Crow, T J; Crow, L R; Done, D J; Leask, S
Population variation in handedness (a correlate of cerebral dominance for language) is in part genetic and, it has been suggested, its persistence represents a balanced polymorphism with respect to cognitive ability. This hypothesis was tested in a sample of 12,770 individuals in a UK national cohort (the National Child Development Study) by assessing relative hand skill (in a square checking task) as a predictor of verbal, non-verbal, and mathematical ability and reading comprehension at the age of 11 years. Whereas some modest decrements were present in extreme right handers the most substantial deficits in ability were seen close to the point of equal hand skill ('hemispheric indecision'). For verbal ability females performed better than males, but the relationship to relative hand skill was closely similar for the two sexes; for reading comprehension males close to the point of equal hand skill showed greater impairments than females. Analysed by writing hand the relationship of ability to hand skill appeared symmetrical about the point of 'hemispheric indecision'. The variation associated with degrees of dominance may reflect the operation of continuing selection on the gene (postulated to be X-Y linked) by which language evolved and speciation occurred.
Daly, Edward J., III; Bonfiglio, Christine M.; Mattson, Tara; Persampieri, Michael; Foreman-Yates, Kristin
Experimental analyses for improving reading fluency deficits have rarely targeted generalized increases in academic responding. As a consequence, the variables that may help students to generalize newly learned forms of academic responding like reading are not well understood. Furthermore, experimental analyses of reading fluency interventions…
Dishion, T J; Loeber, R; Stouthamer-Loeber, M; Patterson, G R
The research literature on juvenile delinquency shows that antisocial adolescents are often lacking in academic, interpersonal, and work skills. Past research on antisocial adolescents has focused primarily on the relationship between single skill deficits and official delinquency. The present report extends this body of literature by investigating the relationship between seven measures of skill and official and self-reported delinquency in a nonclinical sample of 70 white male adolescents. Youths classified as delinquent on the basis of prior police contact had a lower multivariate profile on seven measures of academic, interpersonal, and work skills. Five of the seven measures correlated significantly with both the official and self-reported criteria of delinquency. Academic skill deficits may be the strongest covariates of antisocial behavior.
Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo
Aim: Basic verbal and academic skills can be adversely affected by early-onset diabetes, although these skills have been studied less than other cognitive functions. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of learning deficits in children with diabetes by assessing basic verbal and academic skills in children with early-onset diabetes and in…
Copeman, Peter; Keightley, Polly
In 2013 the University of Canberra (UC) initiated a program of peer-assisted academic skills help, the Academic Skills Rovers program, with the goal of providing drop-in peer learning support to students at campus locations where they congregate to study. The Academic Skills Rovers were initially recruited from the teacher education discipline,…
Stasz, Cathleen; Brewer, Dominic J.
This document is an exploratory study of issues and evidence related to academic skills, nonacademics, and work along three lines of inquiry. Section 1 is an introduction that explains the three lines of inquiry: literature review to identify empirical studies and salient issues pertinent to academic skill needs; new analysis of existing data from…
Roberts, Jane E.; Schaaf, Jennifer M.; Skinner, Martie; Wheeler, Anne; Hooper, Stephen; Hatton, Deborah D.; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.
The academic achievement of boys with fragile X syndrome and the relation between several predictive factors and academic performance are reported. Boys with fragile X syndrome displayed significant deficits in all academic skill areas. Relative strengths were observed in general knowledge, reflecting the ability to integrate experiential…
Academic writing is an important aspect of professional development for students and lecturers. It is one way in which they demonstrate their learning, but it can be a difficult skill to master. This article aims to enable students and professionals to develop their academic writing style using a coherent and effective framework.
Md Rahim, Nasrudin; Meon, Hasni
Study skills play an important role in influencing academic performance of university students. These skills, which can be modified, can be used as an indicator on how a student would perform academically in his course of study. The purpose of the study is to determine the study skills profile among Universiti Selangor's (Unisel) students and to find the relationships of these skills with student's academic performance. A sample of seventy-eight (78) foundation studies and diploma students of Unisel were selected to participate in this study. Using Study Skills Inventory instrument, eight skills were measured. They are note taking; test taking; textbook study; concentration and memory; time management; analytical thinking and problem solving; nutrition; and vocabulary. Meanwhile, student's academic performance was measured through their current Grade Point Average (GPA). The result showed that vocabulary skill scored the highest mean with 3.01/4.00, followed by test taking (2.88), analytical thinking and problem solving (2.80), note taking (2.79), textbook study (2.58), concentration and memory (2.54), time management (2.25) and nutrition (2.21). Correlation analysis showed that test taking (r=0.286, p=0.011), note taking (r=0.224, p=0.048), and analytical thinking and problem solving (r=0.362, p=0.001) skills were positively correlated with GPA achievement.
The Allied Health Certificate Program at Massachusetts' Bunker Hill Community College has been successfully integrating academic and vocational education since 1986. The integration of English as a Second Language, academic education, and occupational training was a direct response to requests from business and industry for a competitive…
Dawson, Peg; Guare, Richard
This practical manual presents an evidence-based coaching model for helping students whose academic performance is suffering due to deficits in executive skills, including time and task management, planning, organization, impulse control, and emotional regulation. In just a few minutes a day, coaches can provide crucial support and instruction…
Anderson, Betty Marie; And Others
The Academic Skills Center at Black Hills State University provides a peer assistance program comprising both individual tutoring in classes offered in each academic division and credit classes in study skills. The goal of the Center is to respond effectively and quickly to individual educational needs of students and faculty through a…
Mohammed, Ali Mohammed Haidar
The present study aims to identify the level of cognitive skills and abilities of children who suffer from the Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the differences in the level of cognitive skills and abilities according to the age group and the level of academic achievement. To achieve the objective of the study, a…
Seifert, Kyle; Hurney, Carol A.; Wigtil, Clifton J.; Sundre, Donna L.
The Academic Skills Inventory (Kruger and Zechmeister, 2001) was developed at Loyola University of Chicago and originally designed for use with psychology majors. It was later extended for use in a variety of academic programs. The Academic Skills Inventory (ASI) assesses student self-reports of behaviors in 10 skill areas: (1) written and oral…
San Miguel, Stephanie K.; And Others
This article explores the hypothesis that social skill deficits among children with learning disabilities are associated with high rates of undetected psychiatric diagnoses. The maladaptive social skills patterns of children with specific subtypes of learning disabilities appear to mimic the symptom patterns of children with attention deficit…
Wernersbach, Brenna M.; Crowley, Susan L.; Bates, Scott C.; Rosenthal, Carol
Although study skills courses improve student retention, the impact of study skills courses on students' academic self-efficacy has not been investigated. The present study examined pre- and posttest levels of academic self-efficacy in college students enrolled in a study skills course (n = 126) compared to students enrolled in a general education…
Jitendra, Asha K; Dupaul, George J; Someki, Fumio; Tresco, Katy E
Although children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exhibit significant academic difficulties in school settings, considerably less attention is devoted to remediating their academic problems when compared to behavioral and social difficulties. The purpose of this article is to review empirically supported academic interventions for children with ADHD. Specific evidence-based academic interventions are described under the categories of reading and mathematics, with examples that illustrate teacher-mediated interventions focusing on basic skills (e.g., phonological awareness in reading, mathematics computation) and higher-level cognitive skills (e.g., collaborative strategic reading, CSR; schema-based instruction, SBI). Finally, implications for educational practice and directions for future research on school-based academic interventions for students with ADHD are discussed.
Flynn, Lorna; Healy, Olive
Deficits in social skills and self-help skills present significant challenges for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Much research in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) has been devoted to treatments for deficits in social skills and there exist a number of extensive reviews on the research in this area. Some research has…
Chou, Wen-Jiun; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Yu-Min; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang
Background and aims The aims of this study were to examine the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as the moderators for this association. Methods A total of 300 adolescents, aged between 11 and 18 years, who had been diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their Internet addiction levels, social skills deficits, ADHD, parental characteristics, and comorbidities were assessed. The various Internet activities that the participants engaged in were also examined. Results The associations between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities and the moderators of these associations were examined using logistic regression analyses. Social skills deficits were significantly associated with an increased risk of Internet addiction after adjustment for the effects of other factors [odds ratio (OR) = 1.049, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.030-1.070]. Social skills deficits were also significantly associated with Internet gaming and watching movies. The maternal occupational socioeconomic levels of the participants moderated the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction. Conclusions Social skills deficits should be considered targets in prevention and intervention programs for treating Internet addiction among adolescents with ADHD.
Pendt, Lisa Katharina; Reuter, Iris; Müller, Hermann
Parkinson's disease, which affects the basal ganglia, is known to lead to various impairments of motor control. Since the basal ganglia have also been shown to be involved in learning processes, motor learning has frequently been investigated in this group of patients. However, results are still inconsistent, mainly due to skill levels and time scales of testing. To bridge across the time scale problem, the present study examined de novo skill learning over a long series of practice sessions that comprised early and late learning stages as well as retention. 19 non-demented, medicated, mild to moderate patients with Parkinson's disease and 19 healthy age and gender matched participants practiced a novel throwing task over five days in a virtual environment where timing of release was a critical element. Six patients and seven control participants came to an additional long-term retention testing after seven to nine months. Changes in task performance were analyzed by a method that differentiates between three components of motor learning prominent in different stages of learning: Tolerance, Noise and Covariation. In addition, kinematic analysis related the influence of skill levels as affected by the specific motor control deficits in Parkinson patients to the process of learning. As a result, patients showed similar learning in early and late stages compared to the control subjects. Differences occurred in short-term retention tests; patients' performance constantly decreased after breaks arising from poorer release timing. However, patients were able to overcome the initial timing problems within the course of each practice session and could further improve their throwing performance. Thus, results demonstrate the intact ability to learn a novel motor skill in non-demented, medicated patients with Parkinson's disease and indicate confounding effects of motor control deficits on retention performance.
As computer technology developed, hypertexts emerged as an influential environment for developing language skills. This study aims to evaluate a text prepared in a hypertextual environment and its effects on academic success and comprehension skills. In this study, "preliminary test final test control group experimental pattern" was used…
Bledsoe, Jesse C; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Pliszka, Steven R
Research in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) generally utilizes clinical samples or children with comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. Findings indicated that children with ADHD experience academic underachievement and poor performance on measures of response inhibition (RI). Less is known, about the neuropsychological profile of typically developing children with ADHD. The aim of the current study was twofold: (1) determine if academic skills and RI were impaired in typically developing children with ADHD-combined subtype (ADHD-C) and (2) determine to what extent RI may predict academic abilities. Children with ADHD-C did not differ on any academic domain from controls. Children with ADHD-C performed more poorly than controls on RI measures. Regression analyses suggest that Written Expression ability was significantly influenced by RI. No other academic domain was related to RI. Results suggest that children with ADHD-C may experience impairments in RI despite adequate academic functioning. Impaired RI is not solely responsible for difficulties found in academic skills in ADHD-C.
Snider, Vicki E.; Battalio, Rosemary
Public schools are replete with children and adolescents like Billy, Reid, and Rowdy whom teachers describe as rude, disruptive, and obnoxious, and not all of them are in special education. Asher (1990) estimated that 10% of school-age children have social skills deficits severe enough to be rejected by their peers and up to 75% of children with…
Kaufmann, Liane; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph
ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and academic difficulties are frequently associated, but to date this link is poorly understood. In order to explore which components of number processing and calculation skills may be disturbed in children with ADHD we presented a series of respective tasks to 9- to 12-year-old children with…
Hughes, Katherine L.; Moore, David Thornton; Bailey, Thomas R.
A study tested the claim that work-based learning can have positive effects on academic learning. Data were obtained through interviews with faculty, staff, students, and employers, and observation of classroom-based links to the work-based learning components at three sites involved in a work-based learning project. At the three sites, a total of…
Although academic skills, conceptualised as writing and critical thinking, are a vital part of university studies, research indicates that many students leave without having mastered these skills effectively. This research also reflects on nursing students. Nursing could also be said to be hampered by a number of complex educational challenges that are likely to impact on the academic socialisation process in general. These challenges include being a relatively 'young' academic discipline, the 'theory-practice' divide, a knowledge bed lying on a complex intersection of two 'antithetical sciences' and, at least in the Scandinavian countries, an increasing number of nurse educators with a PhD in nursing science but with limited time to develop their own teaching skills. In combination, these challenges have the potential to act as stumbling blocks, both from a teaching and learning perspective. I would suggest that a departure in teaching from theoretical educational models, such as Lea and Street's 'academic literacies model,' including skills, socialisation and academic literacy models simultaneously, could be one of several ways forward to create a learning environment that takes these issues into account.
Lindsey, Tommie, Jr.; Mabie, Benjamin
After one failed attempt to buttress the prospects of black males at a racially diverse high school, teachers fashioned a life skills class that was heavy on racial pride and personal insight. In so doing they borrowed liberally from the Motivational Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching by Margery Ginsberg and Raymond Wlodkowski that leans…
Bickens, Sarah; Bittman, Franny; Connor, David J.
This article provides an overview of the Autobiography Project, listing the topics of the ten chapters and the targeted skills that accompany them. The authors discuss the purposes of each chapter and describe the methods incorporated to promote the four broad components of literacy. This unit also addresses almost all components of the Common…
Suggests a way to overcome the difficulty of teaching effective reading skills to students with diverse interests. The approach is based on four specifications: (1) each student studies a text on a topic in his own specialty; (2) reading practice images students' academic contexts; (3) classes are learner centered; and (4) students are evaluated…
Hartzema, Abraham G.
The impact of changing health care systems on the content of pharmaceutical education is examined, including the relationship between basic and applied sciences and between the applied sciences and skill and attitude formation, in both academic and clinical education. The role of pharmacy administration in the curriculum is discussed. (MSE)
Goetzfridt, Nicholas J.
Teaching critical thinking is a relatively new dimension of bibliographic instruction (BI) in the academic environment. It marks a departure from the teaching of "user skills" in which the primary concern is enabling library patrons to determine the appropriateness of reference tools and to use those tools effectively. This report assembles a…
Willison, J. W.
This study considered outcomes when 27 academics explicitly developed and assessed student research skills in 28 regular (non-research methods) semester-length courses. These courses ranged from small (n = 17) to medium-large (n = 222) and included those from first year to masters in business, engineering, health science, humanities and science,…
Bjorn, Piia Maria; Kyttala, Minna
This study investigated whether family structure accounts for adolescent academic performance in Finland in the analysis. The thirteen- to fourteen-year-old (grade 8) students' (N = 171) literacy skills were measured and their mathematical performance was tested. Information about family structure was gathered via a questionnaire sent to their…
A survey of Australian academic reference librarians was conducted as part of an international collaboration seeking to identify the most important knowledge, skills and attributes now and for the next ten years. Librarians working in or managing reference-related services at university and vocational education and training institutions…
Bendt, Lori; Nunan, Jan
This paper examines the impact of the explicit teaching of social skills to enhance academic achievement. The targeted population comprised kindergarten and second grade students in a middle-class community located in central Illinois. The problem of inappropriate behaviors and difficulties interacting with peers and how this may affect academic…
LaMotte, Adam D; Taft, Casey T; Weatherill, Robin P; Eckhardt, Christopher I
This study examined social skills deficits as a mediator of the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and use of intimate partner aggression (IPA) among returning veterans. Prior research with veterans has focused on PTSD-related deficits at the decoding stage of McFall's (1982) social information processing model, and the current study adds to this literature by examining social skills deficits at the decision stage. Participants were 92 male veterans recruited from the greater Boston area. PTSD symptoms were assessed through clinician interview, IPA use was assessed through self- and partner report, and social skills deficits were assessed in a laboratory task in which veterans listened to a series of problematic marital situations and responded with what they would say or do in the situation. Responses were coded for social competency. Bivariate correlations revealed several significant associations among PTSD symptoms, social skills deficits, and use of IPA. When all PTSD symptom clusters were entered into a regression predicting social skills deficits, only emotional numbing emerged as a unique predictor. Finally, social skills deficits significantly mediated the relationship between veterans' PTSD symptoms and use of psychological (but not physical) IPA. Findings extend prior research on McFall's (1982) social information processing model as it relates to veterans' PTSD symptoms and use of IPA. More research is needed to understand the associations between PTSD symptoms and deficits at each individual step of this model. (PsycINFO Database Record
McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Volpe, Robert J.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Gordon, Michael; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.
This study examined academic and social impairments of 6- to 11-year-old children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 101) versus other referred children without ADHD (n = 53) and controls (n = 24). Parent and teacher ratings showed significantly lower academic performance and lower social functioning for children with ADHD…
Tsai, Hsien-Chang; Liu, Shih-Hsiung
Effective time-management skills and interpersonal interactions with familiar friends for learning matters on Facebook are desired characteristics for adolescents attempting to improve their academic achievements. This study identifies the relationships between time-management skills and Facebook interpersonal skills with the academic achievement…
Langberg, Joshua M; Becker, Stephen P; Dvorsky, Melissa R
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relation between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) and academic functioning in a sample of 52 adolescents (40 males, 12 females) with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; M age = 13.75). This study builds on prior work by utilizing an empirically-based and psychometrically validated measure of SCT, collecting ratings of SCT from both parents and teachers, and examining associations with multiple domains of academic functioning from both the parent and teacher perspective as well as grade point average (GPA). Both SCT and DSM-IV symptoms of inattention were significantly correlated with domains of academic functioning. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the parent-rated SCT Slow subscale predicted overall academic functioning, organizational skills impairment, and homework problems above and beyond ADHD symptoms and child and demographic characteristics known to be associated with academics, including intelligence, academic achievement, and family income. The teacher-rated SCT Low Initiation/Persistence subscale also predicted homework problems and was the only SCT variable to predict school grades above and beyond ADHD symptoms and relevant covariates. Both the SCT Slow and Low Initiation/Persistence subscales include items related to youth seeming apathetic, unmotivated, and lacking initiative, behaviors that are strongly related to ADHD symptoms of inattention but not currently captured by the DSM-IV. Implications of these findings towards supporting the external validity of the SCT construct are discussed along with potential implications for intervention.
Greenwood, Melanie; Walkem, Kerrie; Smith, Lindsay Mervyn; Shearer, Toniele; Stirling, Christine
Preventing plagiarism is an ongoing issue for higher education institutions. Although plagiarism has been traditionally seen as cheating, it is increasingly thought to be the result of poor referencing, with students reporting difficulties citing and referencing bibliographic sources. This study examined the academic knowledge, attitude, skills, and confidence of students in a school of nursing to understand poor referencing. A cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative survey was distributed to postgraduate (N = 1,000) certificate, diploma, and master's students. Quantitative data gathered demographics, cultural and linguistic background, and use of technology. Thematic analysis discovered patterns and themes. Results showed participants understood requirements for referencing; half indicated poor referencing was due to difficulty referencing Internet sources or losing track of sources, and many lacked confidence in key referencing tasks. Despite this, 50% did not make use of referencing resources. Overall, these data suggest incorrect referencing is rarely intentional and predominantly caused by skills deficit.
Stoeger, Heidrun; Ziegler, Albert
This article addresses the causes of underachievement in scholastic education. Whereas many studies have been able to show that motivational deficits provide an explanation for underachievement, little research has yet explored the possible influences of deficits in fine motor skills. The aim of our empirical study was, therefore, to investigate…
Harvey, William J.; Reid, Greg; Grizenko, Natalie; Mbekou, Valentin; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Joober, Ridha
The purpose of this study was to compare the fundamental movement skills of 22 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), from 6 to 12 years of age, to gender- and age-matched peers without ADHD and assess the effects of stimulant medication on the movement skill performance of the children with ADHD. Repeated measures analyses…
Yeo, Kee Jiar; Teng, Kie Yin
Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) who lack of social skills have been hindered from being included in IE classrooms. The purpose of this study was to identify the most frequently occurring social skills deficits area among students with ASD in IE classrooms so that the mainstream teachers will be ready and well prepared to cater to…
Markel, Geraldine; Woolfolk, Marilyn; Inglehart, Marita Rohr
This article reports the outcomes of an evaluation conducted to determine if an academic skills training program for undergraduate predental students from underrepresented minority backgrounds increased the students' standardized academic skills test scores for vocabulary, reading comprehension, reading rates, spelling, and math as well as subject-specific test results in biology, chemistry, and physics. Data from standardized academic skill tests and subject-specific tests were collected at the beginning and end of the 1998 to 2006 Pipeline Programs, six-week summer enrichment programs for undergraduate predental students from disadvantaged backgrounds. In total, 179 students (75.4 percent African American, 7.3 percent Hispanic, 5.6 percent Asian American, 5 percent white) attended the programs during these nine summers. Scores on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test showed that the students improved their vocabulary scores (percentile ranks before/after: 46.80 percent/59.56 percent; p<.001), reading comprehension scores (47.21 percent/62.67 percent; p<.001), and reading rates (34.01 percent/78.31 percent; p<.001) from the beginning to the end of the summer programs. Results on the Wide Range Achievement Test III showed increases in spelling (73.58 percent/86.22 percent; p<.001) and math scores (56.98 percent/81.28 percent; p<.001). The students also improved their subject-specific scores in biology (39.07 percent/63.42 percent; p<.001), chemistry (20.54 percent/51.01 percent; p<.001), and physics (35.12 percent/61.14 percent; p<.001). To increase the number of underrepresented minority students in the dental school admissions pool, efforts are needed to prepare students from disadvantaged backgrounds for this process. These data demonstrate that a six-week enrichment program significantly improved the academic skills and basic science knowledge scores of undergraduate predental students. These improvements have the potential to enhance the performance of these students
Davis, Alan; Solberg, V. Scott; de Baca, Christine; Gore, Taryn Hargrove
This study evaluated the degree to which a range of social emotional learning skills--academic self-efficacy, academic motivation, social connections, importance of school, and managing psychological and emotional distress and academic stress--could be used as an indicator of future academic outcomes. Using a sample of 4,797 from a large urban…
DuPaul, George J.; Eckert, Tanya L.
Reviews empirical studies that have reported the effects of academic interventions with students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Reviews intervention in the general categories of peer tutoring, computer-assisted instruction, task and instructional modifications, and strategy training. Finds peer tutoring and task…
Jitendra, Asha K.; DuPaul, George J.; Volpe, Robert J.; Tresco, Katy E.; Junod, Rosemary E. Vile; Lutz, J. Gary; Cleary, Kristi S.; Flammer-Rivera, Lizette M.; Manella, Mark C.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of two consultation-based models for designing academic interventions to enhance the educational functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Children (N = 167) meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual" (4th ed.--text revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria for…
Pershing, James A., Ed.
This collection of six papers discusses various aspects of teaching basic skills in connection with vocational education. The six papers are the following: "Basic Academic Skills in the Workplace and the Classroom: The Work-Education Bridge" (James A. Pershing, Scott W. Gillie); "Basic Literacy and Communication Skills for Vocational Training"…
Eisenberg, Nancy; Sadovsky, Adrienne; Spinrad, Tracy L.
Research suggests that the development of emotional regulation in early childhood is interrelated with emotional understanding and language skills. Heuristic models are proposed on how these factors influence children's emerging academic motivation and skills. (Contains 2 figures.)
Jitendra, Asha K.; DuPaul, George J.; Someki, Fumio; Tresco, Katy E.
Although children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exhibit significant academic difficulties in school settings, considerably less attention is devoted to remediating their academic problems when compared to behavioral and social difficulties. The purpose of this article is to review empirically supported academic interventions…
Scharfstein, Lindsay A.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Sims, Valerie K.; Finnell, Laura Rendon
Social skills deficits are commonly reported among children with social phobia (SP) and children with Asperger's Disorder (AD); however, a lack of direct comparison makes it unclear whether these groups, both of which endorse the presence of social anxiety, have similar or unique skills deficits. In this investigation, the social behaviors of…
Hart, Susan Crandall; DiPerna, James Clyde
This study aimed to examine whether having knowledge of student cognitive skill deficits changes teacher beliefs and responses in regard to classroom misbehavior. Teachers (N = 272) were randomly assigned to an experimental or control condition. Although teachers in both conditions read the same vignette describing a student's misbehavior, the…
Willcutt, Erik G.; Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Samuelsson, Stefan; Corley, Robin; DeFries, John C.; Byrne, Brian; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.
Numerous studies have examined the etiology of the association between reading difficulties and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in school-age children, but little is known about the relation between prereading skills and ADHD behaviors prior to the beginning of formal reading instruction. A population-based sample of 809 pairs of…
We are pleased to offer another brief article for our series on Academic Skills. This series aims at providing short, concrete, and practical tips on how to conduct and improve your life in academia. Whether beginner or fully trained investigator, we share the same challenges in succeeding in our professions, challenges which schooling never prepared us for. Perhaps grant writing, the subject of this article, is the most mysterious, fear-provoking and misunderstood type of skill needed in our careers. In fact, for these reasons, some people have never dared adventure into grant writing. Yet, this activity is not only essential for running our research but also for other numerous purposes including training people, buying equipment, getting a job, and being granted tenure. The tips provided here are widely applicable if you are interested in writing a grant, regardless of your country of origin. Therefore, it is my hope that these tips increase your chances of success in grantmanship along with the satisfaction that may come from achieving all the goals that these funding aids make possible.
Uccelli, Paola; Galloway, Emily Phillips; Kim, Ha Yeon; Barr, Christopher D.
Despite a longstanding awareness of academic language as a pedagogically-relevant research area, the construct of academic language proficiency--understood as a more comprehensive set of skills than just academic vocabulary--has remained only vaguely specified. This study examines the potential--for both research and practice--of a more inclusive…
Strauss, Gregory P; Allen, Daniel N; Miski, Pinar; Buchanan, Robert W; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Carpenter, William T
Numerous studies indicate that social dysfunction is associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia during the chronic phase of illness. However, it is unclear whether social abnormalities exist during the premorbid phase in people who later develop schizophrenia with prominent negative symptoms, or whether social functioning becomes progressively worse in these individuals from childhood to late adolescence. The current study examined differences in academic and social premorbid functioning in people with schizophrenia meeting criteria for deficit (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms) (DS: n = 74) and non-deficit forms of schizophrenia (ND: n = 271). Premorbid social and academic functioning was assessed for childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence developmental periods on the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS). Results indicated that both DS and ND participants showed deterioration in social and academic functioning from childhood to late adolescence. However, while ND schizophrenia demonstrated greater deterioration of academic compared to social premorbid functioning from childhood to late adolescence, the DS group exhibited comparable deterioration across both premorbid domains, with more severe social deterioration than the ND group. Findings suggest that people with DS show poorer social premorbid adjustment than those with ND as early as childhood, and are particularly susceptible to accelerated deterioration as the onset of schizophrenia becomes imminent. Thus, poor premorbid social adjustment and significant social deterioration from childhood to adolescence may be a hallmark feature of people who later go on to develop prominent negative symptoms and a unique marker for the DS subtype of schizophrenia.
Sjogren, Elaine; Ragnemalm, Eva L.; Tingstrom, Pia; Uhlin, Lars; Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
Evaluation of university teachers' performativity has become a common feature of university policies. The Swedish Higher Education Ordinance states that equal attention should be paid to pedagogical skills and research skills when appointing academic staff. Hence, the definition and documentation of pedagogical skills have become increasingly…
Prieur, Annick; Jensen, Sune Qvotrup; Laursen, Julie; Pedersen, Oline
The article traces the origin and development of the concept of social skills in first and foremost American academic discourse. As soon as the concept of social skills was coined, the concern for people lacking such skills started and has been on the increase ever since (now sharing public attention with related concepts such as self-control,…
Elrod, G. Franklin
A survey completed by 270 vocational teachers identified skills considered prerequisite to success in vocational courses. Important academic skills appear to be (1) basic math, (2) written communication, and (3) measurement. Social skills considered important include (1) getting along with others, (2) taking criticism constructively, and (3)…
Bowman, Harry L.; And Others
Noting that the program is primarily a reading and verbal skills program for adult learners, this paper describes the Academic Remedial Training (ART) Program of the U.S. Navy. The first section of the paper discusses the historical background of the program. The second section describes the reading skills component and the verbal skills component…
Cabell, Sonia Q.; Justice, Laura M.; Konold, Timothy R.; McGinty, Anita S.
The purpose of this study was to explore patterns of within-group variability in the emergent literacy skills of preschoolers who are at risk for academic difficulties. We used the person-centered approach of cluster analysis to identify profiles of emergent literacy skills, taking into account both oral language and code-related skills.…
Walker, Olga L; Henderson, Heather A
The goals of the current study were to examine whether children's social problem solving (SPS) skills are a mechanism through which temperament influences later academic achievement and whether sex moderates these associations. Participants included 1,117 children enrolled in the NICHD Early Child Care Study. During preschool, mothers and childcare providers rated children's temperamental shyness and inhibitory control, and SPS was assessed using a hypothetical-reflective measure during a laboratory visit. During kindergarten and first grade, teacher-report of math and language skills was collected. Results indicated that high ratings of inhibitory control in preschool, but not shyness, predicted better kindergarten and first grade academic skills. Furthermore, children's SPS competence mediated the relations between both shyness and inhibitory control on later academic skills. The child's sex did not moderate these associations. Results suggest that preventative efforts targeting early SPS skills may buffer against later academic adjustment problems among temperamentally extreme children.
Cerda, Carissa A.; Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N.
Using an academically at-risk, ethnically diverse sample of 744 first-grade children, this study tested a multi-method (i.e., child performance measures, teacher ratings, and peer ratings) measurement model of learning-related skills (i.e., effortful control [EC], behavioral self-regulation [BSR], and social competence [SC]), and their shared and unique contributions to children's reading and math achievement, above the effect of demographic variables. The hypothesized correlated factor measurement model demonstrated relatively good fit, with BSR and SC correlated highly with one another and moderately with EC. When entered in separate regression equations, EC and BSR each predicted children's reading and math achievement; SC only predicted reading achievement. When considered simultaneously, neither EC, BSR, nor SC contributed independently to reading achievement; however, EC had a direct effect on math achievement and an indirect effect on reading achievement via both BSR and SC. Implications for research and early intervention efforts are discussed. PMID:25908886
Gresham, Frank M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.
Base rate information is important in clinical assessment because one cannot know how unusual or typical a phenomenon is without first knowing its base rate in the population. This study empirically determined the base rates of social skills acquisition and performance deficits, social skills strengths, and problem behaviors using a nationally…
Threeton, Mark D.; Pellock, Cynthia
Career and Technical Student Organizations (CTSOs) assert they are assisting students in developing leadership, teamwork, citizenship, problem solving, communication, and academic skills for workplace success, but with limited research on their outcomes, are these empty claims? With integration of academics being a major Career and Technical…
Cemaloglu, Necati; Filiz, Sevil
The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the time management skills and academic achievement of students who are potential teachers studying in faculties of education. The research was conducted in the 2007-08 academic term among 849 graduate students in the Faculty of Education at Gazi University. The "Time Management…
Saunders, Ashley N.
Recent research has shown that students who enter kindergarten with prior academic knowledge are more successful later in their school careers. Yet, pre-school teachers face the problem of limited time in a day to focus on the academic skills of students, as well as work on their basic needs. The goal of this study was to find out if students can…
Baker, Courtney N.; Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Arnold, David H.
Preschool teachers have important impacts on children's academic outcomes, and teachers' misperceptions of children's academic skills could have negative consequences, particularly for low-income preschoolers. This study utilized data gathered from 123 preschool teachers and their 760 preschoolers from 70 low-income, racially diverse centers.…
A study investigated the consistency of criteria for academic English skills as applied by teachers of academic English and science lecturers in a South African historically black university. Both groups were asked to evaluate first-year students' essays on the greenhouse effect. Results indicated a wide variation in scores and judgments within…
This report describes a program designed to enhance social studies skills and knowledge. The target areas for enhancement are geography, economics, history, and core democratic values. The need for strengthening these skills was documented by literature, and surveys. An analysis of probable cause for lack of social studies skills revealed that…
Sigmundsson, H; Anholt, S K; Talcott, J B
Developmental learning disabilities such as dyslexia and dyscalculia have a high rate of co-occurrence in pediatric populations, suggesting that they share underlying cognitive and neurophysiological mechanisms. Dyslexia and other developmental disorders with a strong heritable component have been associated with reduced sensitivity to coherent motion stimuli, an index of visual temporal processing on a millisecond time-scale. Here we examined whether deficits in sensitivity to visual motion are evident in children who have poor mathematics skills relative to other children of the same age. We obtained psychophysical thresholds for visual coherent motion and a control task from two groups of children who differed in their performance on a test of mathematics achievement. Children with math skills in the lowest 10% in their cohort were less sensitive than age-matched controls to coherent motion, but they had statistically equivalent thresholds to controls on a coherent form control measure. Children with mathematics difficulties therefore tend to present a similar pattern of visual processing deficit to those that have been reported previously in other developmental disorders. We speculate that reduced sensitivity to temporally defined stimuli such as coherent motion represents a common processing deficit apparent across a range of commonly co-occurring developmental disorders.
Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris
The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading,…
Graham, Lorraine; Bellert, Anne; Thomas, Jenny; Pegg, John
"QuickSmart" is a basic academic skills intervention designed for persistently low-achieving students in the middle years of schooling that aims to improve the automaticity of basic skills to improve higher-order processes, such as problem solving and comprehension, as measured on standardized tests. The "QuickSmart" instructional program consists…
Gunn, Cathy; Hearne, Shari; Sibthorpe, Julie
This paper summarizes relevant research concepts, and then describes a case where online tutorials were used to integrate one generic academic skill--information literacy--into first year business courses. Tutorials covering the skills and information required to complete course assignments were designed so the content can be easily modified for…
Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This study examined cross-lagged associations between positive teacher and peer relations and academic skill development. Reading and math skills were tested among 625 students in kindergarten and Grade 4. Teacher reports of positive affect toward each student and classmate reports of peer acceptance were gathered in Grades 1-3. The results…
Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner; Farran, Dale Clark; Fuhs, Mary Wagner
Although research suggests associations between children's executive function skills and their academic achievement, the specific mechanisms that may help explain these associations in early childhood are unclear. This study examined whether children's (N = 1,103; M age = 54.5 months) executive function skills at the beginning of prekindergarten…
Taylor, Emily P.; Skinner, Christopher H.; McCallum, Elizabeth; Poncy, Brian C.; Orsega, Mike
Because teacher-to-student ratios often make it difficult for teachers to work individually with students on skill-building activities, educators and researchers have developed and evaluated procedures in which audio-recordings are used to improve basic academic skills. In the current paper, we describe and analyze reading, math, and spelling…
Bogdanowicz, Katarzyna Maria; Łockiewicz, Marta; Bogdanowicz, Marta; Pąchalska, Maria
The present study was aimed at analysing cognitive deficits of dyslexic adults, and examining their written language skills in comparison with their peers. Our results confirm the presence of a certain profile of symptoms in adult dyslexics. We noticed deficits in: phonological (verbal) short-term memory, phonological awareness, rapid automatised naming (speed, self-corrections), visual perception and control, and visual-motor coordination. Moreover, the dyslexic participants, as compared with their nondyslexic peers, produced more word structure errors whilst writing an essay. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the length of the essay, the number of linguistic and punctuation errors, the number of adjectives, and stylistic devices.
Sjöwall, Douglas; Bohlin, Gunilla; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Thorell, Lisa B
High levels of ADHD symptoms are related to severe negative outcomes, which underscore the importance of identifying early markers of these behavior problems. The main aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether neuropsychological deficits in preschool are related to later ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, over and above the influence of early ADHD symptom levels. The present study is unique because it includes a broader range of predictors compared to previous studies and the participants are followed over time for as long as 13 years (i.e., ages 5–18 years). Preschool data included measures of executive functioning and reaction time variability as well as emotional reactivity and emotion regulation of both positive and negative emotions. When controlling for early ADHD symptom levels, working memory, reaction time variability, and regulation of happiness/exuberance were significantly related to inattention whereas regulation of happiness/exuberance and anger reactivity were significantly related to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Furthermore, working memory and reaction time variability in preschool were significantly related to academic achievement in late adolescence beyond the influence of early ADHD symptoms. These findings could suggest that it is possible to screen for early neuropsychological deficits and thereby identify children who are at risk of negative outcomes. Furthermore, our results suggest that interventions need to look beyond executive functioning deficits in ADHD and also target the role of emotional functioning and reaction time variability. The importance of including both the positive and negative aspects of emotional functioning and distinguishing between emotion regulation and emotional reactivity was also demonstrated. PMID:26212755
Berking, Matthias; Margraf, Matthias; Ebert, David; Wupperman, Peggilee; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Junghanns, Klaus
Objective: As emotion regulation is widely considered to be a primary motive in the misuse of alcohol, our aim in the study was to investigate whether deficits in adaptive emotion-regulation skills maintain alcohol dependence (AD). Method: A prospective study investigated whether emotion-regulation skills were associated with AD and whether these…
Skinner, Christopher H.; Daly, Edward J., III
Behavior analysts have long been interested in developing and promoting the use of effective generalization strategies for behavioral interventions. Perhaps because research on academic performance has lagged behind in the field of applied behavior analysis, far less research on this topic has been conducted for academic performance problems. The…
Baker, Courtney N; Tichovolsky, Marianne H; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Arnold, David H
Preschool teachers have important impacts on children's academic outcomes, and teachers' misperceptions of children's academic skills could have negative consequences, particularly for low-income preschoolers. This study utilized data gathered from 123 preschool teachers and their 760 preschoolers from 70 low-income, racially diverse centers. Hierarchical linear modeling was utilized to account for the nested data structure. Even after controlling for children's actual academic skill, older children, children with stronger social skills, and children with fewer inattentive symptoms were perceived to have stronger academic abilities. Contrary to hypotheses, preschoolers with more behavior problems were perceived by teachers to have significantly better pre-academic abilities than they actually had. Teachers' perceptions were not associated with child gender or child race/ethnicity. Although considerable variability was due to teacher-level characteristics, child characteristics explained 42% of the variability in teachers' perceptions about children's language and pre-literacy ability and 41% of the variability in teachers' perceptions about mathability. Notably, these perceptions appear to have important impacts over time. Controlling for child baseline academic skill and child characteristics, teacher perceptions early in the preschool year were significantly associated with child academic outcomes during the spring for both language and pre-literacy and math. Study implications with regard to the achievement gap are discussed.
Baker, Courtney N.; Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Arnold, David H.
Preschool teachers have important impacts on children’s academic outcomes, and teachers’ misperceptions of children’s academic skills could have negative consequences, particularly for low-income preschoolers. This study utilized data gathered from 123 preschool teachers and their 760 preschoolers from 70 low-income, racially diverse centers. Hierarchical linear modeling was utilized to account for the nested data structure. Even after controlling for children’s actual academic skill, older children, children with stronger social skills, and children with fewer inattentive symptoms were perceived to have stronger academic abilities. Contrary to hypotheses, preschoolers with more behavior problems were perceived by teachers to have significantly better pre-academic abilities than they actually had. Teachers’ perceptions were not associated with child gender or child race/ethnicity. Although considerable variability was due to teacher-level characteristics, child characteristics explained 42% of the variability in teachers’ perceptions about children’s language and pre-literacy ability and 41% of the variability in teachers’ perceptions about mathability. Notably, these perceptions appear to have important impacts over time. Controlling for child baseline academic skill and child characteristics, teacher perceptions early in the preschool year were significantly associated with child academic outcomes during the spring for both language and pre-literacy and math. Study implications with regard to the achievement gap are discussed. PMID:26538767
Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This study examined cross-lagged associations between positive teacher and peer relations and academic skill development. Reading and math skills were tested among 625 students in kindergarten and Grade 4. Teacher reports of positive affect toward each student and classmate reports of peer acceptance were gathered in Grades 1-3. The results showed, first, that positive teacher affect toward the student and peer acceptance were reciprocally associated: Positive teacher affect predicted higher peer acceptance, and higher peer acceptance predicted a higher level of positive teacher affect. Second, the effect of positive teacher affect on academic skill development was partly mediated via peer acceptance, while the effect of early academic skills on peer acceptance was partly mediated via positive teacher affect. The results suggest that a warm and supportive teacher can increase a student's peer acceptance, which, in turn, is positively associated with learning outcomes.
Stredny, Rebecca; Ball, J.
Little research has evaluated the validity of the Coping Deficit Index (CDI) of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS). Because the CS Depression Index (DEPI) has frequently been found to yield false negatives, the CDI has been proposed as an alternative means of assessing social coping skills that may relate to depression. This study examined…
Reese, Curt; Wells, Terri
This article describes a game used for teaching discussion skills to English as a Second Language (ESL) students. It was originally designed for students wanting to prepare for graduate study at U.S. universities has been since used for other ESL students wanting to improve conversation skills. The game focuses on common phrases helpful for…
Rungruang, Parisa; Donohue, Ross
Few studies have examined the links between perceived transferability of education or perceived transferability of skills and organisational commitment. This paper reports on a study examining the relationships between transferability of education and transferability of skills, and the three components of organisational commitment (affective,…
Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris
The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics were examined in children with learning disabilities. As expected, the children with learning disabilities scored poorer on both the locomotor and object-control subtests than their typically developing peers. Furthermore, in children with learning disabilities a specific relationship was observed between reading and locomotor skills and a trend was found for a relationship between mathematics and object-control skills: the larger children's learning lag, the poorer their motor skill scores. This study stresses the importance of specific interventions facilitating both motor and academic abilities.
DuPaul, George J; Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Maczuga, Steve
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to exhibit significantly lower academic and social functioning than other children. Yet the field currently lacks knowledge about specific impairment trajectories experienced by children with ADHD, which may constrain early screening and intervention effectiveness. Data were analyzed from a nationally representative U.S. cohort in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) for 590 children (72.7 % male) whose parents reported a formal diagnosis of ADHD. Children's math, reading, and interpersonal skills were assessed at 5 time points between kindergarten and fifth grade. Growth mixture model analyses indicated 4 latent trajectory classes for reading, 8 classes for math, and 4 classes for interpersonal skills. Membership in reading and math trajectory classes was strongly related; overlaps with interpersonal skills classes were weaker. Trajectory class membership was correlated with demographic characteristics and behavioral functioning. Children with ADHD display substantial heterogeneity in their reading, math, and interpersonal growth trajectories, with some groups of children especially likely to display relatively severe levels of academic and social impairment over time. Early screening and intervention to address impairment, particularly reading difficulties, among kindergarten students with ADHD is warranted.
Harris-Keith, Colleen Susan
Though research into academic library director leadership has established leadership skills and qualities required for success, little research has been done to establish where in their career library directors were most likely to acquire those skills and qualities. This research project surveyed academic library directors at Carnegie-designated…
Kaufmann, Liane; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph
ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and academic difficulties are frequently associated, but to date this link is poorly understood. In order to explore which components of number processing and calculation skills may be disturbed in children with ADHD we presented a series of respective tasks to 9- to 12-year-old children with ADHD-combined type and matched children without ADHD (of any type) without concomitant dyscalculia and/or dyslexia. Overall, group differences were not significant regarding overlearned and explicitly trained simple and complex calculation skills. More basic number processing skills are - for instance - the ability to compare one-digit numbers according to their magnitude (so-called magnitude comparison), to count or to transcode numbers, i.e. to write down an Arabic number '21' in verbal dictation. Significant differences favouring control children in basic number processing skills were obtained in a number comparison task and in a dot enumeration task. Importantly, our results cannot be explained by group differences regarding specific working memory and executive function components. Thus, number processing skills and in particular the processing of numerical magnitude should be investigated in children diagnosed with ADHD even when no comorbid learning disabilities are reported.
Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Seidman, Larry J.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L.; Faraone, Stephen V.
The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as…
Anderson, Sara; Phillips, Deborah
We employed data from a longitudinal investigation of over 1,000 children who participated in Tulsa's universal school-based pre-K program in 2005, and path modeling techniques, to examine the contribution of pre-K classroom quality to both kindergarten- and middle-school academic skills. We also examined gender and income-related differences in quality-outcome associations. Both Instructional and Emotional Support in pre-K classrooms, but not Classroom Management, assessed with the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS), were associated with kindergarten academic skills and, modestly indirectly associated through these immediate impacts, to middle-school test scores. Linear associations were found for Instructional Support whereas nonlinear patterns of association were evident for Emotional Support. Gender and income differences characterized Instructional Support-outcome associations. Results are discussed in terms of implications for improving pre-K quality as one avenue for supporting the ongoing development of academic skills. (PsycINFO Database Record
Westman, Alida S; Alexander, Nicholas A
Among 139 students (mean age 21.8, SD=3.5), use of Schmeck's Deep Processing learning style (looking for conceptual understanding) on academic materials correlated modestly with its use on religious materials. The same was true for Elaborative Processing (looking for associations and applications). Both Deep and Elaborative Processing of academic materials correlated with better Analytical Skills. Only Elaborative Processing of religious materials correlated with Religiousness. Religiousness correlated with poorer Analytical Skills on academic materials and with a more Concrete Divine Concept; however, specific religious affiliation made a difference. Our understanding of the role of contents of materials and characteristics of learners on the types of learning strategies used and competence with cognitive skills is still very limited.
Langberg, Joshua M.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Altaye, Mekibib; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy; Hechtman, Lily
The current study examined predictors of academic achievement, measured by standardized test scores, and performance, measured by school grades, in adolescents (Mn = 16.8) who met diagnostic criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-Combined type in early childhood (Mn age = 8.5; N = 579). Several mediation models were also…
DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.
The most common and widely studied treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) are psychostimulant medications and behavioral interventions. The purpose of this article is to review empirically-supported, behavioral school-based interventions that are designed to enhance classroom behavior and academic achievement of students…
Au, Raymond C. P.; Watkins, David A.; Hattie, John A. C.
The aim of the present study is to explore a causal model of academic achievement and learning-related personal variables by testing the nature of relationships between learned hopelessness, its risk factors and hopelessness deficits as proposed in major theories in this area. The model investigates affective-motivational characteristics of…
Langberg, Joshua M.; Becker, Stephen P.
Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) frequently experience academic impairment, including lower grades than their peers and elevated risk for grade retention and school dropout. Medication is the most commonly used treatment for youth with ADHD, and it is therefore essential to understand the extent to which medication use…
Wu, Szu-Ying; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
Childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with academic underachievement and school dysfunction. Little is known whether such association varies with the persistence of ADHD symptoms. The authors investigated school functioning among youths with and without persistent ADHD and identified the clinical correlates for…
Rogers, Maria; Hwang, Heungsun; Toplak, Maggie; Weiss, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary
This study investigated the role of inattention and working memory in predicting academic achievement in 145 adolescents aged 13 to 18 referred for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Path analysis was used to examine whether auditory-verbal and visual-spatial working memory would mediate the relationships between classroom inattention symptoms and achievement outcomes. Results provide support for the mediational model. Behavioral inattention significantly predicted both auditory-verbal and visual-spatial working memory performance. Auditory-verbal working memory was strongly associated with adolescents' achievement in reading and mathematics, while visual-spatial working memory was only associated with achievement in mathematics. The path from inattention symptoms to reading was partially mediated by the working memory variables, but the path from inattention to mathematics was not mediated by working memory. The proposed model demonstrated a good fit to the data and explained a substantial amount of variance in the adolescents' achievement outcomes. These findings imply that working memory is a risk factor for academic failure for adolescents with attentional problems.
The Status of Alternative Assessments through the 1990s: Performance and Authentic Assessments in Relation to Vocational-Technical Education Technical Skills, Workplace Skills, and Related Academic Skills.
This study examines performance and authentic assessments related to job and academic skills. It begins with a general historical perspective that discusses the evolution of assessment systems used by education and industry in the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Japan. The influence of federal policy also is discussed,…
McClure, Charles R.; And Others
This report summarizes activities conducted from fall 1984 through spring 1985, under a planning grant from the Council on Library Resources for Innovation and Improvement of Basic and Supplementary Education for Academic and Research Libraries. The report includes a review of selected literature related to educational programs for academic…
Cheek, Lisa; Logan, Karen; Sprecher, Sharon; Streitmatter, Barbara
This action research project examined the impact of a program for improving age-inappropriate behaviors that interfere with personal and academic progress. A total of 69 students from 3 elementary classrooms and 2 speech therapy groups were involved in the research. The targeted population consisted of fourth and sixth graders; students with…
Melton, Rebecca Mindigo
Research indicates that students underachieve in college settings, in spite of intellect and other abilities. This research tested the likelihood of self-efficacy for learning, conscientiousness, impulsivity, procrastination and temporal discounting to predict academic achievement in an online competency-based university. Undergraduate students (N…
McWilliams, Robyn; Allan, Quentin
Learning advisors provide academic literacy development support in a variety of configurations, ranging from one-on-one consultations through to large-scale lectures. Such lectures can be generic, stand-alone modules or embedded within a discipline-specific course. Pragmatic and institutional considerations suggest that a generic model of delivery…
Mashburn, Andrew J; Pianta, Robert C; Hamre, Bridget K; Downer, Jason T; Barbarin, Oscar A; Bryant, Donna; Burchinal, Margaret; Early, Diane M; Howes, Carollee
This study examined development of academic, language, and social skills among 4-year-olds in publicly supported prekindergarten (pre-K) programs in relation to 3 methods of measuring pre-K quality, which are as follows: (a) adherence to 9 standards of quality related to program infrastructure and design, (b) observations of the overall quality of classroom environments, and (c) observations of teachers' emotional and instructional interactions with children in classrooms. Participants were 2,439 children enrolled in 671 pre-K classrooms in 11 states. Adjusting for prior skill levels, child and family characteristics, program characteristics, and state, teachers' instructional interactions predicted academic and language skills and teachers' emotional interactions predicted teacher-reported social skills. Findings suggest that policies, program development, and professional development efforts that improve teacher-child interactions can facilitate children's school readiness.
Rivan, Christine A.; Weber, Annette M.
This report describes a program implemented to improve inadequate student communication skills, specifically in the areas of listening, speaking, social, and emotional development. The targeted population consisted of first and second grade students in a middle class community, located in central Illinois. Evidence for the existence of the problem…
Banfi, Cristina S.
One English-as-a-Foreign-Language teacher describes how she encourages students to extend their reading skills by undertaking a range of tasks that lead to the production of a portfolio of work connected with a particular title. Provides an overview of the work carried out over a period of 3 years with seven groups of students at university and…
Decker, Janice E.
Brain-based initiatives and school readiness mandates in education have prompted researchers to examine the biological mechanisms associated with learning in the hope that understanding empirical evidence can maximize learning potential. Current research has examined working memory skills in relationship to early learning. The function of working…
Sullivan, Amanda L.; Field, Samuel
This study investigated associations between enrollment in preschool special education and school readiness skills for children with mild to moderate delays. Findings indicated that on average, children who received preschool special education services had lower scores in reading and math in kindergarten than similar children who did not receive…
Lowenstein, Amy E; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H; Raver, C Cybele; Jones, Stephanie M; Pess, Rachel A
In this study we used data on a sample of children in the Chicago Public Schools in areas of concentrated poverty-related disadvantage to examine associations between school climate and low-income children's language/literacy and math skills during the transition to kindergarten. We also explored whether teacher-child closeness moderated these associations. Multilevel modeling analyses conducted using a sample of 242 children nested in 102 elementary schools revealed that low adult support in the school was significantly associated with children's poorer language/literacy and math skills in kindergarten. Teacher-child closeness predicted children's higher language/literacy and math scores and moderated the association between low adult support and children's academic skills. Among children who were high on closeness with their teacher, those in schools with high levels of adult support showed stronger language/literacy and math skills. There were no significant associations between adult support and the academic skills of children with medium or low levels of teacher-child closeness. Results shed light on the importance of adult support at both school and classroom levels in promoting low-income children's academic skills during the transition to kindergarten.
Derish, Pamela A; Maa, John; Ascher, Nancy L; Harris, Hobart W
Writing and publishing are key to career development and academic success for surgeons who have less time than ever to devote to these activities. To improve the scientific writing skills of its faculty and trainees and to help them complete their manuscripts and grant proposals more quickly, the Department of Surgery at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) established a service dedicated to scientific writing and editing. Through coursework in scientific writing, individual writing consultations, and editorial review, the service helps academic surgeons with the difficult tasks of writing and publishing their research and seeking extramural funding. The service has rapidly become a successful adjunct to the academic mission of the UCSF Department of Surgery and could offer a model for other academic surgery departments to increase scientific productivity and advance the academic surgical mission.
Guyton, Edith; Farokhi, Elizabeth
In order to determine if successful academic performance assures good teaching, four measures of academic achievement of teacher education graduates of Georgia State University from 1981 through 1984 were correlated with on-the-job performance assessments. Results are presented and implications for education policies are discussed. (Author/MT)
Academic writing is a challenging task. Expert writers apply various writing skills as they anticipate the reader’s view of their text while paying attention to structure and content. Research in the high school setting shows that the acquisition of writing skills can be supported by single-strategy training. However, research in higher education is scarce. We tested whether the development of academic writing skills can also be effectively supported by training single strategies or even combined strategies. As metacognition is an important skill for advanced and adult learners, we focused in this study on the benefit of combined cognitive strategies with and without a metacognitive strategy. An experiment including three conditions was conducted (N = 60 German-speaking psychology undergraduates, M = 22.8, SD = 4.4), which lasted for three hours. Each group received a modeling intervention of a basic cognitive strategy on the application of text structure knowledge. Two groups received an additional modeling intervention with either a cognitive strategy treatment on text summarization or a metacognitive strategy treatment on self-monitoring the writing process. One group received no further strategy treatment. Prior knowledge and learning outcomes were measured with a specially developed test on academic writing skills. In addition, all participants wrote an abstract of an empirical article. We found that learners who received the additional self-monitoring strategy intervention benefited significantly more in terms of acquisition of academic writing skills and the quality of their texts than learners who did not receive this intervention. Thus, the results underline the importance of self-monitoring strategies in academic writing. Implications and further research opportunities are discussed. PMID:26941671
Academic writing is a challenging task. Expert writers apply various writing skills as they anticipate the reader's view of their text while paying attention to structure and content. Research in the high school setting shows that the acquisition of writing skills can be supported by single-strategy training. However, research in higher education is scarce. We tested whether the development of academic writing skills can also be effectively supported by training single strategies or even combined strategies. As metacognition is an important skill for advanced and adult learners, we focused in this study on the benefit of combined cognitive strategies with and without a metacognitive strategy. An experiment including three conditions was conducted (N = 60 German-speaking psychology undergraduates, M = 22.8, SD = 4.4), which lasted for three hours. Each group received a modeling intervention of a basic cognitive strategy on the application of text structure knowledge. Two groups received an additional modeling intervention with either a cognitive strategy treatment on text summarization or a metacognitive strategy treatment on self-monitoring the writing process. One group received no further strategy treatment. Prior knowledge and learning outcomes were measured with a specially developed test on academic writing skills. In addition, all participants wrote an abstract of an empirical article. We found that learners who received the additional self-monitoring strategy intervention benefited significantly more in terms of acquisition of academic writing skills and the quality of their texts than learners who did not receive this intervention. Thus, the results underline the importance of self-monitoring strategies in academic writing. Implications and further research opportunities are discussed.
de Jesús, Araiza Vázquez María; Claudia, Dörfer; Rosalinda, Castillo Corpus
This research was to establish the relationship between qualities of learning; learning skills and academic performance in undergraduate students. 310 undergraduates participated in this research of which 72% are female and 28% male. All responded Scale Learning Strategies of Roman and Gallego (1994) and Questionnaire Learning Styles of…
Wilson, Beverly J.; Petaja, Holly; Mancil, Larissa
Research Findings: Aggressive/rejected children are at risk for continuing conduct and school problems. Some limited research indicates that these children have attention problems. Previous research has linked attention problems with academic performance. The current study investigated group differences in attention skills and the role of these…
The Mem-ExSpan Accelerative Cognitive Training System (MESACTS) is described as a cognitive skills training program for schools, businesses, and industry. The program achieves extraordinary academic results in reading and mathematics with 1 semester of input 4 days a week for 30 minutes a day. Intensive versions of the program accelerate…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.
As a preliminary version of the rationale and content for the English-language arts portion of the "Survey of Academic Skills: Grade 12," this booklet describes elements of the new reading and editing tests to be used to complement a direct writing assessment in this part of the 1987-88 California Assessment Program (CAP). After a brief…
Walker, Olga L.; Henderson, Heather A.
The goals of the current study were to examine whether children's social problem solving (SPS) skills are a mechanism through which temperament influences later academic achievement and whether sex moderates these associations. The participants included 1117 children enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of…
Lane, David; Oswald, Frederick L.
The educational literature, the popular press, and educated laypeople have all echoed a conclusion from the book "Academically Adrift" by Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa (which has now become received wisdom), namely, that 45% of college students showed no significant gains in critical thinking skills. Similar results were reported by…
Kikas, Eve; Silinskas, Gintautas
This longitudinal study aimed at examining the relationship between children's task persistence, mothers' academic help, and the development of children's literacy skills (reading and spelling) at the beginning of primary school. The participants were 870 children, 682 mothers, and 53 class teachers. Data were collected three times--at the…
Horstmanshof, Louise; Brownie, Sonya
Mastery of academic writing skills remains one of the greatest challenges for university students, especially in the first year. Amongst the reasons offered for the challenges are lack of clarity about the university's expectations and low levels of teacher feedback on work submitted, a failure to engage, and low levels of contact with teaching…
Shawer, Saad Fathy
This article examines the differences in language learning strategies (LLS) use between preservice teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) and Arabic as a second language (ASL). It also examines the relationship between LLS use and language performance (academic achievement and four language skills) among ASL students. The study made use…
This study examines academic and research librarian positions that require foreign language skills. Technical and public services are most likely to require language knowledge, while administrator and system librarian positions are the least likely. Overall, the requirements show a continued rise until the mid-1980s and a declining trend after…
Burns, Jolene; Byrne, Susan; Kiedaisch, Jan; Thiele, Nancy; Weber, Gwyn
This Action Research Project implemented a program for improving human relation skills intended to raise the academic performance level of students. The target population consists of kindergarten, seventh grade (regular/at-risk), and high school (regular/behavior disordered) students. Analysis of both research literature and problem evidence…
Despite acknowledgement of the benefits of self-assessment in higher education, disparity between student and academic assessments, with associated trends in overrating and underrating, plagues its meaningful use, particularly as a tool for formal assessment. This study examines self-assessment of capabilities in certain employability skills in…
Moles, Janet; Wishart, Llewellyn
This article reports on an action research project that was implemented to strengthen preservice teachers' academic skills and competencies in a Bachelor of Early Childhood Education course. Strategies identified as effective included mapping assessment tasks to State and National Early Childhood Education Curriculum and Standards Frameworks and…
Chawner, Brenda; Oliver, Gillian
A survey of New Zealand academic subject/reference librarians was conducted in mid-2011 to identify the most highly valued knowledge, skills and competencies of reference librarians working in libraries in the tertiary sector. The project was part of an international collaborative project involving 13 countries. The results from New Zealand show…
Freund, Stephen H.
The primary objective was to show the important need of academic skills, specifically general education coursework, to the effectiveness of the technician's expertise in the field of automobile repair. Additionally, I emphasized that one of the keys to the quality of the technician's education is the method of instruction analyzed through…
Collett, Gale A.
Longitudinal research has demonstrated that children's emotional and social skills are linked to their early academic achievement (Wentzel & Asher, 1995). Children who have difficulty paying attention, following directions, getting along with others, and controlling negative emotions like anger and distress do not do as well in school (Arnokl…
Eiduson, Sandra; Mitacek, Barbara
The Assessment Tool for Moderately Retarded Students in Academic Skills (1978) is designed for moderately retarded students (5-21 years) and mildly retarded students (3-14 years) who will be living in sheltered home and work settings. The assessment tool is based on a life centered curricular model concerned with developing--in a sequential…
Jenkins, Joseph R.; Jewell, Mark
A total of 413 students in grades 1-6 were administered the Basic Academic Skills Samples, the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, and the Metropolitan Achievement Test. Although the relationships among the three tests were reasonably strong, it appeared that the measures did not identify identical populations of at-risk students. (Author/JDD)
Wepner, Shelley B.; Henk, William A.; Clark Johnson, Virginia; Lovell, Sharon
Four academic deans investigated when and how they used interpersonal/negotiating skills to function effectively in their positions. For two full weeks, the deans coded their on-the-job interactions during scheduled meetings, informal meetings, spontaneous encounters/meetings, telephone calls, and select email. Analyses revealed that the…
Miller, Portia; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth
The urban-rural continuum provides unique contexts for development. Differences in access to resources and childrearing norms and practices in urban, suburban, and rural areas may be linked to disparities in early achievement. Yet, few studies examine associations between urbanicity and children's early academic skills. Using nationally…
Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Occupational Studies.
This document lists the industry-identified core academic knowledge and skills that should be possessed by all Georgia students who are enrolled in occupational cluster programs and are preparing to enter the work force or continue their occupational specialization at the postsecondary level. First, 63 related communications competencies are…
The purpose of this study was to examine whether approaches to learning moderated the association between child care classroom environment and Head Start children's academic skills. The data came from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES-2003 Cohort). The dataset is a nationally representative longitudinal study of Head Start…
Isgör, Isa Yücel
The purpose of this research was to investigate the predicting effect of high school students' metacognitive skills, exam anxiety and academic success levels upon their psychological well-being in a provincial center with a medium-scale population in Eastern Anatolian Region. The research group included totally 251 high school students including…
Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine
This study assessed the links between early maternal employment and children's later academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Using representative samples of children born in each country from 2000 to 2004 (Australia N = 5,093, U.K. N = 18,497), OLS regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between…
Ghiasvand, Arezoo Mohamadkhani; Naderi, Manijeh; Tafreshi, Mansoureh Zagheri; Ahmadi, Farzane; Hosseini, Meimanat
Introduction Time management skills are essential for nursing students’ success, and development of clinical competence. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between time management skills and anxiety and academic motivation of nursing students in Tehran medical sciences universities in 2015. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on 441 nursing students in three medical universities in Tehran. Random stratified sampling was done to select the samples. Data were collected using demographic Questionnaire, Time Management Questionnaire (TMQ), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), which was completed t by self-report. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 software with descriptive and analytical statistics such as ANOVA, independent t-test, Regression and Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Results Most participants had a moderate level of time Management skills (49%), State Anxiety (58%), Trait Anxiety (60%) and Academic Motivation (58%). The results also showed a statistically significant negative correlation between the students’ TMQ scores and the state anxiety (r= −0.282, p< 0.001) and trait anxiety scores (r= −0.325, p<0.001). Moreover, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between the students’ TMQ scores and AMS scores (r= 0.279, p< 0.001). Conclusion Regarding the findings, it seems that it is necessary to plan for improving time management skills in order to enhance academic motivation and reduce anxiety rates among nursing students. PMID:28243424
The purpose of this study was to examine the constructivist-based " case study teaching methodology" in High School Biology classes, specifically investigating the effect this methodology had on Academic Achievement, Science Attitudes, Problem Solving Skills, and Teamwork Skills. The effect of Teacher Beliefs toward constructivist learning environments was also explored and investigated, using a quantitative measure (the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey, or CLES). A quasi-experimental design used eleven classes, five teachers, and two hundred fifty two high school biology students over two separate, consecutive quarters of a school year. Two researcher-made instruments measured Academic Achievement after each study quarter. T-Tests were used to compare the Experimental Group (Case Study Teaching Methodology) to the Control Group (Traditional Teaching) during each study quarter. Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT) scores were used as a covariate for ANCOVA tests. Case Study Teaching Methodology had a statistically significant improvement on Academic Achievement during the first study quarter, but not the second quarter. Case Study Teaching Methodology had a statistically significant improvement on four of seven Science Attitudes, Problem Solving Skills, and Teamwork Skills during the second quarter of the study. This study is significant in that it addresses a knowledge gap regarding the effects of the constructivist-based case study teaching methodology on secondary science education. The theoretical implications of this study are meaningful: empirical evidence is added to the growing knowledge base regarding the benefits of constructivist theory. The practical implications are equally meaningful: case study teaching methodology is supported as an effective application of constructivist theory in the secondary science classroom.
Charlevoix, D. J.; Morris, A. R.
Engaging lower-division undergraduates in research experiences is a key but challenging aspect of guiding talented students into the geoscience research pipeline. UNAVCO conducted a summer internship program to prepare first and second year college students for participation in authentic, scientific research. Many students in their first two years of academic studies do not have the science content knowledge or sufficient math skills to conduct independent research. Students from groups historically underrepresented in the geosciences may face additional challenges in that they often have a less robust support structure to help them navigate the university environment and may be less aware of professional opportunities in the geosciences.UNAVCO, manager of NSF's geodetic facility, hosted four students during summer 2015 internship experience aimed to help them develop skills that will prepare them for research internships and skills that will help them advance professionally. Students spent eight weeks working with UNAVCO technical staff learning how to use equipment, prepare instrumentation for field campaigns, among other technical skills. Interns also participated in a suite of professional development activities including communications workshops, skills seminars, career circles, geology-focused field trips, and informal interactions with research interns and graduate student interns at UNAVCO. This presentation will outline the successes and challenges of engaging students early in their academic careers and outline the unique role such experiences can have in students' academic careers.
Isawumi, Oyeyinka David; Oyundoyin, John Olusegun
The study examined home and school environmental factors as determinant of social skills deficit among learners with intellectual disability in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study adopted survey research method using a sample size of fifty (50) pupils with intellectual disability who were purposively selected from five special primary schools in Lagos…
Brossard-Racine, Marie; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti; Majnemer, Annette
Motor difficulties are common in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although preliminary evidence has suggested that methylphenidate can improve the motor skills in children with ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), the effect of stimulant medication on motor performance in children newly diagnosed with…
Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lynch, John W
Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764, imputed), simulated effects of plausible interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequality in educational achievement at age 16 were examined. Progressive universal interventions (i.e., more intense intervention for those with greater need) to improve school entry academic skills could raise population levels of educational achievement by 5% and reduce absolute socioeconomic inequality in poor educational achievement by 15%.
Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lynch, John W
Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764, imputed), simulated effects of plausible interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequality in educational achievement at age 16 were examined. Progressive universal interventions (i.e., more intense intervention for those with greater need) to improve school entry academic skills could raise population levels of educational achievement by 5% and reduce absolute socioeconomic inequality in poor educational achievement by 15%. PMID:25327718
Madariaga, Miguel G; Evans, Arthur T; Brobbey, Wahab; Phillips, Martin; Lo, Evelyn; Rezai, Katayoun; Schwartz, David N; Trenholme, Gordon M; Weinstein, Robert A
Physicians in postgraduate training are expected to learn research methods but how best to achieve that curricular goal is unclear. This article describes a novel educational approach to develop research skills among infectious disease fellows. Five infectious disease fellows and two faculty members participated in a collaborative research project as a vehicle for active, problem-based learning. During the learning experience several tasks with specific learning objectives were achieved. The authors evaluated the weaknesses and strengths of the collaborative research project as an educational program. This problem-based approach for learning research methods seems more effective than traditional methods and may be applicable to a broad range of training programs.
Owens, Jayanti; Jackson, Heide
Although 11% (6.4 million) American children are diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the role of ADHD severity in shaping the association between ADHD diagnosis and academic achievement is not understood. Using a nationally-representative sample of 7830 U.S. kindergartners from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, we use regression and propensity score matching to compare diagnosed (N = 350) and undiagnosed children who are cognitively, behaviorally, and demographically similar. Diagnosed children with less severe ADHD-related behaviors on average scored lower in reading (–0.30 SD) and math (–0.22 SD) than their undiagnosed peers – a difference two times larger than that between diagnosed and undiagnosed children with more severe ADHD-related behaviors. Pharmacological treatment did not attenuate most of this “diagnostic labeling effect” among children with less severe ADHD-related behaviors. Negative factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis may outweigh potential benefits for achievement among children with less severe ADHD-related behaviors, even those receiving treatment. PMID:27886732
Kuldas, Seffetullah; Hashim, Shahabuddin; Ismail, Hairul Nizam
The adolescence period of life comes along with changes and challenges in terms of physical and cognitive development. In this hectic period, many adolescents may suffer more from various risk factors such as low socioeconomic status, substance abuse, sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicate that such disadvantaged backgrounds of Malaysian adolescent students lead to failure or underachievement in their academic performance. This narrative review scrutinises how some of these students are able to demonstrate academic resilience, which is satisfactory performance in cognitive or academic tasks in spite of their disadvantaged backgrounds. The review stresses the need for developing a caregiving relationship model for at-risk adolescent students in Malaysia. Such a model would allow educators to meet the students' needs for enhancing thinking skills, counteracting risk factors and demonstrating academic resilience.
Kuldas, Seffetullah; Hashim, Shahabuddin; Ismail, Hairul Nizam
The adolescence period of life comes along with changes and challenges in terms of physical and cognitive development. In this hectic period, many adolescents may suffer more from various risk factors such as low socioeconomic status, substance abuse, sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicate that such disadvantaged backgrounds of Malaysian adolescent students lead to failure or underachievement in their academic performance. This narrative review scrutinises how some of these students are able to demonstrate academic resilience, which is satisfactory performance in cognitive or academic tasks in spite of their disadvantaged backgrounds. The review stresses the need for developing a caregiving relationship model for at-risk adolescent students in Malaysia. Such a model would allow educators to meet the students' needs for enhancing thinking skills, counteracting risk factors and demonstrating academic resilience. PMID:25663734
This study explored the skills students develop through participation in instrumental music and the effect it has on their academic achievement through student and parent/guardian surveys. Fifty-eight percent of cognitive skills were identified as being obtained by a majority of students, 70% of affective skills, and 71% of meta-cognitive skills…
Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert
This study tested a conceptual model of the reciprocal relations among parents’ support for early learning and children's academic skills and preschool enrollment. Structural equation modeling of data from 6,250 children (ages 2-5) and parents in the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) revealed that parental support for early learning was associated with gains in children's academic skills, which, in turn, were associated with their likelihood of preschool attendance. Preschool experience then was associated with further gains in children's early academic competencies, which were then associated with increased parental support. These patterns varied by parents' nativity status. Specifically, foreign-born parents' support for early learning was directly linked with preschool enrollment and the association between the academic skills of children and parental support was also stronger for foreign-born parents. These immigration-related patterns were primarily driven by immigrant families who originated from Latin America, rather than Asia and did not vary by immigrants’ socioeconomic circumstances. Together, these results underscore the value of considering the synergistic relations between the home and school systems as well as “child effects” and population diversity in developmental research. PMID:25938712
Hébert, Ali; Hauf, Petra
Although anecdotal evidence and research alike espouse the benefits of service learning, some researchers have suggested that more rigorous testing is required in order to determine its true effect on students. This is particularly true in the case of academic development, which has been inconsistently linked to service learning. It has been…
Eleby, Calvin, Jr.
"The major problems facing the world today can be solved only if we improve our understanding of human behavior" (Schlinger, 2005, pg. 48) and how it affects our educational experience in high school. The purpose of this study was to explore and examine to what extent there exists a relationship between social and academic study …
Womack, Sue A.; Marchant, Michelle; Borders, Deah
Social skill deficits and learning disabilities often coexist. Academic work is negatively impacted by students' lack of social skills. Remediation of these deficits in pull-out programs has not generally resulted in transfer to real-world settings. Embedding social skills instruction within literature during a read-aloud session taught in the…
Langberg, Joshua M; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Marshall, Stephen; Evans, Steven W
This study investigated the relative impact of total time slept per night and daytime sleepiness on the academic functioning of 100 middle school-aged youth (mean age = 11.9) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The primary goal of the study was to determine if total time slept per night and/or daytime sleepiness, as measured by youth self-report on the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS), predicted academic functioning above and beyond symptoms of ADHD and relevant covariates, such as intelligence, achievement scores and parent education level. Self-reported daytime sleepiness but not self-reported total time slept per night was associated significantly with all academic outcomes. When examined in a hierarchical regression model, self-reported daytime sleepiness significantly predicted parent-rated homework problems and academic impairment and teacher-rated academic competence above and beyond symptoms of ADHD and relevant covariates, but did not predict grade point average or teacher-rated academic impairment. The implications of these findings for understanding more clearly the association between ADHD and sleep and the functional implications of this relationship are discussed.
Nickless, Lesley J
The increase in patient acuity in primary and secondary settings is continuing, with a corresponding increase in the need for technological competence in these areas. Evidence, however, both nationally and internationally, suggests that these expectations are not being met. This paper offers a review of the literature on acute care, with a specific focus on pre-registration nursing students and the development of acute care skills. Three themes are discussed: factors contributing to the acute care skills deficit, the knowledge and skills required to work in acute care and strategies used to support the acquisition of acute care skills. In response to the review, and based upon the evidence-based solutions identified, the clinical skills team at Bournemouth University designed and developed two teaching sessions, using simulation and role play to support the acquisition of acute care skills in pre-registration students. Student evaluations identify that their knowledge, competence and confidence in this area have increased following the teaching sessions, although caution remains regarding transferability of these skills into the practice environment.
Tricio, Jorge A; Woolford, Mark J; Escudier, Michael P
Peer assessment is increasingly being encouraged to enhance dental students' learning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the educational impact in terms of academic achievements and reflective thinking of a formative prospective peer assessment and feedback protocol. Volunteer final-year dental students at King's College London Dental Institute, UK, received training on peer assessment, peer feedback, and self-reflection. At the beginning (baseline) and end (resultant) of the 2012-13 academic year, 86 students (55% of the year group) completed a reflection questionnaire (RQ). Sixty-eight of those students used a modified Direct Observation of Procedural Skills (DOPS) as a framework for peer assessment and peer feedback during a complete academic year. End-of-year, high-stakes examination grades and RQ scores from the participants and nonparticipants were statistically compared. The participants completed 576 peer DOPS. Those 22 students who peer assessed each other ≥10 times exhibited highly statistically significant differences and powerful positive effect sizes in their high-stakes exam grades (p=0.0001, d=0.74) and critical reflection skills (p=0.005, d=1.41) when compared to those who did not assess one another. Furthermore, only the same 22 students showed a statistically significant increase and positive effect size in their critical reflection skills from baseline to resultant (p=0.003, d=1.04). The results of this study suggest that the protocol used has the potential to impact dental students' academic and reflection skills, provided it is practiced in ten or more peer encounters and ensuring peer feedback is provided followed by self-reflection.
Morgan, Joseph John; Hsiao, Yun-Ju; Dobbins, Nicole; Brown, Nancy B.; Lyons, Catherine
Skills related to social-emotional learning (SEL) are essential for college and career readiness. Failure to use appropriate skills for SEL in school is often linked to several negative academic outcomes, including rejection by school community members, academic deficits, and higher rates of problematic behavior. Social skills interventions are…
Bolic Baric, Vedrana; Hellberg, Kristina; Kjellberg, Anette; Hemmingsson, Helena
The purpose of this study was to describe and explore the experiences of support at school among young adults with Asperger's disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and also to examine what support they, in retrospect, described as influencing learning. Purposive sampling was used to enroll participants. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 13 young adults aged between 20 and 29 years. A qualitative analysis, based on interpreting people's experiences, was conducted by grouping and searching for patterns in data. The findings indicate that the participants experienced difficulties at school that included academic, social, and emotional conditions, all of which could influence learning. Support for learning included small groups, individualized teaching methods, teachers who cared, and practical and emotional support. These clusters together confirm the overall understanding that support for learning aligns academic and psychosocial support. In conclusion, academic support combined with psychosocial support at school seems to be crucial for learning among students with Asperger's disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Potter, Daniel; Mashburn, Andrew; Grissmer, David
Current explanations of social class gaps in children's early academic skills tend to focus on non-cognitive skills that more advantaged children acquire in the family. Accordingly, social class matters because the cultural resources more abundant in advantaged families cultivate children's repertories and tool kits, which allow them to more easily navigate social institutions, such as schools. Within these accounts, parenting practices matter for children's academic success, but for seemingly arbitrary reasons. Alternatively, findings from current neuroscience research indicate that family context matters for children because it cultivates neural networks that assist in learning and the development of academic skills. That is, children's exposure to particular parenting practices and stimulating home environments contribute to the growth in neurocognitive skills that affect later academic performance. We synthesize sociological and neuroscience accounts of developmental inequality by focusing on one such skill-fine motor skills-to illustrate how family context alters children's early academic performance. Our findings support an interdisciplinary account of academic inequality, and extend current accounts of the family's role in the transmission of social inequality.
Gooding, Lori F
Three separate studies were conducted in school, residential and after-school care settings to test the effectiveness of a music therapy-based social skills intervention program on improving social competence in children and adolescents. A total of 45 children (n = 12; n = 13; n = 20) aged 6-17 years with social skills deficits participated in a group-based five session intervention program. The same curriculum, adapted to be age appropriate, was used at all 3 sites. Specific deficits within the social skills areas of peer relations and self-management skills were targeted. Active interventions like music performance, movement to music and improvisation were used. Cognitive-behavioral techniques like modeling, feedback, transfer training and problem solving were also incorporated. Data on social functioning were collected before, during, and after the music therapy intervention from participants, appropriate adult personnel and via behavioral observations. Results indicated that significant improvements in social functioning were found in (a) school participant pre and post self-ratings, (b) researcher pre and post ratings of school participants, (c) case manager's pre and post treatment ratings for the residential participants, (d) after-school care participants' pre and post self-ratings, and (e) behavioral observations at all three settings. Additional changes, although not significant, were noted in teacher ratings, residential participant self- and peer ratings, and after-school case manager ratings. Results from these studies suggest that the music therapy intervention was effective in improving social competence in children and adolescents with social deficits. More research is warranted to provide additional guidance about the use of music therapy interventions to improve social functioning.
Larsen, Jessica Maria
Memory assessment can often alert practitioners and educators to learning problems children may be experiencing. Results of a memory assessment may indicate that a child has a specific memory deficit in verbal memory, visual memory, or both. Deficits in visual or verbal modes of memory could potentially have adverse effects on academic…
Rhoades, Brittany L.; Warren, Heather K.; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Greenberg, Mark T.
Recently, research has begun to identify cognitive and social-emotional predictors of early academic success. Yet few studies have examined the mechanisms by which children's social-emotional skills are associated with later academic success. The present study examines the associations between preschool emotion knowledge, kindergarten attention…
Swart, Arthur James; Lombard, Kobus; de Jager, Henk
Poor academic success by African engineering students is currently experienced in many higher educational institutions, contributing to lower financial subsidies by local governments. One of the contributing factors to this low academic success may be the poor time management skills of these students. This article endeavours to explore this…
van der Worp-van der Kamp, Lidy; Pijl, Sip Jan; Bijstra, Jan O.; van den Bosch, Els J.
Academic learning has always been a serious issue for students with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) and their teachers. However, teaching academic skills could be an important protective and curative factor for the problem behaviour of these students. The current review was conducted to study the effect of interventions developed to…
Park, Heeyoung; Lombardino, Linda J
Processing speed deficits along with phonological awareness deficits have been identified as risk factors for dyslexia. This study was designed to examine the behavioral profiles of two groups, a younger (6-8 years) and an older (10-15 years) group of dyslexic children for the purposes of (1) evaluating the degree to which phonological awareness and processing speed deficits occur in the two developmental cohorts; (2) determining the strength of relationships between the groups' respective mean scores on cognitive tasks of phonological awareness and processing speed and their scores on component skills of reading; and (3) evaluating the degree to which phonological awareness and processing speed serve as concurrent predictors of component reading skills for each group. The mean scaled scores for both groups were similar on all but one processing speed task. The older group was significantly more depressed on a visual matching test of attention, scanning, and speed. Correlations between reading skills and the cognitive constructs were very similar for both age-groups. Neither of the two phonological awareness tasks correlated with either of the two processing speed tasks or with any of the three measures of reading. One of the two processing speed measures served as a concurrent predictor of word- and text-level reading in the younger, however, only the rapid naming measure functioned as a concurrent predictor of word reading in the older group. Conversely, phonological processing measures did not serve as concurrent predictors for word-level or text-level reading in either of the groups. Descriptive analyses of individual subjects' deficits in the domains of phonological awareness and processing speed revealed that (1) both linguistic and nonlinguistic processing speed deficits in the younger dyslexic children occurred at higher rates than deficits in phonological awareness and (2) cognitive deficits within and across these two domains were greater in the older
GHAZIVAKILI, ZOHRE; NOROUZI NIA, ROOHANGIZ; PANAHI, FARIDE; KARIMI, MEHRDAD; GHOLSORKHI, HAYEDE; AHMADI, ZARRIN
Introduction: The Current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Science. Methods: This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified random sampling. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of p<0.05. Results: Our findings indicated the significant difference of mean score in four learning style, suggesting university students with convergent learning style have better performance than other groups. Also learning style had a relationship with age, gender, field of study, semester and job. The results about the critical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant relationship between
Abikoff, Howard; And Others
Thirty-four stimulant-treated, academically deficient, and attention deficit disordered, hyperactive (ADDH) boys (ages 7-12) participated in a 16-week, intensive cognitive training program focusing on academic skills and tasks. Intervention did not enhance self-esteem and there was poor agreement between teacher ratings of academic competence and…
Huppert, J.; Lomask, S. Michal; Lazarowitz, R.
Investigates the impact of computer simulation on students' academic achievement and their mastery of science process skills with regard to their cognitive stages. Based on the computer simulation program "The Growth Curve of Microorganisms" which requires 10th grade biology students to use problem solving skills while simultaneously…
Murrah, William M., III
The achievement score gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged children at school entry is a major problem in education today. Identifying the skills critical for school readiness is an important step in developing interventions aimed at addressing these score gaps. The purpose of this study is to compare a number of school readiness skills with an eye toward finding out which are the best predictors of later academic achievement in math, reading, and science. The predictors were early reading, math, general knowledge, socioemotional skills, and motor skills. Data were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of 1998 (NCES, 1998) database. While controlling for an extensive set of family characteristics, predictions were made across five years - from the end of kindergarten to the end of fifth grade. Consistent with current findings, reading and math skills predicted later achievement. Interestingly, general knowledge, attention, and fine motor skills also proved to be important predictors of later academic achievement, but socioemotional skills were not. The findings were interpreted from a neurobiological perspective involving the development of self-regulation. These school entry skills are used to predict later achievement in reading, math, and science. I argued that in addition to acquiring early academic knowledge, children need to regulate the use of this knowledge to meet academic goals.
Keating, Mike; O'Siochru, Cathal; Watt, Sal
This article describes a C-SAP-funded project evaluating the introduction of a new tutorial programme for first year Sociology students, which sought to integrate a "skills framework" to enable students to develop a range of academic skills alongside their study of the subject. The pegagogical and institutional background to the decision…
Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Foster, Tricia D.
Early behavioral self-regulation is an important predictor of the skills children need to be successful in school. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) through which self-regulation affects academic achievement. The current study investigates the possibility that two aspects of children's social func- tioning, social skills and problem…
Dinehart, Laura; Manfra, Louis
Research Findings: Given the growing literature pertaining to the importance of fine motor skills for later academic achievement (D. W. Grissmer, K. J. Grimm, S. M. Aiyer, W. M. Murrah, & J. S. Steele, 2010), the current study examines whether the fine motor skills of economically disadvantaged preschool students predict later academic…
Bunford, Nora; Evans, Steven W; Becker, Stephen P; Langberg, Joshua M
Although studies document an association between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and social problems, little is known about mediating or moderating mechanisms underlying this association. We examined whether, among youth, emotion dysregulation (ED) mediates the negative association between ADHD and social skills, and whether this mediational process is moderated by symptoms of depression. A total of 171 youth with ADHD (76 % male; Mage = 12.15, SD = 0.95) and their parents completed measures of ED, depression, and social skills. Results indicated that, after controlling for oppositional defiant disorder, the negative association between ADHD and social skills was mediated by ED. Further, this indirect effect was relevant for youth with non-clinical and subclinical levels of depression but not for those with clinical levels of depression. These findings underscore the importance of ED in the association between ADHD and social functioning among youth and suggest a need for additional research to understand how and when ED impacts such functioning.
Griffiths, Lauren; Nicolls, Barbara
The Faculty of Society and Health at Buckinghamshire New University is committed to the widening participation agenda and to providing support that enables our students to achieve the requirements of the programme and registration. Literacy and numeracy skill development is an integral part of the academic modules of our current pre-registration curriculum. E-Support4U was launched in semester two of 2008 with the aim of extending academic writing support beyond the confines of the University and into the practice arena. Evaluation of the project tentatively suggests that the scaffold approach to academic writing, based on Salmon's 5-stage framework, may have contributed to a 100% pass rate for the reflective practice-based assignment for this cohort of students. However, participants experienced issues around access; differing levels of IT skills, dispersed placements that contributed to a lack of active collaboration within the group. Recommendations include early introduction of blended learning and incorporation of web 2.0 technology into the curriculum.
Gol, Dikla; Jarus, Tal
This preliminary study compared the daily living skills of children with and without attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the influence of a social skills training group on these skills. Twenty-seven children with ADHD (2 females, 25 males; age range 5 to 8y, mean 6y 6mo, SD 10mo), and 24 children without ADHD (8 females, 16 males; age range 5 to 8y, mean 6y 11mo, SD 10mo) performed the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). Fourteen of the children with ADHD used medication daily. Nine of the total group with ADHD were randomly selected to attend group treatment which focused on social skills training, through meaningful occupations (e.g. art, games, cooking). Children were evaluated at the beginning of group treatment and after 10 sessions. Ten children without ADHD were evaluated at similar intervals. Children with ADHD initially achieved significantly lower scores on the AMPS in all process skills (p<0.001) and in the coordination motor subtest (p<0.005) than children without ADHD. Children with ADHD significantly improved from the first to the second evaluation and no longer differed from the children without ADHD after treatment (p<0.008). The results emphasize the need for a focus upon occupation in assessment and treatment of children with ADHD.
Graham, Lorraine; Bellert, Anne; Thomas, Jenny; Pegg, John
QuickSmart is a basic academic skills intervention designed for persistently low-achieving students in the middle years of schooling that aims to improve the automaticity of basic skills to improve higher-order processes, such as problem solving and comprehension, as measured on standardized tests. The QuickSmart instructional program consists of three structured, teacher- or teacher aide-directed, 30-minute, small-group lessons each week for approximately 26 weeks. In this study, 42 middle school students experiencing learning difficulties (LD) completed the QuickSmart reading program, and a further 42 students with LD took part in the QuickSmart mathematics program. To investigate the effects of the intervention, comparisons were made between the reading and mathematics progress of the intervention group and a group of 10 high-achieving and 10 average-achieving peers. The results indicated that although the standardized reading comprehension and mathematics scores of QuickSmart students remained below those of comparison students, they improved significantly from pretest to posttest. In contrast, the standardized scores of comparison students were not significantly different from pretest to posttest. On measures of response speed and accuracy gathered using the Cognitive Aptitude Assessment System (CAAS), QuickSmart students were able to narrow the gap between their performance and that of their high- and average-achieving peers. Implications are drawn regarding the importance of interventions that emphasize the automaticity of basic academic skills for students with learning difficulties.
Putwain, Dave; Sander, Paul; Larkin, Derek
Background: Academic self-efficacy, when operationalized as mastery over domain-specific knowledge, has been found to be a predictor of academic achievement and emotions. Although academic emotions are also a predictor of academic achievement, there is limited evidence for reciprocal relations with academic achievement. Aims: To examine whether…
Martin, Andrew J.
Background: Academic buoyancy is students' capacity to successfully overcome setback and challenge that is typical of the ordinary course of everyday academic life. It may represent an important factor on the psycho-educational landscape assisting students who experience difficulties in school and schoolwork. Aims: This study investigated the…
Srivastava, Mamta; Jena, S. S.
Skills acquisition is vital for any economic growth, particularly in an era of economic and technological changes. The need for skill development is a vital challenge, foremost for a developing nation, such as India. Therefore, vocational education and training (VET) is a direct means of providing workers with skills more relevant to their…
Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner; Farran, Dale Clark; Fuhs, Mary Wagner
Although research suggests associations between children's executive function skills and their academic achievement, the specific mechanisms that may help explain these associations in early childhood are unclear. This study examined whether children's (N = 1,103; M age = 54.5 months) executive function skills at the beginning of prekindergarten (pre-K) predict their learning-related behaviors in the classroom and whether these behaviors then mediate associations between children's executive function skills and their pre-K literacy, language, and mathematic gains. Learning-related behaviors were quantified in terms of (a) higher levels of involvement in learning opportunities; (b) greater frequency of participation in activities that require sequential steps; (c) more participation in social-learning interactions; and (d) less instances of being unoccupied, disruptive, or in time out. Results indicated that children's learning-related behaviors mediated associations between executive function skills and literacy and mathematics gains through children's level of involvement, sequential learning behaviors, and disengagement from the classroom. The implications of the findings for early childhood education are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether approaches to learning moderated the association between child care classroom environment and Head Start children's academic skills. The data came from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES-2003 Cohort). The dataset is a nationally representative longitudinal study of Head Start children. The sample was selected using the stratified 4-stage sampling procedure. Data was collected in fall 2003, spring 2004, spring 2005, and spring 2006 in the first year of kindergarten. Participants included 3- and 4-year-old Head Start children (n = 786; 387 boys, 399 girls; 119 Hispanic children, 280 African American children, 312 Caucasian children). Head Start children's academic skills in letter-word identification, dictation/spelling, and mathematics at the 4 time points were measured by the Woodcock-Johnson Achievement Battery tests. Approaches to learning in fall 2003 was measured by the teacher report of the Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale. Child care classroom quality in fall 2003 was measured by the revised Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale. Results of the linear mixed effects models demonstrated that approaches to learning significantly moderated the effect of child care classroom quality on Head Start children's writing and spelling. Specifically, positive approaches to learning mitigated the negative effect of lower levels of classroom quality on dictation/spelling. Results underscore the important role of approaches to learning as a protective factor. Implications for early childhood educators with an emphasis on learning goals for disengaged children are discussed.
Li-Grining, Christine; Haas, Kelly
The Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP), a randomized, classroom-based mental health intervention, aimed to improve teachers' behavior management of preschoolers' dysregulated behavior. The current follow-up study examines potential impacts on academic skills of first graders by enhancing their ATL. This investigation seeks to answer three…
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Scratch and Lego Mindstorms Ev3 programming activities on academic achievement with respect to computer programming, and on the problem-solving and logical-mathematical thinking skills of students. This study was a semi-experimental, pretest-posttest study with two experimental groups and…
Miller, Amanda C.; Keenan, Janice M.
We examined text memory in children with word reading deficits to determine how these difficulties impact representations of text meaning. We show that even though children with poor word decoding recall more central than peripheral information, they show a significantly bigger deficit relative to controls on central than on peripheral information. We call this the centrality deficit and argue that it is the consequence of insufficient cognitive resources for connecting ideas together due to these children's resources being diverted from comprehension to word decoding. We investigated a possible compensatory mechanism for making these connections. Because a text representation is a synthesis of text information and a reader's prior knowledge, we hypothesized that having knowledge of the passage topic might reduce or eliminate the centrality deficit. Our results support this knowledge compensation hypothesis: the centrality deficit was evident when poor readers did not have prior knowledge, but was eliminated when they did. This presents an exciting avenue to pursue for possible remediation of reading comprehension in children with word identification difficulties. PMID:19475514
Leerkes, Esther M; Blankson, A Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D; Marcovitch, Stuart
Using a sample of 263 mother-child dyads, we examined the extent to which maternal emotional and cognitive support during a joint problem solving task when children were 3-years-old predicted children's academic skills one year later independent of each other, the quality of the home learning environment, and maternal emotional responsiveness. When all parenting measures were examined simultaneously, only maternal emotional support during problem solving and the quality of the home learning environment predicted unique variation in gains in pre-academic skills from age 3 to age 4. The positive effect of emotional support during problem solving was especially apparent for children whose pre-academic skills were low at age 3. These findings are discussed in light of the changing demands placed on young children and their parents as they prepare for entry to the formal school system.
Fox, Orly; Adi-Japha, Esther; Karni, Avi
Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have difficulties in achieving optimal performance in many everyday and academic tasks, deficits attributed to impaired skill acquisition and procedural memory consolidation. We tested the effect of a skipped dose of methylphenidate (MPH) on learning a movement sequence and its subsequent consolidation into procedural memory in adolescents with ADHD. A crossover double-blind design with placebo was used. Sixteen male adolescents, 16-18 years-old, with ADHD and taking MPH formulations on a daily basis, were trained on performing a 5-element sequence of finger-to-thumb opposition movements. Participants took part in two study conditions, 2 months apart. In each condition a different movement sequence was trained and tested. Participants trained on the task either with active medication or placebo on the day of training, crossed-over between study conditions. Learning effects, speed and accuracy, were assessed within-session, during a 24-h memory consolidation phase. Retention was tested by 2 weeks post-training. There were robust gains in performance both within-session and during the 24-h consolidation phase, in both conditions. However, the discontinuation of MPH on the day of training significantly reduced performance speed, with no loss of accuracy. By 2 weeks, post-training performance was comparable. Adolescents with ADHD who are treated daily but skip a dose of MPH show significant slowing of performance relative to their own performance on medication. However, on a background of daily treatment a skipped dose has no deleterious effect on memory consolidation and retention.
Haapala, Eero A.
Different elements of physical fitness in children have shown a declining trend during the past few decades. Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills have been associated with cognition, but the magnitude of this association remains unknown. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills with cognitive functions and academic performance in children up to 13 years of age. Cross-sectional studies suggest that children with higher cardiorespiratory fitness have more efficient cognitive processing at the neuroelectric level, as well as larger hippocampal and basal ganglia volumes, compared to children with lower cardiorespiratory fitness. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness has been associated with better inhibitory control in tasks requiring rigorous attention allocation. Better motor skills have been related to more efficient cognitive functions including inhibitory control and working memory. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness and better motor skills have also been associated with better academic performance. Furthermore, none of the studies on cardiorespiratory fitness have revealed independent associations with cognitive functions by controlling for motor skills. Studies concerning the relationship between motor skills and cognitive functions also did not consider cardiorespiratory fitness in the analyses. The results of this review suggest that high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills may be beneficial for cognitive development and academic performance but the evidence relies mainly on cross-sectional studies. PMID:23717355
McLean, Michelle; Shaban, Sami; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah
Increasingly, it is being recognised in higher and medical education that learners should be adequately prepared for the unpredictable nature of professional practice. Several generic or transferable skills or capabilities (e.g., communication, information handling) that will enable graduates to function in an ever-changing professional world have been identified. Using a validated inventory comprising six categories of transferable skills, three cohorts of incoming male and female medical students at a Gulf university documented their level of practice and confidence for 31 skills. The exercise was repeated a year later. New medical students identified computer and organisational skills and the ability to manage their learning as strengths, but scores for technical and numeracy, information handling and presentation and communication skills suggested that learners generally required guidance. A year later, despite considerable self-reported information handling and communication skills development, learners generally did not consider themselves self-sufficient. A significant gender difference emerged, with incoming males reporting less experience and confidence in many skills. This gap was reduced but did not disappear over the first academic year. An audit such as this may be useful for identifying individual skills levels as well as providing insight into shortcomings in the academic programme in terms of opportunities for transferable skills development.
Pipkin, Claire St. Peter; Winters, Shari M.; Diller, James W.
We attempted to determine the effects of instructions, goal setting, and reinforcement, in isolation and combination, on the letter naming proficiency of 2 underperforming Kindergarten students. During a no-intervention baseline, both students' accuracy was low or declining. Instructions alone produced increases over baseline responding, but the…
Langberg, Joshua M.; Dvorsky, Melissa R.; Evans, Steven W.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relation between ratings of Executive Function (EF) and academic functioning in a sample of 94 middle-school-aged youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; Mage = 11.9; 78% male; 21% minority). This study builds on prior work by evaluating associations between multiple specific aspects of EF (e.g., working memory, inhibition, and planning and organization) as rated by both parents and teachers on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), with multiple academic outcomes, including school grades and homework problems. Further, this study examined the relationship between EF and academic outcomes above and beyond ADHD symptoms and controlled for a number of potentially important covariates, including intelligence and achievement scores. The EF Planning and Organization subscale as rated by both parents and teachers predicted school grades above and beyond symptoms of ADHD and relevant covariates. Parent ratings of youth’s ability to transition effectively between tasks/situations (Shift subscale) also predicted school grades. Parent-rated symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and planning and organization abilities were significant in the final model predicting homework problems. In contrast, only symptoms of inattention and the Organization of Materials subscale from the BRIEF were significant in the teacher model predicting homework problems. Organization and planning abilities are highly important aspects academic functioning for middle-school-aged youth with ADHD. Implications of these findings for the measurement of EF, and organization and planning abilities in particular, are discussed along with potential implications for intervention. PMID:23640285
Langberg, Joshua M; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Evans, Steven W
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relation between ratings of Executive Function (EF) and academic functioning in a sample of 94 middle-school-aged youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; Mage = 11.9; 78 % male; 21 % minority). This study builds on prior work by evaluating associations between multiple specific aspects of EF (e.g., working memory, inhibition, and planning and organization) as rated by both parents and teachers on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), with multiple academic outcomes, including school grades and homework problems. Further, this study examined the relationship between EF and academic outcomes above and beyond ADHD symptoms and controlled for a number of potentially important covariates, including intelligence and achievement scores. The EF Planning and Organization subscale as rated by both parents and teachers predicted school grades above and beyond symptoms of ADHD and relevant covariates. Parent ratings of youth's ability to transition effectively between tasks/situations (Shift subscale) also predicted school grades. Parent-rated symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and planning and organization abilities were significant in the final model predicting homework problems. In contrast, only symptoms of inattention and the Organization of Materials subscale from the BRIEF were significant in the teacher model predicting homework problems. Organization and planning abilities are highly important aspects academic functioning for middle-school-aged youth with ADHD. Implications of these findings for the measurement of EF, and organization and planning abilities in particular, are discussed along with potential implications for intervention.
Flapper, Boudien Ct; Houwen, Suzanne; Schoemaker, Marina M
The aims of this study were to investigate fine motor skills of children with both attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those of a control group, and to examine the effects of methylphenidate on these skills. A group of 12 children with ADHD-DCD (11 males, one female; mean age 9y 8mo [SD 1y 7mo]) and 12 age- and sex-matched controls (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 2 mo]) participated. The manual dexterity subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, the concise assessment method for children's handwriting, and a computerized graphomotor task were used. Results demonstrated that children with ADHD-DCD performed more poorly on the manual dexterity subtests, had poorer quality of handwriting, and drew more rapidly, more fluently, but less accurately than controls on the graphomotor task. On methylphenidate, manual dexterity and quality of handwriting improved, and strokes on the graphomotor task became less fluent but more accurate. ADHD is characterized by persistent symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity, affecting 3 to 5% of school-age children. Up to 50% of children with ADHD also have motor coordination problems that are severe enough to meet criteria for DCD. In DCD, children demonstrate functional motor performance deficits not explained by the child's (chronological) age or intellect, or by other neurological or psychiatric disorders.
Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Hultman, Christina M; Friis, Svein; Andreassen, Ole A
This study examined social problem-solving performance in high-functioning schizophrenia (n=26) and its relation to neurocognition. Ten healthy controls were used as a comparison group. Social problem-solving was assessed with the Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (AIPSS) method. The schizophrenia group was outperformed by healthy controls on all AIPSS measures, reaching statistical significance for sending skills. Exploration of the internal relationship between different aspects of social problem-solving showed that identification of an interpersonal problem (a receiving skill) was not correlated with formulating solutions to the problem (processing skills) or successfully role-playing solutions (interpersonal sending skills). Non-verbal performance in the role-play (an interpersonal sending skill) was not significantly correlated with identification of an interpersonal problem or the generation of solutions. This suggests a dissociation of social problem-solving processes. Social problem-solving was significantly associated with psychomotor speed, verbal learning, semantic fluency and cognitive flexibility. Clinical implications are that remediation of social problem-solving skills should focus on role-playing (nonverbal) interpersonal behaviors, rather than on verbally analyzing an interpersonal problem and clarifying alternative solutions.
Baker-Henningham, Helen; Meeks-Gardner, Julie; Chang, Susan; Walker, Susan
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between children's experiences of three different types of violence and academic achievement among primary school children in Kingston, Jamaica. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 1300 children in grade 5 [mean (S.D.) age: 11 (0.5) years] from 29 government primary schools in urban…
Lowenstein, Amy E.; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.; Raver, C. Cybele; Jones, Stephanie M.; Pess, Rachel A.
In this study we used data on a sample of children in the Chicago Public Schools in areas of concentrated poverty-related disadvantage to examine associations between school climate and low-income children’s language/literacy and math skills during the transition to kindergarten. We also explored whether teacher-child closeness moderated these associations. Multilevel modeling analyses conducted using a sample of 242 children nested in 102 elementary schools revealed that low adult support in the school was significantly associated with children’s poorer language/literacy and math skills in kindergarten. Teacher-child closeness predicted children’s higher language/literacy and math scores and moderated the association between low adult support and children’s academic skills. Among children who were high on closeness with their teacher, those in schools with high levels of adult support showed stronger language/literacy and math skills. There were no significant associations between adult support and the academic skills of children with medium or low levels of teacher-child closeness. Results shed light on the importance of adult support at both school and classroom levels in promoting low-income children’s academic skills during the transition to kindergarten. PMID:26925186
Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper
Objective To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. Methods This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Results Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all P<0.001), whereas exercise capacity was only associated with better sustained attention (P<0.046) and spatial working memory (P<0.038). Fine and gross motor skills (all P<0.001), exercise capacity and cognitive functions such as working memory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Conclusions The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic
Liu, Chao-Yu; Huang, Wei-Lieh; Kao, Wei-Chih; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) are associated with negative school outcomes. The study aimed to examine the impact of ADHD and ODD/CD on various school functions. 395 youths with ADHD (244 with ADHD + ODD/CD and 151 with ADHD only) and 156 controls received semi-structured psychiatric interviews. School functions were assessed and compared between each group with a multiple-level model. The results showed that youths with ADHD had poorer performance across different domains of school functioning. Youths with ADHD + ODD/CD had more behavioral problems but similar academic performance than those with ADHD only. The multiple linear regression models revealed that ADHD impaired academic performance while ODD/CD aggravated behavioral problems. Our findings imply that comorbid ODD/CD may specifically contribute to social difficulties in youths with ADHD. Measures of early detection and intervention for ODD/CD should be conducted to prevent adverse outcomes.
Orozco, Edith Aimee
The objective of this research was to compare Career Technical Education--16 Career Pathway high school participants with non-participants on academic achievement, development of technical skills and school engagement. Academic achievement was measured by Exit Level Math and English Language Arts Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS)…
Everhart, Julie M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Park, Ju Hee
This study investigated the effects of computer-based practice on the acquisition and maintenance of basic academic skills for two children with moderate to intensive disabilities. The special education teacher created individualized computer games that enabled the participants to independently practice academic skills that corresponded with their…
Allan, Nicholas P.; Hume, Laura E.; Allan, Darcey M.; Farrington, Amber L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.
Although there is evidence that young children's inhibitory control (IC) is related to their academic skills, the nature of this relation and the role of potential moderators of it are not well understood. In this meta-analytic study, we summarized results from 75 peer-reviewed studies of preschool and kindergarten children (14,424 children; 32-80…
Chittum, Jessica R.; Bryant, Lauren H.
Although expectations for graduate students' writing abilities are high, their actual writing skills are often subpar (Cuthbert & Spark, 2008; Singleton-Jackson, Lumsden, & Newson, 2009), even though academic writing is considered integral to graduate education and necessary for career preparedness (e.g., Mullen, 2006; Stevens, 2005).…
Tanglang, Nebath; Ibrahim, Aminu Kazeem
The study adopted an ex-post facto research design. Randomization sampling technique was used to select 346 undergraduate distance learners and the learners were grouped into four, High and Low Goal setter learners and High and Low Decision-making skills learners. The instruments for data collection were Undergraduate Academic Goal Setting Scale…
Uyanik, Ozgun; Kandir, Adalet
The aim of this research is s to adapt and apply t the Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills (K-SEALS) to Turkish children in the city of Ankara. In the study, a descriptive screening model was used. The population of the study consisted of children who showed normal developmental characteristics and who were enrolled at public…
Asha, Intisar K.; Al Hawi, Asma M.
This study aimed at investigating the effect of cooperative learning on developing the sixth graders' decision making skill and their academic achievement. The study sample, which was selected randomly, consisted of (46) students and divided into two groups: the experimental group that taught using the cooperative learning strategy and the control…
Jones, Carroll J.
Many teachers of students with mild disabilities experience difficulty writing IEPs, and they lack a foundation in the regular education curriculum of academic skills and sequences associated with each grade level. This book was designed to provide this foundation. Presented in the form of scope and sequence charts that can be used as objectives…
Ojoko, Sydney; Koko, Maureen
A study was conducted to determine correlates of study skills and academic performance of high and low achievers among secretarial studies student teachers at a Nigerian university. Results with 21 high and 21 low achievers demonstrate personality and study habits differences among the groups. (SLD)
Adediwura, A. A.; Tayo, Bada
The study investigated the relationship/effect of students' perception of teachers' knowledge of subject matter, attitude to work and teaching skills on students' academic performance. The population consisted of senior secondary three (SS.III) students in the South West Nigeria senior secondary schools. The study sample consisted of 1600…
Hispanic-American students have the highest high school drop-out rate and as a group are considered to be at-risk for academic failure due to issues of poverty, immigration, language barriers, discrimination, and acculturative stress. This study empirically tested the extent to which cognitive flexibility and planning skills predicted…
Zach, Sima; Yazdi-Ugav, Orly; Zeev, Aviva
This study aimed to examine to what extent academic achievements, learning disorders, behavior problems and loneliness explain the variance of students' social skills. The differences between students diagnosed with learning disorders and students without learning disorders in all four variables were examined. Participants were 733 elementary…
Chezan, Laura C.; Drasgow, Erik; Marshall, Kathleen J.
The authors' purpose in this report is to examine the application of general-case programming to teach collateral academic skills to a student with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and with a mild intellectual disability who was attending college. The authors use data drawn from their work with Tom to explain and…
"Academic blogging" is a way of extending the primary classroom walls and enhancing learning through collaborative reflective responses to open-ended questions from prescribed text. Students learn from each other, develop critical literacy skills, voice their opinions and ask questions through blogging. This pedagogical approach broaches…
Mokrova, Irina; Broekhuizen, Martine; Burchinal, Margaret
A growing body of research has shown that high quality early care and education (ECE) is positively related to the development of children's social and academic skills (e.g., Barnett, 2011; Lamb & Ahnert, 2006; NICHD ECCRN, 2006). There is evidence that high quality ECE experiences can improve children's levels of social adjustment (Bierman et…
Foster, Gayla; Alexander, JoAnne C.; Bass, Elaine; Black, Paulette; Cesario, Robert; Clow, Jo Ellen; Dalton, Doug; Dedmon, Charla; Gabbard, Susan; Gabel, Barbara; Goree, Gary; Kyle, Nicholas; Martin, Rita; Merklin, Roxy; Riley, Patrick; Reed, John
This kit is designed to help teachers throughout the state of Oklahoma implement the arts in the core curriculum. Suggestions are included for classroom activities that complement the arts competencies in the "Priority Academic Student Skills (PASS)." The kit is a collection of ideas to introduce or reinforce PASS. In the material is a…
Johnson, Rucker C; Kalil, Ariel; Dunifon, Rachel E
Using data from five waves of the Women's Employment Survey (WES; 1997-2003), we examine the links between low-income mothers' employment patterns and the emotional behavior and academic progress of their children. We find robust and substantively important linkages between several different dimensions of mothers' employment experiences and child outcomes. The pattern of results is similar across empirical approaches-including ordinary least squares and child fixed-effect models, with and without an extensive set of controls. Children exhibit fewer behavior problems when mothers work and experience job stability (relative to children whose mothers do not work). In contrast, maternal work accompanied by job instability is associated with significantly higher child behavior problems (relative to employment in a stable job). Children whose mothers work full-time and/or have fluctuating work schedules also exhibit significantly higher levels of behavior problems. However, full-time work has negative consequences for children only when it is in jobs that do not require cognitive skills. Such negative consequences are completely offset when this work experience is in jobs that require the cognitive skills that lead to higher wage growth prospects. Finally, fluctuating work schedules and full-time work in non-cognitively demanding jobs are each strongly associated with the probability that the child will repeat a grade or be placed in special education.
Sullivan, Amanda L; Houri, Alaa; Sadeh, Shanna
Children from immigrant families are one of the fastest growing and most diverse groups in America's schools. This study provides a demographic portrait of immigrant children who entered kindergarten in 2010 and describes patterns and predictors of early educational outcomes of students from immigrant families. A nationally representative sample of 13,530 students who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the sociodemographic characteristics of this population. Regression was used to examine the relations between nativity, child characteristics, and family characteristics to reading and mathematics skills in kindergarten. Approximately 27% of kindergartners in the class of 2011 came from immigrant families. These students were more racially, linguistically, and socioeconomically diverse than students from U.S.-born parents. Educational outcomes varied by parents' region of origin. Children's early academic skills were significantly related to parent's region of origin, but these relations were attenuated when child health, language, family structure, and socioeconomic status were accounted for. These results indicate the importance of considering parent nativity when examining the outcomes and needs of students from immigrant families. Because of the diversity of characteristics and outcomes of children of immigrants, researchers should consider the implications of nativity for students' experiences and needs. (PsycINFO Database Record
Avtzon, Sarah Abitbol
Working memory, executive functions, and cognitive processes associated with specific academic areas, are empirically identified as being the core underlying cognitive deficits in students with specific learning disabilities. Using Hebb's theory of neuroplasticity and the principle of automaticity as theoretical bases, this experimental study…
Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Leung, Man-Tak; Cheung, Him
The present study examined some early performance difficulties of Chinese preschoolers at familial risk for dyslexia. Seventy-six high-risk (40 good and 36 poor readers) and 25 low-risk Chinese children were tested on oral language, reading-related cognitive skills (e.g. phonological processing skills, rapid naming, and morphological awareness), and Chinese word reading and spelling over a 3-year period. The parents were also given a behaviour checklist for identifying child at-risk behaviours. Results showed that the High Risk (Poor Reading) group performed significantly worse than the Low Risk and the High Risk (Good Reading) group on most of the measures and domains. More children in the High Risk (Poor Reading) group displayed at-risk behaviours than in the other two groups. These results suggest that Chinese at-risk children with early difficulties in reading and spelling do show a wide range of language-, phonology-, and print-related deficits, similar to their alphabetic counterparts. An understanding of these early difficulties may help prevent dyslexia from developing in at-risk children.
Webber, Laura A.
Spelling skills are essential for school success (Fulk & Stormont-Spurgin, 1995; Matz, 1994). Teachers need an efficient method for teaching spelling strategies to students with learning disabilities. Although research in spelling has attempted to improve spelling instruction for teachers in classrooms (Henderson, 1985; Graham & Miller, 1979;…
Elliott, Stephen N.; And Others
Examines various empirically proven assessment and intervention methods that can be used to remediate children's social skills problems and illustrates the utilization of these methods in a case study. Claims that combining manipulation of antecedent/consequent events with modeling or coaching procedures constituted effective multimethod approach…
Jackson, Henry J.; Martin, Rose
An adult chronic schizophrenic, residual type, with an additional diagnosis of mild-moderate retardation, received social skills training (SST). Videotaped role-play assessments showed change occurred following SST, while a multiple-baseline design demonstrated functional control over the behaviors. (Author/CL)
Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.
The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the relative effectiveness of a skills-focused preschool curriculum versus a curriculum designed to foster children's self-regulation skills. Additionally, the study was designed to evaluate if adding a self-regulation component to a skills-based curriculum would enhance children's outcomes in…
Brookins, L M
The music therapy curriculum consists of two distinct parts: the academic phase and the internship. The music therapy student must apply for a clinical internship during the last year of the academic phase, and the student is expected to evolve from student to professional music therapist during the internship phase. The present study sought to determine the skills, knowledge, and qualities clinical training directors considered most important for a prospective intern to possess. The sample population of the survey consisted of 25 clinical training directors from the Great Lakes Region. Results of the survey indicated that piano skills, knowledge of psychology, emotional maturity, and the ability to express needs and feelings were considered most important for the prospective intern to possess.
Hesslinger, Bernd; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Dykierek, Petra; Richter, Harald; Berner, Michael; Ebert, Dieter
In clinical practice many adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ask for an additional psychotherapeutic intervention besides the medical therapy. In this paper we present a structured skill training program particularly tailored for adult patients with ADHD. The program is based on the principles of cognitive-behavioral treatment for borderline personality disorder developed by M. Linehan. It was modified to suit the special needs of adult patients with ADHD. In this exploratory pilot study we tested this program in a group setting. The following elements were presented: neurobiology of ADHD, mindfulness, chaos and control, behavior analysis, emotion regulation, depression, medication in ADHD, impulse control, stress management, dependency, ADHD in relationship and self respect. In an open study design patients were assessed clinically using psychometric scales (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Checklist according to DSM-IV, 16 items of the SCL-90-R, Beck-Depression Inventory, visual analogue scale) prior to and following group therapy. This treatment resulted in positive outcomes in that patients improved on all psychometric scales.
Kandemir, Mehmet; Ilhan, Tahsin; Ozpolat, Ahmed Ragip; Palanci, Mehmet
The goal of this research is to analyze the predictive power level of academic self-efficacy, self-esteem and coping with stress on academic procrastination behavior. Relational screening model is used in the research whose research group is made of 374 students in Kirikkale University, Education Faculty in Turkey. Students in the research group…
This practicum provided a 12-week group instruction program which was designed to enable 8 high school students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to gain knowledge about ADHD, implement strategies for coping with the disorder, and employ self-advocacy skills. The program involved administration of an ADHD measure prior to and…
Evaluation of the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) Intervention for Middle School Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as Implemented by School Mental Health Providers
Langberg, Joshua M.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Becker, Stephen P.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention for middle school students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as implemented by school mental health (SMH) providers using a randomized trial design. Seventeen SMH providers from five school districts implemented the HOPS…
Sah, Analee; Borland, James H.
Nine gifted learning-disabled children with organizational skill deficits were put on a structured timetable of after-school activities. Parents were taught behaviorally based discipline techniques designed to reduce disruptive family behavior. Improvements were subsequently observed in the middle school students' home and school behavior, school…
Wrońska, Natalia; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya; Mendez-Zorrilla, Amaia
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), with a worldwide prevalence of 5.29%-7.1%, is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders among children and adolescents. Apart from typical symptoms like inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness, patients also evidence attention deficit problems with reading comprehension. This in turn causes poor school performance and widens the gap with peers without ADHD. This paper presents a novel and interactive tool based on Serious Games for Health, whose aim is not only to improve comprehension, but also hold the user's attention. This tool is geared towards assessing reading quality and is intended for iPad devices. Preliminary results obtained from the experiment performed to evaluate the game are included in this report. A group of six typically developing children from Colegio Vizcaya aged between 8 and 12 took part in the evaluation of motivation, satisfaction and usability of the same therapy in the new media. Results obtained by participants playing the game were analysed together with questionnaires concerning the usability of the system. Game evaluation resulted in relatively good statistics-average score was 3 points out of 4 and average time for completing the exercise was 59 seconds. A SUS questionnaire with an average score of 92.75 out of 100 indicates that the game presented is user-friendly and an effective tool. Moreover, based on the feedback obtained from participants, the game had been improved and additional functionality introduced. Older participants completed the first game faster than the younger ones, but age was not influential in subsequent games.
Wrońska, Natalia; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya; Mendez-Zorrilla, Amaia
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), with a worldwide prevalence of 5.29%–7.1%, is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders among children and adolescents. Apart from typical symptoms like inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness, patients also evidence attention deficit problems with reading comprehension. This in turn causes poor school performance and widens the gap with peers without ADHD. This paper presents a novel and interactive tool based on Serious Games for Health, whose aim is not only to improve comprehension, but also hold the user’s attention. This tool is geared towards assessing reading quality and is intended for iPad devices. Preliminary results obtained from the experiment performed to evaluate the game are included in this report. A group of six typically developing children from Colegio Vizcaya aged between 8 and 12 took part in the evaluation of motivation, satisfaction and usability of the same therapy in the new media. Results obtained by participants playing the game were analysed together with questionnaires concerning the usability of the system. Game evaluation resulted in relatively good statistics-average score was 3 points out of 4 and average time for completing the exercise was 59 seconds. A SUS questionnaire with an average score of 92.75 out of 100 indicates that the game presented is user-friendly and an effective tool. Moreover, based on the feedback obtained from participants, the game had been improved and additional functionality introduced. Older participants completed the first game faster than the younger ones, but age was not influential in subsequent games. PMID:26042366
Bossone, Richard M., Ed.
This document contains the proceedings of a conference on improving the academic skills of urban students. Titles and authors of the twelve included papers are: (1) "Academic Skills and the SAT," George H. Hanford; (2) "New York City Promotional Gates Program: Implications for Instruction of Academic Skills," Charlotte Frank;…
Jyoti, Diana F; Frongillo, Edward A; Jones, Sonya J
Food insecurity has been associated with diverse developmental consequences for U.S. children primarily from cross-sectional studies. We used longitudinal data to investigate how food insecurity over time related to changes in reading and mathematics test performance, weight and BMI, and social skills in children. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, a prospective sample of approximately 21,000 nationally representative children entering kindergarten in 1998 and followed through 3rd grade. Food insecurity was measured by parent interview using a modification of the USDA module in which households were classified as food insecure if they reported > or =1 affirmative response in the past year. Households were grouped into 4 categories based on the temporal occurrence of food insecurity in kindergarten and 3rd grade. Children's academic performance, height, and weight were assessed directly. Children's social skills were reported by teachers. Analyses examined the effects of modified food insecurity on changes in child outcomes using lagged, dynamic, and difference (i.e., fixed-effects) models and controlling for child and household contextual variables. In lagged models, food insecurity was predictive of poor developmental trajectories in children before controlling for other variables. Food insecurity thus serves as an important marker for identifying children who fare worse in terms of subsequent development. In all models with controls, food insecurity was associated with outcomes, and associations differed by gender. This study provides the strongest empirical evidence to date that food insecurity is linked to specific developmental consequences for children, and that these consequences may be both nutritional and nonnutritional.
Marks, Amy Kerivan; Coll, Cynthia García
Research regarding the development of early academic skills among American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) students has been very limited to date. Using a nationally representative sample of AIAN, Hispanic, African American, and White children at school entry, the authors used latent growth models to estimate the associations among poverty, low parental education, living in a rural location, as well as child attitudes toward learning and internalizing/externalizing behaviors, with mathematical and reading cognitive skill development across the 1st 4 years of school. Results indicate that AIAN children entered kindergarten with scores on both mathematical and reading cognitive tests that were comparable to their peers from other ethnic groups of color. Importantly, all children who entered kindergarten with lower cognitive skill scores also acquired skills more slowly over the next 4 years. Having a positive approach to learning at the start of kindergarten was associated with cognitive skill levels at school entry nearly 1 standard deviation above the population average. Results are discussed with reference to the shared early educational profiles observed between AIAN and other children of color. These findings provide a much-needed update regarding early academic development among AIAN children.
Shapiro, Edward S; Gebhardt, Sarah; Flatley, Katie; Guard, Kirra B; Fu, Qiong; Leichman, Erin S; Calhoon, Mary Beth; Hojnoski, Robin
The development and psychometric qualities of a measure using teacher judgment to rate performance in reading comprehension for narrative text is described-the Rating Scales for Academic Skills-Reading Comprehension Narrative (RSAS-RCN). Sixty-five teachers from the third, fourth, and fifth grades of 8 elementary schools completed the measure on 177 students. Each teacher rated students who had been identified through school-based universal screening to be below the 25th percentile, between the 25th and 74th percentile, and at or above the 75th percentile on national normative standards. Results indicated the RSAS-RCN has strong to moderate evidence of (a) 1-week test-retest reliability, (b) concurrent validity with the Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE) and end of year state assessment in reading, and (c) significant classification accuracy across student ability levels. Principal component analysis and item response theory (Rasch modeling) indicate the RSAS-RCN is comprised of a single general dimension. Overall, this examination of the RSAS-RCN suggests teacher judgment may be a potentially valuable tool in assessing reading comprehension among upper elementary school students. (PsycINFO Database Record
Son, Seung-Hee; Morrison, Frederick J
In this study, we examined changes in the early home learning environment as children approached school entry and whether these changes predicted the development of children's language and academic skills. Findings from a national sample of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,018) revealed an overall improvement in the home learning environment from 36 to 54 months of children's age, with 30.6% of parents of preschoolers displaying significant improvement in the home environment (i.e., changes greater than 1 SD) and with only 0.6% showing a decrease. More important, the degree of change uniquely contributed to the children's language but not to their academic skills. Home changes were more likely to be observed from mothers with more education and work hours and with fewer symptoms of depression.
Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Keskinen, Paivi; Nuuja, Anja
Aim: The study aimed to assess the effects of diabetes-related risk factors, especially severe hypoglycaemia, on the academic skills of children with early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Method: The study comprised 63 children with T1DM (31 females, 32 males; mean age 9y 11mo, SD 4mo) and 92 comparison children without diabetes (40…
Conklin, Heather M.; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Ashford, Jason; Ogg, Susan; Howard, Scott C.; Morris, E. Brannon; Brown, Ronald; Bonner, Melanie; Christensen, Robbin; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Khan, Raja B.
Purpose Methylphenidate (MPH) ameliorates attention problems experienced by some cancer survivors in the short term, but its long-term efficacy is unproven. Patients and Methods This study investigates the long-term effectiveness of maintenance doses of MPH in survivors of childhood brain tumors (n = 35) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 33) participating in a 12-month MPH trial. Measures of attention (Conners' Continuous Performance Test [CPT], Conners' Rating Scales [CRS]), academic abilities (Wechsler Individual Achievement Test [WIAT]), social skills (Social Skills Rating System [SSRS]), and behavioral problems (Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL]) were administered at premedication baseline and at the end of the MPH trial while on medication. A cancer control group composed of patients who were not administered MPH (brain tumor = 31 and acute lymphoblastic leukemia = 23) was assessed on the same measures 2 months apart. Results For the MPH group, repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant improvement in performance on a measure of sustained attention (CPT indices, P < .05); parent, teacher, and self-report ratings of attention (CRS indices, P < .05), and parent ratings of social skills or behavioral problems (SSRS and CBCL indices; P < .05). In contrast, the cancer control group only showed improvement on parent ratings of attention (Conners' Parent Rating Scale indices; P < .05) and social skills (SSRS and CBCL indices; P < .05). There was no significant improvement on the academic measure (WIAT) in either group. Conclusion Attention and behavioral benefits of MPH for childhood cancer survivors are maintained across settings over the course of a year. Although academic gains were not identified, MPH may offer benefits in academic areas not assessed. PMID:20837955
Hughes, Katherine L.; Moore, David Thornton; Bailey, Thomas R.
The claim that work-based experience improves students' academic performance was examined through a study of the academic progress of 25 high school and community college student interns employed in various health care workplaces. Data were collected from the following activities: (1) review of the literature on academic reinforcement and academic…
Bartlett, Joan; Byrd, Roland
Team teaching was used in three undergraduate courses to explore its potential for enhancing students' academic development. The courses were part of a program offered to freshmen with unrealized academic potential through the Howard University (District of Columbia) Center for Academic Reinforcement (CAR). A three-hour block of time was set aside…
Hagaman, Jessica L.; Trout, Alexandra L.; DeSalvo, Cathy; Gehringer, Robert; Epstein, Michael H.
Purpose: Undiagnosed language impairment (LI) for youth in residential care is a concern as similar populations have shown elevated levels of language delays. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to identify the percentage of youth in residential care who are at risk for LI and to compare the demographic, academic achievement, and functional…
Piña-Watson, Brandy; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Dornhecker, Marianela; Martinez, Ashley J; Nagoshi, Julie L
Latina/o youth lag behind Asian American and non-Latina/o White youth in many academic areas. Previous research has taken a deficit approach to understand the factors that affect academic outcomes for Latina/o youth often neglecting to highlight both the potential positive and negative contributions of gender role values. The present study took a holistic perspective to understand the affect of traditional Latina/o gender role values (i.e., marianismo, machismo, and caballerismo) on the academic attitudes and educational goals of Mexican descent youth. Structural equation models were tested to examine the associations of "positive" and "negative" gender role values on educational goals using 524 Mexican descent adolescents from a mid-sized city in southern Texas. We hypothesized that positive aspects of traditional Latina/o gender role values (i.e., "positive marianismo" and caballerismo) would be associated with more positive attitudes toward academics and higher educational goals. We further expected negative gender role values (i.e., "negative marianismo" and machismo) to have the opposite effect. Additionally, based on the theory of planned behavior and gender schema theory, academic attitudes were hypothesized to mediate the relation between gender role values and educational goals. An alternative model was tested in which educational goals mediated the relation between gender roles and academic attitudes. Results indicated that both models fit the data well, and recommendations are made for future longitudinal research aimed at disentangling the directionality of the relations in the model. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Metindogan, Aysegul; Evans, Melanie
This study examined the influence of parenting styles, parent-child academic involvement at home, and parent-school contact on academic skills and social behaviors among kindergarten-age children of Caribbean immigrants. Seventy immigrant mothers and fathers participated in the study. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that fathers'…
Perceptions and Development of Political Leadership Skills of Women in Academic Medicine: A Study of Selected Women Alumnae of the Hedwig Van Ameringen Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) Program
Evers, Cynthia D.
Despite women having much to offer in the field of academic medicine, women may not be sufficiently attuned to developing their political leadership skills, which are crucial for successful leadership (Ferris, Frink, & Galang, 1993; Ferris & Perrewe, 2010). The study's purpose was to examine how 14 women in academic medicine perceived…
Kemp, Karen; And Others
This article offers a systematic approach to teaching basic academic skills to children with attention deficit disorders. The acronym T-G-I-F is used to focus on teacher-directed instruction; guided practice instruction; independent practice activities; and final measurement. Questions and answers about this approach and sample record-keeping…
Jaakkola, Timo; Hillman, Charles; Kalaja, Sami; Liukkonen, Jarmo
The purpose of this study was to analyse the longitudinal associations between (1) fundamental movement skills (FMSs) and academic performance, and (2) self-reported physical activity and academic performance through junior high school in Finland. The participants of the study were 325 Finnish students (162 girls and 163 boys), who were 13 years old at the beginning of the study at Grade 7. Students performed three FMS tests and responded to a self-reported physical activity questionnaire at Grades 7 and 8. Marks in Finnish language, mathematics and history from Grades 7, 8 and 9 were collected. Structural equation modelling with multigroup method demonstrated that in the boys' group, a correlation (0.17) appeared between FMS and academic performance measured at Grade 7. The results also indicated that FMS collected at Grade 8 were significantly but weakly (path coefficient 0.14) associated with academic performance at Grade 9 for both gender groups. Finally, the results of this study demonstrated that self-reported physical activity was not significantly related to academic performance during junior high school. The findings of this study suggest that mastery of FMS may contribute to better student achievement during junior high school.
The purpose of this study was to compare three groups: JROTC students, student athletes, and other students, to determine if there were differences in academic achievement. Gaining an understanding of the necessary skills required to become academically successful and make healthy life choices, could provide educators working within an urban…
Hughes, Nathan; Wainwright, Sue; Cresswell, Caroline
Whilst approaches to the development of undergraduate academic writing skills vary between disciplines and institutions, academic tutors are consistently presented as playing an important role. One aspect of this role is supporting students to engage effectively with feedback in order to develop consciousness and competence regarding academic…
Boseck, Justin J; Davis, Andrew S; Cassady, Jerrell C; Finch, W Holmes; Gelder, Barbara C
Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) often present with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which can complicate diagnosis and treatment planning. This study investigated the cognitive and adaptive profiles of 81 children with ADHD/FASD and 147 children with ADHD. Multivariate analysis of variance and follow-up discriminant analysis indicated that the two groups had similar profiles on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, although the children with comorbid ADHD/FASD demonstrated significantly more impairment in verbal ability, perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed, and overall adaptive skills. The results suggested that when compared with children with ADHD alone, children with ADHD/FASD exhibit significantly more impaired cognitive processing and adaptive skill deficits that are essential for school success and healthy social, behavioral, and emotional functioning. Research evaluating the profiles of these groups is likely to facilitate earlier and more accurate diagnosis and intervention.
Cilliers, Charmain B.
Employers of computing graduates have high expectations of graduates in terms of soft skills, the most desirable of these being communication skills. Not only must the graduates exhibit writing skills, but they are expected to be highly proficient therein. The consequence of this expectation is not only performance pressure exerted on the…
De Maria, Richard
This competency-based module uses the Ocean County (New Jersey) Vocational-Technical Schools curriculum-infused model for infusing basic skills instruction into vocational education. The document consists of matrices that describe the relationship of vocational skills to basic communication, mathematics, and science skills within the entrepreneur…
Leana-Tascilar, Marilena Z.
The purpose of this research is to examine the self-regulated learning skills and causal attributions of trainee teachers preparing to teach gifted pupils, and also to study the predictive relationships between these skills and attributions, on one hand, and academic success, on the other hand. The research was conducted on 123 students attending…
Carlson, Abby G.; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W.
Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout…
Muthaiyah, Balu; Essa, Musthafa M; Lee, Moon; Chauhan, Ved; Kaur, Kulbir; Chauhan, Abha
Previous in vitro studies have shown that walnut extract can inhibit amyloid-β (Aβ) fibrillization, can solubilize its fibrils, and has a protective effect against Aβ-induced oxidative stress and cellular death. In this study, we analyzed the effect of dietary supplementation with walnuts on learning skills, memory, anxiety, locomotor activity, and motor coordination in the Tg2576 transgenic (tg) mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD-tg). From the age of 4 months, the experimental groups of AD-tg mice were fed custom-mixed diets containing 6% walnuts (T6) or 9% walnuts (T9), i.e., equivalent to 1 or 1.5 oz, respectively, of walnuts per day in humans. The control groups, i.e., AD-tg and wild-type mice, were fed a diet without walnuts (T0, Wt). These experimental and control mice were examined at the ages of 13-14 months by Morris water maze (for spatial memory and learning ability), T maze (for position discrimination learning ability), rotarod (for psychomotor coordination), and elevated plus maze (for anxiety-related behavior). AD-tg mice on the control diet (T0) showed memory deficit, anxiety-related behavior, and severe impairment in spatial learning ability, position discrimination learning ability, and motor coordination compared to the Wt mice on the same diet. The AD-tg mice receiving the diets with 6% or 9% walnuts (T6 and T9) showed a significant improvement in memory, learning ability, anxiety, and motor development compared to the AD-tg mice on the control diet (T0). There was no statistically significant difference in behavioral performance between the T6/T9 mice on walnuts-enriched diets and the Wt group on the control diet. These findings suggest that dietary supplementation with walnuts may have a beneficial effect in reducing the risk, delaying the onset, or slowing the progression of, or preventing AD.
Isaak, Matthew I.; Graves, Kristy M.; Mayers, Bethlyn O.
This study explored the difficulties that probationary students viewed as obstacles to their academic progress. These difficulties were compared to those identified by regularly matriculated students and to probationary students' deficits on a standardized study skills test. We compared the responses of participants (N = 150) in an intervention…
Tolchinsky, Anatol; Jefferson, Stephen D
Although numerous benefits have been uncovered related to moderate video game play, research suggests that problematic video game playing behaviors can cause problems in the lives of some video game players. To further our understanding of this phenomenon, we investigated how problematic video game playing symptoms are related to an assortment of variables, including time management skills and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Additionally, we tested several simple mediation/moderation models to better explain previous theories that posit simple correlations between these variables. As expected, the results from the present study indicated that time management skills appeared to mediate the relationship between ADHD symptoms and problematic play endorsement (though only for men). Unexpectedly, we found that ADHD symptoms appeared to mediate the relation between time management skills and problematic play behaviors; however, this was only found for women in our sample. Finally, future implications are discussed.
Background Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hyperactive and impulsive, cannot maintain attention, and have difficulties with social interactions. Medical treatment may alleviate symptoms of ADHD, but seldom solves difficulties with social interactions. Social-skills training may benefit ADHD children in their social interactions. We want to examine the effects of social-skills training on difficulties related to the children's ADHD symptoms and social interactions. Methods/Design The design is randomised two-armed, parallel group, assessor-blinded trial. Children aged 8-12 years with a diagnosis of ADHD are randomised to social-skills training and parental training plus standard treatment versus standard treatment alone. A sample size calculation estimated that at least 52 children must be included to show a 4-point difference in the primary outcome on the Conners 3rd Edition subscale for 'hyperactivity-impulsivity' between the intervention group and the control group. The outcomes will be assessed 3 and 6 months after randomisation. The primary outcome measure is ADHD symptoms. The secondary outcome is social skills. Tertiary outcomes include the relationship between social skills and symptoms of ADHD, the ability to form attachment, and parents' ADHD symptoms. Discussion We hope that the results from this trial will show that the social-skills training together with medication may have a greater general effect on ADHD symptoms and social and emotional competencies than medication alone. Trial registration ClinicalTrials (NCT): NCT00937469 PMID:21255399
This study aimed to discover what study skills are most useful for middle school students, as well as strategies for integrating study skills instruction into the four main content area classrooms (English, math, science, and social studies) at the middle school level. Twenty-nine in-service middle school teachers participated in the study by…
du Preez, I.; Fossey, A.
The development of graduate attributes in higher education is enjoying much attention worldwide. Employers consistently rank communication skills, in particular writing ability, among the most important skills for graduates to possess. The inclusion and development of graduate attributes in undergraduate curricula have received little attention.…
This competency-based module uses the Ocean County (New Jersey) Vocational-Technical Schools curriculum-infused model for infusing basic skills instruction into vocational education. The model demonstrates the relationship of vocational skills to communication, mathematics, and science. The document begins with a philosophy statement; a preface; a…
This competency-based module uses the Ocean County (New Jersey) Vocational-Technical Schools curriculum-infused model for infusing basic skills instruction into vocational education. The model demonstrates the relationship of vocational skills to communication, mathematics, and science. The document begins with a philosophy statement; preface; a…
This competency-based module uses the Ocean County (New Jersey) Vocational-Technical Schools curriculum-infused model for infusing basic skills instruction into vocational education. The model demonstrates the relationship of vocational skills to communication, mathematics, and science. The document begins with a philosophy statement; preface; a…
This competency-based module uses the Ocean County (New Jersey) Vocational-Technical Schools curriculum-infused model for infusing basic skills instruction into vocational education. The model demonstrates the relationship of vocational skills to communication, mathematics, and science. The document begins with a philosophy statement; preface; a…
Carey, John; Brigman, Greg; Webb, Linda; Villares, Elizabeth; Harrington, Karen
This article describes the development of the Student Engagement in School Success Skills instrument including item development and exploratory factor analysis. The instrument was developed to measure student use of the skills and strategies identified as most critical for long-term school success that are typically taught by school counselors.
Vastano, Josephine; And Others
Bryant, Lynda Carol
To observe the relationship of auditory and visual receptive skills to achievement in reading, 80 eight-year-old children were given a diagnostic test battery which examined three receptive skills--attention to stimuli, discrimination, and memory--within three sensory modalities--auditory, visual, and auditory-visual. The control group consisted…
Mokrova, Irina L.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart
The current study examined the role of preschoolers' motivation, operationalized as persistence, in the formation of language and math skills at kindergarten. The participants were 263 children from diverse ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds. Demographic information, child persistence, and early cognitive-linguistic skills were assessed at…
Pears, Katherine C; Heywood, Cynthia V; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A
Reading skills are core competencies in children's readiness to learn and may be particularly important for children in foster care, who are at risk for academic difficulties and higher rates of special education placement. In this study, prereading skills (phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and oral language ability) and kindergarten performance of 63 children in foster care were examined just prior to and during the fall of kindergarten. The children exhibited prereading deficits with average prereading scores that fell at the 30(th) to 40(th) percentile. Variations in prereading skills (particularly phonological awareness) predicted kindergarten teacher ratings of early literacy skills in a multivariate path analysis. These findings highlight the need for interventions focused on prereading skills for children in foster care.
Pears, Katherine C.; Heywood, Cynthia V.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.
Reading skills are core competencies in children's readiness to learn and may be particularly important for children in foster care, who are at risk for academic difficulties and higher rates of special education placement. In this study, prereading skills (phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and oral language ability) and kindergarten performance of 63 children in foster care were examined just prior to and during the fall of kindergarten. The children exhibited prereading deficits with average prereading scores that fell at the 30th to 40th percentile. Variations in prereading skills (particularly phonological awareness) predicted kindergarten teacher ratings of early literacy skills in a multivariate path analysis. These findings highlight the need for interventions focused on prereading skills for children in foster care. PMID:21869854
Colarusso, Ronald P.; And Others
Examined was the relationship between the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception and academic achievement as measured by the scholastic Research Association Achievement Test Battery with 125 primary grade children. (Author/DB)
Schönfeld, Lisa-Maria; Jahanshahi, Ali; Lemmens, Evi; Schipper, Sandra; Dooley, Dearbhaile; Joosten, Elbert; Temel, Yasin; Hendrix, Sven
Animal models with constant, long-lasting motor deficits together with the right tests to assess behavioral abnormalities are needed to study the effectiveness of potential therapies to restore motor functions. In the current study, controlled cortical impact (CCI) was applied in rats to induce damage to the forelimb area of the motor cortex and the dorsal striatum. Motor behavior was assessed before and after CCI, using fine motor skill tests such as the adhesive removal test, the cylinder test, and the Montoya staircase test as well as the automated gait analysis system CatWalk XT over a 6 week period. CCI caused a variety of unilateral motor deficits, which were characterized in detail by using the selected fine motor skill tests. In striking contrast to previous studies on CCI in mice, neither forelimb impairments, nor general changes in gait, were detected with the CatWalk XT. These data suggest that the adhesive removal test, the cylinder test, and the Montoya staircase test are the methods of choice to detect long-term unilateral motor deficits in rats after CCI, whereas the use of automated gait analysis systems might not be suitable to measure these behavioral deviations.
Birchwood, James; Daley, Dave
Less is understood about the relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in adolescents than the relationship in younger children. As such, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prospective relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in a community adolescent sample. Three hundred and twenty-four…
Hsin, Amy; Xie, Yu
We assess life-course changes in how cognitive and noncognitive skills mediate the effect of parental SES on children's academic achievement using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort. Our results show: (1) the direct effect of parental SES declines while the mediating effect of skills increases over time; (2) cognitive and non-cognitive skills differ in their temporal sensitivities to parental origin; and (3) in contrast to the effect of cognitive skills, the mediating effect of non-cognitive skills increases over time because non-cognitive skills are more sensitive to changes in parental SES. Our results offer insights into the dynamic role skill formation play in status attainment.
Gupta, Saurabh; Vaida, Florin; Riggs, Katie; Jin, Hua; Grant, Igor; Cysique, Lucette; Shi, Chuan; Yu, Xin; Wu, Zunyou; Heaton, Robert K.
Age, education, and gender are the most common covariates used to define normative standards against which neuropsychological (NP) performance is interpreted, but influences of other demographic factors have begun to be appreciated. In developing nations, urban versus rural residence may differentially affect numerous factors that could influence cognitive test performances, including quality of both formal and informal educational experiences and employment opportunities. Such disparities may necessitate corrections for urban/rural (U/R) status in NP norms. Prior investigations of the U/R effect on NP performance typically have been confounded by differences in educational attainment. We addressed in this by comparing the NP performance of large, Chinese urban (Yunnan Province, n =201) and rural (Anhui Province, n =141) cohorts of healthy adults, while controlling for other demographic differences. Although the groups did not differ in global NP scores, a more complex pattern was observed within specific NP ability domains and tests. Urban participants showed better performance in select measures of processing speed and executive functions, verbal fluency, and verbal learning. Self-reported daily use of academic skills was predictive of many U/R differences. Controlling for academic skill use abrogated most U/R differences but revealed rural advantages in select measures of visual reasoning and motor dexterity. PMID:21083967
Gupta, Saurabh; Vaida, Florin; Riggs, Katie; Jin, Hua; Grant, Igor; Cysique, Lucette; Shi, Chuan; Yu, Xin; Wu, Zunyou; Heaton, Robert K
Age, education, and gender are the most common covariates used to define normative standards against which neuropsychological (NP) performance is interpreted, but influences of other demographic factors have begun to be appreciated. In developing nations, urban versus rural residence may differentially affect numerous factors that could influence cognitive test performances, including quality of both formal and informal educational experiences and employment opportunities. Such disparities may necessitate corrections for urban/rural (U/R) status in NP norms. Prior investigations of the U/R effect on NP performance typically have been confounded by differences in educational attainment. We addressed in this by comparing the NP performance of large, Chinese urban (Yunnan Province, n = 201) and rural (Anhui Province, n = 141) cohorts of healthy adults, while controlling for other demographic differences. Although the groups did not differ in global NP scores, a more complex pattern was observed within specific NP ability domains and tests. Urban participants showed better performance in select measures of processing speed and executive functions, verbal fluency, and verbal learning. Self-reported daily use of academic skills was predictive of many U/R differences. Controlling for academic skill use abrogated most U/R differences but revealed rural advantages in select measures of visual reasoning and motor dexterity.
Aljadeff-Abergel, Elian; Ayvazo, Shiri; Eldar, Eitan
Social skills are prerequisite to academic performance and success in school. Training of these skills is particularly important for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) who have social deficits and struggle maintaining appropriate and accepted behavior in and outside of the classroom. Educating through the "physical" model is a…
Lavasani, Negar Miri; Stagnitti, Karen
The aim of this study was to compare the fine motor skills of two groups of Iranian children. Of the 55 male Tehranian children aged 6 to 10 years, 29 children were typically developing and 26 were identified as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder. All children were assessed using the Raven Intelligence Test and nine fine motor tasks. There were no significant differences between the groups based on intelligence. In eight of the fine motor tasks, there was a significant difference between the groups. These tasks were cutting, placing dots in a grid pattern without direction, threading beads, drawing a line within 1 and 2 minutes, finger movements and Purdue pegboard. Boys who have been identified as ADHD have poorer fine motor skills compared to typically developing boys of the same age. Children aged 6 to 10 years who have been identified as ADHD will require more attention to their fine motor skill performance to enable greater participation in daily living tasks in Tehran such as writing, fine arts and dressing which require fast and quick hand motor skills. There are still limitations in this area; therefore, research in fine motor skills and ADHD children are recommended for future research.
Carlson, Abby G; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W
Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout childhood and adolescence. Furthermore, the majority of research linking fine motor skills and academic achievement has not determined which specific components of fine motor skill are driving this relation. The few studies that have looked at associations of separate fine motor tasks with achievement suggest that copying tasks that tap visual-spatial integration skills are most closely related to achievement. The present study examined two separate elements of fine motor skills--visual-motor coordination and visual-spatial integration--and their associations with various measures of academic achievement. Visual-motor coordination was measured using tracing tasks, while visual-spatial integration was measured using copy-a-figure tasks. After controlling for gender, socioeconomic status, IQ, and visual-motor coordination, and visual-spatial integration explained significant variance in children's math and written expression achievement. Knowing that visual-spatial integration skills are associated with these two achievement domains suggests potential avenues for targeted math and writing interventions for children of all ages.
The problem of poor academic writing among British university students is a major cause of concern for universities and their tutors; and it is also of concern to employers struggling to recruit individuals able to communicate clearly and accurately. This article reports on a study designed to highlight some of the reasons for the lack of writing…
Riedlinger-Ryan, Kathryn J.; Shewan, Cynthia M.
Thirty academically achieving and 30 learning-disabled adolescents were examined on a battery of auditory language comprehension tests. Results indicated that 73 percent of the learning-disabled group scored lower than all of the control Ss on one or more of these tests. The importance of identifying auditory comprehension defects in the…
Hedges, Lowell E.
This document contains 48 sample lesson plans that practicing teachers of vocational and academic education have developed to train vocational students to think critically and to solve problems. Discussed in the introduction are the following topics: critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making as the building blocks of teaching;…
Terbush, Richard I.; And Others
A study was conducted to determine which of five tests used in the Early Prevention of School Failure (EPSF) program were the best predictors of student academic success at the end of first grade. The tests, which were administered upon children's entrance to kindergarten, were the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), the Preschool Language…
This paper discusses the rationale for using sustained content-based instruction (CBI) to teach English for academic purposes to non- native speakers, drawing on recent research and theory and on both personal experience and a small-scale study of college students. Discussion begins with a look at college and graduate students' needs for both…
Kenton, Jeffrey; Blummer, Barbara
This paper explores the numerous definitions of digital literacy, discusses its relationship to information literacy, and describes applications of digital literacy instruction in institutions of higher education. It also offers opportunities for academic librarians, and especially those in junior and community colleges, to enhance students'…
Eriks-Brophy, Alice; Durieux-Smith, Andree; Olds, Janet; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Duquette, Cheryll; Whittingham, JoAnne
This manuscript reports on data collected as part of a larger research study designed to investigate factors that facilitate the integration of children with hearing loss into mainstream environments. Aspects of communicative, academic, and social functioning for 43 adolescents and young adults were examined using questionnaires. In addition,…
Early, Diane M.; Maxwell, Kelly L.; Burchinal, Margaret; Alva, Soumya; Bender, Randall H.; Bryant, Donna; Cai, Karen; Clifford, Richard M.; Ebanks, Caroline; Griffin, James A.; Henry, Gary T.; Howes, Carollee; Iriondo-Perez, Jeniffer; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Pianta, Robert C.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Zill, Nicholas
In an effort to provide high-quality preschool education, policymakers are increasingly requiring public preschool teachers to have at least a Bachelor's degree, preferably in early childhood education. Seven major studies of early care and education were used to predict classroom quality and children's academic outcomes from the educational…
Toker, Betül; Avci, Rasit
This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral theory (CBT) psycho-educational group program on the academic procrastination behaviors of university students and the persistence of any training effect. This was a quasi-experimental research based on an experimental and control group pretest, posttest, and followup test model.…
Ng'ambi, Dick; Johnston, Kevin
South African Universities are tasked with increasing student throughput by offering additional academic support. A second task is to teach students to challenge and question. One way of attempting to achieve these tasks is by using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The focus of this paper is to examine the effect of using an ICT…
Griffin, Richard; MacKewn, Angie; Moser, Ernest; VanVuren, Ken W.
Universities and colleges are very interested in understanding the factors that influence their students' academic performance. This paper describes a study that was conducted at a mid-sized public university in the mid-south, USA, to examine this issue. In this study, the 10-scale, Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) (Weinstein et…
von Suchodoletz, Antje; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Wanless, Shannon B.; McClelland, Megan M.; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Ragnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur
The present study investigated a direct assessment of behavioral self-regulation (the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders; HTKS) and its contribution to early academic achievement among young children in Germany and Iceland. The authors examined the psychometric properties and construct validity of the HTKS, investigated gender differences in young…
Cooper, Brittany Rhoades; Moore, Julia E.; Powers, C. J.; Cleveland, Michael; Greenberg, Mark T.
Research Findings: Researchers and policymakers emphasize that early childhood is a critical developmental stage with the potential to impact academic and social-emotional outcomes (G. Conti & J. J. Heckman, 2012; J. J. Heckman, 2012; R. Murnane, I. Sawhill, & C. Snow, 2012). Although there is substantial evidence that children's early…
Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner; Farran, Dale Clark; Dong, Nianbo
This study assessed 562 four-year-old children at the beginning and end of their prekindergarten (pre-k) year and followed them to the end of kindergarten. At each time point children were assessed on 6 measures of executive function (EF) and 5 subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III academic achievement battery. Exploratory factor analyses yielded…
Tobin, Kenneth G.; Capie, William
Twelve pupils from each of thirteen middle school science classes participated in the study. Measures were obtained for each pupil on nine engagement modes. Two engagement measures, attending and generalizing, together with formal reasoning ability, were related to process skill achievement and retention. Formal reasoning ability was the strongest predictor of process skill achievement and retention, accounting for approximately 36% of the variance in each case. Formal reasoning ability and locus of control were each correlated with specific engagement modes. Formal reasoning ability was positively related with rates of generalizing and comprehending. Locus of control was significantly related with rates of attending and total engagement.
Bolic Baric, Vedrana; Hellberg, Kristina; Kjellberg, Anette; Hemmingsson, Helena
The purpose of this study was to describe and explore the experiences of support at school among young adults with Asperger's disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and also to examine what support they, in retrospect, described as influencing learning. Purposive sampling was used to enroll participants. Data were collected through…
Pariseau, Meaghan E.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Massetti, Greta M.; Hart, Katie C.; Pelham, William E., Jr.
Researchers examined the impact of an extended time accommodation on appropriate classroom behavior and rate of work completion for 33 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants received standard (30 min) or extended (45 min) time to complete seatwork in a within-subject, crossover design study. Appropriate…
Tyrer, Gwyneth; Ives, Joanne; Corke, Charlotte
This case study explores the introduction of a university wide employability program by the World of Work Careers Centre (WOWCC) at Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU). The article reports the background against which an employability program was implemented; the justification and growing demand for more emphasis on employability skills in…
Becker, Derek R.; Miao, Alicia; Duncan, Robert; McClelland, Megan M.
The present study explored direct and interactive effects between behavioral self-regulation (SR) and two measures of executive function (EF, inhibitory control and working memory), with a fine motor measure tapping visuomotor skills (VMS) in a sample of 127 prekindergarten and kindergarten children. It also examined the relative contribution of…
Viljaranta, Jaana; Aunola, Kaisa; Mullola, Sari; Virkkala, Johanna; Hirvonen, Riikka; Pakarinen, Eija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
The present study followed 156 Finnish children (M[subscript age] = 7.25 years) during the first grade of primary school to examine to what extent parent- and teacher-rated temperament impacts children's math and reading skill development during the first grade, and the extent to which this impact would be mediated by teachers' interaction styles…
Brown, Cary A.; Dickson, Rumona; Humphreys, Anne-Louise; McQuillan, Vicky; Smears, Elizabeth
Future health care professionals will require self-directed learning skills. e-Learning is a tool to assist in this process and therefore there is a need to develop the capacity and readiness to utilise e-learning within educational programmes. The aim of this study was to determine if extra-curricular online referencing and anti-plagiarism…
The aim was to study effects of an extension of physical education and motor training on motor skills, attention and cognition during a period of three years. The study has two intervention groups (n = 152) that have physical activity and motor training one lesson every school day and one control group (n = 99) that has the school's ordinary…
Smaby, Marlowe H.; Maddux, Cleborne D.; Richmond, Aaron S.; Lepkowski, William J.; Packman, Jill
The authors investigated whether undergraduates' scores on the Verbal and Quantitative tests of the Graduate Record Examinations and their undergraduate grade point average can be used to predict knowledge, personal development, and skills of graduates of counseling programs. Multiple regression analysis produced significant models predicting…
Aktamis, Hilal; Ergin, Omer
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of teaching scientific process skills education to students to promote their scientific creativity, attitudes towards science, and achievements in science. The research includes a pre-test post-test research model with a control group. The subjects of the research consist of 40 students reading…
Journal of Education for Business, 1986
This study examines differences in study skills and learning styles of students enrolled at the University of Scranton in the four business school majors of accounting, economics/finance, management, and marketing. It also compares these differences with those of students enrolled in other majors throughout the university. (CT)
Emerson, Lisa; Rees, Malcolm T.; MacKay, Bruce
Methods of detecting plagiarism and teaching skills relating to the use of secondary sources are matters of increasing contention within academia. The project presented in this paper melds the use of a detection tool (Turnitin) with a multi-strategy educational programme. The results show that using percentage of secondary sources usage as an…
Roksa, Josipa; Trolian, Teniell L.; Pascarella, Ernest T.; Kilgo, Cindy A.; Blaich, Charles; Wise, Kathleen S.
While racial inequalities in college entry and completion are well documented, much less is known about racial disparities in the development of general collegiate skills, such as critical thinking. Using data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education, we find substantial inequality in the development of critical thinking skills…
Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Lynch, John W.
Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764,…
Alber, Sheila R.; Heward, William L.
The principle of "behavior traps" to change student behavior is explained, and examples of 25 such "traps" are suggested. The "traps" lure the child into a "success circle" of increasing positive knowledge and skills. Examples include incorporating student interests in heroes, special interests, and clubs into curricular activities; utilizing…
Christian, Kate; Morrison, Frederick J.; Bryant, Fred B.
Examined sources of children's reading, vocabulary, general information, mathematics, and letter-recognition skills upon entrance to kindergarten. Predictors included ethnicity, gender, child IQ, family environment, maternal education, and months in child care. Found the need for strong parental involvement in children's development and subsidized…
Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena
Some researchers have proposed that video games possess good learning principles and may promote problem solving skills. Empirical research regarding this relationship, however, is limited. The goal of the presented study was to examine whether strategic video game play (i.e., role playing and strategy games) predicted self-reported problem solving skills among a sample of 1,492 adolescents (50.8 % female), over the four high school years. The results showed that more strategic video game play predicted higher self-reported problem solving skills over time than less strategic video game play. In addition, the results showed support for an indirect association between strategic video game play and academic grades, in that strategic video game play predicted higher self-reported problem solving skills, and, in turn, higher self-reported problem solving skills predicted higher academic grades. The novel findings that strategic video games promote self-reported problem solving skills and indirectly predict academic grades are important considering that millions of adolescents play video games every day.
Dwyer, Trudy; Friel, Deborah; McAllister, Margaret; Searl, Kerry Reid; Rossi, Dolene
An important way to advance the profession of nursing, to promote best practice and to improve the quality of nursing care, is for nurses to publish. A publication track record is necessary to gain competitive research funding, build knowledge, disseminate new insights and advance the profession. However, academics often experience obstacles in publishing ranging from a pervasive teaching culture, lack of confidence in writing, and lack of strategies to write more strategically. The benefits of writing retreats have been discussed within the nursing and other academic literature but the specifics about the method as well as the unplanned benefits have not been explored. More exploration and discussion is needed about factors assisting writers to complete papers and successfully publish. This paper discusses a novel intervention which aimed to seed the beginnings of a flourishing scholarly community at a regional Queensland University. The paper also presents qualitative and quantitative evaluation data.
Bloch, Michael H.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Leckman, James F.; Schultz, Robert T.
Background: Most children with Tourette's syndrome (TS) experience a significant decline in tic symptoms during adolescence. Currently no clinical measures have been identified that can predict whose tic symptoms will persist into adulthood. Patients with TS have deficits on neuropsychological tests involving fine-motor coordination and…
Luo, Fei; Timler, Geralyn R.
Studies suggest that the oral narratives of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are less organized than those of typically developing peers. Many studies, however, do not account for children's language abilities. Because language impairment (LI) is a frequent comorbid condition in children with ADHD, this exploratory…
Whitney, Eli M; Aleksejuniene, Jolanta; Walton, Joanne N
Critical thinking is a key element of complex problem-solving and professional behavior. An ideal critical thinking measurement instrument would be able to accurately predict which dental students are predisposed to and capable of thinking critically and applying such thinking skills to clinical situations. The aims of this study were to describe critical thinking disposition and skills in dental students at the beginning and end of their first year, examine cohort and gender effects, and compare their critical thinking test scores to their first-year grades. Volunteers from three student cohorts at the University of British Columbia were tested using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and California Critical Thinking Skills instruments at the beginning and end of their first year. Based on the preliminary findings, one cohort was retested at graduation when their final-year grades and clinical advisor rankings were compared to their critical thinking test scores. The results showed that students who entered dental school with higher critical thinking scores tended to complete their first year with higher critical thinking scores, achieve higher grades, and show greater disposition to think critically at the start of the program. Students who demonstrated an ability to think critically and had a disposition to do so at the start of the program were also likely to demonstrate those same attributes at the completion of their training. High critical thinking scores were associated with success in both didactic and clinical settings in dental school.
Powell, Erica Dion
This study presents a survey developed to measure the skills of entering college freshmen in the areas of responsibility, motivation, study habits, literacy, and stress management, and explores the predictive power of this survey as a measure of academic performance during the first semester of college. The survey was completed by 334 incoming…
Zhao, Huafang; Modarresi, Shahpar
This brief describes the impact of the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) 2007-2008 full-day Head Start prekindergarten (pre-K) class model on student academic performance, cognitive skills, and learning behaviors by the end of Grade 2. This is the fourth impact study of the MCPS full-day Head Start pre-K class model. The following…
Aldemir, Ozgul; Gursel, Oguz
Children with developmental disabilities are trained using different teaching arrangements. One of these arrangements is called small-group teaching. It has been ascertained that a small-group teaching arrangement is more effective than a one-to-one teaching arrangement. In that sense, teaching academic skills to pre-school children in small-group…
This study was conducted to determine the effect of the use of the animation on the academic achievements of the students, retention of this achievement, and the development of scientific process skills in the unit of force and motion of the science and technology course of the 6th grade basic education and to find out the student's views. The…
Umaru, Yunusa; Umma, Abdulwahid
This study investigated the effect of instruction in emotional intelligence Skills on locus of control and academic self-efficacy among junior secondary school students in Niger state, Nigeria. This study employed a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group, pre-test - post-test design. The population of this study was 105,034 secondary…
Ashdown, Daniela Maree; Bernard, Michael E.
This study investigated the effect of a social and emotional learning skills curriculum, the "You Can Do It! Early Childhood Education Program" (YCDI), on the social-emotional development, well-being, and academic achievement of 99 preparatory and grade 1 students attending a Catholic school in Melbourne, Australia. One preparatory and one grade 1…
Karda, Mehmet Nuri
The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Academic controversy as a technique of collaborative learning on Turkish Teachers candidates' success to effective speaking skills and its relationship with variables like gender and multilingualism. Therefore the experimental design based on the pre-test and post-test measurement with control…
Instructional Strategies and Students' Academic Performance in Electrical Installation in Technical Colleges in Akwa Ibom State: Instructional Skills for Structuring Appropriate Learning Experiences for Students
Onweh, Vincent E.; Akpan, Udeme Timothy
The study investigated the effects of instructional strategies on students' academic performance in Electrical Installation in Technical Colleges in Akwa Ibom State. Instructional skills are the most specific category of teaching behaviours. A non-equivalent control group quasi experimental design was adopted for the study. Four intact classes…
Graham, Steve; Fishman, Evan J.; Reid, Robert; Hebert, Michael
Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) frequently experience significant difficulty mastering basic academic skills. This meta-analysis focuses on one specific potential area of learning difficulties for these students: namely, writing. To identify the extent and depth of the potential writing challenges faced by students…
Daly, Edward J., III; Bonfiglio, Christine M.; Mattson, Tara; Persampieri, Michael; Foreman-Yates, Kristin
The technology of brief experimental analysis is just beginning to be used for identification of effective treatments for individual students who experience difficulty with oral reading fluency. In this study, the effect of a reading fluency treatment package was examined on easy and hard passages, and generalization was assessed on passages with…
Barry, Tammy DeShazo; Lyman, Robert D.; Klinger, Laura Grofer
In the present study, a group of children with ADHD performed significantly below prediction in reading, writing, and mathematics skills and demonstrated a greater discrepancy between actual and predicted achievement than did a group of non-ADHD children. Results indicate that the more severe the behavioral symptomatology of children with ADHD is,…
Wexler, Bruce E; Iseli, Markus; Leon, Seth; Zaggle, William; Rush, Cynthia; Goodman, Annette; Esat Imal, A.; Bo, Emily
Cognitive operations are supported by dynamically reconfiguring neural systems that integrate processing components widely distributed throughout the brain. The inter-neuronal connections that constitute these systems are powerfully shaped by environmental input. We evaluated the ability of computer-presented brain training games done in school to harness this neuroplastic potential and improve learning in an overall study sample of 583 second-grade children. Doing a 5-minute brain-training game immediately before math or reading curricular content games increased performance on the curricular content games. Doing three 20-minute brain training sessions per week for four months increased gains on school-administered math and reading achievement tests compared to control classes tested at the same times without intervening brain training. These results provide evidence of cognitive priming with immediate effects on learning, and longer-term brain training with far-transfer or generalized effects on academic achievement. PMID:27615029
Pugliese, Cara E.; Anthony, Laura; Strang, John F.; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L.; Kenworthy, Lauren
Almost half of all children with autism spectrum disorder have average cognitive abilities, yet outcome remains poor. Because outcome in HFASD is more related to adaptive behavior skills than cognitive level it is important to identify predictors of adaptive behavior. This study examines cognitive and demographic factors related to adaptive…
Pugliese, Cara E; Anthony, Laura; Strang, John F; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L; Kenworthy, Lauren
Almost half of all children with autism spectrum disorder have average cognitive abilities, yet outcome remains poor. Because outcome in HFASD is more related to adaptive behavior skills than cognitive level it is important to identify predictors of adaptive behavior. This study examines cognitive and demographic factors related to adaptive behavior, with specific attention to the role of executive function (EF) in youth with HFASD aged 4-23. There was a negative relationship between age and adaptive behavior and the discrepancy between IQ and adaptive behavior increased with age. EF problems contributed to lower adaptive behavior scores across domains. As such, it is important to target adaptive skills, and the EF problems that may contribute to them, in youth with HFASD.
Jackson, Margot I
Existing research rarely examines the social consequences of poor childhood health from a longitudinal perspective. Using data from the British National Child Development Study, I follow a cohort from before birth through middle age to examine whether children's health limitations before and during the educational process predict occupational skill qualifications in mid-adulthood, and whether any negative consequences are strongest for children in persistently poor health. I also examine whether differences in achievement explain the observed associations, and at what point during the schooling process performance begins to play a large explanatory role. Poor health is strongly negatively related to qualifications in adulthood, particularly for children in persistently poor health. These associations are largely explained by differences in performance early in children's academic careers, before the first important transition point. The relationship between prenatal maternal smoking and mid-adulthood qualifications is more persistent. This paper demonstrates that a static conceptualization of childhood health is inadequate to fully understand the dynamic process through which social status and health over the course of childhood have long-run consequences for the adult life course.
The Impact of a Year-Long, Same School Social Skills Instruction Program on Students' with Verified Behavioral Disorders, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders Perceptions of Program Effectiveness
Gaden, Gregory G.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a year-long, same school classroom social skills instruction program on students' with verified Emotional Behavior Disorders, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders perceptions of program effectiveness. This study indicated that youth can demonstrate…
Quintero, Javier; Loro, Mercedes; Jiménez, Belén; García Campos, Natalia
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders and at least one-third to one-half will continue through adolescence and adulthood. Moreover it is important the high comorbidity not only in children, but in adolescents and adults. Therefore ADHD becomes especially important when we observe it as a risk factor for the development of another psychopathology that add more complexity to the diagnosis of children and adolescents and also adults, and confers an evolutionary risk throughout the lifetime of the person who suffers from it. A correlational study with a sample of 378 patients diagnosed with ADHD in the childhood between 1988 and 2000 who had initiated treatment after been diagnosed was carried out. 88 patients were evaluated years after (2006) with ages between 18 and 33 years old. 85% of the patients in this study had had combined treatment. The data found in this study show lower comorbidity than other published studies (36.4%), as well as a lower persistence of the complete diagnosis of ADHD in the adulthood (15%). This is a treated population; the results may lead to a possible protector role of the early treatment of ADHD.
Bradshaw, Martha J; Salzer, Judith Schurr
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in college-age students presents a complex challenge of coping with academic coursework, refining life skills, and addressing self-limitations. Behaviors that characterize ADHD are particularly problematic for nursing students, especially when the student has difficulty with behaviors that exemplify executive functioning. The authors discuss symptoms and treatments associated with the diagnosis of ADHD and evaluation and interventions for college students, based on guidelines from the Americans With Disabilities Act. Nursing faculty can facilitate academic success by recognizing the problem in nursing students and implementing strategies useful for self-management of ADHD.
Racine, Marie Brossard; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. Consequences are multifaceted and include activity limitations in daily-living skills, academic challenges, diminished socialization skills, and motor difficulties. Poor handwriting performance is an example of an affected life skill that has been anecdotally observed by educators and clinicians for this population and can negatively impact academic performance and self-esteem. To guide health and educational service delivery needs, the authors reviewed the evidence in the literature on handwriting difficulties in children with ADHD. Existing evidence would suggest that children with ADHD have impaired handwriting performance, characterized by illegible written material and/or inappropriate speed of execution compared to children without ADHD. Studies with larger sample sizes using standardized measures of handwriting performance are needed to evaluate the prevalence of the problem and to better understand the nature of handwriting difficulties and their impact in this population.
Kaufman, Alan S; Kaufman, James C; Liu, Xin; Johnson, Cheryl K
Educational attainment and gender differences on fluid intelligence (Gf), crystallized intelligence (Gc), and academic skills in reading, math, and writing were analyzed for stratified adult samples ranging in age from 22 to 90 years. The data sources were the adult portions of the standardization samples of the second editions of Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (N = 570) and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Brief Form (N = 555). Five univariate analysis of covariance were conducted with age as the covariate. Correlational analysis supplemented the covariate analyses to better understand the relationship of the five variables to education. All variables related significantly and substantially to years of formal schooling, an important finding in view of the key nature of this background variable for conducting neuropsychological assessments, as elaborated by Heaton and his colleagues. Surprisingly, Gf related just as strongly to education as did the school-related Gc. Among academic skill areas, math correlated higher with years of formal schooling than did either reading or writing. Women significantly outperformed men on the writing test and the reverse was true for the math test; other gender differences were not significant. These analyses fill a gap in the literature regarding the nature of gender and education differences in academic skills for heterogeneous samples of normal adults between young adulthood and old age and have practical implications for neuropsychological assessment.
Ocak, Gürbüz; Boyraz, Serkan
Academic procrastination is seen to be quite common among undergraduates and time management is thought to be one of the possible reasons of it. Two surveys, academic procrastination and time management, were given to 332 undergraduate students in this correlational research. Students' academic procrastination is explained through frequencies and…
Davenport, Teresa L.
The purpose of this study was to determine if a summer camp utilizing academic and behavioral remediation programming could increase the academic achievement of children with autism spectrum disorders. Academic achievement was measured using the Wide Range Achievement Test-Fourth Edition (WRAT4; Wilkinson & Robertson, 2006) and an Informal…
Holland, Alice Ann; Hughes, Carroll W; Stavinoha, Peter L
Academic difficulties are widely acknowledged but not adequately studied in survivors of pediatric medulloblastoma. Although most survivors require special education services and are significantly less likely than healthy peers to finish high school, measured academic skills are typically average. This study sought to identify potential factors associated with academic difficulties in this population and focused on school competence and fluent academic performance. Thirty-six patients (ages 7-18 years old) were recruited through the Departments of Neurosurgery and Neuro-Oncology at Children's Medical Center Dallas and Cook Children's Medical Center in Fort Worth, TX. Participants completed a neuropsychological screening battery including selected Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement subtests. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. School competence was significantly correlated with measured academic skills and fluency. Basic academic skill development was broadly average, in contrast to significantly worse fluent academic performance. School competence may have utility as a measure estimating levels of educational success in this population. Additionally, academic difficulties experienced by childhood medulloblastoma survivors may be better captured by measuring deficits in fluent academic performance rather than skills. Identification of these potential factors associated with educational outcomes of pediatric medulloblastoma survivors has significant implications for research, clinical assessment, and academic services/interventions.
Pan, Pamela Lidan
Through this research project, I aim to address three problems in the instruction of basic skills students. First, despite the large number of students enrolled in community college basic skills programs, the success rate is low. Second, many basic skills courses are taught with drill and memorization, with little attention paid to intellectually…
Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Arteche, Adriane; Bremner, Andrew J.; Greven, Corina; Furnham, Adrian
Three UK studies on the relationship between a purpose-built instrument to assess the importance and development of 15 "soft skills" are reported. "Study 1" (N = 444) identified strong latent components underlying these soft skills, such that differences "between-skills" were over-shadowed by differences…
Gut, Dianne M.; Safran, Stephen P.
Suggests that few teachers understand the debilitating effect that social skill deficits have on a child's daily life. Notes that instructional strategies such as cooperative learning groups and social stories can help children improve their social behavior. Encourages all educators not only to emphasize academics, but also to seize any…
Morgan, Joseph John
Students with emotional and behavioral disorders often lack appropriate social skills. This deficit can lead to negative outcomes including peer and teacher rejection, increased behavioral problems at school, and decreased academic achievement. In order to improve the social outcomes of students with emotional and behavioral disorders, teachers…
Tarrant, Marie; Dodgson, Joan E; Law, Beatrice V K K
In today's environment of rapidly changing health care and information technology, nurses require a broad range of skills. One of the key skills required of all health professionals in this environment is information literacy. For registered nurses returning to a university setting to study for their baccalaureate degree, becoming information literate is one of many challenges they face. Also key to students' ability to use and communicate information in an appropriate and effective manner is their writing skills. This article describes a curricular intervention designed to develop and strengthen post-registration nurses' information literacy and academic writing competencies. An introductory information management module was developed and provided to three successive cohorts of students (n=159). Students were predominantly female (85.4%) with a mean age of 34.2 years (SD=6.8). Prior to commencing the program, students reported low information literacy and writing skills, especially in accessing and searching electronic databases and using referencing formats. The post-test evaluation of skills showed substantial and statistically significant increases in all assessed competencies. This intervention demonstrated that with structured but flexible learning activities early in the curriculum, post-registration nursing students can quickly become information literate.
Alborzkouh, P; Nabati, M; Zainali, M; Abed, Y; Shahgholy Ghahfarokhi, F
Objective: Carrying out the appropriate psychological interventions to improve vitality and mental well-being is critical. The study was carried out to review the effectiveness of stress management training on the academic life and mental well-being of the students of Shahed University. Methodology: The method used was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest plan and control group. Therefore, a total of 40 students of Shahed University of Tehran were selected by a convenience sampling method and were organized into two groups: experimental and control group. Both groups were pretested by using an academic vitality inventory and an 84-question psychological well-being inventory. Then, the experimental group received stress management skills training for ten sessions, and the control group did not receive any intervention. Next, both groups were post-tested, and the data were analyzed with SPSS-21 software by using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Findings: The findings showed that the stress management skills training significantly contributed to promoting the academic vitality and psychological well-being of students (p < 0.001). Conclusions: It was concluded from this research that teaching the methods for dealing with stress was an effective strategy to help students exposed to high stress and pressure, and this was due to its high efficiency, especially when it was held in groups, had a small cost, and it was accepted by the individuals.
Alborzkouh, P; Nabati, M; Zainali, M; Abed, Y; Shahgholy Ghahfarokhi, F
Objective: Carrying out the appropriate psychological interventions to improve vitality and mental well-being is critical. The study was carried out to review the effectiveness of stress management training on the academic life and mental well-being of the students of Shahed University. Methodology: The method used was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest plan and control group. Therefore, a total of 40 students of Shahed University of Tehran were selected by a convenience sampling method and were organized into two groups: experimental and control group. Both groups were pretested by using an academic vitality inventory and an 84-question psychological well-being inventory. Then, the experimental group received stress management skills training for ten sessions, and the control group did not receive any intervention. Next, both groups were post-tested, and the data were analyzed with SPSS-21 software by using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Findings: The findings showed that the stress management skills training significantly contributed to promoting the academic vitality and psychological well-being of students (p < 0.001). Conclusions: It was concluded from this research that teaching the methods for dealing with stress was an effective strategy to help students exposed to high stress and pressure, and this was due to its high efficiency, especially when it was held in groups, had a small cost, and it was accepted by the individuals.
Bruce, M. L.; Coffer, P. K.; Rees, S.; Robson, J. M.
Many undergraduate students find the production of an extended piece of academic writing challenging. This challenge is more acute in the sciences where production of extended texts is infrequent throughout undergraduate studies. This paper reports the development of a new English for Academic Purposes (EAP) workshop and associated resources for…
Flay, Brian R.; Allred, Carol G.
This chapter outlines and provides evidence for the effects of the "Positive Action Program" as a way of inculcating values, driving student wellbeing, and improving academic performance and interpersonal behavior. The program centers on addressing behavioral, emotional, and academic problems by developing in individuals positive beliefs…
Brown, Tisha J.
Students in kindergarten are not meeting state standards on standardized academic and social/emotional scores in the southeastern United States. The focus of this study was to determine if a teacher's perceptions of self-efficacy affects student success in academic and social/emotional standards as reported on the Georgia Kindergarten of Inventory…
Maldonado-Carreño, Carolina; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth
Despite recent growth in research highlighting the potential of teacher-child relationships to promote children's development during the early years of school, questions remain about the importance of these relationships across elementary school. Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (N = 1,364), this study examines between- and within-child associations between teacher-child relationship quality and children's academic achievement and behavior problems from kindergarten (ages 4-6 years) through 5th grade (ages 9-11 years). Results suggest that increases in teacher-child relationship quality are associated with improvements in teacher-reported academic skills and reductions in behavior problems consistently throughout elementary school. As children progressed from kindergarten through fifth grade, the importance of teacher-child relationship quality is unchanging.
Stefanatos, G A; Musikoff, H
Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (DLS) is a dysmorphogenic disorder typically associated with severe mental retardation. This report describes a rare case with normal-range verbal intelligence and specific cognitive deficits suggestive of a developmental visuospatial disorder. This was apparent in selective deficits in the ability to integrate visual percepts, copy spatial configurations, and manipulate representations of objects in space. Visual memory and psychomotor skills were also impaired. These deficits occurred within the context of normal language abilities and language-related academic achievement. The observed pattern of neuropsychologic impairment, in addition to aspects of socioemotional development, was similar to that seen in children with developmental right-hemisphere dysfunction. These findings suggest that the factors underlying DLS can be associated with fairly specific aberrations of cortical functioning.
Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; de Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão; Ploubidis, George B.; Mari, Jair de Jesus
Introduction Difficulties in word-level reading skills are prevalent in Brazilian schools and may deter children from gaining the knowledge obtained through reading and academic achievement. Music education has emerged as a potential method to improve reading skills because due to a common neurobiological substratum. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement among children (eight to 10 years of age) with reading difficulties. Method 235 children with reading difficulties in 10 schools participated in a five-month, randomized clinical trial in cluster (RCT) in an impoverished zone within the city of São Paulo to test the effects of music education intervention while assessing reading skills and academic achievement during the school year. Five schools were chosen randomly to incorporate music classes (n = 114), and five served as controls (n = 121). Two different methods of analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention: The standard method was intention-to-treat (ITT), and the other was the Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) estimation method, which took compliance status into account. Results The ITT analyses were not very promising; only one marginal effect existed for the rate of correct real words read per minute. Indeed, considering ITT, improvements were observed in the secondary outcomes (slope of Portuguese = 0.21 [p<0.001] and slope of math = 0.25 [p<0.001]). As for CACE estimation (i.e., complier children versus non-complier children), more promising effects were observed in terms of the rate of correct words read per minute [β = 13.98, p<0.001] and phonological awareness [β = 19.72, p<0.001] as well as secondary outcomes (academic achievement in Portuguese [β = 0.77, p<0.0001] and math [β = 0.49, p<0.001] throughout the school year). Conclusion The results may be seen as promising, but they are not, in themselves
Nix, Robert L; Bierman, Karen L; Domitrovich, Celene E; Gill, Sukhdeep
This study examined processes of change associated with the positive preschool and kindergarten outcomes of children who received the Head Start REDI intervention, compared to "usual practice" Head Start. In a large-scale randomized-controlled trial (N = 356 children, 42% African American or Latino, all from low-income families), this study tests the logic model that improving preschool social-emotional skills (e.g., emotion understanding, social problem solving, and positive social behavior) as well as language/emergent literacy skills will promote cross-domain academic and behavioral adjustment after children transition into kindergarten. Validating this logic model, the present study finds that intervention effects on three important kindergarten outcomes (e.g., reading achievement, learning engagement, and positive social behavior) were mediated by preschool gains in the proximal social-emotional and language/emergent literacy skills targeted by the REDI intervention. Importantly, preschool gains in social-emotional skills made unique contributions to kindergarten outcomes in reading achievement and learning engagement, even after accounting for the concurrent preschool gains in vocabulary and emergent literacy skills. These findings highlight the importance of fostering at-risk children's social-emotional skills during preschool as a means of promoting school readiness. The REDI (Research-Based, Developmentally-Informed) enrichment intervention was designed to complement and strengthen the impact of existing Head Start programs in the dual domains of language/emergent literacy skills and social-emotional competencies. REDI was one of several projects funded by the Interagency School Readiness Consortium, a partnership of four federal agencies (the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Administration for Children and Families, the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation in the Department of Health and Human Services, and the
Ford, Ruth M; McDougall, Sine J P; Evans, Daphne
Thirty preschoolers from low-income families participated in a 12-month intervention programme, funded by Sure Start, which engaged them in scaffolded educational activities delivered at home by their mothers. Immediately following the programme, the intervention group outperformed matched controls in tests of academic knowledge, receptive vocabulary, and inhibitory control, but not short-term memory or theory of mind. Teachers' ratings of children's capabilities upon school entry favoured the intervention group, especially in terms of listening, responding, writing, mathematics, and personal/social skills. Superior inhibitory control, short-term memory, and numerical skills were associated with higher ratings whereas theory of mind made a unique, negative contribution to responding. We discuss the implications of these findings for efforts to nurture the development of cognitive self-regulation and school readiness during early childhood.
Kamphoff, Cindra S.; Hamson-Utley, J. Jordan; Antoine, Beth; Knutson, Rebecca; Thomae, Jeffrey; Hoenig, Catherine
Context: Injured athletes rely on athletic trainers to assist them when recovering from injury. Over the last 20 years, the use of psychological skills to speed recovery has become increasingly popular. Objective: Explore athletic training students' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of psychological skills in the rehabilitation of…
Galloway, Emily Phillips; Uccelli, Paola
Learning to write in middle school requires the expansion of sentence-level and discourse-level language skills. In this study, we investigated later language development in the writing of a cross-sectional sample of 235 upper elementary and middle school students (grades 4-8) by examining the use of (1) lexico-grammatical forms that support…
Kruger, Estie; Heitz-Mayfield, Lisa; Tennant, Marc
For the past decade, and expected for the next decade, Australia faces a significant health workforce shortage and an acute maldistribution of health workforce. Against this background the governments at both national and state level have been increasing the training places for all health practitioners and trying to redress the imbalance through a strong regional focus on these developments. Dentistry has been an active participant in these workforce initiatives. This study examines the increasing demand for academics and discusses the existing pathways for increase, and also examines in detail the advantages of a sustainable, shared-model approach, using dentistry as a model for other disciplines. Three non-exclusive pathways for reform are considered: importation of academics, delayed retirement and the shared resource approach. Of the various solutions outlined in this review a detailed explanation of a cost-effective shared model of senior academic leadership is highlighted as a viable, sustainable model for ameliorating the shortage.
Javid, Saideh; Alavi, Hamid Reza; Fazilat Pour, Masood
Religious commitment is one of the many factors that affect individual's characteristics, including perceptions affections, emotions, interpersonal relationships, and aspirations. The purpose of the present study was to examine for the possible relationship between religious commitment with meta-cognitive skills and philosophical mindedness among the graduate students. The target population was graduate students of Kerman universities during the academic year 2011-2012. The sample includes 394 graduate students who were selected using stratified random sampling with proportional allocation. Standardized questionnaires were employed and completed by the individuals to measure religious commitment (with subscales of religious commitment, duality, and non-commitment), meta-cognitive skills (with the Cognitive and Affective Subscales), and philosophical mindedness (with subscales of comprehensiveness, penetration, and flexibility). According to the most important findings of the study, there was a significant relationship between subscale of religious commitment and both the subscales and the total score of metacognition. In addition, there was significant relationship between both the subscale of religious commitment and its total score with the subscales and the total score of philosophical mindedness. Moreover, there was significant and negative relationship between the subscale of religious duality with the subscales and the total score of philosophical mindedness. Finally, multiple linear regression analysis showed that religious commitment subscale was the significant predictor of Cognitive and Affective Subscale of meta-cognitive skills and its total score. The subscale of duality was also the most important and significant predicators of the subscales and total score of philosophical mindedness.
Choi, Youngok; Rasmussen, Edie
As academic library functions and activities continue to evolve, libraries have broadened the traditional library model, which focuses on management of physical resources and activities, to include a digital library model, transforming resources and services into digital formats to support teaching, learning, and research. This transition has…
Matusiak, Krystyna K.
The use of information resources for teaching and learning in an academic environment is undergoing a dramatic transformation. The development of digital technologies and the growth of the Internet have changed the format as well as the dissemination methods of scholarly resources. Digital libraries have been created as part of the transition from…
Hops, Hyman; And Others
The manual describes specific procedures by which an educational consultant can train classroom teachers and other social agents how to increase the social and academic performance of acting-out children in first and second grades. The intervention procedures require 30 days to implement and to train teachers to regulate their attention so as to…
This study analyzes the requirements and preferences of 171 science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) academic librarian positions in the United States as advertised in 2013. This analysis compares the STEM background experience preferences with the Carnegie rankings of the employing institution. The research examines the extent to which…
Catroppa, Cathy; Anderson, Vicki
While a number of research papers have reported findings on memory deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI), only limited studies have monitored the recovery of these skills over time. The present study examined memory ability and its effect on academic success in a group of children who had sustained a mild, moderate, or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Results showed that the severe TBI group exhibited greater deficits on memory tasks, irrespective of modality, in the acute, 6-, 12-, and 24-month postinjury stages, in comparison to mild and moderate TBI groups. Performance on academic measures was dependent on both injury severity and task demands. Preinjury academic ability and verbal memory indices best predicted academic success.
Ciesielski, Heather; Tamm, Leanne; Vaughn, Aaron; Cyran, Jessica; Epstein, Jeff
Objective To conduct an open trial assessing the initial efficacy of an intervention focusing on increasing skills related to academic performance (planning, organization, studying, homework behaviors) for middle-school children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The intervention is modeled on evidence-based interventions but designed for administration in the outpatient setting. Method Parents and their children diagnosed with ADHD attended 7 weekly group sessions targeting academic, organizational, and homework skills. Parents completed the Homework Problem Checklist and Impairment Rating Scale pre- and post-treatment. Results Following intervention, significant improvements in homework completion and management, as well as reductions in academic impairment and improvements in parent confidence and family relations were reported. Conclusion Despite limitations including small sample size and lack of a control group, our results demonstrate initial efficacy of an academic skills intervention designed for use in the outpatient setting with middle-school children diagnosed with ADHD on clinically relevant outcome measures. PMID:25926629
Conway, Brittney; Hammermeister, Jon; Briggs, Lynn; Young, Justin; Flynn, Courtney
Higher levels of mental skill use and knowledge have been consistently associated with enhanced performances in athletic settings (e.g., Greenleaf, Gould & Dieffenbach, 2001; Hatzigeorgiadis, Zourbanos, Galanis, & Theodorakis, 2011; Weinberg, 2008). More specifically, exceptional athletic performances have been linked to the practice and…
Valtonen, Riitta; Ahonen, Timo; Tolvanen, Asko; Lyytinen, Paula
The main aim of the study was to explore the ability of a brief developmental assessment to predict teacher-rated learning and attentional and behavioural skills in the first grade of school at both the group and individual levels. A sample of 394 children (181 males, 213 females) aged 4 years were followed to the age of 6 years, and 283 of the…
Welsh, Janet A.; Nix, Robert L.; Blair, Clancy; Bierman, Karen L.; Nelson, Keith E.
This study examined developmental associations between growth in domain-general cognitive processes (working memory and attention control) and growth in domain-specific skills (emergent literacy and numeracy) across the prekindergarten year and their relative contributions to kindergarten reading and math achievement. One hundred sixty-four Head…
Miller, Peter M.
As a distinguished scholar over the past 45 years, Michel Hersen has left an indelible mark on the field of behavior therapy and clinical psychology. One of his most enduring legacies is his early research work in the area of social skills assessment and training, with special attention to assertiveness training. His basic analogue and clinical…
The use of drama to teach social skills to public middle school students labeled at-risk is powerfully effective. Drama is a universal form of human expression found in cultures all over the world and throughout history. For students at-risk of poor educational outcomes, drama is effective for teaching social, emotional, and physical development.…
Montague, Marjorie; van Garderen, Delinda
This study investigated students' mathematics achievement, estimation ability, use of estimation strategies, and academic self-perception. Students with learning disabilities (LD), average achievers, and intellectually gifted students (N = 135) in fourth, sixth, and eighth grade participated in the study. They were assessed to determine their mathematics achievement, ability to estimate discrete quantities, knowledge and use of estimation strategies, and perception of academic competence. The results indicated that the students with LD performed significantly lower than their peers on the math achievement measures, as expected, but viewed themselves to be as academically competent as the average achievers did. Students with LD and average achievers scored significantly lower than gifted students on all estimation measures, but they differed significantly from one another only on the estimation strategy use measure. Interestingly, even gifted students did not seem to have a well-developed understanding of estimation and, like the other students, did poorly on the first estimation measure. The accuracy of their estimates seemed to improve, however, when students were asked open-ended questions about the strategies they used to arrive at their estimates. Although students with LD did not differ from average achievers in their estimation accuracy, they used significantly fewer effective estimation strategies. Implications for instruction are discussed.
As colleges and universities become even more complex organizations, advancement professionals need to have the skills, experience, and academic credentials to succeed in this ever-changing environment. Advancement leaders need competencies that extend beyond fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing. The author encourages…
Baweja, Raman; Mattison, Richard E; Waxmonsky, James G
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects an estimated 5-7 % of schoolchildren worldwide. School functioning and academic achievement are frequently impaired by ADHD and represent one of the main reasons children start ADHD medication. Multiple potential causal pathways exist between ADHD and impaired school performance. In this review, we decompose school performance into three components and assess the impact of ADHD and its treatments on academic performance (assessed by grade point average [GPA], time on-task, percentage of work completed as well as percent completed correctly), academic skills (as measured by achievement tests and cognitive measures), and academic enablers (such as study skills, motivation, engagement, classroom behavior and interpersonal skills). Most studies examined only the short-term effects of medication on school performance. In these, ADHD medications have been observed to improve some aspects of school performance, with the largest impact on measures of academic performance such as seatwork productivity and on-task performance. In a subset of children, these benefits may translate into detectable improvements in GPA and achievement testing. However, limited data exists to support whether these changes are sustained over years. Optimizing medication effects requires periodic reassessment of school performance, necessitating a collaborative effort involving patients, parents, school staff and prescribers. Even with systematic reassessment, behavioral-based treatments and additional school-based services may be needed to maximize academic performance for the many youth with ADHD and prominent impairments in school performance.
Surkis, Alisa; LaPolla, Fred Willie Zametkin; Contaxis, Nicole; Read, Kevin B.
Background The New York University Health Sciences Library data services team had developed educational material for research data management and data visualization and had been offering classes at the request of departments, research groups, and training programs, but many members of the medical center were unaware of these library data services. There were also indications of data skills gaps in these subject areas and other data-related topics. Case Presentation The data services team enlisted instructors from across the medical center with data expertise to teach in a series of classes hosted by the library. We hosted eight classes branded as a series called “Data Day to Day.” Seven instructors from four units in the medical center, including the library, taught the classes. A multipronged outreach approach resulted in high turnout. Evaluations indicated that attendees were very satisfied with the instruction, would use the skills learned, and were interested in future classes. Conclusions Data Day to Day met previously unaddressed data skills gaps. Collaborating with outside instructors allowed the library to serve as a hub for a broad range of data instruction and to raise awareness of library services. We plan to offer the series three times in the coming year with an expanding roster of classes. PMID:28377684
Ostmeyer, Katrina; Scarpa, Angela
Participatory action research (PAR) is a method used to develop interventions with the direct input of stakeholders. Social skills are a core deficit of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) that can affect academic performance and other areas of well-being, yet empirically supported services are not always available.…
The Effectiveness of Training Program Based on the Six Hats Model in Developing Creative Thinking Skills and Academic Achievements in the Arabic Language Course for Gifted and Talented Jordanian Students
Ziadat, Ayed H.; Al Ziyadat, Mohammad T.
The main purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a training program based on the six hats model in developing creative thinking skills and academic achievements in the Arabic language for gifted and talented Jordanian students. The study sample consisted of 59 gifted male and female students of the 7th grade from King Abdullah…
Volpe, Robert J.; DuPaul, George J.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Tresco, Katy E.
The purpose of this follow-up study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two consultation-based models to enhance the educational functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after 1 year of no treatment. Children (N = 167) meeting "Diagnostic Statistical Manual" (4th ed., text revision; 2000) criteria for attention…
Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.
IQ and achievement scores were analyzed for 678 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 6-16 years of age, IQ=80) administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III; n=586) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV, n=92). Approximately 76% of children in both samples…
Ehrenreich, Heidi; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Orpinas, Pamela; Song, Xiao
Rising marijuana use and its lowered perceived risk among adolescents highlight the importance of examining patterns of marijuana use over time. This study identified trajectories of marijuana use among adolescents followed from middle through high school, characterized these by co-occurring problem behaviors and teacher-rated academic skills (study skills, attention problems, and learning problems), and tested sixth-grade predictors of trajectory membership. The sample consisted of a randomly-selected cohort of 619 students assessed annually from sixth to twelfth grade. Using group-based modeling, we identified four trajectories of marijuana use: Abstainer (65.6%), Sporadic (13.9%), Experimental (11.5%), and Increasing (9.0%). Compared to Abstainers, students in the Sporadic, Experimental and Increasing trajectories reported significantly more co-occurring problem behaviors of alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and physical aggression. Sporadic and Experimental users reported significantly less smoking and physical aggression, but not alcohol use, than Increasing users. Teachers consistently rated Abstainers as having better study skills and less attention and learning problems than the three marijuana use groups. Compared to Abstainers, the odds of dropping out of high school was at least 2.7 times higher for students in the marijuana use trajectories. Dropout rates did not vary significantly between marijuana use groups. In sixth grade, being male, cigarette smoking, physical aggression and attention problems increased the odds of being in the marijuana use trajectories. Multiple indicators--student self-reports, teacher ratings and high school dropout records--showed that marijuana was not an isolated or benign event in the life of adolescents but part of an overall problem behavior syndrome.
Hagaman, Jessica L.
Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are known to experience academic deficits across core subject areas such as reading and mathematics. Until recently, less attention had been paid to the academic deficits of students with EBD. This was due, in part, to a common belief that academic deficits could not be addressed until problem…
Oh-Young, Conrad; Filler, John
This study involved an investigation of differences between outcome measures of students with disabilities placed in more integrated settings with those of students placed in less integrated settings. A meta-analysis was conducted using the findings from 24 studies published in peer-reviewed journals from 1980 through 2013. Results from the analyses suggest that there were significant differences (p<0.0001) between placement settings with the majority of students with disabilities in more integrated settings outperforming those in less integrated settings on both academic and social outcome measures. Overall these findings, combined with those from two prior meta-analytic studies, provide evidence spanning over 80 years suggesting separate settings are not as beneficial as are more integrated settings. Implications related to practice and policy, as well as avenues for future study, are discussed.
Lievens, Filip; Sackett, Paul R
This study provides conceptual and empirical arguments why an assessment of applicants' procedural knowledge about interpersonal behavior via a video-based situational judgment test might be valid for academic and postacademic success criteria. Four cohorts of medical students (N = 723) were followed from admission to employment. Procedural knowledge about interpersonal behavior at the time of admission was valid for both internship performance (7 years later) and job performance (9 years later) and showed incremental validity over cognitive factors. Mediation analyses supported the conceptual link between procedural knowledge about interpersonal behavior, translating that knowledge into actual interpersonal behavior in internships, and showing that behavior on the job. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Craig, Rebecca; Pelham, William E., Jr.; King, Sara
The authors examined self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with and without ADHD and examined whether stimulant medication influenced self-handicapping. Participants were 61 children ages 6 to 13, including 22 children with ADHD tested after taking a placebo, 21 children with ADHD tested after taking stimulant medication,…
Papaioannou, Sophia; Mouzaki, Angeliki; Sideridis, Georgios D.; Antoniou, Foteini; Padeliadu, Suzanna; Simos, Panagiotis G.
The study assessed cognitive and academic performance of children demonstrating teacher-rated ADHD-related symptoms (Inattention [IA] and/or Hyperactivity/Impulsivity [H/I]) in a representative sample of, largely untreated, Greek elementary school students (N?=?923). A battery of tests assessing short-term memory (STM), sustained attention,…
Fong, Shirley S.M.; Ng, Shamay S.M.; Guo, X.; Wang, Yuling; Chung, Raymond C.K.; Stat, Grad; Ki, W.Y.; Macfarlane, Duncan J.
Abstract This cross-sectional, exploratory study aimed to compare neuromuscular performance, balance and motor skills proficiencies of typically developing children and those with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and to determine associations of these neuromuscular factors with balance and motor skills performances in children with DCD. One hundred thirty children with DCD and 117 typically developing children participated in the study. Medial hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latencies in response to an unexpected posterior-to-anterior trunk perturbation were assessed by electromyography and accelerometer. Hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle peak force and time to peak force were quantified by dynamometer, and balance and motor skills performances were evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Independent t tests revealed that children with DCD had longer hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latencies (P < 0.001) and lower isometric peak forces (P < 0.001), but not times to peak forces (P > 0.025), than the controls. Multiple regression analysis accounting for basic demographics showed that gastrocnemius peak force was independently associated with the MABC balance subscore and ball skills subscore, accounting for 5.7% (P = 0.003) and 8.5% (P = 0.001) of the variance, respectively. Gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latency also explained 11.4% (P < 0.001) of the variance in the MABC ball skills subscore. Children with DCD had delayed leg muscle activation onset times and lower isometric peak forces. Gastrocnemius peak force was associated with balance and ball skills performances, whereas timing of gastrocnemius muscle activation was a determinant of ball skill performance in the DCD population. PMID:26469921
Waschbusch, Daniel A; Craig, Rebecca; Pelham, William E; King, Sara
Examined self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with and without ADHD and examined whether stimulant medication influenced self-handicapping. Participants were 61 children ages 6 to 13, including 22 children with ADHD tested after taking a placebo, 21 children with ADHD tested after taking stimulant medication, and 18 non-ADHD controls. Participants completed three measures of self handicapping and also completed self-evaluations of their performance. Results showed greater self handicapping and more positive self-evaluations in children with ADHD than in controls regardless of medication condition. Findings suggest children with ADHD may use self handicapping to ameliorate the effects of experiencing high rates of academic failure.
Brown, Beryl E.
The Office of Academic Support and Instructional Services (OASIS) at the University of California at San Diego sponsors a workshop that teaches tutors to use five types of probing skills. The use of the skills is fundamental to the student learner's acquisition of complex relationships and problem solving skills. The five types of probes are:…
Matazow, Gail S.; Hynd, George W.
Children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) often exhibit problems in visual spatial perception, math achievement, and social skills, and it has been postulated that this constellation of behaviors may constitute Right Hemisphere Deficit Syndrome (RHDS). This study examined 21 children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADD/H),…
Temple, Christine M.; Shephard, Elizabeth E.
TS school starters had enhanced receptive and expressive language on standardised assessment (CELF-P) and enhanced rhyme judgements, spoonerisms, and lexical decision, indicating enhanced phonological skills and word representations. There was marginal but consistent advantage across lexico-semantic tasks. On executive tasks, speeded naming of…
The utility of math difficulties, internalized psychopathology, and visual-spatial deficits to identify children with the nonverbal learning disability syndrome: evidence for a visualspatial disability.
Forrest, Bonny J
This study examined the criteria currently employed to identify children with the nonverbal learning disability syndrome (NVLD). The most widely accepted definition of NVLD relies on deficits in visual-spatial-organizational, tactile-perceptual, psychomotor, and nonverbal problem-solving skills. These deficits are believed to coexist with strengths in rote verbal learning, phoneme-grapheme matching, verbal output, and verbal classification. The combination of these assets and deficits has been hypothesized to lead to psychosocial and academic problems, including difficulties with mathematics and increased rates of psychopathology. This study compared performance of three groups of children: those with NVLD, those with verbal learning disabilities (VLD), and controls. The results show that the criteria currently employed to identify children with NVLD may not adequately differentiate them. In contrast to previous findings, the study reveals that children with NVLD can demonstrate good math abilities when performing certain types of math tasks, especially those that draw on their robust verbal skills. Also in contrast to most previous findings, in this study children with NVLD (and normal controls) demonstrated lower rates of psychopathology than children with VLD. Finally, for children with NVLD it appears that their visual-perceptual deficits may include a primary deficit in locating objects in space. Based in part on the findings of this study, it may be helpful for diagnostic and treatment purposes to reserve the term Nonverbal Learning Disability for children whose visual-spatial deficits are primary and severe enough to affect academic performance in subjects such as written mathematics. Given the integral nature of social relations in children's lives, a separate category (e.g., social processing disorder) could be created for children whose social skills deficits are primary and impair their social interactions. A broader nonverbal learning model or syndrome
Hirsch, Barton J.
Educating high school students for both college and career is difficult. Teaching trade skills seems alien to the academic culture. But new research indicates that soft skills are quite important to judgments of employability and that youth learn many soft skills in traditional academic subjects (e.g., literature). A focus on soft skills allows…
Brown, William F.; Forristall, Dorothy Z.
The Computer-Assisted Study Skills Improvement Program (CASSIP) is designed to help students develop effective study skills and academic attitudes, thus increasing their potential for scholastic success. The program contains four integrated items: Study Skills Surveys; Study Skills Modules, Study Skills Notebook; and Study Skills Test. The surveys…
You, Y. Nancy; Bednarski, Brian
The recent decades have witnessed a significant expansion in the diversity of career paths within academic surgery. Although the skills for providing exemplary surgical care and for maintaining a strong work ethic are the foundations of an academic surgeon, deliberate career planning and organized acquisition of research skills contribute to the success of an academic career. In this article, we identify a set of core academic skills and propose a framework for acquiring them. We also describe specific career paths within academic surgery and provide an overview of the opportunities for acquiring specific skill sets. The development of an academic career is challenging, and firm knowledge of the personal motivations will sustain and endure the time needed for acquiring the needed skills. PMID:25067917
You, Y Nancy; Bednarski, Brian
The recent decades have witnessed a significant expansion in the diversity of career paths within academic surgery. Although the skills for providing exemplary surgical care and for maintaining a strong work ethic are the foundations of an academic surgeon, deliberate career planning and organized acquisition of research skills contribute to the success of an academic career. In this article, we identify a set of core academic skills and propose a framework for acquiring them. We also describe specific career paths within academic surgery and provide an overview of the opportunities for acquiring specific skill sets. The development of an academic career is challenging, and firm knowledge of the personal motivations will sustain and endure the time needed for acquiring the needed skills.
Cole, Randy Drue
This study investigated the effects of hypnosis on the learning of reading skills and academic skills. The general hypothesis was that hypnotic suggestions related to the curriculum of a course for improvement of academic and study skills would facilitate students' academic skill learning. Ninety-three male and female students enrolled in a course…
Johnson, Joseph; Reid, Robert
Academic problems are common among students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). One reason for academic problems is the difficulties in executive functions (EF) that are necessary for complex goal-oriented behaviors. Students with ADHD often exhibit EF deficits and as a result have difficulties with tasks that require planning,…
Salley, Brenda; Gabrielli, Joy; Smith, Catherine M; Braun, Matthew
Given the well-documented symptom overlap between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), careful evaluation of potential differentiation and overlap is critical for accurate diagnostic decisions. Although research has considered the use of symptom checklists and parent/teacher report questionnaires for symptom differentiation, standardized observational methods, typically utilized in the context of ASD evaluation, have received less attention. The present study examined the continuum of communication and social interaction impairment for youth diagnosed with ASD and ADHD, as indexed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Participants were 209 youth ages 3 to 18 years with ASD, ADHD, Dual Diagnosis (ASD+ADHD) or No Diagnosis. Differences across diagnostic groups were observed for mean communication and social interaction total scores on the ADOS, with the highest scores (i.e., greater impairment) observed for the ASD group and lowest scores for the ADHD and No Diagnosis groups. Results provide the first evidence for use of the ADOS for distinguishing youth who have ADHD alone versus ASD alone or co-occurring ASD+ADHD. Findings are discussed in light of implications for clinical practice and future research.
Salley, Brenda; Gabrielli, Joy; Smith, Catherine M.; Braun, Matthew
Given the well-documented symptom overlap between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), careful evaluation of potential differentiation and overlap is critical for accurate diagnostic decisions. Although research has considered the use of symptom checklists and parent/teacher report questionnaires for symptom differentiation, standardized observational methods, typically utilized in the context of ASD evaluation, have received less attention. The present study examined the continuum of communication and social interaction impairment for youth diagnosed with ASD and ADHD, as indexed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Participants were 209 youth ages 3 to 18 years with ASD, ADHD, Dual Diagnosis (ASD+ADHD) or No Diagnosis. Differences across diagnostic groups were observed for mean communication and social interaction total scores on the ADOS, with the highest scores (i.e., greater impairment) observed for the ASD group and lowest scores for the ADHD and No Diagnosis groups. Results provide the first evidence for use of the ADOS for distinguishing youth who have ADHD alone versus ASD alone or co-occurring ASD+ADHD. Findings are discussed in light of implications for clinical practice and future research. PMID:26779281
This briefing paper uses a question-and-answer format to provide basic information about children with attention deficit disorder (ADD). Questions address the following concerns: nature and incidence of ADD; causes of ADD; signs of ADD (impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, social skill deficits); the diagnostic ADD assessment; how to get…
Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Lincoln, Michelle; Chen, Yu-Wei
There is a need for effective interventions to address the social difficulties of children with ADHD. This randomised controlled trial examined the effectiveness of a play-based intervention for improving the social play skills of children with ADHD in peer-to-peer interactions. Children with ADHD (5 to 11 years) were randomised to an intervention-first (n = 15) or waitlist control-first group (n = 14). Participants allocated to the control-first group received the intervention after a 10-week wait period. Children invited a typically-developing playmate and parents of children with ADHD participated. The intervention involved: six clinic play-sessions, weekly home-modules and a one-month home follow up. The Test of Playfulness (ToP) was scored by a blinded rater. Parent reported treatment adherence was used to assess treatment fidelity. Between group statistics were used to compare the change of the intervention-first (10-week intervention period) and control-first (10-week wait period) groups. Once all children had received the intervention, repeated measures ANOVA, post hoc Least Significance Difference tests and Cohen’s-d were used to measure effect. Changes in ToP social items were analysed using Friedman’s ANOVA. Linear regression analyses were used to identify variables that predicted change. The control-first group did not change during the wait period. The change in the intervention-first group was significantly greater than the change in the control-first group (during the wait period). When the data from the two groups were combined, the mean ToP scores of the children with ADHD (n = 29) improved significantly following the intervention, with a large effect from pre to post intervention and from pre intervention to follow up. Children maintained treatment gains at follow up. All ToP social items improved significantly following the intervention. The findings support the use of play involving parent and peer mediated components to enhance the social
Chaix, Yves; Lauwers-Cancès, Valérie; Faure-Marie, Nathalie; Gentil, Catherine; Lelong, Sandrine; Schweitzer, Elisabeth; Rodriguez, Diana; Iannuzzi, Stéphanie; Kemlin, Isabelle; Dorison, Nathalie; Rivier, François; Carniero, Maryline; Preclaire, Elodie; Barbarot, Sébastien; Lion-François, Laurence; Castelnau, Pierre
Learning disabilities are one of the most frequent complications of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in children. Studies of the effects of the neurocognitive deficit on academic performance are relatively rare, owing to the small size of the populations concerned. However, research is needed to develop effective rehabilitation programs. In the present study, we explored the impact of a possible phonological deficit on the reading abilities of children with NF1. A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in France on two groups of 75 children with or without NF1 aged 8-12 years, matched for age, sex, handedness, and reading level. All participants underwent a neuropsychological evaluation to assess their general cognitive level, reading skills, phonological processes, visuoperceptual abilities, and attentional capacity. Phonological skills were assessed by means of two phonological awareness tasks and one short-term memory task. In the group of children with NF1, 41% had reading difficulties. Phonological processes were impaired in this group, compared with the children without NF1. Similar differences were found for a phoneme deletion task after adjustment for reading difficulties, IQ level, and visuoperceptual abilities. Phonological awareness, but not phonological short-term memory, was impaired in children with NF1, and not just those whose reading was impaired. Results suggest that children with NF1 have a phonological awareness deficit, whatever their reading level. Identification of reduced phonological skills may warrant the implementation of a specific rehabilitation program before early reading difficulties emerge.
Stemmer, Paul; And Others
During 1990-91, Michigan schools piloted an innovative portfolio approach enabling students to discover, document, and develop employability skills in academics, personal management, and teamwork. Not an improved sorting system, the project encourages students to recognize successes, seek opportunities to improve skills, and gain confidence in…
Scott, Mary E.
The term "attention deficit disorder" (ADD) is defined, criteria used by the American Psychiatric Association in diagnosing ADD are listed, and possible causes noted. Remediation needs of children with ADD include attention skills, self-esteem, and social skills. Early diagnosis is important, and teachers and parents need to identify…
Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick
The current study examined the link between academic enablers and different types of reading achievement measures. Academic enablers are skills and behaviors that support, or enable, students to perform well academically, such as engagement, interpersonal skills, motivation, and study skills. The sample in this study consisted of 61 third-,…
Carroll, Regina A.; Kodak, Tiffany; Adolf, Kari J.
We used an adapted alternating treatments design to compare skill acquisition during discrete-trial instruction using immediate reinforcement, delayed reinforcement with immediate praise, and delayed reinforcement for 2 children with autism spectrum disorder. Participants acquired the skills taught with immediate reinforcement; however, delayed…
Purpose The empirical record regarding the expected co-occurrence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific language impairment is confusing and contradictory. A research plan is presented that has the potential to untangle links between these 2 common neurodevelopmental disorders. Method Data from completed and ongoing research projects examining the relative value of different clinical markers for separating cases of specific language impairment from ADHD are presented. Results The best option for measuring core language impairments in a manner that does not potentially penalize individuals with ADHD is to focus assessment on key grammatical and verbal memory skills. Likewise, assessment of ADHD symptoms through standardized informant rating scales is optimized when they are adjusted for overlapping language and academic symptoms. Conclusion As a collection, these clinical metrics set the stage for further examination of potential linkages between attention deficits and language impairments. PMID:26501406
Feller, Myrna; Hussey, Ruth
This study skills workshop guide, for the college level, is designed to help students assess their study skills and personal behavior goals for becoming academically effective and confident. Seven consecutive, 2-hour, weekly sessions emphasize learning as an active process and concentrate on specific skills: objectives and goals; time management;…
Gray, Christina; Climie, Emma A.
Reading is a multifaceted skillset that has the potential to profoundly impact a child’s academic performance and achievement. Mastery of reading skills is often an area of difficulty for children during their academic journey, particularly for children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Specific Learning Disorder with Impairment in Reading (SLD-R), or children with a comorbid diagnosis of both ADHD and SLD-R. ADHD is characterized by executive functioning and impulse control deficits, as well as inattention and impulsivity. Among the academic struggles experienced by children with ADHD are challenges with word reading, decoding, or reading comprehension. Similarly, children with SLD-R frequently encounter difficulties in the development of appropriate reading skills. SLD-R incorporates dysfunctions in basic visual and auditory processes that result in difficulties with decoding and spelling words. There have been limited empirical studies investigating the efficacy of interventions to improve the reading ability of children with both ADHD and SLD-R. Research studies that have focused on reading interventions for children from this population have predominantly included the use of medication treatments with stimulants (e.g., methylphenidate) and non-stimulants (e.g., atomoxetine). This review paper will present and integrate findings from empirical studies on successful medication treatments for children with comorbid ADHD and SLD-R. Furthermore, this paper will extend findings from empirically successful medication treatments to provide directions for future research. PMID:27458398
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children. It is characterized by motor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention inappropriate for the age. Approximately 5-10 % of school age children are diagnosed to have ADHD. The affected children show significant impairment in social behavior and academic performance. The DSM-5 criteria are useful in diagnosing three subtypes of ADHD based on presence of symptoms described in 3 domains viz ., inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Co-morbidities like specific learning disability, anxiety disorder, oppositional defiant disorder are commonly associated with ADHD.Education of parents and teachers, behavioral therapy and medication are main components of management. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine are effective in controlling symptoms of ADHD in most children. Research studies estimated that 30-60 % of children continue to show symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. The general practitioner can play an important role in early diagnosis, appropriate assessment and guiding parents for management of children with ADHD.
Miles, B S; Anderson, P; Agostino, A; Golomb, M R; Achonu, C; Blanchette, V; Feldman, B M; McLimont, M; Revel-Vilk, S; Stain, A; Barnes, M A
Brain insults are a risk factor for neuropsychological and academic deficits across several paediatric conditions. However, little is known about the specific effects of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) in boys with haemophilia. The study compared neurocognitive, academic and socio-emotional/behavioural outcomes of boys with haemophilia with and without a history of ICH. Of 172 consecutive patients seen at a Pediatric Comprehensive Care Hemophila Centre, 18 had a history of ICH. Sixteen boys between the ages of 3 and 17 years were available for study and were matched to controls with haemophilia of the same age and disease severity and on the basis of maternal education. Groups were compared on neuropsychological and academic outcomes. Attention, socio-emotional function and executive skills were compared using data from parent questionnaires. Differences were found in intellectual function, visual-spatial skill, fine motor dexterity and particularly language-related skills, including vocabulary, word reading and applied math problem solving. Despite these group differences, outcomes were within the average range for most boys with ICH. No group differences were found in behavioural and socio-emotional functioning. Although ICH in haemophilia is not benign, it was not associated with significant cognitive and academic consequences for most boys. Early neuropsychological assessment may be indicated when there is a history of ICH. Investigation of age at ICH and quantitative measures of brain in relation to neurocognitive outcomes in larger groups of boys with ICH would be useful.
Pears, Katherine C.; Heywood, Cynthia V.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.
Reading skills are core competencies in children's readiness to learn and may be particularly important for children in foster care, who are at risk for academic difficulties and higher rates of special education placement. In this study, prereading skills (phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and oral language ability) and kindergarten…
DuPaul, George J; Jitendra, Asha K; Volpe, Robert J; Tresco, Katy E; Lutz, J Gary; Vile Junod, Rosemary E; Cleary, Kristi S; Flammer, Lizette M; Mannella, Mark C
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the relative efficacy of two consultation-based models for designing academic interventions to enhance the educational functioning of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children (N=167) meeting DSM-IV criteria for ADHD were randomly assigned to one of two consultation groups: Individualized Academic Intervention (IAI; interventions designed using a data-based decision-making model that involved ongoing feedback to teachers) and Generic Academic Intervention (GAI; interventions designed based on consultant-teacher collaboration, representing "consultation as usual"). Teachers implemented academic interventions over 15 months. Academic outcomes (e.g., standardized achievement test, and teacher ratings of academic skills) were assessed on four occasions (baseline, 3 months, 12 months, 15 months). Hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicated significant positive growth for 8 of the 14 dependent variables; however, trajectories did not differ significantly across consultation groups. Interventions in the IAI group were delivered with significantly greater integrity; however, groups did not differ with respect to teacher ratings of treatment acceptability. The results of this study provide partial support for the effectiveness of consultation-based academic interventions in enhancing educational functioning in children with ADHD; however, the relative advantages of an individualized model over "consultation as usual" have yet to be established.
This resource for life skills activities for adolescents with special needs covers aspects of interpersonal relationships, communication skills, academic and school skills, practical living skills, vocational skills, problem-solving skills, and lifestyle choices. Included are 190 illustrated activity sheets with related exercises, discussion…
Moreira, Paulo A. S.; Dias, Paulo; Vaz, Filipa Machado; Vaz, Joao Machado
There is a growing need for the integration of various theoretical perspectives on academic performance, especially the theories on educational persistence, and motivational theories. Recent models of students' engagement with school incorporate different dimensions of students, family and school. However, some authors are arguing that academic…
Robinson, Christie M.; Babo, Gerard
This study examined the influence of student demographic variables (i.e., SES, race, attendance, and gender) and the school variable of placement in an inclusion setting on the academic achievement of general education students in grades 6, 7, and 8 (n = 1200) in an urban school district as measured by the 2010-2011 NJASK, the state's annual…
Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Crosetti, Lea M.
It has been reported that students learn best when they use a wide variety of techniques to understand the information of the discipline, be it visual, auditory, discussion with others, metacognition, hands-on activities, or writing about the subject. We report in this article the use of academic journals not only as an aid for students to learn…
Community Coll. of Rhode Island, Warwick.
As part of an effort to develop a skill-based education program for students that relates academic skills with workplace skills, the Community College of Rhode Island developed a working instructional model consisting of 6 areas, or strands, and 31 skills. The model is directed at students in grades 9 through 12 and recognizes the importance of…
Wilhelm, William J.; Logan, Joyce; Smith, Sheila M.; Szul, Linda F.
This document contains four papers (and an introduction by William Wilhelm) on teaching "soft" skills in business education programs. "The Skill Building Challenge: Preparing a Bridge for the Workforce Skills Gap" (Sheila M. Smith) examines the following topics: the workforce skills gap; the importance of academic and…
De Silva, Muthu
This study investigates the influence of academic entrepreneurship on traditional academic duties carried out in a resource-constrained environment, particularly focusing on whether there is synergy or rivalry between these two activities. Using qualitative evidence, we discover that there are funding, resource, knowledge and skill and networking…
Cook, Nathan E; Braaten, Ellen B; Surman, Craig B H
It is well established that processing speed is negatively impacted in children and adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Unfortunately, exactly how processing speed vulnerabilities manifest in daily functioning has not been well established. To support clinical care of youth with ADHD, it is important to better understand the functional consequences and relevant outcomes associated with processing speed deficits. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to identify the association between processing speed and clinical or functional correlates among children or adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. A total of 409 abstracts were screened, of which, 60 full-text articles were identified as potentially relevant, and 8 of these studies met inclusion criteria. Domains evaluated across these studies included reading skills, mathematics skills, written expression, anxiety, self-appraisals of competence, and adaptive functioning. Six studies reported an association between processing speed and reading skills, allowing for meta-analysis. Processing speed difficulties among youth with ADHD appear strongly associated with several clinical and functional correlates including weaker academic skills, poorer adaptive skills, increased self-reported anxiety, and overestimates of social competence. Meta-analytic results for studies reporting the association between processing speed and reading skills indicate a medium overall weighted mean effect size (r = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.28 -0.39) with minimal heterogeneity (I(2) = 0.17). Clinical implications of these findings, limitations in the current knowledge base, and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Measuring Elementary School Students' Social and Emotional Skills: Providing Educators with Tools to Measure and Monitor Social and Emotional Skills That Lead to Academic Success. Publication #2014-37
Scarupa, Harriet J., Ed.
Mounting research evidence points to social and emotional skills as playing a central role in shaping student achievement, workplace readiness, and adult wellbeing. This report describes the rigorous, collaborative work undertaken by the Tauck Family Foundation and Child Trends, a national leader in measuring children's development and wellbeing,…
Troia, Gary A.
This study evaluated the efficacy of the computer-assisted intervention program known as Fast ForWord Language? in a sample of migrant students in Grades 1 through 6 who were native Spanish speakers. Fast ForWord Language? combines intensive training in multiple receptive English language skills with adaptive acoustic waveform lengthening and…
Simms, Kathryn; Bock, Sara; Hackett, Lewis
Objective: Prior research on the efficacy of physical education has been conducted in a piecemeal fashion. More specifically, studies typically test a single benefit hypothesized to be associated with physical education (e.g. body mass index [BMI]) while excluding others (e.g. social skills) and not controlling for important confounds (e.g. diet).…
Adachi, Paul J. C.; Willoughby, Teena
Some researchers have proposed that video games possess good learning principles and may promote problem solving skills. Empirical research regarding this relationship, however, is limited. The goal of the presented study was to examine whether strategic video game play (i.e., role playing and strategy games) predicted self-reported problem…
Bastalich, Wendy; Behrend, Monica; Bloomfield, Robert
In recent years, contentiously for some, universities have developed generalist skills lists and associated curricula in response to government demand for more "employment-ready" graduates. Such training usually includes writing and communication. In Australia and the UK, guidelines designed to support the development of skills…
In 1997, Chicago implemented a policy that required algebra for all ninth-grade students, eliminating all remedial coursework. This policy increased opportunities to take algebra for low-skill students who had previously enrolled in remedial math. However, little is known about how schools respond to the policy in terms of organizing math…
multiplying deviation scores by the test -form reliability ( Kuder - Richardson 20), and then converting back to raw scores. 7 _______ . . .. -o o•. . o... Education and Training (N-5) &contracted for the development and test of a computer-based approach, hereafter referred to as the Performance-related Enabling...RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS-1963-A .. . . . .. - . . . . . . NPROC SR 81-18 MAY 1981 COMPUTER-BASED APPROACH TO THE NAVY’S ACADEMIC
Sklarz, David P.
A plan for the academic magnet high school (AMHS) program offered by the Charleston County (South Carolina) School District is presented in this report. A program overview describes general goals for students, which would emphasize thinking skills in all academic core areas, problem-solving skills in mathematics and research-based science,…
Effect of Atomoxetine Treatment on Reading and Phonological Skills in Children with Dyslexia or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Dyslexia in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Shaywitz, Bennett; Wietecha, Linda; Wigal, Sharon; McBurnett, Keith; Williams, David; Kronenberger, William G.; Hooper, Stephen R.
Abstract Objectives: Evaluated the effects of atomoxetine on the reading abilities of children with dyslexia only or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid dyslexia. Methods: Children aged 10–16 years (N = 209) met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for dyslexia only (n = 58), ADHD and comorbid dyslexia (n = 124), or ADHD only (n = 27) and were of normal intelligence. Patients were treated with atomoxetine (1.0–1.4 mg/kg/day) or placebo in a 16-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. The dyslexia-only and ADHD and comorbid dyslexia groups were randomized 1:1; the ADHD-only group received atomoxetine in a blinded manner. Reading abilities were measured with the Woodcock Johnson III (WJIII), Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP), Gray Oral Reading Tests-4, and Test of Word Reading Efficiency. Results: Atomoxetine-treated dyslexia-only patients compared with placebo patients had significantly greater improvement (p < 0.02) with moderate to approaching high effect sizes (ES) on WJIII Word Attack (ES = 0.72), Basic Reading Skills (ES = 0.48), and Reading Vocabulary (ES = 0.73). In the atomoxetine-treated ADHD and comorbid dyslexia group, improvement on the CTOPP Elision measure (ES = 0.50) was significantly greater compared with placebo (p < 0.02). Total, inattentive, and hyperactive/impulsive ADHD symptom reductions were significant in the atomoxetine-treated ADHD and comorbid dyslexia group compared with placebo, and from baseline in the ADHD-only group (p ≤ 0.02). ADHD symptom improvements in the ADHD and comorbid dyslexia group were not correlated with improvements in reading. Conclusions: Atomoxetine treatment improved reading scores in patients with dyslexia only and ADHD and comorbid dyslexia. Improvements for patients with dyslexia only were in critical components of reading, including
A+ Education Partnership, 2014
Education policymakers and educators in Alabama are committed to improving the state's public education system to ensure that students gain the knowledge and skills they need to graduate from high school ready for real life. The state is on the path to implementing higher academic standards--the College and Career Ready Standards--which lay a…
Molitor, Stephen J.; Langberg, Joshua M.; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D.; Dvorsky, Melissa R.; Evans, Steven W.
Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience a host of negative academic outcomes, and deficits in reading and mathematics abilities contribute to these academic impairments. Students with ADHD may also have difficulties with written expression, but there has been minimal research in this area and it is not clear…
Backenson, Erica M.; Holland, Sara C.; Kubas, Hanna A.; Fitzer, Kim R.; Wilcox, Gabrielle; Carmichael, Jessica A.; Fraccaro, Rebecca L.; Smith, Amanda D.; Macoun, Sarah J.; Harrison, Gina L.; Hale, James B.
Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have deficits in the basic psychological processes that interfere with learning and academic achievement, and for some SLD subtypes, these deficits can also lead to emotional and/or behavior problems. This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent…
Mannuzza, S; Klein, R G
The authors have traced the developmental course of ADHD from childhood to adulthood, showing that it is a bumpy road for many. In early and middle adolescence, relative deficits are seen in academic and social functioning, ADHD symptoms remain problematic in two thirds to three quarters of these children, and antisocial behaviors, in some cases amounting to CD, are common. Many of these same difficulties persist into the late teenage years. Deficits continue to be observed in academic and social domains (compared with controls, probands exhibit lower grades, more courses failed, worse performance on standardized tests, have fewer friends, and are rated less adequate in psychosocial adjustment). About two fifths continue to experience ADHD symptoms to a clinically significant degree. One quarter to one third have a diagnosed antisocial disorder, and two thirds of these individuals are arrested. Also, drug abuse is observed in a significant minority of these youths. Importantly, the greatest risk factor for the development of antisocial behavior and substance abuse by the late teenage years is the maintenance of ADD symptoms. When evaluated in their mid-twenties, dysfunctions are apparent in these same areas. Compared with controls, probands complete less schooling, hold lower-ranking occupations, and continue to suffer from poor self-esteem and social skills deficits. In addition, significantly more probands than controls exhibit an antisocial personality and, perhaps, a substance use disorder in adulthood. Furthermore, many do not outgrow all facets of their childhood syndrome. These relative deficits, however, do not tell the whole story of the ADHD child's adult fate. Indeed, nearly all probands were gainfully employed. Furthermore, some had achieved a higher-level education (e.g., completed Master's degree, enrolled in medical school) and occupation (e.g., accountant, stock broker). In addition, a full two thirds of these children showed no evidence of any
Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.; Roberts, Kristin L.; Stafford, Allison L.; Eckert, Mark A.
A significant number of studies have examined the cognitive components of basic academic skills, which has led to major changes in both teaching and early identification assessment practices. However, the majority of previous research has focused solely on reading. This study examines the cognitive components of academic writing skills across…
Zaki, Arlina Ahmad; Yunus, Melor Md
The potentials of mobile learning in teaching academic writing skills for ESL students are explored in this paper. Although there have been studies on MALL to improve writing skills, academic writing was never really touched. Few aspects are covered like the changes in educational technology, defining MALL, identifying issues in academic writing…
Keymer, Carol A.
This paper describes an educational intervention program for academically failing students which focuses on visual perceptual skills and learning strategies. It considers visual perceptual problems as the undetected cause of much academic failure. Basic visual skills necessary for academic success are identified including visual acuity, binocular…
Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Barnes, Marcia; Fletcher, Jack M; Levin, Harvey S; Swank, Paul R; Song, James
In a prospective longitudinal study, academic achievement scores were obtained from youth 5 to 15 years of age who sustained mild-moderate (n = 34) or severe (n = 43) traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Achievement scores were collected from baseline to 5 years following TBI and were subjected to individual growth curve analysis. The models fitted age at injury, years since injury, duration of impaired consciousness, and interaction effects to Reading Decoding, Reading Comprehension, Spelling, and Arithmetic standard scores. Although scores improved significantly over the follow-up relative to normative data from the standardization sample of the tests, children with severe TBI showed persistent deficits on all achievement scores in comparison to children with mild-moderate TBI. Interactions of the slope and age parameters for the Arithmetic and Reading Decoding scores indicated greater increases over time in achievement scores of the children injured at an older age, but deceleration in growth curves for the younger children with both mild-moderate and severe TBI. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that early brain injuries disrupt the acquisition of some academic skills. Hierarchical regression models revealed that indexes of academic achievement obtained 2 years following TBI had weak relations with the duration of impaired consciousness and socioeconomic status. In contrast, concurrent cognitive variables such as phonological processing and verbal memory accounted for more variability in academic scores. Given the significant and persistent decrement in basic academic skills in youth with severe TBI, it is clear that head-injured youth require intensive, long-term remediation and intervention not only of the academic skills themselves, but also of those cognitive abilities that support the development and maintenance of reading and math.
Holland, Alice Ann; Hughes, Carroll W; Harder, Lana; Silver, Cheryl; Bowers, Daniel C; Stavinoha, Peter L
It has been proposed previously that extrinsic motivation may enable survivors of childhood medulloblastoma to significantly improve aspects of neurocognitive performance. In healthy populations, enhanced motivation has been shown to promote academic fluency, a domain likely more relevant to the educational outcomes of pediatric medulloblastoma survivors than academic skill development. The present study investigates the effect of enhanced extrinsic motivation on fluent (i.e., accurate and efficient) academic performance in pediatric medulloblastoma survivors. Participants were 36 children, ages 7-18, who had completed treatment for medulloblastoma. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery that included administration of equivalent tasks on Forms A and B of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Half were randomly assigned to an incentive condition prior to the administration of Form B. Provision of a performance-based incentive resulted in statistically significant improvement, but not normalization of function, in performance on measures of academic fluency. No demographic, treatment-related, academic, neuropsychological, or self-perception variables predicted response to incentive. Findings suggest that academic performance of survivors may significantly improve under highly motivating conditions. In addition to implications for educational services, this finding raises the novel possibility that decreased motivation represents an inherent neuropsychological deficit in this population and provides a rationale for further investigation of factors affecting individual differences in motivational processes. Further, by examining effort in a context where effort is not inherently suspect, present findings also significantly contribute to the debate regarding the effects of effort and motivation on neuropsychological performance.
Schmiedeler, Sandra; Schneider, Wolfgang
In this study we discuss implications of the dimensional versus categorical approach in the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and focus on the educational relevance of an early assessment. In a longitudinal study in a German community sample we investigated the development of ADHD symptoms from kindergarten until the end of Grade 1 as well as the association to pre-academic skills and later academic performance. At three time points in kindergarten, children (original sample N = 793; Mn age 4 years 10 months) were assessed in regard to school-relevant precursors of reading, spelling and mathematical abilities; ADHD symptoms were rated by parents and preschool teachers. In elementary school academic performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics was measured with standardized tests. Results show that stability of ADHD symptoms during preschool was high considering the dimensional approach, whereas in regard to the categorical classification many children crossing the cut-off point at one measurement point did not do so at the next assessment. Furthermore, preschool ADHD symptoms were negatively correlated with all school-relevant precursors. This was more pronounced for symptoms of inattention than for hyperactivity/impulsivity. Observing later development, preschool ADHD symptoms predicted academic achievement in mathematics and reading at the end of Grade 1 even after individual differences in nonverbal intelligence and specific precursors had been statistically controlled for.
Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011
The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…
Matteson, Miriam L.; Anderson, Lorien; Boyden, Cynthia
Soft skills are a collection of people management skills, important to many professions and job positions, including academic librarianship. Yet the concept of soft skills lacks definition, scope, instrumentation, and systematic education and training. This literature review explores the definition of "soft skills"; contrasts skills with…
Ristow, Robert S.; Edeburn, Carl E.
Describes a program to integrate academic skills, life skills, and vocational training into a penal structure to provide optimum success experiences for incarcerated adult males. Discusses the model used to monitor success in the program and the interpersonal skills, cognitive skills, and affective skills developed. (Author)
Zentall, Sydney S.; Tom-Wright, Kinsey; Lee, Jiyeon
Objective: The purpose of this review of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was to summarize the following: (1) academic deficits in math and reading, (2) possible theoretical contributors to these deficits, and (3) psychostimulant interventions that target math and reading, as well as, parallel interventions involving…
Keenan, Janice M; Meenan, Chelsea E
The authors examined the implications of test differences for defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits using reading comprehension tests. They had 995 children complete the Gray Oral Reading Test-3, the Qualitative Reading Inventory-3, the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension-3, and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test and compared which children were identified by each test as being in the lowest 10%. Although a child who performs so poorly might be expected to do poorly on all tests, the authors found that the average overlap between tests in diagnosing comprehension difficulties was only 43%. Consistency in diagnosis was greater for younger children, when comprehension deficits are the result of weaker decoding skills, than for older children. Inconsistencies between tests were just as evident when identifying the top performers. The different children identified as having a comprehension deficit by each test were compared on four profile variables-word decoding skill, IQ, ADHD symptoms, and working memory skill-to understand the nature of the different deficits assessed by each test. Theoretical and practical implications of these test differences in defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits are discussed.
This paper describes a small-scale study which investigates the role of blogging in professional academic practice in higher education. It draws on interviews with a sample of academics (scholars, researchers and teachers) who have blogs and on the author's own reflections on blogging to investigate the function of blogging in academic practice…
Staikova, Ekaterina; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; McCabe, Allyssa; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
Background: Impaired social functioning has been well documented in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Existing treatments for ADHD are effective for managing core symptoms, but have limited effectiveness at improving social skills, suggesting that social deficits in ADHD may not be directly related to core symptoms…
Many low-skill readers have problems with visual word recognition. In particular, low-skill readers show a substantial nonword reading deficit that is attributed to deficits in sub-lexical processing. In this study, I examined whether the nonword deficits of German 14-year-old low-skill readers were associated with inefficient use of multi-letter…
Lewis, Katherine E.
Mathematical learning disability (MLD) research often conflates low achievement with disabilities and focuses exclusively on deficits of students with MLDs. In this study, the author adopts an alternative approach using a response-to-intervention MLD classification model to identify the resources students draw on rather than the skills they lack.…
Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald
Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…
Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD.
Lynch, Sharon A.; Simpson, Cynthia G.
Well-informed teachers of young children recognize the importance of children's social development. The development of social skills lays a critical foundation for later academic achievement as well as work-related skills. Social development is such a key issue with young children that a number of methods to address social skills have been…
Thomas, Alyssa R; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty; Ment, Laura R; Scheinost, Dustin
Adolescents born preterm (PT) with no evidence of neonatal brain injury are at risk of deficits in visual memory and fine motor skills that diminish academic performance. The association between these deficits and white matter microstructure is relatively unexplored. We studied 190 PTs with no brain injury and 92 term controls at age 16 years. The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF), the Beery visual-motor integration (VMI), and the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) were collected for all participants, while a subset (40 PTs and 40 terms) underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. PTs performed more poorly than terms on ROCF, VMI, and GPT (all P < 0.01). Mediation analysis showed fine motor skill (GPT score) significantly mediates group difference in ROCF and VMI (all P < 0.001). PTs showed a negative correlation (P < 0.05, corrected) between fractional anisotropy (FA) in the bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles and GPT score, with higher FA correlating to lower (faster task completion) GPT scores, and between FA in the right superior cerebellar peduncle and ROCF scores. PTs also had a positive correlation (P < 0.05, corrected) between VMI and left middle cerebellar peduncle FA. Novel strategies to target fine motor skills and the cerebellum may help PTs reach their full academic potential.
Lueger, Robert J.; And Others
Examined neuropsychological and academic achievement correlates of statistically abnormal verbal-performance discrepancies on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised). Results indicated that abnormal discrepancies reflect specific aphasia deficits rather than generalized neuropsychological dysfunction and that academic achievement…
Dziuk, M. A.; Larson, J. C. Gidley; Apostu, A.; Mahone, E. M.; Denckla, M. B.; Mostofsky, S. H.
Impaired performance of skilled gestures, referred to as dyspraxia, is consistently reported in children with autism; however, its neurological basis is not well understood. Basic motor skill deficits are also observed in children with autism and it is unclear whether dyspraxia observed in children with autism can be accounted for by problems with…
Badian, Nathlie A.
In this study, visual-orthographic skills were defined as the ability to recognize whether letters and numerals are correctly oriented. Aims were to investigate whether visual-orthographic skills would contribute independent variance to reading, and whether children with a visual-orthographic deficit would be more impaired readers than similar…
The argument that de-contextualized deficit approaches to academic literacies were ineffective (Lea, 2004; Northedge, 2003), has led to expectations that New Zealand Higher Education institutions embed academic literacies within programmes and courses (Tertiary Education Commission, 2010). This paper reports on the use of a teaching and learning…
Chacko, Anil; Kofler, Michael; Jarrett, Matthew
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and chronic mental health condition that often results in substantial impairments throughout life. Although evidence-based pharmacological and psychosocial treatments exist for ADHD, effects of these treatments are acute, do not typically generalize into non-treated settings, rarely sustain over time, and insufficiently affect key areas of functional impairment (i.e., family, social, and academic functioning) and executive functioning. The limitations of current evidence-based treatments may be due to the inability of these treatments to address underlying neurocognitive deficits that are related to the symptoms of ADHD and associated areas of functional impairment. Although efforts have been made to directly target the underlying neurocognitive deficits of ADHD, extant neurocognitive interventions have shown limited efficacy, possibly due to misspecification of training targets and inadequate potency. We argue herein that despite these limitations, next-generation neurocognitive training programs that more precisely and potently target neurocognitive deficits may lead to optimal outcomes when used in combination with specific skill-based psychosocial treatments for ADHD. We discuss the rationale for such a combined treatment approach, prominent examples of this combined treatment approach for other mental health disorders, and potential combined treatment approaches for pediatric ADHD. Finally, we conclude with directions for future research necessary to develop a combined neurocognitive + skill-based treatment for youth with ADHD.
Chacko, Anil; Kofler, Michael; Jarrett, Matthew
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and chronic mental health condition that often results in substantial impairments throughout life. Although evidence-based pharmacological and psychosocial treatments exist for ADHD, effects of these treatments are acute, do not typically generalize into non-treated settings, rarely sustain over time, and insufficiently affect key areas of functional impairment (i.e., family, social, and academic functioning) and executive functioning. The limitations of current evidence-based treatments may be due to the inability of these treatments to address underlying neurocognitive deficits that are related to the symptoms of ADHD and associated areas of functional impairment. Although efforts have been made to directly target the underlying neurocognitive deficits of ADHD, extant neurocognitive interventions have shown limited efficacy, possibly due to misspecification of training targets and inadequate potency. We argue herein that despite these limitations, next-generation neurocognitive training programs that more precisely and potently target neurocognitive deficits may lead to optimal outcomes when used in combination with specific skill-based psychosocial treatments for ADHD. We discuss the rationale for such a combined treatment approach, prominent examples of this combined treatment approach for other mental health disorders, and potential combined treatment approaches for pediatric ADHD. Finally, we conclude with directions for future research necessary to develop a combined neurocognitive + skill-based treatment for youth with ADHD. PMID:25120200
Deficits in Lower Limb Muscle Reflex Contraction Latency and Peak Force Are Associated With Impairments in Postural Control and Gross Motor Skills of Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Guo, X; Wang, Yuling; Chung, Raymond C K; Stat, Grad; Ki, W Y; Macfarlane, Duncan J
This cross-sectional, exploratory study aimed to compare neuromuscular performance, balance and motor skills proficiencies of typically developing children and those with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and to determine associations of these neuromuscular factors with balance and motor skills performances in children with DCD.One hundred thirty children with DCD and 117 typically developing children participated in the study. Medial hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latencies in response to an unexpected posterior-to-anterior trunk perturbation were assessed by electromyography and accelerometer. Hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle peak force and time to peak force were quantified by dynamometer, and balance and motor skills performances were evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC).Independent t tests revealed that children with DCD had longer hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latencies (P < 0.001) and lower isometric peak forces (P < 0.001), but not times to peak forces (P > 0.025), than the controls. Multiple regression analysis accounting for basic demographics showed that gastrocnemius peak force was independently associated with the MABC balance subscore and ball skills subscore, accounting for 5.7% (P = 0.003) and 8.5% (P = 0.001) of the variance, respectively. Gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latency also explained 11.4% (P < 0.001) of the variance in the MABC ball skills subscore.Children with DCD had delayed leg muscle activation onset times and lower isometric peak forces. Gastrocnemius peak force was associated with balance and ball skills performances, whereas timing of gastrocnemius muscle activation was a determinant of ball skill performance in the DCD population.
Eremina, Svetlana V.
The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.
La Marca, Jeffry P.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.
Research consistently demonstrates that attention deficits have a deleterious effect on academic achievement. Impairments in attention, and not hyperactivity/impulsivity, are associated with learning difficulties and academic problems in students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To date, most studies have focused on symptoms…
Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Howard P.
Writing is one of the primary skills that children learn in school. Interventions that address performance deficits and skill deficits have been shown to improve aspects of elementary school children's writing. This study demonstrates performance-based interventions (goal setting, feedback, and contingent reward) and a skill-based intervention…
Fraser, Kym; Ling, Peter
University provision for academic development is well established in the USA, UK and many other countries. However, arrangements for its provision and staffing vary. In Australia, there has been a trend towards professional rather than academic staff appointments. Is this appropriate? In this paper, the domains of academic development work are…
Current anger management programs use a cognitive behavior perspective; however, research also links anger control to developmental deficits such as attachment insecurity and emotional regulation. This article previews the Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum (ESBC), a 13-week treatment program designed to treat individuals who are referred for…
Staples, Kerri L.; Reid, Greg
Delays and deficits may both contribute to atypical development of movement skills by children with ASD. Fundamental movement skills of 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (ages 9-12 years) were compared to three typically developing groups using the "Test of Gross Motor Development" ("TGMD-2"). The group matched on chronological age…
Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, Sacramento.
The document addresses remedial or developmental programs in postsecondary California education. It also presents the results of the 1998 basic skills survey of the Academic Senate for California Community Colleges' Basic Skills Ad Hoc Committee. Basic Skills courses usually refer to precollegiate basic skills courses. These are courses designed…
Shire, Katy A; Hill, Liam J B; Snapp-Childs, Winona; Bingham, Geoffrey P; Kountouriotis, Georgios K; Barber, Sally; Mon-Williams, Mark
Motor deficits are linked to a range of negative physical, social and academic consequences. Haptic robotic interventions, based on the principles of sensorimotor learning, have been shown previously to help children with motor problems learn new movements. We therefore examined whether the training benefits of a robotic system would generalise to a standardised test of 'pen-skills', assessed using objective kinematic measures [via the Clinical Kinematic Assessment Tool, CKAT]. A counterbalanced, cross-over design was used in a group of 51 children (37 male, aged 5-11 years) with manual control difficulties. Improved performance on a novel task using the robotic device could be attributed to the intervention but there was no evidence of generalisation to any of the CKAT tasks. The robotic system appears to have the potential to support motor learning, with the technology affording numerous advantages. However, the training regime may need to target particular manual skills (e.g. letter formation) in order to obtain clinically significant improvements in specific skills such as handwriting.
Blake, Emily; Gannon, Theresa
This literature review examines the differences between sex offenders and nonoffenders with regard to social perception skills, cognitive distortions, and empathy skills in order to investigate sex offenders' cognition. The literature on cognitive distortions is discussed, with reference to the confusion surrounding its definition, and the debate between cognitive distortions as offense-supportive beliefs or justifications is examined. In terms of social perception, particular reference is made to sex offenders' misinterpretations of women's social cues and the source of this deficit. The authors discuss possibilities for this deficit, including offense-supportive beliefs that are driven by underlying implicit theories or schemata held by offenders. The concept of empathy and its relation to both social perception skills and cognitive distortions is discussed, and the integration of these factors is represented in a new model.
Kensington-Miller, Barbara; Brailsford, Ian; Gossman, Peter
A small group of new academic developers reflected on their induction into the profession and wondered if things could have been done differently. The researchers decided to question the directors of three tertiary academic development units about how they recruited new developers, what skills and competences they looked for and how they inducted…
Hale, James B.; Reddy, Linda A.; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Hain, Lisa A.; Whitaker, James; Morley, Jessica; Lawrence, Kyle; Smith, Alex; Jones, Nicole
Methylphenidate (MPH) often ameliorates attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) behavioral dysfunction according to "indirect" informant reports and rating scales. The standard of care behavioral MPH titration approach seldom includes "direct" neuropsychological or academic assessment data to determine treatment…
Rincker, Joanne L.; And Others
A sample of 104 juvenile offenders completed the Gates-McGinitie Reading Test, Stanford Test of Academic Skills, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Delinquent youth exhibited deficient academic skills, low average IQs, low socioeconomic status, and disruptive behavior charges. (SK)
Happiness research provides guidance on what academics can do to increase their satisfaction at work. Changes in external circumstances, such as salary rises, seldom have a lasting effect. More likely to improve long-term happiness levels are exercising well-developed skills, building strong relationships, helping others and cultivating…
Hirsch, Sharon F.; Gabbay, Anita
Presents a current events course designed to teach students in Israel both English language skills as well as the advanced reading and study skills they need to comprehend university level texts and journal articles. A current events approach to academic reading enlivens the foreign language classroom and motivates and broadens the horizons of…
Rulloda, Rudolfo B.
A shift to computer skills for improving academic performances was investigated. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 increased the amount of high school dropouts after the Act was enacted. At-risk students were included in this research study. Several models described using teachers for core subjects and mentors to built citizenship skills, along…
Robinson, Peter; Strong, Gregory; Whittle, Jennifer
Developing the skills necessary to participate in academic discussions is an important goal in many programs of English for academic purposes. However, there has been little empirical investigation into how verbal and nonverbal aspects of discussion abilities might be developed. This paper reports the results of a semester-long effect of…
Many professors have been traumatized by academic bullies. Unlike bullies at school, the academic bully plays a more subtle game. Bullies may spread rumors to undermine a colleague's credibility or shut their target out of social conversations. The more aggressive of the species cuss out co-workers, even threatening to get physical. There is…
Hughey, Judy K.
The relationship between interpersonal skills is positively correlated with effective academic advising. Professional academic advisors feel significant pressure to meet a wide array of student needs, increase retention rates, help students in their efforts of academic achievement and career exploration, and support institutions to excel in…
Wachob, David A.
Literacy skills are an essential part of academic performance. When physical educators collaborate with classroom teachers to address these skills, student engagement in the learning process can greatly improve. This article begins by reviewing the growing issues surrounding student literacy and its impact on academic performance. The discussion…
McLear, Caitlin; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Smith-Darden, Joanne
Research Findings: Early reading and mathematics skills predict later academic success, and child self-regulation and secure parent-child relationships are both predictors of early academic skills. Self-regulatory and family relationship factors have rarely been studied together as predictors of early academic success in populations of young…
Barna, Jennifer S.; Brott, Pamelia E.
Elementary school counselors can support academic achievement by connecting their comprehensive programs to increasing academic competence. One valuable framework focuses on academic enablers, which are identified as interpersonal skills, motivation, engagement, and study skills (DiPerna, 2004). In this article, the authors (a) discuss the…
Gumpel, Thomas P.
We conducted three studies which examined the performance vs. skill acquisition model of social skills deficits. In Study 1, baseline social behaviors for a random sample of 12 boys with comorbid emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), learning disabilities (LD), language delays, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) revealed that…
Merkt, Julia; Reinelt, Tilman; Petermann, Franz
The term compensation is widely used in the context of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet, it is neither defined nor theory driven. Adapting a model of psychological compensation (Bäckman and Dixon, 1992) to fit ADHD research is the aim of this review: we will (1) introduce the existing theoretical framework of psychological compensation, (2) discuss its applicability to ADHD and adapt the model to fit ADHD research, and (3) set up requirements for research on psychological compensation in ADHD. According to the framework psychological compensation can be inferred if a deficit (i.e., a mismatch between skill and environmental demand) is counterbalanced by the investment of more effort, the utilization of latent skills, or the acquisition of new skills. The framework has to be adapted because ADHD deficits are developmental and in individuals with ADHD compensation can appear independent of awareness of the deficit. A better understanding of psychological compensation in ADHD could foster diagnosis and interventions. Therefore, we suggest that future studies should follow a research design incorporating independent measures of deficit, compensation, and outcome as well as include individuals who compensate for their ADHD related deficits.
Merkt, Julia; Reinelt, Tilman; Petermann, Franz
The term compensation is widely used in the context of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet, it is neither defined nor theory driven. Adapting a model of psychological compensation (Bäckman and Dixon, 1992) to fit ADHD research is the aim of this review: we will (1) introduce the existing theoretical framework of psychological compensation, (2) discuss its applicability to ADHD and adapt the model to fit ADHD research, and (3) set up requirements for research on psychological compensation in ADHD. According to the framework psychological compensation can be inferred if a deficit (i.e., a mismatch between skill and environmental demand) is counterbalanced by the investment of more effort, the utilization of latent skills, or the acquisition of new skills. The framework has to be adapted because ADHD deficits are developmental and in individuals with ADHD compensation can appear independent of awareness of the deficit. A better understanding of psychological compensation in ADHD could foster diagnosis and interventions. Therefore, we suggest that future studies should follow a research design incorporating independent measures of deficit, compensation, and outcome as well as include individuals who compensate for their ADHD related deficits. PMID:26578998
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De George, Richard T.
Asserts that Martin Michaelson's proposal in "Should Untenured as Well as Tenured Faculty Be Guaranteed Academic Freedom? A Few Observations," despite its good intentions, is seriously flawed and if adopted in preference to existing standards will weaken rather than strengthen academic freedom. (EV)
Paul, Karin; Kuhlthau, Carol C.; Branch, Jennifer L.; Solowan, Diane Galloway; Case, Roland; Abilock, Debbie; Eisenberg, Michael B.; Koechlin, Carol; Zwaan, Sandi; Hughes, Sandra; Low, Ann; Litch, Margaret; Lowry, Cindy; Irvine, Linda; Stimson, Margaret; Schlarb, Irene; Wilson, Janet; Warriner, Emily; Parsons, Les; Luongo-Orlando, Katherine; Hamilton, Donald
Includes 19 articles that address issues related to library skills and Canadian school libraries. Topics include information literacy; inquiry learning; critical thinking and electronic research; collaborative inquiry; information skills and the Big 6 approach to problem solving; student use of online databases; library skills; Internet accuracy;…
Staples, Kerri L; Reid, Greg
Delays and deficits may both contribute to atypical development of movement skills by children with ASD. Fundamental movement skills of 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (ages 9-12 years) were compared to three typically developing groups using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2). The group matched on chronological age performed significantly better on the TGMD-2. Another comparison group matched on movement skill demonstrated children with ASD perform similarly to children approximately half their age. Comparisons to a third group matched on mental age equivalence revealed the movement skills of children with ASD are more impaired than would be expected given their cognitive level. Collectively, these results suggest the movement skills of children with ASD reflect deficits in addition to delays.
Brevard County School District, Rockledge, FL.
Acknowledging that reasoning ability has been identified by the College Board as one of the six basic academic competencies, this guide is intended to help secondary school language arts teachers integrate critical thinking skills into their curriculum. The guide is divided into the following sections: (1) test-taking skills (summary of college…