Science.gov

Sample records for academic search tasks

  1. Information Resource Selection of Undergraduate Students in Academic Search Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jee Yeon; Paik, Woojin; Joo, Soohyung

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to investigate the selection of information sources and to identify factors associated with the resource selection of undergraduate students for academic search tasks. Also, user perceptions of some factors, such as credibility, usefulness, accessibility and familiarity, were examined to classify resources by their…

  2. Academic Users' Information Searching on Research Topics: Characteristics of Research Tasks and Search Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Jia Tina; Evans, Nina

    2011-01-01

    This project investigated how academic users search for information on their real-life research tasks. This article presents the findings of the first of two studies. The study data were collected in the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) in Brisbane, Australia. Eleven PhD students' searching behaviors on personal research topics were…

  3. Task-Based Information Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakkari, Pertti

    2003-01-01

    Reviews studies on the relationship between task performance and information searching by end-users, focusing on information searching in electronic environments and information retrieval systems. Topics include task analysis; task characteristics; search goals; modeling information searching; modeling search goals; information seeking behavior;…

  4. Searching for Electronic Journal Articles to Support Academic Tasks. A Case Study of the Use of the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakkari, Pertti; Talja, Sanna

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: We analyse how academic status and discipline influence the major search methods used by university academic staff for obtaining electronic articles for teaching, research and keeping up to date in their field. Method: The data consist of a nationwide Web-survey of the end-users of FinELib, The Finnish National Electronic Library.…

  5. The Academic Job Search Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiberger, Mary Morris; Vick, Julia Miller

    This book is designed for new doctorates and junior faculty as a complete guide to the academic job search process. The volume opens with an overview of academic careers and institutional structures with pointers and information on how institutions may view and conduct hiring. It then proceeds step-by-step through the application process beginning…

  6. Correlates of academic procrastination: discomfort, task aversiveness, and task capability.

    PubMed

    Milgram, N; Marshevsky, S; Sadeh, C

    1995-03-01

    The relationships among five aspects of academic procrastination--behavioral delay, personal upset about the delay, task aversiveness, task capability, and the desire to reduce behavioral delay--were investigated in 10th-grade Israeli students (N = 195). Upset about delay was weakly related to delay itself, and--unlike delay--was strongly related to perceived capability to perform academic tasks and to the desire to change delaying behavior. Students delayed more on academic tasks labeled unpleasant than pleasant, were neutral in between, and were correspondingly more upset about the former than the latter. They more frequently acknowledged reasons for academic procrastination that were less threatening to their self-image (e.g., problems in time management) than reasons that were more threatening (e.g., lack of ability). Interest in reducing delay is related more to self-perceived ability to handle tasks than to time spent procrastinating or reasons given for procrastinating. PMID:7760291

  7. Academic Colorectal Surgery Job Search

    PubMed Central

    Kalady, Matthew F.

    2014-01-01

    The field of academic colorectal surgery encompasses a vast array of possibilities. Clinical care accompanied by research, teaching, innovation, and/or administration provides the foundation for what is considered an academic career. For those choosing academic colorectal surgery, the process of finding and selecting a first job can provoke much angst. This article describes some strategies to approach the academic colorectal job search and provides insight into deciding a career focus, exploring relevant positions, weighing specific factors, and negotiating your first offer. PMID:25067918

  8. Academic colorectal surgery job search.

    PubMed

    Kalady, Matthew F

    2014-06-01

    The field of academic colorectal surgery encompasses a vast array of possibilities. Clinical care accompanied by research, teaching, innovation, and/or administration provides the foundation for what is considered an academic career. For those choosing academic colorectal surgery, the process of finding and selecting a first job can provoke much angst. This article describes some strategies to approach the academic colorectal job search and provides insight into deciding a career focus, exploring relevant positions, weighing specific factors, and negotiating your first offer. PMID:25067918

  9. Control of Concentration during Academic Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Karen W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Three strategies for controlling concentration during academic tasks were evaluated: (1) self-initiated relaxation; (2) self-coaching; and (3) a combination of the first two types. Results indicated that the third strategy, significantly facilitated some aspects of academic performance. (Author/GK)

  10. Assessment and Intervention for Academic Task Attack Strategy Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, R. T.; Lee, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Many students who underachieve in schools may not be learning as effectively as they could. Direct assessments such as the Academic Competence Evaluation Scales (ACES), School Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory (SMALSI), and the Academic Task Attack Checklist System (ATACS) can be used to evaluate students' knowledge and use of…

  11. Chemical Information in Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendig, Regina B.

    2009-01-01

    The author sought to determine to what extent the two search engines, Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engines), would be useful to first-year university students as the first point of searching for chemical information. Five topics were searched and the first ten records of each search result were evaluated with regard to the type of…

  12. Sequencing instructional tasks. A comparison of contingent and noncontingent interspersal of preferred academic tasks.

    PubMed

    Noell, George H; Whitmarsh, Ernest L; VanDerHeyden, Amanda M; Gatti, Susan L; Slider, Natalie J

    2003-04-01

    This study compared two strategies for increasing accurate responding on a low-preference academic task by interspersing presentations of a preferred academic task. Five children attending a preschool program for children with delayed language development participated in this study. Preferred and nonpreferred tasks were identified through a multiple-stimulus, free-operant preference assessment. Contingent access to a preferred academic task was associated with improved response accuracy when compared to noncontingent access to that activity for 3 students. For 1 student, noncontingent access to the preferred activity led to improved response accuracy, and 1 student's analysis suggested the importance of procedural variety. The implications of these findings for use of preference assessments to devise instructional sequences that improve student responding are discussed. PMID:12705105

  13. Academic Calendar Task Force Report to the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    This report presents the findings of a study done by a college-wide task force at the College of DuPage (Illinois) on academic calendar formats in an effort to determine whether to retain the quarter system or convert to another calendar. A brief introduction gives the background to the issue at DuPage. A section on procedures explains that the…

  14. Search strategies along the academic lifecycle.

    PubMed

    Horlings, Edwin; Gurney, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Understanding how individual scientists build a personal portfolio of research is key to understanding outcomes on the level of scientific fields, institutions, and systems. We lack the scientometric and statistical instruments to examine the development over time of the involvement of researchers in different problem areas. In this paper we present a scientometric method to map, measure, and compare the entire corpus of individual scientists. We use this method to analyse the search strategies of 43 condensed matter physicists along their academic lifecycle. We formulate six propositions that summarise our theoretical expectations and are empirically testable: (1) a scientist's work consists of multiple finite research trails; (2) a scientist will work in several parallel research trails; (3) a scientist's role in research trail selection changes along the lifecycle; (4) a scientist's portfolio will converge before it diverges; (5) the rise and fall of research trails is associated with career changes; and (6) the rise and fall of research trails is associated with the potential for reputational gain. Four propositions are confirmed, the fifth is rejected, and the sixth could not be confirmed or rejected. In combination, the results of the four confirmed propositions reveal specific search strategies along the academic lifecycle. In the PhD phase scientists work in one problem area that is often unconnected to the later portfolio. The postdoctoral phase is where scientists diversify their portfolio and their social network, entering various problem areas and abandoning low-yielding ones. A professor has a much more stable portfolio, leading the work of PhDs and postdoctoral researchers. We present an agenda for future research and discuss theoretical and policy implications. PMID:23420456

  15. Presenting Chained and Discrete Tasks as Non-Targeted Information when Teaching Discrete Academic Skills through Small Group Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkenstine, Karen Jones; Collins, Belva C.; Schuster, John W.; Kleinert, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Special education teachers often search for effective strategies to teach a variety of skills to students with moderate to severe disabilities through small group instruction. The investigators examined the acquisition of academic skills as well as chained and discrete tasks presented as nontargeted information by a small group of students with…

  16. Cognitive and Task Influences on Web Searching Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung-Sun; Allen, Bryce

    2002-01-01

    Describes results from two independent investigations of college students that were conducted to study the impact of differences in users' cognition and search tasks on Web search activities and outcomes. Topics include cognitive style; problem-solving; and implications for the design and use of the Web and Web search engines. (Author/LRW)

  17. Urban search and rescue medical teams: FEMA Task Force System.

    PubMed

    Barbera, J A; Lozano, M

    1993-01-01

    Recent national and international disasters involving collapsed structures and trapped casualties (Mexico City; Armenia; Iran; Philippines; Charleston, South Carolina; Loma Prieta, California; and others) have provoked a heightened national concern for the development of an adequate capability to respond quickly and effectively to this type of calamity. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has responded to this need by developing an Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) Response System, a national system of multi-disciplinary task forces for rapid deployment to the site of a collapsed structure incident. Each 56-person task force includes a medical team capable of providing advanced emergency medical care both for task force members and for victims located and reached by the sophisticated search, rescue, and technical components of the task force. This paper reviews the background and development of urban search and rescue, and describes the make-up and function of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Task Force medical teams. PMID:10155479

  18. Toddlers Benefit from Labeling on an Executive Function Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Stephanie E.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Although labeling improves executive function (EF) performance in children older than 3 years, the results from studies with younger children have been equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance in a computerized multistep multilocation search task with older 2-year-olds. The correct search location was either (a) not marked by a…

  19. Eye Movements Reveal How Task Difficulty Moulds Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Angela H.; Hulleman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments we investigated the relationship between eye movements and performance in visual search tasks of varying difficulty. Experiment 1 provided evidence that a single process is used for search among static and moving items. Moreover, we estimated the functional visual field (FVF) from the gaze coordinates and found that its size…

  20. Global Statistical Learning in a Visual Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John L.; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Locating a target in a visual search task is facilitated when the target location is repeated on successive trials. Global statistical properties also influence visual search, but have often been confounded with local regularities (i.e., target location repetition). In two experiments, target locations were not repeated for four successive trials,…

  1. Effects of Cognitive Training on Academic and On-Task Behavior of Hyperactive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Marie I.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    1980-01-01

    The results suggest that cognitive training specifically designed to promote generalization to classroom tasks can improve the classroom behavior and academic achievement of hyperactive children. (Author)

  2. The North Carolina State University Libraries Search Experience: Usability Testing Tabbed Search Interfaces for Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague-Rector, Susan; Ballard, Angela; Pauley, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Creating a learnable, effective, and user-friendly library Web site hinges on providing easy access to search. Designing a search interface for academic libraries can be particularly challenging given the complexity and range of searchable library collections, such as bibliographic databases, electronic journals, and article search silos. Library…

  3. The Academic Job Search Handbook. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiberger, Mary Morris; Vick, Julia Miller

    This handbook provides specific advice on all aspects of job-seeking in an increasingly tight academic market, from the timetable for the application process through seeking tenure. New material in this edition provides more information for candidates in scientific and technical fields and more advice for those applying to technical and community…

  4. University Students' Emotion During Online Search Task: A Multiple Achievement Goal Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingming

    2016-07-01

    Endorsing a multiple goal perspective, students' academic emotions were examined with different goal profiles while solving learning tasks online. One hundred and seven Chinese undergraduates were classified based on the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework into three groups: Mastery-approach-focused, Approach-oriented, and Avoidance-oriented group. Participants' emotional states were assessed immediately prior to the task and following the task. Prior to the task, the Avoidance-oriented group reported significantly higher levels of deactivated negative emotion (i.e., bored and confused) than the Approach-oriented group. The Mastery-approach-focused group reported significantly higher levels of activated positive emotions (i.e., excited and eager) than the Avoidance-oriented group after the task. Within each group, all three groups followed a similar emotion change pattern prior versus after the search task in deactivated positive emotion, with a significant increase. In addition, the Mastery-approach-focused group also reported a significantly higher level of happiness after completing the task, whereas the other two groups did not report much change. The Avoidance-oriented group also reported a significant drop in the feeling of excitement, eagerness, anxiety, and nervousness; whereas, the Approach-oriented group reported a significantly higher level of confusion after the task was finished. Implications of the findings are further discussed. PMID:26914815

  5. Attention Capacity and Task Difficulty in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Liqiang; Pashler, Harold

    2005-01-01

    When a visual search task is very difficult (as when a small feature difference defines the target), even detection of a unique element may be substantially slowed by increases in display set size. This has been attributed to the influence of attentional capacity limits. We examined the influence of attentional capacity limits on three kinds of…

  6. Facilitating Transitions between and within Academic Tasks: An Application of Behavioral Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Transitions are critical times for both teachers and students. Efficient between-task and within-task transitions can greatly improve academic learning time. The purpose of this article was to review one intervention, high-probability (high-p) task sequences, as a method to promote more effective transitions. High-p sequences involve presenting a…

  7. Task-focused behavior mediates the associations between supportive interpersonal environments and students' academic performance.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, Noona; Pakarinen, Eija; Vasalampi, Kati; Silinskas, Gintautas; Aunola, Kaisa; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2014-04-01

    In the longitudinal study presented here, we tested the theoretical assumption that children's task-focused behavior in learning situations mediates the associations between supportive interpersonal environments and academic performance. The sample consisted of 2,137 Finnish-speaking children. Data on supportive interpersonal environments (characterized by authoritative parenting, positive teacher affect toward the child, and peer acceptance) were gathered in Grade 1. The children's task-focused behavior was measured in Grades 2 and 3, and academic performance was measured in Grades 1 and 4. The results supported our assumption by showing that all three supportive environments were positively associated with children's subsequent academic performance via increased task-focused behavior in learning situations. These findings suggest that students' academic performance can be promoted by increasing the support they receive from peers, parents, and teachers because such increased support leads to better task focus in learning tasks. PMID:24532054

  8. Measuring Search Efficiency in Complex Visual Search Tasks: Global and Local Clutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Melissa R.; Lohrenz, Maura C.; Trafton, J. Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Set size and crowding affect search efficiency by limiting attention for recognition and attention against competition; however, these factors can be difficult to quantify in complex search tasks. The current experiments use a quantitative measure of the amount and variability of visual information (i.e., clutter) in highly complex stimuli (i.e.,…

  9. Task-dependent modulation of word processing mechanisms during modified visual search tasks.

    PubMed

    Dampure, Julien; Benraiss, Abdelrhani; Vibert, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    During visual search for words, the impact of the visual and semantic features of words varies as a function of the search task. This event-related potential (ERP) study focused on the way these features of words are used to detect similarities between the distractor words that are glanced at and the target word, as well as to then reject the distractor words. The participants had to search for a target word that was either given literally or defined by a semantic clue among words presented sequentially. The distractor words included words that resembled the target and words that were semantically related to the target. The P2a component was the first component to be modulated by the visual and/or semantic similarity of distractors to the target word, and these modulations varied according to the task. The same held true for the later N300 and N400 components, which confirms that, depending on the task, distinct processing pathways were sensitized through attentional modulation. Hence, the process that matches what is perceived with the target acts during the first 200 ms after word presentation, and both early detection and late rejection processes of words depend on the search task and on the representation of the target stored in memory. PMID:26176489

  10. Using Self-Monitoring to Increase Attending to Task and Academic Accuracy in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holifield, Cassandra; Goodman, Janet; Hazelkorn, Michael; Heflin, L. Juane

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a self-monitoring procedure on increasing attending to task and academic accuracy in two elementary students with autism in their self-contained classroom. A multiple baseline across participants in two academic subject areas was used to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Both…

  11. Multi-robot Task Allocation for Search and Rescue Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Ahmed; Adel, Mohamed; Bakr, Mohamed; Shehata, Omar M.; Khamis, Alaa

    2014-12-01

    Many researchers from academia and industry are attracted to investigate how to design and develop robust versatile multi-robot systems by solving a number of challenging and complex problems such as task allocation, group formation, self-organization and much more. In this study, the problem of multi-robot task allocation (MRTA) is tackled. MRTA is the problem of optimally allocating a set of tasks to a group of robots to optimize the overall system performance while being subjected to a set of constraints. A generic market-based approach is proposed in this paper to solve this problem. The efficacy of the proposed approach is quantitatively evaluated through simulation and real experimentation using heterogeneous Khepera-III mobile robots. The results from both simulation and experimentation indicate the high performance of the proposed algorithms and their applicability in search and rescue missions.

  12. Role of Academic Self-Efficacy in Moderating the Relation between Task Importance and Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nie, Youyan; Lau, Shun; Liau, Albert K.

    2011-01-01

    Emphasizing task importance, which is regarded as a way of motivating engaged behavior, may increase an individual's anxiety. The present research investigated whether academic self-efficacy could moderate the maladaptive relation between task importance and test anxiety. 1978 and 1670 Grade 9 Singaporean students participated in a survey related…

  13. How Do I Know What I Can Do? Anticipating Expectancy of Success Regarding Novel Academic Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorges, Julia; Göke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background: After graduation from secondary school, academic tasks (i.e., learning contents) are no longer structured in terms of school subjects (i.e., English, mathematics). Therefore, learners lack past performance and mastery experience to inform their expectancy of success (i.e., ability beliefs) regarding novel tasks. Aims: In this paper, we…

  14. Searching for the Next Generation of Teacher Educators: Assessing the Success of Academic Searches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twombly, Susan B.; Wolf-Wendel, Lisa; Williams, James; Green, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    In light of a documented shortage of candidates for teacher education faculty positions, this article explores the academic labor market for teacher education faculty using job announcements from the Chronicle of Higher Education and a survey of search chairs to examine the qualifications sought. The authors conclude that the demand for teacher…

  15. Analytic Guided-Search Model of Human Performance Accuracy in Target- Localization Search Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstein, Miguel P.; Beutter, Brent R.; Stone, Leland S.

    2000-01-01

    Current models of human visual search have extended the traditional serial/parallel search dichotomy. Two successful models for predicting human visual search are the Guided Search model and the Signal Detection Theory model. Although these models are inherently different, it has been difficult to compare them because the Guided Search model is designed to predict response time, while Signal Detection Theory models are designed to predict performance accuracy. Moreover, current implementations of the Guided Search model require the use of Monte-Carlo simulations, a method that makes fitting the model's performance quantitatively to human data more computationally time consuming. We have extended the Guided Search model to predict human accuracy in target-localization search tasks. We have also developed analytic expressions that simplify simulation of the model to the evaluation of a small set of equations using only three free parameters. This new implementation and extension of the Guided Search model will enable direct quantitative comparisons with human performance in target-localization search experiments and with the predictions of Signal Detection Theory and other search accuracy models.

  16. Task Specificity and the Influence of Memory on Visual Search: Comment on Vo and Wolfe (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingworth, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Recent results from Vo and Wolfe (2012b) suggest that the application of memory to visual search may be task specific: Previous experience searching for an object facilitated later search for that object, but object information acquired during a different task did not appear to transfer to search. The latter inference depended on evidence that a…

  17. Training and subjective workload in a category search task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1986-01-01

    This study examined automaticity as a means by which training influences mental workload. Two groups were trained in a category search task. One group received a training paradigm designed to promote the development of automaticity; the other group received a training paradigm designed to prohibit it. Resultant performance data showed the expected improvement as a result of the development of automaticity. Subjective workload assessments mirrored the performance results in most respects. The results supported the position that subjective mental workload assessments may be sensitive to the effect of training when it produces a lower level of cognitive load.

  18. Delaying Academic Tasks? Predictors of Academic Procrastination among Asian International Students in American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunyoung; Alhaddab, Taghreed A.; Aquino, Katherine C.; Negi, Reema

    2016-01-01

    Existing body of research indicates that both cognitive and non-cognitive factors contribute to college students' tendency of academic procrastination. However, little attention has been paid to the likelihood of academic procrastination among Asian international college students. Given the need for empirical research on why Asian international…

  19. Conflicting Cues in a Dynamic Search Task Are Reflected in Children's Eye Movements and Search Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Jeffrey M.; Kloos, Heidi; Keen, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Three-year-olds were given a search task with conflicting cues about the target's location. A ball rolled behind a transparent screen and stopped behind one of four opaque doors mounted into the screen. A wall that protruded above one door provided a visible cue of blockage in the ball's path, while the transparent screen allowed visual tracking…

  20. Sex differences in spatial memory using serial and search tasks.

    PubMed

    Shah, Darshna S; Prados, Jose; Gamble, Jasmin; De Lillo, Carlo; Gibson, Claire L

    2013-11-15

    The present study assessed the spatial abilities of male and female human participants using different versions of the non-navigational Corsi block-tapping test (CBT) and a search task. Males performed significantly better than females on the standard manual version of the CBT; however, the standard CBT does not allow discrimination between spatial memory span and the role of spatial organisational factors (structure, path length and presence of crossings) in the sequences to recall. These organisational factors were assessed, therefore, in an experiment in which 7-block-sequences had to be recalled in a computerised version of the CBT. No sex differences in performance were observed on the computerised CBT, indicating that males do not make better use of spatial organisational principles. Accordingly, sex differences observed in the manual CBT are likely to rely upon differences in memory span between males and females. In the search task, participants could locate a goal by reference to a Euclidian space (the geometry of a virtual enclose) or to proximal non-geometric cues. Both male and female participants showed a preference for the non-geometric cues, which overshadowed learning about the geometric cues when the two sets were available simultaneously during the training stage. These results indicate that sex differences do exist in those tests which are dependent on memory span. Sex differences were absent, however, in spatial organisational skills or in the usage of Euclidian and egocentric strategies to solve problems relying on spatial ability. PMID:24076150

  1. Effects of white noise on off-task behavior and academic responding for children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Cook, Andrew; Bradley-Johnson, Sharon; Johnson, C Merle

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of white noise played through headphones on off-task behavior, percentage of items completed, and percentage of items completed correctly for 3 students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Headphones plus white noise were associated with decreases in off-task behavior relative to baseline and headphones-only (no white noise) control conditions. Little change in academic responding occurred across conditions for all participants. PMID:24114567

  2. Local search to improve coordinate-based task mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Balzuweit, Evan; Bunde, David P.; Leung, Vitus J.; Finley, Austin; Lee, Alan C. S.

    2015-10-31

    We present a local search strategy to improve the coordinate-based mapping of a parallel job’s tasks to the MPI ranks of its parallel allocation in order to reduce network congestion and the job’s communication time. The goal is to reduce the number of network hops between communicating pairs of ranks. Our target is applications with a nearest-neighbor stencil communication pattern running on mesh systems with non-contiguous processor allocation, such as Cray XE and XK Systems. Utilizing the miniGhost mini-app, which models the shock physics application CTH, we demonstrate that our strategy reduces application running time while also reducing the runtime variability. Furthermore, we further show that mapping quality can vary based on the selected allocation algorithm, even between allocation algorithms of similar apparent quality.

  3. Local search to improve coordinate-based task mapping

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Balzuweit, Evan; Bunde, David P.; Leung, Vitus J.; Finley, Austin; Lee, Alan C. S.

    2015-10-31

    We present a local search strategy to improve the coordinate-based mapping of a parallel job’s tasks to the MPI ranks of its parallel allocation in order to reduce network congestion and the job’s communication time. The goal is to reduce the number of network hops between communicating pairs of ranks. Our target is applications with a nearest-neighbor stencil communication pattern running on mesh systems with non-contiguous processor allocation, such as Cray XE and XK Systems. Utilizing the miniGhost mini-app, which models the shock physics application CTH, we demonstrate that our strategy reduces application running time while also reducing the runtimemore » variability. Furthermore, we further show that mapping quality can vary based on the selected allocation algorithm, even between allocation algorithms of similar apparent quality.« less

  4. Examining Metacognitive Self-Regulation within the Context of Daily Academic Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zile-Tamsen, Carol

    This study sought to generate a grounded theory of the role of metacognitive self-regulation in the completion of daily academic tasks by college students. Thirteen female students in an upper-division education class completed qualitative interviews concerning studying for exams, writing papers, and taking notes. Twelve different metacognitive…

  5. Relations among Epistemological Beliefs, Academic Achievement, and Task Performance in Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodewyk, Ken R.

    2007-01-01

    Students with differing profiles of epistemological beliefs--their beliefs about personal epistemology, intelligence, and learning--vary in thinking, reasoning, motivation, and use of strategies while working on academic tasks, each of which affect learning. This study examined students' epistemological beliefs according to gender, school…

  6. Growth Trajectories of Task Value and Self-Efficacy across an Academic Semester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcus Lee; Edwards, Ordene V.; Dai, Ting

    2014-01-01

    Many scholars have argued that motivation is dynamic and malleable across time and contexts. In this article, we investigated changes in undergraduates' task value and self-efficacy across an academic semester. Sixty three undergraduate students completed the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire across five time points in their…

  7. Effectiveness of Using iPads to Increase Academic Task Completion by Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Patricia; Lewis, M. E. B.; Donehower, Claire; Stone, David

    2014-01-01

    This single subject design study (ABAB) investigated the effects of using iPads in a classwide academic intervention to increase independent task completion and basic math skills of seven students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) enrolled in a special education school. The study also examined the advantages of and challenges to using…

  8. How Are Task Reflexivity and Intercultural Sensitivity Related to the Academic Performance of MBA Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyubovnikova, Joanne; Napiersky, Uwe; Vlachopoulos, Panos

    2015-01-01

    Higher education in business school environments is increasingly focused on how to best equip students with the skills necessary for leadership in the global workplace. This paper examines the impact of two particularly important cognitive capabilities--task reflexivity and intercultural sensitivity, on academic performance in an MBA programme. It…

  9. Where Is It? How Deaf Adolescents Complete Fact-Based Internet Search Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chad E.

    2007-01-01

    An exploratory study was designed to describe Internet search behaviors of deaf adolescents who used Internet search engines to complete fact-based search tasks. The study examined search behaviors of deaf high school students such as query formation, query modification, Web site identification, and Web site selection. Consisting of two fact-based…

  10. Brief Report: Eye Movements during Visual Search Tasks Indicate Enhanced Stimulus Discriminability in Subjects with PDD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, Chantal; van Ewijk, Lizet; van Engeland, Herman; Hooge, Ignace

    2008-01-01

    Subjects with PDD excel on certain visuo-spatial tasks, amongst which visual search tasks, and this has been attributed to enhanced perceptual discrimination. However, an alternative explanation is that subjects with PDD show a different, more effective search strategy. The present study aimed to test both hypotheses, by measuring eye movements…

  11. The Academic Diligence Task (ADT): Assessing Individual Differences in Effort on Tedious but Important Schoolwork

    PubMed Central

    Galla, Brian M.; Plummer, Benjamin D.; White, Rachel E.; Meketon, David; D’Mello, Sidney K.; Duckworth, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study reports on the development and validation of the Academic Diligence Task (ADT), designed to assess the tendency to expend effort on academic tasks which are tedious in the moment but valued in the long-term. In this novel online task, students allocate their time between solving simple math problems (framed as beneficial for problem solving skills) and, alternatively, playing Tetris or watching entertaining videos. Using a large sample of high school seniors (N = 921), the ADT demonstrated convergent validity with self-report ratings of Big Five conscientiousness and its facets, self-control and grit, as well as discriminant validity from theoretically unrelated constructs, such as Big Five extraversion, openness, and emotional stability, test anxiety, life satisfaction, and positive and negative affect. The ADT also demonstrated incremental predictive validity for objectively measured GPA, standardized math and reading achievement test scores, high school graduation, and college enrollment, over and beyond demographics and intelligence. Collectively, findings suggest the feasibility of online behavioral measures to assess noncognitive individual differences that predict academic outcomes. PMID:25258470

  12. The Impact of Task Demands on Fixation-Related Brain Potentials during Guided Search

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Barry; Connolly, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Recording synchronous data from EEG and eye-tracking provides a unique methodological approach for measuring the sensory and cognitive processes of overt visual search. Using this approach we obtained fixation related potentials (FRPs) during a guided visual search task specifically focusing on the lambda and P3 components. An outstanding question is whether the lambda and P3 FRP components are influenced by concurrent task demands. We addressed this question by obtaining simultaneous eye-movement and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures during a guided visual search task while parametrically modulating working memory load using an auditory N-back task. Participants performed the guided search task alone, while ignoring binaurally presented digits, or while using the auditory information in a 0, 1, or 2-back task. The results showed increased reaction time and decreased accuracy in both the visual search and N-back tasks as a function of auditory load. Moreover, high auditory task demands increased the P3 but not the lambda latency while the amplitude of both lambda and P3 was reduced during high auditory task demands. The results show that both early and late stages of visual processing indexed by FRPs are significantly affected by concurrent task demands imposed by auditory working memory. PMID:27286248

  13. Visual Search Performance in the Autism Spectrum II: The Radial Frequency Search Task with Additional Segmentation Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Renita A.; Dickinson, J. Edwin; Maybery, Murray T.; Badcock, Johanna C.; Badcock, David R.

    2010-01-01

    The Embedded Figures Test (EFT) requires detecting a shape within a complex background and individuals with autism or high Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ) scores are faster and more accurate on this task than controls. This research aimed to uncover the visual processes producing this difference. Previously we developed a search task using radial…

  14. On-Task Behavior, Academic Performance, and Classroom Disruptions: Untangling the Target Selection Problem in Classroom Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentz, Francis E., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The research literature on measurement problems with such outcome variables as student on-task behavior, classroom disruption, and academic performance is examined. Focus is on how the problems relate to understanding the interrelationships among these common intervention targets. (TJH)

  15. Object Boundaries Influence Toddlers' Performance in a Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shutts, Kristin; Keen, Rachel; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has shown that young children have difficulty searching for a hidden object whose location depends on the position of a partly visible physical barrier. Across four experiments, we tested whether children's search errors are affected by two variables that influence adults' object-directed attention: object boundaries and…

  16. CD-ROM--A Viable Alternative to Online Searching for Academic Libraries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubbeld, Catherine E.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of CD-ROM as an alternative to online searching for academic libraries focuses on a comparison between online and CD-ROM costs at the University of Natal (South Africa) library. Other factors examined include funding methods; user fees; staff involvement; user training; user access, including search intermediaries and networking; and…

  17. Finding Your Voice: Talent Development Centers and the Academic Talent Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushneck, Amy S.

    2012-01-01

    Talent Development Centers are just one of many tools every family, teacher, and gifted advocate should have in their tool box. To understand the importance of Talent Development Centers, it is essential to also understand the Academic Talent Search Program. Talent Search participants who obtain scores comparable to college-bound high school…

  18. What a Difference a Tag Cloud Makes: Effects of Tasks and Cognitive Abilities on Search Results Interface Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwizdka, Jacek

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The goal of this study is to expand our understanding of the relationships between selected tasks, cognitive abilities and search result interfaces. The underlying objective is to understand how to select search results presentation for tasks and user contexts Method: Twenty three participants conducted four search tasks of two types…

  19. Use of an Academic Library Web Site Search Engine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2002-01-01

    Describes an analysis of the search engine logs of Southern Illinois University, Carbondale's library to determine how patrons used the site search. Discusses results that showed patrons did not understand the function of the search and explains improvements that were made in the Web site and in online reference services. (Author/LRW)

  20. Effects of targets embedded within words in a visual search task

    PubMed Central

    Grabbe, Jeremy W.

    2014-01-01

    Visual search performance can be negatively affected when both targets and distracters share a dimension relevant to the task. This study examined if visual search performance would be influenced by distracters that affect a dimension irrelevant from the task. In Experiment 1 within the letter string of a letter search task, target letters were embedded within a word. Experiment 2 compared targets embedded in words to targets embedded in nonwords. Experiment 3 compared targets embedded in words to a condition in which a word was present in a letter string, but the target letter, although in the letter string, was not embedded within the word. The results showed that visual search performance was negatively affected when a target appeared within a high frequency word. These results suggest that the interaction and effectiveness of distracters is not merely dependent upon common features of the target and distracters, but can be affected by word frequency (a dimension not related to the task demands). PMID:24855497

  1. Examining age differences in performance of a complex information search and retrieval task.

    PubMed

    Czaja, S J; Sharit, J; Ownby, R; Roth, D L; Nair, S

    2001-12-01

    This study examined age differences in performance of a complex information search and retrieval task by using a simulated real-world task typical of those performed by customer service representatives. The study also investigated the influence of task experience and the relationships between cognitive abilities and task performance. One hundred seventeen participants from 3 age groups, younger (20-39 years). middle-aged (40-59 years), and older (60-75 years), performed the task for 3 days. Significant age differences were found for all measures of task performance with the exception of navigational efficiency and number of problems correctly navigated per attempt. There were also effects of task experience. The findings also indicated significant direct and indirect relations between component cognitive abilities and task performance. PMID:11766912

  2. The Development of Landmark and Beacon Use in Young Children: Evidence from a Touchscreen Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Jennifer E.

    2006-01-01

    Children ages 2, 3 and 4 years participated in a novel hide-and-seek search task presented on a touchscreen monitor. On beacon trials, the target hiding place could be located using a beacon cue, but on landmark trials, searching required the use of a nearby landmark cue. In Experiment 1, 2-year-olds performed less accurately than older children…

  3. Predictors of early growth in academic achievement: the head-toes-knees-shoulders task

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Megan M.; Cameron, Claire E.; Duncan, Robert; Bowles, Ryan P.; Acock, Alan C.; Miao, Alicia; Pratt, Megan E.

    2014-01-01

    Children's behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control) are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) by assessing construct validity, including relations to EF measures, and predictive validity to academic achievement growth between prekindergarten and kindergarten. In the fall and spring of prekindergarten and kindergarten, 208 children (51% enrolled in Head Start) were assessed on the HTKS, measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory (WM), and inhibitory control, and measures of emergent literacy, mathematics, and vocabulary. For construct validity, the HTKS was significantly related to cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control in prekindergarten and kindergarten. For predictive validity in prekindergarten, a random effects model indicated that the HTKS significantly predicted growth in mathematics, whereas a cognitive flexibility task significantly predicted growth in mathematics and vocabulary. In kindergarten, the HTKS was the only measure to significantly predict growth in all academic outcomes. An alternative conservative analytical approach, a fixed effects analysis (FEA) model, also indicated that growth in both the HTKS and measures of EF significantly predicted growth in mathematics over four time points between prekindergarten and kindergarten. Results demonstrate that the HTKS involves cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control, and is substantively implicated in early achievement, with the strongest relations found for growth in achievement during kindergarten and associations with emergent mathematics. PMID:25071619

  4. Predictors of early growth in academic achievement: the head-toes-knees-shoulders task.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Megan M; Cameron, Claire E; Duncan, Robert; Bowles, Ryan P; Acock, Alan C; Miao, Alicia; Pratt, Megan E

    2014-01-01

    Children's behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control) are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) by assessing construct validity, including relations to EF measures, and predictive validity to academic achievement growth between prekindergarten and kindergarten. In the fall and spring of prekindergarten and kindergarten, 208 children (51% enrolled in Head Start) were assessed on the HTKS, measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory (WM), and inhibitory control, and measures of emergent literacy, mathematics, and vocabulary. For construct validity, the HTKS was significantly related to cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control in prekindergarten and kindergarten. For predictive validity in prekindergarten, a random effects model indicated that the HTKS significantly predicted growth in mathematics, whereas a cognitive flexibility task significantly predicted growth in mathematics and vocabulary. In kindergarten, the HTKS was the only measure to significantly predict growth in all academic outcomes. An alternative conservative analytical approach, a fixed effects analysis (FEA) model, also indicated that growth in both the HTKS and measures of EF significantly predicted growth in mathematics over four time points between prekindergarten and kindergarten. Results demonstrate that the HTKS involves cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control, and is substantively implicated in early achievement, with the strongest relations found for growth in achievement during kindergarten and associations with emergent mathematics. PMID:25071619

  5. Effects of paired-object affordance in search tasks across the adult lifespan.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Melanie; Stainton, Alexandra; Rotshtein, Pia

    2016-06-01

    The study investigated the processes underlying the retrieval of action information about functional object pairs, focusing on the contribution of procedural and semantic knowledge. We further assessed whether the retrieval of action knowledge is affected by task demands and age. The contribution of procedural knowledge was examined by the way objects were selected, specifically whether active objects were selected before passive objects. The contribution of semantic knowledge was examined by manipulating the relation between targets and distracters. A touchscreen-based search task was used testing young, middle-aged, and elderly participants. Participants had to select by touching two targets among distracters using two search tasks. In an explicit action search task, participants had to select two objects which afforded a mutual action (e.g., functional pair: hammer-nail). Implicit affordance perception was tested using a visual color-matching search task; participants had to select two objects with the same colored frame. In both tasks, half of the colored targets also afforded an action. Overall, middle-aged participants performed better than young and elderly participants, specifically in the action task. Across participants in the action task, accuracy was increased when the distracters were semantically unrelated to the functional pair, while the opposite pattern was observed in the color task. This effect was enhanced with increased age. In the action task all participants utilized procedural knowledge, i.e., selected the active object before the passive object. This result supports the dual-route account from vision to action. Semantic knowledge contributed to both the action and the color task, but procedural knowledge associated with the direct route was primarily retrieved when the task was action-relevant. Across the adulthood lifespan, the data show inverted U-shaped effects of age on the retrieval of action knowledge. Age also linearly increased the

  6. Dementia alters standing postural adaptation during a visual search task in older adult men

    PubMed Central

    Joŕdan, Azizah J.; McCarten, J. Riley; Rottunda, Susan; Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Manor, Brad; Wade, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dementia on standing postural adaptation during performance of a visual search task. We recruited 16 older adults with dementia and 15 without dementia. Postural sway was assessed by recording medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) center-of-pressure when standing with and without a visual search task; i.e., counting target letter frequency within a block of displayed randomized letters. ML sway variability was significantly higher in those with dementia during visual search as compared to those without dementia and compared to both groups during the control condition. AP sway variability was significantly greater in those with dementia as compared to those without dementia, irrespective of task condition. In the ML direction, the absolute and percent change in sway variability between the control condition and visual search (i.e., postural adaptation) was greater in those with dementia as compared to those without. In contrast, postural adaptation to visual search was similar between groups in the AP direction. As compared to those without dementia, those with dementia identified fewer letters on the visual task. In the non-dementia group only, greater increases in postural adaptation in both the ML and AP direction, correlated with lower performance on the visual task. The observed relationship between postural adaptation during the visual search task and visual search task performance—in the non-dementia group only—suggests a critical link between perception and action. Dementia reduces the capacity to perform a visual-based task while standing and thus appears to disrupt this perception-action synergy. PMID:25770830

  7. Vigilance and task load - In search of the inverted U

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, E. L.; Curry, R. E.; Faustina, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The 'Inverted-U Hypothesis' states that for a given task, there is an optimal level of workload or demand that yields the highest level of performance. A departure in either direction will result in a monotonically lower performance level, hence an inverted-U-shaped relationship between task demand and quality of performance. Most studies to date have failed to demonstrate the left-hand branch of the curve, that is, the regime in which performance presumably rises as load increases. The purpose of this study was to explore whether low-level additional demand on the monitor would result in improved performance. Four groups of subjects performed a visual monitoring task for 48 min, then two of the four groups were given additional tasks, and a third had potentially distracting information on its display. Results indicated that the two groups with additional demand detected more signals than did the control group or the control-plus-distraction group. There were no significant differences in false alarms.

  8. Toddlers' Use of Cues in a Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keen, Rachel; Berthier, Neil; Sylvia, Monica R.; Butler, Samantha; Prunty, Patricia K.; Baker, Rachel K.

    2008-01-01

    Search for a ball that has undergone hidden motion rapidly improves during the second year of life ("Dev. Psychol.," 2000; 36:394-401). In three experiments we investigated whether the poor performance of younger toddlers was due to attentional failure by highlighting the major cue for the hidden object. We observed only slight improvement in…

  9. The Role of Exploratory Talk in Classroom Search Engine Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Simon; Mercer, Neil

    2015-01-01

    While search engines are commonly used by children to find information, and in classroom-based activities, children are not adept in their information seeking or evaluation of information sources. Prior work has explored such activities in isolated, individual contexts, failing to account for the collaborative, discourse-mediated nature of search…

  10. Repetition and Diversification in Multi-Session Task Oriented Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Sarah K.

    2013-01-01

    As the number of documents and the availability of information online grows, so to can the difficulty in sifting through documents to find what we're searching for. Traditional Information Retrieval (IR) systems consider the query as the representation of the user's needs, and as such are limited to the user's ability to describe the information…

  11. Automating Academic Literature Searches With RSS Feeds and Google Reader™

    PubMed Central

    Dubuque, Erick M

    2011-01-01

    Behavior analytic practitioners have an ethical obligation to stay abreast of the most recent research developments in their areas of expertise. Although conducting frequent and comprehensive literature searches is one way to meet this mandate, doing so can be a time intensive process. One way to reduce the effort involved in this process is setting up automated literature and news searches using RSS feeds via programs like Google Reader™. This paper outlines the steps necessary for setting up a Google Reader™ account and creating customized RSS feeds based on searches of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) PubMed database and the World Wide Web. PMID:22532905

  12. Pretraining Cortical Thickness Predicts Subsequent Perceptual Learning Rate in a Visual Search Task.

    PubMed

    Frank, Sebastian M; Reavis, Eric A; Greenlee, Mark W; Tse, Peter U

    2016-03-01

    We report that preexisting individual differences in the cortical thickness of brain areas involved in a perceptual learning task predict the subsequent perceptual learning rate. Participants trained in a motion-discrimination task involving visual search for a "V"-shaped target motion trajectory among inverted "V"-shaped distractor trajectories. Motion-sensitive area MT+ (V5) was functionally identified as critical to the task: after 3 weeks of training, activity increased in MT+ during task performance, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. We computed the cortical thickness of MT+ from anatomical magnetic resonance imaging volumes collected before training started, and found that it significantly predicted subsequent perceptual learning rates in the visual search task. Participants with thicker neocortex in MT+ before training learned faster than those with thinner neocortex in that area. A similar association between cortical thickness and training success was also found in posterior parietal cortex (PPC). PMID:25576537

  13. Being the Diversity Hire: Negotiating Identity in an Academic Job Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Anne K.; Horner, Pilar S.; Ortiz, Daniel Velez

    2012-01-01

    A diverse faculty is a goal of all social work programs. However, recruiting and retaining diverse faculty is often a struggle. In this article, narratives of 3 recent doctoral graduates are analyzed to identify the role that diversity played in their academic job searches. Autoethnographic analysis revealed 2 broad themes: identity and…

  14. Memory under pressure: secondary-task effects on contextual cueing of visual search.

    PubMed

    Annac, Efsun; Manginelli, Angela A; Pollmann, Stefan; Shi, Zhuanghua; Müller, Hermann J; Geyer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Repeated display configurations improve visual search. Recently, the question has arisen whether this contextual cueing effect (Chun & Jiang, 1998) is itself mediated by attention, both in terms of selectivity and processing resources deployed. While it is accepted that selective attention modulates contextual cueing (Jiang & Leung, 2005), there is an ongoing debate whether the cueing effect is affected by a secondary working memory (WM) task, specifically at which stage WM influences the cueing effect: the acquisition of configural associations (e.g., Travis, Mattingley, & Dux, 2013) versus the expression of learned associations (e.g., Manginelli, Langer, Klose, & Pollmann, 2013). The present study re-investigated this issue. Observers performed a visual search in combination with a spatial WM task. The latter was applied on either early or late search trials--so as to examine whether WM load hampers the acquisition of or retrieval from contextual memory. Additionally, the WM and search tasks were performed either temporally in parallel or in succession--so as to permit the effects of spatial WM load to be dissociated from those of executive load. The secondary WM task was found to affect cueing in late, but not early, experimental trials--though only when the search and WM tasks were performed in parallel. This pattern suggests that contextual cueing involves a spatial WM resource, with spatial WM providing a workspace linking the current search array with configural long-term memory; as a result, occupying this workspace by a secondary WM task hampers the expression of learned configural associations. PMID:24190911

  15. Academic medicine and the search for meaning and purpose.

    PubMed

    Souba, Wiley W

    2002-02-01

    The transformation of the health care industry into a marketplace governed by commercialism and free competition challenges the doctrine of medicine as a profession valuing service to the patient above financial reward. Many physicians have become disenchanted with their ability to serve as advocates for and provide care to their patients. Financial success, the measure of the marketplace, has become the dominant standard of measurement or "value" for most academic medical centers (AMCs). Many doctors report their work is less fulfilling. As a result, all three social missions-patient care, teaching, and research-are in jeopardy. The growth of modernism, preeminence of biomedical research, and dominance of a market-driven clinical enterprise will continue to pose challenges to the health care system in the United States. However, AMCs can provide the leadership and serve as the ambassadors through which the health care system can be renewed with a sense of direction and purpose. Renewal must begin with more open discourse about what we value in health care and what kind of medical profession we want to have, to include addressing questions such as: What does it mean to be an academic physician? What gives my work meaning and purpose? This kind of dialogue could easily be built into the medical students' curricula and residency training programs, with the faculty taking the lead. PMID:11841973

  16. Occasion setting during a spatial-search task with pigeons.

    PubMed

    Leising, Kenneth J; Hall, Jordan S; Wolf, Joshua E; Ruprecht, Chad M

    2015-04-01

    A spatial task was used to investigate if a stimulus could set the occasion for responding to a landmark. Pigeons were trained with a positive occasion setter (OS; a colored background display) signaling the contingency between a landmark (LM; visual patterned stimulus) and the location of a rewarded response. The two most common tests of an OS (transfer tests and post-training extinction of the OS) were then conducted. In Experiment 1, two occasion setting pairs were trained (+←XA/YB→+/A-/B-) with unique spatial relationships to a reinforced goal location. Transfer tests (XB- and YA-) revealed more responding to a landmark when paired with the same OS from training (e.g., XA) than on transfer tests, which was greater still than landmark-only trials (A-). Three pigeons demonstrated good spatial control of responding by the LM on transfer tests. In Experiment 2, the contingency and spatial relationship (e.g., left or right) between LM A and the goal were signaled by the OS (+←XA/YA→+/+←ZB/C→+/A-/B-). LM C was trained without an OS to assess the role of training history during transfer. Transfer tests again indicated an OS could facilitate responding and the LM controlled the location of responding. Training history affected spatial control, but not facilitation, by LM C. Lastly, post-training extinction of X had no effect on facilitation or spatial control during subsequent XA trials. These experiments are the first to evaluate conditional control of spatial information by landmarks using both of the standard tests for occasion setting. PMID:25734755

  17. Survey of Academic Writing Tasks Required of Graduate and Undergraduate Foreign Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Carlson, Sybil

    Designed to define the academic writing skills required of beginning undergraduate and graduate students, a survey of needed academic writing skills was completed by faculty in 190 academic departments at 34 American and Canadian universities with high foreign student enrollments. At the graduate level, six academic disciplines with relatively…

  18. There's Waldo! A Normalization Model of Visual Search Predicts Single-Trial Human Fixations in an Object Search Task.

    PubMed

    Miconi, Thomas; Groomes, Laura; Kreiman, Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    When searching for an object in a scene, how does the brain decide where to look next? Visual search theories suggest the existence of a global "priority map" that integrates bottom-up visual information with top-down, target-specific signals. We propose a mechanistic model of visual search that is consistent with recent neurophysiological evidence, can localize targets in cluttered images, and predicts single-trial behavior in a search task. This model posits that a high-level retinotopic area selective for shape features receives global, target-specific modulation and implements local normalization through divisive inhibition. The normalization step is critical to prevent highly salient bottom-up features from monopolizing attention. The resulting activity pattern constitues a priority map that tracks the correlation between local input and target features. The maximum of this priority map is selected as the locus of attention. The visual input is then spatially enhanced around the selected location, allowing object-selective visual areas to determine whether the target is present at this location. This model can localize objects both in array images and when objects are pasted in natural scenes. The model can also predict single-trial human fixations, including those in error and target-absent trials, in a search task involving complex objects. PMID:26092221

  19. Academic Self-Efficacy in the College Classroom: An Examination of Undergraduate Students' Reported Efficacy for Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Timothy W., II; Aagaard, Lola; Skidmore, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Self-efficacy is a personal belief in one's ability to accomplish particular tasks. Academic self-efficacy relates to one's belief in ability to accomplish learning activities. A convenient cluster sample (n = 105) of undergraduate students at a regional university in the midsouth was administered a survey that measured student academic…

  20. Comparison of Teachers' and School Psychologists' Accuracy in Assigning Basic Academic Tasks to Underlying CHC-Model Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petruccelli, Meredith Lohr; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Thurman, S. Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Teacher perceptions of their students' cognitive abilities affect the referrals they make and intervention strategies they implement. In this study, teachers and school psychologists were asked to sort basic academic tasks into categories on the basis of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad cognitive abilities, such as fluid reasoning and…

  1. The Cross-Lagged Relations between Children's Academic Skill Development, Task-Avoidance, and Parental Beliefs about Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magi, Katrin; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the cross-lagged associations between children's academic skill development, task-avoidant behaviour in the context of homework, and parental beliefs about their child's success from kindergarten to Grade 2. The participants were 1267 children. The children's pre-skills were assessed at the end of the…

  2. Pointing to Parallels in Ability-Related Differences in the Use of Metacognition in Academic and Psychomotor Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martini, Rose; Shore, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers a brief review of the use of metacognition by proficient and poor performers in academic and psychomotor tasks as well as highlights the parallels and provides directions for future research. Metacognition is knowledge about one's own cognitive processes [Flavell, J.H. (1979). "Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area…

  3. Fruitful visual search: inhibition of return in a virtual foraging task.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Laura E; Ambinder, Michael S; Hsieh, Brendon; Levinthal, Brian; Crowell, James A; Irwin, David E; Kramer, Arthur F; Lleras, Alejandro; Simons, Daniel J; Wang, Ranxiao Frances

    2006-10-01

    Inhibition of return (IOR) has long been viewed as a foraging facilitator in visual search. We investigated the contribution of IOR in a task that approximates natural foraging more closely than typical visual search tasks. Participants in a fully immersive virtual reality environment manually searched an array of leaves for a hidden piece of fruit, using a wand to select and examine each leaf location. Search was slower than in typical IOR paradigms, taking seconds instead of a few hundred milliseconds. Participants also made a speeded response when they detected a flashing leaf that either was or was not in a previously searched location. Responses were slower when the flashing leaf was in a previously searched location than when it was in an unvisited location. These results generalize IOR to an approximation of a naturalistic visual search setting and support the hypothesis that IOR can facilitate foraging. The experiment also constitutes the first use of a fully immersive virtual reality display in the study of IOR. PMID:17328391

  4. Academic Task Demand in the 21st-Century, High-Stakes-Accountability School: Mapping the Journey from Poor [To Fair to Good to Great] to Excellent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szczesiul, Stacy Agee; Nehring, James; Carey, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on theoretical and empirical research concerning the relationship between academic work and student learning, this article explores the following questions: What skills are required to execute the academic tasks teachers assign on a daily basis? How do teachers and administrators interpret the task demands represented in instructional…

  5. Low Target Prevalence Is a Stubborn Source of Errors in Visual Search Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Horowitz, Todd S.; Van Wert, Michael J.; Kenner, Naomi M.; Place, Skyler S.; Kibbi, Nour

    2007-01-01

    In visual search tasks, observers look for targets in displays containing distractors. Likelihood that targets will be missed varies with target prevalence, the frequency with which targets are presented across trials. Miss error rates are much higher at low target prevalence (1%-2%) than at high prevalence (50%). Unfortunately, low prevalence is…

  6. Differences in the Processing of Prefixes and Suffixes Revealed by a Letter-Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Ziegler, Johannes C.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A letter-search task was used to test the hypothesis that affixes are chunked during morphological processing and that such chunking might operate differently for prefixes and suffixes. Participants had to detect a letter target that was embedded either in a prefix or suffix (e.g., "R" in "propoint" or "filmure") or…

  7. In Search of the Optimal Path: How Learners at Task Use an Online Dictionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Marie-Josee

    2012-01-01

    We have analyzed circa 180 navigation paths followed by six learners while they performed three language encoding tasks at the computer using an online dictionary prototype. Our hypothesis was that learners who follow an "optimal path" while navigating within the dictionary, using its search and look-up functions, would have a high chance of…

  8. Hand Movement Deviations in a Visual Search Task with Cross Modal Cuing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Asli; Aslan, Hurol

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the cross-modal effects of an auditory organization on a visual search task and to investigate the influence of the level of detail in instructions describing or hinting at the associations between auditory stimuli and the possible locations of a visual target. In addition to measuring the participants'…

  9. Hybrid self organizing migrating algorithm - Scatter search for the task of capacitated vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davendra, Donald; Zelinka, Ivan; Senkerik, Roman; Jasek, Roman; Bialic-Davendra, Magdalena

    2012-11-01

    One of the new emerging application strategies for optimization is the hybridization of existing metaheuristics. The research combines the unique paradigms of solution space sampling of SOMA and memory retention capabilities of Scatter Search for the task of capacitated vehicle routing problem. The new hybrid heuristic is tested on the Taillard sets and obtains good results.

  10. A Comparison of Role/Task/Environment Stress Experienced By Beginning Academic and Career-Technical Teachers in Southwestern Ohio Career-Technical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerlin, Timothy F.

    This study investigated whether academic or career-technical teachers perceived greater role, task, and environmental stress in a career center setting. Participants were academic and career-technical teachers employed by a career center schools district in southwest Ohio. A total of 24 academic and 50 career-technical teachers, all of whom had…

  11. A Salient and Task-Irrelevant Collinear Structure Hurts Visual Search

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chia-huei; Jingling, Li

    2015-01-01

    Salient distractors draw our attention spontaneously, even when we intentionally want to ignore them. When this occurs, the real targets close to or overlapping with the distractors benefit from attention capture and thus are detected and discriminated more quickly. However, a puzzling opposite effect was observed in a search display with a column of vertical collinear bars presented as a task-irrelevant distractor [6]. In this case, it was harder to discriminate the targets overlapping with the salient distractor. Here we examined whether this effect originated from factors known to modulate attentional capture: (a) low probability—the probability occurrence of target location at the collinear column was much less (14%) than the rest of the display (86%), and observers might strategically direct their attention away from the collinear distractor; (b) attentional control setting—the distractor and target task interfered with each other because they shared the same continuity set in attentional task; and/or (c) lack of time to establish the optional strategy. We tested these hypotheses by (a) increasing to 60% the trials in which targets overlapped with the same collinear distractor columns, (b) replacing the target task to be connectivity-irrelevant (i.e., luminance discrimination), and (c) having our observers practice the same search task for 10 days. Our results speak against all these hypotheses and lead us to conclude that a collinear distractor impairs search at a level that is unaffected by probabilistic information, attentional setting, and learning. PMID:25909986

  12. Evaluation of children with ADHD on the Ball-Search Field Task.

    PubMed

    Rosetti, Marcos F; Ulloa, Rosa E; Vargas-Vargas, Ilse L; Reyes-Zamorano, Ernesto; Palacios-Cruz, Lino; de la Peña, Francisco; Larralde, Hernán; Hudson, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Searching, defined for the purpose of the present study as the displacement of an individual to locate resources, is a fundamental behavior of all mobile organisms. In humans this behavior underlies many aspects of everyday life, involving cognitive processes such as sustained attention, memory and inhibition. We explored the performance of 36 treatment-free children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 132 children from a control school sample on the ecologically based ball-search field task (BSFT), which required them to locate and collect golf balls in a large outdoor area. Children of both groups enjoyed the task and were motivated to participate in it. However, performance showed that ADHD-diagnosed subjects were significantly less efficient in their searching. We suggest that the BSFT provides a promising basis for developing more complex ecologically-derived tests that might help to better identify particular cognitive processes and impairments associated with ADHD. PMID:26805450

  13. Evaluation of children with ADHD on the Ball-Search Field Task

    PubMed Central

    Rosetti, Marcos F.; Ulloa, Rosa E.; Vargas-Vargas, Ilse L.; Reyes-Zamorano, Ernesto; Palacios-Cruz, Lino; de la Peña, Francisco; Larralde, Hernán; Hudson, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Searching, defined for the purpose of the present study as the displacement of an individual to locate resources, is a fundamental behavior of all mobile organisms. In humans this behavior underlies many aspects of everyday life, involving cognitive processes such as sustained attention, memory and inhibition. We explored the performance of 36 treatment-free children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 132 children from a control school sample on the ecologically based ball-search field task (BSFT), which required them to locate and collect golf balls in a large outdoor area. Children of both groups enjoyed the task and were motivated to participate in it. However, performance showed that ADHD-diagnosed subjects were significantly less efficient in their searching. We suggest that the BSFT provides a promising basis for developing more complex ecologically-derived tests that might help to better identify particular cognitive processes and impairments associated with ADHD. PMID:26805450

  14. Web-Based Undergraduate Chemistry Problem-Solving: The Interplay of Task Performance, Domain Knowledge and Web-Searching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    She, Hsiao-Ching; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Li, Ta-Wei; Wang, Chia-Yu; Chiu, Hsin-Tien; Lee, Pei-Zon; Chou, Wen-Chi; Chuang, Ming-Hua

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of Web-based Chemistry Problem-Solving, with the attributes of Web-searching and problem-solving scaffolds, on undergraduate students' problem-solving task performance. In addition, the nature and extent of Web-searching strategies students used and its correlation with task performance and domain knowledge also…

  15. Performance in a Visual Search Task Uniquely Predicts Reading Abilities in Third-Grade Hong Kong Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Duo; Chen, Xi; Chung, Kevin K. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the performance in a visual search task and reading ability in 92 third-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. The visual search task, which is considered a measure of visual-spatial attention, accounted for unique variance in Chinese character reading after controlling for age, nonverbal intelligence,…

  16. Neural correlates of context-dependent feature conjunction learning in visual search tasks.

    PubMed

    Reavis, Eric A; Frank, Sebastian M; Greenlee, Mark W; Tse, Peter U

    2016-06-01

    Many perceptual learning experiments show that repeated exposure to a basic visual feature such as a specific orientation or spatial frequency can modify perception of that feature, and that those perceptual changes are associated with changes in neural tuning early in visual processing. Such perceptual learning effects thus exert a bottom-up influence on subsequent stimulus processing, independent of task-demands or endogenous influences (e.g., volitional attention). However, it is unclear whether such bottom-up changes in perception can occur as more complex stimuli such as conjunctions of visual features are learned. It is not known whether changes in the efficiency with which people learn to process feature conjunctions in a task (e.g., visual search) reflect true bottom-up perceptual learning versus top-down, task-related learning (e.g., learning better control of endogenous attention). Here we show that feature conjunction learning in visual search leads to bottom-up changes in stimulus processing. First, using fMRI, we demonstrate that conjunction learning in visual search has a distinct neural signature: an increase in target-evoked activity relative to distractor-evoked activity (i.e., a relative increase in target salience). Second, we demonstrate that after learning, this neural signature is still evident even when participants passively view learned stimuli while performing an unrelated, attention-demanding task. This suggests that conjunction learning results in altered bottom-up perceptual processing of the learned conjunction stimuli (i.e., a perceptual change independent of the task). We further show that the acquired change in target-evoked activity is contextually dependent on the presence of distractors, suggesting that search array Gestalts are learned. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2319-2330, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26970441

  17. Predicting Performance on Academic and Non-Academic Tasks: A Comparison of Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Job, Jenelle M.; Klassen, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) are less accurate in predicting academic performance than normally achieving (NA) adolescents and display a tendency to overestimate their level of performance (e.g., Klassen, 2007). However, no studies have been conducted investigating whether this overestimation is…

  18. What Comes First? How Selective Attentional Processes Regulate the Activation of a Motor Routine in a Manual Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riviere, James; Falaise, Aurelie

    2011-01-01

    An intriguing error has been observed in toddlers presented with a 3-location search task involving invisible displacements of an object, namely, the C-not-B task. In 3 experiments, the authors investigated the dynamics of the attentional focus process that is suspected to be involved in this task. In Experiment 1, 2.5-year-old children were…

  19. Relationships among Individual Task Self-Efficacy, Self-Regulated Learning Strategy Use and Academic Performance in a Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kimberly; Narayan, Anupama

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates relationships between self-efficacy, self-regulated learning strategy use and academic performance. Participants were 96 undergraduate students working on projects with three subtasks (idea generation task, methodical task and data collection) in a blended learning environment. Task self-efficacy was measured with…

  20. Using Ontology Search Engines to support Users and Intelligent Systems solving a range of tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleeman, D.; Thomas, E.; Aiken, A.

    The paper describes several classes of tasks namely solving word problems, and classifying datasets using machine learning techniques, where the tasks may not be solvable because the information provided is incomplete. We explore the situation where one has a central concept and the missing information can either be a further descriptor / field of that concept or a (distantly) related concept. We describe how an ontology search engine has assisted in solving such problems, by summarizing the frequency of occurrence of descriptors found in a group of relevant ontologies, and by reporting which concepts are related to the central concept. The search engine used in this work has been ONTOSEARCH2. We further speculate about how such a "concept web" might be used to support the analysis and generation of natural language texts as well as spoken language.

  1. Using mixed-initiative human-robot interaction to bound performance in a search task

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis W. Nielsen; Douglas A. Few; Devin S. Athey

    2008-12-01

    Mobile robots are increasingly used in dangerous domains, because they can keep humans out of harm’s way. Despite their advantages in hazardous environments, their general acceptance in other less dangerous domains has not been apparent and, even in dangerous environments, robots are often viewed as a “last-possible choice.” In order to increase the utility and acceptance of robots in hazardous domains researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory have both developed and tested novel mixed-initiative solutions that support the human-robot interactions. In a recent “dirty-bomb” experiment, participants exhibited different search strategies making it difficult to determine any performance benefits. This paper presents a method for categorizing the search patterns and shows that the mixed-initiative solution decreased the time to complete the task and decreased the performance spread between participants independent of prior training and of individual strategies used to accomplish the task.

  2. Low target prevalence is a stubborn source of errors in visual search tasks

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Horowitz, Todd S.; Van Wert, Michael J.; Kenner, Naomi M.; Place, Skyler S.; Kibbi, Nour

    2009-01-01

    In visual search tasks, observers look for targets in displays containing distractors. Likelihood that targets will be missed varies with target prevalence, the frequency with which targets are presented across trials. Miss error rates are much higher at low target prevalence (1–2%) than at high prevalence (50%). Unfortunately, low prevalence is characteristic of important search tasks like airport security and medical screening where miss errors are dangerous. A series of experiments show this prevalence effect is very robust. In signal detection terms, the prevalence effect can be explained as a criterion shift and not a change in sensitivity. Several efforts to induce observers to adopt a better criterion fail. However, a regime of brief retraining periods with high prevalence and full feedback allows observers to hold a good criterion during periods of low prevalence with no feedback. PMID:17999575

  3. Al Hirschfeld's NINA as a prototype search task for studying perceptual error in radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nodine, Calvin F.; Kundel, Harold L.

    1997-04-01

    Artist Al Hirschfeld has been hiding the word NINA (his daughter's name) in line drawings of theatrical scenes that have appeared in the New York Times for over 50 years. This paper shows how Hirschfeld's search task of finding the name NINA in his drawings illustrates basic perceptual principles of detection, discrimination and decision-making commonly encountered in radiology search tasks. Hirschfeld's hiding of NINA is typically accomplished by camouflaging the letters of the name and blending them into scenic background details such as wisps of hair and folds of clothing. In a similar way, pulmonary nodules and breast lesions are camouflaged by anatomic features of the chest or breast image. Hirschfeld's hidden NINAs are sometimes missed because they are integrated into a Gestalt overview rather than differentiated from background features during focal scanning. This may be similar to overlooking an obvious nodule behind the heart in a chest x-ray image. Because it is a search game, Hirschfeld assigns a number to each drawing to indicate how many NINAs he has hidden so as not to frustrate his viewers. In the radiologists' task, the number of targets detected in a medical image is determined by combining perceptual input with probabilities generated from clinical history and viewing experience. Thus, in the absence of truth, searching for abnormalities in x-ray images creates opportunities for recognition and decision errors (e.g. false positives and false negatives). We illustrate how camouflage decreases the conspicuity of both artistic and radiographic targets, compare detection performance of radiologists with lay persons searching for NINAs, and, show similarities and differences between scanning strategies of the two groups based on eye-position data.

  4. Reduced posterior parietal cortex activation after training on a visual search task.

    PubMed

    Bueichekú, Elisenda; Miró-Padilla, Anna; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Parcet, María-Antonia; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Ávila, César

    2016-07-15

    Gaining experience on a cognitive task improves behavioral performance and is thought to enhance brain efficiency. Despite the body of literature already published on the effects of training on brain activation, less research has been carried out on visual search attention processes under well controlled conditions. Thirty-six healthy adults divided into trained and control groups completed a pre-post letter-based visual search task fMRI study in one day. Twelve letters were used as targets and ten as distractors. The trained group completed a training session (840 trials) with half the targets between scans. The effects of training were studied at the behavioral and brain levels by controlling for repetition effects using both between-subjects (trained vs. control groups) and within-subject (trained vs. untrained targets) controls. The trained participants reduced their response speed by 31% as a result of training, maintaining their accuracy scores, whereas the control group hardly changed. Neural results revealed that brain changes associated with visual search training were circumscribed to reduced activation in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) when controlling for group, and they included inferior occipital areas when controlling for targets. The observed behavioral and brain changes are discussed in relation to automatic behavior development. The observed training-related decreases could be associated with increased neural efficiency in specific key regions for task performance. PMID:27132048

  5. Ideal and visual-search observers: accounting for anatomical noise in search tasks with planar nuclear imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Anando; Gifford, Howard C.

    2015-03-01

    Model observers have frequently been used for hardware optimization of imaging systems. For model observers to reliably mimic human performance it is important to account for the sources of variations in the images. Detection-localization tasks are complicated by anatomical noise present in the images. Several scanning observers have been proposed for such tasks. The most popular of these, the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) incorporates anatomical variations through covariance matrices. We propose the visual-search (VS) observer as an alternative to the CHO to account for anatomical noise. The VS observer is a two-step process which first identifies suspicious tumor candidates and then performs a detailed analysis on them. The identification of suspicious candidates (search) implicitly accounts for anatomical noise. In this study we present a comparison of these two observers with human observers. The application considered is collimator optimization for planar nuclear imaging. Both observers show similar trends in performance with the VS observer slightly closer to human performance.

  6. Performance of visual search tasks from various types of contour information.

    PubMed

    Itan, Liron; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

    2013-03-01

    A recently proposed visual aid for patients with a restricted visual field (tunnel vision) combines a see-through head-mounted display and a simultaneous minified contour view of the wide-field image of the environment. Such a widening of the effective visual field is helpful for tasks, such as visual search, mobility, and orientation. The sufficiency of image contours for performing everyday visual tasks is of major importance for this application, as well as for other applications, and for basic understanding of human vision. This research aims is to examine and compare the use of different types of automatically created contours, and contour representations, for practical everyday visual operations using commonly observed images. The visual operations include visual searching for items, such as cutlery, housewares, etc. Considering different recognition levels, identification of an object is distinguished from mere detection (when the object is not necessarily identified). Some nonconventional visual-based contour representations were developed for this purpose. Experiments were performed with normal-vision subjects by superposing contours of the wide field of the scene over a narrow field (see-through) background. From the results, it appears that about 85% success is obtained for searched object identification when the best contour versions are employed. Pilot experiments with video simulations are reported at the end of the paper. PMID:23456115

  7. Searching for Excellence & Diversity: Increasing the Hiring of Women Faculty at One Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Jennifer T.; Fine, Eve; Pribbenow, Christine Maidl; Handelsman, Jo; Carnes, Molly

    2014-01-01

    One opportunity to realize the diversity goals of academic health centers comes at the time of hiring new faculty. To improve the effectiveness of search committees in increasing the gender diversity of faculty hires, the authors created and implemented a training workshop for faculty search committees designed to improve the hiring process and increase the diversity of faculty hires at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. They describe the workshops, which they presented in the School of Medicine and Public Health between 2004 and 2007, and they compare the subsequent hiring of women faculty in participating and nonparticipating departments and the self-reported experience of new faculty within the hiring process. Attendance at the workshop correlates with improved hiring of women faculty and with a better hiring experience for faculty recruits, especially women. The authors articulate successful elements of workshop implementation for other medical schools seeking to increase gender diversity on their faculties. PMID:20505400

  8. Hybrid Symbiotic Organisms Search Optimization Algorithm for Scheduling of Tasks on Cloud Computing Environment.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Mohammed; Ngadi, Md Asri

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing has attracted significant attention from research community because of rapid migration rate of Information Technology services to its domain. Advances in virtualization technology has made cloud computing very popular as a result of easier deployment of application services. Tasks are submitted to cloud datacenters to be processed on pay as you go fashion. Task scheduling is one the significant research challenges in cloud computing environment. The current formulation of task scheduling problems has been shown to be NP-complete, hence finding the exact solution especially for large problem sizes is intractable. The heterogeneous and dynamic feature of cloud resources makes optimum task scheduling non-trivial. Therefore, efficient task scheduling algorithms are required for optimum resource utilization. Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS) has been shown to perform competitively with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The aim of this study is to optimize task scheduling in cloud computing environment based on a proposed Simulated Annealing (SA) based SOS (SASOS) in order to improve the convergence rate and quality of solution of SOS. The SOS algorithm has a strong global exploration capability and uses fewer parameters. The systematic reasoning ability of SA is employed to find better solutions on local solution regions, hence, adding exploration ability to SOS. Also, a fitness function is proposed which takes into account the utilization level of virtual machines (VMs) which reduced makespan and degree of imbalance among VMs. CloudSim toolkit was used to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method using both synthetic and standard workload. Results of simulation showed that hybrid SOS performs better than SOS in terms of convergence speed, response time, degree of imbalance, and makespan. PMID:27348127

  9. Hybrid Symbiotic Organisms Search Optimization Algorithm for Scheduling of Tasks on Cloud Computing Environment

    PubMed Central

    Abdullahi, Mohammed; Ngadi, Md Asri

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing has attracted significant attention from research community because of rapid migration rate of Information Technology services to its domain. Advances in virtualization technology has made cloud computing very popular as a result of easier deployment of application services. Tasks are submitted to cloud datacenters to be processed on pay as you go fashion. Task scheduling is one the significant research challenges in cloud computing environment. The current formulation of task scheduling problems has been shown to be NP-complete, hence finding the exact solution especially for large problem sizes is intractable. The heterogeneous and dynamic feature of cloud resources makes optimum task scheduling non-trivial. Therefore, efficient task scheduling algorithms are required for optimum resource utilization. Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS) has been shown to perform competitively with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The aim of this study is to optimize task scheduling in cloud computing environment based on a proposed Simulated Annealing (SA) based SOS (SASOS) in order to improve the convergence rate and quality of solution of SOS. The SOS algorithm has a strong global exploration capability and uses fewer parameters. The systematic reasoning ability of SA is employed to find better solutions on local solution regions, hence, adding exploration ability to SOS. Also, a fitness function is proposed which takes into account the utilization level of virtual machines (VMs) which reduced makespan and degree of imbalance among VMs. CloudSim toolkit was used to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method using both synthetic and standard workload. Results of simulation showed that hybrid SOS performs better than SOS in terms of convergence speed, response time, degree of imbalance, and makespan. PMID:27348127

  10. Locomotion and task demands differentially modulate thalamic audiovisual processing during active search

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Ross S.; Hancock, Kenneth E.; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.; Polley, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Active search is a ubiquitous goal-driven behavior wherein organisms purposefully investigate the sensory environment to locate a target object. During active search, brain circuits analyze a stream of sensory information from the external environment, adjusting for internal signals related to self-generated movement or “top-down” weighting of anticipated target and distractor properties. Sensory responses in the cortex can be modulated by internal state [1–9], though the extent and form of modulation arising in the cortex de novo versus an inheritance from subcortical stations is not clear [4, 8–12]. We addressed this question by simultaneously recording from auditory and visual regions of the thalamus (MG and LG, respectively) while mice used dynamic auditory or visual feedback to search for a hidden target within an annular track. Locomotion was associated with strongly suppressed responses and reduced decoding accuracy in MG but a subtle increase in LG spiking. Because stimuli in one modality provided critical information about target location while the other served as a distractor, we could also estimate the importance of task relevance in both thalamic subdivisions. In contrast to the effects of locomotion, we found that LG responses were reduced overall yet decoded stimuli more accurately when vision was behaviorally relevant, whereas task relevance had little effect on MG responses. This double dissociation between the influences of task relevance and movement in MG and LG highlights a role for extrasensory modulation in the thalamus but also suggests key differences in the organization of modulatory circuitry between the auditory and visual pathways. PMID:26119749

  11. Differential effects of parietal and frontal inactivations on reaction times distributions in a visual search task

    PubMed Central

    Wardak, Claire; Ben Hamed, Suliann; Olivier, Etienne; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2012-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex participates to numerous cognitive functions, from perceptual to attentional and decisional processes. However, the same functions have also been attributed to the frontal cortex. We previously conducted a series of reversible inactivations of the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) and of the frontal eye field (FEF) in the monkey which showed impairments in covert visual search performance, characterized mainly by an increase in the mean reaction time (RT) necessary to detect a contralesional target. Only subtle differences were observed between the inactivation effects in both areas. In particular, the magnitude of the deficit was dependant of search task difficulty for LIP, but not for FEF. In the present study, we re-examine these data in order to try to dissociate the specific involvement of these two regions, by considering the entire RT distribution instead of mean RT. We use the LATER model to help us interpret the effects of the inactivations with regard to information accumulation rate and decision processes. We show that: (1) different search strategies can be used by monkeys to perform visual search, either by processing the visual scene in parallel, or by combining parallel and serial processes; (2) LIP and FEF inactivations have very different effects on the RT distributions in the two monkeys. Although our results are not conclusive with regards to the exact functional mechanisms affected by the inactivations, the effects we observe on RT distributions could be accounted by an involvement of LIP in saliency representation or decision-making, and an involvement of FEF in attentional shifts and perception. Finally, we observe that the use of the LATER model is limited in the context of a visual search as it cannot fit all the behavioral strategies encountered. We propose that the diversity in search strategies observed in our monkeys also exists in individual human subjects and should be considered in future experiments. PMID

  12. Differential effects of parietal and frontal inactivations on reaction times distributions in a visual search task.

    PubMed

    Wardak, Claire; Ben Hamed, Suliann; Olivier, Etienne; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2012-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex participates to numerous cognitive functions, from perceptual to attentional and decisional processes. However, the same functions have also been attributed to the frontal cortex. We previously conducted a series of reversible inactivations of the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) and of the frontal eye field (FEF) in the monkey which showed impairments in covert visual search performance, characterized mainly by an increase in the mean reaction time (RT) necessary to detect a contralesional target. Only subtle differences were observed between the inactivation effects in both areas. In particular, the magnitude of the deficit was dependant of search task difficulty for LIP, but not for FEF. In the present study, we re-examine these data in order to try to dissociate the specific involvement of these two regions, by considering the entire RT distribution instead of mean RT. We use the LATER model to help us interpret the effects of the inactivations with regard to information accumulation rate and decision processes. We show that: (1) different search strategies can be used by monkeys to perform visual search, either by processing the visual scene in parallel, or by combining parallel and serial processes; (2) LIP and FEF inactivations have very different effects on the RT distributions in the two monkeys. Although our results are not conclusive with regards to the exact functional mechanisms affected by the inactivations, the effects we observe on RT distributions could be accounted by an involvement of LIP in saliency representation or decision-making, and an involvement of FEF in attentional shifts and perception. Finally, we observe that the use of the LATER model is limited in the context of a visual search as it cannot fit all the behavioral strategies encountered. We propose that the diversity in search strategies observed in our monkeys also exists in individual human subjects and should be considered in future experiments. PMID

  13. From Foreground to Background: How Task-Neutral Context Influences Contextual Cueing of Visual Search

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Xuelian; Geyer, Thomas; Assumpção, Leonardo; Müller, Hermann J.; Shi, Zhuanghua

    2016-01-01

    Selective attention determines the effectiveness of implicit contextual learning (e.g., Jiang and Leung, 2005). Visual foreground-background segmentation, on the other hand, is a key process in the guidance of attention (Wolfe, 2003). In the present study, we examined the impact of foreground-background segmentation on contextual cueing of visual search in three experiments. A visual search display, consisting of distractor ‘L’s and a target ‘T’, was overlaid on a task-neutral cuboid on the same depth plane (Experiment 1), on stereoscopically separated depth planes (Experiment 2), or spread over the entire display on the same depth plane (Experiment 3). Half of the search displays contained repeated target-distractor arrangements, whereas the other half was always newly generated. The task-neutral cuboid was constant during an initial training session, but was either rotated by 90° or entirely removed in the subsequent test sessions. We found that the gains resulting from repeated presentation of display arrangements during training (i.e., contextual-cueing effects) were diminished when the cuboid was changed or removed in Experiment 1, but remained intact in Experiments 2 and 3 when the cuboid was placed in a different depth plane, or when the items were randomly spread over the whole display but not on the edges of the cuboid. These findings suggest that foreground-background segmentation occurs prior to contextual learning, and only objects/arrangements that are grouped as foreground are learned over the course of repeated visual search. PMID:27375530

  14. Effects of White Noise on Off-Task Behavior and Academic Responding for Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Andrew; Bradley-Johnson, Sharon; Johnson, C. Merle

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of white noise played through headphones on off-task behavior, percentage of items completed, and percentage of items completed correctly for 3 students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Headphones plus white noise were associated with decreases in off-task behavior relative to baseline and…

  15. Eighth Graders' Web Searching Strategies and Outcomes: The Role of Task Types, Web Experiences and Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Yi-Wen; Shih, Meilun; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2008-01-01

    This study reported an investigation of eighth graders' (14-year-olds) web searching strategies and outcomes, and then analyzed their correlations with students' web experiences, epistemological beliefs, and the nature of searching tasks. Eighty-seven eighth graders were asked to fill out a questionnaire for probing epistemological beliefs (from…

  16. Relationships among gender, cognitive style, academic major, and performance on the Piaget water-level task.

    PubMed

    Hammer, R E; Hoffer, N; King, W L

    1995-06-01

    Many researchers have found that more college-age adults than would be expected fail Piaget's water-level task, with women failing more frequently than men. It has been hypothesized that differences in cognitive style may account for performance differences on the water-level task. In the present study, 27 male and 27 female architectural students and 27 male and 27 female liberal-arts students were assessed for their performance on both Piaget's Water-level Task and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test. No difference was found in performance of male and female architectural students on either task, but male liberal-arts students scored significantly higher than female liberal-arts students on both measures. A disembedding cognitive style predicted success on the water-level task for the architectural students but not for the liberal arts students. PMID:7567394

  17. Developmental Dynamics between Children's Externalizing Problems, Task-Avoidant Behavior, and Academic Performance in Early School Years: A 4-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Pakarinen, Eija; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the associations among children's externalizing problems, task-avoidant behavior, and academic performance in early school years. The participants were 586 children (43% girls, 57% boys). Data pertaining to externalizing problems (teacher ratings) and task-avoidant behaviors (mother and teacher ratings) were…

  18. The Effects of Synchronous Text-Based Computer-Mediated Communication Tasks on the Development of L2 and Academic Literacy: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jinrong

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation examines how synchronous text-based computer-mediated communication (SCMC) tasks may affect English as a Second Language (ESL) learners' development of second language (L2) and academic literacy. The study is motivated by two issues concerning the use of SCMC tasks in L2 writing classes. First, although some of the alleged…

  19. Do economic equality and generalized trust inhibit academic dishonesty? Evidence from state-level search-engine queries.

    PubMed

    Neville, Lukas

    2012-04-01

    What effect does economic inequality have on academic integrity? Using data from search-engine queries made between 2003 and 2011 on Google and state-level measures of income inequality and generalized trust, I found that academically dishonest searches (queries seeking term-paper mills and help with cheating) were more likely to come from states with higher income inequality and lower levels of generalized trust. These relations persisted even when controlling for contextual variables, such as average income and the number of colleges per capita. The relation between income inequality and academic dishonesty was fully mediated by generalized trust. When there is higher economic inequality, people are less likely to view one another as trustworthy. This lower generalized trust, in turn, is associated with a greater prevalence of academic dishonesty. These results might explain previous findings on the effectiveness of honor codes. PMID:22421204

  20. Understanding Student Development Tasks Related to Sophomores and Their Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Arcangelo, Michael Thayer

    2013-01-01

    Historically, retaining students and maximizing their academic achievement has been a challenge for administrators in American colleges and universities. Since the mid-twentieth century, the sophomore year has increasingly been suspected of being a gateway to declining grades, decreased morale, and increased attrition among college students.…

  1. Addressing Task Avoidance in Middle School Students: Academic Behavior Check-In/Check-Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turtura, Jessica E.; Anderson, Cynthia M.; Boyd, R. Justin

    2014-01-01

    Multitier prevention systems consist of a continuum of interventions to address the needs of all students. Within such systems, Tier I supports are in place for all students and are designed to enhance prosocial (social behavior interventions) and academic (instructional interventions) skills. Tier II interventions supplement the Tier I…

  2. Predictors of Early Growth in Academic Achievement: The Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Megan M.; Cameron, Claire E.; Duncan, Robert; Bowles, Ryan P.; Acock, Alan C.; Miao, Alicia; Pratt, Megan E.

    2014-01-01

    Children's behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control) are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) by…

  3. Examining the Domain-Specificity of Metacognition Using Academic Domains and Task-Specific Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Brianna M.; Berman, Ashleigh F.

    2013-01-01

    Metacognition refers to students' knowledge and regulation of cognition, as well as their accuracy in predicting their academic performance. This study addressed two major questions: 1) how do metacognitive knowledge, regulation and accuracy differ across domains?, and 2) how do students' individual differences relate to their reported…

  4. The Effect of Locus of Control and Locus of Reinforcement on Academic Task Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Susan; Messer, Stanley B.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the differential effectiveness of using external reinforcement versus self reinforcement to increase the task persistence of children characterized by internal or external locus of control. Subjects were 153 fourth and fifth grade boys. (BD)

  5. Performance on the Hamilton search task, and the influence of lateralization, in captive orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica).

    PubMed

    Cussen, Victoria A; Mench, Joy A

    2014-07-01

    Psittacines are generally considered to possess cognitive abilities comparable to those of primates. Most psittacine research has evaluated performance on standardized complex cognition tasks, but studies of basic cognitive processes are limited. We tested orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica) on a spatial foraging assessment, the Hamilton search task. This task is a standardized test used in human and non-human primate studies. It has multiple phases, which require trial and error learning, learning set breaking, and spatial memory. We investigated search strategies used to complete the task, cognitive flexibility, and long-term memory for the task. We also assessed the effects of individual strength of motor lateralization (foot preference) and sex on task performance. Almost all (92%) of the parrots acquired the task. All had significant foot preferences, with 69% preferring their left foot, and showed side preferences contralateral to their preferred limb during location selection. The parrots were able to alter their search strategies when reward contingencies changed, demonstrating cognitive flexibility. They were also able to remember the task over a 6-month period. Lateralization had a significant influence on learning set acquisition but no effect on cognitive flexibility. There were no sex differences. To our knowledge, this is the first cognitive study using this particular species and one of the few studies of cognitive abilities in any Neotropical parrot species. PMID:24370681

  6. Score Generalizability of Academic Writing Tasks: Does One Test Method Fit It All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebril, Atta

    2009-01-01

    Generalizability of writing scores has always been a longstanding concern in L2 writing assessment. A number of studies have been conducted to investigate this topic during the last two decades. However, with the introduction of new test methods, such as reading-to-write tasks, generalizability studies need to focus on the score accuracy of…

  7. Task Force on Undergraduate Curricula Development. Report. Academic Programs Publication Series Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

    A task force studied the undergraduate program at the College of Agriculture and the School of Forest Resources and Conservation at the University of Florida, ranging from recruitment techniques and strategies designed to attract students to the college to strategies to recognize and reward quality teaching at the undergraduate level. Data were…

  8. Academic Tasks to Identify Students with Reading Disability in Malayalam among Upper Primary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, K. Abdul; Remia, K. R.

    2013-01-01

    This study is to identify tasks which can be used to spot students with Reading Disability in Malayalam among Upper Primary students. It used secondary data collected from students of Kerala. Students were categorized as dyslexic and low achievers based on their performance in reading, writing and arithmetic tests. Data on performance of normal…

  9. The Achievement and Social Adjustment of Accelerated Students: The Impact of Academic Talent Search after Seven Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Terry A.

    Academic Talent Search (ATS) provided advanced instruction in a 6-week summer school for talented middle school students on the campus of California State University, Sacramento. A survey was conducted to examine the long-term impact of the ATS program on students over a period of 7 years. Data were collected pertaining to high school and college…

  10. Allocation of cognitive resources in comparative visual search--individual and task dependent effects.

    PubMed

    Hardiess, Gregor; Mallot, Hanspeter A

    2015-08-01

    Behaviors recruit multiple, mutually substitutable types of cognitive resources (e.g., data acquisition and memorization in comparative visual search), and the allocation of resources is performed in a cost-optimizing way. If costs associated with each type of resource are manipulated, e.g., by varying the complexity of the items studied or the visual separation of the arrays to be compared, according adjustments of resource allocation ("trade-offs") have been demonstrated. Using between-subject designs, previous studies showed overall trade-off behavior but neglected inter-individual variability of trade-off behavior. Here, we present a simplified paradigm for comparative visual search in which gaze-measurements are replaced by switching of a visual mask covering one stimulus array at a time. This paradigm allows for a full within-subject design. While overall trade-off curves could be reproduced, we found that each subject used a specific trade-off strategy which differ substantially between subjects. Still, task-dependent adjustment of resource allocation can be demonstrated but accounts only for a minor part of the overall trade-off range. In addition, we show that the individual trade-offs were adjusted in an unconscious and rather intuitive way, enabling a robust manifestation of the selected strategy space. PMID:26093155

  11. Intrinsic motivation and attentional capture from gamelike features in a visual search task.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Andrew T; Palmer, Evan M

    2014-03-01

    In psychology research studies, the goals of the experimenter and the goals of the participants often do not align. Researchers are interested in having participants who take the experimental task seriously, whereas participants are interested in earning their incentive (e.g., money or course credit) as quickly as possible. Creating experimental methods that are pleasant for participants and that reward them for effortful and accurate data generation, while not compromising the scientific integrity of the experiment, would benefit both experimenters and participants alike. Here, we explored a gamelike system of points and sound effects that rewarded participants for fast and accurate responses. We measured participant engagement at both cognitive and perceptual levels and found that the point system (which invoked subtle, anonymous social competition between participants) led to positive intrinsic motivation, while the sound effects (which were pleasant and arousing) led to attentional capture for rewarded colors. In a visual search task, points were awarded after each trial for fast and accurate responses, accompanied by short, pleasant sound effects. We adapted a paradigm from Anderson, Laurent, and Yantis (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108(25):10367-10371, 2011b), in which participants completed a training phase during which red and green targets were probabilistically associated with reward (a point bonus multiplier). During a test phase, no points or sounds were delivered, color was irrelevant to the task, and previously rewarded targets were sometimes presented as distractors. Significantly longer response times on trials in which previously rewarded colors were present demonstrated attentional capture, and positive responses to a five-question intrinsic-motivation scale demonstrated participant engagement. PMID:23835649

  12. A new step towards understanding Embedded Figures Test performance in the autism spectrum: the radial frequency search task.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Renita A; Dickinson, J Edwin; Maybery, Murray T; Badcock, Johanna C; Badcock, David R

    2010-01-01

    The Embedded Figure Test (EFT) requires locating a simple shape embedded within a background of overlapping target-irrelevant scene elements. Observers with autism, or those with high levels of autistic-like traits, typically outperform matched comparison groups on the EFT. This research investigated the critical visual properties which give rise to this improved performance. The EFT is a search task and so here a radial frequency (RF) search task was created to directly explore efficacy of visual search and also the influence of element overlap on performance. In all conditions, the task was to detect whether the target RF3 (a triangular shape chosen for its visual properties) was present among a number of distracter RF4 (a square shape) patterns. The conditions employed were: 'singles', where all the patterns were spatially discrete, 'pairs', where two overlapping elements formed each cluster, and 'quads', comprising four overlapping elements per cluster. Compared to students scoring low on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ; n=27), those scoring high on the AQ (n=23) were faster on the EFT and also significantly less influenced by increasing set size of the stimulus array in all RF search task conditions. However, the group difference in RF search performance was unaffected by the amount of stimulus overlap. Thus a simple search task is sufficient to detect a performance advantage associated with higher levels of autistic traits and has the advantages of a solid footing in visual theory and being readily repeatable for the purpose of assessing performance variability and change with interventions. PMID:19786040

  13. Use of human remains detection dogs for wide area search after wildfire: a new experience for TexasTask Force 1 Search and Rescue resources.

    PubMed

    Migala, Alexandre F; Brown, Susann E

    2012-12-01

    In September 2011, wildfires in Bastrop County, TX, were the most destructive in the state's history, consuming more than 34000 acres (13759 hectares) and more than 1600 homes in the process. The wildfires began by consuming more than 30 homes across 2 miles (3.2 km) in 17 minutes, raising the fear that local residents may not have had sufficient time to escape the conflagration. Texas Task Force 1 deployed for a new mission, the search and recovery of human remains. Although there have been other larger and more widespread fires in the past, it was the speed at which this fire spread that created the environment requiring such a search. The mission was focused primarily on human detection, searching an area almost 72 square miles (186 km(2)) between September 7 and 11, 2011. To our knowledge, never before have human remains detection dogs been tasked with such an undertaking. Lessons learned from this event will educate all levels of government agencies, emergency medical services, fire departments, law enforcement, utilities, veterinary services, and search and rescue/recovery activities in the future. The utilization of human remains detection canines integrated with search teams trained in larger scale events is one such area that will benefit from this experience, with a final area searched of 15 598 acres (6312 hectares). PMID:23062321

  14. Prioritized Selection in Visual Search through Onset Capture and Color Inhibition: Evidence from a Probe-Dot Detection Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agter, Frank; Donk, Mieke

    2005-01-01

    Observers performed a preview search task in which, on some trials, they had to indicate the presence of a briefly presented probe-dot. Probes could be presented on locations corresponding to old or new elements and prior to or after the presentation of the new elements. After the presentation of the new elements, probes were generally detected…

  15. Use of Landmark Features and Geometry by Children and Adults during a Two-Dimensional Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Brett M.; Leichtman, Michelle D.; Kung, Deborah A.; Simpson, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Three- to six-year-old children (n=28) and adults (n=46) participated in a two-dimensional search task that included geometry and feature conditions. During each of 24 trials, participants watched as a cartoon character hid behind one of three landmarks arranged in a triangle on a computer screen. The landmarks and character then disappeared and…

  16. Self-Handicapping Prior to Academic-Oriented Tasks in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Medication Effects and Comparisons with Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Craig, Rebecca; Pelham, William E., Jr.; King, Sara

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with and without ADHD and examined whether stimulant medication influenced self-handicapping. Participants were 61 children ages 6 to 13, including 22 children with ADHD tested after taking a placebo, 21 children with ADHD tested after taking stimulant medication,…

  17. Investigating the Reading-to-Write Processes and Source Use of L2 Postgraduate Students in Real-Life Academic Tasks: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Existing studies of source use in academic student writing tend to i), focus more on the writing than the reading end of the reading-to-write continuum and ii), involve the use of insufficiently "naturalistic" writing tasks. Thus, in order to explore the potential of an alternative approach, this paper describes an exploratory case study…

  18. Helping Female Juveniles Improve their On-Task Behavior and Academic Performance Using a Self-Management Procedure in a Correctional Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Stacy; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to teach female juvenile offenders with disabilities a self-management procedure to help improve on-task behavior and academic performance during independent practice of math calculation facts. Students were taught to set goals and were provided with incentives for goal attainment. A reversal single-case design…

  19. Effect of Exposure to an Authentic Pedagogical Task on Student Academic Performance, Student Perceptions of Pedagogical Authenticity and Higher Order Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Marlin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an authentic pedagogical (AP) task on measurements of student academic performance, student perceptions of pedagogical authenticity, and higher order thinking in undergraduate psychology courses. In this quasi-experimental design, comprehensive final exam scores, student ratings on the…

  20. Bridging academic science and clinical research in the search for novel targeted anti-cancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Matter, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This review starts with a brief history of drug discovery & development, and the place of Asia in this worldwide effort discussed. The conditions and constraints of a successful translational R&D involving academic basic research and clinical research are discussed and the Singapore model for pursuit of open R&D described. The importance of well-characterized, validated drug targets for the search for novel targeted anti-cancer agents is emphasized, as well as a structured, high quality translational R&D. Furthermore, the characteristics of an attractive preclinical development drug candidate are discussed laying the foundation of a successful preclinical development. The most frequent sources of failures are described and risk management at every stage is highly recommended. Organizational factors are also considered to play an important role. The factors to consider before starting a new drug discovery & development project are described, and an example is given of a successful clinical project that has had its roots in local universities and was carried through preclinical development into phase I clinical trials. PMID:26779369

  1. N2pc and attentional capture by colour and orientation-singletons in pure and mixed visual search tasks.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Holguín, Socorro; Doallo, Sonia; Vizoso, Carmen; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2009-09-01

    The capture of attention by singleton stimuli in visual search is a matter of contention. Some authors propose that singletons capture attention in a bottom-up fashion if they are salient. Others propose that capture is contingent upon whether or not the stimuli share task-relevant attributes with the target. This study assessed N2pc elicited by colour and orientation singletons in a mixed task (the singleton defined as target changed block-to-block), and a pure task (the target was the same across the whole task). Both singletons elicited N2pc when acting as targets; when acting as non-targets, orientation singletons elicited N2pc only in the mixed task. The results suggest that the singletons were not salient enough to engage attention in a purely bottom-up fashion. Elicitation of N2pc by non-targets in the mixed task should be attributed to top-down processes associated with the current task. Stimuli that act as targets in part of the blocks become not completely irrelevant when non-targets. PMID:19409424

  2. Effects of Arm Weight on C-Not-B Task Performance: Implications for the Motor Inhibitory Deficit Account of Search Failures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riviere, James; Lecuyer, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Toddlers have been found to fail on a three-location search task involving the invisible displacements of an object, namely the C-not-B task. In this task, a child is shown the experimenter's hand that contains a toy. The toy then successively disappears under the three cloths (A, B, then C). The examiner silently releases the toy under the second…

  3. Timing Is Affected by Demands in Memory Search but Not by Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortin, Claudette; Schweickert, Richard; Gaudreault, Remi; Viau-Quesnel, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that timing and tasks involving executive control processes might require the same attentional resources. This should lead to interference when timing and executive tasks are executed concurrently. This study examined the interference between timing and task switching, an executive function. In 4 experiments, memory search…

  4. The contribution of apparent and inherent usability to a user's satisfaction in a searching and browsing task on the Web.

    PubMed

    Fu, Limin; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2002-05-15

    Previous research found that apparent and inherent usability had big influences on user's acceptance of computer systems. This research extended these findings to the area of user's satisfaction. The study investigated the impact of inherent and apparent usability on user's satisfaction of Web page designs while the two main tasks on the World Wide Web, searching and browsing, were performed. The results indicated that inherent usability was the main factor contributing to user's satisfaction in both searching and browsing. General principles and specific recommendations for the design and evaluation of Web page designs are derived from these findings. PMID:12061966

  5. A Systematic Understanding of Successful Web Searches in Information-Based Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Mingming

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to research how Chinese university students solve information-based problems. With the Search Performance Index as the measure of search success, participants were divided into high, medium and low-performing groups. Based on their web search logs, these three groups were compared along five dimensions of the search…

  6. Ranking inconsistencies in the assessment of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) reconstruction algorithms using a location-known task and a search task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xin; Zeng, Rongping; Samuelson, Frank; Sahiner, Berkman

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we validated a task-based performance figure-of-merit (FOM) by investigating ranking inconsistencies due to lurking variable/factors. We applied a falsifiable search assessment theory to assessing digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) image quality using a scanning channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) on a simulated DBT dataset. We compared the performance of five reconstruction algorithms: filter back projection (FBP), maximum likelihood (ML), simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART), total-variation regularized least square estimator (TVLS) with strong and mild regularization settings. The results showed that the location-known-exactly (LKE) detection performance was almost identical for the five reconstruction algorithms. However the search characteristic as described by effective set size (M*) and search AUC value, ranked them differently. To falsify/corroborate our evaluations on search characteristic and performance, we conducted an image-size test. This test demonstrated an agreement between theoretical predictions and empirically measured observer performance in absolute performance levels, except for the ML algorithm. We concluded that evidence corroborated our evaluations, except that for the ML algorithm where our evaluation was wrong. Further investigation of the wrong evaluation in the ML case revealed a lurking variable that affected system performance ranking in search when AUC value was used as the FOM. This further confirmed that our evaluation in its current form for the ML algorithm was indeed wrong. We also noted that the ranking inconsistencies exist even when the AUC value was used as the FOM, and the falsifiable nature of M* allowed such inconsistencies to be identified.

  7. Of "what" and "where" in a natural search task: Active object handling supports object location memory beyond the object's identity.

    PubMed

    Draschkow, Dejan; Võ, Melissa L-H

    2016-08-01

    Looking for as well as actively manipulating objects that are relevant to ongoing behavioral goals are intricate parts of natural behavior. It is, however, not clear to what degree these two forms of interaction with our visual environment differ with regard to their memory representations. In a real-world paradigm, we investigated if physically engaging with objects as part of a search task influences identity and position memory differently for task-relevant versus irrelevant objects. Participants equipped with a mobile eye tracker either searched for cued objects without object interaction (Find condition) or actively collected the objects they found (Handle condition). In the following free-recall task, identity memory was assessed, demonstrating superior memory for relevant compared to irrelevant objects, but no difference between the Handle and Find conditions. Subsequently, location memory was inferred via times to first fixation in a final object search task. Active object manipulation and task-relevance interacted in that location memory for relevant objects was superior to irrelevant ones only in the Handle condition. Including previous object recall performance as a covariate in the linear mixed-model analysis of times to first fixation allowed us to explore the interaction between remembered/forgotten object identities and the execution of location memory. Identity memory performance predicted location memory in the Find but not the Handle condition, suggesting that active object handling leads to strong spatial representations independent of object identity memory. We argue that object handling facilitates the prioritization of relevant location information, but this might come at the cost of deprioritizing irrelevant information. PMID:27165170

  8. Statistical learning modulates the direction of the first head movement in a large-scale search task.

    PubMed

    Won, Bo-Yeong; Lee, Hyejin J; Jiang, Yuhong V

    2015-10-01

    Foraging and search tasks in everyday activities are often performed in large, open spaces, necessitating head and body movements. Such activities are rarely studied in the laboratory, leaving important questions unanswered regarding the role of attention in large-scale tasks. Here we examined the guidance of visual attention by statistical learning in a large-scale, outdoor environment. We used the orientation of the first head movement as a proxy for spatial attention and examined its correspondence with reaction time (RT). Participants wore a lightweight camera on a baseball cap while searching for a coin on the concrete floor of a 64-m(2) outdoor space. We coded the direction of the first head movement at the start of a trial. The results showed that the first head movement was highly sensitive to the location probability of the coin and demonstrated more rapid adjustment to changes in environmental statistics than RTs did. Because the first head movement occurred ten times faster than the search RT, these results show that visual statistical learning affected attentional orienting early in large-scale tasks. PMID:26160317

  9. Two attentional deficits in serial target search: the visual attentional blink and an amodal task-switch deficit.

    PubMed

    Potter, M C; Chun, M M; Banks, B S; Muckenhoupt, M

    1998-07-01

    When monitoring a rapid serial visual presentation at 100 ms per item for 2 targets among distractors, viewers have difficulty reporting the 2nd target (T2) when it appears 200-500 ms after the onset of the 1st letter target (T1): an attentional blink (AB; M. M. Chun & M. C. Potter, 1995b; J. E. Raymond, K. L. Shapiro, & K. M. Arnell, 1992). Does the same deficit occur with auditory search? The authors compared search for auditory, visual, and cross-modal targets in 2 tasks: (a) identifying 2 target letters among digits (Experiments 1-3 and 5) or digits among letters (Experiment 6), and (b) identifying 1 digit among letters and deciding whether an X occurred among the subsequent letters (Experiment 4). In the experiments using the 1st task, the standard AB was found only when both targets were visual. In the 2nd task, with a change in selective set from T1 to T2, a task-switching deficit was obtained regardless of target modality. PMID:9699304

  10. Learning from Student Experiences for Online Assessment Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayyum, M. Asim; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of the Internet for open Web searches is common among university students in academic learning tasks. The tools used by students to find relevant information for online assessment tasks were investigated and their information seeking behaviour was documented to explore the impact on assessment design. Method: A mixed methods…

  11. Still Clever after All These Years: Searching for the Homunculus in Explicitly Cued Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Gordon D.; Schneider, Darryl W.; Bundesen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Many researchers interpret switch costs in the explicit task-cuing procedure as reflecting endogenous task-set reconfiguration. G. D. Logan and C. Bundesen (2003) challenged this interpretation empirically and theoretically. They argued that many experiments confounded cue encoding benefits with switch costs and they showed that unconfounded…

  12. Millennial Students' Mental Models of Search: Implications for Academic Librarians and Database Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    Today's students exhibit generational differences in the way they search for information. Observations of first-year students revealed a proclivity for simple keyword or phrases searches with frequent misspellings and incorrect logic. Although no students had strong mental models of search mechanisms, those with stronger models did construct more…

  13. Manually Classifying User Search Queries on an Academic Library Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Suzanne; Desai, Shevon; Hagedorn, Kat; Varnum, Ken; Mishra, Sonali; Piacentine, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The University of Michigan Library wanted to learn more about the kinds of searches its users were conducting through the "one search" search box on the Library Web site. Library staff conducted two investigations. A preliminary investigation in 2011 involved the manual review of the 100 most frequently occurring queries conducted…

  14. A Search for Correlations Between Teaching Style, Academic Gain, and Epistemology of Introductory Physics Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, Abigail; Kuhl, Dennis

    2011-04-01

    Ideally, a physics class would improve both students' academic abilities and their attitudes towards physics. This study was designed both to investigate any correlation between academic ability and epistemology, and to examine the effects of teaching style on academic and epistemological growth. Over four hundred students in high school and college introductory physics courses were given two pre- and post-instruction surveys: the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE) to measure knowledge of physics and the Epistemological Beliefs Assessment for Physical Science (EBAPS) to quantify epistemological beliefs about physics. The average normalized gains from each class were then compared to teaching style. It was found that, though different teaching styles produced drastically different academic gains, student epistemologies remained fairly constant.

  15. Contributing to the Community: The Economic Significance of Academic Health Centers and Their Role in Neighborhood Development. Report IV. Report of the Task Force on Academic Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Fund, New York, NY.

    This report is a selective analysis and assessment of quantitative data and field studies that reflect the economic role of the Academic Health Center (AHC) in the urban economy and in neighborhood revitalization. It describes the effect of a variety of cooperative efforts between local community organizations and AHCs, which usually include a…

  16. Training Tomorrow's Doctors: The Medical Education Mission of Academic Health Centers. A Report of the Commonwealth Fund Task Force on Academic Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Fund, New York, NY.

    This report, fifth of a series on Academic Health Centers (AHCs), addresses the fundamental rationale of such centers: the education of the health care workforce. None of the missions of the 125 AHCs in the United States, medical schools and their closely affiliated hospitals and physician groups, is more important than the education of…

  17. How to Land the Academic Job

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Silvana

    Looking for a job is not an easy task. It is time consuming and, most of the time, frustrating. Academic positions are no exception to the rule. Looking for an academic position is as demanding and exciting as any other job search. To minimize frustrations and surprises, the job search should be approached with the right attitude and preparation. The first step toward finding a job in academia is to understand the implications and responsibilities of an academic job. Realizing an academic job is the future that an individual wants to follow is a difficult decision. For most people it is not an easy choice to make. A significant amount of time and effort must be devoted to the job search process; therefore, narrowing the possible choices by selecting specific areas of interest is a good strategy to pursue.

  18. Pupillometric assessment of compensatory effort in a memory search task under physical and pharmacologically-induced suboptimal states.

    PubMed

    Deijen, J B; Heemstra, M L; Orlebeke, J F

    1995-09-01

    Extensive research has shown that the phasic pupil size (peak level on each trial) is a sensitive measure of the degree of mental effort demanded by a task. In the present study, the validity of the pupil response as an index of mental effort in suboptimal conditions was investigated. Thirteen males (19-29 years) performed a memory and display-search task in a practice session, followed in random order by an oxazepam session, a placebo session, a physical exercise session, and a control session. After both oxazepam and physical exercise, decision times increased, but pupil response increased only after physical exercise. This result was explained by the possibility that under physical fatigue, compensatory effort was exerted, whereas under drug-induced fatigue, subjects seemed unable to compensate for the performance decrement. The pupil response appears to be a valuable tool for gaining more insight into different effects of suboptimal states. PMID:9183983

  19. Searching for inhibition of return in the rat using the covert orienting of attention task.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ulf; Baker, Lucy; Rostron, Claire

    2014-09-01

    Inhibition of return (IOR) is an important psychological construct describing inhibited responses to previously attended locations. In humans, it is investigated using Posner's cueing paradigm. This paradigm requires central visual fixation and detection of cued stimuli to the left or right of the fixation point. Stimuli can be validly or invalidly cued, appearing in the same or opposite location to the cue. Although a rat version of the spatial cueing paradigm (the covert orienting of attention task) does exist, IOR has so far not been demonstrated. We therefore investigated whether IOR could be robustly demonstrated in adult male rats using the covert orienting of attention task. This task is conducted in holed wall operant chambers with the central three holes mimicking the set-up for Posner cueing. Across four samples of rats (overall n = 84), we manipulated the following task parameters: stimulus onset asynchronies (Experiments 1-3), cue brightness (Experiment 1b) and the presence of a central reorienting event (Experiment 4). In Experiment 1, we also investigated strain differences by comparing Lister Hooded rats to Sprague-Dawley rats. Although Lister Hooded rats briefly showed evidence of IOR (Experiment 1a, and see Online Resource 1 data), we were unable to replicate this finding in our other experiments using different samples of this strain. Taken together, our findings suggest that IOR cannot be robustly demonstrated in the rat using the covert orienting of attention task conducted in holed wall operant chambers. PMID:24682709

  20. Towards a portal and search engine to facilitate academic and research collaboration in engineering and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla Villarreal, Isaura Nathaly

    While international academic and research collaborations are of great importance at this time, it is not easy to find researchers in the engineering field that publish in languages other than English. Because of this disconnect, there exists a need for a portal to find Who's Who in Engineering Education in the Americas. The objective of this thesis is to built an object-oriented architecture for this proposed portal. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) model developed in this thesis incorporates the basic structure of a social network for academic purposes. Reverse engineering of three social networks portals yielded important aspects of their structures that have been incorporated in the proposed UML model. Furthermore, the present work includes a pattern for academic social networks..

  1. What Top-Down Task Sets Do for Us: An ERP Study on the Benefits of Advance Preparation in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eimer, Martin; Kiss, Monika; Nicholas, Susan

    2011-01-01

    When target-defining features are specified in advance, attentional target selection in visual search is controlled by preparatory top-down task sets. We used ERP measures to study voluntary target selection in the absence of such feature-specific task sets, and to compare it to selection that is guided by advance knowledge about target features.…

  2. Searching Scientific Information on the Internet: A Dutch Academic User Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorbij, Henk J.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the use and perceived importance of the Internet among students and faculty in the Netherlands through questionnaires and focus-group interviews. Highlights include electronic journals, learning to use the Internet, search engines, needed library support, and problems with subject searching. A copy of the questionnaire is…

  3. Search for Autonomy in Motor Task Learning in Physical Education University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno Murcia, Juan Antonio; Lacarcel, Jose Antonio Vera; Del Villar Alvarez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The study focused on discovering the influence that an autonomous motor task learning programme had on the improvement of perceived competence, intrinsic regulation, incremental belief and motivational orientations. The study was performed with two groups of participants (n = 22 and n = 20) aged between 19 and 35 years. The instruments used were…

  4. The Effect of Task and Personal Relevance on Credibility Judgements while Searching on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkyla, Adrius Viktoras

    2010-01-01

    People can view the Internet as an endless source of information although it is not known how individuals might evaluate the credibility of information that is presented on websites. A methodology is needed to incorporate how the information seeking task, as well as the level of personal relevance, influences the criteria individuals use to…

  5. Are Expert Users Always Better Searchers? Interaction of Expertise and Semantic Grouping in Hypertext Search Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmeron, L.; Canas, J. J.; Fajardo, I.

    2005-01-01

    The facilitative effect of expertise in hypertext information retrieval (IR) tasks has been widely reported in related literature. However, recent theories of human expertise question the robustness of this result, since previous works have not fully considered the interaction between user and system characteristics. In this study, the constraint…

  6. Searching for New Answers: The Application of Task-Technology Fit to E-Textbook Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhart, Natalie; Peak, Daniel A.; Prybutok, Victor R.

    2015-01-01

    Students have been slow to adopt e-textbooks even though they are often less expensive than traditional textbooks. Prior e-textbook research has focused on adoption behavior, with little research to date on how students perceive e-textbooks fitting their needs. This work builds upon Task-Technology Fit (TTF) and Consumer Acceptance and Use of…

  7. The Information Search Process: A Study of Elements Associated with Meaningful Research Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study at a Michigan high school that investigated elements that contributed to a meaningful library research task. Highlights include information literacy; students' feelings of satisfaction and achievement; student questionnaires and student and teacher interviews; group work; and process instruction. (LRW)

  8. Schools that Overcome the Disparities of Academic Achievements among Children: Searching for Japanese Effective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimizu, Kokichi

    2007-01-01

    We reported the major findings of our research based on our own academic achievement tests towards elementary school and junior high school pupils in 2002. We then pointed out the fact that the differences of achievement between social groups have been expanded. Nowadays, that issue is seen to be one of the most serious educational problems in…

  9. In Search of Excellence in Education: The Political, Academic, and Curricular Leadership of Ethel T. Overby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Adah Ward; Sanders, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the educational leadership of the first African American female principal in Richmond, Virginia: Mrs. Ethel Thompson Overby. It seeks to ascertain, through a historical framework utilizing critical race theory, how this particular educational and instructional leader conceptualized academic achievement given the context of…

  10. In Search of the Effects of Academic Achievement in Postgraduation Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donhardt, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between academic achievement and the financial success of baccalaureate recipients in the workplace is the focal point of an investigation that covers the first 3 years following graduation. Employment activity and quarterly earnings of university baccalaureate recipients were tracked in a comprehensive study that merged state…

  11. Self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): medication effects and comparisons with controls.

    PubMed

    Waschbusch, Daniel A; Craig, Rebecca; Pelham, William E; King, Sara

    2007-04-01

    Examined self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with and without ADHD and examined whether stimulant medication influenced self-handicapping. Participants were 61 children ages 6 to 13, including 22 children with ADHD tested after taking a placebo, 21 children with ADHD tested after taking stimulant medication, and 18 non-ADHD controls. Participants completed three measures of self handicapping and also completed self-evaluations of their performance. Results showed greater self handicapping and more positive self-evaluations in children with ADHD than in controls regardless of medication condition. Findings suggest children with ADHD may use self handicapping to ameliorate the effects of experiencing high rates of academic failure. PMID:17195950

  12. The Effect of Altering the Context Clues in Prose on Reading Rate in a Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Esther U.

    1977-01-01

    To determine whether the connectedness of prose passages had any effect on the behavior of readers who searched for information in the passages, the behavior of readers who saw the normal arrangement of a passage was contrasted with the behavior of readers who saw the random arrangement of the passage. (HOD)

  13. Design and Implementation of Cancellation Tasks for Visual Search Strategies and Visual Attention in School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tsui-Ying; Huang, Ho-Chuan; Huang, Hsiu-Shuang

    2006-01-01

    We propose a computer-assisted cancellation test system (CACTS) to understand the visual attention performance and visual search strategies in school children. The main aim of this paper is to present our design and development of the CACTS and demonstrate some ways in which computer techniques can allow the educator not only to obtain more…

  14. Object Function Facilitates Infants' Object Individuation in a Manual Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingo, Osman S.; Krojgaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the importance of object function (action-object-outcome relations) on object individuation in infancy. Five experiments examined the ability of 9.5- and 12-month-old infants to individuate simple geometric objects in a manual search design. Experiments 1 through 4 (12-month-olds, N = 128) provided several combinations of…

  15. Computer vision enhances mobile eye-tracking to expose expert cognition in natural-scene visual-search tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, Tommy P.; Cahill, Nathan D.; Tarduno, John A.; Jacobs, Robert A.; Pelz, Jeff B.

    2014-02-01

    Mobile eye-tracking provides the fairly unique opportunity to record and elucidate cognition in action. In our research, we are searching for patterns in, and distinctions between, the visual-search performance of experts and novices in the geo-sciences. Traveling to regions resultant from various geological processes as part of an introductory field studies course in geology, we record the prima facie gaze patterns of experts and novices when they are asked to determine the modes of geological activity that have formed the scene-view presented to them. Recording eye video and scene video in natural settings generates complex imagery that requires advanced applications of computer vision research to generate registrations and mappings between the views of separate observers. By developing such mappings, we could then place many observers into a single mathematical space where we can spatio-temporally analyze inter- and intra-subject fixations, saccades, and head motions. While working towards perfecting these mappings, we developed an updated experiment setup that allowed us to statistically analyze intra-subject eye-movement events without the need for a common domain. Through such analyses we are finding statistical differences between novices and experts in these visual-search tasks. In the course of this research we have developed a unified, open-source, software framework for processing, visualization, and interaction of mobile eye-tracking and high-resolution panoramic imagery.

  16. Analog number representations in mongoose lemurs (Eulemur mongoz): evidence from a search task.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kerrie P; Jaffe, Sarah; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2005-10-01

    A wealth of data demonstrating that monkeys and apes represent number have been interpreted as suggesting that sensitivity to number emerged early in primate evolution, if not before. Here we examine the numerical capacities of the mongoose lemur (Eulemur mongoz), a member of the prosimian suborder of primates that split from the common ancestor of monkeys, apes and humans approximately 47-54 million years ago. Subjects observed as an experimenter sequentially placed grapes into an opaque bucket. On half of the trials the experimenter placed a subset of the grapes into a false bottom such that they were inaccessible to the lemur. The critical question was whether lemurs would spend more time searching the bucket when food should have remained in the bucket, compared to when they had retrieved all of the food. We found that the amount of time lemurs spent searching was indicative of whether grapes should have remained in the bucket, and furthermore that lemur search time reliably differentiated numerosities that differed by a 1:2 ratio, but not those that differed by a 2:3 or 3:4 ratio. Finally, two control conditions determined that lemurs represented the number of food items, and neither the odor of the grapes, nor the amount of grape (e.g., area) in the bucket. These results suggest that mongoose lemurs have numerical representations that are modulated by Weber's Law. PMID:15660208

  17. Peerwise Provides Significant Academic Benefits to Biological Science Students across Diverse Learning Tasks, but with Minimal Instructor Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, H. A.; Shields, C.; Finnegan, D. J.; Higham, J.; Simmen, M. W.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that student engagement with PeerWise, an online tool that allows students to author and answer multiple-choice questions (MCQs), is associated with enhanced academic performance across diverse assessment types on a second year Genetics course. Benefits were consistent over three course deliveries, with differential benefits…

  18. Literature search, review, and compilation of data for chemical and radiochemical sensors: Task 1 report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    During the next several decades, the US Department of Energy is expected to spend tens of billions of dollars in the characterization, cleanup, and monitoring of DOE`s current and former installations that have various degrees of soil and groundwater contamination made up of both hazardous and mixed wastes. Each of these phases will require site surveys to determine type and quantity of hazardous and mixed wastes. It is generally recognized that these required survey and monitoring efforts cannot be performed using traditional chemistry methods based on laboratory evaluation of samples from the field. For that reason, a tremendous push during the past decade or so has been made on research and development of sensors. This report contains the results of an extensive literature search on sensors that are used or have applicability in environmental and waste management. While restricting the search to a relatively small part of the total chemistry spectrum, a sizable body of reference material is included. Results are presented in tabular form for general references obtained from data base searches, as narrative reviews of relevant chapters from proceedings, as book reviews, and as reviews of journal articles with particular relevance to the review. Four broad sensor types are covered: electrochemical processes, piezoelectric devices, fiber optics, and radiochemical processes. The topics of surface chemistry processes and biosensors are not treated separately because they often are an adjunct to one of the four sensors listed. About 1,000 tabular entries are listed, including selected journal articles, reviews of conference/meeting proceedings, and books. Literature to about mid-1992 is covered.

  19. A Handbook for the Introduction of On-Line Bibliographic Search Services Into Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, David M.

    A handbook is provided for library administrators who are planning to install commercially available on-line interactive search services. It includes guidelines for selecting and organizing the service, staffing, training and orientation, preparing the service sites, promotion and user education, finance, data collection, and service evaluation.…

  20. Students' Self-Regulated Learning, Online Information Evaluative Standards and Online Academic Searching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Sheng-Chau; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Online information searching strategies (OISS) used by students can be viewed as a key indicator in online learning environments. Therefore, developments in their OISS may also involve variables such as self-regulated learning (SRL) and online information evaluative standards (OIES). Three instruments, an OISS, a SRL and an OIES were used to…

  1. Effect of image enhancement on the search and detection task in the urban terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devitt, Nicole; Moyer, Steve; Young, Susan

    2006-05-01

    This research investigated the effects of using medical imaging enhancement techniques to increase the detectability of targets in the urban terrain. Targets in the urban environment present human observers different challenges than targets located in the traditional, open field, search environment. In the traditional environment, targets typically were military vehicles in a natural background. In the urban environment, targets were humans against a man-made background. The U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) and the U. S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) explored three image processing techniques: contrast enhancement, edge enhancement, and a multiscale edge domain process referred to as "mountain-view". For the mountain-view presentation, high-contrast edges were enhanced. Human perception experiments were conducted with non-enhanced real imagery collected from an Urban Operations training center. These human perception experiments establish a baseline response. Processing the imagery using the previously mentioned techniques then allowed human perception experiments to be conducted. The performance parameters used for comparison were probability of detection, and time required to detect a target. This research provided a methodology of evaluating and quantifying human performance differences in target acquisition based on image processing techniques in the urban environment.

  2. Intelligence, Academic Self-Concept, and Information Literacy: The Role of Adequate Perceptions of Academic Ability in the Acquisition of Knowledge about Information Searching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present paper argues that adequate self-perceptions of academic ability are essential for students' realization of their intellectual potential, thereby fostering learning of complex skills, e.g., information-seeking skills. Thus, academic self-concept should moderate the relationship between intelligence and information…

  3. Functional Interaction between Right Parietal and Bilateral Frontal Cortices during Visual Search Tasks Revealed Using Functional Magnetic Imaging and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Amanda; Ball, Keira L.; Moseley, Peter; Dowsett, James; Smith, Daniel T.; Weis, Susanne; Lane, Alison R.

    2014-01-01

    The existence of a network of brain regions which are activated when one undertakes a difficult visual search task is well established. Two primary nodes on this network are right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC) and right frontal eye fields. Both have been shown to be involved in the orientation of attention, but the contingency that the activity of one of these areas has on the other is less clear. We sought to investigate this question by using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to selectively decrease activity in rPPC and then asking participants to perform a visual search task whilst undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparison with a condition in which sham tDCS was applied revealed that cathodal tDCS over rPPC causes a selective bilateral decrease in frontal activity when performing a visual search task. This result demonstrates for the first time that premotor regions within the frontal lobe and rPPC are not only necessary to carry out a visual search task, but that they work together to bring about normal function. PMID:24705681

  4. Children's Search Strategies and Accompanying Verbal and Motor Strategic Behavior: Developmental Trends and Relations with Task Performance among Children Age 5 to 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsler, Adam; Naglieri, Jack; Manfra, Louis

    2006-01-01

    Children's reported use of single and multiple search strategies during a matching numbers task, along with accompanying verbal (private speech, self-talk) and motoric (finger pointing, place-holding) strategic behaviors were examined with a large, nationally representative cross-sectional sample ("n"=1,979) of children between the ages of 5 and…

  5. Iconicity Influences How Effectively Minimally Verbal Children with Autism and Ability-Matched Typically Developing Children Use Pictures as Symbols in a Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Calum; Allen, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous word learning studies suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder may have difficulty understanding pictorial symbols. Here we investigate the ability of children with autism spectrum disorder and language-matched typically developing children to contextualize symbolic information communicated by pictures in a search task that did…

  6. The Face in the Crowd Effect Unconfounded: Happy Faces, Not Angry Faces, Are More Efficiently Detected in Single- and Multiple-Target Visual Search Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, D. Vaughn; Anderson, Uriah S.; Mortensen, Chad R.; Neufeld, Samantha L.; Neel, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Is it easier to detect angry or happy facial expressions in crowds of faces? The present studies used several variations of the visual search task to assess whether people selectively attend to expressive faces. Contrary to widely cited studies (e.g., Ohman, Lundqvist, & Esteves, 2001) that suggest angry faces "pop out" of crowds, our review of…

  7. Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Intake Levels during Pregnancy and Infant Performance on a Novel Object Search Task at 22 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Alison; Sirois, Sylvain; Wearden, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated maternal prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake and infant cognitive development at 22 months. Estimates for second- and third-trimester maternal DHA intake levels were obtained using a comprehensive Food Frequency Questionnaire. Infants (n = 67) were assessed at 22 months on a novel object search task. Mothers'…

  8. Valuing STEM majors: The role of occupational-academic ego-identity status and task values in STEM persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Anthony C.

    Students who initially choose STEM majors frequently switch to non-STEM majors. Additionally, there are national concerns over the paucity of homegrown scientists, and college is a potentially critical period when many potential scientists are lost. The aim of this study was to examine, over the course of a semester, the role of identity formation and motivation in students' intent to leave a STEM major. Participants included 363 diverse undergraduate science students enrolled in chemistry II. Measures of achieved ego-identity status, competency beliefs, task values, perceived costs, interest, self-efficacy, chemistry II grades, and intent to leave a STEM major were given over four waves of data collection. Regression analysis and cross-lagged path analysis were the primary analytical methods. Results revealed that achieved ego-identity status significantly predicted competency beliefs, values/interest, and effort costs; however, achieved ego-identity status was not related to opportunity or psychological costs. Competency beliefs of the major was a significant predictor of chemistry II grades, and values and effort cost were significant predictors of intent to leave STEM. Opportunity cost was only significantly related to intent to leave STEM at the end of the semester and psychological cost was not significantly related to students' intent to leave STEM. These results provide evidence for theorized relationships between identity formation, competency beliefs, task values, and perceived costs. Furthermore, perceived cost was demonstrated to be a multi-dimensional construct with important implications for students' intent to leave STEM.

  9. The Role of Key Qualifications in the Transition from a Comparison Of Role/Task/Environment Stress Experienced by Beginning Academic and Career-Technical Teachers in Southwestern Ohio Career-Technical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerlin, Timothy F.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-four academic and 50 career-technical teachers in southwestern Ohio high school career centers were studied to determine which group perceived greater role stress, task stress, and environment stress while teaching and prior to issuance of their professional license. Teachers completed the 67-item Teacher Stress Measure (TSM) developed by…

  10. Building and evaluating an informatics tool to facilitate analysis of a biomedical literature search service in an academic medical center library.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Elizabeth G; Oelschlegel, Sandra; Vaughn, Cynthia J; Lindsay, J Michael; Hurst, Sachiko M; Earl, Martha

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes an informatics tool to analyze a robust literature search service in an academic medical center library. Structured interviews with librarians were conducted focusing on the benefits of such a tool, expectations for performance, and visual layout preferences. The resulting application utilizes Microsoft SQL Server and .Net Framework 3.5 technologies, allowing for the use of a web interface. Customer tables and MeSH terms are included. The National Library of Medicine MeSH database and entry terms for each heading are incorporated, resulting in functionality similar to searching the MeSH database through PubMed. Data reports will facilitate analysis of the search service. PMID:23869631

  11. Spatial and temporal dynamics of visual search tasks distinguish subtypes of unilateral spatial neglect: Comparison of two cases with viewer-centered and stimulus-centered neglect.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Katsuhiro; Kato, Kenji; Tsuji, Tetsuya; Shindo, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Liu, Meigen

    2016-08-01

    We developed a computerised test to evaluate unilateral spatial neglect (USN) using a touchscreen display, and estimated the spatial and temporal patterns of visual search in USN patients. The results between a viewer-centered USN patient and a stimulus-centered USN patient were compared. Two right-brain-damaged patients with USN, a patient without USN, and 16 healthy subjects performed a simple cancellation test, the circle test, a visuomotor search test, and a visual search test. According to the results of the circle test, one USN patient had stimulus-centered neglect and a one had viewer-centered neglect. The spatial and temporal patterns of these two USN patients were compared. The spatial and temporal patterns of cancellation were different in the stimulus-centered USN patient and the viewer-centered USN patient. The viewer-centered USN patient completed the simple cancellation task, but paused when transferring from the right side to the left side of the display. Unexpectedly, this patient did not exhibit rightward attention bias on the visuomotor and visual search tests, but the stimulus-centered USN patient did. The computer-based assessment system provided information on the dynamic visual search strategy of patients with USN. The spatial and temporal pattern of cancellation and visual search were different across the two patients with different subtypes of neglect. PMID:26059555

  12. Metacognition in Student Academic Writing: A Longitudinal Study of Metacognitive Awareness and Its Relation to Task Perception, Self-Regulation, and Evaluation of Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negretti, Raffaella

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a novel approach to the investigation of student academic writing. It applies theories of metacognition and self-regulated learning to understand how beginning academic writers develop the ability to participate in the communicative practices of academic written communication and develop rhetorical consciousness. The study…

  13. Where can we find future K-12 science and math teachers? a search by academic year, discipline, and academic performance level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moin, Laura J.; Dorfield, Jennifer K.; Schunn, Christian D.

    2005-11-01

    Responding to the increasing math and science teacher shortage in the United States, this study intended to determine which science, engineering, and math (SEM) majors during which years in their undergraduate education and from which academic performance levels are most interested in K-12 teaching. Results may aid policymakers and practitioners in making most effective use of this traditional undergraduate candidate pool when designing K-12 science and math teacher recruitment programs. A survey of SEM majors from two research-oriented, urban universities is used to assess participants' interest in K-12 teaching both compared to other career choices and in isolation. Results indicate that the more successful targets for K-12 teacher recruitment include (1) SEM undergraduates in their junior and senior years independent of SEM major, (2) SEM undergraduates with mid-academic performance levels independent of SEM major and academic year, and (3) math majors followed by natural science majors and, as least promising targets, engineering majors. Results remain independent from gender and ethnicity variables.

  14. A Comparison of the Use of Text Summaries, Plain Thumbnails, and Enhanced Thumbnails for Web Search Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Allison; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Morrison, Julie B.; Faulring, Andrew; Pirolli, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of Web search strategies focuses on a comparative study of textual and graphical summarization mechanisms applied to search engine results. Suggests that thumbnail images (graphical summaries) can increase efficiency in processing results, and that enhanced thumbnails (augmented with readable textual elements) had more consistent…

  15. Task I: Dark Matter Search Experiments with Cryogenic Detectors: CDMS-I and CDMS-II Task II: Experimental Study of Neutrino Properties: EXO and KamLAND

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrera, Blas; Gratta, Giorgio

    2013-08-30

    Dark Matter Search - During the period of performance, our group continued the search for dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles or WIMPs. As a key member of the CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search) collaboration, we completed the CDMS II experiment which led the field in sensitivity for more than five years. We fabricated all detectors, and participated in detector testing and verification. In addition, we participated in the construction and operation of the facility at the Soudan Underground Laboratory and played key roles in the data acquisition and analysis. Towards the end of the performance period, we began operating the SuperCDMS Soudan experiment, which consists of 15 advanced Ge (9 kg) detectors. The advanced detector design called iZIP grew out of our earlier DOE Particle Detector R&D program which demonstrated the rejection of surface electrons to levels where they are no longer the dominant source of background. Our group invented this advanced design and these larger detectors were fabricated on the Stanford campus in collaboration with the SLAC CDMS group and the Santa Clara University group. The sensitivity reach is expected to be up to 5 times better than CDMS II after two years of operation. We will check the new limits on WIMPs set by XENON100, and we expect improved sensitivity for light mass WIMPs beyond that of any other existing experiment. Our group includes the Spokesperson for SuperCDMS and continues to make important contributions to improvements in the detector technology which are enabling the very low trigger thresholds used to explore the low mass WIMP region. We are making detailed measurements of the charge transport and trapping within Ge crystals, measuring the diffusive trapping distance of the quasiparticle excitations within the Al phonon collector fins on the detector surface, and we are contributing to the development of much improved detector Monte Carlos which are essential to guide the detector

  16. Effects of menu structure and touch screen scrolling style on the variability of glance durations during in-vehicle visual search tasks.

    PubMed

    Kujala, Tuomo; Saariluoma, Pertti

    2011-08-01

    The effects of alternative navigation device display features on drivers' visual sampling efficiency while searching forpoints of interest were studied in two driving simulation experiments with 40 participants. Given that the number of display items was sufficient, display features that facilitate resumption of visual search following interruptions were expected to lead to more consistent in-vehicle glance durations. As predicted, compared with a grid-style menu, searching information in a list-style menu while driving led to smaller variance in durations of in-vehicle glances, in particular with nine item displays. Kinetic touch screen scrolling induced a greater number of very short in-vehicle glances than scrolling with arrow buttons. The touch screen functionality did not significantly diminish the negative effects of the grid-menu compared with physical controls with list-style menus. The findings suggest that resumability of self-paced, in-vehicle visual search tasks could be assessed with the measures of variance of in-vehicle glance duration distributions. Statement of Relevance: The reported research reveals display design factors affecting safety-relevant variability of in-vehicle glance durations and provides a theoretical framework for explaining the effects. The research can have a significant methodical value for driver distraction research and practical value for the design and testing of in-vehicle user interfaces. PMID:21846310

  17. The effects of task difficulty, novelty and the size of the search space on intrinsically motivated exploration.

    PubMed

    Baranes, Adrien F; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Gottlieb, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Devising efficient strategies for exploration in large open-ended spaces is one of the most difficult computational problems of intelligent organisms. Because the available rewards are ambiguous or unknown during the exploratory phase, subjects must act in intrinsically motivated fashion. However, a vast majority of behavioral and neural studies to date have focused on decision making in reward-based tasks, and the rules guiding intrinsically motivated exploration remain largely unknown. To examine this question we developed a paradigm for systematically testing the choices of human observers in a free play context. Adult subjects played a series of short computer games of variable difficulty, and freely choose which game they wished to sample without external guidance or physical rewards. Subjects performed the task in three distinct conditions where they sampled from a small or a large choice set (7 vs. 64 possible levels of difficulty), and where they did or did not have the possibility to sample new games at a constant level of difficulty. We show that despite the absence of external constraints, the subjects spontaneously adopted a structured exploration strategy whereby they (1) started with easier games and progressed to more difficult games, (2) sampled the entire choice set including extremely difficult games that could not be learnt, (3) repeated moderately and high difficulty games much more frequently than was predicted by chance, and (4) had higher repetition rates and chose higher speeds if they could generate new sequences at a constant level of difficulty. The results suggest that intrinsically motivated exploration is shaped by several factors including task difficulty, novelty and the size of the choice set, and these come into play to serve two internal goals-maximize the subjects' knowledge of the available tasks (exploring the limits of the task set), and maximize their competence (performance and skills) across the task set. PMID:25352771

  18. The Effects of Partner-Check Self-Recording of On-Task Behavior on Academic Productivity in Children with Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohakamnu, George N.

    2010-01-01

    Due to an increase in behavior problems among school children, especially at-risk children who have problems staying on-task, there is a need for a teaching strategy that will enable children to be focused and on task in the classroom. This quantitative study investigated whether partner-check self-recording of on-task behavior will increase the…

  19. Analyzing web log files of the health on the net HONmedia search engine to define typical image search tasks for image retrieval evaluation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Henning; Boyer, Célia; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Hersh, William; Geissbuhler, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    Medical institutions produce ever-increasing amount of diverse information. The digital form makes these data available for the use on more than a single patient. Images are no exception to this. However, less is known about how medical professionals search for visual medical information and how they want to use it outside of the context of a single patient. This article analyzes ten months of usage log files of the Health on the Net (HON) medical media search engine. Key words were extracted from all queries and the most frequent terms and subjects were identified. The dataset required much pre-treatment. Problems included national character sets, spelling errors and the use of terms in several languages. The results show that media search, particularly for images, was frequently used. The most common queries were for general concepts (e.g., heart, lung). To define realistic information needs for the ImageCLEFmed challenge evaluation (Cross Language Evaluation Forum medical image retrieval), we used frequent queries that were still specific enough to at least cover two of the three axes on modality, anatomic region, and pathology. Several research groups evaluated their image retrieval algorithms based on these defined topics. PMID:17911928

  20. In Search of Design Principles for Developing Digital Learning and Performance Support for a Student Design Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollen, Lars; van der Meij, Hans; Leemkuil, Henny; McKenney, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A digital learning and performance support environment for university student design tasks was developed. This paper describes on the design rationale, process, and the usage results to arrive at a core set of design principles for the construction of such an environment. We present a collection of organizational, technical, and course-related…

  1. Perspectives on Children's Navigation of the World Wide Web: Does the Type of Search Task Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilal, Dania

    2002-01-01

    Reports findings of a three-part research project that examined the information seeking behavior and success of 22 seventh-grade science students in using the Web. Discusses problems encountered, including inadequate knowledge of how to use the search engine and poor level of research skills; and considers implications for Web training and system…

  2. Practice Makes Improvement: How Adults with Autism Out-Perform Others in a Naturalistic Visual Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Martin, Jolie M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Behrmann, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit superior performance in visual search compared to others. However, most studies demonstrating this advantage have employed simple, uncluttered images with fully visible targets. We compare the performance of high-functioning adults with ASD and matched controls on a naturalistic luggage…

  3. Involuntary attentional capture by task-irrelevant objects that match the search template for category detection in natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Reeder, Reshanne R; van Zoest, Wieske; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-05-01

    Theories of visual search postulate that the selection of targets amongst distractors involves matching visual input to a top-down attentional template. Previous work has provided evidence that feature-based attentional templates affect visual processing globally across the visual field. In the present study, we asked whether more naturalistic, category-level attentional templates also modulate visual processing in a spatially global and obligatory way. Subjects were cued to detect people or cars in a diverse set of photographs of real-world scenes. On a subset of trials, silhouettes of people and cars appeared in search-irrelevant locations that subjects were instructed to ignore, and subjects were required to respond to the location of a subsequent dot probe. In three experiments, results showed a consistency effect on dot-probe trials: dot probes were detected faster when they appeared in the location of the cued category compared with the non-cued category, indicating attentional capture by template-matching stimuli. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that this capture was involuntary: consistency effects persisted under conditions in which attending to silhouettes of the cued category was detrimental to performance. Experiment 3 tested whether these effects could be attributed to non-attentional effects related to the processing of the category cues. Results showed a consistency effect when subjects searched for category exemplars but not when they searched for objects semantically related to the cued category. Together, these results indicate that attentional templates for familiar object categories affect visual processing across the visual field, leading to involuntary attentional capture by template-matching stimuli. PMID:25810159

  4. Resources for Academic Advising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Virginia N.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of resources available to assist college faculty in academic advising tasks are listed, including books, professional journals, annotated bibliographies, reports, monographs, conferences, and organizations. Some items are annotated. Addresses are provided for organizations. (MSE)

  5. Marketing Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  6. Information Retrieval Techniques: The Differences in Cognitive Strategies and Search Behaviors among Graduate Students in an Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Charlotte E.

    Graduate schools have been admitting more and more students older than the "traditional" 18- to 24-year-old campus population. These adult learners may come to their programs of study without formal training in library use in general or literature searches in particular. By examining various successful and unsuccessful strategies used by these…

  7. Expanding School Resources and Increasing Time on Task: Effects of a Policy Experiment in Israel on Student Academic Achievement and Behavior. NBER Working Paper No. 18369

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavy, Victor

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I examine how student academic achievements and behavior were affected by a school finance policy experiment undertaken in elementary schools in Israel. Begun in 2004, the funding formula changed from a budget set per class to a budget set per student, with more weight given to students from lower socioeconomic and lower educational…

  8. Developing Academic English Language Proficiency Prototypes for 5th Grade Reading: Psychometric and Linguistic Profiles of Tasks. An Extended Executive Summary. CSE Report 720

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Alison L.; Huang, Becky H.; Shin, Hye Won; Farnsworth, Tim; Butler, Frances A.

    2007-01-01

    Within an evidentiary framework for operationally defining academic English language proficiency (AELP), linguistic analyses of standards, classroom discourse, and textbooks have led to specifications for assessment of AELP. The test development process described here is novel due to the emphasis on using linguistic profiles to inform the …

  9. Iconicity influences how effectively minimally verbal children with autism and ability-matched typically developing children use pictures as symbols in a search task.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Calum; Allen, Melissa L

    2015-07-01

    Previous word learning studies suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder may have difficulty understanding pictorial symbols. Here we investigate the ability of children with autism spectrum disorder and language-matched typically developing children to contextualize symbolic information communicated by pictures in a search task that did not involve word learning. Out of the participant's view, a small toy was concealed underneath one of four unique occluders that were individuated by familiar nameable objects or unfamiliar unnamable objects. Children were shown a picture of the hiding location and then searched for the toy. Over three sessions, children completed trials with color photographs, black-and-white line drawings, and abstract color pictures. The results reveal zero group differences; neither children with autism spectrum disorder nor typically developing children were influenced by occluder familiarity, and both groups' errorless retrieval rates were above-chance with all three picture types. However, both groups made significantly more errorless retrievals in the most-iconic photograph trials, and performance was universally predicted by receptive language. Therefore, our findings indicate that children with autism spectrum disorder and young typically developing children can contextualize pictures and use them to adaptively guide their behavior in real time and space. However, this ability is significantly influenced by receptive language development and pictorial iconicity. PMID:24916452

  10. Effect of display resolution on time to diagnosis with virtual pathology slides in a systematic search task.

    PubMed

    Randell, Rebecca; Ambepitiya, Thilina; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Ruddle, Roy A; Brettle, David; Thomas, Rhys G; Treanor, Darren

    2015-02-01

    Performing diagnoses using virtual slides can take pathologists significantly longer than with glass slides, presenting a significant barrier to the use of virtual slides in routine practice. Given the benefits in pathology workflow efficiency and safety that virtual slides promise, it is important to understand reasons for this difference and identify opportunities for improvement. The effect of display resolution on time to diagnosis with virtual slides has not previously been explored. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of display resolution on time to diagnosis with virtual slides. Nine pathologists participated in a counterbalanced crossover study, viewing axillary lymph node slides on a microscope, a 23-in 2.3-megapixel single-screen display and a three-screen 11-megapixel display consisting of three 27-in displays. Time to diagnosis and time to first target were faster on the microscope than on the single and three-screen displays. There was no significant difference between the microscope and the three-screen display in time to first target, while the time taken on the single-screen display was significantly higher than that on the microscope. The results suggest that a digital pathology workstation with an increased number of pixels may make it easier to identify where cancer is located in the initial slide overview, enabling quick location of diagnostically relevant regions of interest. However, when a comprehensive, detailed search of a slide has to be made, increased resolution may not offer any additional benefit. PMID:25128321

  11. Are search committees really searching?

    PubMed

    Hoffmeir, Patricia A

    2003-02-01

    Academic chair searches are admittedly a labor-intensive process, but they are made more difficult and often lead to less-than-optimal outcomes because search committees spend their time "advertising," "looking," but not truly searching for academic chairs. At the onset, certain "realities" must be acknowledged, including (1) understanding that unless your organization is renowned in the specialty for which you are conducting the search, candidates won't be pounding at your door for a job, (2) searches that fail to include an overall assessment of the department in question are likely to miss the mark, (3) chairs must have demonstrated not only clinical expertise but also business savvy, (4) the best candidate is not necessarily someone who is already a department chair, (5) when it comes to chair searches, it's a buyer's market, and (6) the search process is inextricably linked to the success of the search. Key to the process of conducting an academic chair search are the judicious formation of the search committee; committee members' willingness to do their homework, attend all committee meeting, and keep the committee's activities confidential; crafting, not revising, the current job description for the open chair position; interviewing viable candidates rather than all candidates and adhering to a coordinated interviewing process; and evaluating internal and external candidates according to the same parameters. PMID:12584089

  12. Total Class Peer Tutoring and Interdependent Group Oriented Contingency: Improving the Academic and Task Related Behaviors of Fourth-Grade Urban Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo,Ya-yu; Cartledge, Gwendolyn

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Total Class Peer Tutoring (TCPT) and an interdependent group oriented contingency (GOC) on the social studies performances and off-task behaviors of eight general education fourth-grade students in an urban elementary school. An A-B-BC-B-BC design was implemented to evaluate the differential effects of TCPT…

  13. Business and International Education. A Report Submitted by the Task Force on Business and International Education to Government/Academic Interface Committee. Occasional Paper No.4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC. International Education Project.

    A study was undertaken of the educational needs of present and future managers of the large number of business firms in the United States that are or will be affected by economic and political environments abroad. The task force concluded that most firms, regardless of size and type of operation, will be affected by economic and political…

  14. The Influence of Number of A Trials on 2-Year-Olds' Behavior in Two A-Not-B-Type Search Tasks: A Test of the Hierarchical Competing Systems Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcovitch, Stuart; Zelazo, Philip David

    2006-01-01

    Age-appropriate modifications of the A-not-B task were used to examine 2-year-olds' search behavior. Several theories predict that A-not-B errors will increase as a function of number of A trials. However, the hierarchical competing systems model (Marcovitch & Zelazo, 1999) predicts that although the ratio of perseverative to nonperseverative…

  15. Academic Library User Education in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Ping; Rader, Hannelore B.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses user education in China's academic libraries in light of educational reform and the changing role of academic libraries. Describes information technology developments, objectives of user education, and the emphasis on computerbased searching in the Tsinghua University library. (LRW)

  16. Search Engines for Tomorrow's Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2011-01-01

    Today's scholars face an outstanding array of choices when choosing search tools: Google Scholar, discipline-specific abstracts and index databases, library discovery tools, and more recently, Microsoft's re-launch of their academic search tool, now dubbed Microsoft Academic Search. What are these tools' strengths for the emerging needs of…

  17. How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Cory; Sierra, Tito; Boyer, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Academic libraries are turning increasingly to unified search solutions to simplify search and discovery of library resources. Unfortunately, very little research has been published on library user search behavior in single search box environments. This study examines how users search a large public university library using a prominent, single…

  18. Night Thoughts on Academic Searches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachtenberg, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    When a university, or any organization, and its recruiting firm set out to find a new leader, they usually begin and end in a delusion. They declare their intention to find the best person for the job and, once all the sorting and sifting are done, they announce that they have indeed found the best person for the job. The odds are they have done…

  19. Correlates of Academic Procrastination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Norman A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigated concurrent correlates of academic procrastination in Israeli college preparatory students (n=113). Procrastination in one course of study was found to be moderately correlated with procrastination in another but not to procrastination in routine tasks of daily living. Procrastination was weakly related to emotional upset about it and…

  20. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  1. Parenting and Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    The four articles in this issue exemplify several exciting trends in the ongoing effort to understand the nature and sources of children's academic trajectories. Particularly noteworthy is the common thread of searching for key parenting and child mediators of the connection between parental educational accomplishments and child outcomes. In an…

  2. Interactive Decision Support for Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to support academic advising, which plays a crucial role in student success and retention. The paper focuses on one of the most challenging tasks involved in academic advising: individual course scheduling. This task includes not only careful planning for different courses over several semesters according to students'…

  3. Academic Research: Corporate Support Has Its Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    A Twentieth Century Fund task force indicates that industry funding of academic research is not harmful to academic values if guidelines are followed. Some of the recommendations made by the task force are listed. One recommendation is that title to patents resulting from joint projects should be held by the university. (JN)

  4. The Third Language of Academic English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwiers, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    Academic language is the linguistic glue that holds the tasks, texts, and tests of school together. If students can't use this glue well, their academic work is likely to fall apart. According to the author of this article, "academic language" is defined as the set of words and phrases that (1) describe content-area knowledge and procedures; (2)…

  5. Improving Academic Skills of Urban Students. Proceedings of the Conference of the University/Urban Schools National Task Force. (6th, San Diego, California, November 2-3, l984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossone, Richard M., Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of a conference on improving the academic skills of urban students. Titles and authors of the twelve included papers are: (1) "Academic Skills and the SAT," George H. Hanford; (2) "New York City Promotional Gates Program: Implications for Instruction of Academic Skills," Charlotte Frank; (3) "Recognizing…

  6. Are Letter Detection and Proofreading Tasks Equivalent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Losier, Marie-Claire; Roy, Macha; Lawrence, Mike

    2015-01-01

    When readers search for misspellings in a proofreading task or for a letter in a letter detection task, they are more likely to omit function words than content words. However, with misspelled words, previous findings for the letter detection task were mixed. In two experiments, the authors tested the functional equivalence of both tasks. Results…

  7. Re-Searching Secondary Teacher Trainees in Distance Education and Face-to-Face Mode: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Mamta; Gakhar, Sudesh

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and…

  8. How Academic Is Academic Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kym; Ling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    University provision for academic development is well established in the USA, UK and many other countries. However, arrangements for its provision and staffing vary. In Australia, there has been a trend towards professional rather than academic staff appointments. Is this appropriate? In this paper, the domains of academic development work are…

  9. In Search for Instructional Techniques to Maximize the Use of Germane Cognitive Resources: A Case of Teaching Complex Tasks in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sliva, Yekaterina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce an instructional technique for teaching complex tasks in physics, test its effectiveness and efficiency, and understand cognitive processes taking place in learners' minds while they are exposed to this technique. The study was based primarily on cognitive load theory (CLT). CLT determines the amount of…

  10. The effects of brief visual interruption tasks on drivers' ability to resume their visual search for a pre-cued hazard.

    PubMed

    Borowsky, Avinoam; Horrey, William J; Liang, Yulan; Garabet, Angela; Simmons, Lucinda; Fisher, Donald L

    2016-08-01

    Driver visual distraction is known to increase the likelihood of being involved in a crash, especially for long glances inside the vehicle. The detrimental impact of these in-vehicle glances may carry over and disrupt the ongoing processing of information after the driver glances back up on the road. This study explored the effect of different types of visual tasks inside the vehicle on the top-down processes that guide the detection and monitoring of road hazards after the driver glances back towards the road. Using a driving simulator, 56 participants were monitored with an eye tracking system while they navigated various hazardous scenarios in one of four experimental conditions. In all conditions, a potential hazard was visible 4-5s before the driver could strike the potential hazard were it to materialize. All interruptions were exactly two seconds in length. After the interruption the potential hazard again became visible for about a half-second after which the driver passed by the hazard. The nature of the in-vehicle visual interruption presented to the participants was varied across conditions: (1) Visual interruptions comprised of spatial, driving unrelated, tasks; (2) visual interruptions comprised of non-spatial, driving unrelated, tasks; (3) visual interruptions with no tasks added; and (4) no visual interruptions. In the first three conditions drivers glancing on the forward roadway was momentarily interrupted (either with or without a task) just after the potential hazard first became visible by the occurrence of an in-vehicle task lasting two seconds. In the last condition (no interruptions) the driver could not see the potential hazard after it just became visible because of obstructions in the built or natural environment. The obstruction (like the interruption) lasted for two seconds. In other words, across all conditions the hazard was visible, then became invisible, and finally became visible again. Importantly, the results show that the

  11. An Investigation of the Self-Efficacy of Male and Female Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Linda Gail; Winocur, Sharon

    1988-01-01

    Assessed strength of self-efficacy and frequency of performing academic tasks in Australian academics (N=337). Results showed significant differences in self-efficacy and task frequency due to rank and sex on each factor (research, teaching, administration, miscellaneous academic tasks) and across factors. Highlights implications for academic…

  12. Search Engines for Tomorrow's Scholars, Part Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2012-01-01

    This two-part article considers how well some of today's search tools support scholars' work. The first part of the article reviewed Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic Search using a modified version of Carole L. Palmer, Lauren C. Teffeau, and Carrier M. Pirmann's framework (2009). Microsoft Academic Search is a strong contender when…

  13. In search for instructional techniques to maximize the use of germane cognitive resources: A case of teaching complex tasks in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliva, Yekaterina

    The purpose of this study was to introduce an instructional technique for teaching complex tasks in physics, test its effectiveness and efficiency, and understand cognitive processes taking place in learners' minds while they are exposed to this technique. The study was based primarily on cognitive load theory (CLT). CLT determines the amount of total cognitive load imposed on a learner by a learning task as combined intrinsic (invested in comprehending task complexity) and extraneous (wasteful) cognitive load. Working memory resources associated with intrinsic cognitive load are defined as germane resources caused by element interactivity that lead to learning, in contrast to extraneous working memory resources that are devoted to dealing with extraneous cognitive load. However, the amount of learner's working memory resources actually devoted to a task depends on how well the learner is engaged in the learning environment. Since total cognitive load has to stay within limits of working memory capacity, both extraneous and intrinsic cognitive load need to be reduced. In order for effective learning to occur, the use of germane cognitive resources should be maximized. In this study, the use of germane resources was maximized for two experimental groups by providing a learning environment that combined problem-solving procedure with prompts to self-explain with and without completion problems. The study tested three hypotheses and answered two research questions. The first hypothesis predicting that experimental treatments would reduce total cognitive load was not supported. The second hypothesis predicting that experimental treatments would increase performance was supported for the self-explanation group only. The third hypothesis that tested efficiency measure as adopted from Paas and van Merrienboer (1993) was not supported. As for the research question of whether the quality of self-explanations would change with time for the two experimental conditions, it was

  14. First Job Search of Residents in the United States: A Survey of Anesthesiology Trainees' Interest in Academic Positions in Cities Distant from Previous Residences.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Franklin; De Oliveira, Gildasio S; McCarthy, Robert J

    2016-01-15

    We surveyed anesthesiology residents to evaluate the predictive effect of prior residence on desired location for future practice opportunities. One thousand five hundred United States anesthesiology residents were invited to participate. One question asked whether they intend to enter academic practice when they graduate from their residency/fellowship training. The analysis categorized the responses into "surely yes" and "probably" versus "even," "probably not," and "surely no." "After finishing your residency/fellowship training, are you planning to look seriously (e.g., interview) at jobs located more than a 2-hour drive from a location where you or your family (e.g., spouse or partner/significant other) have lived previously?" Responses were categorized into "very probably" and "somewhat probably" versus "somewhat improbably" and "not probable." Other questions explored predictors of the relationships quantified using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve) ± its standard error. Among the 696 respondents, 36.9% (N = 256) would "probably" consider an academic practice. Fewer than half of those (P < 0.0001) would "very probably" consider a distant location (31.6%, 99% CI 24.4%-39.6%). Respondents with prior formal research training (e.g., PhD or Master's) had greater interest in academic practice at a distant location (AUC 0.63 ± 0.03, P = 0.0002). Except among respondents with formal research training, a good question to ask a job applicant is whether the applicant or the applicant's family has previously lived in the area. PMID:26422456

  15. Academic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago City Colleges, IL.

    This statement outlines the academic policies of the City Colleges of Chicago. Part I outlines the Institution's academic standards, covering: (1) student class attendance; (2) the grading system; (3) mid-term grades; (4) the use of non-grade designations; i.e., administrative initiated withdrawal, auditor, no-show withdrawal, incomplete, and…

  16. Academic Bullies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2008-01-01

    Many professors have been traumatized by academic bullies. Unlike bullies at school, the academic bully plays a more subtle game. Bullies may spread rumors to undermine a colleague's credibility or shut their target out of social conversations. The more aggressive of the species cuss out co-workers, even threatening to get physical. There is…

  17. Academic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The academy is defined by a fundamentally uncertain pursuit of certainty. The question of whether academic work is a sufficient form of engagement on its own is inseparable from the contradiction inherent to this pursuit. Like any properly academic question, it lends itself to a forum: a response is nearly obligatory for any professor in the…

  18. Academic Duty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Donald

    This book by a former university president examines the state of the research university faculty, focusing on teaching and how success at teaching can be evaluated; ethical problems in reviewing the work of others, research and how it is supported; outside commitments; and research misconduct. Chapters include: "Academic Freedom, Academic Duty,"…

  19. Psychophysics in a Web browser? Comparing response times collected with JavaScript and Psychophysics Toolbox in a visual search task.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Joshua R; Motz, Benjamin A

    2016-03-01

    Behavioral researchers are increasingly using Web-based software such as JavaScript to conduct response time experiments. Although there has been some research on the accuracy and reliability of response time measurements collected using JavaScript, it remains unclear how well this method performs relative to standard laboratory software in psychologically relevant experimental manipulations. Here we present results from a visual search experiment in which we measured response time distributions with both Psychophysics Toolbox (PTB) and JavaScript. We developed a methodology that allowed us to simultaneously run the visual search experiment with both systems, interleaving trials between two independent computers, thus minimizing the effects of factors other than the experimental software. The response times measured by JavaScript were approximately 25 ms longer than those measured by PTB. However, we found no reliable difference in the variability of the distributions related to the software, and both software packages were equally sensitive to changes in the response times as a result of the experimental manipulations. We concluded that JavaScript is a suitable tool for measuring response times in behavioral research. PMID:25761390

  20. Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De George, Richard T.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that Martin Michaelson's proposal in "Should Untenured as Well as Tenured Faculty Be Guaranteed Academic Freedom? A Few Observations," despite its good intentions, is seriously flawed and if adopted in preference to existing standards will weaken rather than strengthen academic freedom. (EV)

  1. Individual Values, Learning Routines and Academic Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Franziska; Hofer, Manfred; Fries, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Academic procrastination, the tendency to postpone learning activities, is regarded as a consequence of postmodern values that are prominent in post-industrialized societies. When students strive for leisure goals and have no structured routines for academic tasks, delaying strenuous learning activities becomes probable. Aims: The…

  2. Report on task assignment No. 3 for the Waste Package Project; Parts A & B, ASME pressure vessel codes review for waste package application; Part C, Library search for reliability/failure rates data on low temperature low pressure piping, containers, and casks with long design lives

    SciTech Connect

    Trabia, M.B.; Kiley, M.; Cardle, J.; Joseph, M.

    1991-07-01

    The Waste Package Project Research Team, at UNLV, has four general required tasks. Task one is the management, quality assurance, and overview of the research that is performed under the cooperative agreement. Task two is the structural analysis of spent fuel and high level waste. Task three is an American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Pressure Vessel Code review for waste package application. Finally, task four is waste package labeling. This report includes preliminary information about task three (ASME Pressure Vessel Code review for Waste package Application). The first objective is to compile a list of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code that can be applied to waste package containers design and manufacturing processes. The second objective is to explore the use of these applicable codes to the preliminary waste package container designs. The final objective is to perform a library search for reliability and/or failure rates data on low pressure, low temperature, containers and casks with long design lives.

  3. Parallel Processing in Visual Search Asymmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosher, Barbara Anne; Han, Songmei; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2004-01-01

    The difficulty of visual search may depend on assignment of the same visual elements as targets and distractors-search asymmetry. Easy C-in-O searches and difficult O-in-C searches are often associated with parallel and serial search, respectively. Here, the time course of visual search was measured for both tasks with speed-accuracy methods. The…

  4. Graphic Novel Collections in Academic ARL Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Cassie

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which ARL academic libraries collect graphic novels. Using a core list of 176 titles developed from winners of major comics industry awards and a library-focused "best of" list, the holdings of 111 ARL academic libraries were searched using the libraries' online catalogs. Results suggest that most of the…

  5. Academic Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Presents design features of the Renner Middle School (Plano, Texas) where the sprawling suburbs have been kept at bay while creating the atmosphere of an academic village. Photos and a floor plan are provided. (GR)

  6. Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Building data is given for the following academic libraries: (1) Rosary College, River Forest, Illinois; (2) Abilene Christian College, Abilene, Texas; (3) University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California. (MF)

  7. Academic Governance: The Trustee's Warrant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2008-01-01

    Today's trustees have the central role of choosing university presidents, and often provide valued advice on management of the institutional fisc. But according to the now accepted gospel of "shared governance," when it comes to the heart of academic practice, curriculum, and scholarship, theirs, despite theoretic power, is mainly a task of…

  8. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  9. From ERPs to Academics

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Charles H.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Motl, Robert W.; O’Leary, Kevin C.; Johnson, Christopher R.; Scudder, Mark R.; Raine, Lauren B.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2011-01-01

    Standardized tests have been used to forecast scholastic success of school-age children, and have been related to intelligence, working memory, and inhibition using neuropsychological tests. However, ERP correlates of standardized achievement have not been reported. Thus, the relationship between academic achievement and the P3 component was assessed in a sample of 105 children during performance on a Go/NoGo task. The Wide Range Achievement Test – 3rd edition was administered to assess aptitude in reading, spelling, and arithmetic. Regression analyses indicated an independent contribution of P3 amplitude to reading and arithmetic achievement beyond the variance accounted for by IQ and school grade. No such relationship was observed for spelling. These data suggest that the P3, which reflects attentional processes involved in stimulus evaluation and inhibitory control may be a biomarker for academic achievement during childhood. PMID:22408701

  10. From ERPs to academics.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Charles H; Pontifex, Matthew B; Motl, Robert W; O'Leary, Kevin C; Johnson, Christopher R; Scudder, Mark R; Raine, Lauren B; Castelli, Darla M

    2012-02-15

    Standardized tests have been used to forecast scholastic success of school-age children, and have been related to intelligence, working memory, and inhibition using neuropsychological tests. However, ERP correlates of standardized achievement have not been reported. Thus, the relationship between academic achievement and the P3 component was assessed in a sample of 105 children during performance on a Go/NoGo task. The Wide Range Achievement Test - 3rd edition was administered to assess aptitude in reading, spelling, and arithmetic. Regression analyses indicated an independent contribution of P3 amplitude to reading and arithmetic achievement beyond the variance accounted for by IQ and school grade. No such relationship was observed for spelling. These data suggest that the P3, which reflects attentional processes involved in stimulus evaluation and inhibitory control may be a biomarker for academic achievement during childhood. PMID:22682915

  11. From ERPs to Academics.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Charles H; Pontifex, Matthew B; Motl, Robert W; O'Leary, Kevin C; Johnson, Christopher R; Scudder, Mark R; Raine, Lauren B; Castelli, Darla M

    2012-02-15

    Standardized tests have been used to forecast scholastic success of school-age children, and have been related to intelligence, working memory, and inhibition using neuropsychological tests. However, ERP correlates of standardized achievement have not been reported. Thus, the relationship between academic achievement and the P3 component was assessed in a sample of 105 children during performance on a Go/NoGo task. The Wide Range Achievement Test - 3(rd) edition was administered to assess aptitude in reading, spelling, and arithmetic. Regression analyses indicated an independent contribution of P3 amplitude to reading and arithmetic achievement beyond the variance accounted for by IQ and school grade. No such relationship was observed for spelling. These data suggest that the P3, which reflects attentional processes involved in stimulus evaluation and inhibitory control may be a biomarker for academic achievement during childhood. PMID:22408701

  12. Exploring Different Types of Academic Delayers: A Latent Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunschel, Carola; Patrzek, Justine; Fries, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we explored whether there are different types of academic delayers (i.e., types of students who delay academic tasks). Latent profile analysis based on 554 university students' reasons for academic delay revealed four distinct types: inconspicuous, successful pressure-seeking, worried/anxious, and discontent with studies. The types…

  13. Purpose of Engagement in Academic Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtinger, Einat; Kaplan, Avi

    2011-01-01

    "Academic self-regulation" refers to the self-generated, reflective, and strategic engagement in academic tasks (Zimmerman, 2000). Self-regulation is crucial for academic success, particularly in higher education, where students are required to take increased responsibility for their learning and where the diversity of courses and activities may…

  14. Academic self-efficacy mediates the effects of school psychological climate on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Høigaard, Rune; Kovač, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth- and tenth- grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic achievement. The results of a bootstrapping technique used to analyze relationships between the constructs indicated that school-goal orientations and organizational citizenship predicted academic self-efficacy. Furthermore, school-goal orientation, organizational citizenship, and academic self-efficacy explained 46% of the variance in academic achievement. Mediation analyses revealed that academic self-efficacy mediated the effects of perceived task goal structure, perceived ability structure, civic virtue, and sportsmanship on adolescents' academic achievements. The results are discussed in reference to current scholarship, including theories underlying our hypothesis. Practical implications and directions for future research are suggested. PMID:24708286

  15. Flexible learning and use of multiple-landmark information by pigeons (Columba livia) in a touch screen-based goal searching task.

    PubMed

    Ushitani, Tomokazu; Jitsumori, Masako

    2011-08-01

    Three touch screen-based experiments were conducted to investigate whether pigeons would learn to use configural information about a goal's location in relation to a multiple-landmark array. In Experiment 1, 4 pigeons (Columba livia) were trained to peck a computer monitor at a location that constituted the third vertex of a hypothetical triangle defined by 2 different landmarks. The landmarks appeared in 3 orientations during the training, and the pigeons' goal-searching ability easily transferred to the landmarks presented in 3 novel orientations. Each landmark was asymmetric, so we next examined whether the pigeons used (a) the small-scale, local orientation information that could be inferred from each landmark individually, or (b) the large-scale, configural information that could be inferred from the spatial arrangement of multiple landmarks taken as a whole. Even when each single landmark appeared by itself, the pigeons were able to locate the goal accurately, suggesting that the large-scale, configural information was not essential. However, when 1 landmark locally pointed to a location that was consistent with the triangular configuration and the other landmark locally pointed to a different location, the pigeons predominantly pecked at the configurally array-consistent location. These results suggest that the pigeons redundantly learned both the large-scale, configural strategy and the local, single-landmark strategy, but they mainly used the latter information, and used the former information solely to disambiguate conflicts when the 2 landmarks pointed toward different targets. Such flexible learning and use of redundant information may reflect the pigeons' adaptation to unstable wild environments during their evolutionary history. PMID:21574692

  16. Enhanced Memetic Algorithm for Task Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmavathi, S.; Shalinie, S. Mercy; Someshwar, B. C.; Sasikumar, T.

    Scheduling tasks onto the processors of a parallel system is a crucial part of program parallelization. Due to the NP-hardness of the task scheduling problem, scheduling algorithms are based on heuristics that try to produce good rather than optimal schedules. This paper proposes a Memetic algorithm with Tabu search and Simulated Annealing as local search for solving Task scheduling problem considering communication contention. This problem consists of finding a schedule for a general task graph to be executed on a cluster of workstations and hence the schedule length can be minimized. Our approach combines local search (by self experience) and global search (by neighboring experience) possessing high search efficiency. The proposed approach is compared with existing list scheduling heuristics. The numerical results clearly indicate that our proposed approach produces solutions which are closer to optimality and/or better quality than the existing list scheduling heuristics.

  17. Utilizing a Culture of Trust to Promote Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulsart, Robyn; McCarthy, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    A simple Internet search of "academic dishonesty" reveals a continuing conversation among individuals within the academic community who are asking what academic dishonesty is, who is cheating, why students are cheating, and how we stop them from cheating. This article addresses these questions and provides a model for creating a culture of trust…

  18. Academic Risk Taking, Development, and External Constraint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Margaret M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Academic risk taking--the selection of schoollike tasks ranging in difficulty and probability of success--was examined for 602 students in grades 4, 6, and 8 in Taiwan. Results of a self-report measure of tolerance for failure and a risk-taking task are discussed concerning self-enhancement versus self-assessment goals, metacognitive skills, and…

  19. Teaching Effectiveness, Course Evaluation, and Academic Performance: The Role of Academic Delay of Gratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2009-01-01

    Academic delay of gratification is a significant and positive predictor of students' final course grades, even after controlling for the effect of their rating of the course, expected grade, and degree of interest, importance, and utility of the academic task. Students' expected course grades are by far the strongest predictor of their final…

  20. Academic Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William R.

    The internal politics of colleges and the influence of a current emphasis on efficiency on the traditional independence of the academician are analyzed. It is suggested that the academician does not work in the same differentiated, and therefore interdependent, way as someone in industry or a bureaucracy. Academic activity is segmented, which…

  1. Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Brian G.

    The strength of academic freedom has always depended upon historical circumstances. In the United States, higher education began with institutions founded and controlled by religious sects. The notion of who gets educated and to what ends expanded as American democracy expanded. By the 1980's, legitimate calls for equality became a general…

  2. Academic Prophecies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Robert M.; Polishook, Irwin H.

    1985-01-01

    Academic prophecies are characterized by their innocence, detachment from the realities of politics and economics, and deference to a limited cohort of administrative representatives. Careless forecasting of the untested future contributes to public misunderstanding of higher education's role in society. (MLW)

  3. Academic Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Burton R.

    With fragmentation the dominant trend in academic settings around the world, the larger wholes of profession, enterprise, and system are less held together by integrative ideology. Strong ideological bonding is characteristic of the parts, primarily the disciplines. The larger aggregations are made whole mainly by formal superstructure, many…

  4. Academic Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally negative practice.…

  5. Academic Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Linda

    2013-01-01

    As colleges and universities become even more complex organizations, advancement professionals need to have the skills, experience, and academic credentials to succeed in this ever-changing environment. Advancement leaders need competencies that extend beyond fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing. The author encourages…

  6. China Academic Library and Information System: An Academic Library Consortium in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, Longji; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Hongyang

    2000-01-01

    Describes CALIS (China Academic Library and Information System), a nationwide academic library consortium funded primarily by the Chinese government to serve multiple resource-sharing functions among the participating libraries, including online searching, interlibrary loan, document delivery, and coordinated purchasing and cataloging, by…

  7. Are Bibliographic Management Software Search Interfaces Reliable?: A Comparison between Search Results Obtained Using Database Interfaces and the EndNote Online Search Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgibbons, Megan; Meert, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The use of bibliographic management software and its internal search interfaces is now pervasive among researchers. This study compares the results between searches conducted in academic databases' search interfaces versus the EndNote search interface. The results show mixed search reliability, depending on the database and type of search…

  8. Better searching through science.

    PubMed

    Voss, D

    2001-09-14

    The explosive growth of the World Wide Web has produced frustration for researchers seeking quality content and pinpoint results among the noise and spam. Now, a handful of companies and academic researchers are working on a new breed of search engines to undo this second curse of Babel. These next-generation search tools will let scientists drill deeper into the billion-page Web. PMID:11557874

  9. Multi-Attribute Sequential Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearden, J. Neil; Connolly, Terry

    2007-01-01

    This article describes empirical and theoretical results from two multi-attribute sequential search tasks. In both tasks, the DM sequentially encounters options described by two attributes and must pay to learn the values of the attributes. In the "continuous" version of the task the DM learns the precise numerical value of an attribute when she…

  10. The Search for Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fattal, Laura Felleman

    2004-01-01

    Practical and academic, the interrelationship of the visual and performing arts opens unique frontiers to aesthetic pioneers. Divergent in aim from the historic search for similar tonalities between the Synchronists and Stravinsky or atonal musicians of the 1950s-70s and minimalist painters and sculptors, the present use of the visual arts as a…

  11. Cube search, revisited.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuetao; Huang, Jie; Yigit-Elliott, Serap; Rosenholtz, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Observers can quickly search among shaded cubes for one lit from a unique direction. However, replace the cubes with similar 2-D patterns that do not appear to have a 3-D shape, and search difficulty increases. These results have challenged models of visual search and attention. We demonstrate that cube search displays differ from those with "equivalent" 2-D search items in terms of the informativeness of fairly low-level image statistics. This informativeness predicts peripheral discriminability of target-present from target-absent patches, which in turn predicts visual search performance, across a wide range of conditions. Comparing model performance on a number of classic search tasks, cube search does not appear unexpectedly easy. Easy cube search, per se, does not provide evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. However, search asymmetries derived from rotating and/or flipping the cube search displays cannot be explained by the information in our current set of image statistics. This may merely suggest a need to modify the model's set of 2-D image statistics. Alternatively, it may be difficult cube search that provides evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. By attributing 2-D luminance variations to a shaded 3-D shape, 3-D scene understanding may slow search for 2-D features of the target. PMID:25780063

  12. Cube search, revisited

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuetao; Huang, Jie; Yigit-Elliott, Serap; Rosenholtz, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Observers can quickly search among shaded cubes for one lit from a unique direction. However, replace the cubes with similar 2-D patterns that do not appear to have a 3-D shape, and search difficulty increases. These results have challenged models of visual search and attention. We demonstrate that cube search displays differ from those with “equivalent” 2-D search items in terms of the informativeness of fairly low-level image statistics. This informativeness predicts peripheral discriminability of target-present from target-absent patches, which in turn predicts visual search performance, across a wide range of conditions. Comparing model performance on a number of classic search tasks, cube search does not appear unexpectedly easy. Easy cube search, per se, does not provide evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. However, search asymmetries derived from rotating and/or flipping the cube search displays cannot be explained by the information in our current set of image statistics. This may merely suggest a need to modify the model's set of 2-D image statistics. Alternatively, it may be difficult cube search that provides evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. By attributing 2-D luminance variations to a shaded 3-D shape, 3-D scene understanding may slow search for 2-D features of the target. PMID:25780063

  13. The Effects of Assignment Format and Choice on Task Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Youjia; Lee, David; Stansbery, Samuel; McAfee, James

    2014-01-01

    Modifying task presentation format and providing opportunities to choose are two effective procedures teachers can use to improve academic productivity for students with learning difficulties. Combining the two procedures may result in academic interventions that teachers can use without significantly changing the curriculum. The present study…

  14. Music and academic performance.

    PubMed

    Arnaud Cabanac; Perlovsky, Leonid; Bonniot-Cabanac, Marie-Claude; Cabanac, Michel

    2013-11-01

    In a previous study we demonstrated that listening to a pleasant music while performing an academic test helped students to overcome stress, to devote more time to more stressful and more complicated task and the grades were higher. Yet, there remained ambiguities as for the causes of the higher test performance of these students: do they perform better because they hear music during their examinations, or would they perform better anyway because they are more gifted/motivated? This motivated the current study as a preliminary step toward that general question: Do students who like/perform music have better grades than the others? Our results confirmed this hypothesis: students studying music have better grades in all subjects. PMID:23973386

  15. The Effects of Self-Monitoring of Academic Performance on Students with Learning Disabilities and ADD/ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimabukuro, Serena M.; Prater, Mary Anne; Jenkins, Amelia; Edelen-Smith, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated the effects of self-monitoring of academic productivity and accuracy on the academic performance and on-task behavior of three male students (ages 12-13) with both learning disabilities and attention deficit disorders. Students made gains in academic productivity and accuracy and their on-task behaviors improved across all…

  16. Academic Administration: The Search for Effective Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, John R.; Brownlee, Leonard J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Three approaches generally have been taken to explain effective leadership in educational administration: (1) The leader's personality traits are the key; (2) Success results from mastering modes of interpersonal behavior; and (3) Effectiveness depends on the situation in which leadership is exercised. Leadership is a reciprocal process--leader…

  17. Academic Staffing: The Search for Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Fay

    1980-01-01

    Australian universities are surveyed to determine the proportion of female appointments and the appointments of candidates with non-Australian degrees. Evidence is presented that shows both groups are underrepresented, and partial explanations are offered. (JSR)

  18. Library Instruction and Online Database Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercado, Heidi

    1999-01-01

    Reviews changes in online database searching in academic libraries. Topics include librarians conducting all searches; the advent of end-user searching and the need for user instruction; compact disk technology; online public catalogs; the Internet; full text databases; electronic information literacy; user education and the remote library user;…

  19. The Weaknesses of Full-Text Searching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a theoretical critique of the deficiencies of full-text searching in academic library databases. Because full-text searching relies on matching words in a search query with words in online resources, it is an inefficient method of finding information in a database. This matching fails to retrieve synonyms, and it also retrieves…

  20. Multitasking Information Seeking and Searching Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Amanda; Ozmutlu, H. Cenk; Ozmutlu, Seda

    2002-01-01

    Presents findings from four studies of the prevalence of multitasking information seeking and searching by Web (via the Excite search engine), information retrieval system (mediated online database searching), and academic library users. Highlights include human information coordinating behavior (HICB); and implications for models of information…

  1. Examining Response Confidence in Multiple Text Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    List, Alexandra; Alexander, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Students' confidence in their responses to a multiple text-processing task and their justifications for those confidence ratings were investigated. Specifically, 215 undergraduates responded to two academic questions, differing by type (i.e., discrete and open-ended) and by domain (i.e., developmental psychology and astrophysics), using a digital…

  2. Performance Tasks and the Pedagogy of Broadway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Marc

    2012-01-01

    If educators want students to practice and prepare for challenges they might eventually face, there are a number of useful strategies to connect academic learning to the "real world." One is to ask students to complete what are variously called "performance tasks," "case studies," "simulations," or "project- or problem-based learning units."…

  3. Relative contributions of task-relevant and task-irrelevant dimensions in priming of pop-out.

    PubMed

    Michal, Audrey L; Lleras, Alejandro; Beck, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    Intertrial effects such as priming of pop-out (PoP) often occur for task-irrelevant dimensions as well as task-relevant dimensions, though to a weaker extent. Here we test the hypothesis that increased priming for task-relevant dimensions is due to greater passive build-up of priming for the task-relevant dimension rather than to an active filtering of task-irrelevant dimensions; if this is the case, then we should observe a positive correlation between the magnitude of task-relevant and task-irrelevant priming. We tested this hypothesis using a pop-out search task in which the task-relevant dimension was orientation and the task-irrelevant dimension was color. We found a strong, positive association between task-relevant and task-irrelevant priming across a large group of participants (N = 100); additionally, we observed increased priming over consecutive repetitions for the task-relevant dimension, whereas task-irrelevant priming was constant across multiple repetitions. As further evidence against an active filtering account, task-irrelevant priming showed no systematic relationship with visual short-term memory capacity, which has been shown to correlate with filtering ability. Together, our results suggest that task-irrelevant dimensions are co-selected rather than filtered out during target search. Further, increased task-relevant priming may reflect an enhanced representation of the task-relevant dimension that is reinforced over consecutive repetitions. PMID:25311302

  4. Academic Productivity as Perceived by Malaysian Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Aminuddin; Tymms, Peter; Ismail, Habsah

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the perspectives of Malaysian academics in relation to academic productivity and some factors affecting it. A large scale online questionnaire was used to gather information from six public universities. The most productive role in the eyes of the academics was found to be teaching, with research and…

  5. After Bath: Scientists, Social Scientists, and Humanists in the Context of Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurych, Jitka

    1986-01-01

    Detailed analysis of 462 university faculty search request forms identifies similarities and differences among representatives of academic disciplines in their approaches to seeking information online. Search particulars noted include comprehensiveness, scope, language, retrospectiveness, relevant citations, search purpose, funding, clarity, and…

  6. The Academic Researcher Role: Enhancing Expectations and Improved Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein

    2013-01-01

    This article distinguishes between six tasks related to the academic researcher role: (1) networking; (2) collaboration; (3) managing research; (4) doing research; (5) publishing research; and (6) evaluation of research. Data drawn from surveys of academic staff, conducted in Norwegian universities over three decades, provide evidence that the…

  7. Wisconsin's Model Academic Standards for Agricultural Education. Bulletin No. 9003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortier, John D.; Albrecht, Bryan D.; Grady, Susan M.; Gagnon, Dean P.; Wendt, Sharon, W.

    These model academic standards for agricultural education in Wisconsin represent the work of a task force of educators, parents, and business people with input from the public. The introductory section of this bulletin defines the academic standards and discusses developing the standards, using the standards, relating the standards to all…

  8. Working Memory Updating as a Predictor of Academic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechuga, M. Teresa; Pelegrina, Santiago; Pelaez, Jose L.; Martin-Puga, M. Eva; Justicia, M. Jose

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence supporting the importance of executive functions, and specifically working memory updating (WMU), for children's academic achievement. This study aimed to assess the specific contribution of updating to the prediction of academic performance. Two updating tasks, which included different updating components, were…

  9. Incorporating Academic Standards in Instructional Systems Design Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Charles Xiaoxue

    Almost every state is "imposing" academic standards. Helping students to meet those standards is a key task for teachers and school administrators, as well as instructional systems designers. Thus, instructional designers in the K-12 environments are facing the challenge of using appropriately and effectively academic standards in their…

  10. Research Productivity by Career Stage among Korean Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jisun

    2014-01-01

    This study explores Korean academics' changes in research productivity by career stage. Career stage in this study is defined as a specific cohort based on one's length of job experience, with those in the same stage sharing similar interests, values, needs, and tasks; it is categorized into fledglings, maturing academics, established…

  11. A Comparative Test of Locus on Control Measures and IQ as Predictors of Children's Task Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVoie, Joseph C.; Adams, Gerald R.

    In this study, locus of control and IQ were compared to assess the power of each as a predictor of performance on academic and non-academic tasks. Four locus of control scales: the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Scale, the Academic Achievement Accountability Questionnaire, the Rotter I-E scale, the Origin-Pawn measure and the Iowa Tests…

  12. Visual Experience Enhances Infants' Use of Task-Relevant Information in an Action Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Su-hua; Kohne, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether infants' use of task-relevant information in an action task could be facilitated by visual experience in the laboratory. Twelve- but not 9-month-old infants spontaneously used height information and chose an appropriate (taller) cover in search of a hidden tall toy. After watching examples of covering events in a…

  13. ATR task and training requirements analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gertman, D.I.; Blackman, H.S.; Gilmore, W.E. II; French, D.L.

    1983-05-01

    Task analysis techniques were used to assist in identifying improvements needed in the training curriculum for selected positions at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Six positions were examined - Experiment Power Reactor Operator, Experiment (EPRO-Ex); Experiment Power Reactor Operator, Console (EPRO-Co); Senior Reactor Engineer (SRE); Assistant Shift Supervisor (AS); Shift Supervisor (SS); and Process Control Operator (PCO). A complete position task listing and a core of tasks defined in terms of (a) level of difficulty to perform, (b) severity of consequence if performed improperly, and (c) associated error probability were identified for each position. The systems, academic, and administrative knowledge needed by job incumbents to perform each task was noted. Strategies for teaching the knowledge associated with these tasks are presented.

  14. PBF task and training requirements analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blackman, H.S.; Gertman, D.I.; Petersen, R.J.

    1983-05-01

    Task analyses were used to assist in identifying improvements needed in the training curriculum for selected positions at the Power Burst Facility (PBF). Four positions were examined: Experiment Power Reactor Operator, Experiment (EPRO-Ex); Experiment Power Reactor Operator, Plant (EPRO-P); Experiment Power Reactor Operator, Console (EPRO-Co), and Shift Supervisor (SS). A complete position task listing and core of tasks defined in terms of (a) level of difficulty to perform, (b) severity of consequence if performed improperly, and (c) associated error probability were identified by each position. The systems, academic, and administrative knowledge needed by job incumbents to perform each task was noted. Strategies for teaching the knowledge associated with these tasks are presented.

  15. Academic detailing.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations. PMID:21209521

  16. Teachers' Roles in the Integration of Vocational and Academic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, B. June; And Others

    A study of the roles of vocational and academic teachers in the integration process involved interviews with 109 principals, other administrators, counselors, and vocational and academic teachers at 10 school sites. The research was designed to build upon and complement studies identified in a literature search that had examined other facets of…

  17. School Gardens Enhance Academic Performance and Dietary Outcomes in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berezowitz, Claire K.; Bontrager Yoder, Andrea B.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schools face increasing demands to provide education on healthy living and improve core academic performance. Although these appear to be competing concerns, they may interact beneficially. This article focuses on school garden programs and their effects on students' academic and dietary outcomes. Methods: Database searches in CABI,…

  18. The Video-Based Short Comment Writing Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino-Silva, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Composing from sources may no longer be the exclusive domain of reading-to-write activities. The ever-increasing presence of video technology and broadcasting in academic settings could place listening-to-write tasks on a similar footing. This article describes a listening-to-write task, the video-based short comment, which (1) uses video as…

  19. A Status Report from the Task Force on Marketing Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, William A.; And Others

    Concerned with changes in enrollment and credit hour patterns, the chancellor of the Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges (MCC) created a special Task Force to consider recommendations for marketing strategies for the 1978-79 academic year. The Task Force reviewed regional and district demography, area population trends and density, age and…

  20. Using Collaboration to Foster Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Lynda

    2016-01-01

    For students new to higher education, the task of developing their academic writing skills, and particularly the principles and practices of source-referencing, can be daunting. Although institutions and teachers can and do provide positive guidance on this score, all too often students veer into inadvertent plagiarism through lack of confidence…

  1. VisualRank: applying PageRank to large-scale image search.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yushi; Baluja, Shumeet

    2008-11-01

    Because of the relative ease in understanding and processing text, commercial image-search systems often rely on techniques that are largely indistinguishable from text-search. Recently, academic studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of employing image-based features to provide alternative or additional signals. However, it remains uncertain whether such techniques will generalize to a large number of popular web queries, and whether the potential improvement to search quality warrants the additional computational cost. In this work, we cast the image-ranking problem into the task of identifying "authority" nodes on an inferred visual similarity graph and propose VisualRank to analyze the visual link structures among images. The images found to be "authorities" are chosen as those that answer the image-queries well. To understand the performance of such an approach in a real system, we conducted a series of large-scale experiments based on the task of retrieving images for 2000 of the most popular products queries. Our experimental results show significant improvement, in terms of user satisfaction and relevancy, in comparison to the most recent Google Image Search results. Maintaining modest computational cost is vital to ensuring that this procedure can be used in practice; we describe the techniques required to make this system practical for large scale deployment in commercial search engines. PMID:18787237

  2. Academic achievement in high functioning autistic individuals.

    PubMed

    Minshew, N J; Goldstein, G; Taylor, H G; Siegel, D J

    1994-04-01

    Academic achievement levels in 54 high functioning (IQ > 70) autistic subjects were compared with those of 41 normal controls, who did not differ significantly in age, IQ, gender, race, or SES from the autistic subjects. The measures of academic achievement used included portions of the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-2, the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test, and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement. Based on prior neuropsychological findings, it was hypothesized that autistic subjects would not differ from controls on subtests assessing mechanical and procedural skills, but would differ on subtests measuring comprehension and interpretive skills. As predicted, the autistic subjects performed significantly less well than controls on comprehension tasks, but not on mechanical reading, spelling, and computational tasks. This pattern is at variance with the typical academic profile of individuals with disabilities in reading or spelling, but shares some features with the nonverbal learning disabilities. PMID:8021313

  3. Searching for inefficiency in visual search.

    PubMed

    Christie, Gregory J; Livingstone, Ashley C; McDonald, John J

    2015-01-01

    The time required to find an object of interest in the visual field often increases as a function of the number of items present. This increase or inefficiency was originally interpreted as evidence for the serial allocation of attention to potential target items, but controversy has ensued for decades. We investigated this issue by recording ERPs from humans searching for a target in displays containing several differently colored items. Search inefficiency was ascribed not to serial search but to the time required to selectively process the target once found. Additionally, less time was required for the target to "pop out" from the rest of the display when the color of the target repeated across trials. These findings indicate that task relevance can cause otherwise inconspicuous items to pop out and highlight the need for direct neurophysiological measures when investigating the causes of search inefficiency. PMID:25203277

  4. The Profile of Academic Offenders: Features of Students Who Admit to Academic Dishonesty.

    PubMed

    Korn, Liat; Davidovitch, Nitza

    2016-01-01

    Dishonesty in academic settings is a reckless behavior that is unique to students and is associated with cheat    ing and plagiarism of academic tasks. Incidents involving dishonesty in higher education have increased considerably in the past decade, with regard to the extent of these practices, the types of dishonesty employed, and their prevalence. The current study examines the profile of "academic offenders". Which types are more prone to commit academic offenses? To what degree are they "normative" and do they represent the average student with regard to personal traits, personal perceptions, features of their academic studies, risk behaviors, and health risks. The study is based on a structured anonymous questionnaire. The sample consisted of 1,432 students, of whom 899 were female (63%) and 533 male (37%). The research findings indicate a common tendency among more than one quarter of the sample reported cheating on homework and 12.5% reported cheating on tests. Strong associations were found between academic dishonesty and various personal perceptions, the academic study experience, and involvement in other risky and deviant behaviors. Significant predictors of academic dishonesty were found, i.e., self-image, ethics, grades, time devoted to homework, and deviant and daring behaviors. The research findings might help indicate policies for optimally dealing with dishonesty, maybe even before the offense is committed, by means of cooperation between academic forces. PMID:27569198

  5. Clinician Search Behaviors May Be Influenced by Search Engine Design

    PubMed Central

    Coiera, Enrico; Zrimec, Tatjana; Compton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background Searching the Web for documents using information retrieval systems plays an important part in clinicians’ practice of evidence-based medicine. While much research focuses on the design of methods to retrieve documents, there has been little examination of the way different search engine capabilities influence clinician search behaviors. Objectives Previous studies have shown that use of task-based search engines allows for faster searches with no loss of decision accuracy compared with resource-based engines. We hypothesized that changes in search behaviors may explain these differences. Methods In all, 75 clinicians (44 doctors and 31 clinical nurse consultants) were randomized to use either a resource-based or a task-based version of a clinical information retrieval system to answer questions about 8 clinical scenarios in a controlled setting in a university computer laboratory. Clinicians using the resource-based system could select 1 of 6 resources, such as PubMed; clinicians using the task-based system could select 1 of 6 clinical tasks, such as diagnosis. Clinicians in both systems could reformulate search queries. System logs unobtrusively capturing clinicians’ interactions with the systems were coded and analyzed for clinicians’ search actions and query reformulation strategies. Results The most frequent search action of clinicians using the resource-based system was to explore a new resource with the same query, that is, these clinicians exhibited a “breadth-first” search behaviour. Of 1398 search actions, clinicians using the resource-based system conducted 401 (28.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 26.37-31.11) in this way. In contrast, the majority of clinicians using the task-based system exhibited a “depth-first” search behavior in which they reformulated query keywords while keeping to the same task profiles. Of 585 search actions conducted by clinicians using the task-based system, 379 (64.8%, 95% CI 60.83-68.55) were

  6. Academia and the Search for Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorner, Peter

    1982-01-01

    History provides examples of how academic communities responded to serious social problems and tensions: by intentionally or unintentionally aggravating them, withdrawing, or searching for solutions. (AVAIL: Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, 1922 University Ave., Madison, WI 53705)

  7. Cognitive training in academically deficient ADDH boys receiving stimulant medication.

    PubMed

    Abikoff, H; Ganeles, D; Reiter, G; Blum, C; Foley, C; Klein, R G

    1988-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 16-week intensive cognitive training program in stimulant-treated, academically deficient ADDH boys. Cognitive training focused exclusively on academic skills and tasks, and included attack strategy training as well as self-monitoring and self-reinforcement of problem-solving behaviors and response accuracy. Control groups included remedial tutoring plus medication, and medication alone. Despite the scope of the program, the results provided no support for the notion that academically based cognitive training ameliorates the performance and achievement of academically deficient ADDH youngsters. Further, this intervention did not enhance self-esteem or attributional perceptions of academic functioning. There was poor agreement between teacher ratings of academic competence and test score changes. The lack of concordance between measures, and the scarcity of academically deficient ADDH children are discussed. PMID:3221031

  8. Kinesiology Faculty Citations across Academic Rank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Citations to research reports are used as a measure for the influence of a scholar's research line when seeking promotion, grants, and awards. The current study documented the distributions of citations to kinesiology scholars of various academic ranks. Google Scholar Citations was searched for user profiles using five research interest areas…

  9. Some Suggestions for Academic Writing Instruction at English Teacher Training Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozarska, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    This article presents practical suggestions and tasks to make it easier to teach second language academic writing at the college level. It discusses the necessity of a warm-up period in which learners produce first drafts in pairs or small groups and do peer error correction. The article offers tasks such as reacting to an academic review,…

  10. Engaging Academically at Risk Primary School Students in an ICT Mediated after School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yong, Tay Lee; Ping, Lim Cher

    2008-01-01

    This case study documents how a group of 14 academically at risk Primary 5 students (11 year olds) were engaged in academic related tasks in an after school program mediated by a "3-D Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE)." Although there was no significant difference in the students' academic performance, they were found to be more engaged in the…

  11. Academic Self-Efficacy as a Predictor of College Outcomes: Two Incremental Validity Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Paul A. Jr

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of literature supports the relationship between students' self-efficacy beliefs for academic tasks and milestones and their academic performance. Not surprisingly, some researchers have investigated the role that academic self-efficacy beliefs play in predicting college success. Two incremental validity studies were conducted to…

  12. What Every Student Affairs Professional Should Know: Student Study Activities and Beliefs Associated with Academic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strage, Amy; Baba, Yoko; Millner, Steven; Scharberg, Maureen; Walker, Ethel; Williamson, Rhea; Yoder, Marian

    2002-01-01

    Describes academic profiles of 1,379 college students, diverse in ethnicity, prior college experience, and academic goals. Discusses relationships between demographic characteristics, study habits, beliefs about academic success, and four indices of success: GPA, perseverance, task involvement, and teacher rapport. Discussion focuses on ways to…

  13. An Investigation of Learning Transfer in English-for-General-Academic-Purposes Writing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Mark Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This case study involved a detailed examination of learning transfer from an English-for-general-academic-purposes writing course to tasks that involve writing in other academic courses. Data were gathered over one academic year from 11 students enrolled in the writing course. These students participated in a series of interviews and provided…

  14. "It's Not a Hobby": Reconceptualizing the Place of Writing in Academic Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Rowena

    2013-01-01

    The writing activities involved in research are not fully articulated in discussions of academic work. In this context, academics say they have to disengage from other tasks in order to write, which raises fundamental questions about the place of writing in academic work. A study designed to find out more about this disengagement showed that it…

  15. Challenging Google, Microsoft Unveils a Search Tool for Scholarly Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft has introduced a new search tool to help people find scholarly articles online. The service, which includes journal articles from prominent academic societies and publishers, puts Microsoft in direct competition with Google Scholar. The new free search tool, which should work on most Web browsers, is called Windows Live Academic Search…

  16. Visual Search in a Multi-Element Asynchronous Dynamic (MAD) World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunar, Melina A.; Watson, Derrick G.

    2011-01-01

    In visual search tasks participants search for a target among distractors in strictly controlled displays. We show that visual search principles observed in these tasks do not necessarily apply in more ecologically valid search conditions, using dynamic and complex displays. A multi-element asynchronous dynamic (MAD) visual search was developed in…

  17. Career development resource: academic career in surgical education.

    PubMed

    Sanfey, Hilary; Gantt, Nancy L

    2012-07-01

    Academic surgeons play an instrumental role in the training of our medical students and surgical residents. Although volunteer faculty often have an important role in the clinical development of surgeons-in-training, the tasks of curricular development, structured didactic sessions, professional advising, research sponsorship, and mentoring at all levels fall to the academic surgeon. Historically, the career advancement path for an academic physician favored grant acquisition and scholarly publication. Broader definitions of scholarship have emerged, along with corresponding modifications in academic award systems that allow advancement in faculty rank based on a surgeon's educational efforts. PMID:22704713

  18. The Link between Basing Self-Worth on Academics and Student Performance Depends on Domain Identification and Academic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Jason S.; Charbonneau, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Two studies showed that the link between how much students base their self-worth on academics and their math performance depends on whether their identification with math was statistically controlled and whether the task measured ability or not. Study 1 showed that, when math identification was uncontrolled and the task was ability-diagnostic,…

  19. Writing apprehension and academic procrastination among graduate students.

    PubMed

    Onwuegbuzie, A J; Collins, K M

    2001-04-01

    Academic procrastination has been associated with both fear of failure and task aversiveness. Researchers have reported that most undergraduate and graduate students delay academic tasks. Among the latter, a large proportion report procrastination in writing term papers. Such procrastination may originate from and lead to anxiety about writing so the present purpose was to investigate the relationship between scores on Daly and Miller's 1975 Writing Apprehension Test and on the two dimensions, i.e., fear of failure and task aversiveness, of Solomon and Rothblum's 1984 Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students. Participants were 135 graduate students of varied disciplinary backgrounds. Correlations between writing apprehension and academic procrastination stemmed from fear of failure (29) and task aversiveness (.41). Implications are discussed. PMID:11361321

  20. Academic Delay of Gratification and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2011-01-01

    The ability to delay gratification is the cornerstone of all academic achievement and education. It is by delaying gratification that learners can pursue long-term academic and career goals. In general, "delay of gratification" refers to an individual's ability to forgo immediate rewards for the sake of more valuable ones later (Mischel, 1996).…

  1. Space searches with a quantum robot

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.

    2000-02-15

    Quantum robots are described as mobile quantum computers and ancillary systems that move in and interact with arbitrary environments. Their dynamics is given as tasks which consist of sequences of alternating computation and action phases. A task example is considered in which a quantum robot searches a space region to find the location of a system. The possibility that the search can be more efficient than a classical search is examined by considering use of Grover's Algorithm to process the search results. This is problematic for two reasons. One is the removal of entanglements generated by the (reversible) search process. The other is that (ignoring the entanglement problem), the search process in 2 dimensional space regions is no more efficient than a classical search. However quantum searches of higher dimensional space regions are more efficient than classical searches. Reasons why quantum robots are interesting independent of these results are briefly summarized.

  2. Academic geriatrics in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chek Hooi; Landefeld, C Seth

    2011-11-01

    Singapore is one of the fastest-aging countries in the world. The proportion of adults aged 65 and older is projected to increase from 8.7% to 20% over the next 20 years. The country has developed various strategies to meet the needs of this increase in older adults. There is an acute shortage of geriatricians and a need to train more healthcare workers to care for older adults. Geriatric medicine is a relatively new specialty, and a small number of geriatricians have been tasked with providing an increasing load of clinical service, education, and research. Hence, there is a need to develop a cohesive structure of support for faculty development and retention, advanced specialty trainee recruitment, leadership in medical education, research, and clinical service to care for the rapidly aging population. In addition, geriatric medicine is primarily a hospital-based specialty in Singapore. There is still opportunity to collaborate and improve the academic and practice integration of geriatric medicine into primary care and intermediate and long-term care where it is most needed. PMID:22091794

  3. Search Asymmetry, Sustained Attention, and Response Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Hugh; Russell, Paul N.; Helton, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In the present experiment, we used search asymmetry to test whether the sustained attention to response task is a better measure of response inhibition or sustained attention. Participants performed feature present and feature absent target detection tasks using either a sustained attention to response task (SART; high Go low No-Go) or a…

  4. Observer efficiency in free-localization tasks with correlated noise

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Craig K.; Eckstein, Miguel P.

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of visual tasks involving localization has traditionally been evaluated using forced choice experiments that capitalize on independence across locations to simplify the performance of the ideal observer. However, developments in ideal observer analysis have shown how an ideal observer can be defined for free-localization tasks, where a target can appear anywhere in a defined search region and subjects respond by localizing the target. Since these tasks are representative of many real-world search tasks, it is of interest to evaluate the efficiency of observer performance in them. The central question of this work is whether humans are able to effectively use the information in a free-localization task relative to a similar task where target location is fixed. We use a yes-no detection task at a cued location as the reference for this comparison. Each of the tasks is evaluated using a Gaussian target profile embedded in four different Gaussian noise backgrounds having power-law noise power spectra with exponents ranging from 0 to 3. The free localization task had a square 6.7° search region. We report on two follow-up studies investigating efficiency in a detect-and-localize task, and the effect of processing the white-noise backgrounds. In the fixed-location detection task, we find average observer efficiency ranges from 35 to 59% for the different noise backgrounds. Observer efficiency improves dramatically in the tasks involving localization, ranging from 63 to 82% in the forced localization tasks and from 78 to 92% in the detect-and- localize tasks. Performance in white noise, the lowest efficiency condition, was improved by filtering to give them a power-law exponent of 2. Classification images, used to examine spatial frequency weights for the tasks, show better tuning to ideal weights in the free-localization tasks. The high absolute levels of efficiency suggest that observers are well-adapted to free-localization tasks. PMID:24817854

  5. Refining the Construct of Classroom-Based Writing-from-Readings Assessment: The Role of Task Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfersberger, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that task representation should be considered as part of the construct of classroom-based academic writing. Task representation is a process that writers move through when creating a unique mental model of the requirements for each new writing task they encounter. Writers' task representations evolve throughout the composing…

  6. Learning to Model Task-Oriented Attention.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaochun; Zhao, Xinbo; Wang, Jian; Yang, Yongjia

    2016-01-01

    For many applications in graphics, design, and human computer interaction, it is essential to understand where humans look in a scene with a particular task. Models of saliency can be used to predict fixation locations, but a large body of previous saliency models focused on free-viewing task. They are based on bottom-up computation that does not consider task-oriented image semantics and often does not match actual eye movements. To address this problem, we collected eye tracking data of 11 subjects when they performed some particular search task in 1307 images and annotation data of 2,511 segmented objects with fine contours and 8 semantic attributes. Using this database as training and testing examples, we learn a model of saliency based on bottom-up image features and target position feature. Experimental results demonstrate the importance of the target information in the prediction of task-oriented visual attention. PMID:27247561

  7. Learning to Model Task-Oriented Attention

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Xiaochun; Zhao, Xinbo; Wang, Jian; Yang, Yongjia

    2016-01-01

    For many applications in graphics, design, and human computer interaction, it is essential to understand where humans look in a scene with a particular task. Models of saliency can be used to predict fixation locations, but a large body of previous saliency models focused on free-viewing task. They are based on bottom-up computation that does not consider task-oriented image semantics and often does not match actual eye movements. To address this problem, we collected eye tracking data of 11 subjects when they performed some particular search task in 1307 images and annotation data of 2,511 segmented objects with fine contours and 8 semantic attributes. Using this database as training and testing examples, we learn a model of saliency based on bottom-up image features and target position feature. Experimental results demonstrate the importance of the target information in the prediction of task-oriented visual attention. PMID:27247561

  8. Academic Inbreeding in Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael H.

    1977-01-01

    Academic inbreeding, the employment for faculty positions of persons who receive their graduate training at the same academic institution, is considered detrimental to an institution's academic environment. Results of a study conducted at 54 universities revealed that almost half the faculty (48 percent) in collegiate nursing programs are drawn…

  9. What Is Academic Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…

  10. The Academic Adviser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I explore the idea that "academic" advisers are "academics" who play a major role in connecting the general education curriculum to the students' experience as well as connecting the faculty to the students' holistic experience of the curriculum. The National Academic Advising Association Concept of Academic…

  11. Comparing Composing Processes in Writing-Only and Reading-to-Write Test Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakans, Lia

    2008-01-01

    The use of reading-to-write tasks for assessing academic writing in English is increasing, often replacing traditional impromptu writing-only tasks. This shift has led to a number of studies comparing the written products of these two task types. To add to this literature, this article reports on a study comparing test takers' processes in…

  12. Library Searching: An Industrial User's Viewpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses library searching of chemical literature from an industrial user's viewpoint, focusing on differences between academic and industrial researcher's searching techniques of the same problem area. Indicates that industry users need more exposure to patents, work with abstracting services and continued improvement in computer searching…

  13. Search Cloud

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/cloud.html Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this page, ... Top 110 zoster vaccine Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search cloud ...

  14. Search Cloud

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/cloud.html Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search cloud ...

  15. Task Definition: A Motivating Task = Eager Learners!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Teachers who design meaningful and developmentally appropriate tasks will motivate their students to engage in the content and as students work through the Big6 process, interacting with the content, they learn and practice information and technology skills. A valuable task definition technique is to develop questions that students in each group…

  16. An Estimation of Difficulty for Academic Books using Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Yuki; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko

    A collaborate filtering has been generally used as a method which recommends items to customers. However, recommending academic books, it need to consider difficulty of them and individual amount of knowledge as well as user's preference. If the recommendation method considers only user's preference, they might regret after buying or reading recommended book because it won't match user's appropriate level. In this paper, we focus on academic books and propose a method which estimates the difficulty of academic books using user's reviews. Estimating difficulty of books will support users to search and recommend academic books that match user's skill. Moreover, we evaluated applying our method to academic text books about C programming Language. We verified that our method is more effective than traditional methods for academic books.

  17. Collaboration during visual search.

    PubMed

    Malcolmson, Kelly A; Reynolds, Michael G; Smilek, Daniel

    2007-08-01

    Two experiments examine how collaboration influences visual search performance. Working with a partner or on their own, participants reported whether a target was present or absent in briefly presented search displays. We compared the search performance of individuals working together (collaborative pairs) with the pooled responses of the individuals working alone (nominal pairs). Collaborative pairs were less likely than nominal pairs to correctly detect a target and they were less likely to make false alarms. Signal detection analyses revealed that collaborative pairs were more sensitive to the presence of the target and had a more conservative response bias than the nominal pairs. This pattern was observed even when the presence of another individual was matched across pairs. The results are discussed in the context of task-sharing, social loafing and current theories of visual search. PMID:17972737

  18. New Martian satellite search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The approach pictures taken by the Viking 1 and Viking 2 spacecrafts two days before their Mars orbital insertion maneuvers were analyzed in order to search for new satellites within the orbit of Phobos. To accomplish this task, search procedure and analysis strategy were formulated, developed and executed using the substantial image processing capabilities of the Image Processing Laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The development of these new search capabilities should prove to be valuable to NASA in processing of image data obtained from other spacecraft missions. The result of applying the search procedures to the Viking approach pictures was as follows: no new satellites of comparable size (approx. 20 km) and brightness to Phobos or Demios were detected within the orbit of Phobos.

  19. Prevalence effect in haptic search

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Kazuya; Watanabe, Ken; Takaoka, Yutaka; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Kita, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    In visual search tasks, the ratio of target-present to target-absent trials has important effects on miss rates. In this study, we examined whether the target prevalence effect occurs in a haptic search task by using artificial tactile maps. The results indicated that target prevalence has effects on miss rates, sensitivity, and criterion. Moreover, an increase in miss rates in the low-prevalence condition (10%) was strongly correlated with a decrease in search termination times (target-absent reaction times). These results suggest that the prevalence effect on haptic search is caused by a decrease in the search termination time and a shift in decision criterion and a decrease in sensitivity. PMID:23145300

  20. Individualized Engagement with Genre in Academic Literacy Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, An

    2008-01-01

    The interaction between learner characteristics, including learners' histories and goals of learning, and learners' analysis and production of target genres remains a topic of continuing interest in the genre-based literacy framework. This case study documented an L2 graduate student's individualized engagement with genre in both her reading and…

  1. Search engine for handwritten documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srihari, Sargur N.; Huang, Chen; Srinivasan, Harish

    2005-01-01

    Search aspects of a system for analyzing handwritten documents are described. Documents are indexed using global image features, e.g., stroke width, slant as well as local features that describe the shapes of words and characters. Image indexing is done automatically using page analysis, page segmentation, line separation, word segmentation and recognition of words and characters. Two types of search are permitted: search based on global features of entire document and search using features at local level. For the second type of search, i.e., local, all the words in the document are characterized and indexed by various features and it forms the basis of different search techniques. The paper focuses on local search and describes four tasks: word/phrase spotting, text to image, image to text and plain text. Performance in terms of precision/recall and word ranking is reported on a database of handwriting samples from about 1,000 individuals.

  2. Search engine for handwritten documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srihari, Sargur N.; Huang, Chen; Srinivasan, Harish

    2004-12-01

    Search aspects of a system for analyzing handwritten documents are described. Documents are indexed using global image features, e.g., stroke width, slant as well as local features that describe the shapes of words and characters. Image indexing is done automatically using page analysis, page segmentation, line separation, word segmentation and recognition of words and characters. Two types of search are permitted: search based on global features of entire document and search using features at local level. For the second type of search, i.e., local, all the words in the document are characterized and indexed by various features and it forms the basis of different search techniques. The paper focuses on local search and describes four tasks: word/phrase spotting, text to image, image to text and plain text. Performance in terms of precision/recall and word ranking is reported on a database of handwriting samples from about 1,000 individuals.

  3. A Latent Curve Model of Parental Motivational Practices and Developmental Decline in Math and Science Academic Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Marcoulides, George A.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal approach was used to examine the effects of parental task-intrinsic and task-extrinsic motivational practices on academic intrinsic motivation in the subject areas of math and science. Parental task-intrinsic practices comprise encouragement of children's pleasure and engagement in the learning process, whereas task-extrinsic…

  4. Development of a Google-based search engine for data mining radiology reports.

    PubMed

    Erinjeri, Joseph P; Picus, Daniel; Prior, Fred W; Rubin, David A; Koppel, Paul

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a secure, Google-based data-mining tool for radiology reports using free and open source technologies and to explore its use within an academic radiology department. A Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant data repository, search engine and user interface were created to facilitate treatment, operations, and reviews preparatory to research. The Institutional Review Board waived review of the project, and informed consent was not required. Comprising 7.9 GB of disk space, 2.9 million text reports were downloaded from our radiology information system to a fileserver. Extensible markup language (XML) representations of the reports were indexed using Google Desktop Enterprise search engine software. A hypertext markup language (HTML) form allowed users to submit queries to Google Desktop, and Google's XML response was interpreted by a practical extraction and report language (PERL) script, presenting ranked results in a web browser window. The query, reason for search, results, and documents visited were logged to maintain HIPAA compliance. Indexing averaged approximately 25,000 reports per hour. Keyword search of a common term like "pneumothorax" yielded the first ten most relevant results of 705,550 total results in 1.36 s. Keyword search of a rare term like "hemangioendothelioma" yielded the first ten most relevant results of 167 total results in 0.23 s; retrieval of all 167 results took 0.26 s. Data mining tools for radiology reports will improve the productivity of academic radiologists in clinical, educational, research, and administrative tasks. By leveraging existing knowledge of Google's interface, radiologists can quickly perform useful searches. PMID:18392657

  5. Academic Self-Concept, Autonomous Academic Motivation, and Academic Achievement: Mediating and Additive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guay, Frederic; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Roy, Amelie; Litalien, David

    2010-01-01

    Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between…

  6. Dimension-Specific Intertrial Priming Effects Are Task-Specific: Evidence for Multiple Weighting Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangelov, Dragan; Muller, Hermann J.; Zehetleitner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Feature singleton search is faster when the target-defining dimension repeats across consecutive trials than when it changes (Found & Muller, 1996). However, this dimension repetition benefit (DRB) has also been demonstrated for the tasks with no search component (Mortier, Theeuwes, & Starreveld, 2005). If DRBs in the search and non-search tasks…

  7. Wilderness search strategy and tactics.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ken; Longden, Maura J; Vandergraff, Bil; Smith, William R; Weber, David C; McIntosh, Scott E; Wheeler, Albert R

    2014-06-01

    Reports of overdue persons are common for search and rescue personnel. Search incidents for missing persons are conducted following established industry standard practices, which are continuously refined through experience and the analysis of previous search operations. Throughout this process, elements of uncertainty exist, and the knowledge and experience of the searchers and search managers may influence the outcome significantly. A sound knowledge of current search tactics will help search and rescue medical providers function more effectively during search operations. Initial actions during a search incident include 3 primary tasks that must be accomplished on any search: investigation, containment, and then hasty search efforts. Concurrent with these initial actions are the establishment of the search area and a formal US National Incident Management System incident command system. That is essential for an efficient operation and will lay the groundwork for expanding the operation past the initial operational period. The goal of applying these standard search management practices is to allow searchers to maximize their efforts, reduce some of the inherent uncertainty, and most importantly, place searchers in a position to detect the missing person. PMID:24792134

  8. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.C.; Arzeno, Natalia; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ryder, Jeffrey; Garcia, Yamil; Guilliams, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  9. Launching Complex Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…

  10. Selecting Proportional Reasoning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Cruz, Jessica A.

    2013-01-01

    With careful consideration given to task selection, students can construct their own solution strategies to solve complex proportional reasoning tasks while the teacher's instructional goals are still met. Several aspects of the tasks should be considered including their numerical structure, context, difficulty level, and the strategies they are…

  11. Task Time Tracker

    2013-07-24

    This client-side web app tracks the amount of time spent on arbitrary tasks. It allosw the creation of an unlimited number of arbitrarily named tasks ans via simple interactions, tracks the amount of time spent working on the drfined tasks.

  12. An Exploration of Academic Reading Proficiency at the University Level: A Cross-Sectional Study of 848 Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorzycki, Meg; Howard, Pamela; Allen, Diane; Desa, Geoffrey; Rosegard, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Academic reading proficiently is characterized by the ability to perform cognitive tasks associated with interpreting text. Researchers developed an externally validated Informal Academic Reading Proficiency Test to gauge undergraduates' academic reading proficiency. A cross-sectional study of 23 classes completed the reading test in 2014. This…

  13. The effects of breakfast on behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L.; Dye, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behavior, cognitive, and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic performance or in-class behavior is available. The literature was searched for articles published between 1950–2013 indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Pubmed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE databases, and PsychINFO. Thirty-six articles examining the effects of breakfast on in-class behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents were included. The effects of breakfast in different populations were considered, including undernourished or well-nourished children and adolescents from differing socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. The habitual and acute effects of breakfast and the effects of school breakfast programs (SBPs) were considered. The evidence indicated a mainly positive effect of breakfast on on-task behavior in the classroom. There was suggestive evidence that habitual breakfast (frequency and quality) and SBPs have a positive effect on children's academic performance with clearest effects on mathematic and arithmetic grades in undernourished children. Increased frequency of habitual breakfast was consistently positively associated with academic performance. Some evidence suggested that quality of habitual breakfast, in terms of providing a greater variety of food groups and adequate energy, was positively related to school performance. However, these associations can be attributed, in part, to confounders such as SES and to methodological weaknesses such as the subjective nature of the observations of behavior in class. PMID:23964220

  14. The effects of breakfast on behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Dye, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behavior, cognitive, and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic performance or in-class behavior is available. The literature was searched for articles published between 1950-2013 indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Pubmed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE databases, and PsychINFO. Thirty-six articles examining the effects of breakfast on in-class behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents were included. The effects of breakfast in different populations were considered, including undernourished or well-nourished children and adolescents from differing socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. The habitual and acute effects of breakfast and the effects of school breakfast programs (SBPs) were considered. The evidence indicated a mainly positive effect of breakfast on on-task behavior in the classroom. There was suggestive evidence that habitual breakfast (frequency and quality) and SBPs have a positive effect on children's academic performance with clearest effects on mathematic and arithmetic grades in undernourished children. Increased frequency of habitual breakfast was consistently positively associated with academic performance. Some evidence suggested that quality of habitual breakfast, in terms of providing a greater variety of food groups and adequate energy, was positively related to school performance. However, these associations can be attributed, in part, to confounders such as SES and to methodological weaknesses such as the subjective nature of the observations of behavior in class. PMID:23964220

  15. A Comparison of Computer-Based Bibliographic Database Searching vs. Manual Bibliographic Searching. Final CARE Grant Report #5964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Eileen E.; Rockman, Ilene F.

    The purpose of this study was to improve upon previous research investigations by analyzing the elements of cost effectiveness, precision, recall, citation overlap, and hours searching in a comparison between computerized database searching and manual searching, using the setting of an academic library environment with a diverse group of students…

  16. Source Evaluation, Comprehension, and Learning in Internet Science Inquiry Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Jennifer; Goldman, Susan R.; Graesser, Arthur C.; Sanchez, Christopher A.; Ash, Ivan K.; Hemmerich, Joshua A.

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments, undergraduates' evaluation and use of multiple Internet sources during a science inquiry task were examined. In Experiment 1, undergraduates had the task of explaining what caused the eruption of Mt. St. Helens using the results of an Internet search. Multiple regression analyses indicated that source evaluation significantly…

  17. The Academic Structure in Japan: Institutional Hierarchy and Academic Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arimoto, Akira

    The characteristics of the Japanese academic structure are examined with attention to the evolution of institutional hierarchy, the closed academic structure, and the effects of the academic structure upon academic research. The evolution of Japan's institutional hierarchy in academics has been tightly related to factors of nationalism,…

  18. Grid Task Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Chaumin

    2007-01-01

    IPG Execution Service is a framework that reliably executes complex jobs on a computational grid, and is part of the IPG service architecture designed to support location-independent computing. The new grid service enables users to describe the platform on which they need a job to run, which allows the service to locate the desired platform, configure it for the required application, and execute the job. After a job is submitted, users can monitor it through periodic notifications, or through queries. Each job consists of a set of tasks that performs actions such as executing applications and managing data. Each task is executed based on a starting condition that is an expression of the states of other tasks. This formulation allows tasks to be executed in parallel, and also allows a user to specify tasks to execute when other tasks succeed, fail, or are canceled. The two core components of the Execution Service are the Task Database, which stores tasks that have been submitted for execution, and the Task Manager, which executes tasks in the proper order, based on the user-specified starting conditions, and avoids overloading local and remote resources while executing tasks.

  19. Partnerships with Academic Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes how professional and continuing higher education units can develop and sustain successful partnerships with academic departments in order to deliver educational programs effectively to students.

  20. Ethics and academic integrity.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2015-01-01

    Academics from across the globe must navigate ever-increasing demands for research, practice, and educational productivity. With the increased demands, nurse faculty must choose value priorities and actions that reflect academic integrity. What does it mean to choose actions that reflect personal integrity in the academic arena? This article begins an important nursing philosophical and theoretical discussion that members and future members of the discipline of nursing must reflect upon and grapple with as they consider what it potentially means to act with straight thinking and integrity in academics. PMID:25520458

  1. Electronic media use, reading, and academic distractibility in college youth.

    PubMed

    Levine, Laura E; Waite, Bradley M; Bowman, Laura L

    2007-08-01

    Activities that require focused attention, such as reading, are declining among American youth, while activities that depend on multitasking, such as instant messaging (IMing), are increasing. We hypothesized that more time spent IMing would relate to greater difficulty in concentrating on less externally stimulating tasks (e.g., academic reading). As hypothesized, the amount of time that young people spent IMing was significantly related to higher ratings of distractibility for academic tasks, while amount of time spent reading books was negatively related to distractibility. The distracting nature and the context of IMing in this population are described. PMID:17711365

  2. Toward a cognitive task analysis for biomedical query mediation.

    PubMed

    Hruby, Gregory W; Cimino, James J; Patel, Vimla; Weng, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    In many institutions, data analysts use a Biomedical Query Mediation (BQM) process to facilitate data access for medical researchers. However, understanding of the BQM process is limited in the literature. To bridge this gap, we performed the initial steps of a cognitive task analysis using 31 BQM instances conducted between one analyst and 22 researchers in one academic department. We identified five top-level tasks, i.e., clarify research statement, explain clinical process, identify related data elements, locate EHR data element, and end BQM with either a database query or unmet, infeasible information needs, and 10 sub-tasks. We evaluated the BQM task model with seven data analysts from different clinical research institutions. Evaluators found all the tasks completely or semi-valid. This study contributes initial knowledge towards the development of a generalizable cognitive task representation for BQM. PMID:25954589

  3. Does the thinking aloud condition affect the search for pulmonary nodules?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlefair, Stephen; Brennan, Patrick; Reed, Warren; Williams, Mark; Pietrzyk, Mariusz W.

    2012-02-01

    Aim: To measure the effect of thinking aloud on perceptual accuracy and visual search behavior during chest radiograph interpretation for pulmonary nodules. Background: Thinking Aloud (TA) is an empirical research method used by researchers in cognitive psychology and behavioural analysis. In this pilot study we wanted to examine whether TA had an effect on the perceptual accuracy and search patterns of subjects looking for pulmonary nodules on adult posterioranterior chest radiographs (PA CxR). Method: Seven academics within Medical Radiation Sciences at The University of Sydney participated in two reading sessions with and without TA. Their task was to localize pulmonary nodules on 30 PA CxR using mouse clicks and rank their confidence levels of nodule presence. Eye-tracking recordings were collected during both viewing sessions. Time to first fixation, duration of first fixation, number of fixations, cumulative time of fixation and total viewing time were analysed. In addition, ROC analysis was conducted on collected outcome using DBM methodology. Results: Time to first nodule fixation was significantly longer (p=0.001) and duration of first fixation was significantly shorter (p=0.043). No significant difference was observed in ROC AUC scores between control and TA conditions. Conclusion: Our results confirm that TA has little effect on perceptual ability or performance, except for prolonging the task. However, there were significant differences in visual search behavior. Future researchers in radio-diagnosis could use the think aloud condition rather than silence so as to more closely replicate the clinical scenario.

  4. Female College Students' Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jennifer L; Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2013-09-01

    This longitudinal study describes women's media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heaviest. In general, media use was negatively associated with academic outcomes after controlling for prior academics and demographics. Exceptions were newspaper reading and music listening, which were positively associated with academic outcomes. There were significant indirect effects of magazine reading and social networking on GPA via academic behaviors, confidence, and problems. Results show that female college students are heavy users of new media, and that some forms of media use may adversely impact academic performance. PMID:24505554

  5. Female College Students’ Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study describes women’s media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heaviest. In general, media use was negatively associated with academic outcomes after controlling for prior academics and demographics. Exceptions were newspaper reading and music listening, which were positively associated with academic outcomes. There were significant indirect effects of magazine reading and social networking on GPA via academic behaviors, confidence, and problems. Results show that female college students are heavy users of new media, and that some forms of media use may adversely impact academic performance. PMID:24505554

  6. Improved task scheduling for parallel simulations. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    McNear, A.E.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of this investigation is to design, analyze, and validate the generation of optimal schedules for simulation systems. Improved performance in simulation execution times can greatly improve the return rate of information provided by such simulations resulting in reduced development costs of future computer/electronic systems. Optimal schedule generation of precedence-constrained task systems including iterative feedback systems such as VHDL or war gaming simulations for execution on a parallel computer is known to be N P-hard. Efficiently parallelizing such problems takes full advantage of present computer technology to achieve a significant reduction in the search times required. Unfortunately, the extreme combinatoric 'explosion' of possible task assignments to processors creates an exponential search space prohibitive on any computer for search algorithms which maintain more than one branch of the search graph at any one time. This work develops various parallel modified backtracking (MBT) search algorithms for execution on an iPSC/2 hypercube that bound the space requirements and produce an optimally minimum schedule with linear speed-up. The parallel MBT search algorithm is validated using various feedback task simulation systems which are scheduled for execution on an iPSC/2 hypercube. The search time, size of the enumerated search space, and communications overhead required to ensure efficient utilization during the parallel search process are analyzed. The various applications indicated appreciable improvement in performance using this method.

  7. Studying Orientations and Performance on Verbal Fluency Tasks in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Eleni; Andreou, Georgia; Vlachos, Filippos

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has shown that studying orientations are important factors in determining academic performance. The main purpose of this study was to investigate how Greek students' approaches to studying in combination with gender, academic discipline, and professional degree in English affect performance on verbal fluency tasks in English as a…

  8. The Effectiveness of Students Redrafting Continuous Assessment Tasks: The Pivotal Role of Tutors and Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Cecilia; Kane, Sandra; Lear, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve academic language competence, students in two academic literacy modules at the University of Johannesburg were given opportunities to resubmit continuous assessment tasks utilising tutor feedback to improve performance. Despite the potential benefits to the students, not all of them were taking advantage of this opportunity.…

  9. California Redefines Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trow, Martin A.

    2003-01-01

    In the spring of 2003, University of California President Richard Atkinson forwarded to the U.C. Academic Senate a proposed revision of the existing regulation bearing on how university teachers should treat contentious and disputed issues, both political and academic, in their classrooms. The existing regulation on this matter, APM-010, had been…

  10. Understanding Academic Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on the psychological theories of self-efficacy and the self-concept to understand students' self-confidence in academic study in higher education as measured by the Academic Behavioural Confidence scale (ABC). In doing this, expectancy-value theory and self-efficacy theory are considered and contrasted with self-concept and…

  11. The Academic Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chickering, Arthur W.

    This report shows the results of a questionnaire on academic experiences, administered to students at four different colleges. Included in the term "academic experiences" are such factors as mental activities in class and in studying for class, the role of the teacher, motivation for studying, feelings about courses, and patterns of work. Two main…

  12. Patterns of Academic Procrastination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Victor; Mensink, David; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Uses the Academic Procrastination Questionnaire to measure procrastination and six possible patterns underlying it among undergraduate students. Finds that the most common patterns for clients involved Evaluation Anxiety or being Discouraged/Depressed, or Dependent. Supports individualized assessment and solutions for academic procrastination. (SC)

  13. The Academic Dean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Lee H.

    1981-01-01

    The role of the academic dean, role conflicts, and the occupational experiences and performance of deans are considered. Role conflict for academic deans is related to clashing constituencies, role ambiguity, lack of correspondence between organization requirements and the personalities of incumbent deans, changing organizational needs over time,…

  14. The Academic Generation Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronzek, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The current generation gap in academia is different--fundamentally shaped by the structural problems of academic employment. The job market has especially exacerbated tensions between senior and junior faculty by ratcheting up expectations and requirements at every stage of the academic career. The disparities have been mentioned often enough to…

  15. Academic Libraries in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deale, H. Vail

    1973-01-01

    Iranian librarianship is in the embryonic stages of development, especially with respect to modern and functional academic libraries. In three major areas--personnel, resources, and physical facilities--the academic libraries are deficient compared with Western standards. (16 references) (Author)

  16. Understanding Academic Misconduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Julia M. Christensen; McCabe, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    Research suggests that the majority of U.S. undergraduate students have engaged in some form of misconduct while completing their academic work, despite knowing that such behaviour is ethically or morally wrong. U.S.-based studies have also identified myriad personal and institutional factors associated with academic misconduct. Implicit in some…

  17. Academic Freedom Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the author's enduring concerns about the concept of academic freedom is with semantics. It has seemed to him that one of the biggest difficulties with discussions of academic freedom (as with many conversations about "value-laden" terms such as "democracy," "equity," and "justice") is that people begin from different positions and with…

  18. Gender and Academic Integrity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendershott, Anne; Drinan, Patrick F.; Cross, Megan

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the academic integrity climate of a mid-sized, comprehensive, private university. Seeks to assess gender differences in motivations surrounding cheating behaviors among 532 undergraduate students. Findings indicate that while both males and females are reluctant to report instances of academic dishonesty that they witness, there…

  19. Academic and Vocational Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villeneuve, Phyllis, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This manual describes pilot projects designed to explore and support academic vocational integration. In conjunction with the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, FACTC (Faculty Association of Community and Technical Colleges) sponsored an array of pilot projects during the fall of 1995. Vocational and academic faculty from…

  20. Academic Freedom and Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a personal history of the author's own relationships with the concept of academic freedom. The article is subdivided into 3 prehistories, 7 incidents, 3 disjunctions, and 3 myths. The author discusses the complications of politics, culture, and academic freedom in one career.

  1. Academic Researchers Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergom, Inger; Waltman, Jean; August, Louise; Hollenshead, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Non-tenure-track (NTT) research faculty are perhaps the most under-recognized group of academic professionals on the campuses today, despite their increasingly important role within the expanding academic research enterprise. The American Association for the Advancement of Science reports that the amount of federal spending on R&D has more than…

  2. Reconceptualizing Academic Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vantine, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, more and more independent schools have established academic support programs and learning centers to address their students' individual learning needs. Perhaps not surprisingly, as the number of students being evaluated has increased, even more families have requested academic accommodations and services for their children.…

  3. Arbitration in Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Questions and issues critical to an understanding of arbitration in higher education are discussed. Aspects of the academic arbitration model are defined. The following four topics are examined: (1) the procedural similarities and differences between academic arbitration and the industrial model; (2) the possible inherent conflict between academic…

  4. Thinking Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis

    2016-01-01

    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  5. Recalibrating Academic Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yancey, George

    2012-01-01

    Whether political and/or religious academic bias exists is a question with important ramifications for the educational institutions. Those arguing for the presence of such bias contend that political conservatives and the highly religious in academia are marginalized and face discrimination. The question of academic bias tends to be cast in a…

  6. Confidential Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Linda Chion

    2003-01-01

    Will the stealth superintendent hunt in Cincinnati become tomorrow's standard approach? Search consultants and superintendents offer their views on how far confidentiality should go. Also includes a search firm's process for shielding identities and a confidentiality pledge. (MLF)

  7. Savvy Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacso, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Explains desktop metasearch engines, which search the databases of several search engines simultaneously. Reviews two particular versions, the Copernic 2001 Pro and the BullsEye Pro 3, comparing costs, subject categories, display capabilities, and layout for presenting results. (LRW)

  8. From I-Search to iSearch 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvey, Tara L.; Phillips, Nathan C.; Bigelow, Emily C.; Smith, Blaine E.; Pfaff, Erin; Colt, Walt; Leander, Kevin M.; Dalton, Bridget; Ma, Jasmine Y.

    2011-01-01

    This classroom narrative proposes a process for reinventing academic research and writing in secondary schools for the 21st Century. We build on Macrorie's (1988) I-Search paper, drawing on affordances of Web 2.0 technologies and culture, to initiate the iSearch 2.0 process. iSearch 2.0 consists of four phases: 1) messing about and trying on…

  9. Web Search Studies: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Web Search Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Michael

    Perhaps the most significant tool of our internet age is the web search engine, providing a powerful interface for accessing the vast amount of information available on the world wide web and beyond. While still in its infancy compared to the knowledge tools that precede it - such as the dictionary or encyclopedia - the impact of web search engines on society and culture has already received considerable attention from a variety of academic disciplines and perspectives. This article aims to organize a meta-discipline of “web search studies,” centered around a nucleus of major research on web search engines from five key perspectives: technical foundations and evaluations; transaction log analyses; user studies; political, ethical, and cultural critiques; and legal and policy analyses.

  10. Learning Styles and Performance in Second Language Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Eleni; Andreou, Georgia; Vlachos, Filippos

    2008-01-01

    Given the paucity of research that has examined associations between learning styles and chosen academic discipline in connection with performance on different second language (L2) verbal fluency tasks, the authors undertook the current study with the aim of investigating the relationship between Greek students' learning styles and performance on…

  11. Task Representation and Text Construction in Reading-to-Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Fei-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Students' interpretations of their academic writing tasks has been a central concern in the cognitive-based writing research due to the prominent role such decision-making plays in determining students' subsequent thinking and composing strategies and ultimately in shaping their textual quality. Without a comprehensive understanding of how L2…

  12. Getting Interpersonal on a University Entrance Exam Impromptu Writing Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myskow, Gordon; Gordon, Kana

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the types of audience engagement strategies used by a Japanese secondary school student in an after school course preparing for a high-stakes impromptu academic writing task on a university entrance exam. The study uses appraisal theory--the branch of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) concerned with the patterning of…

  13. Career Development Tasks of Mexican American Adolescents: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullington, Robin L.; Arbona, Consuelo

    2001-01-01

    Interviews of four academically successful Mexican American adolescents found them engaged in age-appropriate career development tasks according to Super's theory. Family and ethnicity influenced their educational and vocational aspirations in terms of awareness of ethnic identity, prejudice, and discrimination; however, they did not perceive…

  14. Task specificity of attention training: the case of probability cuing

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.; Won, Bo-Yeong; Cistera, Julia D.; Rosenbaum, Gail M.

    2014-01-01

    Statistical regularities in our environment enhance perception and modulate the allocation of spatial attention. Surprisingly little is known about how learning-induced changes in spatial attention transfer across tasks. In this study, we investigated whether a spatial attentional bias learned in one task transfers to another. Most of the experiments began with a training phase in which a search target was more likely to be located in one quadrant of the screen than in the other quadrants. An attentional bias toward the high-probability quadrant developed during training (probability cuing). In a subsequent, testing phase, the target's location distribution became random. In addition, the training and testing phases were based on different tasks. Probability cuing did not transfer between visual search and a foraging-like task. However, it did transfer between various types of visual search tasks that differed in stimuli and difficulty. These data suggest that different visual search tasks share a common and transferrable learned attentional bias. However, this bias is not shared by high-level, decision-making tasks such as foraging. PMID:25113853

  15. Suspicionless Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    In a federal case involving a vice-principal's pat-down search of middle-school students in a cafeteria (for a missing pizza knife), the court upheld the search, saying it was relatively unintrusive and met "TLO's" reasonable-suspicion standards. Principals need reasonable justification for searching a group. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)

  16. Dewey Searches!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity for young children that helps them conduct subject searches using an automated system that allows customization of access to a library's collection. Explains a timed game that makes use of subject searching and word searching on the topic of dinosaurs. (LRW)

  17. Analytical Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses analytical searching, a process that enables searchers of electronic resources to develop a planned strategy by combining words or phrases with Boolean operators. Defines simple and complex searching, and describes search strategies developed with Boolean logic and truncation. Provides guidelines for teaching students analytical…

  18. Partition search

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    We introduce a new form of game search called partition search that incorporates dependency analysis, allowing substantial reductions in the portion of the tree that needs to be expanded. Both theoretical results and experimental data are presented. For the game of bridge, partition search provides approximately as much of an improvement over existing methods as {alpha}-{beta} pruning provides over minimax.

  19. Sleep Deprivation and Time-on-Task Performance Decrement in the Rat Psychomotor Vigilance Task

    PubMed Central

    Oonk, Marcella; Davis, Christopher J.; Krueger, James M.; Wisor, Jonathan P.; Van Dongen, Hans P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The rat psychomotor vigilance task (rPVT) was developed as a rodent analog of the human psychomotor vigilance task (hPVT). We examined whether rPVT performance displays time-on-task effects similar to those observed on the hPVT. Design: The rPVT requires rats to respond to a randomly presented light stimulus to obtain a water reward. Rats were water deprived for 22 h prior to each 30-min rPVT session to motivate performance. We analyzed rPVT performance over time on task and as a function of the response-stimulus interval, at baseline and after sleep deprivation. Setting: The study was conducted in an academic research vivarium. Participants: Male Long-Evans rats were trained to respond to a 0.5 sec stimulus light within 3 sec of stimulus onset. Complete data were available for n = 20 rats. Interventions: Rats performed the rPVT for 30 min at baseline and after 24 h total sleep deprivation by gentle handling. Measurements and Results: Compared to baseline, sleep deprived rats displayed increased performance lapses and premature responses, similar to hPVT lapses of attention and false starts. However, in contrast to hPVT performance, the time-on-task performance decrement was not significantly enhanced by sleep deprivation. Moreover, following sleep deprivation, rPVT response times were not consistently increased after short response-stimulus intervals. Conclusions: The rat psychomotor vigilance task manifests similarities to the human psychomotor vigilance task in global performance outcomes, but not in post-sleep deprivation effects of time on task and response-stimulus interval. Citation: Oonk M, Davis CJ, Krueger JM, Wisor JP, Van Dongen HPA. Sleep deprivation and time-on-task performance decrement in the rat psychomotor vigilance task. SLEEP 2015;38(3):445–451. PMID:25515099

  20. The Ethical Academic: Academics as Public Intellectuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, American sociologist Robert Neelly Bellah (Bellah, et al., 1986: 303) critiqued the growing isolation of intellectuals within universities and called for a return to "social science as public philosophy." Little seems to have changed. My thirty-seven year experience at the University of Alberta suggests that academics see…

  1. Reengineering Academic Medical Centers: Reengineering Academic Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korn, David

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of academic medical centers (AMCs) looks at: change due to heavy federal funding in recent decades; adverse consequences, including deemphasis on education in favor of research and clinical service delivery, and discrepancies between AMC internal and external labor markets; and challenges to medical education in research, education, and…

  2. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  3. A Study of Science Education Positions, Search Process, and Hiring Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Germann, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze science education searches and hiring practices for faculty positions listed in The Chronicle of Higher Education for an academic year. Chairs of searches completed a survey about successful and unsuccessful searches. Over 70% of searches were successful in hiring new science education faculty with 33%…

  4. Specific-Token Effects in Screening Tasks: Possible Implications for Aviation Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Washburn, David A.; Taglialatela, Lauren A.

    2005-01-01

    Screeners at airport security checkpoints perform an important categorization task in which they search for threat items in complex x-ray images. But little is known about how the processes of categorization stand up to visual complexity. The authors filled this research gap with screening tasks in which participants searched for members of target…

  5. Salient and emerging developmental tasks in the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Roisman, Glenn I; Masten, Ann S; Coatsworth, J Douglas; Tellegen, Auke

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on data from a normative sample of 205 children tracked into adulthood, this study examined the predictive links from 3 salient (friendship, academic, conduct) and 2 emerging (work, romantic) developmental tasks during the transition years around age 20 to adult adaptation 10 years later. Results (a) confirm the utility of salient developmental tasks for predicting adult success, (b) suggest that emerging domains have limited long-term predictive significance, and (c) more generally support a view that developmental tasks follow a course through life of waxing and waning salience and organization that has implications for future adaptation. PMID:15015679

  6. NSI security task: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tencati, Ron

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Science Internet (NSI) security task. The task includes the following: policies and security documentation; risk analysis and management; computer emergency response team; incident handling; toolkit development; user consulting; and working groups, conferences, and committees.

  7. Debugging tasked Ada programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fainter, R. G.; Lindquist, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    The applications for which Ada was developed require distributed implementations of the language and extensive use of tasking facilities. Debugging and testing technology as it applies to parallel features of languages currently falls short of needs. Thus, the development of embedded systems using Ada pose special challenges to the software engineer. Techniques for distributing Ada programs, support for simulating distributed target machines, testing facilities for tasked programs, and debugging support applicable to simulated and to real targets all need to be addressed. A technique is presented for debugging Ada programs that use tasking and it describes a debugger, called AdaTAD, to support the technique. The debugging technique is presented together with the use interface to AdaTAD. The component of AdaTAD that monitors and controls communication among tasks was designed in Ada and is presented through an example with a simple tasked program.

  8. Task Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  9. Assessment of Academic Literacy Skills: Preparing Minority and LEP (Limited English Proficient) Students for Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehn, Phyllis

    Addressing the problem of the language-related barriers to successful postsecondary education for underprepared college students, an assessment of academic language proficiency and a curriculum to help students improve their academic language skills were developed. The nature of the language tasks required in the undergraduate curriculum was…

  10. College and Academic Self-Efficacy as Antecedents for High School Dual-Credit Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmun, Cliff D.

    2013-01-01

    Do high school students who are predisposed to enroll in dual-credit courses already possess high levels of motivation or college and academic self-efficacy? Students in this study reported being academically motivated, but they did not report high levels of confidence in their ability to perform certain college-associated tasks. Of 52 items…

  11. Academics in CTE Programs: Fully Preparing Students for Their Next Step

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacQuarrie, David L.

    2008-01-01

    An echo can often be heard in career and technical education (CTE) hallways, "How am I going to fit academic skills into this program." They have a choice! They could pick up a math or English book and start selecting something to separately add in. Perhaps an academic consultant could be tapped to separately add to the task list. Another option…

  12. Writing for the World: Wikipedia as an Introduction to Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tardy, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    As students move from writing personal essays to writing formal academic texts in English, they face several new challenges. Writing tasks in higher education often require students to draw upon outside sources and to adopt the styles and genres of academic discourse. They must conduct research, summarize and paraphrase, cite sources, adopt genre…

  13. Developing Academic Self-Efficacy: Strategies to Support Gifted Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Self-efficacy is the belief in one's capacity to perform and accomplish goals. Specifically, academic self-efficacy refers to a student's perception of their ability to engage and successfully complete academic tasks. Self-efficacy affects students' behavioral choices, motivation, thought patterns and responses, perception of control, and…

  14. Can Low-Cost Support Programmes with Coaching Accelerate Doctoral Completion in Health Science Faculty Academics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Hilary; Bentley, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Career development for full-time Health Sciences academics through to doctoral studies is a monumental task. Many academics have difficulty completing their studies in the minimum time as well as publishing after obtaining their degree. As this problem is particularly acute in the Health Sciences, the PhD Acceleration Programme in Health Sciences…

  15. Persistence in the Face of Academic Challenge for Economically Disadvantaged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined persistence in the face of academic challenge for economically disadvantaged children. Participants included 103 children attending Head Start preschools, as well as their caregivers and teachers. Child tasks measured persistence in the face of academic challenge as well as emergent implicit theories of intelligence. Caregiver…

  16. Anti-Intellectual Attitudes and Academic Self-Efficacy among Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Rafik Z.

    2008-01-01

    "Anti-intellectualism" refers to a student's lack of interest in and disrespect for intellectual pursuits and critical thinking and a preference for an education experience that is practical and requires only memorization. "Academic self-efficacy" refers to a student's confidence in his or her ability to succeed in challenging academic tasks. The…

  17. Beyond Text Queries and Ranked Lists: Faceted Search in Library Catalogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Since the adoption of faceted search in a small number of academic libraries in 2006, faceted library catalogs have gained popularity in many academic and public libraries. This dissertation seeks to understand whether faceted search improves the interactions between searchers and library catalogs and to understand ways that facets are used in…

  18. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem. PMID:26817556

  19. An Academic Curriculum Will Close the Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa

    2012-01-01

    America's unyielding academic achievement gap has been a national priority for a long time; yet, some schools have succeeded with academically disadvantaged youth. Usually, these institutions embrace a culture of success and follow an academic curriculum that is grounded in core knowledge and scholastic vocabulary. Academically disadvantaged…

  20. Academic Capitalism and Academic Culture: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Pilar; Berger, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    This case study investigated the impact of academic capitalism on academic culture by examining the perspectives of faculty members in an American academic department with significant industrial funding. The results of this study indicate that faculty members believe that the broad integrity of the academic culture remains unaffected in this…

  1. Career Choice in Academic Medicine: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Straus, Sharon E; Straus, Christine; Tzanetos, Katina

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To review systematically the evidence about what factors influence the decision to choose or not choose a career in academic medicine. DESIGN A systematic review of relevant literature from 1990 to May 2005. DATA SOURCES Searches of The Cochrane Library, Medline (using Ovid and PubMed) from 1990 to May 2005, and EMBASE from 1990 to May 2005 were completed to identify relevant studies that explored the influential factors. Additional articles were identified from searching the bibliographies of retrieved articles. SELECTION OF STUDIES We attempted to identify studies that included residents, fellows, or staff physicians. No restrictions were placed on the study methodologies identified and all articles presenting empirical evidence were retrieved. For cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies, minimum inclusion criteria were the presence of defined groups, and the ability to extract relevant data. For surveys that involved case series, minimum inclusion criteria were a description of the population, and the availability of extractable data. Minimum inclusion criteria for qualitative studies were descriptions of the sampling strategy and methods. RESULTS The search identified 251 abstracts; 25 articles were included in this review. Completion of an MD with a graduate degree or fellowship program is associated with a career in academic medicine. Of the articles identified in this review, this finding is supported by the highest quality of evidence. Similarly, the completion of research and publication of this research in medical school and residency are associated with a career in academic medicine. The desire to teach, conduct research, and the intellectual stimulation and challenge provided in academia may also persuade people to choose this career path. The influence of a role model or a mentor was reported by physicians to impact their decision making. Trainees' interest in academic medicine wanes as they progress through their residency

  2. Save Searching Time with Google Shortcuts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Holly

    2005-01-01

    One can obtain definitions and perform calculations, conversions, and a variety of other tasks on the Google search bar. The most useful shortcut for most Web searchers is Google's definitions. The ability to obtain definitions from Google without reaching for a dictionary or searching a dictionary web site is very helpful when reading technical…

  3. The Resilience of Recently Graduated and Unemployed Dutch Academics in Coping with the Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker, Jeroen J. H.; Amsing, Hilda T. A.; Hahurij, Lisa; Wichgers, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Some years after the world-wide crisis starting in 2008, also many recently graduated Dutch academics were confronted with the problem of how to cope with getting a job. This article focuses on the coping strategies they use when searching after a job, spending the day, and coping with limited financial means. 91 graduated academics completed a…

  4. An Exploratory Study of the Academic Resume and Employment Interview Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Earl E.; Mrozla, Bridget A.

    A study examined the academic hiring process from the perspectives of department heads, search committee members, and newly hired faculty. Respondents, 349 academic professionals at a large university in the Midwest, completed a questionnaire developed for the study to determine (1) the importance and ordering of information categories on academic…

  5. The Internet as a Source of Academic Research Information: Findings of Two Pilot Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibirige, Harry M.; DePalo, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of information available on the Internet focuses on two pilot studies that investigated how academic users perceive search engines and subject-oriented databases as sources of topical information. Highlights include information seeking behavior of academic users; undergraduate users; graduate users; faculty; and implications for…

  6. Longitudinal analysis of the effect of academic failure tolerance on academic achievement fluctuation in medical school students

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Su Jin; Kim, Miran; Chang, Ki Hong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Academic failure tolerance (AFT) is one of the important psychological concepts in education, but its applications in medical education are rare. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of academic failure tolerance on academic achievement fluctuation among medical school students using a longitudinal research design. Methods: The subjects were 43 medical students who responded to the AFT test. This study analyzed the longitudinal data of achievement scores up to the 2nd academic year (2012–2013) among students who were divided into academic achievement improvement and decline groups. Results: Comparing the improvement and decline groups’ mean academic achievement fluctuation scores demonstrated that behavior and preferred task difficulty showed high scores whereas feeling scores were lower in the improvement group (p<0.05). Conclusion: In the improvement group, despite the higher negative feeling scores during academic failure, the students favored the more difficult subjects and were more assiduous in their studies. This will form an important basis for enhancing academic achievement among medical students. PMID:26838565

  7. Learning one task by interleaving practice with another task

    PubMed Central

    Szpiro, Sarit; Wright, Beverly A.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual learning is a sustainable improvement in performance on a perceptual task following training. A hallmark of perceptual learning is task specificity – after participants have trained on and learned a particular task, learning rarely transfers to another task, even with identical stimuli. Accordingly, it is assumed that performing a task throughout training is a requirement for learning to occur on that specific task. Thus, interleaving training trials of a target task, with those of another task, should not improve performance on the target task. However, recent findings in audition show that interleaving two tasks during training can facilitate perceptual learning, even when the training on neither task yields learning on its own. Here we examined the role of cross-task training in the visual domain by training 4 groups of human observers for 3 consecutive days on an orientation comparison task (target task) and/or spatial-frequency comparison task (interleaving task). Interleaving small amounts of training on each task, which were ineffective alone, not only enabled learning on the target orientation task, as in audition, but also surpassed the learning attained by training on that task alone for the same total number of trials. This study illustrates that cross-task training in visual perceptual learning can be more effective than single-task training. The results reveal a comparable learning principle across modalities and demonstrate how to optimize training regimens to maximize perceptual learning. PMID:24959653

  8. Independent task Fourier filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2001-11-01

    Since the early 1960s, a major part of optical computing systems has been Fourier pattern recognition, which takes advantage of high speed filter changes to enable powerful nonlinear discrimination in `real time.' Because filter has a task quite independent of the tasks of the other filters, they can be applied and evaluated in parallel or, in a simple approach I describe, in sequence very rapidly. Thus I use the name ITFF (independent task Fourier filter). These filters can also break very complex discrimination tasks into easily handled parts, so the wonderful space invariance properties of Fourier filtering need not be sacrificed to achieve high discrimination and good generalizability even for ultracomplex discrimination problems. The training procedure proceeds sequentially, as the task for a given filter is defined a posteriori by declaring it to be the discrimination of particular members of set A from all members of set B with sufficient margin. That is, we set the threshold to achieve the desired margin and note the A members discriminated by that threshold. Discriminating those A members from all members of B becomes the task of that filter. Those A members are then removed from the set A, so no other filter will be asked to perform that already accomplished task.

  9. Academics explore humidity's benefits.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Dave

    2008-11-01

    The effects of humidification on hospital superbugs are being explored by some of the UK's top academics, in what Dave Mortimer, national sales manager for Vapac Humidity Control, explains are the UK's first such studies. PMID:19044148

  10. Women in Academic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Thibault, George E

    2016-08-01

    More than a decade ago, women achieved parity with men in the number of matriculants to medical school, nearly one-third of the faculty of medical schools were women, and there were some women deans and department chairs. These trends were promising, but today there are still significant differences in pay, academic rank, and leadership positions for women compared with men in academic medicine. Though there has been progress in many areas, the progress is too slow to achieve previously recommended goals, such as 50% women department chairs by 2025 and 50% women deans by 2030.The author points to the findings presented in the articles from the Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers in this issue, as well as research being published elsewhere, as an evidence base for the ongoing discussion of gender equity in academic medicine. More attention to culture and the working environment will be needed to achieve true parity for women in academic medical careers. PMID:27306968

  11. Academic Bankruptcy by Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Arthur D.

    1986-01-01

    The advantages and requirements for offering a second chance to students who have failed, by forgiving a poor academic record, are discussed and supported by findings from a survey of institutions and the results of several experimental programs. (MSE)

  12. Evidence-based Medicine Search: a customizable federated search engine

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, Paul J.; Howse, David K.; Keim, Samuel M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports on the development of a tool by the Arizona Health Sciences Library (AHSL) for searching clinical evidence that can be customized for different user groups. Brief Description: The AHSL provides services to the University of Arizona's (UA's) health sciences programs and to the University Medical Center. Librarians at AHSL collaborated with UA College of Medicine faculty to create an innovative search engine, Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) Search, that provides users with a simple search interface to EBM resources and presents results organized according to an evidence pyramid. EBM Search was developed with a web-based configuration component that allows the tool to be customized for different specialties. Outcomes/Conclusion: Informal and anecdotal feedback from physicians indicates that EBM Search is a useful tool with potential in teaching evidence-based decision making. While formal evaluation is still being planned, a tool such as EBM Search, which can be configured for specific user populations, may help lower barriers to information resources in an academic health sciences center. PMID:18379665

  13. Psychological Issues in Online Adaptive Task Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, N. M.; Rouse, W. B.; Ward, S. L.; Frey, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Adaptive aiding is an idea that offers potential for improvement over many current approaches to aiding in human-computer systems. The expected return of tailoring the system to fit the user could be in the form of improved system performance and/or increased user satisfaction. Issues such as the manner in which information is shared between human and computer, the appropriate division of labor between them, and the level of autonomy of the aid are explored. A simulated visual search task was developed. Subjects are required to identify targets in a moving display while performing a compensatory sub-critical tracking task. By manipulating characteristics of the situation such as imposed task-related workload and effort required to communicate with the computer, it is possible to create conditions in which interaction with the computer would be more or less desirable. The results of preliminary research using this experimental scenario are presented, and future directions for this research effort are discussed.

  14. An Academic Integrity Approach to Learning and Assessment Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Margaret; Richardson, Joan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the role of the educator in terms of designing a learning environment for the student which encourages the student to develop their own academic integrity. In such an environment, there is no need for the student to resort to plagiarism, as the learning and assessment tasks are not conducive to cheating, being unique and…

  15. Academic Procrastination Prevention/Intervention: Strategies and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachgal, Mera M.; Hansen, L. Sunny; Nutter, Kevin J.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a study of students in a college study skills course who self-reported procrastination in three critical tasks: studying for exams, writing term papers, and keeping up with weekly reading. Reports that procrastination scores were positively correlated with number of perceived barriers to academic success, including problems with time…

  16. Academic Procrastination: Frequency and Cognitive-Behavioral Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Laura J.; Rothblum, Esther D.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the frequency of and reasons for college students' (N=342) procrastination on academic tasks. A high percentage of students reported problems with procrastination. Results indicated that procrastination is not solely a deficit in study habits or time management but involves a complex interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and affective…

  17. Third Graders' Performance Predictions: Calibration Deflections and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ots, Aivar

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on third grade pupils' (9 to 10 years old) ability to predict their performance in a given task and on the correspondence between the accuracy and adequacy of the predictions on the one hand, and the academic achievement on the other. The study involved 713 pupils from 29 Estonian schools. The pupils' performance predictions…

  18. Applied Academic & Workplace Skills for Collision Repair & Refinish Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation, Herndon, VA.

    This task list of workplace skills for collision repair and refinish technicians resulted from grant from the U.S. Department of Education to the National Automotive Technician Education Foundation (NATEF) of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence. The skills list is integrated with academic skills. This document lists the…

  19. Strengthening the Teaching Self-Efficacy of Early Career Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian Colin

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study exploring teaching self-efficacy (defined as a belief in capability to execute teaching-related tasks) in a higher education context. It is based on the views of 12 early career academics (ECAs) employed at Charles Sturt University who were interviewed to learn more about how their teaching self-efficacy…

  20. Causal Discourse Analyzer: Improving Automated Feedback on Academic ESL Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chukharev-Hudilainen, Evgeny; Saricaoglu, Aysel

    2016-01-01

    Expressing causal relations plays a central role in academic writing. While it is important that writing instructors assess and provide feedback on learners' causal discourse, it could be a very time-consuming task. In this respect, automated writing evaluation (AWE) tools may be helpful. However, to date, there have been no AWE tools capable of…

  1. Wisconsin's Model Academic Standards for Business. Bulletin No. 9004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This document contains standards for the academic content of the Wisconsin K-12 curriculum in the area of business. Developed by task forces of educators, parents, board of education members, and employers and employees, the standards cover content, performance, and proficiency areas. They are cross-referenced to the state standards for English…

  2. Wisconsin's Model Academic Standards for Marketing Education. Bulletin No. 9005.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This document contains standards for the academic content of the Wisconsin K-12 curriculum in the area of marketing education. Developed by task forces of educators, parents, board of education members, and employers and employees, the standards cover content, performance, and proficiency areas. The first part of the guide is an introduction that…

  3. New Technologies, New Approaches to Evaluating Academic Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Peter J.; West, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Technology has enabled a proliferation of publication venues for disseminating academic work. The task of evaluating the relative quality of each of these venues is simultaneously exacerbated and resolved by the use of new technologies. In this article, the authors propose a three-pronged framework for evaluating the quality of scholarly work that…

  4. Is preschool executive function causally related to academic achievement?

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Michael T; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Voegler-Lee, Mary E

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to reevaluate the well-established result that preschoolers' performance on executive function tasks are positively associated with their performance on academic achievement tests. The current study replicated the previously established concurrent associations between children's performance on EF tasks and academic achievement tests. Specifically, children's performance on measures of inhibitory and motor control were positively associated with their performance on tests of reading, writing, and mathematics achievement (rs = .2-.5); moreover, although diminished in magnitude, most of these associations held up even after including an earlier measure of academic achievement as a covariate (rs = .1-.3). However, the application of an alternative analytic method, fixed effects analysis, a method that capitalizes on repeated measures data to control for all time stable measured and unmeasured covariates, rendered the apparent positive associations between executive function and academic achievement nonsignificant (rs = .0-.1). Taken together, these results suggest that the well-replicated association between executive function abilities and academic achievement may be spurious. Results are discussed with respect to the importance of utilizing analytic methods and research designs that facilitate strong causal inferences between executive function and academic achievement in early childhood, as well as the limitations of making curriculum development recommendations and/or public policy decisions based on studies that have failed to do so. PMID:21707258

  5. Perspectives on academic dishonesty.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, M J; Lowenstein, A J

    1990-01-01

    Academic dishonest behaviors, such as lying, cheating, and plagiarism, are destructive and must be recognized and addressed early in the development of professional nurses. Faculty must be concerned with the relationship between student integrity in the classroom and clinical or professional behaviors. The authors discuss student motivation and attitudes toward unethical practices, faculty responses, and responsibilities when these incidents arise, and strategies for preventing academic dishonesty. PMID:2216065

  6. The Rewards of Academic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies of academic leadership confirm what many academic leaders know from personal experience: academic leadership is a complex and demanding role with significant stress and high burnout and turnover rates (Brown, 2002; Brown and Moshavi, 2002). In the light of these issues, an exploration of the nature of academic leadership and its…

  7. Academic Freedom and Organisational Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes prominent current arguments on academic freedom's endangerment by managerialism and discusses their limitations. Defines a new vision of academic freedom informed by thinking on globalization. Presents findings from interviews with Australian faculty about academic freedom and discusses ways to ensure that academic freedom endures in…

  8. The Scholarship of Academic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggins, Heather, Ed.; Macdonald, Ranald, Ed.

    The selections in this book address the concept and nature of academic development and examine research into and within the field. Following an introduction, "Developing a Scholarship of Academic Development: Setting the Context," by Ranald Macdonald, the chapters of part 1, "Conceptualizing Academic Development," are: (2) "Academic Development: A…

  9. Academic Writing and Tacit Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elton, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    The genre of academic writing is discipline dependent, so that neither specialists in academic writing nor practising academics in a discipline can, independently of each other, provide students with the necessary help to develop the ability to write in their academic disciplines. Furthermore, the rules are largely tacit, i.e. they are not…

  10. Reconsidering Visual Search

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The visual search paradigm has had an enormous impact in many fields. A theme running through this literature has been the distinction between preattentive and attentive processing, which I refer to as the two-stage assumption. Under this assumption, slopes of set-size and response time are used to determine whether attention is needed for a given task or not. Even though a lot of findings question this two-stage assumption, it still has enormous influence, determining decisions on whether papers are published or research funded. The results described here show that the two-stage assumption leads to very different conclusions about the operation of attention for identical search tasks based only on changes in response (presence/absence versus Go/No-go responses). Slopes are therefore an ambiguous measure of attentional involvement. Overall, the results suggest that the two-stage model cannot explain all findings on visual search, and they highlight how slopes of response time and set-size should only be used with caution. PMID:27551357

  11. Comprehension-Level Tasks in Secondary Classrooms. R&D Rep. 6199.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Julie P.

    This study examined the conduct of academic tasks in six secondary classrooms, focusing specifically on assigments requiring some higher level cognitive operations, with attention to how management strategies and classroom conditions associated with these assignments affect their cognitive demands on students. Analysis of tasks in these six…

  12. Task Force on Education Funding Equity, Accountability, and Partnerships. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Legislative Services, Annapolis.

    In 1997, Maryland formed the Task Force on Education Funding Equity, Accountability, and Partnerships to ensure that students throughout Maryland have an equal opportunity for academic success. The Task Force's preliminary report features a comprehensive review of education funding and programs in grades K-12. The report presents membership and…

  13. Effects of a Breakfast Program on On-Task Behaviors of Vocational High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bro, Robert T.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined whether an in-school breakfast program could increase on-task behaviors of 18 high school students. Vocational and academic students participated in the program and completed surveys. Teachers collected observational data. Results indicated that the program effectively increased on-task behaviors in both settings, and that…

  14. Complexity in Student Writing: The Relationship between the Task and Vocabulary Uptake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolsey, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive flexibility theory posits that some tasks or cognitive activities resist oversimplification, a lens through which the present study is cast. High school writing tasks that promote complex thinking may also promote increased uptake of academic vocabulary. The study described in this article demonstrates how essential questions and other…

  15. Interaction between Task Values and Self-Efficacy on Maladaptive Achievement Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeesoo; Bong, Mimi; Kim, Sung-il

    2014-01-01

    We tested the interaction between task value and self-efficacy on defensive pessimism, academic cheating, procrastination and self-handicapping among 574 Korean 11th graders in the context of English as a foreign language. We hypothesised that perceiving high value in tasks or domains for which self-efficacy was low would pose a threat to…

  16. Students' Metacognitive Response to Ambiguous Literacy Tasks: Metacognitive Response to Ambiguity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruddell, Martha Rapp-Haggard

    A study examined students' metacognitive response to ambiguous literacy tasks to determine the relationship between that response and academic achievement. Subjects were 11 students chosen from a fifth-grade classroom in a small, urban school serving a predominantly black, middle class neighborhood. Two literacy tasks were identified as ambiguous:…

  17. Second Language Writers' Strategy Use and Performance on an Integrated Reading-Listening-Writing Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hui-Chun; Plakans, Lia

    2012-01-01

    Integrated writing tasks that involve different language modalities such as reading and listening have increasingly been used as means to assess academic writing. Thus, there is a need for understanding how test-takers coordinate different skills to complete these tasks. This study explored second language writers' strategy use and its…

  18. Cognitive tasks in information analysis: Use of event dwell time to characterize component activities

    SciTech Connect

    Sanquist, Thomas F.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Slavich, Antoinette L.; Littlefield, Rik J.; Littlefield, Janis S.; Cowley, Paula J.

    2004-09-28

    Technology-based enhancement of information analysis requires a detailed understanding of the cognitive tasks involved in the process. The information search and report production tasks of the information analysis process were investigated through evaluation of time-stamped workstation data gathered with custom software. Model tasks simulated the search and production activities, and a sample of actual analyst data were also evaluated. Task event durations were calculated on the basis of millisecond-level time stamps, and distributions were plotted for analysis. The data indicate that task event time shows a cyclic pattern of variation, with shorter event durations (< 2 sec) reflecting information search and filtering, and longer event durations (> 10 sec) reflecting information evaluation. Application of cognitive principles to the interpretation of task event time data provides a basis for developing “cognitive signatures” of complex activities, and can facilitate the development of technology aids for information intensive tasks.

  19. Attentional Requirements on Feature Search Are Modulated by Stimulus Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ettwig, Janne F.; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W.

    2013-01-01

    We report a series of dual-task experiments, in which a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task was combined with a visual search task. Orientation, motion, and color were used as the defining target features in the search task. Lag between target onsets was manipulated and interference between the two tasks was quantified by measuring detection scores for the search task as a function of lag. While simultaneous performance of an orientation detection task with an RSVP letter identification task resulted in a performance decrease for lags up to 320 ms, no such decrease was detected for highly salient motion- and color-defined targets. Subsequently, detectability of the motion and color feature was matched to that of the orientation-feature resulting in the reintroduction of a (smaller) performance decrease, but only during simultaneous performance (lag 0 ms). The results suggest that there are two causes for the impaired search performance occurring when a feature search task is combined with an RSVP task. The first is short-lasting interference probably due to attentional competition; the second, which plays a role only when targets for both tasks share features, is interference that may be attributed to a central processing bottleneck. PMID:23308145

  20. Exploring academic procrastination among Turkish students: possible gender differences in prevalence and reasons.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan; Ferrari, Joseph R

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined the prevalence of and reasons, or excuses, for academic procrastination as a function of gender and academic grade level. In Study 1, a factor analysis of responses by 203 Turkish undergraduate students to an academic procrastination measure provided evidence of reliability and validity for the revised scale. In Study 2,784 students (363 women, 421 men; M age = 20.6 years, SD age = 1.74 years) completed the validated Turkish Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students. The results were that 52% of students self-reported frequent academic procrastination, with male students reporting more frequent procrastination on academic tasks than female students. Significantly more female students than male students reported greater academic procrastination because of fear of failure and laziness; male students reported more academic procrastination as a result of risk taking and rebellion against control than did female students. PMID:19425360

  1. An Exploration into the Influence of Academic and Social Values, Procrastination, and Perceived School Belongingness on Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Gary J.; Tuckman, Bruce W.

    2013-01-01

    The results of a structural equation model showed that a tendency to procrastinate, assessed early in college students' first term, was positively related to social values, assessed as concerns over social exclusion, but was negatively related to academic task values and grade goal-setting. The results suggest that procrastination may be a…

  2. Maintaining Academic Integrity in On-Line Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heberling, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of academic cheating and plagiarism focuses on occurrences in online courses, based on experiences at Baker College (Michigan). Highlights include tools to fight plagiarism; using search engines to detect plagiarism; digital paper mills; plagiarism detection companies; and the role of administrators and faculty. (LRW)

  3. Social, Mental, Academic and Physical Development in Groups Doing Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nas, Kazim; Temel, Veysel; Akpinar, Selahattin; Akpinar, Oznur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show whether sport has an effect on education/academic success and social, mental and physical development or not. The search involves 160 students studying at Physical Education and Sports High School at Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University. Graded quintet likert type questionnaire was used as a measuring means. The first…

  4. Building research productivity in an academic setting.

    PubMed

    Conn, Vicki S; Porter, Rose T; McDaniel, Roxanne W; Rantz, Marilyn J; Maas, Meridean L

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the methods that one academic nursing unit used to move from receiving no National Institutes of Health funding to a top-20 ranking. A 1995 school task force recommended changes to move toward greater research productivity, including increased external funding. The school created a research infrastructure to support both the scientific development of research studies and the production of high-quality external grant applications. Barriers to research productivity were successfully managed. The research culture dramatically changed to emphasize innovation, autonomy, peer support and review, long-term investment in research productivity, penetration of research throughout school activities, and public display of research accomplishments. Academic nursing units can develop research cultures to support meaningful research that secures major external funding. PMID:16226566

  5. Data analysis tasks: BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1993-01-01

    Miscellaneous tasks related to the operation of, and analysis of data from, the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

  6. Searching and Planning: Young Children's Reasoning about Past and Future Event Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColgan, Kerry L.; McCormack, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Six experiments examined children's ability to make inferences using temporal order information. Children completed versions of a task involving a toy zoo; one version required reasoning about past events (search task) and the other required reasoning about future events (planning task). Children younger than 5 years failed both the search and the…

  7. Response Selection in Visual Search: The Influence of Response Compatibility of Nontargets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starreveld, Peter A.; Theeuwes, Jan; Mortier, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The authors used visual search tasks in which components of the classic flanker task (B. A. Eriksen & C. W. Eriksen, 1974) were introduced. In several experiments the authors obtained evidence of parallel search for a target among distractor elements. Therefore, 2-stage models of visual search predict no effect of the identity of those…

  8. HOW DO RADIOLOGISTS USE THE HUMAN SEARCH ENGINE?

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jeremy M; Evans, Karla K; Drew, Trafton; Aizenman, Avigael; Josephs, Emilie

    2016-06-01

    Radiologists perform many 'visual search tasks' in which they look for one or more instances of one or more types of target item in a medical image (e.g. cancer screening). To understand and improve how radiologists do such tasks, it must be understood how the human 'search engine' works. This article briefly reviews some of the relevant work into this aspect of medical image perception. Questions include how attention and the eyes are guided in radiologic search? How is global (image-wide) information used in search? How might properties of human vision and human cognition lead to errors in radiologic search? PMID:26656078

  9. Mapping the Academic Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study possessed two aims: (1) to develop and validate aclinician -friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with ADHD and (2) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Method Within a sample of 324 adolescents with DSM-IV-TR diagnosed ADHD (age M=13.07, SD=1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, inter-rater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Results Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Conclusions Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth. PMID:24933215

  10. Mapping the academic problem behaviors of adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Margaret H; Altszuler, Amy R; Morrow, Anne S; Merrill, Brittany M

    2014-12-01

    This study possessed 2 aims: (a) to develop and validate a clinician-friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (b) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Within a sample of 324 adolescents with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision diagnosed ADHD (age M = 13.07, SD = 1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, interrater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth. PMID:24933215

  11. Self-Efficacy's Influence on Student Academic Achievement in the Medical Anatomy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoon, Jennifer Marie; Meece, Judith L.; Granger, Noelle A.

    2012-01-01

    Self-efficacy is defined as a person's beliefs in his or her own abilities to successfully complete a task and has been shown to influence student motivation and academic behaviors. More specifically, anatomical self-efficacy is defined as an individual's judgment of his or her ability to successfully complete tasks related to the anatomy…

  12. The Antecedents and Consequences of Academic Excuse-Making: Examining Individual Differences in Procrastination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Keane, Sabrina M.; Wolfe, Raymond N.; Beck, Brett L.

    1998-01-01

    Study of students (n=546) from two colleges found selective college students procrastinated more. Academic procrastination was motivated by task aversion at selective college, by fear of task failure at nonselective college. Nonselective college procrastinators more often used both legitimate and nonlegitimate excuses. Excuses were self-generated…

  13. A Time Lag Analysis of Temporal Relations between Motivation, Academic Achievement, and Two Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Monica R.; Pasnak, Robert; Romero, Sandy L.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study employed a time lag design to assess temporal relationships between motivation, academic achievement, and cognitive development. Eighty-one children from 2 preschool programs were measured twice, with an 11-week time lag, on 2 measures of motivation (marble drop task, bean bag toss task), 2 measures of…

  14. Undergraduate Students' Justifications for Source Selection in a Digital Academic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    List, Alexandra; Grossnickle, Emily M.; Alexander, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    To complete any academic tasks using information from the Internet, undergraduate students first have to select the appropriate sources. However, the types of justifications that undergraduates provide for source selection and how these justifications may be impacted by task characteristics have been underexamined. This study explored…

  15. The Relationships among Students' Commitment, Self-Esteem, Organisational Citizenship Behaviour and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaola, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most important dependent variables in education and work research, performance has been operationalised either as the proficiency with which core tasks are performed (task performance), or as extra-role behaviours that support core activities (organisational citizenship behaviours). Relative to academic performance (core academic…

  16. Distributed search engine architecture based on topic specific searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abudaqqa, Yousra; Patel, Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Indisputably, search engines (SEs) abound. The monumental growth of users performing online searches on the Web is a contending issue in the contemporary world nowadays. For example, there are tens of billions of searches performed everyday, which typically offer the users many irrelevant results which are time consuming and costly to the user. Based on the afore-going problem it has become a herculean task for existing Web SEs to provide complete, relevant and up-to-date information response to users' search queries. To overcome this problem, we developed the Distributed Search Engine Architecture (DSEA), which is a new means of smart information query and retrieval of the World Wide Web (WWW). In DSEAs, multiple autonomous search engines, owned by different organizations or individuals, cooperate and act as a single search engine. This paper includes the work reported in this research focusing on development of DSEA, based on topic-specific specialised search engines. In DSEA, the results to specific queries could be provided by any of the participating search engines, for which the user is unaware of. The important design goal of using topic-specific search engines in the research is to build systems that can effectively be used by larger number of users simultaneously. Efficient and effective usage with good response is important, because it involves leveraging the vast amount of searched data from the World Wide Web, by categorising it into condensed focused topic -specific results that meet the user's queries. This design model and the development of the DSEA adopt a Service Directory (SD) to route queries towards topic-specific document hosting SEs. It displays the most acceptable performance which is consistent with the requirements of the users. The evaluation results of the model return a very high priority score which is associated with each frequency of a keyword.

  17. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xi; Tian, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture…

  18. Task Switching in a Hierarchical Task Structure: Evidence for the Fragility of the Task Repetition Benefit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms.…

  19. A Further Search for Social Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Martin E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    1983-01-01

    A behavioral effectiveness criterion was employed to conceptually and operationally define social intelligence. Using Keating's "A Search for Social Intelligence" as a methodological model, the present study examined four measures of academic intelligence and six measures of social intelligence using three different correlational procedures.…

  20. Talent Search. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Talent Search" aims to help low-income and first-generation college students (those whose parents do not have four-year college degrees) complete high school and gain access to college through a combination of services designed to improve academic achievement and increase access to financial aid. Services include test taking and study skills…

  1. Google Scholar Search Performance: Comparative Recall and Precision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative evaluation of Google Scholar and 11 other bibliographic databases (Academic Search Elite, AgeLine, ArticleFirst, EconLit, GEOBASE, MEDLINE, PAIS International, POPLINE, Social Sciences Abstracts, Social Sciences Citation Index, and SocINDEX), focusing on search performance within the multidisciplinary field of…

  2. The Sweet Spot of a Nonacademic Job Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Alexandra M.

    2012-01-01

    Because academic culture frowns on Ph.D.'s who consider leaving the ivory tower, most of those who jump ship find themselves at a loss as to where and how to begin a job search. Yet a nonacademic job search is actually quite similar to a standard research project. Both require advance planning, substantial research, collating evidence for an…

  3. Task-specific Dystonias

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Russotto, Diego; Perlmutter, Joel S.

    2009-01-01

    Task-specific dystonias are primary focal dystonias characterized by excessive muscle contractions producing abnormal postures during selective motor activities that often involve highly skilled, repetitive movements. Historically these peculiar postures were considered psychogenic but have now been classified as forms of dystonia. Writer’s cramp is the most commonly identified task-specific dystonia and has features typical of this group of disorders. Symptoms may begin with lack of dexterity during performance of a specific motor task with increasingly abnormal posturing of the involved body part as motor activity continues. Initially, the dystonia may manifest only during the performance of the inciting task, but as the condition progresses it may also occur during other activities or even at rest. Neurological exam is usually unremarkable except for the dystonia-related abnormalities. Although the precise pathophysiology remains unclear, increasing evidence suggests reduced inhibition at different levels of the sensorimotor system. Symptomatic treatment options include oral medications, botulinum toxin injections, neurosurgical procedures, and adaptive strategies. Prognosis may vary depending upon body part involved and specific type of task affected. Further research may reveal new insights into the etiology, pathophysiology, natural history, and improved treatment of these conditions. PMID:18990127

  4. Task-Dependent Individual Differences in Prefrontal Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Bharat B.; Eldreth, Dana A.; Motes, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging have permitted testing of hypotheses regarding the neural bases of individual differences, but this burgeoning literature has been characterized by inconsistent results. To test the hypothesis that differences in task demands could contribute to between-study variability in brain-behavior relationships, we had participants perform 2 tasks that varied in the extent of cognitive involvement. We examined connectivity between brain regions during a low-demand vigilance task and a higher-demand digit–symbol visual search task using Granger causality analysis (GCA). Our results showed 1) Significant differences in numbers of frontoparietal connections between low- and high-demand tasks 2) that GCA can detect activity changes that correspond with task-demand changes, and 3) faster participants showed more vigilance-related activity than slower participants, but less visual-search activity. These results suggest that relatively low-demand cognitive performance depends on spontaneous bidirectionally fluctuating network activity, whereas high-demand performance depends on a limited, unidirectional network. The nature of brain-behavior relationships may vary depending on the extent of cognitive demand. High-demand network activity may reflect the extent to which individuals require top-down executive guidance of behavior for successful task performance. Low-demand network activity may reflect task- and performance monitoring that minimizes executive requirements for guidance of behavior. PMID:20064942

  5. Student Search Behaviour in an Online Public Access Catalogue: An Examination of "Searching Mental Models" and "Searcher Self-Concept"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willson, Rebekah; Given, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents a qualitative exploration of university students' experience of searching an online public access catalogue. The study investigated how students conceptualise their searching process, as well as how students understand themselves as seekers of information. Method: Following a search task, thirty-eight…

  6. Measurement of academic entitlement.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian K

    2013-10-01

    Members of Generation Y, or Millennials, have been accused of being lazy, whiny, pampered, and entitled, particularly in the college classroom. Using an equity theory framework, eight items from a measure of work entitlement were adapted to measure academic entitlement in a university setting in three independent samples. In Study 1 (n = 229), confirmatory factor analyses indicated good model fit to a unidimensional structure for the data. In Study 2 (n = 200), the questionnaire predicted unique variance in university satisfaction beyond two more general measures of dispositional entitlement. In Study 3 (n = 161), the measure predicted unique variance in perceptions of grade fairness beyond that which was predicted by another measure of academic entitlement. This analysis provides evidence of discriminant, convergent, incremental, concurrent criterion-related, and construct validity for the Academic Equity Preference Questionnaire. PMID:24597456

  7. Searching for Higher Education Leadership: Advice for Candidates and Search Committees. ACE/Praeger Series on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdall, Jean A.

    2007-01-01

    This book offers sample documents for candidates as well as for the search committees, and includes a substantive bibliography. From her vantage point outside the institution, the author is able to provide a unique point of view and insightful comments on the complex and often daunting process of the academic executive search. Key selling points…

  8. Task 11 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, P.

    2000-10-01

    Under this task, RAE personnel were on call to accompany members of the Concerned Citizens for Nuclear Safety (CCNS) if and when they exercised the option to borrow radiac instruments from the Laboratory and survey areas they thought might be contaminated by the Lab. Five members of the RAE team were given refresher training on the latest Lab owned instruments and on Lab procedures for using them and reporting results. On one occasion, a RAE team member accompanied LANL personnel when they did a survey of a house trailer which the owner claimed may have been contaminated. No contamination was found at the site. No requests were received to accompany CCNS members. The original task completion date of September 30, 1998 was extended to June 21, 1999. No requests were received to accompany CCNS members during this timeframe either. The task was terminated as it was determined there was no longer a need.

  9. Academic medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Burger, Edward J; Ziganshina, Lilia; Ziganshin, Airat U

    2004-12-01

    Academic medicine, along with professionalism of the medical community in Russia underwent a remarkable evolution from the Revolution through the decline of the Soviet Union. The Soviet period brought about an enormous expansion of numbers of admissions to medical schools and a corresponding increase in the number of new physicians. Academic medical institutions were separated from institutions of higher learning in general and medical science was separated from the mainstream of science. Many of these features have been reversed in the past 14 years and re-professionalization of medicine has resumed. PMID:15578798

  10. Conceptual Models for Search Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, D. G.; Efthimiadis, E. N.

    Search engines have entered popular culture. They touch people in diverse private and public settings and thus heighten the importance of such important social matters as information privacy and control, censorship, and equitable access. To fully benefit from search engines and to participate in debate about their merits, people necessarily appeal to their understandings for how they function. In this chapter we examine the conceptual understandings that people have of search engines by performing a content analysis on the sketches that 200 undergraduate and graduate students drew when asked to draw a sketch of how a search engine works. Analysis of the sketches reveals a diverse range of conceptual approaches, metaphors, representations, and misconceptions. On the whole, the conceptual models articulated by these students are simplistic. However, students with higher levels of academic achievement sketched more complete models. This research calls attention to the importance of improving students' technical knowledge of how search engines work so they can be better equipped to develop and advocate policies for how search engines should be embedded in, and restricted from, various private and public information settings.

  11. Rapid Resumption of Interrupted Search Is Independent of Age-Related Improvements in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lleras, Alejandro; Porporino, Mafalda; Burack, Jacob A.; Enns, James T.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 7-19-year-olds performed an interrupted visual search task in two experiments. Our question was whether the tendency to respond within 500 ms after a second glimpse of a display (the "rapid resumption" effect ["Psychological Science", 16 (2005) 684-688]) would increase with age in the same way as overall search efficiency. The…

  12. Performance of visually guided tasks using simulated prosthetic vision and saliency-based cues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikh, N.; Itti, L.; Humayun, M.; Weiland, J.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the benefits provided by a saliency-based cueing algorithm to normally sighted volunteers performing mobility and search tasks using simulated prosthetic vision. Approach. Human subjects performed mobility and search tasks using simulated prosthetic vision. A saliency algorithm based on primate vision was used to detect regions of interest (ROI) in an image. Subjects were cued to look toward the directions of these ROI using visual cues superimposed on the simulated prosthetic vision. Mobility tasks required the subjects to navigate through a corridor, avoid obstacles and locate a target at the end of the course. Two search task experiments involved finding objects on a tabletop under different conditions. Subjects were required to perform tasks with and without any help from cues. Results. Head movements, time to task completion and number of errors were all significantly reduced in search tasks when subjects used the cueing algorithm. For the mobility task, head movements and number of contacts with objects were significantly reduced when subjects used cues, whereas time was significantly reduced when no cues were used. The most significant benefit from cues appears to be in search tasks and when navigating unfamiliar environments. Significance. The results from the study show that visually impaired people and retinal prosthesis implantees may benefit from computer vision algorithms that detect important objects in their environment, particularly when they are in a new environment.

  13. Academic Goal Orientation and Cardiovascular Reactivity in a Performance Situation.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Helmut K; Gramer, Margit; Paechter, Manuela; Wimmer, Sigrid; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Papousek, Ilona

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated whether students' academic goal orientation (learning goals, performance goals, work avoidance) and their individual competence beliefs (their academic self-concept) can predict motivation-related cardiovascular activation patterns in a demanding performance situation. A sample of seventy-two undergraduate students rated their academic goal orientation as well as their competence beliefs and completed a mental arithmetic task. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure, pre-ejection period (PEP) as well as cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance were monitored continuously during rest and task exposure. Students scoring higher on work avoidance showed smaller increases in HR and CO, and a smaller shortening of the PEP. A lower academic self-concept was associated with attenuated CO reactivity and a smaller shortening of the PEP. Learning and performance goals were unrelated to cardiovascular activity. The attenuated cardiac activity observed for work avoidance and competence beliefs was interpreted in terms of reduced task engagement resulting from lower success importance. PMID:25957033

  14. Assessing L2 Task Performance: Understanding Effects of Task Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavakoli, Parvaneh

    2009-01-01

    The overarching aim of the research reported here was to investigate the effects of task structure and storyline complexity of oral narrative tasks on second language task performance. Participants were 60 Iranian language learners of English who performed six narrative tasks of varying degree of structure and storyline complexity in an assessment…

  15. The Effect of Preteaching Reading Skills on the on-Task Behavior of Children Identified with Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Michelle; Burns, Matthew K.; Lau, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated that preteaching activities led to increased academic outcomes and increased academic outcomes improve behavioral variables. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a preteaching intervention on time spent on task for children identified with a behavioral disorder (BD). A single-subject…

  16. Academic Buoyancy: Towards an Understanding of Students' Everyday Academic Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2008-01-01

    Academic buoyancy is developed as a construct reflecting everyday academic resilience within a positive psychology context and is defined as students' ability to successfully deal with academic setbacks and challenges that are typical of the ordinary course of school life (e.g., poor grades, competing deadlines, exam pressure, difficult…

  17. Is Your Academic Library Pinning? Academic Libraries and Pinterest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Academic libraries are flocking to online social networking sites in an effort to meet users where they are. Pinterest is the latest of these rapidly growing online social networking tools. The author of this article reports results from a survey on academic libraries' presence on Pinterest. The survey found most academic library pinboards are in…

  18. Academic buoyancy: Towards an understanding of students' everyday academic resilience.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew J; Marsh, Herbert W

    2008-02-01

    Academic buoyancy is developed as a construct reflecting everyday academic resilience within a positive psychology context and is defined as students' ability to successfully deal with academic setbacks and challenges that are typical of the ordinary course of school life (e.g., poor grades, competing deadlines, exam pressure, difficult schoolwork). Data were collected from 598 students in Years 8 and 10 at five Australian high schools. Half-way through the school year and then again at the end of the year, students were asked to rate their academic buoyancy as well as a set of hypothesized predictors (self-efficacy, control, academic engagement, anxiety, teacher-student relationship) in the area of mathematics. Multilevel modeling found that the bulk of variance in academic buoyancy was explained at the student level. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling showed that (a) Time 1 anxiety (negatively), self-efficacy, and academic engagement significantly predict Time 1 academic buoyancy; (b) Time 2 anxiety (negatively), self-efficacy, academic engagement, and teacher-student relationships explain variance in Time 2 academic buoyancy over and above that explained by academic buoyancy at Time 1; and (c) of the significant predictors, anxiety explains the bulk of variance in academic buoyancy. PMID:19083351

  19. Academic Practice in Transition: Hidden Stories of Academic Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchman, Deborah; King, Sharron

    2009-01-01

    Academic work is becoming increasingly restrictive and controlled as tertiary institutions move towards a more corporate managerialistic mode of operating. This paper uses a narrative lens to explore the ways in which academic staff make sense of this new environment. In particular, it compares academic staff's stories of their worklife with the…

  20. Launching an Academic Career: On the Cutting Edge Resources for Geoscience Graduate Students, Post-doctoral Fellows, and Early Career Faculty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, R. M.; Ormand, C. J.; MacDonald, H.; Dunbar, R. W.; Allen-King, R. M.; Manduca, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    Launching an academic career presents a number of challenges. A recent article in the Chronicle of Higher Education depicts academia as an “ivory sweatshop,” citing rising standards for tenure. Most graduate programs provide minimal training for life beyond graduate school. The professional development program “On the Cutting Edge” fills this gap by providing workshops and web resources on academic careers for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and early career faculty. These workshops and web resources address a wide range of topics related to teaching, research, and managing one’s career, tailored for each group. The Preparing for an Academic Career in the Geosciences workshop to help graduate students and postdoctoral fellows make the transition into an academic career has been offered annually since 2003. It provides a panel on academic careers in different institutional settings, sessions on research on learning, various teaching strategies, design of effective teaching activities, moving research forward to new settings, effective teaching and research statements, the job search process, negotiation, and presenting oneself to others. Complementary online resources (http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/careerprep/index.html) focus on these topics. The workshops and web resources offer guidance for each step of the job search process, for developing and teaching one’s own courses, and for making the transition from being a research student to being in charge of a research program. Online resources also include case studies of successful dual career couples, documenting their job search strategies. A four-day workshop for Early Career Geoscience Faculty: Teaching, Research, and Managing Your Career, offered annually since 1999, provides sessions on teaching strategies, course design, developing a strategic plan for research, supervising student researchers, navigating departmental and institutional politics, preparing for tenure, time and