departments, deans and administrative managers. In addition, personnel administration started pilot projects with two departments in co-operation with the Finnish…

  20. Towards Transnational Academic Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to current debates on the relationship between globalisation and higher education. The main argument of the paper is that we are currently witnessing transnationalisation of academic capitalism. This argument is illustrated by examining the collaboration between transnational corporations and research universities, and how…