Suggests a way to overcome the difficulty of teaching effective reading skills to students with diverse interests. The approach is based on four specifications: (1) each student studies a text on a topic in his own specialty; (2) reading practice images students' academic contexts; (3) classes are learner centered; and (4) students are evaluated…
As computer technology developed, hypertexts emerged as an influential environment for developing language skills. This study aims to evaluate a text prepared in a hypertextual environment and its effects on academic success and comprehension skills. In this study, "preliminary test final test control group experimental pattern" was used…
Murrah, William M., III
The achievement score gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged children at school entry is a major problem in education today. Identifying the skills critical for school readiness is an important step in developing interventions aimed at addressing these score gaps. The purpose of this study is to compare a number of school readiness skills with an eye toward finding out which are the best predictors of later academic achievement in math, reading, and science. The predictors were early reading, math, general knowledge, socioemotional skills, and motor skills. Data were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of 1998 (NCES, 1998) database. While controlling for an extensive set of family characteristics, predictions were made across five years - from the end of kindergarten to the end of fifth grade. Consistent with current findings, reading and math skills predicted later achievement. Interestingly, general knowledge, attention, and fine motor skills also proved to be important predictors of later academic achievement, but socioemotional skills were not. The findings were interpreted from a neurobiological perspective involving the development of self-regulation. These school entry skills are used to predict later achievement in reading, math, and science. I argued that in addition to acquiring early academic knowledge, children need to regulate the use of this knowledge to meet academic goals.
Shapiro, Edward S; Gebhardt, Sarah; Flatley, Katie; Guard, Kirra B; Fu, Qiong; Leichman, Erin S; Calhoon, Mary Beth; Hojnoski, Robin
The development and psychometric qualities of a measure using teacher judgment to rate performance in reading comprehension for narrative text is described-the Rating Scales for Academic Skills-Reading Comprehension Narrative (RSAS-RCN). Sixty-five teachers from the third, fourth, and fifth grades of 8 elementary schools completed the measure on 177 students. Each teacher rated students who had been identified through school-based universal screening to be below the 25th percentile, between the 25th and 74th percentile, and at or above the 75th percentile on national normative standards. Results indicated the RSAS-RCN has strong to moderate evidence of (a) 1-week test-retest reliability, (b) concurrent validity with the Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE) and end of year state assessment in reading, and (c) significant classification accuracy across student ability levels. Principal component analysis and item response theory (Rasch modeling) indicate the RSAS-RCN is comprised of a single general dimension. Overall, this examination of the RSAS-RCN suggests teacher judgment may be a potentially valuable tool in assessing reading comprehension among upper elementary school students. (PsycINFO Database Record
Uccelli, Paola; Galloway, Emily Phillips; Kim, Ha Yeon; Barr, Christopher D.
Despite a longstanding awareness of academic language as a pedagogically-relevant research area, the construct of academic language proficiency--understood as a more comprehensive set of skills than just academic vocabulary--has remained only vaguely specified. This study examines the potential--for both research and practice--of a more inclusive…
Moles, Janet; Wishart, Llewellyn
This article reports on an action research project that was implemented to strengthen preservice teachers' academic skills and competencies in a Bachelor of Early Childhood Education course. Strategies identified as effective included mapping assessment tasks to State and National Early Childhood Education Curriculum and Standards Frameworks and…
Daly, Edward J., III; Bonfiglio, Christine M.; Mattson, Tara; Persampieri, Michael; Foreman-Yates, Kristin
Experimental analyses for improving reading fluency deficits have rarely targeted generalized increases in academic responding. As a consequence, the variables that may help students to generalize newly learned forms of academic responding like reading are not well understood. Furthermore, experimental analyses of reading fluency interventions…
Hirsch, Sharon F.; Gabbay, Anita
Presents a current events course designed to teach students in Israel both English language skills as well as the advanced reading and study skills they need to comprehend university level texts and journal articles. A current events approach to academic reading enlivens the foreign language classroom and motivates and broadens the horizons of…
Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.
This document contains a competency-based workplace literacy curriculum that is intended to develop workers' reading comprehension skills by building on their prior knowledge and integrating job-related reading materials actually used by workers on the job with other academic reading materials and textbooks. Designed to be used in conjunction with…
Cole, Randy Drue
This study investigated the effects of hypnosis on the learning of reading skills and academic skills. The general hypothesis was that hypnotic suggestions related to the curriculum of a course for improvement of academic and study skills would facilitate students' academic skill learning. Ninety-three male and female students enrolled in a course…
Cooper, Brittany Rhoades; Moore, Julia E.; Powers, C. J.; Cleveland, Michael; Greenberg, Mark T.
Research Findings: Researchers and policymakers emphasize that early childhood is a critical developmental stage with the potential to impact academic and social-emotional outcomes (G. Conti & J. J. Heckman, 2012; J. J. Heckman, 2012; R. Murnane, I. Sawhill, & C. Snow, 2012). Although there is substantial evidence that children's early…
Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick
The current study examined the link between academic enablers and different types of reading achievement measures. Academic enablers are skills and behaviors that support, or enable, students to perform well academically, such as engagement, interpersonal skills, motivation, and study skills. The sample in this study consisted of 61 third-,…
Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; de Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão; Ploubidis, George B.; Mari, Jair de Jesus
Introduction Difficulties in word-level reading skills are prevalent in Brazilian schools and may deter children from gaining the knowledge obtained through reading and academic achievement. Music education has emerged as a potential method to improve reading skills because due to a common neurobiological substratum. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement among children (eight to 10 years of age) with reading difficulties. Method 235 children with reading difficulties in 10 schools participated in a five-month, randomized clinical trial in cluster (RCT) in an impoverished zone within the city of São Paulo to test the effects of music education intervention while assessing reading skills and academic achievement during the school year. Five schools were chosen randomly to incorporate music classes (n = 114), and five served as controls (n = 121). Two different methods of analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention: The standard method was intention-to-treat (ITT), and the other was the Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) estimation method, which took compliance status into account. Results The ITT analyses were not very promising; only one marginal effect existed for the rate of correct real words read per minute. Indeed, considering ITT, improvements were observed in the secondary outcomes (slope of Portuguese = 0.21 [p<0.001] and slope of math = 0.25 [p<0.001]). As for CACE estimation (i.e., complier children versus non-complier children), more promising effects were observed in terms of the rate of correct words read per minute [β = 13.98, p<0.001] and phonological awareness [β = 19.72, p<0.001] as well as secondary outcomes (academic achievement in Portuguese [β = 0.77, p<0.0001] and math [β = 0.49, p<0.001] throughout the school year). Conclusion The results may be seen as promising, but they are not, in themselves
Salem, Ashraf Atta Mohamed Safein
The current study investigates whether English language teachers use scaffolding strategies for developing their students' reading comprehension skills or just for assessing their comprehension. It also tries to demonstrate whether teachers are aware of these strategies or they use them as a matter of habit. A questionnaire as well as structured…
Hubbard, Trina; Newell, Michelle
This study describes a program designed to increase academic achievement in reading and writing among first and second grade students in a rural, middle-income area. Evidence for the existence of the problem includes reading comprehension tests, observation checklists for reading skills and reading behaviors, and writing samples. Analysis of…
Ivey, Gay; Fisher, Douglas
A popular response among high school teachers and leaders facing students reading far below grade level, the authors claim, is to adopt back-to-basics packaged programs that focus on discrete skills with little attention to critical reading and writing. The authors express concern that reliance on such programs keeps older struggling readers from…
Rude, Robert L.
There is mixed evidence regarding the ability of students to retain reading ability over long, non-instructional periods such as the summer recess. In some instances there are significant losses in reading ability, while in other cases the losses fail to reach significance. However, in some cases, such as with basic visual discrimination tasks,…
Barnes, Adrienne E.; Kim, Young-Suk
Adults enrolled in basic education exhibit poor academic performance, often reading at elementary and middle-school levels. The current study investigated the similarities and differences of reading skills and eye movement behavior between a sample of 25 low-skilled adult readers and 25 first grade students matched on word reading skill. t tests…
Daly, Edward J., III; Bonfiglio, Christine M.; Mattson, Tara; Persampieri, Michael; Foreman-Yates, Kristin
The technology of brief experimental analysis is just beginning to be used for identification of effective treatments for individual students who experience difficulty with oral reading fluency. In this study, the effect of a reading fluency treatment package was examined on easy and hard passages, and generalization was assessed on passages with…
van den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F
Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes.
Hutson, Barbara A.; Liebermann, Jo
In an examination of the relationship between language skill and reading achievement in adults, measures of syntactic knowledge and reading achievement were obtained for 41 students in an adult basic education center. Moderate correlations were found for language skill and reading achievement, with students reading at or below the fourth grade…
Paul, Gina; Verhulst, Steve
This article presents a synergistic reading comprehension program to help minority adults from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds improve their reading skills in preparation for academics, standardized testing, and medical school. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
Conklin, Suzanne; Wilkins, Katherine
This study describes a program for improving student's reading skills. The targeted population consisted of students in a self-contained inclusion fourth grade classroom in a rural community, located in the Midwest. The lack of reading skills had been demonstrated through standardized achievement tests and the Developmental Reading Assessment.…
Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2008
This newsletter focuses on the importance of reading and writing skills in all educational and career pathways. It includes a variety of strategies for integrating reading and writing skills across the curriculum--in academic, career/technical and fine arts courses--in ways that improve student achievement in reading and writing and in the content…
Bowman, Harry L.; And Others
Noting that the program is primarily a reading and verbal skills program for adult learners, this paper describes the Academic Remedial Training (ART) Program of the U.S. Navy. The first section of the paper discusses the historical background of the program. The second section describes the reading skills component and the verbal skills component…
No. 5295 I i A Componential Approach to Training I Reading Skills Final Report John R. Frederiksen, Phyllis A. Weaver, Beth M. Warren, Helen P...OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED A Componential Approach to Training Reading Final Report Skills 10/1/79 through 9/30/82 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER...Contract No. N00014-79-C-5014 to Harvard University. 19. KEY WORDS (Continan roeree oide iI noeeoeryM .Idenfillp b eek numbov) Reading Skills
Durant, David M.; Horava, Tony
The e-book is raising fundamental questions around the dynamics and habits of reading; the role of books in the academic library; and the role of librarians in addressing new realities of reading and learning. Print and digital texts foster different styles of reading and different ways of thinking and doing research. This paper examines…
Copeman, Peter; Keightley, Polly
In 2013 the University of Canberra (UC) initiated a program of peer-assisted academic skills help, the Academic Skills Rovers program, with the goal of providing drop-in peer learning support to students at campus locations where they congregate to study. The Academic Skills Rovers were initially recruited from the teacher education discipline,…
Kwon, Heekyung; Linderholm, Tracy
We hypothesised that college students take reading speed into consideration when evaluating their own reading skill, even if reading speed does not reliably predict actual reading skill. To test this hypothesis, we measured self-perception of reading skill, self-perception of reading speed, actual reading skill and actual reading speed to…
Bergey, Bradley W.; Deacon, S. Hélène; Parrila, Rauno K.
University students who report a history of reading difficulties have been demonstrated to have poorer word reading and reading comprehension skills than their peers; yet, without a diagnosed learning disability, these students do not have access to the same support services, potentially placing them at academic risk. This study provides a…
This study investigated whether transfer from L2 to L1 in reading occurs, and if so, which reading sub-skills are transferred into L1 reading. The aim is to identify the role of second language reading skills in L1 reading skills by means of transfer. In addition, the positive effects of the second language transfer to the first language in the…
Stasz, Cathleen; Brewer, Dominic J.
This document is an exploratory study of issues and evidence related to academic skills, nonacademics, and work along three lines of inquiry. Section 1 is an introduction that explains the three lines of inquiry: literature review to identify empirical studies and salient issues pertinent to academic skill needs; new analysis of existing data from…
This article is based on a qualitative study that explored the impact reading had on the lives of two female students who attained exemplary results in their final year of high school. The reading practices of these two high achieving students provided data rich information. Both students were academically successful in completing their Victorian…
Davila, Sonia I.
The Wisconsin Design for Reading Skill Development (WDRS) is primarily an instructional management model in reading, which can be used in both English and bilingual classrooms. The Design, which presents an objective-based, skill-centered approach to reading instruction, conforms to the concept of individually guided education. It is organized in…
Houston, Suzanne M; Lebel, Catherine; Katzir, Tami; Manis, Franklin R; Kan, Eric; Rodriguez, Genevieve G; Sowell, Elizabeth R
Reading is a learned skill that is likely influenced by both brain maturation and experience. Functional imaging studies have identified brain regions important for skilled reading, but the structural brain changes that co-occur with reading acquisition remain largely unknown. We investigated maturational volume changes in brain reading regions and their association with performance on reading measures. Sixteen typically developing children (5-15 years old, eight boys, mean age of sample=10.06 ± 3.29) received two MRI scans (mean interscan interval=2.19 years), and were administered a battery of cognitive measures. Volume changes between time points in five bilateral cortical regions of interest were measured, and assessed for relationships to three measures of reading. Better baseline performances on measures of word reading, fluency, and rapid naming, independent of age and total cortical gray matter volume change, were associated with volume decrease in the left inferior parietal cortex. Better baseline performance on a rapid naming measure was associated with volume decrease in the left inferior frontal region. These results suggest that children who are better readers, and who perhaps read more than less skilled readers, exhibit different development trajectories in brain reading regions. Understanding relationships between reading performance, reading experience, and brain maturation trajectories may help with the development and evaluation of targeted interventions.
Berg, Rober M.
Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives,'' the social studies inquiry model, reading comprehension skills, and the law-focused education case study methods can be seen as functionally related. (Author)
Academic writing is an important aspect of professional development for students and lecturers. It is one way in which they demonstrate their learning, but it can be a difficult skill to master. This article aims to enable students and professionals to develop their academic writing style using a coherent and effective framework.
The importance of reading skills to academic achievement, job acquisition and future success is well documented. Most of the research on reading interventions focuses on children in primary schools but many children start secondary school with very poor reading skills and schools require evidence-based interventions to support these children. The…
Colé, Pascale; Duncan, Lynne G.; Blaye, Agnès
An important aspect of learning to read is efficiency in accessing different kinds of linguistic information (orthographic, phonological, and semantic) about written words. The present study investigates whether, in addition to the integrity of such linguistic skills, early progress in reading may require a degree of cognitive flexibility in order to manage the coordination of this information effectively. Our study will look for evidence of a link between flexibility and both word reading and passage reading comprehension, and examine whether any such link involves domain-general or reading-specific flexibility. As the only previous support for a predictive relationship between flexibility and early reading comes from studies of reading comprehension in the opaque English orthography, another possibility is that this relationship may be largely orthography-dependent, only coming into play when mappings between representations are complex and polyvalent. To investigate these questions, 60 second-graders learning to read the more transparent French orthography were presented with two multiple classification tasks involving reading-specific cognitive flexibility (based on words) and non-specific flexibility (based on pictures). Reading skills were assessed by word reading, pseudo-word decoding, and passage reading comprehension measures. Flexibility was found to contribute significant unique variance to passage reading comprehension even in the less opaque French orthography. More interestingly, the data also show that flexibility is critical in accounting for one of the core components of reading comprehension, namely, the reading of words in isolation. Finally, the results constrain the debate over whether flexibility has to be reading-specific to be critically involved in reading. PMID:24966842
Md Rahim, Nasrudin; Meon, Hasni
Study skills play an important role in influencing academic performance of university students. These skills, which can be modified, can be used as an indicator on how a student would perform academically in his course of study. The purpose of the study is to determine the study skills profile among Universiti Selangor's (Unisel) students and to find the relationships of these skills with student's academic performance. A sample of seventy-eight (78) foundation studies and diploma students of Unisel were selected to participate in this study. Using Study Skills Inventory instrument, eight skills were measured. They are note taking; test taking; textbook study; concentration and memory; time management; analytical thinking and problem solving; nutrition; and vocabulary. Meanwhile, student's academic performance was measured through their current Grade Point Average (GPA). The result showed that vocabulary skill scored the highest mean with 3.01/4.00, followed by test taking (2.88), analytical thinking and problem solving (2.80), note taking (2.79), textbook study (2.58), concentration and memory (2.54), time management (2.25) and nutrition (2.21). Correlation analysis showed that test taking (r=0.286, p=0.011), note taking (r=0.224, p=0.048), and analytical thinking and problem solving (r=0.362, p=0.001) skills were positively correlated with GPA achievement.
Foy, Judith G.; Mann, Virginia A.
The purpose of this study was to examine how executive function skills in verbal and nonverbal auditory tasks are related to early reading skills in beginning readers. Kindergarteners (N = 41, aged 5 years) completed verbal (phonemes) and nonverbal (environmental sounds) Continuous Performance tasks yielding measures of executive function (misses,…
The Allied Health Certificate Program at Massachusetts' Bunker Hill Community College has been successfully integrating academic and vocational education since 1986. The integration of English as a Second Language, academic education, and occupational training was a direct response to requests from business and industry for a competitive…
Blosser, Patricia E.
Described is a technique for the development of survival reading activity packets for the science classroom. The reading packets described include labels from different food and medicine products and from magazine and newspaper articles. Three types of questions were used with each packet: factual, interpretive, and application. (DS)
Marschark, Marc; Rhoten, Cathy; Fabich, Megan
This article presents a critical analysis of empirical studies assessing literacy and other domains of academic achievement among children with cochlear implants. A variety of recent studies have demonstrated benefits to hearing, language, and speech from implants, leading to assumptions that early implantation and longer periods of implant should be associated with higher reading and academic achievement. This review, however, reveals that although there are clear benefits of cochlear implantation to achievement in young deaf children, empirical results have been somewhat variable. Examination of the literature with regard to reading achievement suggests that the lack of consistent findings might be the result of frequent failures to control potentially confounding variables such as age of implantation, language skills prior to implantation, reading ability prior to implantation, and consistency of implant use. Studies of academic achievement beyond reading are relatively rare, and the extent to which performance in such domains is mediated by reading abilities or directly influenced by hearing, language, and speech remains unclear. Considerations of methodological shortcomings in existing research as well as theoretical and practical questions yet to be addressed provide direction for future research.
Anderson, Betty Marie; And Others
The Academic Skills Center at Black Hills State University provides a peer assistance program comprising both individual tutoring in classes offered in each academic division and credit classes in study skills. The goal of the Center is to respond effectively and quickly to individual educational needs of students and faculty through a…
Abdelrasoul, Mohamed Mahmoud Ibrahim
The present study aimed at developing the necessary critical reading skills and social skills of the Egyptian EFL second year preparatory school students, through a proposed program based on using reading circles strategy. The study participants were 44 students from Sohag Experimental Preparatory School in Sohag Governorate. Instruments of the…
Liu, I-Fang; Ko, Hwa-Wei
Perspectives from reading and information fields have identified similar skills belong to two different kind of literacy being online reading abilities and ICT skills. It causes a conflict between two research fields and increase difficult of integrating study results. The purpose of this study was to determine which views are suitable for…
Cerda, Carissa A.; Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N.
Using an academically at-risk, ethnically diverse sample of 744 first-grade children, this study tested a multi-method (i.e., child performance measures, teacher ratings, and peer ratings) measurement model of learning-related skills (i.e., effortful control [EC], behavioral self-regulation [BSR], and social competence [SC]), and their shared and unique contributions to children's reading and math achievement, above the effect of demographic variables. The hypothesized correlated factor measurement model demonstrated relatively good fit, with BSR and SC correlated highly with one another and moderately with EC. When entered in separate regression equations, EC and BSR each predicted children's reading and math achievement; SC only predicted reading achievement. When considered simultaneously, neither EC, BSR, nor SC contributed independently to reading achievement; however, EC had a direct effect on math achievement and an indirect effect on reading achievement via both BSR and SC. Implications for research and early intervention efforts are discussed. PMID:25908886
Hijikata, Yuko; Nakatani, Yasuo; Shimizu, Maki
Academic reading has been less emphasized compared with academic writing as a site of research inquiry. Although some studies have examined reading strategy use in academic reading (e.g., Block, 1986; Plakans, 2009), these studies used short passages only, and there have been a few studies that have focused on the mental representation constructed…
Ratz, Christoph; Lenhard, Wolfgang
Students with intellectual disabilities (ID) display an extremely wide variety of skills in the field of literacy, and the ability to read and write are central learning aims in the education of students with ID. It is vital to gain detailed knowledge on the literacy skills of students with ID in order to plan instruction, create learning environments, implement educational policies or funding models and specify future fields of research. However, there has been little research into the prevalence and variation of their reading skills. The present study assessed the reading stages of 1629 school-aged students with ID regardless of aetiology (age 6-21) in Bavaria, one of the largest regions in Germany within a randomly chosen and representative sample. Teachers described the reading and writing stages of their students in a questionnaire following the developmental model of Frith. Results indicate that 29.3% do not read at all, 6.8% read at a logographic stage, 31.9% at an alphabetic and 32% at an orthographic level. Writing achievements are lower on average. We analyze and discuss the determinants of literacy in this sample with regard to the sociocultural background of students with ID and draw conclusions for teaching and school policies.
Nevo, Einat; Brande, Sigalit; Shaul, Shelley
It has been well established that poor reading skills in the first grades of primary school can lead to poor reading skills in all coming years. A reading acceleration program (RAP) known to improve reading skills in adults and children with and without reading difficulties (RD) was tested for its effect on children in second grade with standard…
Holopainen, Leena; Taipale, Airi; Savolainen, Hannu
In this study, the relationship between adolescents' difficulty in mathematics and reading and the influence on academic self-concept and school grades was examined. The participants (N = 585; 299 girls, 286 boys) were one age group of ninth-graders whose mathematics and reading skills were assessed at the end of comprehensive school at age…
Higgs, Karyn; Magliano, Joseph P.; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo; Martínez, Tomas; McNamara, Danielle S.
Some individual difference factors are more strongly correlated with performance on postreading questions when the text is not available than when it is. The present study explores if similar interactions occur with bridging skill, which refers to a reader's propensity to establish connections between explicit text during reading. Undergraduates…
According to Ur (1996, 120), "of all the four skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing), speaking seems intuitively the most important." Indeed, whether for business or pleasure, a primary motivation to learn a second language is to be able to converse with speakers of that language. However, in addition to being an important…
Higgs, Karyn; Magliano, Joseph P.; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo; Martínez, Tomas; McNamara, Danielle S.
Some individual difference factors are more strongly correlated with performance on postreading questions when the text is not available than when it is. The present study explores if similar interactions occur with bridging skill, which refers to a reader's propensity to establish connections between explicit text during reading. Undergraduates…
The purposes of the study were to determine whether phonic analysis training could be used to prepare children to be successful on the Auditory Analysis Test (AAT) of phonic skills and to then relate phonic knowledge to reading performance. Subjects were 40 first graders in suburban Pittsburgh who had attended kindergarten together. A group of 16…
Dickens, Rachel H.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reading skill and reading modality (oral versus silent) on reading comprehension. A normative sample of sixth-grade students (N = 74) read texts aloud and silently and then answered questions about what they read. Skill in word reading fluency was assessed by the Test of Word Reading…
Yeatman, Jason D; Dougherty, Robert F; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Wandell, Brian A
White matter tissue properties are highly correlated with reading proficiency; we would like to have a model that relates the dynamics of an individual's white matter development to their acquisition of skilled reading. The development of cerebral white matter involves multiple biological processes, and the balance between these processes differs between individuals. Cross-sectional measures of white matter mask the interplay between these processes and their connection to an individual's cognitive development. Hence, we performed a longitudinal study to measure white-matter development (diffusion-weighted imaging) and reading development (behavioral testing) in individual children (age 7-15 y). The pattern of white-matter development differed significantly among children. In the left arcuate and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, children with above-average reading skills initially had low fractional anisotropy (FA) that increased over the 3-y period, whereas children with below-average reading skills had higher initial FA that declined over time. We describe a dual-process model of white matter development comprising biological processes with opposing effects on FA, such as axonal myelination and pruning, to explain the pattern of results.
Bergey, Bradley W; Deacon, S Hélène; Parrila, Rauno K
University students who report a history of reading difficulties have been demonstrated to have poorer word reading and reading comprehension skills than their peers; yet, without a diagnosed learning disability, these students do not have access to the same support services, potentially placing them at academic risk. This study provides a comprehensive investigation of first-year academic achievement for students with a history of reading difficulties (n = 244) compared to students with no such history (n = 603). We also examine reported use of metacognitive reading and study strategies and their relations with GPA. Results indicate that students with a history of reading difficulties earn lower GPA and successfully complete fewer credits compared to students with no history of reading difficulty. These patterns varied somewhat by faculty of study. Students with a history of reading difficulties also reported lower scores across multiple metacognitive reading and study strategy scales, yet these scores were not associated with their academic performance. Together, these results demonstrate the importance of identifying students with a history of reading difficulties and that commonly used study strategy inventories have limited value in predicting their academic success.
Markel, Geraldine; Woolfolk, Marilyn; Inglehart, Marita Rohr
This article reports the outcomes of an evaluation conducted to determine if an academic skills training program for undergraduate predental students from underrepresented minority backgrounds increased the students' standardized academic skills test scores for vocabulary, reading comprehension, reading rates, spelling, and math as well as subject-specific test results in biology, chemistry, and physics. Data from standardized academic skill tests and subject-specific tests were collected at the beginning and end of the 1998 to 2006 Pipeline Programs, six-week summer enrichment programs for undergraduate predental students from disadvantaged backgrounds. In total, 179 students (75.4 percent African American, 7.3 percent Hispanic, 5.6 percent Asian American, 5 percent white) attended the programs during these nine summers. Scores on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test showed that the students improved their vocabulary scores (percentile ranks before/after: 46.80 percent/59.56 percent; p<.001), reading comprehension scores (47.21 percent/62.67 percent; p<.001), and reading rates (34.01 percent/78.31 percent; p<.001) from the beginning to the end of the summer programs. Results on the Wide Range Achievement Test III showed increases in spelling (73.58 percent/86.22 percent; p<.001) and math scores (56.98 percent/81.28 percent; p<.001). The students also improved their subject-specific scores in biology (39.07 percent/63.42 percent; p<.001), chemistry (20.54 percent/51.01 percent; p<.001), and physics (35.12 percent/61.14 percent; p<.001). To increase the number of underrepresented minority students in the dental school admissions pool, efforts are needed to prepare students from disadvantaged backgrounds for this process. These data demonstrate that a six-week enrichment program significantly improved the academic skills and basic science knowledge scores of undergraduate predental students. These improvements have the potential to enhance the performance of these students
Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris
The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading,…
Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This study examined cross-lagged associations between positive teacher and peer relations and academic skill development. Reading and math skills were tested among 625 students in kindergarten and Grade 4. Teacher reports of positive affect toward each student and classmate reports of peer acceptance were gathered in Grades 1-3. The results…
Taylor, Emily P.; Skinner, Christopher H.; McCallum, Elizabeth; Poncy, Brian C.; Orsega, Mike
Because teacher-to-student ratios often make it difficult for teachers to work individually with students on skill-building activities, educators and researchers have developed and evaluated procedures in which audio-recordings are used to improve basic academic skills. In the current paper, we describe and analyze reading, math, and spelling…
Seifert, Kyle; Hurney, Carol A.; Wigtil, Clifton J.; Sundre, Donna L.
The Academic Skills Inventory (Kruger and Zechmeister, 2001) was developed at Loyola University of Chicago and originally designed for use with psychology majors. It was later extended for use in a variety of academic programs. The Academic Skills Inventory (ASI) assesses student self-reports of behaviors in 10 skill areas: (1) written and oral…
Lesaux, Nonie K; Crosson, Amy C; Kieffer, Michael J; Pierce, Margaret
English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed average word reading skills and below average comprehension skills, influenced by low oral language skills. Structural equation modeling confirmed that L2 oral language skills had a large, significant effect on L2 reading comprehension, whereas students' word-level reading skills, whether in L1 or L2, were not significantly related to English reading comprehension in three of four models fitted. The results converge with findings from studies with monolinguals demonstrating the influence of oral language on reading comprehension outcomes, and extend these findings by showing that, for language minority learners, L2 oral language exerts a stronger influence than word reading in models of L2 reading.
Lesaux, Nonie K.; Crosson, Amy C.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Pierce, Margaret
English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed average word reading skills and below average comprehension skills, influenced by low oral language skills. Structural equation modeling confirmed that L2 oral language skills had a large, significant effect on L2 reading comprehension, whereas students' word-level reading skills, whether in L1 or L2, were not significantly related to English reading comprehension in three of four models fitted. The results converge with findings from studies with monolinguals demonstrating the influence of oral language on reading comprehension outcomes, and extend these findings by showing that, for language minority learners, L2 oral language exerts a stronger influence than word reading in models of L2 reading. PMID:21243117
Ehrenworth, Mary; Minor, Cornelius; Federman, Mark; Jennings, James; Messer, Katherine; McCloud, Christopher
Building on the work of John Hattie, Richard Kent, and Tom Newkirk, a think tank collaborative in New York City's high schools works to raise the level of students' close reading, argumentation, and agency across the curriculum by teaching students to analyze athletic competitions, to compose sports arguments, and to transfer and apply these…
One of the major goals in deaf education is to teach deaf and hard of hearing students the tools and strategies to solve mathematical word problems. A mathematical word problem curriculum was designed and implemented based on telling, reading and writing number tales in American Sign Language (ASL) and English. The learning experiences helped…
Morgan, Paul L.; Fuchs, Douglas
Young children who enjoy reading do it more often and they tend to become skilled at it. Poor readers, by contrast, often display low motivation to read. One possible explanation of this is that reading skill and reading motivation influence each other. 15 studies were reviewed addressing the relationship between young children's reading and…
Gurses, Meral Ozkan; Adiguzel, Oktay Cem
This study investigates the effects of reading strategies instruction based on the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach over students' skill to comprehend what they read in French and their use of reading strategies. It has an action research design. Eighteen students studying at French Preparatory Program at Eskisehir Osmangazi…
Lesaux, Nonie K.; Crosson, Amy C.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Pierce, Margaret
English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed…
Wernersbach, Brenna M.; Crowley, Susan L.; Bates, Scott C.; Rosenthal, Carol
Although study skills courses improve student retention, the impact of study skills courses on students' academic self-efficacy has not been investigated. The present study examined pre- and posttest levels of academic self-efficacy in college students enrolled in a study skills course (n = 126) compared to students enrolled in a general education…
Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris
The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics were examined in children with learning disabilities. As expected, the children with learning disabilities scored poorer on both the locomotor and object-control subtests than their typically developing peers. Furthermore, in children with learning disabilities a specific relationship was observed between reading and locomotor skills and a trend was found for a relationship between mathematics and object-control skills: the larger children's learning lag, the poorer their motor skill scores. This study stresses the importance of specific interventions facilitating both motor and academic abilities.
Dittman, Cassandra K.
Concurrent associations between teacher ratings of inattention, hyperactivity and pre-reading skills were examined in 64 pre-schoolers who had not commenced formal reading instruction and 136 school entrants who were in the first weeks of reading instruction. Both samples of children completed measures of pre-reading skills, namely phonological…
Polkinghorne, Frederick W.; Hagler, Barbara; Anderson, Marcia
Background: According to research, adolescent reading skills tend to be poor, and increased pressure from Federal legislation has been placed on educators to improve these skills. Research lacks on business teacher educators' preparation to provide reading skill instruction. Purpose: The research purpose was to better understand the perceptions of…
A teacher used classics of children's literature to teach critical reading skills. Although scoring above the national average on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS), the teacher's fourth-grade gifted students exhibited problems with critical reading skills. A literature unit involving whole language strategies and using Beverly Cleary's…
White, Hazel L.
To be successful in nursing courses, students must be able to read and comprehend a large volume of information. This requires different types of reading and study skills from other courses to which they have been exposed. The formal teaching of these skills in a nursing course takes second place to the teaching of required nursing skills. Because…
Hulslander, Jacqueline; Olson, Richard K; Willcutt, Erik G; Wadsworth, Sally J
Individual differences in word recognition, spelling, and reading comprehension for 324 children at a mean age of 16 were predicted from their reading-related skills (phoneme awareness, phonological decoding, rapid naming and IQ) at a mean age of 10 years, after controlling the predictors for the autoregressive effects of the correlated reading skills. There were significant and longitudinally stable individual differences for all four reading-related skills that were independent from each of the reading and spelling skills. Yet the only significant longitudinal prediction of reading skills was from IQ at mean age 10 for reading comprehension at mean age 16. The extremely high longitudinal latent-trait stability correlations for individual differences in word recognition (.98) and spelling (.95) left little independent outcome variance that could be predicted by the reading-related skills. We discuss the practical and theoretical importance of these results and why they differ from studies of younger children.
Afflerbach, Peter; Cho, Byeong-Young; Kim, Jong-Yun; Crassas, Maria Elliker; Doyle, Brie
How can we best contribute to our students' reading development and achievement? What are the hallmarks of successful, independent student readers? An examination of reading curricula, reading assessment, and related Federal education policy reveals the ongoing emphasis on the cognitive strategies and skills of reading. The teaching and learning…
Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Westmoreland, Matthew R.; Benjamin, Rebekah George
The purposes of the study were to determine whether third grade children mark linguistic focus features in their reading prosody and whether strong marking of these linguistic focus features might comprise an aspect of expressive reading typical of skilled, fluent reading. Children read a passage targeting information focusing aspects of prosody…
A small change in how teachers and parents read aloud to preschoolers may provide a big boost to their reading skills later on, a new study found. That change involves making specific references to print in books while reading--such as pointing out letters and words on the pages, showing capital letters, and showing how they read from left to…
Worrell, Frank C.; Roth, David A.; Gabelko, Nina H.
This study investigated the reliability and structural validity of Elementary Reading Attitude Survey ([ERAS]; McKenna and Kear, 1990) scores in 575 academically talented students attending an academic summer program. Results indicated that ERAS Academic and Recreational scores had satisfactory internal consistency coefficients, and that…
Kirnan, Jean; Siminerio, Steven; Wong, Zachary
An existing school program in which therapy dogs are integrated into the reading curriculum was analyzed to determine the effect on student reading. Previous literature suggests an improvement in both reading skills and attitudes towards reading when students read in the presence of a therapy dog. Using a mixed method model, the researchers…
Churchwell, Dawn Earheart
This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…
Fard-Kashani, Alireza; Jahromi, Abdol Hossein Zahedi; Javadi, Ali; Fallahi, Ali Mohammad
The current study aimed at diagnosing the language needs of Iranian undergraduate students of computer engineering in order to find out whether there is any significant difference in perceptions between the students and their ESAP (English for Specific Academic Purpose) teachers, concerning their Reading skill needs. To conduct the intended…
Gullick, Margaret M.; Demir-Lira, Özlem Ece; Booth, James R.
Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been repeatedly linked with decreased academic achievement, including lower reading outcomes. Some lower SES children do show skills and scores commensurate with those of their higher SES peers, but whether their abilities stem from the same systems as high SES children or are based on divergent strategies is…
Podolsky, Tim; Soiferman, Karen
The purpose of this study was to explore student preferences regarding reading print materials or online reading materials for academic purposes, as well as to examine how students adapt traditional reading strategies such as underlining, highlighting, and taking marginal notes when reading electronic texts. A total of 61 participants (32…
The Mem-ExSpan Accelerative Cognitive Training System (MESACTS) is described as a cognitive skills training program for schools, businesses, and industry. The program achieves extraordinary academic results in reading and mathematics with 1 semester of input 4 days a week for 30 minutes a day. Intensive versions of the program accelerate…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.
As a preliminary version of the rationale and content for the English-language arts portion of the "Survey of Academic Skills: Grade 12," this booklet describes elements of the new reading and editing tests to be used to complement a direct writing assessment in this part of the 1987-88 California Assessment Program (CAP). After a brief…
Kikas, Eve; Silinskas, Gintautas
This longitudinal study aimed at examining the relationship between children's task persistence, mothers' academic help, and the development of children's literacy skills (reading and spelling) at the beginning of primary school. The participants were 870 children, 682 mothers, and 53 class teachers. Data were collected three times--at the…
Jenkins, Joseph R.; Jewell, Mark
A total of 413 students in grades 1-6 were administered the Basic Academic Skills Samples, the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, and the Metropolitan Achievement Test. Although the relationships among the three tests were reasonably strong, it appeared that the measures did not identify identical populations of at-risk students. (Author/JDD)
Flaherty, Joseph A.; And Others
A three-year study compared entry-level and junior-level clinically oriented reading and writing skills of 231 medical students. Entry-level skills were found to be the best predictors of clinical skills. Inclusion of communication skills training in admission criteria and/or medical curriculum are recommended. (Author/MSE)
Alliance for Excellent Education, 2006
Today, less than one-third of America's high school students read or write at grade level. Literacy skills are alarmingly low even among those students who plan to go to college. Clearly, vast numbers of middle and high school students need help with their reading and writing skills. The question is: Whose job should it be to teach them? Among…
Klusek, Jessica; Hunt, Anna W.; Mirrett, Penny L.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Roberts, Jane E.; Bailey, Donald B.
Introduction Reading skills are critical for the success of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Literacy has received little attention in fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited cause of intellectual impairment. This study examined the literacy profile of FXS and tested phonological awareness and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms as predictors of literacy. Methods Boys with FXS (n = 51; mean age 10.2 years) and mental-age-matched boys with typical development (n = 35) participated in standardized assessments of reading and phonological skills. Results Phonological skills were impaired in FXS, while reading was on-par with that of controls. Phonological awareness predicted reading ability and ASD severity predicted poorer phonological abilities in FXS. Conclusion Boys with FXS are capable of attaining reading skills that are commensurate with developmental level and phonological awareness skills may play a critical role in reading achievement in FXS. PMID:25448919
Greenberg, Daphne; Pae, Hye Kyeong; Morris, Robin D.; Calhoon, Mary Beth; Nanda, Alice O.
There are not enough reading tests standardized on adults who have very low literacy skills, and therefore tests standardized on children are frequently administered. This study addressed the complexities and problems of using a test normed on children to measure the reading comprehension skills of 193 adults who read at approximately third…
Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This study examined cross-lagged associations between positive teacher and peer relations and academic skill development. Reading and math skills were tested among 625 students in kindergarten and Grade 4. Teacher reports of positive affect toward each student and classmate reports of peer acceptance were gathered in Grades 1-3. The results showed, first, that positive teacher affect toward the student and peer acceptance were reciprocally associated: Positive teacher affect predicted higher peer acceptance, and higher peer acceptance predicted a higher level of positive teacher affect. Second, the effect of positive teacher affect on academic skill development was partly mediated via peer acceptance, while the effect of early academic skills on peer acceptance was partly mediated via positive teacher affect. The results suggest that a warm and supportive teacher can increase a student's peer acceptance, which, in turn, is positively associated with learning outcomes.
Babayigit, Selma; Stainthorp, Rhona
This study had three main aims. First, we examined to what extent listening comprehension, vocabulary, grammatical skills and verbal short-term memory (VSTM) assessed prior to formal reading instruction explained individual differences in early reading comprehension levels. Second, we examined to what extent the three common component skills,…
Stojanovik, Vesna; Riddell, Patricia
Despite ample research into the language skills of children with specific reading disorder no studies so far have investigated whether there may be a difference between expressive and receptive language skills in this population. Yet, neuro-anatomical models would predict that children who have specific reading disorder which is not associated…
Ricketts, Jessie; Nation, Kate; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.
Although there is evidence for a close link between the development of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension, less clear is whether oral vocabulary skills relate to the development of word-level reading skills. This study investigated vocabulary and literacy in 81 children aged 8 to 10 years. In regression analyses, vocabulary accounted for…
McBride-Chang, Catherine; Zhou, Yanling; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Aram, Dorit; Levin, Iris; Tolchinsky, Liliana
Does learning to read influence one's visual skill? In Study 1, kindergartners from Hong Kong, Korea, Israel, and Spain were tested on word reading and a task of visual spatial skill. Chinese and Korean kindergartners significantly outperformed Israeli and Spanish readers on the visual task. Moreover, in all cultures except Korea, good readers…
Walters, George Lewis
The primary purpose of this study was to provide a partial basis for business education teachers to give relevance and direction to individual student learning by developing and improving student reading and study skills. The professional literature from the past fifteen years that dealt with reading and study skills improvement of students in…
Ready, Rebecca E; Chaudhry, Maheen F; Schatz, Kelly C; Strazzullo, Sarah
There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). The Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension test items can be answered correctly without reading the associated passage. The current study determined how IQ, verbal comprehension, and reading skills were associated with scores on a passageless administration of the NDRT. Results indicated that IQ, verbal comprehension, and broad reading skills were significantly associated with greater NDRT passageless scores. Results raise questions about the validity of the reading comprehension component of the NDRT and suggest that the test may have differential validity based on individual differences in vocabulary, general fund of knowledge, and broad reading skills.
Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Hamilton, Anne Marie; Wisenbaker, Joseph M.; Kuhn, Melanie R.; Stahl, Steven A.
Prosodic reading, or reading with expression, is considered one of the hallmarks of fluent reading. The major purpose of the study was to learn how reading prosody is related to decoding and reading comprehension skills. Suprasegmental features of oral reading were measured in 2nd- and 3rd-grade children (N = 123) and 24 adults. Reading comprehension and word decoding skills were assessed. Children with faster decoding speed made shorter and less variable intersentential pauses, shorter intrasentential pauses, larger sentence-final fundamental frequency (F0) declinations, and better matched the adult prosodic F0 profile. Two structural equation models found evidence of a relationship between decoding speed and reading prosody as well as decoding speed and comprehension. There was only minimal evidence that prosodic reading was an important mediator of reading comprehension skill. PMID:19777077
McBride-Chang, Catherine; Zhou, Yanling; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Aram, Dorit; Levin, Iris; Tolchinsky, Liliana
Does learning to read influence one's visual skill? In Study 1, kindergartners from Hong Kong, Korea, Israel, and Spain were tested on word reading and a task of visual spatial skill. Chinese and Korean kindergartners significantly outperformed Israeli and Spanish readers on the visual task. Moreover, in all cultures except Korea, good readers scored significantly higher on the visual task than did less good readers. In Study 2, we followed 215 Hong Kong Chinese kindergartners across 1year, with word reading and visual skills tested twice. In this study, word reading at Time 1 by itself predicted 13% of unique variance in visual skill at Time 2. Together, these results underscore the potential importance of the process of learning to read for shaping one's visual spatial skill development.
Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.
We examined the associations between components of temperament and children’s word and pseudo-word reading skills, in a school-age sample using a within-family internal-replication design. We estimated the statistical prediction of word and pseudo-word reading in separate regression equations that included the main effects of, and two-way interaction between, Surgency and Effortful Control. Children with better Effortful Control scores showed better reading skills. Surgency was unrelated to reading skills, but moderated the effect of Effortful Control. The positive association between reading skills and Effortful Control was present only for children who were low in Surgency. Thus, reading achievement in school-age children is optimized by strong Effortful Control, but these processes may be disrupted for those children who are high in Surgency. PMID:20526377
Jose, G. Rexlin; Raja, B. William Dharma
Reading bestows enjoyment and enlightenment. It unlocks the unknown. It is a complex cognitive activity that is indispensable for the kind of knowledge society. So the students of today's world must know how to learn from reading and to enter the present literate society. One who reads can lead others to light. People who read can be free because…
Martin, Wanda; And Others
Designed to help vocational teachers aid students in reading vocational education class materials, this handbook contains six sections of background information and suggested activities geared to various aspects of reading and a section of ideas for use in improving the reading skills of vocational students. While most of the examples in the…
Computer-based reading programs have been used at the City Educational Clinic in Canberra, Australia, to improve the reading skills of children who are "reading disabled." Children interacted with the computer via a graphic display, touch sensitive screen, and synthesized speech. The first program taught a basic sight vocabulary and…
Jennifer, J. Mary; Ponniah, R. Joseph
Pleasure reading is an absolute choice to eradicate readicide, a systematic killing of the love for reading. This paper encompasses the different forms and consequences of readicide which will have negative impact not only on comprehension but also on the prior knowledge of a reader. Reading to score well on tests impedes the desire for reading…
Through a process of refinement and field testing, a working committee of seven states, under the direction of the National Committee of State Directors of Migrant Education Programs, developed a list of reading skills/concepts that are both generic and universal. Each skill is a base, essential concept. Most skills or subskills in any reading…
Gibb, Jennifer, Ed.
Possessing generic or employability skills is vital in the current labour market. The vocational education and training (VET) sector, like other education sectors, must ensure its clients gain and develop generic skills. This volume of readings summarises NCVER managed research into generic skills undertaken in 2001 and 2002. The work covers four…
The aim of this paper is to determine relation between PISA Reading Skills and ICT use skills of Turkish students. In this study are four variables such as joy/like Reading, use of Libraries, Online Reading and Plausible value in reading which are dealt with as indications of reading skills. It constitutes six variables such as attitude towards…
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Eskenazi, Michael A.; Folk, Jocelyn R.
We investigated whether high-skill readers skip more words than low-skill readers as a result of parafoveal processing differences based on reading skill. We manipulated foveal load and word length, two variables that strongly influence word skipping, and measured reading skill using the Nelson-Denny Reading Test. We found that reading skill did…
Sesma, Heather Whitney; Mahone, E. Mark; Levine, Terry; Eason, Sarah H.; Cutting, Laurie E.
Although word recognition deficits (WRD) are a known cause of reading comprehension deficits (RCD), other contributions to RCD, including executive function (EF), have not been fully explored. We examined the contribution of EF (working memory and planning), along with attention, decoding, fluency, and vocabulary to reading comprehension in 60 children (including 16 WRD and 10 RCD), ages 9–15 years. After controlling for commonly accepted contributors to reading comprehension (i.e., attention, decoding skills, fluency, and vocabulary), EF continued to make a significant contribution to reading comprehension but not to word recognition skills. These findings highlight the need for consideration of the role of EF in RCD. PMID:18629674
Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher
The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading…
Peterson, Joseph M.; Knight, Diana
A system designed to provide a framework for the individualization of reading instruction is discussed. The heart of the system is a mastery checklist of reading skills for each child which provides teachers with a means for discovering the specific skill needs of their students. Initially, the system depended upon individual assessment exercises…
Van Camp, Debbie; Van Camp, Wesley
Liberal arts students are expected to graduate college with fully developed critical reading and writing skills. However, for a variety of reasons these skills are not always as well developed as they might be--both during and upon completion of college. This paper describes a reading assignment that was designed to increase students'…
Schonlau, Matthias; Martin, Laurie; Haas, Ann; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Rudd, Rima
Limited literacy contributes to suboptimal care and outcomes for patients. The Institute of Medicine noted that future work in health literacy should consider multiple literacy skills. However, lacking empirical evidence of the relationship between different literacy skills, reading skills are often used as proxies of literacy in research and practice. Using a community-based sample of 618 individuals residing in Boston, MA and Providence, RI, we conducted a principal component analysis on measures of four literacy skills: reading, numeracy, oral (speaking) and aural (listening) to examine whether and to what extent literacy can, or should, be represented by a single measure. The first principal component represented overall literacy and could only explain 60% of the total variation in literacy skills within individuals. The second principal component differentiated between numeracy/reading and the oral/aural exchange. While reading and numeracy best represent overall literacy, patients’ relative strengths may vary. Those with moderate reading ability may have high oral and aural language skills. Conversely, people who have difficulties speaking with or understanding a provider may read well. Effective communication with patients should rely on both the oral exchange and written health information, and not rely on a single literacy skill. PMID:21916699
Schonlau, Matthias; Martin, Laurie; Haas, Ann; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Rudd, Rima
Limited literacy contributes to suboptimal care and outcomes for patients. The Institute of Medicine noted that future work in health literacy should consider multiple literacy skills. However, lacking empirical evidence of the relationship between different literacy skills, reading skills are often used as proxies of literacy in research and practice. Using a community-based sample of 618 individuals residing in Boston, Massachusetts, and Providence, Rhode Island, the authors conducted a principal component analysis on measures of four literacy skills--reading, numeracy, oral (speaking), and aural (listening)--to examine whether and to what extent literacy can, or should, be represented by a single measure. The first principal component represented overall literacy and could only explain 60% of the total variation in literacy skills among individuals. The second principal component differentiated between numeracy/reading and the oral/aural exchange. While reading and numeracy best represent overall literacy, patients' relative strengths may vary. Those with moderate reading ability may have high oral and aural language skills. Conversely, people who have difficulties speaking with or understanding a provider may read well. Effective communication with patients should rely on the oral exchange and written health information, and not rely on a single literacy skill.
FAME is an acronym for a four-course program titled Foundations, Adventures, Mastery, and Explorations. Reading Is FAME is a research-based, developmental reading program for adolescents reading below grade level. The program incorporates a series of four courses designed for students in grades 7-12. The FAME curriculum helps students by…
Hutson, Barbara A.; Liebermann, Jo
Measures of syntactic knowledge and reading achievement were obtained for 41 students in an adult basic education center. Adults reading at or below fourth-grade level showed significantly less knowledge of syntax than adults at higher levels, even though the language test involved neither reading nor writing. (Author/CT)
This study examined how knowledge of metacognitive strategies and navigation skills mediate the relationship between online reading activities and printed reading assessment (PRA) and electronic reading assessment (ERA) across 19 countries using the PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) 2009 database. Participants were 34?104…
McGeown, Sarah P.; Osborne, Cara; Warhurst, Amy; Norgate, Roger; Duncan, Lynne G.
This study examined the extent to which a range of child characteristics (sex, age, socioeconomic status, reading skill and intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation) predicted engagement (i.e., time spent) in different reading activities (fiction books, factual books, school textbooks, comics, magazines and digital texts). In total, 791 children…
Dogan, Enis; Ogut, Burhan; Kim, Young Yee
The relationship between reading skills in earlier grades and achieving "Proficiency" on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) grade 8 reading assessment was examined by establishing a statistical link between NAEP and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) grade 8 reading assessments using data from a common…
Connor, Carol McDonald; Jakobsons, Lara J.; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Meadows, Jane Granger
This study explored first-, second-, and third-grade reading instruction and students' (n = 1,586) reading skill growth in Florida Reading First (RF) classrooms (n = 95). The goal of RF is to improve students' literacy outcomes through the use of research-based instruction, assessment, teacher training, and program evaluation. Whereas survey data…
Akyol, Hayati; Çakiroglu, Ahmet; Kuruyer, Hayriye Gül
The aim of this study is to improve the reading skills of the students having difficulty in reading through an enrichment reading program. The current study was conducted by means of one-subject research technique and between-subjects multiple-baseline levels model belonging to this technique. The study was carried out with three participants from…
Hornery, Samantha; Seaton, Marjorie; Tracey, Danielle; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander S.
This article describes the need for, and the structure and contents of, a reading program to help support children disadvantaged by reading difficulties. The program, delivered by trained and supported volunteers, lasts for 15 weeks. It uses a novel dual approach which aims to improve students' reading skills and simultaneously enhance their…
Cullen, Jennifer M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Schnell, Senny T.; Wheaton, Joe E.
Reading comprehension is a critical skill for school success. Struggling readers can benefit from computer-assisted instruction that utilizes components of effective instruction (e.g., frequent practice, immediate feedback). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Headsprout Comprehension, a computer-assisted reading program, on…
Papatga, Erdal; Ersoy, Ali
The aim of this study was to reveal how reading comprehension skills of elementary fourth graders who have problems in reading comprehension can be improved by means of the SCRATCH program. The study was designed as a participant action research. It was carried out within a 15- week process at an elementary school with middle socio-economic level…
Hampton City School Board, VA.
This handbook, designed as part of the Right to Read Program in Hampton, Virginia, focuses on the development of reading skills within the content area classroom. Sections discussing the instructional and organizational strategies are followed by specific units of study. These individual units include learning objectives or concepts, materials,…
Talcott, Joel B; Witton, Caroline; Stein, John F
Emerging evidence of the high variability in the cognitive skills and deficits associated with reading achievement and dysfunction promotes both a more dimensional view of the risk factors involved, and the importance of discriminating between trajectories of impairment. Here we examined reading and component orthographic and phonological skills alongside measures of cognitive ability and auditory and visual sensory processing in a large group of primary school children between the ages of 7 and 12 years. We identified clusters of children with pseudoword or exception word reading scores at the 10th percentile or below relative to their age group, and a group with poor skills on both tasks. Compared to age-matched and reading-level controls, groups of children with more impaired exception word reading were best described by a trajectory of developmental delay, whereas readers with more impaired pseudoword reading or combined deficits corresponded more with a pattern of atypical development. Sensory processing deficits clustered within both of the groups with putative atypical development: auditory discrimination deficits with poor phonological awareness skills; impairments of visual motion processing in readers with broader and more severe patterns of reading and cognitive impairments. Sensory deficits have been variably associated with developmental impairments of literacy and language; these results suggest that such deficits are also likely to cluster in children with particular patterns of reading difficulty.
Junior high school teacher Mary Rice designs a consumer research unit that cultivates students' critical reading and thinking skills. As students learn how to develop and revise criteria for evaluating the reliability of online information, they read customer reviews, research products, and present their findings orally.
McKown, Brigitte A.; Barnett, Cynthia L.
This action research project report documents the action research project that was conducted to improve reading comprehension with second grade and third grade students. The teacher researchers intended to improve reading comprehension by using higher-order thinking skills such as predicting, making connections, visualizing, inferring,…
Vukovic, Rose K.; Lesaux, Nonie K.; Siegel, Linda S.
Although many children with reading difficulty (RD) are reported to struggle with mathematics, little research has empirically investigated whether this is the case for different types of RD. This study examined the mathematics skills of third graders with one of two types of RD: dyslexia (n = 18) or specific reading comprehension difficulty (n =…
This article features FAST-R, or Formative Assessments of Student Thinking in Reading, a new assessment tool that measures critical-reading skills. FAST-R was developed by the the nonprofit Boston Plan for Excellence (BPE), a local education foundation, to provide teachers with information about what students are thinking when they try to find…
This guide outlines a model that adult educators can use to construct a test for their adult students, regardless of subject area, that is written at the students' reading level. The problems that written tests pose for trade and technical students in further education (FE) who have poor reading skills and the drawbacks of using commercially…
Kuhara-Kojima, Keiko; Hatano, Giyoo
A study examined whether the reading comprehension of students with rich domain-specific knowledge will be better than that of students without it and whether assessed general skills will be correlated significantly with reading comprehension performance for students without specific knowledge, but negligible for the students with much specific…
Burman, Tiffany N.; Evans, Deborah C.
This report describes an action research project designed to improve reading skills of first grade students. The targeted population consisted of two elementary classrooms located in a small, rural Mid-Western town. The problem of difficulty memorizing reading vocabulary words was documented through parent and student surveys and a document…
Hoogeveen, Frans R.; And Others
Four moderately mentally retarded students, aged 8-13, were instructed in a basic skills reading program which emphasized a phonemic alphabet, pictorial cueing, and stimulus manipulation techniques. The training improved the Dutch students' ability to read one- and two-syllable words, and was generalizable to untrained words of the same…
Mourgues, Catalina; Tan, Mei; Hein, Sascha; Ojanen, Emma; Reich, Jodi; Lyytinen, Heikki; Grigorenko, Elena L.
Associative learning has been identified as one of several non-linguistic processes involved in reading acquisition. However, it has not been established whether it is an independent process that contributes to reading performance on its own or whether it is a process that is embedded in other linguistic skills (e.g., phonological awareness or phonological memory) and, therefore, contributing to reading performance indirectly. Research has shown that performance on tasks assessing associative learning, e.g., paired-associate learning (PAL) tasks, is lower in children with specific reading difficulties compared to typical readers. We explored the differential associations of two distinct verbal-visual PAL tasks (the Bala Bbala Graphogame, BBG, and a Foreign Language Learning Task, FLLT) with reading skills (word reading and pseudo-word decoding), controlling for phonological awareness, rapid naming, and letter and digit span in children at risk for reading disabilities and their typically developing peers. Our study sample consisted of 110 children living in rural Zambia, ranging in age from 7 to 18 years old (48.1% female). Multivariate analyses of covariance were used to explore the group differences in reading performance. Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to examine children’s learning across the PAL tasks. The differential relationships between both PAL tasks and reading performance were explored via structural equation modeling. The main result was that the children at risk for reading difficulties had lower performance on both PAL tasks. The BBG was a significant predictor for both word reading and pseudo-word decoding, whereas the FLLT—only for word reading. Performance on the FLLT partially mediated the association between phonological awareness and word reading. These results illustrate the partial independence of associative learning from other reading-related skills; the specifics of this relationship vary based on the type of PAL task administered
Mellard, Daryl F.; Woods, Kari L.; Md Desa, Z. Deana; Vuyk, M. Alexandra
This exploratory study identified underlying skill and ability differences among subgroups of adolescent and young adult struggling readers (N = 290) overall and in relation to a fluency-based instructional grouping method. We used principal axis factoring of participants' scores on 18 measures of reading-related skills and abilities identified in…
This project describes a program designed to improve the music reading abilities of second grade children. The intention is to discover the best possible method of teaching students basic rhythmic and melodic skills. When combined, these skills will not only increase students' understanding of the language of music, but will also increase…
Hulme, Charles; Goetz, Kristina; Brigstocke, Sophie; Nash, Hannah M.; Lervag, Arne; Snowling, Margaret J.
There appears to be a close and probably causal relationship between early variations in phoneme skills and later reading skills in typically developing children, though the pattern in children with Down Syndrome is less clear. We present the results of a 2-year longitudinal study of 49 children with Down Syndrome (DS) and 61 typically developing…
This article investigates the experience of seven refugee students with academic reading during their first year of college, with a focus on the challenges they faced completing assigned readings and the strategies they used to cope with these challenges. Although the participants graduated from American high schools, they were not considered…
Many gifted preschoolers are self-taught readers. This was confirmed by more than 200 parents in a 2011 study at Oregon State University focusing on young children's reading experiences. The purpose of the study was to determine how parents of gifted children and gifted students perceived the children's learning-to-read process, their early school…
Fremer, John; Dwyer, Carol A.
State and school district testing activities involving basic reading competency requirements are discussed. The purposes of minimum competency testing in reading include the identification of students who need remedial assistance, and the evaluation of secondary school students regarding graduation requirements. Important considerations regarding…
Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing. Michigan Educational Assessment Program.
Background information is provided about the Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) reading test, a test developed to meet the objectives specified by the State Board of Education in 1986. The revised test measures reading in a more interactive manner than did previous tests. The rationale of the test is presented, the revised reading…
Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald P; Mencl, W Einar
This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are addressed: (a) Does the simple view of reading capture all nonrandom variation in reading comprehension? (b) Does orally assessed vocabulary knowledge account for variance in reading comprehension, as predicted by the lexical quality hypothesis? A comprehensive battery of cognitive and educational tests was employed to assess phonological awareness, decoding, verbal working memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, word knowledge, and experience with print. In this heterogeneous sample, decoding ability clearly played an important role in reading comprehension. The simple view of reading gave a reasonable fit to the data, although it did not capture all of the reliable variance in reading comprehension as predicted. Orally assessed vocabulary knowledge captured unique variance in reading comprehension even after listening comprehension and decoding skill were accounted for. We explore how a specific connectionist model of lexical representation and lexical access can account for these findings.
reading tasks. Additionally, the material has likely grown more d i f f i cu l t due to the increasing use of high technology pervading the Navy . Not all...were fa i r ly comparable up to the 8th grade level. For purposes of this report , we derived a general index of reading abi lity by taking the average...Chisom , B. S. Derivation of new readability formulas for Navy enlisted personnel (Automated Readability Index , Fog Count, and Flesch Reading Ease
Passig, David; Maidel-Kravetsky, Jenny
The aim of this study was to determine whether, as a result of collaborative-online reading of a chapter from a book of an academic nature, the quality of the collaborative summary that the readers would write would be higher than that written by readers who would both read the same chapter and write a summary in a face-to-face setting. In this…
Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio
In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions - e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions - while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.
Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio
In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature. PMID:25120525
Boerma, Inouk E; Mol, Suzanne E; Jolles, Jelle
We examined the role of mental imagery skills on story comprehension in 150 fifth graders (10- to 12-year-olds), when reading a narrative book chapter with alternating words and pictures (i.e., text blocks were alternated by one- or two-page picture spreads). A parallel group design was used, in which we compared our experimental book version, in which pictures were used to replace parts of the corresponding text, to two control versions, i.e., a text-only version and a version with the full story text and all pictures. Analyses showed an interaction between mental imagery and book version: children with higher mental imagery skills outperformed children with lower mental imagery skills on story comprehension after reading the experimental narrative. This was not the case for both control conditions. This suggests that children's mental imagery skills significantly contributed to the mental representation of the story that they created, by successfully integrating information from both words and pictures. The results emphasize the importance of mental imagery skills for explaining individual variability in reading development. Implications for educational practice are that we should find effective ways to instruct children how to "read" pictures and how to develop and use their mental imagery skills. This will probably contribute to their mental models and therefore their story comprehension.
Duncan, Lynne G; McGeown, Sarah P; Griffiths, Yvonne M; Stothard, Susan E; Dobai, Anna
This study investigates the concurrent predictors of adolescent reading comprehension (literal, inferential) for fiction and non-fiction texts. Predictors were examined from the cognitive (word identification, reading fluency), psychological (gender), and ecological (print exposure) domains. Print exposure to traditional and digital texts was surveyed using a diary method of reading habits. A cross-sectional sample of 312 students in early (11-13 years) or middle adolescence (14-15 years) participated from a range of SES backgrounds. Word identification emerged as a strong predictor of reading comprehension across adolescence and text genres. Gender effects favouring female students were evident for reading frequency but not for reading skill itself. Reading habits also differed, and comprehension advantages were observed among females for fiction and males for non-fiction. Age effects emerged for reading frequency, which was lower in middle adolescence. Although more time was spent on digital than on traditional texts, traditional extended text reading was the only reading habit to predict inference-making in comprehension and to distinguish skilled from less skilled comprehenders. The theoretical and educational implications of these results are discussed.
Nelson-Royes, Andrea M.
In this article the author suggests that tutoring has helped students to become more organized, self-assured, and proficient at identifying relationships between ideas. Successful tutoring requires: (1) at least one attentive adult who has the time to speak with students about academic matters, personal problems, and the importance of performing…
Hughes, Katherine L.; Moore, David Thornton; Bailey, Thomas R.
A study tested the claim that work-based learning can have positive effects on academic learning. Data were obtained through interviews with faculty, staff, students, and employers, and observation of classroom-based links to the work-based learning components at three sites involved in a work-based learning project. At the three sites, a total of…
Although academic skills, conceptualised as writing and critical thinking, are a vital part of university studies, research indicates that many students leave without having mastered these skills effectively. This research also reflects on nursing students. Nursing could also be said to be hampered by a number of complex educational challenges that are likely to impact on the academic socialisation process in general. These challenges include being a relatively 'young' academic discipline, the 'theory-practice' divide, a knowledge bed lying on a complex intersection of two 'antithetical sciences' and, at least in the Scandinavian countries, an increasing number of nurse educators with a PhD in nursing science but with limited time to develop their own teaching skills. In combination, these challenges have the potential to act as stumbling blocks, both from a teaching and learning perspective. I would suggest that a departure in teaching from theoretical educational models, such as Lea and Street's 'academic literacies model,' including skills, socialisation and academic literacy models simultaneously, could be one of several ways forward to create a learning environment that takes these issues into account.
Pilotti, Maura; Martinez, Edward; Broderick, Tyler; Caballero, Sharon; LaGrange, Linda
A well-established principle in the literature on learning, which maintains that variability of practice enhances long-term retention, served as the foundation of a summer program intended to ameliorate reading skills in incoming freshmen. During a 4-week period, students received reading instruction in the context of four areas: humanities,…
Kevan, Alison; Pammer, Kristen
It is well documented that good reading skills may be dependent upon adequate dorsal stream processing. However, the degree to which dorsal stream deficits play a causal role in reading failure has not been established. This study used coherent motion and visual frequency doubling to examine whether dorsal stream sensitivity measured before the…
Osei, Aboagye Michael; Liang, Qing Jing; Natalia, Ihnatushchenko; Stephen, Mensah Abrampah
Although wealth of empirical researches have covered the impact of crucial, indispensable role reading skills play in the development of individuals' mental faculties through the acquisition of knowledge in a particular language, scientific works on the assessment of the relationship(s) between pre-reading activities (consisting of games, puzzle…
Myers, Candace; Clark, M. Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Gilbert, Gizelle L.; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C.
Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family…
Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina
The beneficial effects of musical training are not limited to enhancement of musical skills, but extend to language skills. Here, we review evidence that musical training can enhance reading ability. First, we discuss five subskills underlying reading acquisition-phonological awareness, speech-in-noise perception, rhythm perception, auditory working memory, and the ability to learn sound patterns-and show that each is linked to music experience. We link these five subskills through a unifying biological framework, positing that they share a reliance on auditory neural synchrony. After laying this theoretical groundwork for why musical training might be expected to enhance reading skills, we review the results of longitudinal studies providing evidence for a role for musical training in enhancing language abilities. Taken as a whole, these findings suggest that musical training can provide an effective developmental educational strategy for all children, including those with language learning impairments.
Holloway, John H.
A 1996 study attributed adolescent remedial readers' low comprehension to poor motivation, lack of experience, and egocentricity. Secondary teachers can help by connecting reading assignments to real-world learning experiences, providing self-directed activities, and inviting collaborative learning and varied self-expression. A San Diego program…
Walczyk, Jeffrey J.; Marsiglia, Cheryl S.; Johns, Amanda K.; Bryan, Keli S.
The compensatory-encoding model (CEM) postulates that readers whose decoding of words or verbal working memory capacities is inefficient can compensate so that literal comprehension of text is not deleteriously affected. However, the use of compensations may draw cognitive resources away from higher level reading activities such as comprehension…
Alberto, Paul A.; Fredrick, Laura D.
This article presents a five-step sequence for teaching children with disabilities to read pictures. Steps are sequenced for content and complexity of picture, student response requirement, and language demands. They include: (1) identify person, (2) identify object, (3) identify person and object, (4) identify action, and (5) identify sequence.…
Although phonemic awareness is a well-known factor predicting early reading development, there is also evidence that Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is an independent factor that contributes to early reading. The aim of this study is to examine phonemic awareness and RAN as predictors of reading speed, reading comprehension and spelling for children with reading difficulties. It also investigates a possible reciprocal relationship between RAN and reading skills, and the possibility of enhancing RAN by intervention. These issues are addressed by examining longitudinal data from a randomised reading intervention study carried out in Sweden for 9-year-old children with reading difficulties (N = 112). The intervention comprised three main elements: training of phonics, reading comprehension strategies and reading speed. The analysis of the data was carried out using structural equation modelling. The results demonstrated that after controlling for autoregressive effects and non-verbal IQ, RAN predicts reading speed whereas phonemic awareness predicts reading comprehension and spelling. RAN was significantly enhanced by training and a reciprocal relationship between reading speed and RAN was found. These findings contribute to support the view that both phonemic awareness and RAN independently influence early phases of reading, and that both are possible to enhance by training.
Rogowsky, Beth A.; Papamichalis, Pericles; Villa, Laura; Heim, Sabine; Tallal, Paula
This study reports an evaluation of the effect of computer-based cognitive and linguistic training on college students’ reading and writing skills. The computer-based training included a series of increasingly challenging software programs that were designed to strengthen students’ foundational cognitive skills (memory, attention span, processing speed, and sequencing) in the context of listening and higher level reading tasks. Twenty-five college students (12 native English language; 13 English Second Language), who demonstrated poor writing skills, participated in the training group. The training group received daily training during the spring semester (11 weeks) with the Fast ForWord Literacy (FFW-L) and upper levels of the Fast ForWord Reading series (Levels 3–5). The comparison group (n = 28) selected from the general college population did not receive training. Both the training and comparison groups attended the same university. All students took the Gates MacGinitie Reading Test (GMRT) and the Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS) Written Expression Scale at the beginning (Time 1) and end (Time 2) of the spring college semester. Results from this study showed that the training group made a statistically greater improvement from Time 1 to Time 2 in both their reading skills and their writing skills than the comparison group. The group who received training began with statistically lower writing skills before training, but exceeded the writing skills of the comparison group after training. PMID:23533100
Rogowsky, Beth A; Papamichalis, Pericles; Villa, Laura; Heim, Sabine; Tallal, Paula
This study reports an evaluation of the effect of computer-based cognitive and linguistic training on college students' reading and writing skills. The computer-based training included a series of increasingly challenging software programs that were designed to strengthen students' foundational cognitive skills (memory, attention span, processing speed, and sequencing) in the context of listening and higher level reading tasks. Twenty-five college students (12 native English language; 13 English Second Language), who demonstrated poor writing skills, participated in the training group. The training group received daily training during the spring semester (11 weeks) with the Fast ForWord Literacy (FFW-L) and upper levels of the Fast ForWord Reading series (Levels 3-5). The comparison group (n = 28) selected from the general college population did not receive training. Both the training and comparison groups attended the same university. All students took the Gates MacGinitie Reading Test (GMRT) and the Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS) Written Expression Scale at the beginning (Time 1) and end (Time 2) of the spring college semester. Results from this study showed that the training group made a statistically greater improvement from Time 1 to Time 2 in both their reading skills and their writing skills than the comparison group. The group who received training began with statistically lower writing skills before training, but exceeded the writing skills of the comparison group after training.
Wills, Jeremiah B.; Atkinson, Maxine P.
The American Institutes for Research (2006) recently reported that 20% of U.S. students graduating from four-year colleges and universities and 30% of those completing two-year degrees have quantitative literacy skills at only a basic level. Sociologists are currently working on a variety of approaches to incorporate quantitative literacy into…
Bongratz, Karen M.; Bradley, Julie C.; Fisel, Kimberly L.; Orcutt, Jennifer A.; Shoemaker, Amy J.
This study describes a program designed to increase student academic performance through the use of reading strategies. The targeted population consists of third and fourth grade students in three separate communities located in northern Illinois. All three communities are part of one major metropolitan area, and the status of family income ranges…
Lindsey, Tommie, Jr.; Mabie, Benjamin
After one failed attempt to buttress the prospects of black males at a racially diverse high school, teachers fashioned a life skills class that was heavy on racial pride and personal insight. In so doing they borrowed liberally from the Motivational Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching by Margery Ginsberg and Raymond Wlodkowski that leans…
Bickens, Sarah; Bittman, Franny; Connor, David J.
This article provides an overview of the Autobiography Project, listing the topics of the ten chapters and the targeted skills that accompany them. The authors discuss the purposes of each chapter and describe the methods incorporated to promote the four broad components of literacy. This unit also addresses almost all components of the Common…
Graham, Lorraine; Bellert, Anne; Thomas, Jenny; Pegg, John
QuickSmart is a basic academic skills intervention designed for persistently low-achieving students in the middle years of schooling that aims to improve the automaticity of basic skills to improve higher-order processes, such as problem solving and comprehension, as measured on standardized tests. The QuickSmart instructional program consists of three structured, teacher- or teacher aide-directed, 30-minute, small-group lessons each week for approximately 26 weeks. In this study, 42 middle school students experiencing learning difficulties (LD) completed the QuickSmart reading program, and a further 42 students with LD took part in the QuickSmart mathematics program. To investigate the effects of the intervention, comparisons were made between the reading and mathematics progress of the intervention group and a group of 10 high-achieving and 10 average-achieving peers. The results indicated that although the standardized reading comprehension and mathematics scores of QuickSmart students remained below those of comparison students, they improved significantly from pretest to posttest. In contrast, the standardized scores of comparison students were not significantly different from pretest to posttest. On measures of response speed and accuracy gathered using the Cognitive Aptitude Assessment System (CAAS), QuickSmart students were able to narrow the gap between their performance and that of their high- and average-achieving peers. Implications are drawn regarding the importance of interventions that emphasize the automaticity of basic academic skills for students with learning difficulties.
Jarmulowicz, Linda; Taran, Valentina L.; Hay, Sarah E.
Purpose: This study examined relationships between 3rd graders' metalinguistic skills (phonological and morphological awareness), reading skills (decoding and word identification), and accurate stress production in derived words with stress-changing suffixes. Method: Seventy-six typically developing 3rd-grade children (M = 8;8[years;months])…
McKenney, Ruth Smith
Analyzed was the performance of 36 third grade children with various reading and articulation skills in blending selected syllables across three modes of presentation. Ss were divided into three groups: one with normal reading and speech skills, one with below grade-level reading skills and normal speech skills, and one with grade-level reading…
Grabe, William; Zhang, Cui
Reading and writing relations, as this concept applies to academic learning contexts, whether as a major way to learn language or academic content, is a pervasive issue in English for academic purposes (EAP) contexts. In many cases, this major link between reading/writing and academic learning is true even though explicit discussions of this…
Boerma, Inouk E.; Mol, Suzanne E.; Jolles, Jelle
We examined the role of mental imagery skills on story comprehension in 150 fifth graders (10- to 12-year-olds), when reading a narrative book chapter with alternating words and pictures (i.e., text blocks were alternated by one- or two-page picture spreads). A parallel group design was used, in which we compared our experimental book version, in which pictures were used to replace parts of the corresponding text, to two control versions, i.e., a text-only version and a version with the full story text and all pictures. Analyses showed an interaction between mental imagery and book version: children with higher mental imagery skills outperformed children with lower mental imagery skills on story comprehension after reading the experimental narrative. This was not the case for both control conditions. This suggests that children’s mental imagery skills significantly contributed to the mental representation of the story that they created, by successfully integrating information from both words and pictures. The results emphasize the importance of mental imagery skills for explaining individual variability in reading development. Implications for educational practice are that we should find effective ways to instruct children how to “read” pictures and how to develop and use their mental imagery skills. This will probably contribute to their mental models and therefore their story comprehension. PMID:27822194
McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.
The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…
The oral Red Cloud Reading Test provides a complete analysis of reading level and skills for American Indian students in grades 1-7 or for high school and adult students reading at or below high school levels. The test determines the basic and recreational reading levels, identifies reading problems, determines reading speeds, and analyzes the…
Hartzema, Abraham G.
The impact of changing health care systems on the content of pharmaceutical education is examined, including the relationship between basic and applied sciences and between the applied sciences and skill and attitude formation, in both academic and clinical education. The role of pharmacy administration in the curriculum is discussed. (MSE)
Goetzfridt, Nicholas J.
Teaching critical thinking is a relatively new dimension of bibliographic instruction (BI) in the academic environment. It marks a departure from the teaching of "user skills" in which the primary concern is enabling library patrons to determine the appropriateness of reference tools and to use those tools effectively. This report assembles a…
Willison, J. W.
This study considered outcomes when 27 academics explicitly developed and assessed student research skills in 28 regular (non-research methods) semester-length courses. These courses ranged from small (n = 17) to medium-large (n = 222) and included those from first year to masters in business, engineering, health science, humanities and science,…
Bjorn, Piia Maria; Kyttala, Minna
This study investigated whether family structure accounts for adolescent academic performance in Finland in the analysis. The thirteen- to fourteen-year-old (grade 8) students' (N = 171) literacy skills were measured and their mathematical performance was tested. Information about family structure was gathered via a questionnaire sent to their…
A survey of Australian academic reference librarians was conducted as part of an international collaboration seeking to identify the most important knowledge, skills and attributes now and for the next ten years. Librarians working in or managing reference-related services at university and vocational education and training institutions…
Bendt, Lori; Nunan, Jan
This paper examines the impact of the explicit teaching of social skills to enhance academic achievement. The targeted population comprised kindergarten and second grade students in a middle-class community located in central Illinois. The problem of inappropriate behaviors and difficulties interacting with peers and how this may affect academic…
Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper
Objective To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. Methods This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Results Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all P<0.001), whereas exercise capacity was only associated with better sustained attention (P<0.046) and spatial working memory (P<0.038). Fine and gross motor skills (all P<0.001), exercise capacity and cognitive functions such as working memory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Conclusions The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic
Roberts, Garrett J.; Solis, Michael; Ciullo, Stephen; McKenna, John W.; Vaughn, Sharon
Research findings have suggested that reading deficits and problem behaviors are positively related. This synthesis investigated how reading interventions impact behavioral/social skill outcomes by reviewing studies that included (a) a reading intervention without behavioral/social skill components, (b) behavioral/social skill dependent variables, and (c) students in Grades K-12. Fifteen articles were evaluated by the type of reading intervention, associations between positive reading effects and behavioral/social skill outcomes, and The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) determinants of study ratings. Findings suggested that reading interventions tended to have positive reading outcomes, while behavioral/social skill outcomes were small or negative. Research did not suggest an association between improved reading and behavioral performance, regardless of the WWC study determinants rating. Implications include reading instruction may not be sufficient to improve behavioral and social skill outcomes. Additional research is warranted to investigate the long-term impact of reading on behavioral and social skill outcomes. PMID:25548392
Roberts, Garrett J; Solis, Michael; Ciullo, Stephen; McKenna, John W; Vaughn, Sharon
Research findings have suggested that reading deficits and problem behaviors are positively related. This synthesis investigated how reading interventions impact behavioral/social skill outcomes by reviewing studies that included (a) a reading intervention without behavioral/social skill components, (b) behavioral/social skill dependent variables, and (c) students in Grades K-12. Fifteen articles were evaluated by the type of reading intervention, associations between positive reading effects and behavioral/social skill outcomes, and The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) determinants of study ratings. Findings suggested that reading interventions tended to have positive reading outcomes, while behavioral/social skill outcomes were small or negative. Research did not suggest an association between improved reading and behavioral performance, regardless of the WWC study determinants rating. Implications include reading instruction may not be sufficient to improve behavioral and social skill outcomes. Additional research is warranted to investigate the long-term impact of reading on behavioral and social skill outcomes.
Curtin, Penelope, Ed.; Stanwick, John, Ed.; Beddie, Francesca, Ed.
This book of readings on innovation was commissioned by the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) and looks at the relationship between skills, innovation and industry. In November 2010, the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) held a forum in Sydney on the relationship between innovation and…
Wankoff, Lorain Szabo; Cairns, Helen Smith
This study was designed to determine the contributions of metalinguistic skill and psycholinguistic processing ability to children's ability to detect the ambiguity of sentences and the relationship among all three factors to early reading ability. A total of 20 first graders and 20 second graders were given tasks testing the following abilities:…
Radebaugh, Muriel Rogie; Kazemek, Francis E.
Describes how current insights into literacy, teaching, and learning as social, collaborative processes can be incorporated into college reading and study skills classes. Suggests several cooperative activities and strategies, including small group discussion, forming permanent study groups, and sharing study habits. (MM)
Brown, Donald R.; Ottinger, D. R.
Four studies with infants and preschool-age children examined various pattern perception tasks considered to be related to the perceptual basis of the development of reading skills. Study 1 used 28 neonates to test the hypothesis that supplemental stimulation (rocking, patting, holding) has measurable effects upon attention to visual patterns.…
Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald P.; Mencl, W. Einar
This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range…
Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine
Eighty-five Hong Kong Chinese children were tested across both the 2nd and 3rd years of kindergarten (ages 4-5 years) on tasks of inhibitory control, working memory, vocabulary knowledge, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and word reading. With age, vocabulary knowledge, and metalinguistic skills statistically controlled, the…
Mayer, Connie; Watson, Linda; Archbold, Sue; Ng, Zheng Yen; Mulla, Imran
Thirty-three young people with cochlear implants, aged between 9 and 16 years, were assessed for use of their implant system, cognitive abilities, vocabulary, reading, and writing skills. The group came from throughout England and included 26 born deaf, six deafened by meningitis, one with auditory neuropathy, and five with additional needs.…
Curry, Robert L.; Geis, Lynna
A sample of 175 students, constituting grades 10, 11, and 12 of two high schools, was used in the validation of a new Syllabication Skills Test. On the first day, the students completed four forms of the syllabication test; on the second, they completed Survey F of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests. Means and standard deviations were similar for…
Shankman, Albert L.
An optometrist hypothesizes that poor reading skills stem from a child's inability to discern relationships among objects, people, concepts or instructional materials and suggests that physical problem-solving tasks that utilize several sense modalities simultaneously provide effective remedial treatment. (LH)
Ecalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie
The purpose of this research was to assess the development of phonological skills before and during learning to read. Thirty-four children were tested twice, in nursery school and in first grade with an epiphonological task (E), e.g. judgment of similarity, and two metaphonological tasks, one requiring the extraction of common units (M1) and one…
Hansen, Laura Birke; Morales, Julia; Macizo, Pedro; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Saldaña, David; Carreiras, Manuel; Fuentes, Luis J.; Bajo, M. Teresa
The present research aims to assess literacy acquisition in children becoming bilingual via second language immersion in school. We adopt a cognitive components approach, assessing text-level reading comprehension, a complex literacy skill, as well as underlying cognitive and linguistic components in 144 children aged 7 to 14 (72 immersion…
Elmonayer, Randa Abdelaleem
The present study examines the effect of dialogic reading (DR) on the promotion of Arabic phonological awareness skills (including syllable awareness, rhyme awareness, and phoneme awareness) of Egyptian kindergarteners. The participants were 67 children enrolled in the second level of kindergarten (ages 5-6), assigned to an experimental group…
Klusek, Jessica; Hunt, Anna W.; Mirrett, Penny L.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Roberts, Jane E.; Bailey, Donald B.
Although reading skills are critical for the success of individuals with intellectual disabilities, literacy has received little attention in fragile X syndrome (FXS). This study examined the literacy profile of FXS. Boys with FXS (n = 51; mean age 10.2 years) and mental age-matched boys with typical development (n = 35) participated in…
Howard, Walter J., III
A program was developed to improve the reading scores and communication skills of ninth-grade students from multicultural backgrounds. The students' socioeconomic status ranges from below the poverty level to upper middle class. The population of the high school in suburban Chicago (Illinois) is multiethnic, the English is not always the primary…
Banfi, Cristina S.
One English-as-a-Foreign-Language teacher describes how she encourages students to extend their reading skills by undertaking a range of tasks that lead to the production of a portfolio of work connected with a particular title. Provides an overview of the work carried out over a period of 3 years with seven groups of students at university and…
Sullivan, Amanda L.; Field, Samuel
This study investigated associations between enrollment in preschool special education and school readiness skills for children with mild to moderate delays. Findings indicated that on average, children who received preschool special education services had lower scores in reading and math in kindergarten than similar children who did not receive…
Robinson, Gregory L. W.; Conway, Robert N. F.
The study examined the effectiveness of the use of nonoptical tinted (Irlen) lenses with 44 children (ages 9-16) with reading disabilities. Evaluation after 6 and 12 months indicated a significant improvement in attitude to school and to basic academic skills. Reading comprehension and accuracy, but not rate, were also significantly improved.…
Hansen, Laura Birke; Morales, Julia; Macizo, Pedro; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Saldaña, David; Carreiras, Manuel; Fuentes, Luis J; Bajo, M Teresa
The present research aims to assess literacy acquisition in children becoming bilingual via second language immersion in school. We adopt a cognitive components approach, assessing text-level reading comprehension, a complex literacy skill, as well as underlying cognitive and linguistic components in 144 children aged 7 to 14 (72 immersion bilinguals, 72 controls). Using principal component analysis, a nuanced pattern of results was observed: although emergent bilinguals lag behind their monolingual counterparts on measures of linguistic processing, they showed enhanced performance on a memory and reasoning component. For reading comprehension, no between-group differences were evident, suggesting that selective benefits compensate costs at the level of underlying cognitive components. Overall, the results seem to indicate that literacy skills may be modulated by emerging bilingualism even when no between-group differences are evident at the level of complex skill, and the detection of such differences may depend on the focus and selectivity of the task battery used.
Loeb, Diane Frome; Gillam, Ronald B.; Hoffman, LaVae; Brandel, Jayne; Marquis, Janet
Purpose: To examine the efficacy of Fast ForWord Language (FFW-L) and 2 other interventions for improving the phonemic awareness and reading skills of children with specific language impairment with concurrent poor reading skills. Method: A total of 103 children (age 6;0 to 8;11 [years;months]) with language impairment and poor reading skills…
Hendrix, C M; Thompson, I K; Mann, C J
In the 1989 report by the Pew National Veterinary Education Program (PNVEP), communication skills topped the list of characteristics the veterinary graduate should possess in order to function effectively in the twenty-first century. To determine the reading, writing, and oral communication requirements and opportunities in veterinary curricula in the US and Canada, and to determine the perceived communication tasks that might be commonly required of practicing veterinarians in the next century, we sent a 15-item communications skills questionnaire to the academic deans of the 31 veterinary curricula in the US and Canada. The results reinforce the importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine, as detailed by the PNVEP over 10 years ago. Based on the responses to our questionnaire and on our own experiences with veterinary medical students, we make several recommendations to enhance communication instruction in veterinary medical curricula.
Tsai, Hsien-Chang; Liu, Shih-Hsiung
Effective time-management skills and interpersonal interactions with familiar friends for learning matters on Facebook are desired characteristics for adolescents attempting to improve their academic achievements. This study identifies the relationships between time-management skills and Facebook interpersonal skills with the academic achievement…
Tillman, Chester E.
A study was conducted to examine the relationship of perceptual motor skills as measured by the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test to word recognition, oral reading, and silent reading. In addition, perceptual motor skill and auditory comprehension were compared as correlates of the three reading variables. Subjects were 60 primary grade students in…
Research on early linguistic precursors and enabling skills of reading acquisition among young children is reviewed. Language development starts early in infancy when the child learns to categorize the speech sounds according to the pattern typical of the mother tongue. Equipped with these sound categories the child is ready to learn to segment words from the sound stream and to understand and to use words. The precise phonological representation of words will facilitate the important development of phonological awareness, a basic prerequisite for reading acquisition. This paper reviews some of my longitudinal research and training studies indicating the causal direction of the relation between phonological awareness and reading and includes some ongoing studies, where gender differences, socio-economic factors, dose-response-effects and motivational factors are explored. Preventive and remedial implications of the findings are pointed out. Finally, the complexity of the causal relationships between different aspects of early language development, including genetic influences and later reading is pointed out.
Goffman, Lisa; Brentari, Diane
Orthographic experience during the acquisition of novel words may influence production processing in proficient readers. Previous work indicates interactivity among lexical, phonological, and articulatory processing; we hypothesized that experience with orthography can also influence phonological processing. Phonetic accuracy and articulatory stability were measured as adult, proficient readers repeated and read aloud nonwords, presented in auditory or written modalities and with variations in orthographic neighborhood density. Accuracy increased when participants had read the nonwords earlier in the session, but not when they had only heard them. Articulatory stability increased with practice, regardless of whether nonwords were read or heard. Word attack skills, but not reading comprehension, predicted articulatory stability. Findings indicate that kinematic and phonetic accuracy analyses provide insight into how orthography influences implicit language processing. PMID:27057073
Saletta, Meredith; Goffman, Lisa; Brentari, Diane
Orthographic experience during the acquisition of novel words may influence production processing in proficient readers. Previous work indicates interactivity among lexical, phonological, and articulatory processing; we hypothesized that experience with orthography can also influence phonological processing. Phonetic accuracy and articulatory stability were measured as adult, proficient readers repeated and read aloud nonwords, presented in auditory or written modalities and with variations in orthographic neighborhood density. Accuracy increased when participants had read the nonwords earlier in the session, but not when they had only heard them. Articulatory stability increased with practice, regardless of whether nonwords were read or heard. Word attack skills, but not reading comprehension, predicted articulatory stability. Findings indicate that kinematic and phonetic accuracy analyses provide insight into how orthography influences implicit language processing.
Sabatini, John P.; Shore, Jane R.; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Scarborough, Hollis S.
In this study, confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the interrelationships among latent factors of the Simple View of reading comprehension (word recognition and language comprehension) and hypothesized additional factors (vocabulary and reading fluency) in a sample of 476 adult learners with low literacy levels. The results provided evidence for reliable distinctions between word recognition, fluency, language comprehension, and vocabulary skills as components of reading. Even so, the data did not support the hypothesis that the Simple View needs to be expanded to include vocabulary or fluency factors, as has been posited in a few prior studies of younger and more able readers. Rather, word recognition and language comprehension alone were found to account adequately for variation in reading comprehension in adults with low literacy. PMID:20179307
Kikas, Eve; Silinskas, Gintautas; Soodla, Piret
This study examined the effects of children's reading skills and interest in reading-related tasks on teacher perceptions of children's literacy skills (reading and spelling) and the respective individualized support for children during the first two years of formal schooling. The participants were 334 children and their classroom teachers.…
The main purpose of this study is to define the effect of the juvenile fiction on secondary school students' reading skills. In the study; 6th grade students', reading juvenile fiction, attitudes to reading, reading speed, comprehension ability of what's read are examined. The group of students reading juvenile fiction is compared to the ones not…
Loudermill, Chenell Smith
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between reading comprehension and morphological awareness skills. Researchers have documented a wide range of skills that influence reading comprehension ability at different times to different degrees. One of the skills identified as having an influence on reading comprehension ability…
Loucky, John Paul
This article summarizes software which can help to enhance both local and specific reading skills (often done through what is known as intensive reading) and global or general reading skills (known as extensive reading). Although the use of computerized bilingual dictionaries (CBDs) and translation websites of various types does not appear to…
Tyler, Emily Jehanne; Hughes, John Carl; Beverley, Michael; Hastings, Richard Patrick
Many children fail to acquire basic reading skills. The current evidence base for supplementary reading instruction indicates that explicit, systematic and intensive instruction in the early years for children considered to be "at-risk" of reading difficulties can have significant and preventative effects on reading skills. However,…
Calhoon, Mary Beth
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a peer-mediated instructional approach on the teaching of phonological skills and reading comprehension for middle school (sixth- to eighth-grade) students with reading disabilities. All students (n = 38) were identified as having learning disabilities and reading at the third-grade level or below. One group was taught using a peer-mediated phonological skill program, Linguistics Skills Training (LST), and a peer-mediated reading comprehension program, Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS). The contrast group was taught in the more traditional whole-class format using a widely implemented remedial reading program. The results showed significant differences between conditions, with students receiving the LST/PALS instruction outperforming the contrast group on Letter-Word Identification, Word Attack, and Passage Comprehension using the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Achievement-III. Furthermore, large effect sizes for growth were found on Letter-Word Identification, Word Attack, and Passage Comprehension for the LST/PALS treatment group. No differences were found between conditions for reading fluency. Findings are discussed in regard to instruction delivery format (peer tutoring vs. whole class) with respect to best practices for middle school students with reading disabilities.
Prior, Anat; Goldina, Anna; Shany, Michal; Geva, Esther; Katzir, Tami
The current study examined the predictive roles of L2 vocabulary knowledge and L2 word reading skills in explaining individual differences in lexical inferencing in the L2. Participants were 53 Israeli high school students who emigrated from the former Soviet Union, and spoke Russian as an L1 and Hebrew as an L2. L2 vocabulary knowledge and…
Leyva, Diana; Hopson, Sarah; Nichols, Ashley
Are children's understanding of mental states (understanding of mind) related to their notating skills, that is, their ability to produce and read written marks to convey information about objects and number? Fifty-three preschoolers and kindergarteners were presented with a dictation task where they produced some written marks and were later…
Research consistently indicates the importance of phonological processing in early reading development, yet the role of phonology in skilled reading is still not well understood. Two event-related potential (ERP) experiments investigated the nature and time course of phonological processing during skilled visual word recognition using a masked priming paradigm. Phonological syllable priming was examined by presenting prime-target pairs either with the same first syllable, or with one letter more or fewer. In this visually matched design, items like po## -PONY and pon### -PONDER appeared in the congruent condition. Conversely, pon# -PONY and po#### -PONDER appeared in the incongruent condition. In both experiments, the magnitude of the first negative peak (N1) was reduced in the phonologically congruent condition as compared to the incongruent condition. This syllable congruency effect is the first neurophysiological evidence for phonological syllable activation in the initial moments of visual word recognition. The early time course of this activation indicates that suprasegmental phonological processing is fundamental to skilled reading.
DiBella, Karen S.
The purpose of this study was to measure the motivation for academic and recreational reading of 6th grade students in a middle school located in southwest Florida using the Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (ERAS). In this mixed methods study, motivation for both types of reading were measured, individual demographics of the population, such as…
La Marca, Marilyn Tierney
A study was conducted to determine the effects of the "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" on eighth grade students' reading comprehension and study skills. The "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" is a process oriented course dealing with the sequential development of nine specific skills deemed essential to the retrieval and retention of information…
Tobin, Kevin G.
This study is a follow-up on a previous study of the effects of 2 beginning reading programs implemented in 1st grade. In the previous study, 40 1st-grade students who were matched based on their Concepts About Print Test (Clay, 1979) and Phonological Segmentation Fluency from the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS; Good…
Zucker, Tricia A; Cabell, Sonia Q; Justice, Laura M; Pentimonti, Jill M; Kaderavek, Joan N
In this study, we examined the longitudinal relations between frequency and features of reading experiences within the preschool classroom to children's language and literacy outcomes in kindergarten and 1st grade. Frequency refers to the number of shared reading sessions conducted each week as measured by teachers' written reading logs recorded across the academic year. Features refers to teachers' extratextual talk about literal, inferential, or print or phonological topics as assessed by analysis of 6 videotaped readings of narrative and informational texts collected across the preschool year. Participants were 28 preschool teachers and 178 children. The children were largely at risk and randomly selected from among those in each classroom to complete longitudinal assessments. In preschool, results showed that the frequency of classroom shared reading was positively and significantly related to children's receptive vocabulary growth, as was the inclusion of extratextual conversations around the text; only extratextual conversations related to children's preschool literacy growth. There was no evidence of differential influences of these experiences for children; that is, the relationship between frequency or features and children's language and literacy development was not moderated by children's initial skill level. Longitudinally, extratextual talk during preschool shared reading remained associated with children's vocabulary skills through kindergarten, with trends toward significance extending to 1st grade literacy skills. The frequency of preschool shared reading was not a significant predictor of longitudinal outcomes.
Neal, Heather N.
Academic language plays a key role in reading comprehension, disciplinary thinking, and overall academic success. However, many approaches to teaching academic language, such as a focus on academic vocabulary, overlook other language features that can pose challenges for students. Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), arguably one of the three…
Yeo, Lay See; Ong, Winston W.; Ng, Charis M.
Research Findings: This study explored the association between the home literacy environment (HLE), conceptualized as comprising parents' reading beliefs and home literacy practices, and preschoolers' reading skills and reading interest. It also identified factors in the HLE that predict emerging reading competence and motivation to read. A total…
Myers, Candace; Clark, M Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M; Anderson, Melissa L; Gilbert, Gizelle L; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C
Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education. (The descriptor Black is used throughout the present article, as Black Deaf individuals prefer this term to African American. For purposes of parallel construction, the term White is used instead of European American.) It was found that Black Deaf study participants scored lower on measures of both reading and ASL. These findings provide implications for possible interventions at the primary, secondary, and college levels of education.
This study compares native English, Spanish, Lao, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, Arabic, and all other ELL students over one, two, three, and four-year spans to determine if certain groups appear to face more difficulties in developing early reading mastery by third grade. This study also examines whether socio-economic status impacts the…
Mellard, Daryl F; Woods, Kari L; Md Desa, Z Deana; Vuyk, M Alexandra
This exploratory study identified underlying skill and ability differences among subgroups of adolescent and young adult struggling readers (N = 290) overall and in relation to a fluency-based instructional grouping method. We used principal axis factoring of participants' scores on 18 measures of reading-related skills and abilities identified in the research literature to identify a smaller set of generally uncorrelated constructs. The four underlying factors of the 18 measures explained 62.7% of the variance. We labeled these factors Encode/Decode (44.5%), Vocabulary (9.5%), Processing Speed (5.2%), and Working Memory (3.5%). Regression analysis demonstrated Working Memory, Encode/Decode, and Vocabulary collectively predicted 45.9% functional reading as measured by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System. Alternatively, when measured by the Test of Adult Basic Education, Vocabulary and Encode/Decode predicted 47.1% of variance in reading. Differences in predictive utility of the factors by fluency group suggest approaches to tailoring instruction for each group. Future research might examine the optimal mix of instructional approaches that support the identified factors.
The present study investigates the effects of syllable awareness on the word-reading process of students reading in a highly transparent orthography (Turkish). The participants were 90 second graders belonging to one of two distinct levels of syllable-awareness skills (50 with poor syllable-awareness skills and 40 with proficient…
Gorzycki, Meg; Howard, Pamela; Allen, Diane; Desa, Geoffrey; Rosegard, Erik
Academic reading proficiently is characterized by the ability to perform cognitive tasks associated with interpreting text. Researchers developed an externally validated Informal Academic Reading Proficiency Test to gauge undergraduates' academic reading proficiency. A cross-sectional study of 23 classes completed the reading test in 2014. This…
Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo
Aim: Basic verbal and academic skills can be adversely affected by early-onset diabetes, although these skills have been studied less than other cognitive functions. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of learning deficits in children with diabetes by assessing basic verbal and academic skills in children with early-onset diabetes and in…
Sénéchal, Monique; LeFevre, Jo-Anne
This article presents the findings of the final phase of a 5-year longitudinal study with 168 middle- and upper middle-class children in which the complex relations among early home literacy experiences, subsequent receptive language and emergent literacy skills, and reading achievement were examined. Results showed that children's exposure to books was related to the development of vocabulary and listening comprehension skills, and that these language skills were directly related to children's reading in grade 3. In contrast, parent involvement in teaching children about reading and writing words was related to the development of early literacy skills. Early literacy skills directly predicted word reading at the end of grade 1 and indirectly predicted reading in grade 3. Word reading at the end of grade 1 predicted reading comprehension in grade 3. Thus, the various pathways that lead to fluent reading have their roots in different aspects of children's early experiences.
Christopher, Micaela E; Keenan, Janice M; Hulslander, Jacqueline; DeFries, John C; Miyake, Akira; Wadsworth, Sally J; Willcutt, Erik; Pennington, Bruce; Olson, Richard K
Although previous research has shown cognitive skills to be important predictors of reading ability in children, the respective roles for genetic and environmental influences on these relations is an open question. The present study explored the genetic and environmental etiologies underlying the relations between selected executive functions and cognitive abilities (working memory, inhibition, processing speed, and naming speed) with 3 components of reading ability (word reading, reading comprehension, and listening comprehension). Twin pairs drawn from the Colorado Front Range (n = 676; 224 monozygotic pairs; 452 dizygotic pairs) between the ages of 8 and 16 (M = 11.11) were assessed on multiple measures of each cognitive and reading-related skill. Each cognitive and reading-related skill was modeled as a latent variable, and behavioral genetic analyses estimated the portions of phenotypic variance on each latent variable due to genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental influences. The covariance between the cognitive skills and reading-related skills was driven primarily by genetic influences. The cognitive skills also shared large amounts of genetic variance, as did the reading-related skills. The common cognitive genetic variance was highly correlated with the common reading genetic variance, suggesting that genetic influences involved in general cognitive processing are also important for reading ability. Skill-specific genetic variance in working memory and processing speed also predicted components of reading ability. Taken together, the present study supports a genetic association between children's cognitive ability and reading ability.
Morgan, Paul L; Meier, Catherine R
Young children entering school with poor oral vocabulary skills may be "doubly disadvantaged." Their poor oral vocabulary skills will likely impede their attempts to become proficient readers while also possibly increasing the frequency of their problem behaviors. Dialogic Reading is a scientifically-validated shared storybook reading intervention that is known to boost at risk children's oral vocabulary skills. As such, use of Dialogic Reading is one potential way to help children avoid both later reading failure and the negative outcomes associated with poor behavior. In this article, we detail both (a) a research-based rationale for using Dialogic Reading and (b) Dialogic Reading's set of procedures and prompts.
Lopez-Emslie, Julia Rosa
A study to determine the role of oral language and reading skills in the transfer from two years of reading in Spanish to reading in English had as subjects 191 fourth grade students in a bilingual education program. Students were tested and classified as efficient and non-efficient readers. It was found that: (1) there is a relationship between…
Bell, Athene Cooper
A formative design experiment methodology was employed to investigate the acquisition of early reading skills for high school English language learners (ELLs) beginning to read English. A fundamental challenge facing high school ELLs entering schools in the United States for the first time is learning how to read. While there is considerable…
Bouton, Sophie; Bertoncini, Josiane; Serniclaes, Willy; Cole, Pascale
We assessed the reading and reading-related skills (phonemic awareness and phonological short-term memory) of deaf children fitted with cochlear implants (CI), either exposed to cued speech early (before 2 years old) (CS+) or never (CS-). Their performance was compared to that of 2 hearing control groups, 1 matched for reading level (RL), and 1…
Duran, Richard P.
Recent cognitive research concerned with training of word recognition skills and vocabulary skills in English monolinguals has implications for second language learning theory and the teaching of English reading skills to native Spanish speakers. Researchers in reading development, cognitive psychology, and second language proficiency assessment…
Since its opening in the spring of 1972, the General College Reading/Writing Skills Center has provided students with tutorial help in reading and writing, and communication skills courses for credit. During its three years of operation, the Skills Center has extended its services through satellite centers to student populations other than those…
Literary reading skills in a second language (L2) are essential for student success at the advanced levels of collegiate language instruction. This article introduces an instructional approach that fosters the development of L2 literary reading skills through creative writing activities. First, the article identifies those skills that language…
Goodrich, J. Marc; Farrington, Amber L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.
Although there is a growing body of literature on the development of reading skills of Spanish-speaking language minority children, little research has focused on the development of writing skills in this population. This study evaluated whether children's Spanish early reading skills (i.e., print knowledge, phonological awareness, oral language)…
Davis, Alan; Solberg, V. Scott; de Baca, Christine; Gore, Taryn Hargrove
This study evaluated the degree to which a range of social emotional learning skills--academic self-efficacy, academic motivation, social connections, importance of school, and managing psychological and emotional distress and academic stress--could be used as an indicator of future academic outcomes. Using a sample of 4,797 from a large urban…
Pershing, James A., Ed.
This collection of six papers discusses various aspects of teaching basic skills in connection with vocational education. The six papers are the following: "Basic Academic Skills in the Workplace and the Classroom: The Work-Education Bridge" (James A. Pershing, Scott W. Gillie); "Basic Literacy and Communication Skills for Vocational Training"…
Many low-skill readers have problems with visual word recognition. In particular, low-skill readers show a substantial nonword reading deficit that is attributed to deficits in sub-lexical processing. In this study, I examined whether the nonword deficits of German 14-year-old low-skill readers were associated with inefficient use of multi-letter…
Irmawati, Noer Doddy
Academic reading is a difficult subject to be mastered. It is needed because most of books or references are written in English. The emphasis is on academic reading which becomes a compulsory subject that must be taught and understood in Faculty of Letters UAD Yogyakarta. Communicative approach is used and applied as an alternative method in the…
This paper summarizes a study conducted to determine whether sustained silent reading (SSR) can contribute to improvement in grammar and reading comprehension in university academic English as a foreign language (EFL) courses. A total of 186 beginning and intermediate students enrolled in the English for Academic Purposes program at the…
Chik, Pakey Pui-man; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Yeung, Pui-sze; Wong, Yau-kai; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Lo, Lap-yan
This study aimed at identifying important skills for reading comprehension in Chinese dyslexic children and their typically developing counterparts matched on age (CA controls) or reading level (RL controls). The children were assessed on Chinese reading comprehension, cognitive, and reading-related skills. Results showed that the dyslexic children performed significantly less well than the CA controls but similarly to RL controls in most measures. Results of multiple regression analyses showed that word-level reading-related skills like oral vocabulary and word semantics were found to be strong predictors of reading comprehension among typically developing junior graders and dyslexic readers of senior grades, whereas morphosyntax, a text-level skill, was most predictive for typically developing senior graders. It was concluded that discourse and morphosyntax skills are particularly important for reading comprehension in the non-inflectional and topic-prominent Chinese system.
van Viersen, Sietske; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Slot, Esther M; de Bree, Elise H
This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with dyslexia, gifted children, gifted children with dyslexia). The test battery included measures of literacy (reading/spelling) and cognitive abilities related to literacy and language (phonological awareness [PA], rapid automatized naming [RAN], verbal short-term memory [VSTM], working memory [WM], grammar, and vocabulary). It was hypothesized that gifted children with dyslexia would outperform children with dyslexia on literacy tests. In addition, a core-deficit model including dyslexia-related weaknesses and a compensational model involving giftedness-related strengths were tested using Bayesian statistics to explain their reading/spelling performance. Gifted children with dyslexia performed on all literacy tests in between children with dyslexia and TD children. Their cognitive profile showed signs of weaknesses in PA and RAN and strengths in VSTM, WM, and language skills. Findings indicate that phonology is a risk factor for gifted children with dyslexia, but this is moderated by other skills such as WM, grammar, and vocabulary, providing opportunities for compensation of a cognitive deficit and masking of literacy difficulties.
Eisenberg, Nancy; Sadovsky, Adrienne; Spinrad, Tracy L.
Research suggests that the development of emotional regulation in early childhood is interrelated with emotional understanding and language skills. Heuristic models are proposed on how these factors influence children's emerging academic motivation and skills. (Contains 2 figures.)
Marks, Amy Kerivan; Coll, Cynthia García
Research regarding the development of early academic skills among American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) students has been very limited to date. Using a nationally representative sample of AIAN, Hispanic, African American, and White children at school entry, the authors used latent growth models to estimate the associations among poverty, low parental education, living in a rural location, as well as child attitudes toward learning and internalizing/externalizing behaviors, with mathematical and reading cognitive skill development across the 1st 4 years of school. Results indicate that AIAN children entered kindergarten with scores on both mathematical and reading cognitive tests that were comparable to their peers from other ethnic groups of color. Importantly, all children who entered kindergarten with lower cognitive skill scores also acquired skills more slowly over the next 4 years. Having a positive approach to learning at the start of kindergarten was associated with cognitive skill levels at school entry nearly 1 standard deviation above the population average. Results are discussed with reference to the shared early educational profiles observed between AIAN and other children of color. These findings provide a much-needed update regarding early academic development among AIAN children.
Jarvis, Mary I.; Hale, Yulonda
This course is designed to enhance reading and writing skills. It is tied to an interactive computer program (The New Reading Disc) that provides opportunities for reading, hearing sentences read, and writing letters and memos. Special emphasis is placed on workers' understanding of the importance of their jobs and how they fit into the total…
Conrad, Nicole J.; Deacon, S. Hélène
Prominent models of word reading concur that the development of efficient word reading depends on the establishment of lexical orthographic representations in memory. In turn, word reading skills are conceptualised as supporting the development of these orthographic representations. As such, models of word reading development make clear…
Mani, Nivedita; Huettig, Falk
Despite the efficiency with which language users typically process spoken language, a growing body of research finds substantial individual differences in both the speed and accuracy of spoken language processing potentially attributable to participants' literacy skills. Against this background, the current study took a look at the role of word reading skill in listeners' anticipation of upcoming spoken language input in children at the cusp of learning to read; if reading skills affect predictive language processing, then children at this stage of literacy acquisition should be most susceptible to the effects of reading skills on spoken language processing. We tested 8-year-olds on their prediction of upcoming spoken language input in an eye-tracking task. Although children, like in previous studies to date, were successfully able to anticipate upcoming spoken language input, there was a strong positive correlation between children's word reading skills (but not their pseudo-word reading and meta-phonological awareness or their spoken word recognition skills) and their prediction skills. We suggest that these findings are most compatible with the notion that the process of learning orthographic representations during reading acquisition sharpens pre-existing lexical representations, which in turn also supports anticipation of upcoming spoken words.
Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Denton, Carolyn A; Vaughn, Aaron J; Peugh, James; Willcutt, Erik G
Linkages between neuropsychological functioning (i.e., response inhibition, processing speed, reaction time variability) and word reading have been documented among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with Reading Disorders. However, associations between neuropsychological functioning and other aspects of reading (i.e., fluency, comprehension) have not been well-documented among children with comorbid ADHD and Reading Disorder. Children with ADHD and poor word reading (i.e., ≤25th percentile) completed a stop signal task (SST) and tests of word reading, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Multivariate multiple regression was conducted predicting the reading skills from SST variables [i.e., mean reaction time (MRT), reaction time standard deviation (SDRT), and stop signal reaction time (SSRT)]. SDRT predicted word reading, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. MRT and SSRT were not associated with any reading skill. After including word reading in models predicting reading fluency and reading comprehension, the effects of SDRT were minimized. Reaction time variability (i.e., SDRT) reflects impairments in information processing and failure to maintain executive control. The pattern of results from this study suggest SDRT exerts its effects on reading fluency and reading comprehension through its effect on word reading (i.e., decoding) and that this relation may be related to observed deficits in higher-level elements of reading.
Binder, Katherine S.; Tighe, Elizabeth; Jiang, Yue; Kaftanski, Katharine; Qi, Cynthia; Ardoin, Scott P.
The purpose of the current study was to explore the relationship between prosody, which is the expressive quality of reading out loud, and reading comprehension in adults with low literacy skills compared to skilled readers. All participants read a passage orally, and we extracted prosodic measures from the recordings. We examined pitch changes and how long readers paused at various points while reading. Finally, for the adults with low literacy skills, we collected information on decoding, word recognition, and reading comprehension. We found several interesting results. First, adults with low literacy skills paused longer than skilled readers and paused at a substantially greater number of punctuation marks. Second, while adults with low literacy skills do mark the end of declarative sentences with a pitch declination similar to skilled readers, their readings of questions lack a change in pitch. Third, decoding and word recognition skills were related to pauses while reading; readers with lower skills made longer and more frequent and inappropriate pauses. Finally, pausing measures explained a significant amount of variance in reading comprehension among the adults with low literacy skills. PMID:23687406
While recreational reading material was once an integral part of the academic library collection and librarians were seen as guides in reading development for students, this has not been the case in the last 50 years. Fiscal constraints have forced library professionals to make choices so that leisure reading material has not been viewed as a high…
Chen, Su-Yen; Chang, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Shih Ruey
The linkage between reading for pleasure and language ability has been well established, but the relationship between content-based recreational reading and academic achievement in various subject areas has rarely been explored. To investigate whether reading literature, social studies, and science trade books for pleasure is related to students'…
Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Jiao, Qun G.
The present study examined the relationship between reading ability (i.e., reading comprehension and reading vocabulary) and academic procrastination among 120 African American graduate students. A canonical correlation analysis revealed statistically significant and practically significant multivariate relationships between these two reading…
Chen, I-Jung; Chen, Wen-Chun
This study examines the enhancing effect of peer annotation on the academic English reading of nonnative-Englishspeaking graduate students. To facilitate peer collaboration, the present study included the development of a strategybased online reading system. Through peer annotation, the students not only achieved enhanced reading comprehension but…
Mother's formal schooling-even at the primary level-is associated with lower risk of child mortality, although the reasons why remain unclear. This study examines whether mother's reading skills help to explain the association in Nigeria. Using data from the Demographic and Health Survey, the analysis demonstrates that women's reading skills increase linearly with years of primary school; however, many women with several years of formal school are unable to read at all. The results further show that mother's reading skills help to explain the relationship between mother's formal schooling and child mortality, and that mother's reading skills are highly associated with child mortality. The study highlights the need for more data on literacy and for more research on whether and how mother's reading skills lower child mortality in other contexts.
Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar
This article focuses on research into academic reading practices of international graduate students in taught Master programmes in a Malaysian university. The purpose of the study was to examine the challenges faced in the academic reading practices as well as the strategies employed to overcome the challenges in the academic reading practices.…
Xu, M; De Beuckelaer, A; Wang, X; Liu, L; Song, Y; Liu, J
Individuals' reading skills are critical for their educational development, but variation in reading skills is known to be large. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the role of spontaneous brain activity at rest in individual differences in reading skills in a large sample of participants (N=263). Specifically, we correlated individuals' word-reading skill with their fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) of the whole brain at rest and found that the fALFFs of both the bilateral precentral gyrus (PCG) and superior temporal plane (STP) were positively associated with reading skills. The fALFF-reading association observed in these two regions remained after controlling for general cognitive abilities and in-scanner head motion. A cross-validation confirmed that the individual differences in word-reading skills were reliably correlated with the fALFF values of the bilateral PCG and STP. A follow-up task-based fMRI experiment revealed that the reading-related regions overlapped with regions showing a higher response to sentences than to pseudo-sentences (strings of pseudo-words), suggesting the resting-state brain activity partly captures the characteristics of task-based brain activity. In short, our study provides one of the first pieces of evidence that links spontaneous brain activity to reading behavior and offers an easy-to-access neural marker for evaluating reading skill.
Used as an integral part of the migrant student skills system operated by the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS), the reading skills list contains a catalog of reading skills typical of the K-12 grade range. This catalog includes a sample of the MSRTS transmittal record which permits teachers to report the reading skills being worked…
Snow, Catherine E
A major challenge to students learning science is the academic language in which science is written. Academic language is designed to be concise, precise, and authoritative. To achieve these goals, it uses sophisticated words and complex grammatical constructions that can disrupt reading comprehension and block learning. Students need help in learning academic vocabulary and how to process academic language if they are to become independent learners of science.
Bekius, Annike; Cope, Thomas E; Grube, Manon
This work assesses one specific aspect of the relationship between auditory rhythm cognition and language skill: regularity perception. In a group of 26 adult participants, native speakers of 11 different native languages, we demonstrate a strong and significant correlation between the ability to detect a "roughly" regular beat and rapid automatized naming (RAN) as a measure of language skill (Spearman's rho, -0.47, p < 0.01). There was no such robust relationship for the "mirror image" task of irregularity detection, i.e., the ability to detect ongoing small deviations from a regular beat. The correlation between RAN and regularity detection remained significant after partialling out performance on the irregularity detection task (rho, -0.41, p, 0.022), non-verbal IQ (rho, -0.37, p < 0.05), or musical expertise (rho, -0.31, p < 0.05). Whilst being consistent with the "shared resources model" in terms of rhythm as a common basis of language and music, evolutionarily as well as in individual development, the results also document how two related rhythm processing abilities relate differently to language skill. Specifically, the results support a universal relationship between rhythmic regularity detection and reading skill that is robust to accounting for differences in fluid intelligence and musical expertise, and transcends language-specific differences in speech rhythm.
Bekius, Annike; Cope, Thomas E.; Grube, Manon
This work assesses one specific aspect of the relationship between auditory rhythm cognition and language skill: regularity perception. In a group of 26 adult participants, native speakers of 11 different native languages, we demonstrate a strong and significant correlation between the ability to detect a “roughly” regular beat and rapid automatized naming (RAN) as a measure of language skill (Spearman's rho, −0.47, p < 0.01). There was no such robust relationship for the “mirror image” task of irregularity detection, i.e., the ability to detect ongoing small deviations from a regular beat. The correlation between RAN and regularity detection remained significant after partialling out performance on the irregularity detection task (rho, −0.41, p, 0.022), non-verbal IQ (rho, −0.37, p < 0.05), or musical expertise (rho, −0.31, p < 0.05). Whilst being consistent with the “shared resources model” in terms of rhythm as a common basis of language and music, evolutionarily as well as in individual development, the results also document how two related rhythm processing abilities relate differently to language skill. Specifically, the results support a universal relationship between rhythmic regularity detection and reading skill that is robust to accounting for differences in fluid intelligence and musical expertise, and transcends language-specific differences in speech rhythm. PMID:27630551
Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia
Working memory (WM) plays a crucial role in supporting learning, including reading. This study investigated the influence of reading acceleration and WM training programs on improving reading skills and WM abilities. Ninety-seven children in third grade were divided into three study groups and one control group. The three study groups each received a different combination of two training programs: only reading acceleration, WM followed by reading acceleration, and reading acceleration followed by WM. All training programs significantly improved reading skills and WM abilities. Compared with the control group, the group trained with only the reading acceleration program improved word accuracy, whereas the groups trained with a combination of reading and WM programs improved word and pseudo-word fluency. The reading-acceleration-alone group and the WM-program-followed-by-reading-acceleration group improved phonological complex memory. We conclude that a training program that combines a long reading acceleration program and a short WM program is the most effective for improving the abilities most related to scholastic achievement.
Jenkins, Joseph R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; van den Broek, Paul; Espin, Christine; Deno, Stanley L.
Twenty-four students with reading difficulties (grade 4) and 85 skilled readers completed a reading comprehension test, read aloud a folktale, and read aloud a list of the folktale's words. Skilled readers read three times more correct words per minute in context and showed higher accuracy and rates on all measures. (Contains references.)…
Register, Dena; Darrow, Alice-Ann; Standley, Jayne; Swedberg, Olivia
The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of using music as a remedial strategy to enhance the reading skills of second-grade students and students who have been identified as having a specific learning disability (SLD) in reading. First, an intensive short-term music curriculum was designed to target reading comprehension and vocabulary skills at the second grade level. The curriculum was then implemented in classrooms at two public schools in the Southeast. Reading skills were evaluated pre and post curriculum intervention via the vocabulary and reading comprehension subtests of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test for second grade. Analysis of pre/posttest data revealed that students with a specific disability in reading improved significantly from pre to post on all three subtests: word decoding (p = .04), word knowledge (p = .01), reading comprehension (p = .01), and test total (p = .01). Paired t-tests revealed that for 2nd grade students, both treatment and control classes improved significantly from pre to post on the subtests word decoding, word knowledge, and test total. While both classes made gains from pre to post on the subtest, reading comprehension, neither improved significantly. Analysis of Covariance revealed that the treatment class made greater gains pre to post than the control class on all 3 subtests (Including reading comprehension), and significantly greater gains on the subtest, word knowledge (p = .01).
We are pleased to offer another brief article for our series on Academic Skills. This series aims at providing short, concrete, and practical tips on how to conduct and improve your life in academia. Whether beginner or fully trained investigator, we share the same challenges in succeeding in our professions, challenges which schooling never prepared us for. Perhaps grant writing, the subject of this article, is the most mysterious, fear-provoking and misunderstood type of skill needed in our careers. In fact, for these reasons, some people have never dared adventure into grant writing. Yet, this activity is not only essential for running our research but also for other numerous purposes including training people, buying equipment, getting a job, and being granted tenure. The tips provided here are widely applicable if you are interested in writing a grant, regardless of your country of origin. Therefore, it is my hope that these tips increase your chances of success in grantmanship along with the satisfaction that may come from achieving all the goals that these funding aids make possible.
Sullivan, Amanda L; Field, Samuel
The purpose of this study was to examine the average treatment effect of preschool special education services on children's kindergarten academic skills. Using data from a nationally representative sample of United States children who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, we examined the effectiveness of preschool special education services by comparing reading and math outcomes for children who received special education services at preschool-age to a propensity-score-weighted sample of children who did not receive these services. Results indicated that the receipt of these special education services had a statistically significant moderate negative effect on children's kindergarten skills in both reading (d=-0.21) and mathematics (d=-0.29). These findings have implications for the implementation and evaluation of services for young children experiencing developmental delays or disabilities.
Roberts, Jane E.; Schaaf, Jennifer M.; Skinner, Martie; Wheeler, Anne; Hooper, Stephen; Hatton, Deborah D.; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.
The academic achievement of boys with fragile X syndrome and the relation between several predictive factors and academic performance are reported. Boys with fragile X syndrome displayed significant deficits in all academic skill areas. Relative strengths were observed in general knowledge, reflecting the ability to integrate experiential…
Magi, Katrin; Torppa, Minna; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
A latent profile analysis approach was used to examine the developmental profiles of task-avoidant behaviour and reading skills in Grades 1 and 2, as well as their antecedents in kindergarten. The participants in this study were 448 children. Four different developmental profiles of task-avoidant behaviour and reading skills were identified. Our…
Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.
In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of…
Albdour, Waddah Mahmoud
The study aims at identifying the difficulties affecting the student in the area of reading comprehension skill in English language curricula, measuring the differences in English language teachers' attitudes towards difficulties that seventh grade students face in reading comprehension skill for English language according to personal variables.…
Marcolini, Stefania; Traficante, Daniela; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Burani, Cristina
A previous study reported that, similar to young and adult skilled readers, Italian developmental dyslexics read pseudowords made up of a root and a derivational suffix faster and more accurately than simple pseudowords. Unlike skilled readers, only dyslexic and reading-matched younger children benefited from morphological structure in reading…
Stein, Roger D.
Describes a reading-skill-building curriculum that prepares students to handle the reading in the Advanced Placement Spanish Literature course, a course that treats the works of Borges, Garcia Lorca, Matute, Neruda, and Unamuno. Suggests techniques and texts that aid in the teaching of these skills. (SED)
Scales, Alice M.
A reading and study skills course for college students, based on concepts of metacognition and schema, was organized around a management system and an instructional process to ensure that students would make use of their self-knowledge, their learned study reading skills, and their understanding of things, people, language, etc. to make sense from…
Carson, Cynthia J.
The purpose of this study was to examine if there was a difference between mean measures of preliteracy skills of preschool children who participated in Creating Young Readers, a volunteer based reading program, and a control group who had not. Unpaid community volunteers were trained in a modified dialogic reading technique, focusing on…
Sabatini, John P.; O'Reilly, Tenaha; Halderman, Laura K.; Bruce, Kelly
In recent years, researchers, educators, and policy makers have called for a new generation of reading comprehension assessments (e.g., Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008). Advocates of this movement argue for a deeper type of reading assessment, one that captures students' ability to not only understand single texts in isolation but also…
The purpose of this study was to reveal whether the technique of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) in Turkish Language teaching had influence on students' skills in reading and writing. In the study, the mixed method, which included quantitative and qualitative dimensions together, was used. The study group was made up of 16…
Huang, Jiuhuan; Newbern, Claudia
This article reports on a study that examines the effects of metacognitive reading strategy instruction on reading performance of adult ESL learners with limited English and literacy skills. The strategy instruction was implemented over a period of four months with a group of 18 learners who were enrolled in a high beginning literacy course in an…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2014
"Repeated reading" is an academic practice that aims to increase oral reading fluency. "Repeated reading" can be used with students who have developed initial word reading skills but demonstrate inadequate reading fluency for their grade level. During "repeated reading," a student sits in a quiet location with a…
Feldman, Jean R.
Designed to be useful for teachers, students, and parents, this resource book contains skill-appropriate, easy-to-follow activities for emergent readers. Noting that helping children become successful readers by developing reading readiness skills and a love for literature requires careful planning and instruction, the book states that children…
Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.
This study is a large-scale exploration of the influence that individual reading skills exert on eye-movement behavior in sentence reading. Seventy-one non-college-bound 16-24 year-old speakers of English completed a battery of 18 verbal and cognitive skill assessments, and read a series of sentences as their eye-movements were monitored.…
Fleming, Dan B.; Weber, Larry J.
Stresses the importance of critical reading skills for high school students in social studies courses. Suggests that educators develop social studies materials dealing with critical reading and that they undertake research to develop better methods of instruction in critical reading. (DB)
Petrill, Stephen A.; Hart, Sara A.; Harlaar, Nicole; Logan, Jessica; Justice, Laura M.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Thompson, Lee; DeThorne, Laura S.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Cutting, Laurie
Background: Studies have suggested genetic and environmental influences on overall level of early reading whereas the larger reading literature has shown environmental influences on the rate of growth of early reading skills. This study is the first to examine the genetic and environmental influences on both initial level of performance and rate…
Botting, N.; Simkin, Z; Conti-Ramsden, G.
A large cohort of 200 eleven-year-old children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) were assessed on basic reading accuracy and on reading comprehension as well as language tasks. Reading skills were examined descriptively and in relation to early language and literacy factors. Using stepwise regression analyses in which age and nonverbal IQ…
Goldman, Jason G.; Manis, Frank R.
This study investigated relationships among cortical thickness in the left-hemisphere reading network, and reading skill and experience in adult nonimpaired readers. Given the relationship between print exposure and reading, it is possible that print exposure is related to cortical structure. The pattern of correlations indicated that individuals…
Studies on L2 reading have provided extensive evidence for the significant contribution of lower-level processing skills in learning to read and the critical impact on the overall development of L2 reading of more accurate and fluent connections between three sub-lexical components: phonology, orthography and semantics. The broad consensus among…
Huennekens, Mary Ellen; Xu, Yaoying
This study examined the effects of an early reading intervention on preschool-age dual language learners' (DLL) early literacy skills. Instruction in phonological awareness and alphabet knowledge was embedded in interactive reading strategies, also known as dialogic reading. A single subject multiple baseline across subjects design was applied to…
Sim, Susan S. H.; Berthelsen, Donna; Walker, Susan; Nicholson, Jan M.; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth
A pragmatic randomised controlled trial was used to investigate the effects of two forms of shared reading on children's language and literacy skills. Parents of 80 children in the preparatory year of school participated in an eight-week home reading intervention. Families were assigned to one of three groups: dialogic reading (DR), dialogic…
Watson, G.; And Others
The Pepper Visual Skills for Reading Test was assessed as a measure of reading ability with meaningful text in 38 adults with macular degeneration; scores were compared with assessment made using the Gray Oral Reading Test, a previously standardized assessment. The test's validity was confirmed. (Author/JDD)
Cupples, Linda; Iacono, Teresa
Twenty-two children (ages 6-10) with Down syndrome were tested for receptive language, cognitive function, oral reading, and phonological awareness. Re-assessment 9 months later found better oral reading was associated with superior phoneme segmentation skills. Also, early segmentation ability appeared to predict later nonword reading, but not the…
Boland, Theodoor; Mommers, Martin J. C.
From l979 to l985, data were gathered from approximately 600 students in 24 Dutch elementary schools to determine changes occurring in the interrelationships among the reading skill components of decoding, reading comprehension, and spelling ability. Information for each student was obtained from reading performance test scores recorded at the end…
Shippen, Margaret E.; Morton, Rhonda Collins; Flynt, Samuel W.; Houchins, David E.; Smitherman, Tracy
Despite the importance of literacy skill training for incarcerated youth, a very limited number of empirically based research studies have examined reading instruction in correctional facilities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Fast ForWord computer-assisted reading program improved the reading and spelling abilities of…
Karademir, Ersin; Ulucinar, Ufuk
The purpose of this study is to verify the causal relationship between middle school students' critical reading skills, science literacy skills and attitudes towards science literacy with research data according to the default model. Through the structural equation modeling, path analysis has been applied in the study which was designed in…
Sjogren, Elaine; Ragnemalm, Eva L.; Tingstrom, Pia; Uhlin, Lars; Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
Evaluation of university teachers' performativity has become a common feature of university policies. The Swedish Higher Education Ordinance states that equal attention should be paid to pedagogical skills and research skills when appointing academic staff. Hence, the definition and documentation of pedagogical skills have become increasingly…
Prieur, Annick; Jensen, Sune Qvotrup; Laursen, Julie; Pedersen, Oline
The article traces the origin and development of the concept of social skills in first and foremost American academic discourse. As soon as the concept of social skills was coined, the concern for people lacking such skills started and has been on the increase ever since (now sharing public attention with related concepts such as self-control,…
Elrod, G. Franklin
A survey completed by 270 vocational teachers identified skills considered prerequisite to success in vocational courses. Important academic skills appear to be (1) basic math, (2) written communication, and (3) measurement. Social skills considered important include (1) getting along with others, (2) taking criticism constructively, and (3)…
Cabell, Sonia Q.; Justice, Laura M.; Konold, Timothy R.; McGinty, Anita S.
The purpose of this study was to explore patterns of within-group variability in the emergent literacy skills of preschoolers who are at risk for academic difficulties. We used the person-centered approach of cluster analysis to identify profiles of emergent literacy skills, taking into account both oral language and code-related skills.…
Loeb, Diane Frome; Gillam, Ronald B.; Hoffman, LaVae; Brandel, Jayne; Marquis, Janet
Purpose To examine the efficacy of Fast For-Word Language (FFW-L) and 2 other interventions for improving the phonemic awareness and reading skills of children with specific language impairment with concurrent poor reading skills. Method A total of 103 children (age 6;0 to 8;11 [years;months]) with language impairment and poor reading skills participated. The children received either FFW-L computerized intervention, a computer-assisted language intervention (CALI), an individualized language intervention (ILI), or an attention control (AC) computer program. Results The children in the FFW-L, CALI, and ILI conditions made significantly greater gains in blending sounds in words compared with the AC group at immediate posttest. Long-term gains 6 months after treatment were not significant but yielded a medium effect size for blending sounds in words. None of the interventions led to significant changes in reading skills. Conclusion The improvement in phonemic awareness, but not reading, in the FFW-L, CALI, and ILI interventions limits their use with children who have language impairment and poor reading skills. Similar results across treatment conditions suggest that acoustically modified speech was not a necessary component for improving phonemic awareness. PMID:19564439
Compton, Donald L; Fuchs, Lynn S; Fuchs, Douglas; Lambert, Warren; Hamlett, Carol
The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive and academic profiles associated with learning disability (LD) in reading comprehension, word reading, applied problems, and calculations. The goal was to assess the specificity hypothesis, in which unexpected underachievement associated with LD is represented in terms of distinctive patterns of cognitive and academic strengths and weaknesses. At the start of 3rd grade, the authors assessed 684 students on five cognitive dimensions (nonverbal problem solving, processing speed, concept formation, language, and working memory), and across Grades 3 through 5, the authors assessed performance in each academic area three to four times. Based on final intercept, the authors classified students as LD or not LD in each of the four academic areas. For each of these four LD variables, they conducted multivariate cognitive profile analysis and academic profile analysis. Results, which generally supported the specificity hypothesis, are discussed in terms of the potential connections between reading and mathematics LD.
Boonen, Anton J H; de Koning, Björn B; Jolles, Jelle; van der Schoot, Menno
Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME), however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills) in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more) prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME.
Chik, Pakey Pui-man; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Yeung, Pui-sze; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Luan, Hui; Lo, Lap-yan; Lau, Wendy Suet-yee
The present study examined the role of syntactic skills for reading comprehension in Chinese. Two hundred and seventy-two Chinese children were tested on their phonological processing, orthographic, morphological, syntactic, and literacy skills at Grades 1 and 2. Hierarchical multiple regression results showed that syntactic skills, in terms of…
Walker, Olga L; Henderson, Heather A
The goals of the current study were to examine whether children's social problem solving (SPS) skills are a mechanism through which temperament influences later academic achievement and whether sex moderates these associations. Participants included 1,117 children enrolled in the NICHD Early Child Care Study. During preschool, mothers and childcare providers rated children's temperamental shyness and inhibitory control, and SPS was assessed using a hypothetical-reflective measure during a laboratory visit. During kindergarten and first grade, teacher-report of math and language skills was collected. Results indicated that high ratings of inhibitory control in preschool, but not shyness, predicted better kindergarten and first grade academic skills. Furthermore, children's SPS competence mediated the relations between both shyness and inhibitory control on later academic skills. The child's sex did not moderate these associations. Results suggest that preventative efforts targeting early SPS skills may buffer against later academic adjustment problems among temperamentally extreme children.
Drummond, Aaron; Sauer, James D.
Video-gaming is a common pastime among adolescents, particularly adolescent males in industrialized nations. Despite widespread suggestions that video-gaming negatively affects academic achievement, the evidence is inconclusive. We reanalyzed data from over 192,000 students in 22 countries involved in the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to estimate the true effect size of frequency of videogame use on adolescent academic achievement in science, mathematics and reading. Contrary to claims that increased video-gaming can impair academic performance, differences in academic performance were negligible across the relative frequencies of videogame use. Videogame use had little impact on adolescent academic achievement. PMID:24699536
Drummond, Aaron; Sauer, James D
Video-gaming is a common pastime among adolescents, particularly adolescent males in industrialized nations. Despite widespread suggestions that video-gaming negatively affects academic achievement, the evidence is inconclusive. We reanalyzed data from over 192,000 students in 22 countries involved in the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to estimate the true effect size of frequency of videogame use on adolescent academic achievement in science, mathematics and reading. Contrary to claims that increased video-gaming can impair academic performance, differences in academic performance were negligible across the relative frequencies of videogame use. Videogame use had little impact on adolescent academic achievement.
van Daal, Victor; van der Leij, Aryan; Ader, Herman
The aim of this study was to examine unique and common causes of problems in reading and arithmetic fluency. 13- to 14-year-old students were placed into one of five groups: reading disabled (RD, n = 16), arithmetic disabled (AD, n = 34), reading and arithmetic disabled (RAD, n = 17), reading, arithmetic, and listening comprehension disabled…
Santoro, Julie Kay
There are a high number of students who struggle with reading comprehension beyond the primary grades and understanding the skills involved in successful reading comprehension continues to be a topic of investigation. The Simple View of Reading (SVR) is a viable theory of reading that suggests reading comprehension results from developing skills…
Efforts to improve educational outcomes for English learners often focus on "academic language," but unfortunately the field lacks a clear, agreed-upon definition of the concept. This article reports on a design research study that focused on students' engagement in one academic practice over several months: reading and discussing…
This study investigates academic literacy imposed in reading and writing for academic purposes in the EAP program. This study uses descriptive design elaborating data from curriculum documents and interviews. Involving 45 participants from IAIN Surakarta and Veteran University, data were analyzed using constant-comparison and inductive analysis…
Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.
In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children’s phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children. PMID:22057983
Al Ghanem, Reem; Kearns, Devin M.
Current Arabic reading instruction places strong emphasis on orthographic skills and little emphasis on phonological and morphological skills. Yet, the role of each skill in reading development in Arabic is not well understood. The purpose of this literature review was to examine the degree to which children learning to read in Arabic use…
Isakson, Richard L.; Isakson, Marné B.; Plummer, Kenneth J.; Chapman, Sara B.
The literature reveals that no adequate instrument exists to measure college students' attitudes toward academic reading even though such attitudes are crucial for reading compliance and learning from text. To remedy this, the authors created and refined an attitude survey, administering it to 855 university students across four iterations. The…
Hilsmer, Amanda Strong; Wehby, Joseph H.; Falk, Katherine B.
The research base on how to effectively intervene to improve the reading fluency of students with academic and behavioral disabilities at the middle school level does not provide a strong support for evidence- based practices with this age group. The purpose of this study was to extend the body of research on reading fluency interventions to…
This study focuses on four teachers teaching a speaking and listening class at an intensive English program in the United States who read three academic articles on oral corrective feedback (CF). The researcher investigated their stated beliefs and classroom practices of CF as well as their responses to the readings through three classroom…
Dumont, Hanna; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagy, Gabriel; Nagengast, Benjamin
This study examined predictors of the quality of parental homework involvement and reciprocal relations between the quality of parental homework involvement and students' reading achievement and academic functioning in a reading-intensive subject (German). Data from 2,830 students in nonacademic tracks and their parents who were surveyed in both…
Reis, Sally M.; Boeve, Hope
This mixed-methods study combined the use of qualitative, comparative case study methods with other data analysis procedures to investigate an afterschool enriched reading program for academically gifted students who had also been identified as talented readers. The Schoolwide Enrichment Model-Reading Framework (SEM-R) was used to provide…
Bozack, Amanda R.; Salvaggio, Amy Nicole
This study explores the relationship between academic achievement and reading motivation among adolescent boys. We seek to understand (1) if motivational construct scores change meaningfully over time, (2) what relationship exists between the achievement scores and reported reading motivation, and (3) if students who report higher reading…
Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Lambert, Warren; Hamlett, Carol
The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive and academic profiles associated with learning disability (LD) in reading comprehension, word reading, applied problems, and calculations. The goal was to assess the specificity hypothesis, in which unexpected underachievement associated with LD is represented in terms of distinctive patterns…
Taboada, Ana; Rutherford, Vanessa
This formative experiment explored the extent to which two instructional frameworks that varied in the explicitness of academic vocabulary instruction, comprehension strategy instruction, and supports for student autonomy influenced reading comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, perceptions of autonomy supports, and reading engagement in…
Park, SeungWon; Kim, ChanMin
This article reports on evaluation studies of the Virtual Tutee System (VTS) designed to enhance students' engagement in academic reading. The VTS is a web-based peer-tutoring environment in which students teach a virtual tutee about the content in course readings that students have been assigned to learn. With the VTS, students interact with…
Lovio, Riikka; Halttunen, Anu; Lyytinen, Heikki; Näätänen, Risto; Kujala, Teija
This study aimed at determining whether an intervention game developed for strengthening phonological awareness has a remediating effect on reading skills and central auditory processing in 6-year-old preschool children with difficulties in reading-related skills. After a 3-hour training only, these children made a greater progress in reading-related skills than did their matched controls who did mathematical exercises following comparable training format. Furthermore, the results suggest that this brief intervention might be beneficial in modulating the neural basis of phonetic discrimination as an enhanced speech-elicited mismatch negativity (MMN) was seen in the intervention group, indicating improved cortical discrimination accuracy. Moreover, the amplitude increase of the vowel-elicited MMN significantly correlated with the improvement in some of the reading-skill related test scores. The results, albeit obtained with a relatively small sample, are encouraging, suggesting that reading-related skills can be improved even by a very short intervention and that the training effects are reflected in brain activity. However, studies with larger samples and different subgroups of children are needed to confirm the present results and to determine how children with different dyslexia subtypes benefit from the intervention.
Brown, Heather M; Oram-Cardy, Janis; Johnson, Andrew
This meta-analysis examined 36 studies comparing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and control groups in reading comprehension. Three moderators (semantic knowledge, decoding skill, PIQ) and two text types (high vs. low social knowledge) were examined as predictors of reading comprehension in ASD. The overall standardized mean difference for reading comprehension was g = -0.7 SD. The strongest individual predictors of reading comprehension were semantic knowledge (explaining 57 % of variance) and decoding skill (explaining 55 % of variance). Individuals with ASD were significantly worse at comprehending highly social than less social texts. Having ASD alone does not predict reading comprehension deficits. Instead, individual skills, especially language ability, must be considered before one can accurately predict whether a given individual with ASD will experience difficulties in reading comprehension.
Weigle, Sara Cushing; Yang, WeiWei; Montee, Megan
Integrated reading/writing tasks are becoming more common in large-scale language tests. Much of the research on these tasks has focused on writing through reading; assessing reading through writing is a less explored area. In this article we describe a reading-into-writing task that is intended to measure both reading comprehension and language…
Mockovak, William P.
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a methodology which could be used to estimate the reading skills of Air Force personnel and the reading requirements of different career fields in an attempt to determine the extent of the difference between the reading skills of personnel and the reading requirements of the training materials in a…
Sullivan, Amanda L; Houri, Alaa; Sadeh, Shanna
Children from immigrant families are one of the fastest growing and most diverse groups in America's schools. This study provides a demographic portrait of immigrant children who entered kindergarten in 2010 and describes patterns and predictors of early educational outcomes of students from immigrant families. A nationally representative sample of 13,530 students who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the sociodemographic characteristics of this population. Regression was used to examine the relations between nativity, child characteristics, and family characteristics to reading and mathematics skills in kindergarten. Approximately 27% of kindergartners in the class of 2011 came from immigrant families. These students were more racially, linguistically, and socioeconomically diverse than students from U.S.-born parents. Educational outcomes varied by parents' region of origin. Children's early academic skills were significantly related to parent's region of origin, but these relations were attenuated when child health, language, family structure, and socioeconomic status were accounted for. These results indicate the importance of considering parent nativity when examining the outcomes and needs of students from immigrant families. Because of the diversity of characteristics and outcomes of children of immigrants, researchers should consider the implications of nativity for students' experiences and needs. (PsycINFO Database Record
Clemens, Nathan H; Oslund, Eric L; Simmons, Leslie E; Simmons, Deborah
Early reading and spelling development share foundational skills, yet spelling assessment is underutilized in evaluating early reading. This study extended research comparing the degree to which methods for scoring spelling skills at the end of kindergarten were associated with reading skills measured at the same time as well as at the end of first grade. Five strategies for scoring spelling responses were compared: totaling the number of words spelled correctly, totaling the number of correct letter sounds, totaling the number of correct letter sequences, using a rubric for scoring invented spellings, and calculating the Spelling Sensitivity Score (Masterson & Apel, 2010b). Students (N=287) who were identified at kindergarten entry as at risk for reading difficulty and who had received supplemental reading intervention were administered a standardized spelling assessment in the spring of kindergarten, and measures of phonological awareness, decoding, word recognition, and reading fluency were administered concurrently and at the end of first grade. The five spelling scoring metrics were similar in their strong relations with factors summarizing reading subskills (phonological awareness, decoding, and word reading) on a concurrent basis. Furthermore, when predicting first-grade reading skills based on spring-of-kindergarten performance, spelling scores from all five metrics explained unique variance over the autoregressive effects of kindergarten word identification. The practical advantages of using a brief spelling assessment for early reading evaluation and the relative tradeoffs of each scoring metric are discussed.
Stasko, Mary I.
A practicum addressed the high percentage of students who were experiencing difficulty with reading comprehension and vocabulary retention in a fifth-grade Drop Out Prevention class by implementing a supplemental whole-language program. Subjects were 19 fifth-grade students. An informal reading inventory, an attitude survey, and academic grades…
Teo, Adeline; Shaw, Yun F.; Chen, Jimmy; Wang, Derek
Many English as a foreign language (EFL) students fail to be effective readers because they lack knowledge of vocabulary and appropriate reading strategies. We believe that teaching proper reading strategies can help second-language learners overcome their reading problems, especially when the instruction begins in elementary school. Effective…
Ready, Rebecca E.; Chaudhry, Maheen F.; Schatz, Kelly C.; Strazzullo, Sarah
There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). "The Nelson-Denny Reading Test" (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension…
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between reading motivation and inference generation while reading. Undergraduate participants (N = 69) read two science articles while thinking aloud, completed a standardized reading comprehension assessment, and self reported their habitual reading motivation. Findings indicate that…
Eskenazi, Michael A; Folk, Jocelyn R
We investigated whether high-skill readers skip more words than low-skill readers as a result of parafoveal processing differences based on reading skill. We manipulated foveal load and word length, two variables that strongly influence word skipping, and measured reading skill using the Nelson-Denny Reading Test. We found that reading skill did not influence the probability of skipping five-letter words, but low-skill readers were less likely to skip three-letter words when foveal load was high. Thus, reading skill is likely to influence word skipping when the amount of information in the parafovea falls within the word identification span. We interpret the data in the context of visual-based (extended optimal viewing position model) and linguistic based (E-Z Reader model) accounts of word skipping. The models make different predictions about how and why a word and skipped; however, the data indicate that both models should take into account the fact that different factors influence skipping rates for high- and low-skill readers.
Grabe, William; Zhang, Cui
"As Kroll (1993), among others, has pointed out, reading has traditionally been seen as a skill to be taught separately from writing, as well as something students are somehow expected to already know about when they reach the writing course, Teaching reading in a writing course may seem like an odd idea, if not an entirely unnecessary one. It may…
Travis, Katherine E; Leitner, Yael; Feldman, Heidi M; Ben-Shachar, Michal
Reading is a critical life skill in the modern world. The neural basis of reading incorporates a distributed network of cortical areas and their white matter connections. The cerebellum has also been implicated in reading and reading disabilities. However, little is known about the contribution of cerebellar white matter pathways to major component skills of reading. We used diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) with tractography to identify the cerebellar peduncles in a group of 9- to 17-year-old children and adolescents born full term (FT, n = 19) or preterm (PT, n = 26). In this cohort, no significant differences were found between fractional anisotropy (FA) measures of the peduncles in the PT and FT groups. FA of the cerebellar peduncles correlated significantly with measures of decoding and reading comprehension in the combined sample of FT and PT subjects. Correlations were negative in the superior and inferior cerebellar peduncles and positive in the middle cerebellar peduncle. Additional analyses revealed that FT and PT groups demonstrated similar patterns of reading associations within the left superior cerebellar peduncle, middle cerebellar peduncle, and left inferior cerebellar peduncle. Partial correlation analyses showed that distinct sub-skills of reading were associated with FA in segments of different cerebellar peduncles. Overall, the present findings are the first to document associations of microstructure of the cerebellar peduncles and the component skills of reading.
Threeton, Mark D.; Pellock, Cynthia
Career and Technical Student Organizations (CTSOs) assert they are assisting students in developing leadership, teamwork, citizenship, problem solving, communication, and academic skills for workplace success, but with limited research on their outcomes, are these empty claims? With integration of academics being a major Career and Technical…
Cemaloglu, Necati; Filiz, Sevil
The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the time management skills and academic achievement of students who are potential teachers studying in faculties of education. The research was conducted in the 2007-08 academic term among 849 graduate students in the Faculty of Education at Gazi University. The "Time Management…
Saunders, Ashley N.
Recent research has shown that students who enter kindergarten with prior academic knowledge are more successful later in their school careers. Yet, pre-school teachers face the problem of limited time in a day to focus on the academic skills of students, as well as work on their basic needs. The goal of this study was to find out if students can…
Baker, Courtney N.; Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Arnold, David H.
Preschool teachers have important impacts on children's academic outcomes, and teachers' misperceptions of children's academic skills could have negative consequences, particularly for low-income preschoolers. This study utilized data gathered from 123 preschool teachers and their 760 preschoolers from 70 low-income, racially diverse centers.…
A study investigated the consistency of criteria for academic English skills as applied by teachers of academic English and science lecturers in a South African historically black university. Both groups were asked to evaluate first-year students' essays on the greenhouse effect. Results indicated a wide variation in scores and judgments within…
This report describes a program designed to enhance social studies skills and knowledge. The target areas for enhancement are geography, economics, history, and core democratic values. The need for strengthening these skills was documented by literature, and surveys. An analysis of probable cause for lack of social studies skills revealed that…
Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel
The hypothesis that different subcomponents of auditory working memory are differentially related to early reading skills was tested in 63 Hebrew speaking 4-year-old children, using a battery of early reading (phonological processing and familiarity with written language) and memory (simple and complex spans) tasks. Complex spans accounted for significant amounts of variance on both facets of early reading even after the contribution of simple spans was accounted for. These findings suggest that the unique contribution of complex working memory to early reading can be identified as early as preschool and that the structure of correlations between reading and memory is similar across ages.
Giess, SallyAnn; Rivers, Kenyatta O.; Kennedy, Kelly; Lombardino, Linda J.
The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of an Orton-Gillingham-based reading instruction system, the Barton Reading and Spelling System (BRSS; Barton 2000), that was used as a supplemental reading instruction program for increasing the lower-level reading skills of a group of adolescents with persistent reading problems. Nine…
Jordan, Stacie L.
The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between technology skills and academic achievement among eighth-grade students. Previous studies investigated the relationship between the use of technology as a teaching tool and student outcomes, but none had specifically examined students' technology skill competencies with…
Graham, Lorraine; Bellert, Anne; Thomas, Jenny; Pegg, John
"QuickSmart" is a basic academic skills intervention designed for persistently low-achieving students in the middle years of schooling that aims to improve the automaticity of basic skills to improve higher-order processes, such as problem solving and comprehension, as measured on standardized tests. The "QuickSmart" instructional program consists…
Gunn, Cathy; Hearne, Shari; Sibthorpe, Julie
This paper summarizes relevant research concepts, and then describes a case where online tutorials were used to integrate one generic academic skill--information literacy--into first year business courses. Tutorials covering the skills and information required to complete course assignments were designed so the content can be easily modified for…
Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner; Farran, Dale Clark; Fuhs, Mary Wagner
Although research suggests associations between children's executive function skills and their academic achievement, the specific mechanisms that may help explain these associations in early childhood are unclear. This study examined whether children's (N = 1,103; M age = 54.5 months) executive function skills at the beginning of prekindergarten…
Carrasquillo, Angela; Nunez, Dulcinea
With the advent of the computer as an instructional tool many curriculum specialists have been designing software for reading instruction. However, most of the software designed to help develop reading comprehension skills does not consider the inclusion of monitoring comprehension strategies, therefore limiting the instructional potential of the…
Voogt, Joke; McKenney, Susan
This study examines how technology can support the development of emergent reading and writing skills in four- to five-year-old children. The research was conducted with PictoPal, an intervention which features a software package that uses images and text in three main activity areas: reading, writing, and authentic applications. This article…
Memis, Aysel; Sivri, Diler Ayvaz
In this study, primary school first grade students' reading skills and visual perception levels were investigated. Sample of the study, which was designed with relational scanning model, consisted of 168 first grade students studying at three public primary schools in Kozlu, Zonguldak, in 2013-2014 education year. Students' reading level, reading…
Çakir, Abdulvahit; Ünaldi, Ihsan; Arslan, Fadime Yalçin; Kiliç, Mehmet
Within the framework of foreign language teaching and learning, reading strategies, depth of vocabulary knowledge and text inferencing skills have not been researched extensively. This study tries to fill this gap by analyzing the effects of reading strategies used by Turkish EFL learners and their depth of vocabulary knowledge on their text…
Koskinen, Patricia S.; And Others
The measured effects of captioned television upon the sight vocabulary, comprehension, and oral reading performance of 77 learning disabled students from 4 Maryland schools suggest that both captioned television with sound and conventional television enhance the reading skills of learning disabled students. (7 references) (MLF)
Schmidt, B. June
A test was given that (1) assessed business students' ability to read materials from microcomputer database software manuals and (2) assessed their knowledge of technical vocabulary terms from the manuals. Test results revealed that the students' technical reading and vocabulary skills were considerably below those they would need to use…
Brenneman, Michele H.; Morris, Robin D.; Israelian, Marlyne
A dearth of research has investigated the language preference of bilingual childhood populations and its subsequent relationship to reading skills. The current study evaluated how a sequential bilingual student's choice of language, in a particular environmental context, predicted reading ability in English and Spanish. The participants were…
Baratta, Anthony N.
This document presents a description and evaluation of the Skills Remediation in Reading for Optional Assignment Program (TOPS) conducted for 4,569 students in 27 high schools in New York City. The participants were Title I optional assignment students in grades 9 through 12, whose reading ability was a minimum of two years below grade level based…
Roy, Sylvie; Schafer, Paul-Christophe
This paper looks at reading in French immersion and how learning French is seen more as a skill rather than a social practice that could be examined through a more critical lens. Most of the teachers often teach students how to read but rarely will they discuss the role of French in Canadian society and how this is manifested in the texts they…
This paper describes a project for improving the reading and decoding skills of 23 high school students with reading learning disabilities. The targeted population consisted of high school students in a suburban community in the Midwest. The project used Auditory Discrimination in Depth, which is a multisensory program that develops…
Naess, Kari-Anne B.; Melby-Lervag, Monica; Hulme, Charles; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas
The authors examine the reading profile in children with Down syndrome by comparing the nonword decoding skills in children with Down syndrome and typically developing children matched for word recognition level. Journal articles published before 04.05.2010 were identified by using the keyword Down* cross-referenced to "reading", "literacy",…
Barth, Amy Elizabeth; Catts, Hugh W.; Anthony, Jason L.
This study investigated the component skills underlying reading fluency in a heterogeneous sample of 527 eighth grade students. Based on a hypothetical measurement model and successive testing of nested models, structural equation modeling revealed that naming speed, decoding, and language were uniquely associated with reading fluency. These…
This paper evaluates three teaching approaches to improving sight-reading skills against a control in a large-scale study of advanced pianists. One hundred pianists in four equal groups participated in newly developed training programmes (accompanying, rhythm, musical style and control), with pre- and post-sight-reading tests analysed using…
Pinto, Giuliana; Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Gamannossi, Beatrice Accorti; Canneti, Laura
The present study examined the relationship between reading (i.e., rapidity and accuracy) and writing competences (i.e., fluency, accuracy, and composition skills) of Italian children in the first and second grade. The performance of seventy-five children was longitudinally assessed over a 2-year period. Results demonstrated that reading and…
Omar, Ainon; Saufi, Maizatulliza Mohd.
The effectiveness of using storybooks during read-alouds to develop children's comprehension skills as well as in understanding the story has been widely studied. The reading aloud strategy has also been proven through numerous researches to be the most highly recommended activity for encouraging language and literacy. The study identified the…
Knopf, Herman T.; Brown, H. Mac
In this article, the authors reexamine and duplicate research conducted more than 20 years ago to learn if the simple act of sharing literature with kindergarten children through a nurturing dialogic approach will support children's development of literacy skills, including a love of reading. Dialogic reading is based on: (1) child participation;…
Flynn, Kylie S.
Early childhood and special educators are under growing demands to develop children's language and literacy skills through evidence-based practices. One promising research-based strategy for vocabulary and language development is dialogic reading (DR), which is an interactive picture book reading technique developed in the late 1980's by…
Limbrick, Lisa; Wheldall, Kevin; Madelaine, Alison
This study examined whether boys and girls in the early school years differed in reading and related skills, and their rates of progress. Gender ratios were calculated to ascertain whether there were more boys than girls who struggle with different facets of reading, and whether the variability of boys' scores resulted in more boys being…
Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Harlaar, Nicole; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert
Purpose: To examine the etiology of the relationship between preschool speech and language, and later reading skills. Method: One thousand six hundred seventy-two children from the Twins Early Development Study (B. R. Oliver & R. Plomin, 2007) were given a comprehensive speech and language assessment at 4 1/2 years. Reading was assessed at 7, 9,…
Frederiksen, John R.
A project was organized to understand and identify basic variations in reading ability by its information processing components. Focusing on three major processing levels in reading--word analysis, discourse analysis, and integration of word/discourse analysis--preliminary research identified perceptual and cognitive skill components of reading…
Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Dempsey, Kyle; McNamara, Danielle S.
This study examined how text features (i.e., cohesion) and individual differences (i.e., reading skill and prior knowledge) contribute to biology text comprehension. College students with low and high levels of biology knowledge read two biology texts, one of which was high in cohesion and the other low in cohesion. The two groups were similar in…
Jensen, Peter; Rasmussen, Astrid Wurtz
Using a unique and very rich PISA dataset from Denmark, we show that the immigrant concentration in the school influences reading and math skills for both immigrant children and native children. Overall, children in schools with a high immigrant concentration score lower on reading and math test scores. The negative effects associated with…
Vescial, Ann; And Others
A computer-assisted reading program was implemented in the VESL (Vocational English as a Second Language) Center at Hacienda La Puente Adult Schools (California), which provides support services to adult special needs vocational students. The purpose of the program was to improve the technical reading skills of the vocational students. The basic…
Kim, Young-Suk; Pallante, Daniel
This study investigated predictors of word reading and reading comprehension skills using longitudinal data from Spanish-speaking kindergartners (N = 163) and first grade students (N = 305) from high SES families in Chile. Individual differences in letter-naming fluency and phonemic segmentation fluency, but not vocabulary, were positive…
Huffstetter, Mary; King, James R.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Schneider, Jenifer J.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.
This study examined the effects of a computer-based early reading program (Headsprout Early Reading) on the oral language and early reading skills of at-risk preschool children. In a pretest-posttest control group design, 62 children were randomly assigned to receive supplemental instruction with Headsprout Early Reading (experimental group) or…
Although phonemic awareness is a well-known factor predicting early reading development, there is also evidence that Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is an independent factor that contributes to early reading. The aim of this study is to examine phonemic awareness and RAN as predictors of reading speed, reading comprehension and spelling for…
King, James R.; And Others
A college-level integrated study skills and orientation course is described. The unique aspect of the course is that learning/teaching occurs in the context of the university environment. Learning experiences generally utilized with this approach to reading and study skills instruction are illustrated by the following projects: an organized…
Akdal, Deniz; Sahin, Ayfer
Problem Statement: The aim of the first five years of primary school is to teach and help the students develop basic skills as stated in the Primary School Language Program and Guide. Creative thinking and intertextual reading are among these skills, and it is important to give these to the students during language courses. Purpose of Study: The…
Leytham, Patrick Allen
Students diagnosed with autism demonstrate a deficit in communication skills, which affects their literacy skills. Federal legislation mandates that students with disabilities receive a free appropriate public education, be taught how to read, and have access to the general education curriculum. Students with autism are being included more in the…
This practicum study evaluated a non-basal, multidisciplinary, multisensory approach to teaching higher order reading comprehension skills to eight fifth-grade learning-disabled students from low socioeconomic minority group backgrounds. The four comprehension skills were: (1) identifying the main idea; (2) determining cause and effect; (3) making…
Magliano, Joseph P.; Millis, Keith K.
Two studies examined the viability of assessing reading strategies using a think-aloud protocol combined with latent semantic analysis (LSA). Findings demonstrated that the responses of less-skilled readers semantically overlapped more with focal sentences than with causal antecedent sentences, whereas skilled readers' responses overlapped with…
Morgan, Paul L.; Meier, Catherine R.
Young children entering school with poor oral vocabulary skills may be doubly disadvantaged. Their poor oral vocabulary skills will likely impede their attempts to become proficient readers while also possibly increasing the frequency of their problem behaviors. Dialogic reading (DR) is a scientifically validated shared storybook reading…
Montori, Laura; Lally, Julia
A topic of student interest, earthquakes, is used as a vehicle for teaching reading and research skills in a California junior high school. Students develop geography skills by labeling fault lines on maps of the Pacific Basin, California, and San Francisco; develop their vocabulary by preparing a list of words about earthquakes; and practice word…
Yang, Ling-Yan; Guo, Jian-Peng; Richman, Lynn C.; Schmidt, Frank L.; Gerken, Kathryn C.; Ding, Yi
This paper used meta-analysis to synthesize the relation between visual skills and Chinese reading acquisition based on the empirical results from 34 studies published from 1991 to 2011. We obtained 234 correlation coefficients from 64 independent samples, with a total of 5,395 participants. The meta-analysis revealed that visual skills as a…
Naumann, Johannes; Salmerón, Ladislao
This study investigated interactive effects of navigation and offline comprehension skill on digital reading performance. As indicators of navigation, relevant page selection and irrelevant page selection were considered. In 533 Spanish high school students aged 11-17 positive effects of offline comprehension skill and relevant page selection on…
Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Office of Special Education.
As part of the special education curriculum developed by the Puerto Rico Department of Public Instruction, this teacher's guide (in Spanish) presents a basic curriculum for reading skills. The curriculum is designed so that the defined skills will meet the needs of children with disabilities. The form in which teachers and other professionals will…
Kendeou, Panayiota; van den Broek, Paul; White, Mary Jane; Lynch, Julie S.
The authors examined the development of oral language and decoding skills from preschool to early elementary school and their relation to beginning reading comprehension using a cross-sequential design. Four- and 6-year-old children were tested on oral language and decoding skills and were retested 2 years later. In all age groups, oral language…
Margolis, Leonard; And Others
The curriculum manual provides objectives and suggested activities for intermediate grade handicapped children in the areas of reading, mathematics, written language, and study skills. Within each area objectives are correlated with one or more instructional activities. Objectives are provided for such skills as the following: vocabulary, context…
Skinner, Christopher H.; Daly, Edward J., III
Behavior analysts have long been interested in developing and promoting the use of effective generalization strategies for behavioral interventions. Perhaps because research on academic performance has lagged behind in the field of applied behavior analysis, far less research on this topic has been conducted for academic performance problems. The…
Bryant, Lynda Carol
To observe the relationship of auditory and visual receptive skills to achievement in reading, 80 eight-year-old children were given a diagnostic test battery which examined three receptive skills--attention to stimuli, discrimination, and memory--within three sensory modalities--auditory, visual, and auditory-visual. The control group consisted…
Baker, Courtney N; Tichovolsky, Marianne H; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Arnold, David H
Preschool teachers have important impacts on children's academic outcomes, and teachers' misperceptions of children's academic skills could have negative consequences, particularly for low-income preschoolers. This study utilized data gathered from 123 preschool teachers and their 760 preschoolers from 70 low-income, racially diverse centers. Hierarchical linear modeling was utilized to account for the nested data structure. Even after controlling for children's actual academic skill, older children, children with stronger social skills, and children with fewer inattentive symptoms were perceived to have stronger academic abilities. Contrary to hypotheses, preschoolers with more behavior problems were perceived by teachers to have significantly better pre-academic abilities than they actually had. Teachers' perceptions were not associated with child gender or child race/ethnicity. Although considerable variability was due to teacher-level characteristics, child characteristics explained 42% of the variability in teachers' perceptions about children's language and pre-literacy ability and 41% of the variability in teachers' perceptions about mathability. Notably, these perceptions appear to have important impacts over time. Controlling for child baseline academic skill and child characteristics, teacher perceptions early in the preschool year were significantly associated with child academic outcomes during the spring for both language and pre-literacy and math. Study implications with regard to the achievement gap are discussed.
Baker, Courtney N.; Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Arnold, David H.
Preschool teachers have important impacts on children’s academic outcomes, and teachers’ misperceptions of children’s academic skills could have negative consequences, particularly for low-income preschoolers. This study utilized data gathered from 123 preschool teachers and their 760 preschoolers from 70 low-income, racially diverse centers. Hierarchical linear modeling was utilized to account for the nested data structure. Even after controlling for children’s actual academic skill, older children, children with stronger social skills, and children with fewer inattentive symptoms were perceived to have stronger academic abilities. Contrary to hypotheses, preschoolers with more behavior problems were perceived by teachers to have significantly better pre-academic abilities than they actually had. Teachers’ perceptions were not associated with child gender or child race/ethnicity. Although considerable variability was due to teacher-level characteristics, child characteristics explained 42% of the variability in teachers’ perceptions about children’s language and pre-literacy ability and 41% of the variability in teachers’ perceptions about mathability. Notably, these perceptions appear to have important impacts over time. Controlling for child baseline academic skill and child characteristics, teacher perceptions early in the preschool year were significantly associated with child academic outcomes during the spring for both language and pre-literacy and math. Study implications with regard to the achievement gap are discussed. PMID:26538767
Uccelli, Paola; Galloway, Emily Phillips; Barr, Christopher D.; Meneses, Alejandra; Dobbs, Christina L.
Despite a long-standing awareness of academic language as a pedagogically relevant research area, the construct of academic-language proficiency, understood as a more comprehensive set of skills than just academic vocabulary, has remained vaguely specified. In this study, we explore a more inclusive operationalization of an academic-language…
McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger
Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model's estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults.
McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger
Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff’s, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model’s estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults. PMID:26550803
Farmer, Jeanie; Morse, Stephen E.
Modeled after Project PAVE (Corn et al., 2003) in Tennessee, Project Magnify is designed to test the idea that students with low vision who use individually prescribed magnification devices for reading will perform as well as or better than students with low vision who use large-print reading materials. Sixteen students with low vision were…
Schatschneider, Christopher; Fletcher, Jack M.; Francis, David J.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Foorman, Barbara R.
There is considerable focus in public policy on screening children for reading difficulties. Sixty years of research have not resolved questions of what constructs assessed in kindergarten best predict subsequent reading outcomes. This study assessed the relative importance of multiple measures obtained in a kindergarten sample for the prediction…
Harold Herber's self-paced, self-teaching book, "Teaching Reading in the Content Area," can be used by social studies teachers to develop lessons that help students read, write, and think. A sample U.S. history lesson which uses techniques from Herber's book to help students learn about the Declaration of Independence is presented. (RM)
Arnold, Richard D.
Thirty-two Afro-American and 50 Mexican-American seventh graders were randomly selected from a school located in a central Texas low socioeconomic environment. The subjects were administered the New Developmental Reading Tests, The Silent Reading Diagnostic Tests, and The California Short-Form Test of Mental Maturity. When the two groups were…
Howard County Board of Education, Clarksville, MD.
GRADES OR AGES: All elementary grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Critical reading. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The six short introductory sections are 1) foreword; 2) background of workshop; 3) comprehension--a constellation of many facts; 4) sample story; 5) critical comprehension exercises; and 6) critical reading lesson plan critiques. There…
Mucherah, Winnie; Herendeen, Abbey
This study examined primary school students' reading motivation and performance on the standardized exam. Participants included 901 seventh and eighth grade students from Kenya. There were 468 females and 433 males. Contrary to previous studies, results showed reading challenge and aesthetics, but not efficacy, predicted reading achievement,…
Grant, Amy; Wood, Eileen; Gottardo, Alexandra; Evans, Mary Ann; Phillips, Linda; Savage, Robert
The current study developed a taxonomy of reading skills and compared this taxonomy with skills being trained in 30 commercially available software programs designed to teach emergent literacy or literacy-specific skills for children in preschool, kindergarten, and Grade 1. Outcomes suggest that, although some skills are being trained in a…
Giuliano, Helen Solana; And Others
This Taxonomy was designed to assist the instructor or reading specialist in the identification and location of specific instructional materials that can be used for remediation of skill deficiencies. The Taxonomy was developed by the White Plains Adult Education Center, and a description of the Center's program and method of integrating the…
Nelson, J. Ron; Stage, Scott; Trout, Alex; Duppong-Hurley, Kristin; Epstein, Michael H.
Multinomial stepwise logistic regression analyses were used to establish the most robust set of risk factors that would best predict low basic reading skills (i.e., a standard score less than 85 on the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised Basic Reading Skills cluster) of kindergarten and first-grade children at risk for emotional and behavioral…
De Naeghel, Jessie; Van Keer, Hilde; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Rosseel, Yves
Research indicates the need to further examine the dimensions of reading motivation. A clear theoretical basis is necessary for conceptualizing reading motivation and considering contextual differences therein. The present study develops and validates the SRQ-Reading Motivation, a questionnaire measuring recreational and academic reading…
Moon, Ui Jeong; Hofferth, Sandra L
Gender differences in elementary school performance among immigrant children have not yet been well documented. This study examined how differences in parental involvement, child effort, and family characteristics and resources contribute to immigrant boys'-and girls' academic achievement from kindergarten through 5(th)-grade. The sample was drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort. Using a latent score growth model, this study found that parents' involvement at home benefited boys' reading and mathematics skills throughout all early elementary school years, but did not have the same benefit for girls. For both boys and girls, child effort in reading appears to be strongly linked to better reading and mathematics skills at kindergarten and to subsequent improvement between grades. The positive associations of parental involvement and child's effort with test scores were greater during earlier years than during later years for boys, whereas there was no difference in the association over time for girls.
Zhao, Jing; Kwok, Rosa K. W.; Liu, Menglian; Liu, Hanlong; Huang, Chen
Reading fluency is a critical skill to improve the quality of our daily life and working efficiency. The majority of previous studies focused on oral reading fluency rather than silent reading fluency, which is a much more dominant reading mode that is used in middle and high school and for leisure reading. It is still unclear whether the oral and silent reading fluency involved the same underlying skills. To address this issue, the present study examined the relationship between the visual rapid processing and Chinese reading fluency in different modes. Fifty-eight undergraduate students took part in the experiment. The phantom contour paradigm and the visual 1-back task were adopted to measure the visual rapid temporal and simultaneous processing respectively. These two tasks reflected the temporal and spatial dimensions of visual rapid processing separately. We recorded the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task, as well as reaction time and accuracy in the visual 1-back task. Reading fluency was measured in both single-character and sentence levels. Fluent reading of single characters was assessed with a paper-and-pencil lexical decision task, and a sentence verification task was developed to examine reading fluency on a sentence level. The reading fluency test in each level was conducted twice (i.e., oral reading and silent reading). Reading speed and accuracy were recorded. The correlation analysis showed that the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task did not correlate with the scores of the reading fluency tests. Although, the reaction time in visual 1-back task correlated with the reading speed of both oral and silent reading fluency, the comparison of the correlation coefficients revealed a closer relationship between the visual rapid simultaneous processing and silent reading. Furthermore, the visual rapid simultaneous processing exhibited a significant contribution to reading fluency in silent mode but not in oral reading mode. These
Yeatman, Jason D.; Dougherty, Robert F.; Rykhlevskaia, Elena; Sherbondy, Anthony J.; Deutsch, Gayle K.; Wandell, Brian A.; Ben-Shachar, Michal
For more than a century, neurologists have hypothesized that the arcuate fasciculus carries signals that are essential for language function; however, the relevance of the pathway for particular behaviors is highly controversial. The primary objective of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging to examine the relationship between individual variation in the microstructural properties of arcuate fibers and behavioral measures of language and reading skills. A second objective was to use novel fiber-tracking methods to reassess estimates of arcuate lateralization. In a sample of 55 children, we found that measurements of diffusivity in the left arcuate correlate with phonological awareness skills and arcuate volume lateralization correlates with phonological memory and reading skills. Contrary to previous investigations that report the absence of the right arcuate in some subjects, we demonstrate that new techniques can identify the pathway in every individual. Our results provide empirical support for the role of the arcuate fasciculus in the development of reading skills. PMID:21568636
Bonacina, Silvia; Cancer, Alice; Lanzi, Pier Luca; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Antonietti, Alessandro
The core deficit underlying developmental dyslexia (DD) has been identified in difficulties in dynamic and rapidly changing auditory information processing, which contribute to the development of impaired phonological representations for words. It has been argued that enhancing basic musical rhythm perception skills in children with DD may have a positive effect on reading abilities because music and language share common mechanisms and thus transfer effects from the former to the latter are expected to occur. A computer-assisted training, called Rhythmic Reading Training (RRT), was designed in which reading exercises are combined with rhythm background. Fourteen junior high school students with DD took part to 9 biweekly individual sessions of 30 min in which RRT was implemented. Reading improvements after the intervention period were compared with ones of a matched control group of 14 students with DD who received no intervention. Results indicated that RRT had a positive effect on both reading speed and accuracy and significant effects were found on short pseudo-words reading speed, long pseudo-words reading speed, high frequency long words reading accuracy, and text reading accuracy. No difference in rhythm perception between the intervention and control group were found. Findings suggest that rhythm facilitates the development of reading skill because of the temporal structure it imposes to word decoding. PMID:26500581
Bonacina, Silvia; Cancer, Alice; Lanzi, Pier Luca; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Antonietti, Alessandro
The core deficit underlying developmental dyslexia (DD) has been identified in difficulties in dynamic and rapidly changing auditory information processing, which contribute to the development of impaired phonological representations for words. It has been argued that enhancing basic musical rhythm perception skills in children with DD may have a positive effect on reading abilities because music and language share common mechanisms and thus transfer effects from the former to the latter are expected to occur. A computer-assisted training, called Rhythmic Reading Training (RRT), was designed in which reading exercises are combined with rhythm background. Fourteen junior high school students with DD took part to 9 biweekly individual sessions of 30 min in which RRT was implemented. Reading improvements after the intervention period were compared with ones of a matched control group of 14 students with DD who received no intervention. Results indicated that RRT had a positive effect on both reading speed and accuracy and significant effects were found on short pseudo-words reading speed, long pseudo-words reading speed, high frequency long words reading accuracy, and text reading accuracy. No difference in rhythm perception between the intervention and control group were found. Findings suggest that rhythm facilitates the development of reading skill because of the temporal structure it imposes to word decoding.
Reese, Curt; Wells, Terri
This article describes a game used for teaching discussion skills to English as a Second Language (ESL) students. It was originally designed for students wanting to prepare for graduate study at U.S. universities has been since used for other ESL students wanting to improve conversation skills. The game focuses on common phrases helpful for…
Rungruang, Parisa; Donohue, Ross
Few studies have examined the links between perceived transferability of education or perceived transferability of skills and organisational commitment. This paper reports on a study examining the relationships between transferability of education and transferability of skills, and the three components of organisational commitment (affective,…
Krieber, Magdalena; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D.; Pokorny, Florian B.; Zhang, Dajie; Landerl, Karin; Körner, Christof; Pernkopf, Franz; Pock, Thomas; Einspieler, Christa; Marschik, Peter B.
The present study aimed to define differences between silent and oral reading with respect to spatial and temporal eye movement parameters. Eye movements of 22 German-speaking adolescents (14 females; mean age = 13;6 years;months) were recorded while reading an age-appropriate text silently and orally. Preschool cognitive abilities were assessed at the participants’ age of 5;7 (years;months) using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. The participants’ reading speed and reading comprehension at the age of 13;6 (years;months) were determined using a standardized inventory to evaluate silent reading skills in German readers (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verständnistest für Klassen 6–12). The results show that (i) reading mode significantly influenced both spatial and temporal characteristics of eye movement patterns; (ii) articulation decreased the consistency of intraindividual reading performances with regard to a significant number of eye movement parameters; (iii) reading skills predicted the majority of eye movement parameters during silent reading, but influenced only a restricted number of eye movement parameters when reading orally; (iv) differences with respect to a subset of eye movement parameters increased with reading skills; (v) an overall preschool cognitive performance score predicted reading skills at the age of 13;6 (years;months), but not eye movement patterns during either silent or oral reading. However, we found a few significant correlations between preschool performances on subscales of sequential and simultaneous processing and eye movement parameters for both reading modes. Overall, the findings suggest that eye movement patterns depend on the reading mode. Preschool cognitive abilities were more closely related to eye movement patterns of oral than silent reading, while reading skills predicted eye movement patterns during silent reading, but less so during oral reading. PMID:28151950
Krieber, Magdalena; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D; Pokorny, Florian B; Zhang, Dajie; Landerl, Karin; Körner, Christof; Pernkopf, Franz; Pock, Thomas; Einspieler, Christa; Marschik, Peter B
The present study aimed to define differences between silent and oral reading with respect to spatial and temporal eye movement parameters. Eye movements of 22 German-speaking adolescents (14 females; mean age = 13;6 years;months) were recorded while reading an age-appropriate text silently and orally. Preschool cognitive abilities were assessed at the participants' age of 5;7 (years;months) using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. The participants' reading speed and reading comprehension at the age of 13;6 (years;months) were determined using a standardized inventory to evaluate silent reading skills in German readers (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verständnistest für Klassen 6-12). The results show that (i) reading mode significantly influenced both spatial and temporal characteristics of eye movement patterns; (ii) articulation decreased the consistency of intraindividual reading performances with regard to a significant number of eye movement parameters; (iii) reading skills predicted the majority of eye movement parameters during silent reading, but influenced only a restricted number of eye movement parameters when reading orally; (iv) differences with respect to a subset of eye movement parameters increased with reading skills; (v) an overall preschool cognitive performance score predicted reading skills at the age of 13;6 (years;months), but not eye movement patterns during either silent or oral reading. However, we found a few significant correlations between preschool performances on subscales of sequential and simultaneous processing and eye movement parameters for both reading modes. Overall, the findings suggest that eye movement patterns depend on the reading mode. Preschool cognitive abilities were more closely related to eye movement patterns of oral than silent reading, while reading skills predicted eye movement patterns during silent reading, but less so during oral reading.
Tabacaru, Simona; Hartnett, Eric
Academic libraries are continually being asked to demonstrate their value. Showing benefits that provide financial value to the user community is one approach to meeting this challenge. With a focus on journal articles and monographs, the authors have analyzed course syllabi to determine the cost savings graduate students in psychology receive…
Harris-Keith, Colleen Susan
Though research into academic library director leadership has established leadership skills and qualities required for success, little research has been done to establish where in their career library directors were most likely to acquire those skills and qualities. This research project surveyed academic library directors at Carnegie-designated…
Jyoti, Diana F; Frongillo, Edward A; Jones, Sonya J
Food insecurity has been associated with diverse developmental consequences for U.S. children primarily from cross-sectional studies. We used longitudinal data to investigate how food insecurity over time related to changes in reading and mathematics test performance, weight and BMI, and social skills in children. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, a prospective sample of approximately 21,000 nationally representative children entering kindergarten in 1998 and followed through 3rd grade. Food insecurity was measured by parent interview using a modification of the USDA module in which households were classified as food insecure if they reported > or =1 affirmative response in the past year. Households were grouped into 4 categories based on the temporal occurrence of food insecurity in kindergarten and 3rd grade. Children's academic performance, height, and weight were assessed directly. Children's social skills were reported by teachers. Analyses examined the effects of modified food insecurity on changes in child outcomes using lagged, dynamic, and difference (i.e., fixed-effects) models and controlling for child and household contextual variables. In lagged models, food insecurity was predictive of poor developmental trajectories in children before controlling for other variables. Food insecurity thus serves as an important marker for identifying children who fare worse in terms of subsequent development. In all models with controls, food insecurity was associated with outcomes, and associations differed by gender. This study provides the strongest empirical evidence to date that food insecurity is linked to specific developmental consequences for children, and that these consequences may be both nutritional and nonnutritional.
Fluency instruction has had limited effects on reading comprehension relative to reading rate and prosodic reading (Dowhower, 1987; Herman, 1985; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000a). More specific components (i.e., error detection) of comprehension may yield larger effects through exposure to a wider range of materials…
Hagaman, Jessica L.; Reid, Robert
Reading is an important component of academic success and a skill required for many adult responsibilities. Many strategies exist that claim to increase reading comprehension. However, in contrast to foundational reading skills (e.g., vocabulary, fluency, decoding), there is relatively little research that has been done on reading comprehension…
Morra de de la Pena, Ana Maria; Soler, Lidia Rosa
Investigates effectiveness of three training programs for English as a Foreign Language university students in reading and listening comprehension. Finds that: students who learned rhetorical patterns of written expository texts and text mapping strategies demonstrated better comprehension of lectures than students who performed other activities;…
Wolter, Ilka; Braun, Edith; Hannover, Bettina
According to gender stereotypes, reading is for girls. In this study, we investigated the role of preschool teachers in transmitting such gendered expectations. We suggest that boys are less motivated to read in preschool, and less competent in reading 1 year later in primary school, if their preschool teacher holds a traditional gender role attitude than if the teacher has egalitarian beliefs. In 135 independent dyads of a female preschool teacher (N = 135) and one boy (n = 65) or one girl (n = 70) we measured teacher's gender role attitude, child's reading related motivation as well as precursors of reading skills in preschool, and child's reading skills at the end of first grade in primary school. As expected, the more traditional preschool teachers' gender role attitude was, the weaker was boys' motivation to (learn to) read while girls' motivation was unrelated to teachers' gender role attitude. In either gender, motivation in preschool predicted reading skills at the end of first grade. PMID:26379592
Wolter, Ilka; Braun, Edith; Hannover, Bettina
According to gender stereotypes, reading is for girls. In this study, we investigated the role of preschool teachers in transmitting such gendered expectations. We suggest that boys are less motivated to read in preschool, and less competent in reading 1 year later in primary school, if their preschool teacher holds a traditional gender role attitude than if the teacher has egalitarian beliefs. In 135 independent dyads of a female preschool teacher (N = 135) and one boy (n = 65) or one girl (n = 70) we measured teacher's gender role attitude, child's reading related motivation as well as precursors of reading skills in preschool, and child's reading skills at the end of first grade in primary school. As expected, the more traditional preschool teachers' gender role attitude was, the weaker was boys' motivation to (learn to) read while girls' motivation was unrelated to teachers' gender role attitude. In either gender, motivation in preschool predicted reading skills at the end of first grade.
de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; de Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão; Pan, Pedro Mario; Gadelha, Ary; Moriyama, Tais; Del Aquilla, Marco Antonio; Hoexter, Marcelo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Anés, Mauricio; Mercadante, Marcos Tomanik; Lacerda, Acioly; Amaro, Edson; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; McGuire, Philip; Sato, João Ricardo; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies showed that microstructural alterations are correlated to reading skills. In this study, we aim to investigate white matter microstructure of a group of Portuguese speakers with poor reading level, using different parameters of DTI. To perform this analysis, we selected children ranging from 8 to 12 years of age, poor readers (n = 17) and good readers (n = 23), evaluated in the word-level ability based on a Latent Class Analysis (LCA) of Academic Performance Test (TDE). Poor readers exhibited significant fractional anisotropy (FA) reductions in many tracts of both hemispheres, but small and restricted clusters of increased radial diffusivity (RD) in the left hemisphere. Spatial coherence of fibers might be the main source of differences, as changes in FA were not similarly accompanied in terms of extension by changes in RD. Widespread structural alterations in the white matter could prevent good reading ability at word level, which is consistent with recent studies demonstrating the involvement of multiple cortical regions and white matter tracts in reading disabilities.
Mancheva, Lyuba; Reichle, Erik D.; Lemaire, Benoît; Valdois, Sylviane; Ecalle, Jean; Guérin-Dugué, Anne
Previously reported simulations using the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control suggest that the patterns of eye movements observed with children versus adult readers reflect differences in lexical processing proficiency (Reichle et al., 2013). However, these simulations fail to specify precisely what aspect(s) of lexical processing (e.g., orthographic processing) account for the concurrent changes in eye movements and reading skill. To examine this issue, the E-Z Reader model was first used to simulate the aggregate eye-movement data from 15 adults and 75 children to replicate the finding that gross differences in reading skill can be accounted for by differences in lexical processing proficiency. The model was then used to simulate the eye-movement data of individual children so that the best-fitting lexical-processing parameters could be correlated to measures of orthographic knowledge, phonological-processing skill, sentence comprehension, and general intelligence. These analyses suggest that orthographic knowledge accounts for variance in the eye-movement measures that is observed with between-individual differences in reading skill. The theoretical implications of this conclusion will be discussed in relation to computational models of reading and our understanding of reading skill development. PMID:27148437
In the current research we investigate the role of early phonological awareness skills on reading development in diglossic Arabic. Two-hundred and six Arabic speaking first graders, composed of 25 at-linguistic risk pupils (LR group) and 181 normally developing readers, representing the found heterogeneity in the classroom participated in this study. For this purpose, phonological training program was developed where we followed the pupils' development in both phonological awareness skills and reading development in second grade. As indicated by the study results, higher achievements in phonological awareness measures was noted among HG group in first grade. After Training, significant improvement in phonological awareness was noted among both groups, where LR group was able to close the gaps in phonological awareness skills with HG group. When examining the relationship between phonological awareness and reading performance, moderate positive correlation was found within HG group whereas strong positive relationship was encountered with the LR group. Despite the progress in phonological awareness skills and its strong relationship with reading, LR group showed lower reading performance when compared to HG group. The study results are discussed in relation to its scientific and didactic implications on Arabic reading acquisition.
McCollough, Debra; Weber, Kimberly; Derby, K. Mark; McLaughlin, T. F.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of "Teach Your Child to Read in 100 Easy Lessons" (Engelmann, Haddox, & Bruner, 1983), on the acquisition and maintenance of reading skills by a six-year-old female with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Cognitive Disorder, and Mixed Receptive Language Disorder. The skills evaluated for…
Discusses several ways to evaluate reading and writing skills in a whole language classroom, including evaluation checklists, holistic evaluation of writing, and miscue analysis. Provides a literacy development checklist for reading and writing. (MM)
Johnston, Rhona; McGeown, Sarah; Moxon, Gerri Elizabeth
This study examined, in 180 children aged from 6 to 9?years, to what extent irregular word reading and spelling were predicted by vocabulary knowledge, reading frequency, orthographic processing and nonword reading skill. Consistent with models of reading highlighting the quasi-regular nature of irregular words, it was found that nonword reading…
Anderson, Sara; Phillips, Deborah
We employed data from a longitudinal investigation of over 1,000 children who participated in Tulsa's universal school-based pre-K program in 2005, and path modeling techniques, to examine the contribution of pre-K classroom quality to both kindergarten- and middle-school academic skills. We also examined gender and income-related differences in quality-outcome associations. Both Instructional and Emotional Support in pre-K classrooms, but not Classroom Management, assessed with the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS), were associated with kindergarten academic skills and, modestly indirectly associated through these immediate impacts, to middle-school test scores. Linear associations were found for Instructional Support whereas nonlinear patterns of association were evident for Emotional Support. Gender and income differences characterized Instructional Support-outcome associations. Results are discussed in terms of implications for improving pre-K quality as one avenue for supporting the ongoing development of academic skills. (PsycINFO Database Record
Westman, Alida S; Alexander, Nicholas A
Among 139 students (mean age 21.8, SD=3.5), use of Schmeck's Deep Processing learning style (looking for conceptual understanding) on academic materials correlated modestly with its use on religious materials. The same was true for Elaborative Processing (looking for associations and applications). Both Deep and Elaborative Processing of academic materials correlated with better Analytical Skills. Only Elaborative Processing of religious materials correlated with Religiousness. Religiousness correlated with poorer Analytical Skills on academic materials and with a more Concrete Divine Concept; however, specific religious affiliation made a difference. Our understanding of the role of contents of materials and characteristics of learners on the types of learning strategies used and competence with cognitive skills is still very limited.
Discusses the history of academic research, library instruction, and the role of leisure, reflection, and creativity. Suggests that these cultural elements should be introduced to undergraduates and contends that deep reading, rather than information literacy competency, cultivates these elements. Examines productivity and the faculty research…
Alghail, Ali Abdullah Ali; Mahfoodh, Omer Hassan Ali
This study examines how international graduate students in a Malaysian public university perceive and overcome academic reading difficulties. The target population included all graduate students from Yemen, an Arab country, studying at Universiti Sains Malaysia. Data were collected using questionnaires, focus group interviews, and journal writing.…
2012, the National Year of Reading (NYR), was celebrated in libraries, schools and community centres throughout Australia. At the University of Adelaide, we celebrated our academic culture of literary teaching and research with a range of programmes and initiatives based in the humanities faculty. The Barr Smith Library played an integral part in…
Schiff, Rachel; Calif, Sharon
In the past, students with learning disabilities who wished to attend university were unable to meet the entry requirements. With the progress of research in diagnosis, accommodation, and remediation of reading disabilities, many of these students are now able to attend and complete their academic and professional education. Yet in many cases the…
Zhao, Ruilan; Hirvela, Alan
As an important and a challenging source-based writing task, synthesizing offers rich opportunities to explore the connections between reading and writing. In this article, we report findings from a qualitative study of two Chinese students' learning experiences with academic synthesis writing in a university ESL composition course. Specifically,…
This study is the 10th in a series of reports from the Reading-to-Write Project, a collaborative study designed to examine the cognitive processes of college freshmen in the act of entering a university-level academic discourse community and to present a model of that transition. Subjects, 17 freshmen (of a total of 72 participating either as…
Green, Anthony; Unaldi, Aylin; Weir, Cyril
Providers of tests of languages for academic purposes generally claim to provide evidence on the extent to which students are likely to be able to cope with the future demands of reading in specified real-life contexts. Such claims need to be supported by evidence that the texts employed in the test reflect salient features of the texts the test…
This report describes an action research project improving student academic reading achievement. The targeted population consisted of fifth grade students in a growing suburb of a major midwestern metropolitan area. The evidence for existence of the problem included student surveys, assessments, teacher observations and checklists. Analysis of…
Ching, Teresa Y.C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark
This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words’ initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children’s early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age. PMID:24563553
Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y C; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark
This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words' initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children's early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age.
The Status of Alternative Assessments through the 1990s: Performance and Authentic Assessments in Relation to Vocational-Technical Education Technical Skills, Workplace Skills, and Related Academic Skills.
This study examines performance and authentic assessments related to job and academic skills. It begins with a general historical perspective that discusses the evolution of assessment systems used by education and industry in the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Japan. The influence of federal policy also is discussed,…
McClure, Charles R.; And Others
This report summarizes activities conducted from fall 1984 through spring 1985, under a planning grant from the Council on Library Resources for Innovation and Improvement of Basic and Supplementary Education for Academic and Research Libraries. The report includes a review of selected literature related to educational programs for academic…
Cheek, Lisa; Logan, Karen; Sprecher, Sharon; Streitmatter, Barbara
This action research project examined the impact of a program for improving age-inappropriate behaviors that interfere with personal and academic progress. A total of 69 students from 3 elementary classrooms and 2 speech therapy groups were involved in the research. The targeted population consisted of fourth and sixth graders; students with…
Melton, Rebecca Mindigo
Research indicates that students underachieve in college settings, in spite of intellect and other abilities. This research tested the likelihood of self-efficacy for learning, conscientiousness, impulsivity, procrastination and temporal discounting to predict academic achievement in an online competency-based university. Undergraduate students (N…
McWilliams, Robyn; Allan, Quentin
Learning advisors provide academic literacy development support in a variety of configurations, ranging from one-on-one consultations through to large-scale lectures. Such lectures can be generic, stand-alone modules or embedded within a discipline-specific course. Pragmatic and institutional considerations suggest that a generic model of delivery…
Fancsali, Cheri; Abe, Yasuyo; Pyatigorsky, Mikhail
Nationally, two-thirds of high school students are unable to read and comprehend complex academic materials, think critically about texts, and synthesize information from multiple sources, or communicate what they have learned. Without a substantial change in their academic literacy, U.S. high school students face continued academic problems in…
Holden, John G.; Greijn, Lieke T.; van Rooij, Marieke M. J. W.; Wijnants, Maarten L.; Bosman, Anna M. T.
The shape of a word pronunciation time distribution supplies information about the dynamic interactions that support reading performance. Speeded word-naming pronunciation and response time distributions were collected from 20 sixth grade Dutch students with dyslexia and 23 age-matched controls. The participants' pronunciation times were modeled…
Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally
The boundary paradigm was used to investigate individual differences in the extraction of lexical information from the parafovea in sentence reading. The preview of a target word was manipulated so that it was identical (e.g., "sped"), a higher frequency orthographic neighbor ("seed"), a nonword neighbor ("sted"), or…
Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav
The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin,…
Kalashnikova, Marina; Burnham, Denis
Visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) refers to the ability to establish an arbitrary association between a visual referent and an unfamiliar label. It is now established that this ability is impaired in children with dyslexia, but the source of this deficit is yet to be specified. This study assesses PAL performance in children with reading difficulties using a modified version of the PAL paradigm, comprising a comprehension and a production phase, to determine whether the PAL deficit lies in children's ability to establish and retain novel object-novel word associations or their ability to retrieve the learned novel labels for production. Results showed that while children with reading difficulties required significantly more trials to learn the object-word associations, when they were required to use these associations in a comprehension-referent selection task, their accuracy and speed did not differ from controls. Nevertheless, children with reading difficulties were significantly less successful when they were required to produce the learned novel labels in response to the visual stimuli. Thus, these results indicate that while children with reading difficulties are successful at establishing visual-verbal associations, they have a deficit in the verbal production component of PAL tasks, which may relate to a more general underlying impairment in auditory or phonological processing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav
The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin, Putter-Katz, & Banai, 2006), which suggests that dyslexics have a general difficulty in automatic extraction of stimulus regularities from auditory inputs. This hypothesis explained a broad range of dyslexics' verbal and non-verbal difficulties. However, it was not directly tested in the context of reading and verbal memory, which poses the main stumbling blocks to dyslexics. Here we assessed the abilities of adult dyslexics to efficiently benefit from ("anchor to") regularities embedded in repeated tones, orally presented syllables, and written words. We also compared dyslexics' performance to that of individuals with attention disorder (ADHD), but no reading disability. We found an anchoring effect in all groups: all gained from stimulus repetition. However, in line with the anchoring-deficit hypothesis, controls and ADHD participants showed a significantly larger anchoring effect in all tasks. This study is the first that directly shows that the same domain-general deficit, poor anchoring, characterizes dyslexics' performance in perceptual, working memory and reading tasks.
Loveall, Susan J.; Conners, Frances A.
The primary goal of this study was to examine the word identification domain of the Simple View of Reading in participants with Down syndrome (DS) by comparing them to participants with typical development (TD) matched on word identification ability. Two subskills, phonological recoding and orthographic knowledge, were measured. Results revealed…
Warnick, Kristan; Caldarella, Paul
This study examined the effectiveness of a multisensory phonics-based reading remediation program for adolescent delinquents classified as poor readers living at a residential treatment center. We used a pretest--posttest control group design with random assignment. The treatment group participated in a 30-hr multisensory phonics reading…
Explores issues arising from a research project which studied ways of meeting the reading needs of trainee primary school teachers (from Malawi and Tanzania) of English as a foreign language. Topics discussed include: the classroom teaching situation; teaching "quality"; and integration of materials and methods. (CB)
Sight-reading while playing a mallet instrument can present serious obstacles for the developing percussionist. Many young players who have solid snare drum technique usually cite fear of playing the wrong note as the number-one hurdle to overcome in order to begin making real progress. Greg Byrne, associate director of bands at the University of…
Mourgues, Catalina V; Preiss, David D; Grigorenko, Elena L
Studies of the relationship between creativity and specific reading disabilities have produced inconclusive results. We explored their relationship in a sample of 259 college students (age range: 17 to 38 years-old) from three Chilean universities. The students were tested on their verbal ability, creativity, and insight. A simple linear regression was performed on the complete sample, and on high- and low-achievement groups that were formed based on reading test scores. We observed a significant correlation in the total sample between outcomes on the verbal ability tasks, and on the creativity and insight tasks (range r =. 152 to r =. 356, ps <.001). Scores on the reading comprehension and phonological awareness tasks were the best predictors of performance on creativity and insight tasks (range β = .315 to β = .155, ps <.05). A comparison of the low- and high-scoring groups on verbal ability tasks yielded results to the same effect. These findings do not support the hypothesis that specific reading disability is associated with better performance on creative tasks. Instead, higher verbal ability was found to be associated with higher creativity and insight.
Mashburn, Andrew J; Pianta, Robert C; Hamre, Bridget K; Downer, Jason T; Barbarin, Oscar A; Bryant, Donna; Burchinal, Margaret; Early, Diane M; Howes, Carollee
This study examined development of academic, language, and social skills among 4-year-olds in publicly supported prekindergarten (pre-K) programs in relation to 3 methods of measuring pre-K quality, which are as follows: (a) adherence to 9 standards of quality related to program infrastructure and design, (b) observations of the overall quality of classroom environments, and (c) observations of teachers' emotional and instructional interactions with children in classrooms. Participants were 2,439 children enrolled in 671 pre-K classrooms in 11 states. Adjusting for prior skill levels, child and family characteristics, program characteristics, and state, teachers' instructional interactions predicted academic and language skills and teachers' emotional interactions predicted teacher-reported social skills. Findings suggest that policies, program development, and professional development efforts that improve teacher-child interactions can facilitate children's school readiness.
Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Ho, Connie Suk-Han
This study examined the relations between reading-related cognitive skills and word reading development of Chinese children with dyslexia in their Chinese language (L1) and in English (L2). A total of 84 bilingual children--28 with dyslexia, 28 chronological age (CA) controls, and 28 reading-level (RL) controls--participated and were administered…
Bremer, Christine D.; Vaughn, Sharon; Clapper, Ann T.; Kim, Ae-Hwa
This brief introduces a research-based practice, Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR). This reading comprehension practice, designed to improve secondary students reading comprehension skills, combines two instructional elements: modified reciprocal teaching and cooperative learning or student pairing. In reciprocal teaching, teachers and…
Pillinger, Claire; Wood, Clare
Previous studies have demonstrated the positive impact of shared reading (SR) and dialogic reading (DR) on young children's language and literacy development. This exploratory study compared the relative impact of parental DR and shared reading interventions on 4-year-old children's early literacy skills and parental attitudes to reading…
Crosby, Robert Glenn, III.
Although literacy skills have been associated with critical academic, social, and economic outcomes, most adolescents in the United States lack basic proficiency in reading comprehension. Experts in the field of adolescent literacy have identified affective components of reading (e.g., reading attitudes) as a critical topic in need of further…
Krieber, Magdalena; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D; Pokorny, Florian B; Einspieler, Christa; Langmann, Andrea; Körner, Christof; Falck-Ytter, Terje; Marschik, Peter B
Over the past decades, the relation between reading skills and eye movement behavior has been well documented in English-speaking cohorts. As English and German differ substantially with regard to orthographic complexity (i.e. grapheme-phoneme correspondence), we aimed to delineate specific characteristics of how reading speed and reading comprehension interact with eye movements in typically developing German-speaking (Austrian) adolescents. Eye movements of 22 participants (14 females; mean age = 13;6 years;months) were tracked while they were performing three tasks, namely silently reading words, texts, and pseudowords. Their reading skills were determined by means of a standardized German reading speed and reading comprehension assessment (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verständnistest für Klassen 6-12). We found that (a) reading skills were associated with various eye movement parameters in each of the three reading tasks; (b) better reading skills were associated with an increased efficiency of eye movements, but were primarily linked to spatial reading parameters, such as the number of fixations per word, the total number of saccades and saccadic amplitudes; (c) reading speed was a more reliable predictor for eye movement parameters than reading comprehension; (d) eye movements were highly correlated across reading tasks, which indicates consistent reading performances. Contrary to findings in English-speaking cohorts, the reading skills neither consistently correlated with temporal eye movement parameters nor with the number or percentage of regressions made while performing any of the three reading tasks. These results indicate that, although reading skills are associated with eye movement patterns irrespective of language, the temporal and spatial characteristics of this association may vary with orthographic consistency.
Krieber, Magdalena; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D.; Pokorny, Florian B.; Einspieler, Christa; Langmann, Andrea; Körner, Christof; Falck-Ytter, Terje; Marschik, Peter B.
Over the past decades, the relation between reading skills and eye movement behavior has been well documented in English-speaking cohorts. As English and German differ substantially with regard to orthographic complexity (i.e. grapheme-phoneme correspondence), we aimed to delineate specific characteristics of how reading speed and reading comprehension interact with eye movements in typically developing German-speaking (Austrian) adolescents. Eye movements of 22 participants (14 females; mean age = 13;6 years;months) were tracked while they were performing three tasks, namely silently reading words, texts, and pseudowords. Their reading skills were determined by means of a standardized German reading speed and reading comprehension assessment (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verständnistest für Klassen 6−12). We found that (a) reading skills were associated with various eye movement parameters in each of the three reading tasks; (b) better reading skills were associated with an increased efficiency of eye movements, but were primarily linked to spatial reading parameters, such as the number of fixations per word, the total number of saccades and saccadic amplitudes; (c) reading speed was a more reliable predictor for eye movement parameters than reading comprehension; (d) eye movements were highly correlated across reading tasks, which indicates consistent reading performances. Contrary to findings in English-speaking cohorts, the reading skills neither consistently correlated with temporal eye movement parameters nor with the number or percentage of regressions made while performing any of the three reading tasks. These results indicate that, although reading skills are associated with eye movement patterns irrespective of language, the temporal and spatial characteristics of this association may vary with orthographic consistency. PMID:26727255
Flaugnacco, Elena; Lopez, Luisa; Terribili, Chiara; Montico, Marcella; Zoia, Stefania; Schön, Daniele
There is some evidence for a role of music training in boosting phonological awareness, word segmentation, working memory, as well as reading abilities in children with typical development. Poor performance in tasks requiring temporal processing, rhythm perception and sensorimotor synchronization seems to be a crucial factor underlying dyslexia in children. Interestingly, children with dyslexia show deficits in temporal processing, both in language and in music. Within this framework, we test the hypothesis that music training, by improving temporal processing and rhythm abilities, improves phonological awareness and reading skills in children with dyslexia. The study is a prospective, multicenter, open randomized controlled trial, consisting of test, rehabilitation and re-test (ID NCT02316873). After rehabilitation, the music group (N = 24) performed better than the control group (N = 22) in tasks assessing rhythmic abilities, phonological awareness and reading skills. This is the first randomized control trial testing the effect of music training in enhancing phonological and reading abilities in children with dyslexia. The findings show that music training can modify reading and phonological abilities even when these skills are severely impaired. Through the enhancement of temporal processing and rhythmic skills, music might become an important tool in both remediation and early intervention programs.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02316873
Poldrack, R A; Gabrieli, J D
The changes in brain activity related to skill learning and repetition priming in a mirror-reading task were examined using functional MRI. Subjects exhibited significant learning across five training sessions and this learning generalized significantly to different spatial transformations (inverted-mirror reversed text and normal letters spelled backwards). Mirror reading, compared with reading normal text, was associated with extensive activation in occipital, temporal, parietal and frontal regions. Learning to read mirror-reversed (MR) text was associated with increased activation in left inferior temporal, striatal, left inferior prefrontal and right cerebellar regions and with decreased activity in the left hippocampus and left cerebellum. Short-term repetition priming was associated with reduced activity in many of the regions active during mirror reading and extensive item-specific practice (long-term repetition priming) resulted in a virtual elimination of activity in those regions. Short- and long-term repetition priming thus appeared to rely upon common neural mechanisms. Nearly all of the regions exhibiting significant learning-related changes also exhibited increased repetition priming effects, suggesting common neural substrates for priming and skill learning in this task. Comparison of MR items with other spatially transformed typographies showed that the learning-related changes were general to all of the spatial transformations. The results confirm the importance of striatofrontal neural networks for the acquisition of skills, and suggest that skill learning and repetition priming may have common substrates within a particular task.
Flaugnacco, Elena; Lopez, Luisa; Terribili, Chiara; Montico, Marcella; Zoia, Stefania; Schön, Daniele
There is some evidence for a role of music training in boosting phonological awareness, word segmentation, working memory, as well as reading abilities in children with typical development. Poor performance in tasks requiring temporal processing, rhythm perception and sensorimotor synchronization seems to be a crucial factor underlying dyslexia in children. Interestingly, children with dyslexia show deficits in temporal processing, both in language and in music. Within this framework, we test the hypothesis that music training, by improving temporal processing and rhythm abilities, improves phonological awareness and reading skills in children with dyslexia. The study is a prospective, multicenter, open randomized controlled trial, consisting of test, rehabilitation and re-test (ID NCT02316873). After rehabilitation, the music group (N = 24) performed better than the control group (N = 22) in tasks assessing rhythmic abilities, phonological awareness and reading skills. This is the first randomized control trial testing the effect of music training in enhancing phonological and reading abilities in children with dyslexia. The findings show that music training can modify reading and phonological abilities even when these skills are severely impaired. Through the enhancement of temporal processing and rhythmic skills, music might become an important tool in both remediation and early intervention programs. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02316873 PMID:26407242
Burt, Jennifer S
One hundred and twelve university students completed 7 tests assessing word-reading accuracy, print exposure, phonological sensitivity, phonological coding and knowledge of English morphology as predictors of spelling accuracy. Together the tests accounted for 71% of the variance in spelling, with phonological skills and morphological knowledge emerging as strong predictors of spelling accuracy for words with both regular and irregular sound-spelling correspondences. The pattern of relationships was consistent with a model in which, as a function of the learning opportunities that are provided by reading experience, phonological skills promote the learning of individual word orthographies and structural relationships among words.
Beaver, Melanie S.
This study examined the resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills. Reading instruction in the middle school years should follow the natural cognitive progression that occurs in the adolescent brain from learning to read to reading to learn. Scientific reading is a different type of reading than most middle school students are accustomed to. It is important to understand that students will continue to be expected to read non-fiction critically for success in the 21st century. Effective teachers know this, and they perceive themselves as teachers of reading regardless of the content area in which their expertise lies. This qualitative research study was conducted at a rural middle school with three science teachers who employ before, during, and after literacy strategies when reading the textbook content with their students. The methodologies used in this study were interviews, observations, and document collection. The results of this study revealed the students' reading difficulties perceived by the teacher participants, the literacy strategies used by the teacher participants, the instructional resources the teacher participants used to improve comprehension, and the need for professional development in content area literacy.
Welcome, Suzanne E; Joanisse, Marc F
We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate relationships between white matter anatomy and different reading subskills in typical-reading adults. A series of analytic approaches revealed that phonological decoding ability is associated with anatomical markers that do not relate to other reading-related cognitive abilities. Thus, individual differences in phonological decoding might relate to connectivity between a network of cortical regions, while skills like sight word reading might rely less strongly on integration across regions. Specifically, manually-drawn ROIs and probabilistic tractography revealed an association between the volume and integrity of white matter underlying primary auditory cortex and nonword reading ability. In a related finding, more extensive cross-hemispheric connections through the isthmus of the corpus callosum predicted better phonological decoding. Atlas-based white matter ROIs demonstrated that relationships with nonword reading were strongest in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus that connect occipital and anterior temporal cortex with inferior frontal cortex. In contrast, tract volume underlying the left angular gyrus was related to nonverbal IQ. Finally, connectivity underlying functional ROIs that are differentially active during phonological and semantic processing predicted nonword reading and reading comprehension, respectively. Together, these results provide important insights into how white matter anatomy may relate to both typical reading subskills, and perhaps a roadmap for understanding neural connectivity in individuals with reading impairments.
Snider, Vicki E.; Battalio, Rosemary
Public schools are replete with children and adolescents like Billy, Reid, and Rowdy whom teachers describe as rude, disruptive, and obnoxious, and not all of them are in special education. Asher (1990) estimated that 10% of school-age children have social skills deficits severe enough to be rejected by their peers and up to 75% of children with…
Rivan, Christine A.; Weber, Annette M.
This report describes a program implemented to improve inadequate student communication skills, specifically in the areas of listening, speaking, social, and emotional development. The targeted population consisted of first and second grade students in a middle class community, located in central Illinois. Evidence for the existence of the problem…
Decker, Janice E.
Brain-based initiatives and school readiness mandates in education have prompted researchers to examine the biological mechanisms associated with learning in the hope that understanding empirical evidence can maximize learning potential. Current research has examined working memory skills in relationship to early learning. The function of working…
Lowenstein, Amy E; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H; Raver, C Cybele; Jones, Stephanie M; Pess, Rachel A
In this study we used data on a sample of children in the Chicago Public Schools in areas of concentrated poverty-related disadvantage to examine associations between school climate and low-income children's language/literacy and math skills during the transition to kindergarten. We also explored whether teacher-child closeness moderated these associations. Multilevel modeling analyses conducted using a sample of 242 children nested in 102 elementary schools revealed that low adult support in the school was significantly associated with children's poorer language/literacy and math skills in kindergarten. Teacher-child closeness predicted children's higher language/literacy and math scores and moderated the association between low adult support and children's academic skills. Among children who were high on closeness with their teacher, those in schools with high levels of adult support showed stronger language/literacy and math skills. There were no significant associations between adult support and the academic skills of children with medium or low levels of teacher-child closeness. Results shed light on the importance of adult support at both school and classroom levels in promoting low-income children's academic skills during the transition to kindergarten.
Kaufman, Alan S; Kaufman, James C; Liu, Xin; Johnson, Cheryl K
Educational attainment and gender differences on fluid intelligence (Gf), crystallized intelligence (Gc), and academic skills in reading, math, and writing were analyzed for stratified adult samples ranging in age from 22 to 90 years. The data sources were the adult portions of the standardization samples of the second editions of Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (N = 570) and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Brief Form (N = 555). Five univariate analysis of covariance were conducted with age as the covariate. Correlational analysis supplemented the covariate analyses to better understand the relationship of the five variables to education. All variables related significantly and substantially to years of formal schooling, an important finding in view of the key nature of this background variable for conducting neuropsychological assessments, as elaborated by Heaton and his colleagues. Surprisingly, Gf related just as strongly to education as did the school-related Gc. Among academic skill areas, math correlated higher with years of formal schooling than did either reading or writing. Women significantly outperformed men on the writing test and the reverse was true for the math test; other gender differences were not significant. These analyses fill a gap in the literature regarding the nature of gender and education differences in academic skills for heterogeneous samples of normal adults between young adulthood and old age and have practical implications for neuropsychological assessment.
Ulu, Hacer; Akyol, Hayati
Problem Statements: It is a fact that there are individual differences in education and it would be wrong to expect every individual to learn at the same speed. Certain individuals have difficulty in some subjects such as reading, writing and mathematics, yet the most common such problem is difficulty in reading. Particularly, the students who…
These instructor's materials consist of a handbook directed to the teacher and 33 worksheets teachers can use with adult students in order to use the cloze procedure to assess how readily they can read materials of differing complexity. The handbook introduces the materials by considering such questions as What is meant by reading?, How could…
Derish, Pamela A; Maa, John; Ascher, Nancy L; Harris, Hobart W
Writing and publishing are key to career development and academic success for surgeons who have less time than ever to devote to these activities. To improve the scientific writing skills of its faculty and trainees and to help them complete their manuscripts and grant proposals more quickly, the Department of Surgery at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) established a service dedicated to scientific writing and editing. Through coursework in scientific writing, individual writing consultations, and editorial review, the service helps academic surgeons with the difficult tasks of writing and publishing their research and seeking extramural funding. The service has rapidly become a successful adjunct to the academic mission of the UCSF Department of Surgery and could offer a model for other academic surgery departments to increase scientific productivity and advance the academic surgical mission.
Christopher, Micaela E.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Keenan, Janice M.; Pennington, Bruce; DeFries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik; Olson, Richard K.
The present study explored the environmental and genetic etiologies of the longitudinal relations between prereading skills and reading and spelling. Twin pairs (n = 489) were assessed before kindergarten (M = 4.9 years), post-first grade (M = 7.4 years), and post-fourth grade (M = 10.4 years). Genetic influences on five prereading skills (print…
Guyton, Edith; Farokhi, Elizabeth
In order to determine if successful academic performance assures good teaching, four measures of academic achievement of teacher education graduates of Georgia State University from 1981 through 1984 were correlated with on-the-job performance assessments. Results are presented and implications for education policies are discussed. (Author/MT)
Cirino, Paul T.; Romain, Melissa A.; Barth, Amy E.; Tolar, Tammy D.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon
This study investigated how measures of decoding, fluency, and comprehension in middle school students overlap with one another, whether the pattern of overlap differs between struggling and typical readers, and the relative frequency of different types of reading difficulties. The 1,748 sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students were oversampled for struggling readers (n = 1,025) on the basis of the state reading comprehension proficiency measure. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses showed partial invariance among struggling and typical readers (with differential loadings for fluency and for comprehension), and strict invariance for decoding and a combined fluency/comprehension factor. Among these struggling readers, most (85 %) also had weaknesses on nationally standardized measures, particularly in comprehension; however, most of these also had difficulties in decoding or fluency. These results show that the number of students with a specific comprehension problem is lower than recent consensus reports estimate and that the relation of different reading components varies according to struggling versus proficient readers. PMID:24000271
Academic writing is a challenging task. Expert writers apply various writing skills as they anticipate the reader’s view of their text while paying attention to structure and content. Research in the high school setting shows that the acquisition of writing skills can be supported by single-strategy training. However, research in higher education is scarce. We tested whether the development of academic writing skills can also be effectively supported by training single strategies or even combined strategies. As metacognition is an important skill for advanced and adult learners, we focused in this study on the benefit of combined cognitive strategies with and without a metacognitive strategy. An experiment including three conditions was conducted (N = 60 German-speaking psychology undergraduates, M = 22.8, SD = 4.4), which lasted for three hours. Each group received a modeling intervention of a basic cognitive strategy on the application of text structure knowledge. Two groups received an additional modeling intervention with either a cognitive strategy treatment on text summarization or a metacognitive strategy treatment on self-monitoring the writing process. One group received no further strategy treatment. Prior knowledge and learning outcomes were measured with a specially developed test on academic writing skills. In addition, all participants wrote an abstract of an empirical article. We found that learners who received the additional self-monitoring strategy intervention benefited significantly more in terms of acquisition of academic writing skills and the quality of their texts than learners who did not receive this intervention. Thus, the results underline the importance of self-monitoring strategies in academic writing. Implications and further research opportunities are discussed. PMID:26941671
Academic writing is a challenging task. Expert writers apply various writing skills as they anticipate the reader's view of their text while paying attention to structure and content. Research in the high school setting shows that the acquisition of writing skills can be supported by single-strategy training. However, research in higher education is scarce. We tested whether the development of academic writing skills can also be effectively supported by training single strategies or even combined strategies. As metacognition is an important skill for advanced and adult learners, we focused in this study on the benefit of combined cognitive strategies with and without a metacognitive strategy. An experiment including three conditions was conducted (N = 60 German-speaking psychology undergraduates, M = 22.8, SD = 4.4), which lasted for three hours. Each group received a modeling intervention of a basic cognitive strategy on the application of text structure knowledge. Two groups received an additional modeling intervention with either a cognitive strategy treatment on text summarization or a metacognitive strategy treatment on self-monitoring the writing process. One group received no further strategy treatment. Prior knowledge and learning outcomes were measured with a specially developed test on academic writing skills. In addition, all participants wrote an abstract of an empirical article. We found that learners who received the additional self-monitoring strategy intervention benefited significantly more in terms of acquisition of academic writing skills and the quality of their texts than learners who did not receive this intervention. Thus, the results underline the importance of self-monitoring strategies in academic writing. Implications and further research opportunities are discussed.
Kennedy, Esther J; Flynn, Mark C
Increasingly, children with Down syndrome receive literacy instruction with the expectation of acquiring functional reading skills. Unfortunately, little is known about the processes underlying literacy skills in this special population. Phonological awareness contributes to literacy development in typically developing children, however, there is inconclusive evidence about these skills in younger children with Down syndrome. 9 children with Down syndrome (5.6-8.10 years) participated in this investigation. Due to the paucity of standardised phonological awareness measures for children with special needs, in particular children with Down syndrome, a variety of tasks were adapted from the literature. The assessment battery examined the skills of phonological awareness, literacy, speech production, expressive language, hearing acuity, speech perception, and auditory-visual memory. The results suggest that children with Down syndrome are at risks for reading acquisition difficulties due to reduced phonological awareness skills. These deficits are in addition to delays caused by reduced cognitive skills. Only one of the participants was able to demonstrate rhyme awareness, which may have been due to task effects. Written word recognition ability was correlated with tests of phonemic awareness, and error analysis of the spelling and non-word reading tasks suggested grapheme-phoneme connections deficits. Further research is needed to determine the best methods of assessment and intervention for phonological awareness in children with Down syndrome.
Chamberlain, Charlene; Mayberry, Rachel I.
We tested the hypothesis that syntactic and narrative comprehension of a natural sign language can serve as the linguistic basis for skilled reading. Thirty-one adults who were deaf from birth and used American Sign Language (ASL) were classified as skilled or less skilled readers using an eighth-grade criterion. Proficiency with ASL syntax, and…
Nortvedt, Guri A.
This article discusses how 13-year-old students with above-average numeracy skills and below-average reading skills cope with comprehending word problems. Compared to other students who are proficient in numeracy and are skilled readers, these students are more disadvantaged when solving single-step and multistep arithmetic word problems. The…
Eisenman, Gordon; Payne, Beverly D.
Contrasted effects of Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) program to those of Chapter 1 programs on fourth and fifth graders' reading achievement, self-concept, and higher-order thinking skills. Found that HOTS is more effective in raising self-concept and some higher-order thinking skills in fifth grade and after two years of treatment, with…
Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.
This study is a large-scale exploration of the influence that individual reading skills exert on eye-movement behavior in sentence reading. Seventy one non-college-bound 16–24 year-old speakers of English completed a battery of 18 verbal and cognitive skill assessments, and read a series of sentences as their eye movements were monitored. Statistical analyses were performed to establish what tests of reading abilities were predictive of eye-movement patterns across this population and how strong the effects were. We found that individual scores in rapid automatized naming and word identification tests (i) were the only participant variables with reliable predictivity throughout the time-course of reading; (ii) elicited effects that superceded in magnitude the effects of established predictors like word length or frequency; and (iii) strongly modulated the influence of word length and frequency on fixation times. We discuss implications of our findings for testing reading ability, as well as for research of eye-movements in reading. PMID:21709808
Perea, Manuel; Giner, Lourdes; Marcet, Ana; Gomez, Pablo
A number of experiments have shown that, in skilled adult readers, a small increase in interletter spacing speeds up the process of visual word recognition relative to the default settings (i.e., judge faster than judge). The goal of the present experiment was to examine whether this effect can be generalized to a more ecological scenario: text reading. Each participant read two stories (367 words each) taken from a standardized reading test. The stories were presented with the standard interletter spacing or with a small increase in interletter spacing (+1.2 points to default) in a within-subject design. An eyetracker was used to register the participants' eye movements. Comprehension scores were also examined. Results showed that, on average, fixation durations were shorter while reading the text with extra spacing than while reading the text with the default settings (237 vs. 245 ms, respectively; η2 =. 41, p = .01). However, the number of fixations (while nonsignificant) was slightly higher in the text with extra spacing than in the text with the default spacing, and cancelled out the effect of interletter spacing in total reading times (F < 1). Comprehension scores were similar in the two spacing conditions (F < 1). Thus, at least for skilled adult readers, interletter spacing does not seem to play a consistently facilitative role during text reading.
Guo, Ying; Connor, Carol McDonald; Tompkins, Virginia; Morrison, Frederick J
This study, using NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development longitudinal data, investigated the effects of classroom quality and students' third-grade behavioral engagement on students' third-grade reading achievement (n = 1,364) and also examined the extent to which students' third-grade behavioral engagement mediated the association between classroom quality and children's reading skills. SEM results revealed that controlling for family socio economic risk and students' first-grade reading achievement, classroom quality significantly, and positively predicted children's behavioral engagement, which in turn predicted greater reading achievement. Higher levels of children's behavioral engagement were associated with higher reading achievement. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
Guo, Ying; Connor, Carol McDonald; Tompkins, Virginia; Morrison, Frederick J.
This study, using NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development longitudinal data, investigated the effects of classroom quality and students’ third-grade behavioral engagement on students’ third-grade reading achievement (n = 1,364) and also examined the extent to which students’ third-grade behavioral engagement mediated the association between classroom quality and children's reading skills. SEM results revealed that controlling for family socio economic risk and students’ first-grade reading achievement, classroom quality significantly, and positively predicted children's behavioral engagement, which in turn predicted greater reading achievement. Higher levels of children's behavioral engagement were associated with higher reading achievement. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:21779272
Gut, Dianne M.; Safran, Stephen P.
Suggests that few teachers understand the debilitating effect that social skill deficits have on a child's daily life. Notes that instructional strategies such as cooperative learning groups and social stories can help children improve their social behavior. Encourages all educators not only to emphasize academics, but also to seize any…
Green, Katherine B.; Terry, Nicole Patton; Gallagher, Peggy A.
Quality literacy instruction in preschool can be critical to the future academic success for all children, but may be even more so for children with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to examine progress in emergent literacy skills of young children with disabilities, compared with their typical peers, in an inclusive preschool setting.…
Lloyd, Bruce A.
Noting that many preservice teachers enter required courses believing that the course is something to endure or overcome for certification, a study examined whether a reading methods course would convince students to view teaching the reading process as a vital and necessary function of content area teachers. Six classes of students (three…
de Jesús, Araiza Vázquez María; Claudia, Dörfer; Rosalinda, Castillo Corpus
This research was to establish the relationship between qualities of learning; learning skills and academic performance in undergraduate students. 310 undergraduates participated in this research of which 72% are female and 28% male. All responded Scale Learning Strategies of Roman and Gallego (1994) and Questionnaire Learning Styles of…
Wilson, Beverly J.; Petaja, Holly; Mancil, Larissa
Research Findings: Aggressive/rejected children are at risk for continuing conduct and school problems. Some limited research indicates that these children have attention problems. Previous research has linked attention problems with academic performance. The current study investigated group differences in attention skills and the role of these…
Walker, Olga L.; Henderson, Heather A.
The goals of the current study were to examine whether children's social problem solving (SPS) skills are a mechanism through which temperament influences later academic achievement and whether sex moderates these associations. The participants included 1117 children enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of…
Lane, David; Oswald, Frederick L.
The educational literature, the popular press, and educated laypeople have all echoed a conclusion from the book "Academically Adrift" by Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa (which has now become received wisdom), namely, that 45% of college students showed no significant gains in critical thinking skills. Similar results were reported by…