Schroeder, Rui M.
This study reports on the three-year development and validation of a new assessment tool--the Academic Spoken English Strategies Survey (ASESS). The questionnaire is the first of its kind to assess the listening and speaking strategy use of non-native English speaking (NNES) graduate students. A combination of sources was used to develop the…
Al Hamdany, Hayder; Picard, Michelle
This paper explores the perceptions of Iraqi students of three different English Programs (a general English for academic purposes program, a pre-enrolment English program and the English component of a disciplinary bridging program) at an Australian University as reflected in their language learning narratives. It focuses specifically on the…
Courses in Spoken English (SE) are yet to be acceptable in Indian universities because conducting session-end tests in SE is assumed to be logistically difficult and academically problematic. This article argues that it need not necessarily be so; session-end tests can be conducted just as in other courses. With voice recording, preferably a…
by Avron Barr and-dward A. Felbenbaum. DTIC document number AD A076873, 1979. 11. Kabrisky, Matthew. A Proposed Model for Visual Information Processing...functionally equivalent, in many ways, to the syntax processing of spoken English in the human brain. Because it closely models the syntax processing...previously described one should consider the following model : VOCMV SEANI PROCESSORE Figure ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~- 1..Hearhe7f1pehReonto SYTATI MEOR This modSe
Shin, Dongkwang; Nation, Paul
This study presents a list of the highest frequency collocations of spoken English based on carefully applied criteria. In the literature, more than forty terms have been used for designating multi-word units, which are generally not well defined. To avoid this confusion, six criteria are strictly applied. The ten million word BNC spoken section…
Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015
The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on languages spoken by English learners (ELs) are: (1) Twenty most common EL languages, as reported in states' top five lists: SY 2013-14; (2) States,…
Metcalf, Allan A.; And Others
This booklet points out some of the characteristics of the varieties of English spoken in Riverside and in the rest of California. The first chapter provides a general discussion of language variation and change on the levels of vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar. The second chapter discusses California English and pronunciation and vocabulary…
Kobayashi, Yuichiro; Abe, Mariko
The purpose of the present study is to assess second language (L2) spoken English using automated scoring techniques. Automated scoring aims to classify a large set of learners' oral performance data into a small number of discrete oral proficiency levels. In automated scoring, objectively measurable features such as the frequencies of lexical and…
This article aims at the feature analysis of four expository essays (Text A/B/C/D) written by secondary school students with a focus on the differences between spoken and written language. Texts C and D are better written compared with the other two (Texts A&B) which are considered more spoken in language using. The language features are…
Asik, Asuman; Cephe, Pasa Tevfik
This study investigated the production of discourse markers by non-native speakers of English and their occurrences in their spoken English by comparing them with those used in native speakers' spoken discourse. Because discourse markers (DMs) are significant items in spoken discourse of native speakers, a study about the use of DMs by nonnative…
Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015
The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on Asian/Pacific Islander languages spoken by English Learners (ELs) include: (1) Top 10 Most Common Asian/Pacific Islander Languages Spoken Among ELs:…
Jesse, Alexandra; Poellmann, Katja; Kong, Ying-Yee
Purpose: We used an eye-tracking technique to investigate whether English listeners use suprasegmental information about lexical stress to speed up the recognition of spoken words in English. Method: In a visual world paradigm, 24 young English listeners followed spoken instructions to choose 1 of 4 printed referents on a computer screen (e.g.,…
This paper reports the compilation of a corpus of Taiwanese students' spoken English, which is one of the sub-corpora of the Louvain International Database of Spoken English Interlanguage (LINDSEI) (Gilquin, De Cock, & Granger, 2010). LINDSEI is one of the largest corpora of learner speech. The compilation process follows the design criteria…
Mattys, Sven L.; Melhorn, James F.
The involvement of syllables in the perception of spoken English has traditionally been regarded as minimal because of ambiguous syllable boundaries and overriding rhythmic segmentation cues. The present experiments test the perceptual separability of syllables and vowels in spoken English using the migration paradigm. Experiments 1 and 2 show…
This article addresses key issues and considerations for teachers wanting to incorporate spoken grammar activities into their own teaching and also focuses on six common features of spoken grammar, with practical activities and suggestions for teaching them in the language classroom. The hope is that this discussion of spoken grammar and its place…
Bilingualism is common throughout the world, and bilingual children regularly develop into fluently bilingual adults. In contrast, children with cochlear implants (CIs) are frequently encouraged to focus on a spoken language to the exclusion of sign language. Here, we investigate the spoken English language skills of 5 children with CIs who also have deaf signing parents, and so receive exposure to a full natural sign language (American Sign Language, ASL) from birth, in addition to spoken English after implantation. We compare their language skills with hearing ASL/English bilingual children of deaf parents. Our results show comparable English scores for the CI and hearing groups on a variety of standardized language measures, exceeding previously reported scores for children with CIs with the same age of implantation and years of CI use. We conclude that natural sign language input does no harm and may mitigate negative effects of early auditory deprivation for spoken language development. PMID:24150489
Godley, Amanda; Escher, Allison
This article describes the perspectives of bidialectal African American adolescents--adolescents who speak both African American Vernacular English (AAVE) and Standard English--on spoken language expectations in their English classes. Previous research has demonstrated that many teachers hold negative views of AAVE, but existing scholarship has…
Language proficiency constitutes a crucial barrier for prospective international teaching assistants (ITAs). Many US universities administer screening tests to ensure that ITAs possess the required academic oral English proficiency for their TA duties. Such ITA screening tests often elicit a sample of spoken English, which is evaluated in terms of…
The present study aimed at finding whether L1 Turkish caused interference errors on Turkish EFL learners' spoken English discourse. Whether English proficiency level had any effect on the number of errors learners made was further investigated. The participants were given the chance to choose one of the two alternative topics to speak about. The…
Yu, Ping; Pan, Yingxin; Li, Chen; Zhang, Zengxiu; Shi, Qin; Chu, Wenpei; Liu, Mingzhuo; Zhu, Zhiting
Oral production is an important part in English learning. Lack of a language environment with efficient instruction and feedback is a big issue for non-native speakers' English spoken skill improvement. A computer-assisted language learning system can provide many potential benefits to language learners. It allows adequate instructions and instant…
Issues involved in teaching and assessing communicative competence are identified and applied to adolescent native English speakers with low levels of academic achievement. A distinction is drawn between transactional versus interactional speech, short versus long speaking turns, and spoken language influenced or not influenced by written…
Zhang, Ying; Elder, Catherine
This study investigates the impact of raters' language background on their judgements of the speaking performance in the College English Test-Spoken English Test (CET-SET) of China, by comparing the rating patterns of non-native English-speaking (NNES) teacher raters, who are currently employed to assess performance on the CET-SET, with those of…
Grant, Lynn E.
This article outlines criteria to define a figurative idiom, and then compares the frequent figurative idioms identified in two sources of spoken American English (academic and contemporary) to their frequency in spoken British English. This is done by searching the spoken part of the British National Corpus (BNC), to see whether they are frequent…
Gozali, Imelda; Harjanto, Ignatius
The need to improve the spoken English of kindergarten students in an international preschool in Surabaya prompted this Classroom Action Research (CAR). It involved the implementation of Form-Focused Instruction (FFI) strategy coupled with Corrective Feedback (CF) in Grammar lessons. Four grammar topics were selected, namely Regular Plural form,…
The aim of various approaches implemented, whether the classical "three Ps" (presentation, practice, and production) or communicative language teaching (CLT), is to achieve communicative competence. Although a lot of software developed for teaching spoken English is dressed up to raise interaction, its methodology is largely rooted in tradition.…
Carrero Pérez, Nubia Patricia
Task based learning (TBL) or Task based learning and teaching (TBLT) is a communicative approach widely applied in settings where English has been taught as a foreign language (EFL). It has been documented as greatly useful to improve learners' communication skills. This research intended to find the effect of tasks on students' spoken interaction…
Shaw, Emily P.
This dissertation is an examination of gesture in two game nights: one in spoken English between four hearing friends and another in American Sign Language between four Deaf friends. Analyses of gesture have shown there exists a complex integration of manual gestures with speech. Analyses of sign language have implicated the body as a medium…
Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015
The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English learners include: (1) Top 20 EL languages, as reported in states' top five lists: SY 2011-12; (2) States, including DC, with 80 percent or…
Current approaches to oral assessment of English in English secondary schools tend to concentrate more on "confidence" and "participation" than on the quality of children's thinking. This undermines the rich possibilities in classroom talk for cognitive development. Behavioural assessment approaches deny the essentially…
Wilang, Jeffrey Dawala; Sinwongsuwat, Kemtong
This year is designated as Thailand's "English Speaking Year" with the aim of improving the communicative competence of Thais for the upcoming integration of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 2015. The consistent low-level proficiency of the Thais in the English language has led to numerous curriculum revisions and…
Loban, Walter; And Others
In response to a study group concerned with the spoken word and the integrity of English instruction, Walter Loban traces speech and its development, examines oral language proficiency, discusses one study of oral language, discusses language and social class and language and learning, and concludes by commenting on the neglect speech instruction…
This paper presents the results of a survey of English Academic Style Manuals conducted between 2004 and 2007, designed to establish whether English Academic Discourse is sufficiently well-defined as a concept to be useful for translation research. Although, with the current emphasis on genre and disciplinary differences, it is fashionable today…
Academic writing requires both style and grammatical correctness; however, efforts in improving the quality of English academic writing by non-native students have been focused on grammar. Structures observed in this study were grammatically correct, but considered unnatural in academic writing genre. This research involves a group of non-native…
Jones, A C; Toscano, E; Botting, N; Marshall, C R; Atkinson, J R; Denmark, T; Herman, R; Morgan, G
Previous research has highlighted that deaf children acquiring spoken English have difficulties in narrative development relative to their hearing peers both in terms of macro-structure and with micro-structural devices. The majority of previous research focused on narrative tasks designed for hearing children that depend on good receptive language skills. The current study compared narratives of 6 to 11-year-old deaf children who use spoken English (N=59) with matched for age and non-verbal intelligence hearing peers. To examine the role of general language abilities, single word vocabulary was also assessed. Narratives were elicited by the retelling of a story presented non-verbally in video format. Results showed that deaf and hearing children had equivalent macro-structure skills, but the deaf group showed poorer performance on micro-structural components. Furthermore, the deaf group gave less detailed responses to inferencing probe questions indicating poorer understanding of the story's underlying message. For deaf children, micro-level devices most strongly correlated with the vocabulary measure. These findings suggest that deaf children, despite spoken language delays, are able to convey the main elements of content and structure in narrative but have greater difficulty in using grammatical devices more dependent on finer linguistic and pragmatic skills.
VITEVITCH, MICHAEL S.
Previous research suggests that sublexical and lexical representations are involved in spoken word recognition. The current experiment examined when sublexical and lexical representations are used in the processing of real words in English. The same set of words varying in phonotactic probability/neighbourhood density was presented in three different versions of a same-different matching task: (1) mostly real words as filler items, (2) an equal number of words and nonsense words as filler items and (3) mostly nonsense words as filler items. The results showed that lexical representations were used in version 1 of the same-different matching task to process the words, whereas sublexical representations were used in version 3 of the same-different matching task to process the words. Finally, in version 2 of the same-different matching task individual variation was observed in the form of distinct sublexical and lexical biases. Implications for the processing of spoken words are discussed. PMID:14564833
Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to examine the intelligibility of English consonants and vowels produced by Chinese-native (CN), and Korean-native (KN) students enrolled in American universities. METHOD 16 English-native (EN), 32 CN, and 32 KN speakers participated in this study. The intelligibility of 16 American English consonants and 16 vowels spoken by native and nonnative speakers of English was evaluated by EN listeners. All nonnative speakers also completed a survey of their language backgrounds. RESULTS Although the intelligibility of consonants and diphthongs for nonnative speakers was comparable to that of native speakers, the intelligibility of monophthongs was significantly lower for CN and KN speakers than for EN speakers. Sociolinguistic factors such as the age of arrival in the United States and daily use of English, as well as a linguistic factor, difference in vowel space between native (L1) and nonnative (L2) language, partially contributed to vowel intelligibility for CN and KN groups. There was no significant correlation between the length of U.S. residency and phoneme intelligibility. CONCLUSION Results indicated that the major difficulty in phonemic production in English for Chinese and Korean speakers is with vowels rather than consonants. This might be useful for developing training methods to improve English intelligibility for foreign students in the United States.
Geers, A E; Schick, B
This study examines the degree to which hearing-impaired children of hearing-impaired parents (HIP) demonstrate an advantage in their acquisition of signed and spoken English over hearing-impaired children of hearing parents (HP). A subset from the normative sample of the Grammatical Analysis of Elicited Language, 50 HIP children and 50 HP children, were matched in terms of their educational program, hearing level, and age. Results indicate that both groups had comparably poor expressive English language ability at 5 and 6 years of age. However, at age 7 and 8 HIP children demonstrated a significant linguistic advantage in both their spoken and signed English over HP children. Because the production of English by HIP children closely resembled that of orally educated hearing-impaired children of hearing parents, consistent language stimulation throughout the child's early years may be a critical factor in the development of English, regardless of the language or mode of expression.
Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne; Hurtado, Nereyda
Research using online comprehension measures with monolingual children shows that speed and accuracy of spoken word recognition are correlated with lexical development. Here we examined speech processing efficiency in relation to vocabulary development in bilingual children learning both Spanish and English (n=26 ; 2 ; 6). Between-language…
Koyalan, Aylin; Mumford, Simon
The process of writing journal articles is increasingly being seen as a collaborative process, especially where the authors are English as an Additional Language (EAL) academics. This study examines the changes made in terms of register to EAL writers' journal articles by a native-speaker writing centre advisor at a private university in Turkey.…
Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly
The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.
Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly
The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.
Albert Felty, Robert; Buchwald, Adam; Gruenenfelder, Thomas M.; Pisoni, David B.
This study reports a detailed analysis of incorrect responses from an open-set spoken word recognition experiment of 1428 words designed to be a random sample of the entire American English lexicon. The stimuli were presented in six-talker babble to 192 young, normal-hearing listeners at three signal-to-noise ratios (0, +5, and +10 dB). The results revealed several patterns: (1) errors tended to have a higher frequency of occurrence than did the corresponding target word, and frequency of occurrence of error responses was significantly correlated with target frequency of occurrence; (2) incorrect responses were close to the target words in terms of number of phonemes and syllables but had a mean edit distance of 3; (3) for syllables, substitutions were much more frequent than either deletions or additions; for phonemes, deletions were slightly more frequent than substitutions; both were more frequent than additions; and (4) for errors involving just a single segment, substitutions were more frequent than either deletions or additions. The raw data are being made available to other researchers as supplementary material to form the beginnings of a database of speech errors collected under controlled laboratory conditions. PMID:23862832
Wilson, Jane; Fang, Chloe; Rollins, Jenice; Valadez, Destinee
This project sought to gain a closer look at the contrast of oral language opportunities experienced by English learners and native speakers of English in order to draw implications for practicing teachers. Specifically, the authors explored how often and when English learners and native speakers of English engage in academic speaking in K-8…
Katz, Irvin R.; Xi, Xiaoming; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Cheng, Peter C. H.
This research applied a cognitive model to identify item features that lead to irrelevant variance on the Test of Spoken English[TM] (TSE[R]). The TSE is an assessment of English oral proficiency and includes an item that elicits a description of a statistical graph. This item type sometimes appears to tap graph-reading skills--an irrelevant…
Mauranen, Anna; Hynninen, Niina; Ranta, Elina
English is unquestionably the world language of academia--yet its most notable characteristic, being predominantly used by non-native speakers, has not seriously been taken on board in ESP descriptive studies. The project English as an academic lingua franca (ELFA) based at the University of Helsinki investigates academic discourses, branching out…
Examines the learning and use of academic English words by students who differ socioculturally. Argues that the Greco-Latin vocabulary of English offers various levels of potential difficulty for students from different class, cultural, or linguistic social factions. Infers some changes to practices in native and second language academic English…
Malone, Margaret E.
This article presents a review of the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) Assessment, a high stakes standardized test of the English language. It is a topic-based test that integrates listening, reading, writing and speaking. The test is designed to describe the level of English language proficiency of test takers planning to study at…
Guerrero, Michael D.
This article examines the primary assumption underlying the recent passage of propositions aimed at meeting the need of English language learners (ELLs). The assumption is that English language learners normally need only one year of intensive structured English immersion to learn English well enough to be academically successful in an all-English…
Chafe, Wallace; Danielwicz, Jane
To find differences and similarities between spoken and written English, analyses were made of four specific kinds of language. Twenty adults, either graduate students or university professors, provided a sample of each of the following: conversations, lectures, informal letters, and academic papers. Conversations and lecture samples came from…
Freberg, Miranda E.
The purpose of the study was to investigate how English language proficiency is related to teacher judgments of students' academic and interpersonal competence. It was hypothesized that English Language Learner (ELL) students would generally be perceived as having weaker academic and interpersonal skills than their non-ELL counterparts regardless…
Anderson, Alida; Loughlin, Sandra M.
Teacher and student academic discourse was examined in an urban arts-integrated school to better understand facilitation of students' English language learning. Participants' discourse was compared across English language arts (ELA) lessons with and without classroom drama in a third-grade classroom of English learning (EL) students (N = 18) with…
Gollan, Tamar H.; Weissberger, Gali H.; Runnqvist, Elin; Montoya, Rosa I.; Cera, Cynthia M.
This study investigated correspondence between different measures of bilingual language proficiency contrasting self-report, proficiency interview, and picture naming skills. Fifty-two young (Experiment 1) and 20 aging (Experiment 2) Spanish-English bilinguals provided self-ratings of proficiency level, were interviewed for spoken proficiency, and…
Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the intelligibility of English consonants and vowels produced by Chinese-native (CN), and Korean-native (KN) students enrolled in American universities. Method: 16 English-native (EN), 32 CN, and 32 KN speakers participated in this study. The intelligibility of 16 American English consonants and 16…
AL-Malki, Eidhah Abdullah; Majid, Norazman Abdul; Omar, Noor Abidah Mohd
According to the Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English 1999 by Biber et al. (p. 266) generic article uses are more than twice as common in academic English than in conversation or fiction. This is an area that English for Academic Purpose (EPA) textbooks and teachers would need to target more than general English teaching. This paper is…
Duszak, Anna; Lewkowicz, Jo
The language in which to publish is a complex issue for academics in Poland. With the growth of English as the global lingua franca it may appear to be the obvious language of choice. Yet, publishing in English inevitably brings with it linguistic challenges. It also raises concerns of a social and ideological nature. Choosing to publish in Polish…
Introduction. The greatest importance of the continuing professional development is the use of 3-5 languages, with at least 2-3 on the level of native/first language to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. English for Academic Purposes activity as a form of life activity is a basic demand for studying English for…
This is the 2010-11 annual report on the academic progress of English language learners in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools. The purpose of the report is to: (1) Describe the demographic characteristics of students classified as English Language Learners (ELL) in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools (M-DCPS); (2) Provide data regarding ELL…
Donnelly, Whitney Bray; Roe, Christopher J.
Often, English-language development (ELD) is taught during a dedicated time of the school day. There is often a mismatch between the content of ELD and the lessons taught during core instruction provided during the remainder of the day. During core instruction, teachers use specially designed academic instruction in English strategies to ensure…
Pae, Hye K.
The aim of this study was to apply Rasch modeling to an examination of the psychometric properties of the "Pearson Test of English Academic" (PTE Academic). Analyzed were 140 test-takers' scores derived from the PTE Academic database. The mean age of the participants was 26.45 (SD = 5.82), ranging from 17 to 46. Conformity of the participants'…
This study examines the academic motivation, in a Turkish context, of Turkish pre-service English teachers to contribute field research. Students (n=287) completed the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) and a demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, a one-way ANOVA, independent sample t-test, and Pearson product…
As one of the emerging technologies, the Second Life virtual world provides learners of English as a Foreign Language with a unique opportunity of learning authentic language with native and non-native speakers of English in a virtual environment. It enables them to learn the target language in a real-life-like social communication environment. To…
Tay, Mary W. J.
A discussion of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction begins with a review of the English language teaching situation in Singapore today and goes on to examine issues in the production of ESL instructional materials. The focus is on oral language instruction. The first section, concerning Singapore, outlines the structure of syllabuses…
Chinese EFL learners may have difficulty in speaking fluent and accurate English, for their speaking competence are likely to be influenced by cognitive, linguistic and affective factors. With the aim to enhance those learners' oral proficiency, this paper first discusses three effective models of teaching English speaking, and then proposes a…
Academic language is the linguistic glue that holds the tasks, texts, and tests of school together. If students can't use this glue well, their academic work is likely to fall apart. According to the author of this article, "academic language" is defined as the set of words and phrases that (1) describe content-area knowledge and procedures; (2)…
The Differences between Spoken and Written Grammar in English, in Comparison with Vietnamese (Las Diferencias entre la Gramática Oral y Escrita del Idioma Inglés en Comparación con el Idioma Vietnamita)
Thanh, Nguyen Cao
The fundamental point of this paper is to describe and evaluate some differences between spoken and written grammar in English, and compare some of the points with Vietnamese. This paper illustrates that spoken grammar is less rigid than written grammar. Moreover, it highlights the distinction between speaking and writing in terms of subordination…
McGrath, Lisa; Kaufhold, Kathrin
Academic Literacies and English for Specific Purposes perspectives on the teaching of academic writing tend to be positioned as dichotomous and ideologically incompatible. Nonetheless, recent studies have called for the integration of these two perspectives in the design of writing programmes in order to meet the needs of students in the…
Most teaching and reference materials on English idioms are primarily intuition based. As such, they often include seldom-used idioms and incorrect descriptions of the meaning and use of some idioms, hence limiting their usefulness to ESOL students. This article demonstrates how this problem can be addressed through a corpus-based study of the…
Describes a story telling process, a technique for teaching oral English as a Second Language. This technique can be used at any proficiency level beyond the beginner stage, can be adapted to various class sizes, and requires no special materials for students. (JL)
Intermountain School, Brigham City, UT.
This curriculum guide provides a tentative outline for five levels of oral English instruction. The lesson-by-lesson objectives, grammar, and vocabulary are listed. Textbooks are recommended to accompany the lesson outline. The first four levels seek to foster oral language skills with increasing complexity through the first eight grades of…
Diaz, Abel; Cochran, Kathryn; Karlin, Nancy
English language learners (ELL) are students with a primary language spoken other than English enrolled in U.S. educational settings. As ELL students take on the challenges of learning English and U.S. culture, they must also learn academic content. The expectation to succeed academically in a foreign culture and language, while learning to speak…
Cons, Andrea M.
This study explores the following research question: How do secondary English learners (ELs) and Re-designated fluent English proficient students (RFEPs) use academic words in analytical writing in comparison to native English speakers (NESs)? It highlights previously overlooked differences in academic word use in the writing of students who are…
Riordan, Brian; Dye, Melody; Jones, Michael N
Recent studies of eye movements in world-situated language comprehension have demonstrated that rapid processing of morphosyntactic information - e.g., grammatical gender and number marking - can produce anticipatory eye movements to referents in the visual scene. We investigated how type of morphosyntactic information and the goals of language users in comprehension affected eye movements, focusing on the processing of grammatical number morphology in English-speaking adults. Participants' eye movements were recorded as they listened to simple English declarative (There are the lions.) and interrogative (Where are the lions?) sentences. In Experiment 1, no differences were observed in speed to fixate target referents when grammatical number information was informative relative to when it was not. The same result was obtained in a speeded task (Experiment 2) and in a task using mixed sentence types (Experiment 3). We conclude that grammatical number processing in English and eye movements to potential referents are not tightly coordinated. These results suggest limits on the role of predictive eye movements in concurrent linguistic and scene processing. We discuss how these results can inform and constrain predictive approaches to language processing.
Riordan, Brian; Dye, Melody; Jones, Michael N.
Recent studies of eye movements in world-situated language comprehension have demonstrated that rapid processing of morphosyntactic information – e.g., grammatical gender and number marking – can produce anticipatory eye movements to referents in the visual scene. We investigated how type of morphosyntactic information and the goals of language users in comprehension affected eye movements, focusing on the processing of grammatical number morphology in English-speaking adults. Participants’ eye movements were recorded as they listened to simple English declarative (There are the lions.) and interrogative (Where are the lions?) sentences. In Experiment 1, no differences were observed in speed to fixate target referents when grammatical number information was informative relative to when it was not. The same result was obtained in a speeded task (Experiment 2) and in a task using mixed sentence types (Experiment 3). We conclude that grammatical number processing in English and eye movements to potential referents are not tightly coordinated. These results suggest limits on the role of predictive eye movements in concurrent linguistic and scene processing. We discuss how these results can inform and constrain predictive approaches to language processing. PMID:25999900
Martirosyan, Nara M.; Hwang, Eunjin; Wanjohi, Reubenson
Using an ex-post facto, non-experimental approach, this research examined the impact of English language proficiency and multilingualism on the academic performance of international students enrolled in a four-year university located in north central Louisiana in the United States. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire from 59…
According to Beck, McKeown, and Kucan's Three Tier Model (2002), when it comes to language instruction the distinction between academic vocabulary words and content specific words has a significant bearing on the language success of English language learners (ELLs). In this article, the author describes strategies that give teachers and parents…
Brooks, Katie; Thurston, Linda P.
This study used an ecobehavioral approach to investigate the conditional probability that English language learning (ELL) students would engage in academic tasks in urban middle school content area classrooms within different instructional grouping configurations. These configurations included whole class, small group, one-to-one, and individual…
Short, Deborah J.; Fidelman, Carolyn G.; Louguit, Mohammed
This article describes a study examining the effects of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) model instruction on the academic language performance of middle and high school English language learners. The SIOP model is an approach for teaching content curriculum to students learning through a new language. Teachers employ techniques…
Brown, Jean E.
A list of 26 periodicals for use as supplementary instruction for gifted English students presents information on title, frequency of publication, and on publisher (along with a brief annotation) for publications in six categories: literary anthology; cultural and historical heritage; humor; literary criticism; literary, political, and social…
English textbooks are widely used in every discipline in the majority of colleges and universities in Taiwan. To prepare college students for their future careers, it is necessary they be given systematic training and practice in reading these books. However, due to time constraints, most content teachers focus on the delivery of content rather…
This research aimed to investigate; students' English academic achievement, beliefs about English language learning, English language learning strategies, and the relationship of them. Descriptive and correlational design, quantitative methods were applied in this research. The students' final English scores of the first year, BALLI, and SILL were…
Al-Khairy, Mohamed Ali
This study attempted to investigate Saudi English-major undergraduates studying at Taif University to identify a) the types of academic writing Saudi English-major undergraduates carry out at English departments, b) Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems, c) the reasons behind Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems and…
DiCerbo, Patricia A.; Anstrom, Kristina A.; Baker, Lottie L.; Rivera, Charlene
Academic English (AE) refers to the language used in school to help students acquire and use knowledge. This article reviews current literature to determine what is known about the nature of AE within the context of K-12 schooling. It describes how AE is conceptualized in the education research literature, how these conceptualizations are realized…
August, Diane; Artzi, Lauren; Barr, Christopher
The Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards require students to understand and produce academic language that appears in informational text. Vocabulary is a critical domain of academic language, but English language learners (ELLs) come to the English Language Arts classroom with more limited English vocabulary than…
Fass-Holmes, Barry; Vaughn, Allison A.
Many American universities require international applicants whose native language is not English to submit English proficiency exam scores presumably because of proficiency's potential to predict future academic success. The present study provides evidence, however, that such applicants can succeed academically despite struggling with English.…
Adzmi, Nor Aslah; Bidin, Samsiah; Ibrahim, Syazliyati; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman
The purpose of this study was to analyse the academic English language lacks and needs of Industrial Design students in Universiti Teknologi MARA Kedah (UiTM). It highlights the lacks and needs for English for Academic Purposes in helping the students to succeed in the program through the usage of English language. The research tools used were in…
Burnham-Massey, Laurie; Pina, Marilyn
Examines the effects of bilingual instruction on English academic achievement of limited English proficient (LEP) students. Finds that bilingual education is an effective instructional program for LEP students. (MG)
Parker, Caroline; O'Dwyer, Laura; Irwin, Clare
English learner students are one of the fastest growing subgroups in America's schools, and gaps between English learner students and their native English-speaking peers in academic outcomes remain large in most districts and states. This study examines data for all English learner students in grades K-12 in the study district who took the…
Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Nakamura, Naoko; Hoshino, Takahiro; Hagiwara, Hiroko
Children's foreign-language (FL) learning is a matter of much social as well as scientific debate. Previous behavioral research indicates that starting language learning late in life can lead to problems in phonological processing. Inadequate phonological capacity may impede lexical learning and semantic processing (phonological bottleneck hypothesis). Using both behavioral and neuroimaging data, here we examine the effects of age of first exposure (AOFE) and total hours of exposure (HOE) to English, on 350 Japanese primary-school children's semantic processing of spoken English. Children's English proficiency scores and N400 event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were analyzed in multiple regression analyses. The results showed (1) that later, rather than earlier, AOFE led to higher English proficiency and larger N400 amplitudes, when HOE was controlled for; and (2) that longer HOE led to higher English proficiency and larger N400 amplitudes, whether AOFE was controlled for or not. These data highlight the important role of amount of exposure in FL learning, and cast doubt on the view that starting FL learning earlier always produces better results.
McKenzie, Robert M.
In addition to the examination of non-linguists' evaluations of different speech varieties, in recent years sociolinguists and sociophoneticians have afforded greater attention towards the ways in which naïve listeners perceive, process, and encode spoken language variation, including the identification of language varieties as regionally or…
Perez, Maria; Kennedy, Alec
The number of students that live in families where a language other than English is spoken has risen relative to the English-only households in the United States over the last 25 years. These students face the dual challenge of mastering English while acquiring academic skills and knowledge. The education of these students has been shaped by…
Wang, Min-Fen; Bakken, Lori L.
Introduction: Academic writing for publication is competitive and demanding for researchers. For the novice English-as-a-second-language (ESL) researcher, the pressure to publish compounds the difficulties of mastering the English language. Very few studies have used ESL graduate and post-graduate students as academic writing research subjects.…
The study utilised a fine-grained diagnostic checklist to assess first-year undergraduates in Hong Kong and evaluated its validity and usefulness for diagnosing academic writing in English. Ten English language instructors marked 472 academic essays with the checklist. They also agreed on a Q-matrix, which specified the relationships among the…
Jackson, Daniel O.
This article describes the implementation of technology-mediated tasks in an English for academic purposes (EAP) curriculum at a Japanese university. The course addressed the needs of English majors at the school by enabling more efficient completion of academic work, including essay writing. One way that technology supported this goal was through…
Behrens, Susan; Mercer, Cindy
The academic demands of classroom English require students to think about language structure in ways that they are not used to. Everybody "knows" much English grammar intuitively but the academic rules themselves can be difficult to articulate. This goes for punctuation, too: errors often reflect students' lack of explicit knowledge of grammatical…
A study investigated the consistency of criteria for academic English skills as applied by teachers of academic English and science lecturers in a South African historically black university. Both groups were asked to evaluate first-year students' essays on the greenhouse effect. Results indicated a wide variation in scores and judgments within…
This article considers a case of local language socialization and accommodation in a multilingual community of practice: the use of English as an additional academic language for specific purposes at a bilingual Swiss university and its implications for teaching. The acronym ELF(A) is used throughout as short for English as a Lingua Franca (in…
Bohát, Róbert; Rödlingová, Beata; Horáková, Nina
Corpus of High School Academic Texts (COHAT), currently of 150,000+ words, aims to make academic language instruction a more data-driven and student-centered discovery learning as a special type of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL), emphasizing students' critical thinking and metacognition. Since 2013, high school English as an additional…
Salamonson, Yenna; Everett, Bronwyn; Koch, Jane; Andrew, Sharon; Davidson, Patricia M
Students who speak English as a second language (ESL) face considerable challenges in English language universities, but little is known about the relationship between English-language acculturation and academic performance. A prospective, correlational design was used to validate the English Language Acculturation Scale (ELAS), a measure of the linguistic aspect of acculturation, and to determine the relationship between English-language acculturation and academic achievement among 273 first-year nursing students. Exploratory factor analyses demonstrated that the ELAS was a valid and reliable measure (alpha = .89). When ELAS scores were examined in relation to students' grades, students with the lowest ELAS scores also had the lowest mean subject grades, highlighting the need to place greater emphasis on identifying English-language acculturation among ESL students.
Latterman, Caroline Kennelly
This experiment measured teachers' attitudes towards African American English and Academic English. Participants were graduate students of Education at a college in New York City. They completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire that assessed their explicit attitudes towards the two varieties, as well as a Psycholinguistic Experiment that was…
Frequent use of non-finites is an important feature of English academic writing (Chafe & Danielewicz, 1987), but teachers and students in the Chinese environment are not aware of it. To investigate the problems that can be found in academic writings by Chinese students is significant in two aspects: academic writing by Chinese EFL students…
Feghali, Maksoud N.
This book teaches the Arabic Lebanese dialect through topics such as food, clothing, transportation, and leisure activities. It also provides background material on the Arab World in general and the region where Lebanese Arabic is spoken or understood--Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Palestine--in particular. This language guide is based on the phonetic…
Foorman, Barbara; Espinosa, Anabel; Wood, Carla; Wu, Yi-Chieh
A top education priority in the United States is to address the needs of one of the fastest growing yet lowest performing student populations--English learner students (Capps et al., 2005). English learner students come from homes where a non-English language is spoken and need additional academic support to access the mainstream curriculum. These…
This article discusses the danger of subtractive English in higher education in Norway. If the use of a mother tongue as the medium of communication at the highest academic levels ceases, is drastically reduced and replaced through the use of a foreign tongue, we may speak of subtractive learning. If the mother tongue is being replaced by a foreign tongue in academic writing, in research and university level teaching, the mother tongue will stagnate. The vocabulary needed has not been allowed to develop at the highest academic level. The author maintains that the Norwegian language is threatened as an academic language and here discusses the following five phenomena, all contributing to this threat: 1. The increasing use of English words in Norwegian academic, bureaucratic or technological language. 2. The sale of more academic literature in English and stagnation of academic literature in Norwegian. 3. The recruitment of teaching staff who do not speak Norwegian. 4. The growth in Master degree courses taught in English. 5. The financial rewards being given to academic staff publishing in an international language (read: English) instead of in the mother tongue.
Chang, Sandy Ming-San
As an initial step toward understanding which features of academic language make science-based expository text difficult for students with different English language proficiency (ELP) designations, this study investigated fifth-grade students' thoughts on text difficulty, their knowledge of the features of academic language, and the relationship between academic language and reading comprehension. Forty-five fifth-grade students participated in the study; 18 students were classified as English language learners (ELLs) and 27 students were fluent-English speakers. Participants read two science passages, answered comprehension questions, and engaged in a retrospective interview which probed their knowledge on the academic language features of vocabulary, grammar, and discourse. Qualitative analysis was used to code students' thoughts about the challenges to reading comprehension and to identify the challenges that were related to academic language. Quantitative analyses were conducted to examine whether students' knowledge of academic language features and reading comprehension differed by students' ELP designations, as well as to investigate the relationship between students' knowledge of academic language features and reading comprehension. Results for the qualitative analysis revealed that students found difficult vocabulary, reading abilities, and prior knowledge as the greatest challenges to comprehending the science passages. Results from the quantitative analyses indicated that ELL students' knowledge of academic vocabulary, grammar, discourse knowledge, and reading comprehension (as measured by multiple-choice questions) were significantly lower than the fluent-English speaking students. The results also indicated that vocabulary, not grammar or discourse features, was significantly related to students' comprehension scores. The results have implications for understanding the features of academic language that influence students' comprehension of expository
Lange, Cheryl M; Lane-Outlaw, Susan; Lange, William E; Sherwood, Dyan L
This study examines reading and mathematics academic growth of deaf and hard-of-hearing students instructed through an American Sign Language (ASL)/English bilingual model. The study participants were exposed to the model for a minimum of 4 years. The study participants' academic growth rates were measured using the Northwest Evaluation Association's Measure of Academic Progress assessment and compared with a national-normed group of grade-level peers that consisted primarily of hearing students. The study also compared academic growth for participants by various characteristics such as gender, parents' hearing status, and secondary disability status and examined the academic outcomes for students after a minimum of 4 years of instruction in an ASL/English bilingual model. The findings support the efficacy of the ASL/English bilingual model.
Barrett, Neil E.; Liu, Gi-Zen
English has become the de facto language for communication in academia in many parts of the world, but English language learners often lack the language resources to make effective oral academic presentations. However, English for academic purposes (EAP) research is beginning to provide valuable insights into this emerging field. This literature…
Drawn on the sociocultural paradigm, I examined teacher-student communication with emphasis on teacher's talk and its role on international students' learning English as a Second Language in an English for Academic Purposes classroom in a global campus in the U.S. Developmental data analyses of class observations, teacher and student interviews,…
Based on the analysis of the questionnaire survey on learning motivation and learning needs of postgraduates and their demands and suggestions on English teaching, the paper makes a beneficial exploration on English course model for postgraduates in agricultural universities. Under the guidance of academic game theory, the "language skills+…
Que, Hua; Li, Xuemei
This study looks into the changing voice of Chinese Post-80s' students in English academic writing. Data were collected qualitatively through interviews with four Chinese Post-80s overseas graduate students and through an examination of their English essays with a focus on discursive features. Findings indicate that Chinese Post-80s' voice is…
Chen, Jin; Belkada, Safia; Okamoto, Toshio
This paper describes an experimental study aimed at investigating the learning effectiveness of a Web-based course called "Academic English" (EAP) for Japanese learners of English. The main focus of the study was to examine the form, function, and impact of interaction in the course. Twenty university-level EFL students participated in…
Dutro, Susana; Levy, Ellen; Moore, David W.
Susana Dutro and Ellen Levy are leaders of E.L. Achieve, an organization dedicated to assisting educators in equipping English learners for academic achievement. They see adolescent English learners regularly confronting the challenge of developing the language needed to fully participate in middle and high school classrooms. Their approach to…
LaRocque, Geraldine E.
Testing Marshall McLuhan's thesis that the educational system favors the visually oriented student and militates against the audile-tactile youngster, this pilot study attempted to discover whether or not academically successful ninth-grade English students have a different sensory response pattern than unsuccessful ninth-grade English students.…
Individuals need communicative competence for personal fulfillment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment. Aim of the research is to work out English for Academic Purposes activity organization model and its introducing sequence for promoting communicative competence. Content: the search for English for Academic…
Weisberg, Jill; McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen
Code-blends (simultaneous words and signs) are a unique characteristic of bimodal bilingual communication. Using fMRI, we investigated code-blend comprehension in hearing native ASL-English bilinguals who made a semantic decision (edible?) about signs, audiovisual words, and semantically equivalent code-blends. English and ASL recruited a similar fronto-temporal network with expected modality differences: stronger activation for English in auditory regions of bilateral superior temporal cortex, and stronger activation for ASL in bilateral occipitotemporal visual regions and left parietal cortex. Code-blend comprehension elicited activity in a combination of these regions, and no cognitive control regions were additionally recruited. Furthermore, code-blends elicited reduced activation relative to ASL presented alone in bilateral prefrontal and visual extrastriate cortices, and relative to English alone in auditory association cortex. Consistent with behavioral facilitation observed during semantic decisions, the findings suggest that redundant semantic content induces more efficient neural processing in language and sensory regions during bimodal language integration.
Roca-Varela, Mª Luisa; Palacios, Ignacio M.
This paper examines some of the best known proficiency tests in English, with particular focus on the oral component. Attention is paid to the following issues, among others: the weighting of oral elements in testing, the criteria used for the assessment of oral skills and the relation of these to the general guidelines in the "Common…
Olsson, Anna; Sheridan, Vera
This empirical study surveyed academic staff at a Swedish university about their experiences and perceptions of the use of English in their academic fields. The objective was to examine how the influence of English in disciplinary domains might affect the viability of Swedish in the academic sphere and to investigate how it might disadvantage…
Aliakbari, Mohammad; Abol-Nejadian, Rezvan
Although a large body of research has been dedicated to examining emotional intelligence (EI) and learning styles in relation to different factors in academic setting, the relationship between these two variables still necessitates more exploration and deeper study, especially in the Iranian context. To this end, 60 English for Academic Purposes…
Strike, Tony; Taylor, John
This paper sets out findings from research that considered the interplay between English national policy developments in human resources management in higher education and the personal stories of academic staff as career participants. Academic careers are pursued in an institutional and national policy context but it was not clear that the formal…
Akyildiz, Seçil Tümen; Semerci, Çetin
This study aimed at investigating the effect of the cognitive coaching-supported reflective teaching approach in English language teaching on the academic success of students and on the permanence of success. It was conducted during the spring semester of 2013/2014 academic year at the School of Foreign Languages, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey.…
Young, Lynne; O'Brien, Trudy
Describes a program designed to improve English skills in university students learning English as a second language through a Canadian literature and history component. Reading lists are appended. (AM)
This study selects postgraduate students in the first grade as the participants, based on their needs analysis, classroom presentations and performance of assignments completion, through the methodology of case study, the results show that students at the university level even the graduate levels still struggle with academic English. Thus, this…
Non-English speaking students lack the confidence and preparation to be verbally actively engaged in the classroom. Students may frequently display hesitation in learning to speak English, and may also lack a teacher's guidance in becoming proficient English speakers. The purpose of this research is to examine how teachers build academic…
In this article, I address the present-day political and pedagogical implications of the imposition of one year of English only immersion on limited English proficient (LEP) students. The article also presents a case study of an inner-city community in Massachusetts during the early years -- 1968-1974 -- of transition from English only to…
Weaver, Roslyn; Jackson, Debra
Academic writing skills are essential to the successful completion of preregistration nursing programs, yet the development of such skills is a challenge for many nursing students, particularly those who speak English as a second language (ESL). It is vital to develop and evaluate strategies that can support academic writing skills for ESL nursing students. This qualitative study evaluated a four-day academic writing intervention strategy designed to support ESL first-year nursing students. Data from the program showed two major areas of difficulty for participants relating to academic writing: problems understanding course content in English, and problems expressing their understanding of that content in English. The participants noted a key benefit of this program was the provision of individual feedback. Programs such as this intervention successfully meet the demands of ESL nursing students, although ongoing support is also needed.
Dev, Smitha; Qiqieh, Sura
The present study aims to find out the relationship between English Language proficiency, self-esteem, and academic achievement of the students in Abu Dhabi University (ADU). The variables were analyzed using "t" test, chi-squire and Pearson's product moment correlation. In addition, Self-rating scale, Self-esteem inventory and Language…
Hijikata, Yuko; Nakatani, Yasuo; Shimizu, Maki
Academic reading has been less emphasized compared with academic writing as a site of research inquiry. Although some studies have examined reading strategy use in academic reading (e.g., Block, 1986; Plakans, 2009), these studies used short passages only, and there have been a few studies that have focused on the mental representation constructed…
Examines similarities and differences in the degree of commitment and detachment in English, Bulgarian, and Bulgarian English research articles in linguistics. Analysis shows considerable difference in the overall distribution of hedges and boosters throughout the introductions, discussions, and conclusions of the articles, which may lead to…
Öztürk, Yusuf; Köse, Gül Durmusoglu
Lexical bundles such as "on the other hand" and "as a result of" are extremely common and important in academic discourse. The appropriate use of lexical bundles typical of a specific academic discipline is important for writers and the absence of such bundles may not sound fluent and native-like. Recent studies (e.g. Adel…
Cons, Andrea Marie
This study investigated the specific ways secondary English learners (ELs) and redesignated fluent English-proficient learners (RFEPs) use academic vocabulary that assesses interpretive reading and analytical writing ability. The research examines how ELs and RFEPs, formerly ELs, differ in use and misuse of academic words. The study extends…
Baker, Scott; Lesaux, Nonie; Jayanthi, Madhavi; Dimino, Joseph; Proctor, C. Patrick; Morris, Joan; Gersten, Russell; Haymond, Kelly; Kieffer, Michael J.; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca
As English learners face the double demands of building knowledge of a second language while learning complex grade-level content, teachers must find effective ways to make challenging content comprehensible for students. This updated English learner practice guide, "Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and…
Lillis, Theresa; Curry, Mary Jane
Scholars around the world are under increasing pressure to publish their research in the medium of English. However, little empirical research has explored how the global premium of English influences the academic text production of scholars working outside of English-speaking countries. This article draws on a longitudinal text-oriented…
Frantz, Roger S.; Bailey, Alison L.; Starr, Laura; Perea, Luis
The current focus across the U.S. on student college and career readiness standards makes clear that both instruction and assessment of academic English will continue to be important for school-age English learner (EL) students. This article presents an overview and summary of key literature on academic language (usually academic English);…
Baker, Gregory A.
Already academically at risk, students in the rapidly growing English Language Learner (ELL) student population in the United States face additional challenges due to regression of English language acquisition over the average ten-week agrarian summer break when they return to homes in which Spanish was the primary language spoken. While the…
Indiana State Commission for Higher Education, Indianapolis.
This guide to Indiana's academic standards in English/Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, and the Social Studies for Grade 8 students begins with a note to students and another note to parents. The guide spells out what students should know and be able to do in each subject, at each grade level. The guide also lists 10 things parents can do to…
Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.
This guide to Indiana's academic standards in English/Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, and the Social Studies for Grade 6 students begins with a note to students and another note to parents. The guide spells out what students should know and be able to do in each subject, at each grade level. The guide also lists 10 things parents can do to…
Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.
This guide to Indiana's academic standards in English/Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, and the Social Studies for Grade 5 students begins with a note to students and another note to parents. The guide spells out what students should know and be able to do in each subject, at each grade level. The guide also lists 10 things parents can do to…
Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.
This guide to Indiana's academic standards in English/Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, and the Social Studies for Grade 7 students begins with a note to students and another note to parents. The guide spells out what students should know and be able to do in each subject, at each grade level. The guide also lists 10 things parents can do to…
Learner motivation is considered a vital factor in second language instruction. An analysis of motivation types and degrees can reveal learners' expectations and learning objectives. The present study analyzes the motivational patterns of a group of English for academic and professional purposes (EAPP) learners while focusing on types and degrees…
Kim, Won Gyoung; García, Shernaz B.
Long-term, adolescent English language learners (ELLs) experience persistent academic underachievement in spite of several years of schooling; yet, the research on this topic is scant. To increase our understanding of these students' educational experiences, we explored perceptions of 13 long-term ELLs about their schooling in the context of their…
Mertin, Patricia Anne
This ethnographic study examines the role of Japanese students' culture and its effects on the rate of acquisition of academic English. It is based on observation of classes in Japanese schools, both in Japan and Germany, as well as in an international school, together with interviews, questionnaires, student responses and case studies over a…
Choi, Ick Kyu
At the University of California, Los Angeles, the Test of Oral Proficiency (TOP), an internally developed oral proficiency test, is administered to international teaching assistant (ITA) candidates to ensure an appropriate level of academic oral English proficiency. Test taker performances are rated live by two raters according to four subscales.…
Bai, Li; Millwater, Jan; Hudson, Peter
Research capacity building has become a prominent theme in higher education institutions in China and across the world. However, Chinese Teaching English as a Foreign Language academics' research output has been quite limited. In order to build their research capacity, it is necessary to understand their perceptions about research. This case study…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.
As a preliminary version of the rationale and content for the English-language arts portion of the "Survey of Academic Skills: Grade 12," this booklet describes elements of the new reading and editing tests to be used to complement a direct writing assessment in this part of the 1987-88 California Assessment Program (CAP). After a brief…
Many English Language Learners (ELLs) migrate to the United States at older ages and administrators must choose a grade in which to place these new entrants as soon as they register for school. In this study, I estimate the effect of grade placement on the short-term academic performance of ELLs who enroll in the Miami-Dade County Public School…
Luna, Rosa Munoz
The following article aims to revisit Selinker's theory of Interlanguage by analysing a group of undergraduates' written scripts in L2. The initial outcomes of the study establish a linguistic parallelism between students' Interlingua and English as a lingua franca in the academic world. In the light of this comparison, certain theoretical…
de Souza, Marcela
The purpose of this article is to share findings from a qualitative study showing the positive influences the local public library and the school library had on the personal and academic lives of 18 low-income English language learners of Mexican descent while they were adjusting to the numerous demands of school in the US. For these students, the…
Explores the genre of the post graduate research proposal as an institutional requirement for international graduate students in an Australian university. Following a survey of attitudes and practices of supervisors, reflects on the political and social dimensions of the role of English for academic purposes (EAP) teachers and reconceptualizes EAP…
Studies have been conducted to determine the impact of English language on the academic achievement of international students in higher education institutions in the United States. The results of these investigations have been varied and at times contradictory. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate studies from 1987-2009 that…
Todd, Tracye A.; Stinson, Terrye A.; Sivakumaran, Thillainatarajan
Over the past decade, the number of non-native English speaking students in higher education has increased dramatically. Educators at all levels have experienced challenges in meeting the academic needs of these students and continue to seek strategies for addressing these challenges. This paper describes some of this research related to K-12 and…
Niehaus, Kate; Adelson, Jill L.
This study examined the relationships among school support, parental school involvement, and academic and social-emotional outcomes for children who are English language learners (ELLs). The sample included 1,020 third-grade ELLs who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K). Results from structural equation modeling showed…
Asoodar, Maryam; Marandi, Seyyedeh Susan; Vaezi, Shahin; Desmet, Piet
In this study we explored the effect of podcasting on the motivation of the students in an online English for Academic Purposes (EAP) course at the university level (N = 179). By using a mixed-method approach, we analyzed the data collected on the learners' impressions about using podcasts as a learning tool. The particular aim of this study was…
Jia, J.; Chen, Y.; Ding, Z.; Bai, Y.; Yang, B.; Li, M.; Qi, J.
This research conducted quasi-experiments in four middle schools to evaluate the long-term effects of an intelligent web-based English instruction system, Computer Simulation in Educational Communication (CSIEC), on students' academic attainment. The analysis of regular examination scores and vocabulary test validates the positive impact of CSIEC,…
The purpose of this study was to examine selected factors related to the 8th grade mathematics achievement levels of English Language Learner (ELL) students in selected South Texas middle schools. The dependent variable, ELL mathematics achievement, was measured by the ELL student's raw score on the State of Texas Assessment of Academic Readiness…
Shim, Jenna Min
Using Pierre Bourdieu's concept of "habitus," this work analyzes five teachers' beliefs about English language learners' academic challenges. In reference to reproductive and inventive qualities of "habitus," this article argues that teachers' beliefs that are linked to their socio-cultural backgrounds can delimit or enhance…
... Office of English Language Acquisition; Overview Information; Language Enhancement, and Academic... Priority 2 is from Title V, Part D, Subpart 9, section 5493 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act... Education Department General Administrative Regulations (EDGAR) in 34 CFR parts 75, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82,...
This article investigates the effects of the maintenance of Japanese as a heritage language on English and overall academic achievement. The interrelationships among Japanese oral and writing proficiency, SAT I Verbal, SAT I, and high school grade point average (GPA) were examined. The participants were 31 second generation Japanese-American…
Umansky, Ilana M.
This study examines the characteristics and determinants of English learners' (ELs') access to academic content in middle school (Grades 6-8). Following 10 years of data from a large urban school district in California, I identify two predominant characteristics of EL access to content: leveled tracking in which ELs are overrepresented in lower…
In recent years a number of comparative studies based on an established approach to genre analysis have been published in the English for Academic Purposes (EAP) literature. Studies in this emerging strand of research typically aim to identify how the rhetorical structure of a particular genre (a text type) or part of a genre may vary across…
This article presents an innovative adaptation of the case method to teaching English for specific academic purposes. Widespread in its traditional form in various content disciplines, the case method bears the potential for truly student-centred language instruction. The current application transforms learners from case analysts to case authors…
Erten, Ismail Hakki
This study seeks to explain prevalent gender differences in academic achievement of 84 third-year students enrolled in a pre-service ELT (English Language Teaching) teacher training department. The study collected both qualitative and quantitative data through semi-structured interviews from a sample of 38 students. A content analysis of the data…
Sidman-Taveau, Rebekah; Karathanos-Aguilar, Katya
Graduate-level ESL students in Education are future multicultural educators and promising role models for our diverse K-12 students. However, many of these students struggle with academic English and, in particular, writing. Yet little research or program development addresses the specific writing-support needs of this group. This article shares…
While many US colleges and universities offer specialized writing courses for multilingual students entering as freshmen, including international students, there is typically little instructional support for the academic English needs of international transfer students. This article describes the development and implementation of a writing course…
This article provides an examination of the literature on issues surrounding the problems Japanese university students face in learning critical argument in their English academic writing courses. Japanese students' critical thinking skills are criticized as not fostered in their university education, perhaps due to Confucian education ideals,…
Suleman, Qaiser; Hussain, Ishtiaq
The purpose of the research paper was to investigate the effect of eclectic learning approach on the academic achievement and retention of students in English at elementary level. A sample of forty students of 8th grade randomly selected from Government Boys High School Khurram District Karak was used. It was an experimental study and that's why…
This article examines the relationship between managerialism and academic professionalism in English universities. Managerialist ideology has introduced to higher education a range of discourses and practices originating in the corporate world. According to much of the existing literature this is leading to feelings of proletarianisation and…
This case study of an adjunct-model English for Academic Purposes (EAP) writing course linked to a policy-analysis course describes an effective approach for putting "specificity" into practice in EAP curriculum design. The rationale for interdisciplinary collaboration, the positive learning outcomes from the EAP writing course, the…
Ramos, Kathleen Ann
The new "Common Core State Standards" (CCSS) (NGACBP & CCSSO, 2010) require teachers to prepare all learners, including adolescent English learners (ELs), to develop academic literacy practices. This article describes an instructional intervention in an urban public high school using the genre-based "Reading to Learn" (Rose…
The increasingly international orientation of many higher education (HE) institutes and the growing role of English as an academic lingua franca have far-reaching implications for how we conceptualise universities and student mobility. In this paper, it is argued that the complexity and diversity of languages, communities and cultures present in…
Holligan, Chris; Wilson, Michael; Humes, Walter
The paper reports the findings of a small-scale qualitative investigation into academic staff perceptions of research cultures across 10 English and Scottish university education departments. The study sheds light on four interrelated issues: the nature of research cultures, perceived facilitators, perceived constraints and the emotional landscape…
Because of current federal and state educational policies, oral language development is an often overlooked aspect of language and literacy use and development of English Learning (EL) students in K-12 schools in the United States. This article describes a study in which a researcher used an ecobehavioral approach to investigate the conditional…
Cook, H. Gary; Boals, Timothy; Lundberg, Todd
Over 5 million students are learning English in America's public schools, accounting for more than 10% of the K-12 population. That's a 50% increase in the last decade. This demographic change has been matched by changes in national policy. Before No Child Left Behind, states set their own accountability policies. Now, they must demonstrate that…
We report on how technological developments have enabled us to change our concepts and practices regarding voice and text coaching and how this in turn has raised the level of literary competence among non-native doctoral students seeking publication in English in scientific journals. We describe models for marking, peer reviewing and coaching…
Murie, Robin; Bents, Mary
The University of Minnesota is helping provide greater college access for students from immigrant families who must learn to negotiate a new culture and language as well as manage lives often marked by poverty and under-funded urban schools. In the University's Commanding English program, immigrant high school students study both at their high…
Mahalingappa, Laura J.; Polat, Nihat
This qualitative study examines curriculum frameworks in English language teacher education (ELTE) programs in Turkey in light of current second language (L2) teaching standards and research vs Turkey's Higher Education Council (HEC) mandates. It also investigates program directors' perceptions about the current situations of their programs with…
Zappa-Hollman, Sandra; Duff, Patricia A.
This article introduces the notion of individual network of practice (INoP) as a viable construct for analyzing academic (discourse) socialization in second language (L2) contexts. The authors provide an overview of social practice theories that have informed the development of INoP--community of practice (CoP; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger,…
Thompson, Paul; Tribble, Chris
Presents a classification scheme and the results of applying this scheme to the coding of academic texts in a corpus. The texts are doctoral theses from agricultural botany and agricultural economics departments. Results lead to a comparison of the citation practices of writers in different disciplines and the different rhetorical practices of…
Thorpe, Andy; Snell, Martin; Davey-Evans, Sue; Talman, Richard
There is an established, if weak, inverse relationship between levels of English language proficiency and academic performance in higher education. In response, higher education institutions (HEIs) insist upon minimum entry requirements concerning language for international applicants. Many HEIs now also offer pre-sessional English courses to…
Arcuino, Cathy Lee T.
The purpose of this study was to examine if the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) are related to academic success defined by final cumulative grade point average (GPA). The data sample, from three Midwestern universities, was comprised of international graduate students who…
Guglielmi, R. Sergio
The hypothesis that native language (L1) proficiency promotes English acquisition and overall academic achievement, a key theoretical assumption underlying bilingual education, was tested using latent growth modeling of data from 899 limited-English-proficient (LEP) eighth graders who were followed for 12 years in the National Education…
Hopes, Diana L.
The intent of this study was to examine predictor variables significant in developing English Language Learners' (ELLs) English language proficiency skills and academic achievement in reading, math, and writing. Using a sequential mixed methods design, the study sought to unveil how state and federal mandates in assessments and programmatic…
Toscano, Rose Marie; McKee, Barbara; Lepoutre, Dominique
The study identified social, educational, and demographic characteristics of deaf postsecondary students who demonstrated strong reading and writing skills. Questionnaire information, information from institutional databases, and in-depth personal interviews were used to identify factors and characteristics that positively influenced the attainment of strong academic literacy skills. Among the areas investigated were school experiences, reading and writing experiences, study habits and attitudes, communication preferences, personality traits, and home and family background. Results of the study generally support previous work conducted with talented hearing youth. Several primary themes emerged from the study: heavy parental involvement in early education and educational decisions, differing modes of communication but extensive family communication, early exposure to and intensive experiences with reading and writing, an enjoyment of reading, a relatively limited social life, high parental and secondary school expectations, the importance of television, and positive self-image.
This article focuses on vocabulary and writing at university level from the perspectives of 14 English as an additional language students studying at a New Zealand university. The students individually carried out an integrated reading and writing task and then participated in an interview which focused on their language learning background and…
Lambert, Olga Demin
Adult English as a second language (ESL) students learning English outside of traditional academic settings are an understudied population of second language learners. The purpose of the research reported here is to contribute to meeting the instructional needs of these students more effectively by investigating the relationships between their…
Bosworth, Tina M.
The purpose of this study is to examine how high schools with shifting demographics respond to the academic and social needs of English language learners. Increasingly schools and teachers are asked to teach students who come from homes where English is not the primary language. The implications of shifting demographics impacts high school…
The role of power in an English-as-a-second-language classroom has yet to be fully explored by an action research practitioner, especially in a Malaysian higher education setting. This study aims to contribute to this gap by working within an academic literacies perspective to teaching academic writing, which propagates the understanding of…
Hrastinski, Iva; Wilbur, Ronnie B.
There has been a scarcity of studies exploring the influence of students' American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency on their academic achievement in ASL/English bilingual programs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ASL proficiency on reading comprehension skills and academic achievement of 85 deaf or hard-of-hearing signing…
Surveying 75 years of accomplishment in the field of spoken recording, this reference work critically evaluates commercially available recordings selected for excellence of execution, literary or historical merit, interest, and entertainment value. Some types of spoken records included are early recording, documentaries, lectures, interviews,…
Nevin, Ann, Ed.; Renne, Diane, Ed.
This document presents 13 detailed lesson plans for use with limited English speaking students in grades K-12 who also have disabilities. Although the formats vary, each lesson plan usually provides information on learning objectives, appropriate grade level, type of disability, correlation with national or state standards, subject areas…
Describes Earphone English, a student club sponsored through a partnership between Berkeley High School and the Berkeley Public Library that offers students whose primary language is not English to practice their spoken and aural English skills. Discusses the audiobooks used in the program and the importance of multicultural content and age…
This paper explores the apparent contradiction between the valuing and promoting of diverse literacies in most UK HEIs, and the discursive construction of spoken native-speaker English as the medium of good grades and prestige academic knowledge. During group interviews on their experiences of university internationalisation, 38 undergraduate…
Kaliyadan, Feroze; Thalamkandathil, Nazer; Parupalli, Srinivas Rao; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hamad
Introduction: All medical schools in Saudi Arabia have English as the primary official medium of instruction. Most of the high school education, however, is delivered in Arabic and hence the transition to an English based learning environment tends to be difficult for some students. Our study aims to correlate English language proficiency with academic performance among medical students in their preparatory year. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. Test scores of 103 preparatory year students (54 female and 49 male) were analyzed after the students completed an English language course and medical introductory course in their preparatory year. The total score obtained in the English course assessment was compared to each component of the medical content assessment. Results: A significantly positive correlation (Spearman's Rho, at 0.01 levels) was seen between the scores of the English exam and the written exam (P <0.001) and the oral exam (P = −0.003) parts respectively of the medical examination. Significant correlation with the English exam score was not obtained for the other components of the medical assessment, namely; student assignments, presentations and portfolios. Conclusion: English language proficiency is an important factor in determining academic proficiency of medical students in our college at the preparatory year level. PMID:26629471
English education for specific purpose (ESP) , particularly for the field of natural sciences and technologies, has been attracting great interests in Japan because of the growing demands of the ability to use English in working place to the graduates in the filed. In Gunma University, we have launched a new style of ESP program tilted as “Collaboration between Academic and Industrial Sectors for Practical English Education” as a part of Good Practice Program supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, Japan (MEXT) since 2006. The program aims to steam up the ability of students to use English through a variety of activities including the presentation of scientific topics in English in a regular class work and the pseudo-conversation (role-playing) style training in a non-regular class work.
Mishra, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Niharika
Previous psycholinguistic studies have shown that bilinguals activate lexical items of both the languages during auditory and visual word processing. In this study we examined if Hindi-English bilinguals activate the orthographic forms of phonological neighbors of translation equivalents of the non target language while listening to words either…
Douglas, Scott Roy
Independent confirmation that vocabulary in use unfolds across levels of performance as expected can contribute to a more complete understanding of validity in standardized English language tests. This study examined the relationship between Lexical Frequency Profiling (LFP) measures and rater judgements of test-takers' overall levels of…
Politzer, Robert L.; Ramirez, Arnulfo G.
The study sought to (1) furnish data to be used in further language-error analyses and studies of causes of errors in language acquisition, (2) provide specific data for a basis in constructing pedagogical materials and proficiency tests to be used in teaching English to Mexican American children, and (3) determine whether bilingual or monolingual…
Douglas, Scott Roy; Kim, Marcia
English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programs designed to meet postsecondary English language proficiency requirements are a common pathway to higher education for students from non-English-speaking backgrounds. Grounded in a Canadian context, this study seeks to examine the prevalence of Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) in EAP, common examples…
Liu, Jin-Yu; Chang, Yu-Jung; Yang, Fang-Ying; Sun, Yu-Chih
The purpose of the study is to explore English as a foreign language (EFL) college students' needs in English for General Purposes (EGP) and English for Specific/Academic Purposes (ESP/EAP) courses in terms of their perceptions of three subcategories of needs--necessities, wants, and lacks--and reasons for students' course enrollment. A…
Discourse is basically interactive. This is clear in conversation, but the concept can be extended to written language. Written text can be analyzed as spoken discourse. The methodology of English text studies has adhered too much to a textual approach and even extended it to spoken data. Another approach would be to begin with the spoken form of…
Corpora have been suggested as valuable sources for teaching English for academic purposes (EAP). Since previous studies have mainly focused on corpus use in classroom settings, more research is needed to reveal how students react to using corpora on their own and what should be provided to help them become autonomous corpus users, considering…
Aminy, Marina; Karathanos, Katya
While programs have been established to support secondary level English Learners (ELs) in their transition to institutions of higher education (IHEs), limited attention has been given to how to support adult ELs who struggle with the academic language demands of their college or university content-area courses. Research indicates that many EL…
Martinez, Jose Felipe; Bailey, Alison L.; Kerr, Deirdre; Huang, Becky H.; Beauregard, Stacey
The present study piloted a survey-based measure of Opportunity to Learn (OTL) and Academic Language Exposure (ALE) in fourth grade science classrooms that sought to distinguish teacher practices with ELL (English language learner) and non-ELL students. In the survey, participant teachers reported on their instructional practices and the context…
Robertson, Phyllis M.; García, Shernaz B.; Rodríguez, Haydeé M.
This article describes a Collaborative Intervention Project designed to prepare preservice teachers to develop, implement, monitor, and evaluate interventions for English learners (ELs) in need of academic and/or behavioral supports. Faculty from two departments, one preparing bilingual education (BE) elementary school teachers and the other…
Lapayese, Yvette; Huchting, Karen; Grimalt, Olga
Although biliteracy plays a vital role in academic achievement, there has been little research on the unique needs of female and male English language learners. Becoming biliterate is a complex process, compounded by other variables such as 1st-language background, class, culture, and gender. Among these variables, gender has been the least…
Constantinou, Phoebe; Wuest, Deborah A.
With the common core emphasis on English language art and mathematics skills, physical educators are faced with a challenging task. Educators, in general, are expected to identifying the language demands of their discipline and develop academic language skills within each disciplinary area. In other words, educators are expected to prepare…
Constantinou, Phoebe; Wuest, Deborah A.
The common core, with its emphasis on the development of English language art and mathematics skills and literacy, presents challenges for teachers of all subjects. Academic language is expected to be developed within each disciplinary area. In other words, educators are expected to identify the language demands of their discipline and prepare…
Hussain, Ishtiaq; Inamullah, Hafiz; Naseer-Ud-Din, Muhammad; Hafizatullah, Hafiz
The major objective of this study was to determine the role of the direct teaching method in the academic achievement of students in English at the secondary level. To achieve the said objective, the "Solomon Four-Design pre-test/post-test equivalent group design" was considered to be the most useful design for this study. The pre-test…
Chan, Evelyn T. Y.
This study examined students' construction of academic subject identity in a university humanities discipline, English literary studies. In so doing, the study aimed to provide an empirically grounded intervention in current debates on the value of the humanities in higher education. Eight students participated in interviews lasting 15-20 minutes…
Matthews, Paul H.; Mellom, Paula J.
Mixed-method evaluation of two iterations of month-long summer enrichment programs for English-learning secondary students investigated impacts on participants' beliefs about school and academic achievement, and on actual course choices, test outcomes, and graduation rates. Students (N = 85) from one ethnically diverse, high-poverty high school in…
Using the academic writing sub-corpora of the Corpus of Contemporary American English and the British National Corpus as data and building on previous research, this study strives to identify the most frequently-used multi-word constructions (MWCs) of various types (e.g., idioms, lexical bundles, and phrasal/prepositional verbs) in general…
Shneyderman, Aleksandr; Abella, Rodolfo
This study was conducted to explore the effects of a two-way immersion bilingual program on maintenance/acquisition of Spanish-language proficiency and on reading and mathematics achievement in English over a period of 4 academic years. The researchers used Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) techniques to compare the effects of two different…
Romhild, Anja; Kenyon, Dorry; MacGregor, David
This study examined the role of domain-general and domain-specific linguistic knowledge in the assessment of academic English language proficiency using a latent variable modeling approach. The goal of the study was to examine if modeling of domain-specific variance results in improved model fit and well-defined latent factors. Analyses were…
This report is a first person narration of the entire process of a qualitative study exploring the impact of ESL students' native cultural and rhetorical conventions, as well as classroom cultures on their academic English writing in American universities. Data were collected through semistructured interviews. A coding system was constructed to…
Although the concept of universal design for learning (UDL) is well understood in the world of architecture and in the area of special education, its use to increase the academic performance of high school English learners (ELs) is not widely explored. To reduce this void, this article presents an overview of the UDL concept and its principles,…
Incirci, Ayhan; Parmaksiz, Ramazan Sükrü
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of applying the writing letter activity of writing to learn strategies on the English Language Academic Achievement and Attitude level of 11th grade students. The research was carried out with 84 students (43 male, 41 female) at one of the state schools in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. Mixed…
Scott, Jessica A; Hoffmeister, Robert J
For many years, researchers have sought to understand the reading development of deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students. Guided by prior research on DHH and hearing students, in this study we investigate the hypothesis that for secondary school DHH students enrolled in American Sign Language (ASL)/English bilingual schools for the deaf, academic English proficiency would be a significant predictor of reading comprehension alongside ASL proficiency. Using linear regression, we found statistically significant interaction effects between academic English knowledge and word reading fluency in predicting the reading comprehension scores of the participants. However, ASL remained the strongest and most consistent predictor of reading comprehension within the sample. Findings support a model in which socio-demographic factors, ASL proficiency, and word reading fluency are primary predictors of reading comprehension for secondary DHH students.
Aist, Gregory; Hieronymus, James; Dowding, John; Hockey, Beth Ann; Rayner, Manny; Chatzichrisafis, Nikos; Farrell, Kim; Renders, Jean-Michel
Research in the field of spoken dialogue systems has been performed with the goal of making such systems more robust and easier to use in demanding situations. The term "spoken dialogue systems" signifies unified software systems containing speech-recognition, speech-synthesis, dialogue management, and ancillary components that enable human users to communicate, using natural spoken language or nearly natural prescribed spoken language, with other software systems that provide information and/or services.
Vitevitch, Michael S; Rodríguez, Eva
The present work examined the relationships among familiarity ratings, frequency of occurrence, neighborhood density, and word length in a corpus of Spanish words. The observed relationships were similar to the relationships found among the same variables in English. An auditory lexical decision task was then performed to examine the influence of word frequency, neighborhood density, and neighborhood frequency on spoken word recognition in Spanish. In contrast to the competitive effect of phonological neighborhoods typically observed in English, a facilitative effect of neighborhood density and neighborhood frequency was found in Spanish. Implications for models of spoken word recognition and language disorders are discussed.
VITEVITCH, MICHAEL S.; RODRÍGUEZ, EVA
The present work examined the relationships among familiarity ratings, frequency of occurrence, neighborhood density, and word length in a corpus of Spanish words. The observed relationships were similar to the relationships found among the same variables in English. An auditory lexical decision task was then performed to examine the influence of word frequency, neighborhood density, and neighborhood frequency on spoken word recognition in Spanish. In contrast to the competitive effect of phonological neighborhoods typically observed in English, a facilitative effect of neighborhood density and neighborhood frequency was found in Spanish. Implications for models of spoken word recognition and language disorders are discussed. PMID:19018293
This text is designed for students planning to learn spoken Korean. Ten lessons and two review sections based on cultural experiences commonly shared by Koreans are included in the text. Grouped in series of five lessons, the instructional materials include (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3) listening…
Flege, James; Mackay, Ian; Imai, Satomi
This study evaluated potential causes of foreign accent (FA) by including native Italian (NI) speakers with a later age of arrival (AOA) in Canada than in previous studies. Three NI groups (n=18 each) differing in AOA (means=10, 18, and 26 years) participated. Listeners used a 9-point scale to rate sentences produced by the three NI groups and native English controls. The ratings obtained for all four groups differed significantly. The stronger foreign accents of the AOA-18 than AOA-10 group might be attributed to the passing of a critical period, or to stronger cross-language interference by more robust Italian phonetic categories. The difference might also be attributed to differences in language use. This is because the AOA-10 and AOA-18 groups (but not the AOA-18 and AOA-26 groups) differed significantly in percentage of English and Italian use, length of residence in Canada, and years of education in Canada. None of these explanations will apparently explain the stronger FAs of the AOA-26 than AOA-18 group. The difference between these groups might be attributed to cognitive aging [Hakuta et al., Appl. Psycholinguistics (in press)], which results in gradually less successful second-language acquisition across the adult life span. [Work supported by NIH.
English for the Academically Talented Student in the Secondary School. 1969 Revision of the Report of the Committee on English Programs for High School Students of Superior Ability of the National Council of Teachers of English.
Elliott, Virginia A., Ed.; Josephs, Lois S., Ed.
Introducing the essays in this publication, Virginia A. Elliott and Lois S. Josephs review the problems of teaching English to the academically talented student. Essays are by (1) Michael F. Shugrue, who surveys, from 1958 through 1968, the achievements of conferences, Curriculum Study Centers, and the Dartmouth Seminar; (2) John Simmons, who…
Mercuri, Sandra Patricia
This case study examines the practice of two bilingual education teachers in an attempt to understand the planning and instructional activities occurring in their classrooms by focusing on students' academic language development during science instruction. This site was selected as an 'instrumental' case to examine for several reasons. This school is among the few in the district that is teaching science. Despite the political climate related to bilingual education, the teachers at this school offer an articulated dual immersion program from K to grade six. This site has experienced success in beginning to close the achievement gap between English learners and their native English speaking peers on standardized test measures. Using a qualitative approach, data was collected from two unique cases through detailed observations of classroom practice, audio-taped lessons, an initial and a follow up interview, artifacts and an initial survey. Scarcella's (2003) framework on academic language was used to analyze the different components of academic language of the science instruction. A theoretical framework from Stoddart et al. on levels of integrated planning expertise and Dell' Alba & Sandberg's concept of embodied understanding of practice also informed the study. Three main findings were drawn from this study: (a) academic language can be effectively taught through science instruction when teachers have the expertise to integrate language learning with science inquiry; (b) the teaching of and planning for academic language development through content is shaped over time by teachers' teaching and personal experiences with the content and their ability to integrate both; (c) While a theoretical model of academic language can be used to analyze teachers' instructional strategies during a science lesson, this model has limitations. Teachers' understanding of their own practice developed overtime shaped the way they manipulated the curriculum for their particular grade
Min, Lau Sing; Sungif, Nur Atiqah Md.; Yusup, Farah Nabillah Mior
In the Malaysian education system, English has always played an important role. In acknowledging its importance, Malaysian University English Test (MUET) has been introduced to enable continued emphasis on this role. MUET has been made compulsory for those who wish to pursue a first degree programme in local universities. This study aims to…
Mercier, Julie; Pivneva, Irina; Titone, Debra
We investigated whether individual differences in inhibitory control relate to bilingual spoken word recognition. While their eye movements were monitored, native English and native French English-French bilinguals listened to English words (e.g., "field") and looked at pictures corresponding to the target, a within-language competitor…
Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne
Four eye-tracking experiments examined lexical competition in non-native spoken-word recognition. Dutch listeners hearing English fixated longer on distractor pictures with names containing vowels that Dutch listeners are likely to confuse with vowels in a target picture name ("pencil," given target "panda") than on less confusable distractors…
Shook, Anthony; Goldrick, Matthew; Engstler, Caroline; Marian, Viorica
When bilinguals process written language, they show delays in accessing lexical items relative to monolinguals. The present study investigated whether this effect extended to spoken language comprehension, examining the processing of sentences with either low or high semantic constraint in both first and second languages. English-German…
Harvey, Gina Cantoni
Navaho Indians learning English tend to use two versions of the language: classroom English and an informal dialect spoken outside school. The sounds of Navaho are imposed on spoken English, and the phonological deviations produce morphological and syntactical errors. Mistakes in verb tense and in singular and plural suffixes are common. The value…
The global trend of introducing second language learning, namely, English, in primary schools is increasing. In Saudi Arabia, where English has never been taught in primary schools, the government to implement English as a second language at the primary level in 2005; however, this generated controversy. Opposition to the learning of English has…
Kim, Hye Yeong
Grounded in sociocultural models of learning, this study explores structures for participation and types of interaction that occur during the performance of technology-assisted tasks in a science classroom to detail some of the opportunities for learning made available to English learners (ELs) and some practices that might constitute effective instruction within such a context. In particular, this study explores how ELs use language to socialize and how they are socialized to use language during technology-assisted tasks in a science classroom within a given participant structure. Findings show that five different participant structures were used during technology-assisted tasks, all of which required ELs to understand and use varied interaction patterns; different levels of authority and responsibilities were given to interlocutors in each structure. As different participant structures employed different interactional patterns and practices, learners behaved according to differing norms expected by each participant structure. Findings showed that members of the class shared the rules regarding the initiation of interactions and open topics, as well as allowing time to listen and follow the cue of teachers or technology. In this sense, the class functioned as a community of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991). Each participant structure appeared to contribute to the variety of the interaction types, as well as to kinds of subsequent learning and socialization of ELs, providing divergent levels of transparency, legitimacy, and peripherality to ELs. The integration of technology unfolded differently across participant structures and has implications for ELs' academic language learning opportunities.
Brown, Annie; Iwashita, Noriko; McNamara, Tim
This report documents two coordinated exploratory studies into the nature of oral English-for-academic-purposes (EAP) proficiency. Study I used verbal-report methodology to examine field experts? rating orientations, and Study II investigated the quality of test-taker discourse on two different Test of English as a Foreign Language? (TOEFL®) task…
Atai, Mahmood Reza; Dashtestani, Reza
English for academic purposes (EAP) has established itself as a considerable part of English as a foreign language (EFL) instruction in Iranian universities. Considering the Internet as a major educational source in EAP reading courses, it is highly important that the stakeholders have positive attitudes toward it and be aware of promises and…
Kangas, Jon; Ma, Tony
In fall 1992, a study was conducted at Evergreen Valley College (EVC) and San Jose City College (SJCC), in California, to measure the persistence rate over 4 academic years of students with no previous college experience who entered into a fundamentals of reading course (English 321) and an introduction to college reading course (English 322) in…
Kangas, Jon; Ma, Tony
In fall 1992, a study was conducted at Evergreen Valley College (EVC) and San Jose City College (SJCC), in California, to measure the persistence rate of fall 1988 developmental English students (ENGL 330 at EVC; ENGL 335 at SJCC) through transfer level English (1A) over 4 academic years. Results of the study included the following: (1) of the 152…
This study explores a second-grade English language learner's literacy development and ability to use blogging for social and academic purposes, in the context of learning academic writing genres in a US urban school. Grounded in sociocultural theories, it conceptualizes learning as appropriation, and language as a dynamic and functional system of…
Albashtawi, Abeer H.; Jaganathan, Paramaswari; Singh, Manjet
This study aimed to investigate the linguistic knowledge aspect in academic reading, the challenges and the deployed strategies by English major undergraduates at a Jordanian institution of higher education. The importance of the study is attributed to the importance of the academic reading at university which is closely related to the academic…
Ouellette-Schramm, Jennifer R.
Academic language is a challenging yet increasingly important skill for Adult Basic Education/English as a Second or Other Language learners. Related to academic language learning is an adult's developmental perspective. Developmental perspectives have been shown to vary in adulthood and shape qualitatively distinct ways of reasoning and learning…
Examines the needs of law students in Israel, finding that while the amount of English needed by law students in law school may be diminishing, the importance of the English language cases they do read is increasing. (VWL)
Tepperman, Joseph; Narayanan, Shrikanth
Recognition of spoken names is an important ASR task since many speech applications can be associated with it. However, the task is also among the most difficult ones due to the large number of names, their varying origins, and the multiple valid pronunciations of any given name, largely dependent upon the speaker's mother tongue and familiarity with the name. In order to explore the speaker- and language-dependent pronunciation variability issues present in name pronunciation, a spoken name database was collected from 101 speakers with varying native languages. Each speaker was asked to pronounce 80 polysyllabic names, uniformly chosen from ten language origins. In preliminary experiments, various prosodic features were used to train Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to identify misplaced syllabic emphasis within the name, at roughly 85% accuracy. Articulatory features (voicing, place, and manner of articulation) derived from MFCCs were also incorporated for that purpose. The combined prosodic and articulatory features were used to automatically grade the quality of name pronunciation. These scores can be used to provide meaningful feedback to foreign language learners. A detailed description of the name database and some preliminary results on the accuracy of detecting misplaced stress patterns will be reported.
In the process of internationalization of their teaching programmes many universities all over the world are now offering courses in English. This is a typical English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) situation in which both lecturers and students--although they are not native speakers of English--use this language as a common means of communication and…
Baecher, Laura; Schieble, Melissa; Rosalia, Christine; Rorimer, Sarah
This research investigated the use of blogs to promote collaboration between teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) teacher candidates and Adolescent English teacher candidates and to sensitize them to the writing demands placed on secondary English language learners (ELLs). Blogs offered an authentic experience for teacher…
Franquiz, Maria E.; Salinas, Cinthia
Secondary school teachers face remarkable challenges when they are asked to incorporate language objectives because the traditional approach to the education of English Language Learners (ELL) separates English language development from content instruction. The underlying assumption is that English language proficiency is a prerequisite for…
The population of English as a Second Language (ESL) learners has increased significantly in higher education settings in the United States today. It has been reported that Japanese ESL students are generally unsuccessful when studying in English speaking countries. The typical way of reading in English for Japanese students is the…
Grose-Fifer, Jillian; Helmer, Kimberly A.; Zottoli, Tina M.
We investigated whether students in psychology-based learning communities (LCs; i.e., cohorts who took introductory psychology and English together) performed better on psychology tests than those in standard classes. There were two types of LC; in one (connected LC), we created links between English and psychology by using English class readings…
Shook, Anthony; Goldrick, Matthew; Engstler, Caroline; Marian, Viorica
When bilinguals process written language, they show delays in accessing lexical items relative to monolinguals. The present study investigated whether this effect extended to spoken language comprehension, examining the processing of sentences with either low or high semantic constraint in both first and second languages. English-German bilinguals, German-English bilinguals and English monolinguals listened for target words in spoken English sentences while their eye-movements were recorded. Bilinguals’ eye-movements reflected weaker lexical access relative to monolinguals; furthermore, the effect of semantic constraint differed across first vs. second language processing. Specifically, English-native bilinguals showed fewer overall looks to target items, regardless of sentence constraint; German-native bilinguals activated target items more slowly and maintained target activation over a longer period of time in the Low-Constraint condition compared with monolinguals. No eye movements to cross-linguistic competitors were observed, suggesting that these lexical access disadvantages were present during bilingual spoken sentence comprehension even in the absence of overt interlingual competition. PMID:25266052
Wilbur, Ronnie B.
There has been a scarcity of studies exploring the influence of students’ American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency on their academic achievement in ASL/English bilingual programs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ASL proficiency on reading comprehension skills and academic achievement of 85 deaf or hard-of-hearing signing students. Two subgroups, differing in ASL proficiency, were compared on the Northwest Evaluation Association Measures of Academic Progress and the reading comprehension subtest of the Stanford Achievement Test, 10th edition. Findings suggested that students highly proficient in ASL outperformed their less proficient peers in nationally standardized measures of reading comprehension, English language use, and mathematics. Moreover, a regression model consisting of 5 predictors including variables regarding education, hearing devices, and secondary disabilities as well as ASL proficiency and home language showed that ASL proficiency was the single variable significantly predicting results on all outcome measures. This study calls for a paradigm shift in thinking about deaf education by focusing on characteristics shared among successful deaf signing readers, specifically ASL fluency. PMID:26864688
Hrastinski, Iva; Wilbur, Ronnie B
There has been a scarcity of studies exploring the influence of students' American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency on their academic achievement in ASL/English bilingual programs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ASL proficiency on reading comprehension skills and academic achievement of 85 deaf or hard-of-hearing signing students. Two subgroups, differing in ASL proficiency, were compared on the Northwest Evaluation Association Measures of Academic Progress and the reading comprehension subtest of the Stanford Achievement Test, 10th edition. Findings suggested that students highly proficient in ASL outperformed their less proficient peers in nationally standardized measures of reading comprehension, English language use, and mathematics. Moreover, a regression model consisting of 5 predictors including variables regarding education, hearing devices, and secondary disabilities as well as ASL proficiency and home language showed that ASL proficiency was the single variable significantly predicting results on all outcome measures. This study calls for a paradigm shift in thinking about deaf education by focusing on characteristics shared among successful deaf signing readers, specifically ASL fluency.
Although researchers often acknowledge the importance of linguistically rich interactions in the academic language development of emergent bilingual students, few studies have explicitly examined the role of linguistic peer support and the underlying structure of social relationships in the second language learning experiences and outcomes of…
The University of Tokushima Graduate School of Advanced Technology and Science has launched the International Affiliated Double-Degree Program. In this program students pursue double degrees in engineering at the graduate level organized between the Graduate School and one of its 11 overseas partner institutions. Since the Graduate School is committed to offering content lectures in English, the faculty members involved need a good command of English. Future outgoing students also have to improve their English (and the local language spoken at the partner institution) to conduct academic activities at the partner institution successfully. This paper describes the author‧s continuing efforts toward the provision and improvement of English language support for engineering students and instructors, touching on similar activities elsewhere.
Ramson, W. S., Ed.
This collection of essays on Australasian English deals with various aspects of the language as it is spoken in the areas of Australian, New Zealand, and Papua-New Guinea. Although the bulk of the essays are concerned with Australian and New Zealand English, the editor expresses the hope that the integrated study of these two major dialects will…
El-Dakhs, Dina Abdel Salam
In recent years, a number of studies have attempted to assess the English vocabulary knowledge of high-school students and undergraduate university students in contexts where English is a foreign language (EFL). The present paper explores the lexical development of Arab undergraduates at a Saudi University where EFL is the medium of instruction.…
Kiany, G. Reza
This study sought to determine whether extroversion or introversion has anything to do with English-as-a-foreign-language learning and content-subject learning of Iranian non-English major postgraduates currently studying in the United Kingdom. Subjects were given the Persian form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire twice and asked to report…
Green, James A.
Non-local ethnicity or nationality and lower English proficiency have been linked with poor performance in health professional education. This study sought to compare the relative contributions of ethnicity and English proficiency, and to do so in a context where students had not been selected via interviews or some other proxy for language…
Describes an effective way of teaching English at non-English-speaking teachers' colleges. Notes this Content-Based Unit Learning approach focuses on authentic content material necessary to increase teachers' college students' knowledge. Shows the approach increases students' motivation. Contends that language and reading skills are learned best…
There has been a rapid increase in the emergence of minority groups during the past few decades in the United States. Hispanics are the largest minority group that has people who speak English as a second language. The increasing proportion of English Language Learning (ELL) students has made it more difficult to maintain high learning standards.…
This article challenges the categorisation of English into national forms, arguing that this obscures differences in usage within a nation and ignores genres and registers that exist around the world. Further, I suggest that in addition to examining the spread of English around the world, scholars should study the ubiquity of various discourses…
Lillis, Theresa; Curry, Mary Jane
Drawing on 95 text histories from a longitudinal project on writing for publication in 4 national contexts, this article analyses the language ideologies enacted in referees' and editors' comments on articles submitted for publication in English-medium "international" journals. It considers how orientations to "English,"…
Kojour, Masoud Kermani; Heirati, Javad Kia
This study was framed in the sociocultural theory to look into the evolution of L2 learners' beliefs about the general English course during a term. One hundred ninety-eight male and female university students and their general English course teacher were randomly selected as the participants of the study. Data were gathered through the…
This study investigates Korean English teachers' responses to the current English Language Teaching (ELT) policies and reveals the attributes of their professional identity from their responses. Data collected from different narratives demonstrate that the teachers value the principles of communicative language teaching, but are not supportive of…
Zhonggen, Yu; Guifang, Wang
The flipped classroom has been achieving a great success in teaching innovation. This study, aiming to determine the effectiveness of the flipped model in business English writing course, combined the quantitative with the qualitative research methods. Participants were randomly selected from undergraduate students majoring in business English.…
This paper arises from a concern that in English-as-foreign-language (EFL) curricula there are apparently unsystematic and linguistically under-theorized approaches to language development. The paper explores EFL unit plans across upper primary and lower secondary schooling, in a context where secondary school graduates need English mainly for…
Although official promotion of content-based English language teaching started in mainland China only at the turn of the century, this form of language instruction, widely known in China as "Chinese-English bilingual education," has gathered great momentum in the last 6 years and is now rattling across the country like a juggernaut.…
Some of the difficulties faced by second language learners who are continuing to acquire English at the same time as they start to read simple extended English texts are illustrated. Specific focus is on the question of how writers of early reading material can best help such learners to understand the relationship between spoken and written…
Stokoe, William C.
In the debate over continuities versus discontinuities in the emergence of language, sign language is not taken to be the antithesis, but is presented as the antecedent of spoken languages. (Author/HP)
Online resources and educator networks are providing teachers of English language learners with a support system they do not often get within their own school districts. Catherine Collier's Cross Cultural Developmental Education Services, based in Ferndale, WA., has been providing professional development and teaching materials to ELL teachers.…
Haas, Eric; Tran, Loan; Huang, Min
When is the right moment to transition an English learner student from part-time participation in English language development classes into full-time participation in mainstream English-only classes? English learner students should be moved into full-time mainstream English-only classes when they are sufficiently fluent in English to be able to…
Milosavljević, Nataša; Vuletić, Aleksandar; Jovković, Ljiljana
The aim of this paper is to present specificities of the English language teaching necessary for successful education and professional training of medical students. In contemporary globalized world the English language has become the basic language of communication in all scientific fields including the field of medical science. It is well established that Medical English teaching should primarily focus on stable linguistic competence in English that is created by means of content and context based curriculum, thus preparing students for active use of English upon graduation. In order to achieve this it is very important that English language teaching be based on specific real situations in which the language is to be used. In addition, students should be encouraged to adapt practical skills applicable in specific future professional setting. Medical English teaching represents constant challenge for teachers because they need to be flexible, open to new approaches and methods, make decisions and adapt themselves to constant changes. In addition, long-term learning is at the core of higher education, and being equal partners, both students and teachers should be aware that education is a two-way process.
This article presents practical suggestions and tasks to make it easier to teach second language academic writing at the college level. It discusses the necessity of a warm-up period in which learners produce first drafts in pairs or small groups and do peer error correction. The article offers tasks such as reacting to an academic review,…
Jennings, Heather M.
Rates of in-coming college students in need of academic remediation are on the rise, for both community college and four-year colleges. Consequently, many of these students will be required to enroll in some level of academic remediation in reading, writing and/or math to develop the basic skills necessary for student success in college-level…
Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Hall, James; Martin, Andrew J.
Past research into the ability of students to "bounce back" from everyday academic setback (academic buoyancy) has lacked sensitivity to the contexts in which children demonstrate this behavior. Here we aimed to contextualize past findings by reporting the results of an exploratory investigation that featured: (1) repeated measurement of…
Lechner, Simone; Siemund, Peter
Bi- and multilingualism has been shown to have positive effects on the attainment of third and additional languages. These effects, however, depend on the type of bi- and multilingualism and the status of the languages involved (Cenoz, 2003; Jessner, 2006). In this exploratory trend study, we revisit Cummins' Threshold Hypothesis (1979), claiming that bilingual children must reach certain levels of attainment in order to (a) avoid academic deficits and (b) allow bilingualism to have a positive effect on their cognitive development and academic attainment. To this end, we examine the attainment of English as an academic language of 16-years-old school children from Hamburg (n = 52). Our findings support the existence of thresholds for literacy attainment. We argue that language external factors may override positive effects of bilingualism. In addition, these factors may compensate negative effects attributable to low literacy attainment in German and the heritage languages. We also show that low attainment levels in migrant children's heritage languages preempt high literacy attainment in additional languages. PMID:24926277
Lechner, Simone; Siemund, Peter
Bi- and multilingualism has been shown to have positive effects on the attainment of third and additional languages. These effects, however, depend on the type of bi- and multilingualism and the status of the languages involved (Cenoz, 2003; Jessner, 2006). In this exploratory trend study, we revisit Cummins' Threshold Hypothesis (1979), claiming that bilingual children must reach certain levels of attainment in order to (a) avoid academic deficits and (b) allow bilingualism to have a positive effect on their cognitive development and academic attainment. To this end, we examine the attainment of English as an academic language of 16-years-old school children from Hamburg (n = 52). Our findings support the existence of thresholds for literacy attainment. We argue that language external factors may override positive effects of bilingualism. In addition, these factors may compensate negative effects attributable to low literacy attainment in German and the heritage languages. We also show that low attainment levels in migrant children's heritage languages preempt high literacy attainment in additional languages.
This article introduces the concept of a learning curriculum that places adult English as a second language (ESL) students' needs in the center and encourages the engagement of ESL learners in curriculum design. The study is based on contemporary research in the field of adult ESL program planning. It summarizes key components of a learning…
Qian, Yang; Jingxia, Liu
With the development of globalization, English is clearly spoken by many more non-native than native speakers, which raises the discussion of English varieties and the debate regarding the conformity to Standard English. Although a large number of studies have shown scholars' attitudes towards native English and non-native English, little research…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2007
English language learners are students with a primary language other than English who have a limited range of speaking, reading, writing, and listening skills in English. English language learners also include students identified and determined by their school as having limited English proficiency and a language other than English spoken in the…
Social Justice and English Language Learners in the Borderland: A Personal Narrative of a Committed Principal Determined to Take the Steps Necessary for English Language Learners to Achieve and Succeed in Academic Content
Lechuga, Mary Helen
This study embraces the pedagogy that this school's educators believed in and utilized to enhance and expand the academic knowledge of those students who posses a language different from the English language. This research study, represented in a personal narrative, attempts to question the widespread thinking that places all validity on using…
Fenton-Smith, Ben; Humphreys, Pamela
As in other Anglophone nations, a large percentage of Australia's postgraduate international students come from English as an additional language (EAL) backgrounds, and many require development of their academic language and learning (ALL) capabilities to successfully navigate a higher degree. This paper investigates those capabilities through the…
Billings, Elsa S.; Mathison, Carla
This study investigated the impact of technology-based advance organizers (TBAOs) on the academic performance of 240 4th grade English learners (ELs) participating in a science class in School in the Park (SITP), a museum-school collaboration. While SITP provides a rich, hands-on learning environment, ELs face significant linguistic challenges in…
Shi, Qi; Steen, Sam
The Achieving Success Everyday (ASE) group model is used to promote self-esteem and academic performance of English as a second language (ESL) students. The findings from the preliminary data indicated that the participants' self-esteem was significantly improved after participation in the group. There was no significant improvement in the total…
Hussain, Ishtiaq; Hamdani, Syed Nisar Hussain; Quraishi, Uzma; Zeeshan, Muhammad
The major objective of the study was to determine the role of the direct teaching method in the academic achievement of students in English at the secondary level. To achieve the said objective, the Solomon Four-Design pre-test/post-test equivalent group design was considered to be the most useful design for this study. The pre-test was used to…
This study addressed the problem of underachieving female English as second language students in the Persian Gulf Region. The purpose of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between parental participation, as measured by a middle school parent-participation survey, and students' academic achievement, as measured by parent…
Kitao, S. Kathleen; Kitao, Kenji
English is not the most widely spoken language in the world, but it is the most widely used by non-native speakers, making the teaching of English as a Second Language a very important endeavor. This book provides an overview of English language teaching, giving the reader a general background on the issues related to language…
Crawford, Leslie J.
This study identified the perceived professional development needs of English-speaking evangelical theological school deans in Africa and Asia, as a basis for evaluating or creating professional development programs for these regions. It answered the question: What are the perceptions of the need for professional development prior to and after…
Mirhosseini, Seyyed-Abdolhamid; Ghafar Samar, Reza
Mainstream trends of English language teaching (ELT) are predominantly constructed within the epistemological boundaries shaped by the traditional conceptions of linguistics, learning, and teaching as well as positivist research methodology. What tends to be overshadowed by such conceptions is the underlying foundational belief structure of ELT…
The present article investigates writer-reader interaction through the construction of writer and reader personae in English and German popular scientific writing by means of first person plural pronouns in subject position. Popular scientific writing only became firmly established as a German-language genre in the last quarter of the 20th century…
Stoller, Fredricka L.
A study investigated factors that facilitate innovation in intensive English programs at 43 universities, based on administrators' perceptions. Results indicate program aspects felt to influence innovation, successfully implemented innovations, and perceived qualities of innovative policies and practices. A complex set of variables emerged. (MSE)
Morris, Michael; Maxey, Shirley
The authors investigate the information content of two commonly used admission tests, namely the Graduate Management Admission Test and the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The analysis extends prior research by investigating the incremental information content of individual components from one admission test conditional on the…
Padilla, Amado M.; Fan, Lorraine; Xu, Xiaoqiu; Silva, Duarte
A Mandarin/English two-way immersion elementary program is described from its inception and implementation through the fifth grade, the culminating year of the program. All students in all grades were assessed on their oral/listening, reading, and writing performance in Mandarin using program-created assessment measures. Fifth-grade students also…
Vasquez Heilig, Julian; Rodriguez, Cristobal; Somers, Patricia
English learners (ELs) are facing unique issues in higher education that remain largely unexplored. This research focuses on college choice, enrollment, and graduation among high-achieving ELs who were eligible for automatic admission to any public higher education institution in Texas by having graduated in the top 10% of their high school class.…
Bailey, Alison L.; Carroll, Patricia E.
The purpose of this chapter is twofold: (1) to provide a detailed review of current language assessment policies and practices with English language learner (ELL) students under the federal requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB; 2001) and relevant research in order to evaluate their technical quality and validity, and (2) to examine…
Negretti, Raffaella; Garcia-Yeste, Miguel
Research on the role of language in multilingual workplaces, where English is often adopted as a lingua franca (ELF), shows that language practices influence socialization and interpersonal communication, frequently creating issues such as asymmetrical sharing of information, language clusters, or thin communication. Similarly to other…
House, J. Daniel; Prion, Susan K.
This study investigated the predictive relationship between student attitudes and their subsequent achievement in a freshman composition course. Results indicated that academic background and student attitudes were significantly correlated with subsequent grade performance. Attitude variables were more closely related to overall grade performance…
Enright, Kerry Anne
Comprehensive high schools are extremely complex sites for the teaching and learning of academic literacies. However, current policy mandates emphasizing standards and accountability mask this complexity. Legislation such as No Child Left Behind in the United States and similar initiatives in other countries narrow the curriculum through their…
Teacher educators need linguistic tools to help preservice teachers develop a deeper understanding of the academic language demands of the literacy practices required by the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Systemic functional linguistics (SFL) serves as a tool for developing teachers' knowledge of content-area language. Teachers' increased…
Turkan, Sultan; De Oliveira, Luciana C.; Lee, Okhee; Phelps, Geoffrey
Background/Context: The current research on teacher knowledge and teacher accountability falls short on information about what teacher knowledge base could guide preparation and accountability of the mainstream teachers for meeting the academic needs of ELLs. Most recently, research on specialized knowledge for teaching has offered ways to…
Taboada, Ana; Rutherford, Vanessa
This formative experiment explored the extent to which two instructional frameworks that varied in the explicitness of academic vocabulary instruction, comprehension strategy instruction, and supports for student autonomy influenced reading comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, perceptions of autonomy supports, and reading engagement in…
Burns, Sharon L.
Students' conceptualizations of academic writing are often based on their cultural and social expectations of what it means to be a student or an instructor in the academy. These expectations are as varied as any target population and continue to grow as multi-cultural heritages continue to expand. First-year student writers' performances are…
Since the advent of spoken corpora, descriptions of native speaker spoken grammar have become far more detailed and comprehensive. These insights, however, have been relatively slow to filter through to ELT practice. The aim of this article is to outline an approach to the teaching of native-speaker spoken grammar which is not only pedagogically…
Chen, Wei; Mostow, Jack; Aist, Gregory
Free-form spoken input would be the easiest and most natural way for young children to communicate to an intelligent tutoring system. However, achieving such a capability poses a challenge both to instruction design and to automatic speech recognition. To address the difficulties of accepting such input, we adopt the framework of predictable…
Blair, Robert W.; Vermont-Salas, Refugio
This two-volume set of 18 tape-recorded lesson units represents a first attempt at preparing a course in the modern spoken language of some 300,000 inhabitants of the peninsula of Yucatan, the Guatemalan department of the Peten, and certain border areas of Belize. (A short account of the research and background of this material is given in the…
Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne
When phoneme categories of a non-native language do not correspond to those of the native language, non-native categories may be inaccurately perceived. This may impair non-native spoken-word recognition. Weber and Cutler investigated the effect of phonetic discrimination difficulties on competitor activation in non-native listening. They tested whether Dutch listeners use English phonetic contrasts to resolve potential competition. Eye movements of Dutch participants were monitored as they followed spoken English instructions to click on pictures of objects. A target picture (e.g., picture of a paddle) was always presented along with distractor pictures. The name of a distractor picture either shared initial segments with the name of the target picture (e.g., target paddle, /paedl/ and competitor pedal, /pEdl/) or not (e.g., strawberry and duck). Half of the target-competitor pairs contained English vowels that are often confused by Dutch listeners (e.g., /ae/ and /E/ as in ``paddle-pedal''), half contained vowels that are unlikely to be confused (e.g., /ae/ and /aI/ as in ``parrot-pirate''). Dutch listeners fixated distractor pictures with confusable English vowels longer than distractor pictures with distinct vowels. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity of non-native listeners to phonetic contrasts can result in spurious competitors that should not be activated for native listeners.
Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh
BACKGROUND. Theories distinguish between student-initiated and teacher-initiated regulation of students' learning activities, or between strong, shared, or loose teacher control during the completion of learning tasks. Empirical validations for such distinctions are scarce, however. AIM. The present study aimed at (a) investigating students' perceptions of control behaviours exhibited by their English teachers; and (b) exploring the contribution of different types of teacher control behaviours to students' cognitive outcomes (English Achievement). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 732 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students studying in three major fields of high school (Mathematics, Natural Science, and Humanities). The participants (16-17 years of age) were selected from third-grade classes of 27 EFL teachers working in 25 high schools of 6 main different geographical regions in the Isfahan province, Iran. METHOD. To obtain a comprehensive picture of different control types exhibited by Iranian EFL teachers, the control subscales of the two existing questionnaires, i.e., the Questionnaire on Instructional Behaviours (QIB), adapted by Den Brok et al. (2004) and the Questionnaire on Lesson Activities (QLA) used by Den Brok (2001) were merged to form the Questionnaire of Teacher Control (QTC). The development of this Persian instrument involved several steps: translation and back translation by the researchers, one expert translator, and two EFL teachers; piloting; and a final administration of the questionnaire to the student sample. With respect to the second aim of the study, data regarding students' performances on the Standardized National English Achievement Tests were gathered from local educational offices and schools. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION. Statistical analyses supported acceptable reliability and validity of the instrument. A main factor structure with three types of teacher control (strong/high, shared/mid, and loose/low) was found to underlie students
Davis, Matthew H; Johnsrude, Ingrid S
Understanding spoken language requires a complex series of processing stages to translate speech sounds into meaning. In this study, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the brain regions that are involved in spoken language comprehension, fractionating this system into sound-based and more abstract higher-level processes. We distorted English sentences in three acoustically different ways, applying each distortion to varying degrees to produce a range of intelligibility (quantified as the number of words that could be reported) and collected whole-brain echo-planar imaging data from 12 listeners using sparse imaging. The blood oxygenation level-dependent signal correlated with intelligibility along the superior and middle temporal gyri in the left hemisphere and in a less-extensive homologous area on the right, the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), and the left hippocampus. Regions surrounding auditory cortex, bilaterally, were sensitive to intelligibility but also showed a differential response to the three forms of distortion, consistent with sound-form-based processes. More distant intelligibility-sensitive regions within the superior and middle temporal gyri, hippocampus, and LIFG were insensitive to the acoustic form of sentences, suggesting more abstract nonacoustic processes. The hierarchical organization suggested by these results is consistent with cognitive models and auditory processing in nonhuman primates. Areas that were particularly active for distorted speech conditions and, thus, might be involved in compensating for distortion, were found exclusively in the left hemisphere and partially overlapped with areas sensitive to intelligibility, perhaps reflecting attentional modulation of auditory and linguistic processes.
Kowal, Sabine; O'Connell, Daniel C
The following article presents basic concepts and methods of Ragnar Rommetveit's (born 1924) hermeneutic-dialogical approach to everyday spoken dialogue with a focus on both shared consciousness and linguistically mediated meaning. He developed this approach originally in his engagement of mainstream linguistic and psycholinguistic research of the 1960s and 1970s. He criticized this research tradition for its individualistic orientation and its adherence to experimental methodology which did not allow the engagement of interactively established meaning and understanding in everyday spoken dialogue. As a social psychologist influenced by phenomenological philosophy, Rommetveit opted for an alternative conceptualization of such dialogue as a contextualized, partially private world, temporarily co-established by interlocutors on the basis of shared consciousness. He argued that everyday spoken dialogue should be investigated from within, i.e., from the perspectives of the interlocutors and from a psychology of the second person. Hence, he developed his approach with an emphasis on intersubjectivity, perspectivity and perspectival relativity, meaning potential of utterances, and epistemic responsibility of interlocutors. In his methods, he limited himself for the most part to casuistic analyses, i.e., logical analyses of fictitious examples to argue for the plausibility of his approach. After many years of experimental research on language, he pursued his phenomenologically oriented research on dialogue in English-language publications from the late 1980s up to 2003. During that period, he engaged psycholinguistic research on spoken dialogue carried out by Anglo-American colleagues only occasionally. Although his work remained unfinished and open to development, it provides both a challenging alternative and supplement to current Anglo-American research on spoken dialogue and some overlap therewith.
Dogancay-Aktuna, Seran, Ed.; Hardman, Joel, Ed.
Today's English language teaching goes beyond the norms of English spoken and taught in native-English-speaking countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, or Australia. Increasingly, a variety of countries have established, formally or informally, a kind of English unique to their own populations, and English language teachers within…
Dusan, Sorin; Flanagan, James
Speech has become increasingly important in human-computer interaction. Spoken dialog interfaces rely on automatic speech recognition, speech synthesis, language understanding, and dialog management. A main issue in dialog systems is that they typically are limited to pre-programmed vocabularies and sets of sentences. The research reported here focuses on developing an adaptive spoken dialog interface capable of acquiring new linguistic units and their corresponding semantics during the human-computer interaction. The adaptive interface identifies unknown words and phrases in the users utterances and asks the user for the corresponding semantics. The user can provide the meaning or the semantic representation of the new linguistic units through multiple modalities, including speaking, typing, pointing, touching, or showing. The interface then stores the new linguistic units in a semantic grammar and creates new objects defining the corresponding semantic representation. This process takes place during natural interaction between user and computer and, thus, the interface does not have to be rewritten and compiled to incorporate the newly acquired language. Users can personalize the adaptive spoken interface for different domain applications, or according to their personal preferences. [Work supported by NSF.
Spiliotopoulos, Dimitris; Stavropoulou, Pepi; Kouroupetroglou, Georgios
Usability is a fundamental requirement for natural language interfaces. Usability evaluation reflects the impact of the interface and the acceptance from the users. This work examines the potential of usability evaluation in terms of issues and methodologies for spoken dialogue interfaces along with the appropriate designer-needs analysis. It unfolds the perspective to the usability integration in the spoken language interface design lifecycle and provides a framework description for creating and testing usable content and applications for conversational interfaces. Main concerns include the problem identification of design issues for usability design and evaluation, the use of customer experience for the design of voice interfaces and dialogue, and the problems that arise from real-life deployment. Moreover it presents a real-life paradigm of a hands-on approach for applying usability methodologies in a spoken dialogue application environment to compare against a DTMF approach. Finally, the scope and interpretation of results from both the designer and the user standpoint of usability evaluation are discussed.
Like many other developing countries around the world, China is witnessing a growing prominence of English in its school system. One immensely popular form of English provision in the country is Chinese-English bilingual education for majority-language students, which involves the varying use of English as a medium of instruction in the teaching…
KRISHNAMURTHI, M.G.; MCCORMACK, WILLIAM
THE TWENTY GRADED UNITS IN THIS TEXT CONSTITUTE AN INTRODUCTION TO BOTH INFORMAL AND FORMAL SPOKEN KANNADA. THE FIRST TWO UNITS PRESENT THE KANNADA MATERIAL IN PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION ONLY, WITH KANNADA SCRIPT GRADUALLY INTRODUCED FROM UNIT III ON. A TYPICAL LESSON-UNIT INCLUDES--(1) A DIALOG IN PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION AND ENGLISH TRANSLATION, (2)…
So, Connie K.; Attina, Virginie
This study examined the effect of native language background on listeners' perception of native and non-native vowels spoken by native (Hong Kong Cantonese) and non-native (Mandarin and Australian English) speakers. They completed discrimination and an identification task with and without visual cues in clear and noisy conditions. Results…
Bishop, D. V. M.
Nine children suffering from Landau-Kleffner (L-K) syndrome and 25 children with developmental expressive disorders were tested for comprehension of English grammatical structures in spoken, written, and signed language modalities. L-K children demonstrated comprehension problems in all three language modalities and tended to treat language as…
Nakai, Satsuki; Lindsay, Shane; Ota, Mitsuhiko
When both members of a phonemic contrast in L2 (second language) are perceptually mapped to a single phoneme in one's L1 (first language), L2 words containing a member of that contrast can spuriously activate L2 words in spoken-word recognition. For example, upon hearing cattle, Dutch speakers of English are reported to experience activation…
Stevens, Catherine J.; Keller, Peter E.; Tyler, Michael D.
An experiment investigated the effect of tonal language background on discrimination of pitch contour in short spoken and musical items. It was hypothesized that extensive exposure to a tonal language attunes perception of pitch contour. Accuracy and reaction times of adult participants from tonal (Thai) and non-tonal (Australian English) language…
Brouwer, Susanne; Bradlow, Ann R.
This study examined the temporal dynamics of spoken word recognition in noise and background speech. In two visual-world experiments, English participants listened to target words while looking at four pictures on the screen: a target (e.g. "candle"), an onset competitor (e.g. "candy"), a rhyme competitor (e.g.…
The purpose of this multicase study was to discover factors that contribute to Hispanic English language learners' (ELL) high academic performance in high school science in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Participants were high school seniors enrolled in college-level classes who had scored commended on the science exit-level Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills and ranked toward the top of their class. One student from each of four different high schools in south Texas were selected to participate. Schools identified students meeting the participant criteria and provided consent documents. In this qualitative research study, students were interviewed on three different dates. Administrators and science teachers were also interviewed for triangulation. Significant findings showed that intrinsic qualities were mainly responsible for factors contributing to high academic performance. Hispanic ELL students need meaningful responsibilities to internalize self-esteem and self-efficacy to realize high academic performance. Self-motivation, a contributing factor, provides students with a positive outlook on high academic performance and the ability to defer more immediate undermining rewards. Students expect to contribute to society by helping others. This helps their self-esteem as well as their self-worth and supports high academic performance. Parental and teacher support are critical for high academic performance. Low socioeconomic status alone is not a causal factor for poor academic performance. School administrations should assign willing and enthusiastic teachers as mentors to target students and provide skills to parents that promote, inspire, and motivate students' intrinsic qualities. Future studies should examine different leadership styles that maximize teachers' ability to influence students' high academic performance. Finally, students should be given guidance in setting career goals and demonstrating that high academic achievement is attainable and
Chiba, Reiko; And Others
Examined the attitudes of 169 Japanese university students toward varieties of spoken English. Results found that the students with more instrumental motivation were more positive toward nonnative English accents than those with less instrumental motivation, and that the students' familiarity with accents had an influence on their acceptance of…
Wang, Fred Fangyu
This dictionary is a companion volume to the "Mandarin Chinese Dictionary (Chinese-English)" published in 1967 by Seton Hall University. The purpose of the dictionary is to help English-speaking students produce Chinese sentences in certain cultural situations by looking up the English expressions. Natural, spoken Chinese expressions within the…
Maybin, Janet, Ed.; Mercer, Neil, Ed.
This collection of essays explores the diversity of contemporary English language use, both spoken and written, around the world. The first chapters focus on the use of English within various kinds of interpersonal communication, and later chapters look at artistic and creative products of English speakers and writers, discussing the kinds of…
British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.
The status of English as a first foreign language is discussed as well as the reasons why the standard of English and the extent to which it is spoken in Syria do not match its official status. The use of English within the educational system is examined with particular reference to secondary and university levels. The manner of determination of…
Parker, Caroline E.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Irwin, Clare W.
This study examined student and program characteristics that are related to English proficiency and content area achievement for English language learner (ELL) students in one urban district in Connecticut. The study found that ELL students in special education had English proficiency scores significantly lower than the mean for all ELL students…
Okada, Tricia; Milliner, Brett; Ogane, Ethel; Leichsenring, Andrew; Imai, Mitsuko; Cote, Travis; McBride, Paul
English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) refers to the use of English as a contact language between people who have different first languages, including native English speakers (Jenkins, 2014). "ELF is simultaneously the consequence and the principal language medium of globalizing processes" (Jenkins, Cogo, & Dewey, 2011, p. 303). In…
Birkenmayer, Sigmund S.
Both spoken and written Polish have undergone profound changes during the past twenty-eight years. The increasing urbanization of Polish culture and the forced change in Polish society are the main factors influencing the change in the language. Indirect evidence of changes which have occurred in the vocabulary and idioms of spoken Polish in the…
This final report describes the development of a textbook for advanced, spoken Tamil. There is a marked dirrerence between literary Tamil and spoken Tamil, and training in the former is not sufficient for speaking the language in everyday situations with reasonably educated native speakers. There is difficulty in finding suitable material that…
The aim of the study was to investigate how raters come to their decisions when judging spoken vocabulary. Segmental rating was introduced to quantify raters' decision-making process. It is hoped that this simulated study brings fresh insight to future methodological considerations with spoken data. Twenty trainee raters assessed five Chinese…
Hillert, Dieter G.; Buracas, Giedrius T.
To examine the neural correlates of spoken idiom comprehension, we conducted an event-related functional MRI study with a "rapid sentence decision" task. The spoken sentences were equally familiar but varied in degrees of "idiom figurativeness". Our results show that "figurativeness" co-varied with neural activity in the left ventral dorsolateral…
Elder, Catherine; McNamara, Tim; Congdon, Peter
The use of common tasks and rating procedures when assessing the communicative skills of students from highly diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds poses particular measurement challenges, which have thus far received little research attention. If assessment tasks or criteria are found to function differentially for particular subpopulations within a test candidature with the same or a similar level of criterion ability, then the test is open to charges of bias in favour of one or other group. While there have been numerous studies involving dichotomous language test items (see e.g. Chen and Henning, 1985 and more recently Elder, 1996) few studies have considered the issue of bias in relation to performance based tasks which are assessed subjectively, via analytic and holistic rating scales. The paper demonstrates how Rasch analytic procedures can be applied to the investigation of item bias or differential item functioning (DIF) in both dichotomous and scalar items on a test of English for academic purposes. The data were gathered from a pilot English language test administered to a representative sample of undergraduate students (N= 139) enrolled in their first year of study at an English-medium university. The sample included native speakers of English who had completed up to 12 years of secondary schooling in their first language (L1) and immigrant students, mainly from Asian language backgrounds, with varying degrees of prior English language instruction and exposure. The purpose of the test was to diagnose the academic English needs of incoming undergraduates so that additional support could be offered to those deemed at risk of failure in their university study. Some of the tasks included in the assessment procedure involved objectively-scored items (measuring vocabulary knowledge, text-editing skills and reading and listening comprehension) whereas others (i.e. a report and an argumentative writing task) were subjectively-scored. The study models a
Tessema, Kedir Assefa
In this paper I report the action research I carried out on improving the teaching and learning of academic writing at a university. The action research sprang out of my experiences of learning and teaching academic writing. It sought locality and originality in what students read and write during academic writing courses. The macro and micro…
Swales, John M.
The increasing domination of English as the world's leading medium of international professional communication has begun to impact English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programs, specifically the question of whether English is becoming too successful. The article argues that resistance to the "triumphalism" of English is a responsibility of EAP…
Billings, Elsa S.; Mathison, Carla
This study investigated the impact of technology-based advance organizers (TBAOs) on the academic performance of 240 4th grade English learners (ELs) participating in a science class in School in the Park (SITP), a museum-school collaboration. While SITP provides a rich, hands-on learning environment, ELs face significant linguistic challenges in their ability to access the dense academic language and concepts provided in SITP's English only curriculum, thus negatively impacting ELs' engagement and learning. The TBAOs were designed in response to this issue. The study investigated two forms of treatment: TBAOs viewed on individual handheld mobile devices (HMDs), specifically iPods; and, TBAOs viewed as a whole class on DVD. The study utilized both qualitative and quantitative data sources, including a pre- and posttest, hands-on and performance-based assessments, as well as focus interviews. Results showed a significant interaction effect between group assignment, language status and application assessments, indicating ELs performed significantly better in the treatment groups. Students who used the HMD instead of the DVD or no treatment improved their total scores significantly on hands-on, performance-based measurements. Differences between treatment and control groups' performance on pre-/posttests approached significance. Furthermore, students reported TBAOs supported learning by introducing new material, introducing and reviewing daily academic vocabulary, and helping them anticipate behavioral and procedural expectations of hands-on activities. Classroom and museum educators reported an increase in the treatment groups' motivation and engagement. The study provided important implications in the use and power of learner-controlled technology in supporting ELs' linguistic and academic success.
Lestari, Dessi Puji; Furui, Sadaoki
Recognition errors of proper nouns and foreign words significantly decrease the performance of ASR-based speech applications such as voice dialing systems, speech summarization, spoken document retrieval, and spoken query-based information retrieval (IR). The reason is that proper nouns and words that come from other languages are usually the most important key words. The loss of such words due to misrecognition in turn leads to a loss of significant information from the speech source. This paper focuses on how to improve the performance of Indonesian ASR by alleviating the problem of pronunciation variation of proper nouns and foreign words (English words in particular). To improve the proper noun recognition accuracy, proper-noun specific acoustic models are created by supervised adaptation using maximum likelihood linear regression (MLLR). To improve English word recognition, the pronunciation of English words contained in the lexicon is fixed by using rule-based English-to-Indonesian phoneme mapping. The effectiveness of the proposed method was confirmed through spoken query based Indonesian IR. We used Inference Network-based (IN-based) IR and compared its results with those of the classical Vector Space Model (VSM) IR, both using a tf-idf weighting schema. Experimental results show that IN-based IR outperforms VSM IR.
British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.
The four articles in this volume address themselves to issues in the teaching of English for science and technology (EST). H.G. Widdowson, in "EST in Theory and Practice," argues that teaching that is not informed by a functional approach to language can oversimplify pedagogical problems. "Designing English for Science and…
TOEFL ), the University of Michigan Tests (the Lado Test) developed At the English Language Institute at Michigan, and the Pennsylvania State...Indiana University Monograph. Their data were from 526 foreign students [Ref. 7]. They found that the TOEFL and the Pennsylvania State English Language
This paper derives from an ethnographically oriented study of the emergence of English in innovative disciplinary speech events at a French-German bilingual university in Switzerland. From the outside viewed as dissent from the university's brand bilingualism, the use of English as a lingua franca enabled the multilingual "agents of…
Due in large part to their open access and affordability, community colleges have long played a central role in providing students with immigrant backgrounds who are English language learners (ELLs) with access to postsecondary education. Researchers have noted that English as a second language (ESL) courses have been the primary form of support…
In recent years, Japanese universities have sought to have a greater number of faculty courses taught in English, where traditionally Japanese has been the medium of instruction. This article begins with an overview of the literature discussing Japan's responses to the spread of English, and philosophies and ideologies influencing the…
Wong, Miranda Kit-Yi; So, Wing Chee
This study developed a spoken narrative (i.e., storytelling) assessment as a supplementary measure of children's creativity. Both spoken and gestural contents of children's spoken narratives were coded to assess their verbal and nonverbal creativity. The psychometric properties of the coding system for the spoken narrative assessment were…
Leonard, Matthew K; Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Torres, Christina; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I; Halgren, Eric
WE COMBINED MAGNETOENCEPHALOGRAPHY (MEG) AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) TO EXAMINE HOW SENSORY MODALITY, LANGUAGE TYPE, AND LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY INTERACT DURING TWO FUNDAMENTAL STAGES OF WORD PROCESSING: (1) an early word encoding stage, and (2) a later supramodal lexico-semantic stage. Adult native English speakers who were learning American Sign Language (ASL) performed a semantic task for spoken and written English words, and ASL signs. During the early time window, written words evoked responses in left ventral occipitotemporal cortex, and spoken words in left superior temporal cortex. Signed words evoked activity in right intraparietal sulcus that was marginally greater than for written words. During the later time window, all three types of words showed significant activity in the classical left fronto-temporal language network, the first demonstration of such activity in individuals with so little second language (L2) instruction in sign. In addition, a dissociation between semantic congruity effects and overall MEG response magnitude for ASL responses suggested shallower and more effortful processing, presumably reflecting novice L2 learning. Consistent with previous research on non-dominant language processing in spoken languages, the L2 ASL learners also showed recruitment of right hemisphere and lateral occipital cortex. These results demonstrate that late lexico-semantic processing utilizes a common substrate, independent of modality, and that proficiency effects in sign language are comparable to those in spoken language.
Aims to answer the following research questions: (1) Are general English ability and specific purpose English ability related to computer skills? and (2) Is general English ability transferable to specific purpose English ability? Subjects were third year science students enrolled in an English for academic purposes course. (Author/VWL)
Maibauer, Alisa M; Markis, Teresa A; Newell, Jessica; McLennan, Conor T
Previous work has demonstrated that talker-specific representations affect spoken word recognition relatively late during processing. However, participants in these studies were listening to unfamiliar talkers. In the present research, we used a long-term repetition-priming paradigm and a speeded-shadowing task and presented listeners with famous talkers. In Experiment 1, half the words were spoken by Barack Obama, and half by Hillary Clinton. Reaction times (RTs) to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words only when repeated by the same talker. However, in Experiment 2, using nonfamous talkers, RTs to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words both when repeated by the same talker and when repeated by a different talker. Taken together, the results demonstrate that talker-specific details can affect the perception of spoken words relatively early during processing when words are spoken by famous talkers.
Crossman, Katie; Pinchbeck, Geoffrey
Immigrants and the children of immigrants who have completed their schooling in Canadian school settings, commonly referred to as Generation 1.5, are increasingly identified in the research literature as academically at risk due to inadequately developed academic language proficiency and learning strategies. This article describes the design,…
Agar, David L.
Describes the Academic Support Programme (ASP) established at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa in response to (1) the disadvantaged educational background of Black students and their consequently high dropout rate, and (2) the projected increases in the enrollment of such students. ASP primarily serves students whose home…
Beeson, Pélagie M.; Egnor, Heather
Individuals with left-hemisphere damage often have concomitant impairment of spoken and written language. Whereas some treatment studies have shown that reading paired with spoken naming can benefit both language modalities, little systematic research has been directed toward the treatment of spelling combined with spoken naming. The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of pairing a lexical spelling treatment referred to as Copy and Recall Treatment (CART) with verbal repetition of target words. This approach (CART + Repetition) was compared with treatment using verbal repetition without the inclusion of orthographic training (Repetition Only). Two individuals with moderate aphasia and severe impairment of spelling participated in the study using a multiple baseline design across stimulus sets and treatment conditions. Both participants improved spelling of targeted words as well as spoken naming of those items, but improvement in spoken naming was marked for one individual in the CART + Repetition condition, while the other participant made smaller gains in spoken than written naming irrespective of treatment condition. Consideration of the participant profiles suggested that CART + Repetition provides greater benefit when there is some residual phonological ability and the treatment serves to stimulate links between orthography and phonology. PMID:17064445
Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc
We report two sets of experiments showing that the large individual variability in language learning success in adults can be attributed to neurophysiological, neuroanatomical, cognitive, and perceptual factors. In the first set of experiments, native English-speaking adults learned to incorporate lexically meaningfully pitch patterns in words. We…
Gardner, Dee; Davies, Mark
This article presents our new Academic Vocabulary List (AVL), derived from a 120-million-word academic subcorpus of the 425-million-word Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA; Davies 2012). We first explore reasons why a new academic core list is warranted, and why such a list is still needed in English language education. We also provide…
This article reports on an empirical study undertaken at the University of the North, South Africa, to test personal classroom observation and anecdotal evidence about the persistent gap between writing and spoken proficiencies among learners of English as a second language. A comparative and contrastive analysis of speech samples in the study…
Mendieta, Eva; Molina, Isabel
Analyzes Spanish lexical data recorded in sociolinguistic interviews with Hispanic community members in Northwest Indiana. Examined how prevalent English is in the spoken Spanish of this community; what variety of Spanish is regarded prestigious; whether lexical forms establish the prestige dialect adopted by speakers of other dialects; the…
Parker, Caroline E.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Irwin, Clare W.
The number of English language learners has grown in the Northeast & Islands Region over the past decade. While the total student population shrank 3.5 percent between 2001/02 and 2009/10, the population of English language learner students grew 7.6 percent and now constitutes 6.1 percent of students in the region, up from 5.5 percent in…
Bunch, George C.; Kibler, Amanda K.
This article argues for the importance of integrating a focus on language, literacy, and academic development for United States-educated language minority (US-LM) students, sometimes called "Generation 1.5." It describes four initiatives at community colleges in California that aim to do so. US-LM students have completed some K-12…
Maldonado Torres, Sonia Enid
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between Latino students' learning styles and their language spoken at home. Results of the study indicated that students who spoke Spanish at home had higher means in the Active Experimentation modality of learning (M = 31.38, SD = 5.70) than students who spoke English (M = 28.08,…
Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne
The purpose of this research was to investigate factors that influence professionals' guidance of parents of children with hearing loss regarding spoken language multilingualism and spoken language choice. Sixteen professionals who provide services to children and young people with hearing loss completed an online survey, rating the importance of…
The variety of English spoken by about half a million people in the Canadian province of Quebec is a minority language in intensive contact with French, the local majority language. This unusual contact situation has produced a unique variety of English which displays many instances of French influence that distinguish it from other types of…
One of the dominant themes of the literature on language in Hong Kong is the belief that English, particularly its spoken form, plays a limited role in the lives of the territory's mainly Cantonese-speaking Chinese community. For this reason, it is argued, there is no societal basis for the development of a nativised variety of English. One of the…
This collection of essays focuses on linguistic investigations of English, both spoken and written. The 12 chapters deal with Charles Dickens' linguistic criticism; eighteenth century prescriptivism; the relevance of language study to the study of Shakespeare; obstacles to the study of Old and Middle English; the contributions of R. G. Latham to…
Aune, Adonica Schultz; Huglen, Mark; Lim, Dan
In the airline industry, English is now the accepted medium of communication for all air traffic controllers and pilots. For international flights it is of vital importance to hundreds of airline passengers that English be spoken clearly and properly to execute proper procedures and to act decisively and safely. Airspeak, aviation English, or air…
Robinson-Cimpian, Joseph P.; Thompson, Karen D.; Umansky, Ilana M.
English learners (ELs), students from a home where a language other than English is spoken and who are in the process of developing English proficiency themselves, represent over 10% of the US student population. Oftentimes education policies and practices create barriers for ELs to achieve access and outcomes that are equitable to those of their…
The characteristics of the standard and non-standard varieties of English as spoken as a first language in Britain are discussed. The discussion focuses on 20 comparisons made between the standard and non-standard varieties. It is suggested that many of the local forms of English and the international standard English constitute a potential…
Validates an instrument for measuring non-natives' English-speaking proficiency, using Filipinos in the U.S. Navy. Shows significant correlations between test scores, the age at which English was first spoken, and military rank, suggesting an interaction between English-speaking proficiency and occupational advancement. (RL)
Bennett, Jessica G.; Gardner, Ralph, III; Rizzi, Gleides Lopes
Strong correlations exist between signed and/or spoken English and the literacy skills of deaf and hard of hearing students. Assessments that are both valid and reliable are key for researchers and practitioners investigating the signed and/or spoken English skills of signing populations. The authors conducted a literature review to explore which…
Integrating Computer Assisted Language Learning into Out-of-Class Extended Learning: The Impact of iPod Touch-Supported Repeated Reading on the Oral Reading Fluency of English for Specific Academic Purposes Students
By using the formative experiment, this study investigated how an instructional intervention, consisting of a Repeated Reading (RR) technique and an iPod Touch, helped achieve a valued pedagogical goal, that of enhancing the Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) of sixteen English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP) first-year university students. Students…
Professional Learning Communities Facilitator's Guide for the What Works Clearinghouse™ Practice Guide: Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and Middle School. REL 2015-105
Dimino, Joseph A.; Taylor, Mary Jo; Morris, Joan
This facilitator's guide is designed to assist professional learning communities (PLCs) in applying evidence-based strategies to help K-8 English learners acquire the language and literacy skills needed to succeed academically. Through this collaborative learning experience, educators will expand their knowledge base as they read, discuss, share,…
Professional Learning Communities Facilitator's Guide Handouts for the What Works Clearinghouse™ Practice Guide: Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and Middle School. REL 2015-105
Dimino, Joseph A.; Taylor, Mary Jo; Morris, Joan
These handouts, which are meant to accompany the facilitator's guide, are designed to assist professional learning communities (PLCs) in applying evidence-based strategies to help K-8 English learners acquire the language and literacy skills needed to succeed academically. The facilitator's guide uses a five-step process for collaborative…
This paper presents an account of the author's firsthand experiences between 2006 and 2010, relating to his involvement in the establishment of the English Language and Literature department at the International University of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and of the difficulties and challenges of the venture in the post-war country, whose…
Lazarte, Alejandro A.; Barry, Sue
In Experiment 1, monolingual native Spanish speakers (NSSs) had better kernel recall and longer end-of-clause (EOC) pauses than native English speakers (NESs) when reading texts that varied in syntactic complexity as a function of the number of nonessential clauses added to the kernel text. NSS familiarity with embedded clauses in Spanish seem to…
The purpose of this study was to find out which assessment data are used by elementary principals who are currently practicing in Title One California elementary schools with populations of at least 600 students, API scores of 700 or higher, and 40% or more English Learners (ELs) to inform instructional efforts at the school site level to improve…
The No Child Left Behind Act is a mandate from the federal government for education to increase student performance and school accountability. As a result of this mandate, many states have issued the use of high-stakes standardized tests as a means of monitoring schools' accountability. New York State administers the English Language Arts (ELA)…
Warren, James E.
In this study, eight English professors thought aloud as they read four lyric poems and composed a short text proposing a hypothetical talk about them for a professional conference. The study used a crossed design in which participants read a poem in each of the following conditions: familiar to them and close to their professional writing,…
Hayes, Katherine; Rueda, Robert; Chilton, Susan
This article contains a description of the Dual Proficiency (DP) program in an urban elementary school located in the heart of a large south-western city, as well as the teachers who designed and now implement DP, and the immigrant community participating by choice in DP. We write from a context where, ironically, the number of English language…
De Jesus, Olga Noemi
Many institutional programs are changing to incorporate more online opportunities as a way to meet the needs of their students. Therefore, international English language learners are being encouraged to take online courses in order to complete their programs of study at United States colleges or universities (Tan, Lee, & Steven, 2010). In this…
Schall-Leckrone, Laura; McQuillan, Patrick J.
This article reports empirical evidence about the influence of embedding language-based strategies into a history methods course to prepare novice history teachers to teach English learners (ELs). Mixed methods were used in an action research cycle to analyze participants' attitudes and preparedness to teach ELs history before and after being…
Choi, Po King
In the spring of 2005, students and alumni of the Chinese University of Hong Kong staged an adamant protest against University directives which they perceived would result in a significant increase in the number of courses taught in English. They denounced the administration of selling out on the founding mission of the University, for which, as…
Deans, Cecil; Congdon, Graham; Sellers, Eileen T.
Nurse educators in English universities (543 responses from 1,612) expressed their predictions and preferences for nursing education in 2008. There were concerns about parity with other disciplines, resources, faculty workload, and cohesiveness of the profession. Many preferred options were not considered likely to happen. (Contains 15…
Lopez, Omar S.
This study presents the findings from the first-year evaluation of the Round Rock Independent School District's (ISD) Digital Learning Classroom project, an initiative focused on the improvement of English Language Learners' (ELL) learning using interactive whiteboard (IWB) technology. An objective of the evaluation was to determine the extent IWB…
Scalzo, Jennifer Noel
Increasing numbers of English language learners enrolled in public schools has brought national attention to issues surrounding the education of linguistically diverse students. Teacher education programs have come under scrutiny for not doing an "adequate job of preparing teachers to teach diverse populations" (Hollins & Guzman,…
Flores Revilla, Maria Teresa; Zoreda, Margaret Lee; Vivaldo Lima, Javier; Blanco Lopez, Guadalupe; Caballero Robles, Teresita del Rosario; Mercau Appiani, Virginia
The guide presents the newly-developed curriculum of the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana at Iztapalapa (Mexico) for its program in English as a foreign language. An introductory section provides background information on the initiative to design a new curriculum. The second section presents the principles on which the curriculum and its methods…
The present study aims at finding out the effectiveness of Mutual learning approach over the conventional method in learning English optional II among B.Ed students. The randomized pre-test, post test, control group and experimental group design was employed. The B.Ed students of the same college formed the control and experimental groups. Each…
Johnson, Christopher P.
Learning English as a foreign language (EFL), a highly valued skill in the Chilean marketplace, is an arduous and complex personal endeavor requiring high student motivation. Reflecting this challenge is the heightened anxiety among EFL students, whose work has been associated with historically meager results. Blended learning, the fusion of…
Chang, Anna Ching-Shyang
In this study of college students' listening anxiety in learning English in a classroom context, participants were 160 students (47 men and 113 women) ages 18 to 19 years. To address their listening anxiety, participants were chosen from students enrolling in a required listening course. A listening questionnaire was used to assess learners' anxiety about spoken English, its intensity, and the main sources of listening anxiety. Overall, participants showed moderately high intensity of anxiety in listening to spoken English, but were more anxious in testing than in general situations. In contrast to previous research on the nature of spoken English as the main source of listening anxiety, this study found that low confidence in comprehending spoken English, taking English listening courses as a requirement, and worrying about test difficulty were the three main factors contributing to participants' listening anxiety in a classroom context. Participants' learning profiles both in the classroom and outside the class yielded data which provides suggestions for reducing anxiety.
This curriculum guide is divided into two parts, genre and language skills. Genre involves the specific explorations of the spoken and written word: drama, public speaking, non-fiction, the short story, the novel, and creative expression. Language skills directs itself to the mastery of the mechanics of English. For each course outline included in…
Allsopp, Richard, Ed.
This dictionary is designed to provide an inventory of English usage in the Caribbean environment and lifestyle as known and spoken in each territory but not recorded in the standard British and American desk dictionaries. It cross-references different names for the same item throughout the anglophone Caribbean, identifies different items called…
Lim, Valerie P. C.; Lincoln, Michelle; Chan, Yiong Huak; Onslow, Mark
Purpose: English and Mandarin are the 2 most spoken languages in the world, yet it is not known how stuttering manifests in English-Mandarin bilinguals. In this research, the authors investigated whether the severity and type of stuttering is different in English and Mandarin in English-Mandarin bilinguals, and whether this difference was…
The English spoken by second generation Puerto Ricans in Harlem is influenced by black English heard in the surrounding community, standard English used in the school, and the Spanish-influenced English used by the first generation Puerto Rican community. The study of these influences is conducted according to recently developed sociolinguistic…
Reynolds, Barry Lee
Lack of knowledge in the conventional use of vocabulary and multiword patterns in one's respective field of expertise causes Taiwanese students to produce academic writing that is markedly "non-nativelike." This is because Taiwanese students are first and foremost second language readers and often have difficulty "picking up…
International students represent a significant proportion of the college student population in the United States (Institute of International Education, 2015). They contribute to campus research, diversity, and the economy. In order to maintain these academic, cultural, and economic profits, universities should investigate the factors related to…
Romova, Zina; Andrew, Martin
This paper examines the use of portfolios as pedagogical tools for developing academic writing. In particular, it considers the value of multi-drafting, where learners reflect on the learning of a text type as well as focusing on micro and macro aspects. The paper outlines a situated pedagogical approach, where students come to understand their…
Shilts, Mical Kay; Lamp, Cathi; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S.
Objective: Investigate the impact of a nutrition education program on student academic performance as measured by achievement of education standards. Design: Quasi-experimental crossover-controlled study. Setting: California Central Valley suburban elementary school (58% qualified for free or reduced-priced lunch). Participants: All sixth-grade…
This dissertation presents an innovative approach to the development and empirical evaluation of Automated Writing Evaluation (AWE) technology used for teaching and learning. It introduces IADE (Intelligent Academic Discourse Evaluator), a new web-based AWE program that analyzes research article Introduction sections and generates immediate,…
Hiradhar, Preet; Gray, Jeremy
Social digital networking is a facet of living that recognizes no national borders or social boundaries and has become a way of life. This paper investigates the social networking habits of students at Lingnan University and considers how these habits can be channelled for academic purposes by introducing an ePortfolio system into their language…
Park, Hae Seong; Yau, Jenny
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between school library use and academic achievement of Hispanic students. This study utilizes data from the base-year and the first follow-up of the Education Longitudinal Study: 2002/06. A series of hierarchical regression analysis is incorporated to examine the nature of associations among…
Orkin, Mark M.
This book presents a discussion of various distinctive characteristics of English as spoken in Canada. The book begins with a discussion of general characteristics and a look at the origins of Canadian English. There is a discussion of Canadianisms, Americanisms, and Britishisms and a consideration of influencing languages--Indian and Eskimo,…
Chen, Liang; Pan, Ning
This paper investigates the development of referring expressions in the narratives of children learning English as a second language (L2). Spoken narratives in English were elicited from sixty Chinese-speaking participants at four ages--five, eight, ten, and young adults--using the wordless picture book "Frog, where are you?" (Mayer, 1969).…
Chang, Lawrence A.; And Others
This handbook is directed toward those who have to deal with spoken mathematics, yet have insufficient background to know the correct verbal expression for the written symbolic one. It compiles consistent and well-defined ways of uttering mathematical expressions so listeners will receive clear, unambiguous, and well-pronounced representations.…
LASTRA, YOLANDA; SOLA, DONALD F.
UNITS 13-24 OF THE SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA COURSE FOLLOW THE GENERAL FORMAT OF THE FIRST VOLUME (UNITS 1-12). THIS SECOND VOLUME IS INTENDED FOR USE IN AN INTERMEDIATE OR ADVANCED COURSE AND INCLUDES MORE COMPLEX DIALOGS, CONVERSATIONS, "LISTENING-INS," AND DICTATIONS, AS WELL AS GRAMMAR AND EXERCISE SECTIONS COVERING ADDITIONAL…
All teachers at all grade levels in all subjects have speaking assignments for students, but many teachers believe they don't know how to teach speaking, and many even fear public speaking themselves. In his new book, "Well Spoken", veteran teacher and education consultant Erik Palmer shares the art of teaching speaking in any classroom. Teachers…
Taleghani-Nikazm, Carmen; Golato, Andrea
In line with the other contributions to this issue on teaching pragmatics, this paper provides teachers of German with a two-day lesson plan for integrating authentic spoken language and its associated cultural background into their teaching. Specifically, the paper discusses how "jaja" and its phonetic variants are systematically used…
Toivanen, Juhani; Vayrynen, Eero; Seppanen, Tapio
In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic…
Davis, Matthew H.; Di Betta, Anna Maria; Macdonald, Mark J. E.; Gaskell, Gareth
Two experiments explored the neural mechanisms underlying the learning and consolidation of novel spoken words. In Experiment 1, participants learned two sets of novel words on successive days. A subsequent recognition test revealed high levels of familiarity for both sets. However, a lexical decision task showed that only novel words learned on…
HURTADO, NEREYDA; MARCHMAN, VIRGINIA A.; FERNALD, ANNE
Research on the development of efficiency in spoken language understanding has focused largely on middle-class children learning English. Here we extend this research to Spanish-learning children (n=49; M=2;0; range=1;3–3;1) living in the USA in Latino families from primarily low socioeconomic backgrounds. Children looked at pictures of familiar objects while listening to speech naming one of the objects. Analyses of eye movements revealed developmental increases in the efficiency of speech processing. Older children and children with larger vocabularies were more efficient at processing spoken language as it unfolds in real time, as previously documented with English learners. Children whose mothers had less education tended to be slower and less accurate than children of comparable age and vocabulary size whose mothers had more schooling, consistent with previous findings of slower rates of language learning in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. These results add to the cross-linguistic literature on the development of spoken word recognition and to the study of the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) factors on early language development. PMID:17542157
Lee, Sungjin; Noh, Hyungjong; Lee, Jonghoon; Lee, Kyusong; Lee, Gary Geunbae
Although there have been enormous investments into English education all around the world, not many differences have been made to change the English instruction style. Considering the shortcomings for the current teaching-learning methodology, we have been investigating advanced computer-assisted language learning (CALL) systems. This paper aims at summarizing a set of POSTECH approaches including theories, technologies, systems, and field studies and providing relevant pointers. On top of the state-of-the-art technologies of spoken dialog system, a variety of adaptations have been applied to overcome some problems caused by numerous errors and variations naturally produced by non-native speakers. Furthermore, a number of methods have been developed for generating educational feedback that help learners develop to be proficient. Integrating these efforts resulted in intelligent educational robots — Mero and Engkey — and virtual 3D language learning games, Pomy. To verify the effects of our approaches on students' communicative abilities, we have conducted a field study at an elementary school in Korea. The results showed that our CALL approaches can be enjoyable and fruitful activities for students. Although the results of this study bring us a step closer to understanding computer-based education, more studies are needed to consolidate the findings.
Townsend, Dianna; Filippini, Alexis; Collins, Penelope; Biancarosa, Gina
Despite the current theoretical momentum for the importance of academic English and the acknowledgment that academic materials increase in complexity through the grades, little empirical attention has been devoted to the role of academic English in academic achievement. This study examined the amount of variance in academic achievement explained…
Levi, Susannah V.
Research with adults has shown that spoken language processing is improved when listeners are familiar with talkers’ voices, known as the familiar talker advantage. The current study explored whether this ability extends to school-age children, who are still acquiring language. Children were familiarized with the voices of three German–English bilingual talkers and were tested on the speech of six bilinguals, three of whom were familiar. Results revealed that children do show improved spoken language processing when they are familiar with the talkers, but this improvement was limited to highly familiar lexical items. This restriction of the familiar talker advantage is attributed to differences in the representation of highly familiar and less familiar lexical items. In addition, children did not exhibit accent-general learning; despite having been exposed to German-accented talkers during training, there was no improvement for novel German-accented talkers. PMID:25159173
Banzina, Elina; Dilley, Laura C.; Hewitt, Lynne E.
The importance of secondary-stressed (SS) and unstressed-unreduced (UU) syllable accuracy for spoken word recognition in English is as yet unclear. An acoustic study first investigated Russian learners' of English production of SS and UU syllables. Significant vowel quality and duration reductions in Russian-spoken SS and UU vowels were found,…
Corpus linguistics identifies the qualitative difference in the characteristics of spoken discourse vs. written academic discourse. Whereas spoken discourse makes greater use of finite dependent clauses functioning as constituents in other clauses, written academic discourse incorporates noun phrase constituents and complex phrases. This claim can…
Towards Environment-Independent Spoken Language Systems Alejandro Acero and Richard M. Stern Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering...applications of spectral subtraction and spectral equaliza- tion for speech recognition systems include the work of Van Compemolle  and Stem and Acero [12... Acero and Stem  proposed an approach to environment normalization in the cepstral domain, going beyond the noise stripping problem. In this paper we
Hannagan, Thomas; Magnuson, James S.; Grainger, Jonathan
How do we map the rapid input of spoken language onto phonological and lexical representations over time? Attempts at psychologically-tractable computational models of spoken word recognition tend either to ignore time or to transform the temporal input into a spatial representation. TRACE, a connectionist model with broad and deep coverage of speech perception and spoken word recognition phenomena, takes the latter approach, using exclusively time-specific units at every level of representation. TRACE reduplicates featural, phonemic, and lexical inputs at every time step in a large memory trace, with rich interconnections (excitatory forward and backward connections between levels and inhibitory links within levels). As the length of the memory trace is increased, or as the phoneme and lexical inventory of the model is increased to a realistic size, this reduplication of time- (temporal position) specific units leads to a dramatic proliferation of units and connections, begging the question of whether a more efficient approach is possible. Our starting point is the observation that models of visual object recognition—including visual word recognition—have grappled with the problem of spatial invariance, and arrived at solutions other than a fully-reduplicative strategy like that of TRACE. This inspires a new model of spoken word recognition that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant) diphone and lexical units. This reduces the number of necessary units and connections by several orders of magnitude relative to TRACE. Critically, we compare the new model to TRACE on a set of key phenomena, demonstrating that the new model inherits much of the behavior of TRACE and that the drastic computational savings do not come at the cost of explanatory power. PMID:24058349
military logistical transportation planning domain. " Created a videotape to illustrate these capabilities and some potential applications of spoken...34 Participated in all evaluation tests. 5 We now give a brief description of these highlights. I During this project we modified our natural language system...processor. (For this part of our system, we have found a value of N=5 to give best understanding results.) The natural language system processes these
James, Frankie; Rayner, Manny; Hockey, Beth Ann
We present a new technique for evaluating spoken dialogue interfaces that allows us to separate the dialogue behavior from the rest of the speech system. By using a dialogue simulator that we have developed, we can gather usability data on the system s dialogue interaction and behaviors that can guide improvements to the speech interface. Preliminary testing has shown promising results, suggesting that it is possible to test properties of dialogue separately from other factors such as recognition quality.
Weber, Andrea; Scharenborg, Odette
All words of the languages we know are stored in the mental lexicon. Psycholinguistic models describe in which format lexical knowledge is stored and how it is accessed when needed for language use. The present article summarizes key findings in spoken-word recognition by humans and describes how models of spoken-word recognition account for them. Although current models of spoken-word recognition differ considerably in the details of implementation, there is general consensus among them on at least three aspects: multiple word candidates are activated in parallel as a word is being heard, activation of word candidates varies with the degree of match between the speech signal and stored lexical representations, and activated candidate words compete for recognition. No consensus has been reached on other aspects such as the flow of information between different processing levels, and the format of stored prelexical and lexical representations. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:387-401. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1178 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as "in front" and "behind." Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian…
Although nonstandard dialects of English are legitimate forms of spoken language used by many Americans, students in U.S. schools must acquire writing competence using Standard English (SE). Participants in this study were 3rd- and 4th-grade African-American students who exhibited Black English Vernacular (BEV) features in their written work. Six syntactic features differing in BEV and SE were targeted. Students received one of three treatments to increase their use of the SE features in their writing: (1) exposure to SE features in stories; (2) story exposure plus explanation of SE rules; and (3) story exposure, SE rule instruction, and guided practice transforming sentences from BEV to SE features. The third treatment proved most effective in enabling students to translate BEV sentences into SE forms and to employ the targeted SE features in their free writing. Results indicate that having students practice translating nonstandard sentences that typify their own writing and providing corrective feedback are effective for teaching them to use SE forms in their writing. Findings are interpreted to support a social-cognitive view of self-regulated learning. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
Landa, Laura Gabriela Garcia
The ability to access a foreign language can be an issue for academics trying to publish in international journals. The barriers that non-(limited)English-speaking academics in poor countries have in accessing the academic literature pose an issue of disadvantage in a world where the current trend is to publish research work mostly in English.…
Davies, Renaud Jonathan
This study explores the role voice microblogging-based activities play in developing learners' spoken production skills. The study involved 33 low-intermediate level university students majoring in English at a private university in Japan. The voice microblogging application used in the study was Bubbly, a cross-platform social networking…
This article will provide an overview of current research focussing on the use of English as a "lingua franca" in international business contexts. It selectively reviews research investigating the role of written and spoken communication in English and the work that has been done on specific text genres used by the international business…
Odera, Florence Y.
Radio is one of the most affordable educational technologies available for the use in education and development in developing countries. This article explores the use of school radio broadcast to assist teachers and pupils to learn and improve English language both written and spoken in Kenyan primary schools. English language occupies a central…
This study investigated whether second language (L2) proficiency affects pragmatic comprehension, namely the ability to comprehend implied meaning in spoken dialogues, in terms of accuracy and speed of comprehension. Participants included 46 native English speakers at a U.S. university and 160 Japanese students of English in a college in Japan who…
de Klerk, Vivian
The paper analyses selected aspects of the codeswitching behaviour in a spoken corpus of the English of 326 people, all of them mother-tongue speakers of Xhosa (a local African language in South Africa), and all of whom would see themselves as Xhosa/English bilinguals. The corpus comprises approximately 550,000 transcribed words of spontaneous,…
Metcalf, Allan A.
The English spoken by Spanish-surnamed Americans of the southwestern United States often has a Spanish flavor, even though the speakers may have no competence in Spanish. This Chicano English is discussed in a series of descriptions based on a number of previous studies of regional variations. Each description covers pronunciation, intonation,…
Al-Kulaib, Emad Mohammed
This study is an investigation of the acquisition of existential constructions (ECs) in English and in Spoken Arabic. It is the first of its kind in that it examines the acquisition of the pieces and the features that form ECs; namely, existential "there," the copula, definiteness, and agreement for English and existential "fii," definiteness,…
Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton
The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…
This paper proposes that activities based on a variety of drama-based techniques could be valuable in giving Asian ESL learners opportunities to use communicative spoken English confidently and without restraint during their time in English-language-speaking countries. These learners often get anxious when in situations where they are required to…
Fixed prepositional phrases of the type in this way and on the other hand are used in written and spoken English to connect sentences into larger units (text, dialogues). German prefers simple adverbials like so. Appended is a check-list of the most common such phrases in English and possible German equivalents.
Wilang, Jeffrey Dawala; Teo, Adisa
This paper focuses on designing a comprehensibility test and a questionnaire for spoken world Englishes in Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore, and utilizing the test to investigate the comprehension of Burmese, Cambodians, Indonesians, Laotians, Thais and Vietnamese. We reviewed the demarcation of users of English based on Kachru's…
Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly
This article introduces diverse language and dialects of the Asian Pacific and describes their specific phonetic features. It also delineates the speech characteristics of the English spoken by those individuals whose English has been influenced by their local or native tongue. Clinical challenges in transcription and beyond are discussed.…
Williams, Joshua T; Newman, Sharlene D
A large body of literature has characterized unimodal monolingual and bilingual lexicons and how neighborhood density affects lexical access; however there have been relatively fewer studies that generalize these findings to bimodal (M2) second language (L2) learners of sign languages. The goal of the current study was to investigate parallel language activation in M2L2 learners of sign language and to characterize the influence of spoken language and sign language neighborhood density on the activation of ASL signs. A priming paradigm was used in which the neighbors of the sign target were activated with a spoken English word and compared the activation of the targets in sparse and dense neighborhoods. Neighborhood density effects in auditory primed lexical decision task were then compared to previous reports of native deaf signers who were only processing sign language. Results indicated reversed neighborhood density effects in M2L2 learners relative to those in deaf signers such that there were inhibitory effects of handshape density and facilitatory effects of location density. Additionally, increased inhibition for signs in dense handshape neighborhoods was greater for high proficiency L2 learners. These findings support recent models of the hearing bimodal bilingual lexicon, which posit lateral links between spoken language and sign language lexical representations.
Floris, Flora Debora
Today, English is truly regarded as an international language. It is the most widely-learned and spoken second or foreign language in many countries. In recent years, the number of second and foreign language speakers has far exceeded the number of first language speakers of English. This dramatic change, many have argued, should be taken into…
Learning to use English articles appropriately has been considered a challenging task for L2 learners of English, especially when their L1s do not have a similar article system. Much research has been conducted in this area, but little has been studied about the effects of discourse types (i.e., spoken discourse versus written discourse) on the…
Bozkurt, Aras; Ataizi, Murat
English is one of the most spoken languages in the world and widely accepted as a foreign language in many parts of the world. However, though there has been a high demand for English as a foreign language in the 21st century, it has still been taught or learned through traditional methods and conventional pedagogical approaches. In the digital…
Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016
The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) who are Asian or Pacific Islander include: (1) Top 10 Asian and Pacific Islander Languages Spoken Among ELs: SY 2013-14; (2)…
PREDOMINANTLY IN A SOCIAL SITUATION, SPANISH OR ENGLISH? (Que idioma habla Ud. predominantemente, esparfol o ingles?) TOTAL SPANISH: 36/102 (35.3%) ENGLISH...SPANISH: 23/26 (88.5%) ENGLISH: 0 EQUAL: 3/26 (11.5%) LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME: ( Idioma que habla Ud. en el Hogar) SPANISH: 57/102 (55.9
THIS 28-UNIT ORAL PROGRAM WAS PREPARED AS A GUIDE FOR TEACHERS OF SPANISH-SPEAKING FOUR-, FIVE- AND SIX-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN WHO ARE LEARNING ENGLISH FOR THE FIRST TIME. IT IS ORGANIZED TO GIVE THE CHILDREN SOME UNDERSTANDING AND COMMAND OF SPOKEN ENGLISH BEFORE BEING INTRODUCED TO READING IN ENGLISH. A BASIC SPEAKING VOCABULARY OF FIVE TO SIX…
Alliance for Excellent Education, 2007
In 2004-2005, America's public schools enrolled more than 5 million English language learners (ELLs), students whose proficiency in spoken and/or written English is not yet strong enough to permit them to succeed in an English-language classroom setting without extra support. However, while ELLs may be growing in numbers, in other respects they…
Alford, Randall L.; Strother, Judith B.
Provides data from a study that sought to determine and compare the attitudes of both native and nonnative speakers of English who listened to the specific regional accents of the English spoken in the United States. The groups judgments differed, and nonnative speakers were better able to perceive differences in regional accents of U.S. English.…
Cape Barren English is clearly the most aberrant dialect of English spoken in Australia. Descended from English sealers, whalers and ex-convicts and their Aboriginal wives, the inhabitants of Cape Barren Island, Tasmania, have lived in relative isolation for the last 150 years or more. Their dialect is not a creolized pidgin; it has a number of…
Shafiro, Valeriy; Levy, Erika S.; Khamis-Dakwar, Reem; Kharkhurin, Anatoliy
This study investigated the perception of American-English (AE) vowels and consonants by young adults who were either (a) early Arabic-English bilinguals whose native language was Arabic or (b) native speakers of the English dialects spoken in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), where both groups were studying. In a closed-set format, participants…
Chen, M C; Lin, Huey-Ju
Questionnaires were administered to 120 students. Cluster analysis was used to examine whether specific groups could be described by a writing self-efficacy scale, English writing anxiety scale, and a written General English Proficiency Test. Three clusters were observed. Demographic variables were compared for each cluster, including age, sex, program of study, years of English instruction, native language, and number of English speaking acquaintances. Efforts to reduce writing anxiety and promote writing self-efficacy could enhance writing scores of participants.
Teaching abroad exposes medical educators to unfamiliar teaching methods and learning styles that can enhance their overall teaching repertoire. Based on the author's experience teaching residents for one month at a community hospital in Japan and a review of the non-English speaking background (NESB) educational literature, pedagogical principles and lessons for successful international NESB instruction are outlined. These methods include understanding the dissimilar linguistic, cultural, and academic backgrounds of the learners, emphasizing pace and clarity of speech, presenting a conceptual framework instead of detailed discourse on subjects, and regular visual reinforcement of spoken words. The limitations introduced by the language barrier and the use of interpreters are briefly discussed. As society and institutions of higher learning become more global and multicultural, clinician-educators may benefit from teaching in other countries in order to enhance their teaching skills with NESB learners, both abroad and in their own institutions.
Ahmadi, Parviz; Samad, Arshad Abd.
Oral academic discourse socialization refers to a process through which students learn about the conventions and practices of their disciplinary fields while doing academic spoken practices. In this study, it refers to the interactions of the participant teachers with their peers and instructors as well as their engagement with academic texts.…
The Cooperative Principle by American linguist Grice is one of the major principles guiding people's communication. Observing the Cooperative Principle will be helpful for people to improve the flexibility and accuracy of language communication. The ultimate aim of spoken English teaching is to develop students' communicative competence.…
Funkhouser, James L.
The ways speakers of Black English modify features of their spoken dialect in the process of adapting their language to writing are examined in this dissertation, on the basis of a corpus of writing from 41 black students enrolled in a St. Louis community college composition course. Each student is represented by 500 to 1000 words of writing…
Chinwe, Udo Victoria
In the present day Nigeria, the quality of the English language spoken by Nigerians, is perceived to have been deteriorating and needs urgent attention. The proliferation of books and articles in the recent years can be seen as the native outcrop of its received attention and recognition as a matter of discourse. Evidently, every profession,…
Khojastehrad, Shadi; Rafik-Galea, Shameem; Abdullah, Ain Nadzimah
Language attitudes are learned and formed in our social environment through hearing others referring to certain groups or people's languages and cultures, and also by exposure to particular varieties spoken in the context. This might lead to stereotyping English and its native speakers (McKenzie, 2008). In this sense, it is pedagogically…
Kaiser, Eden A.
This dissertation is a sociophonetic analysis of the English spoken by Hmong Americans living in the "Twin Cities" of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. The Twin Cities has the largest urban population of Hmong Americans in the United States. Through studies of production and perception of vowels involved in sound changes, I…
This article examines the relationship between spoken language research and ELT practice over the last 20 years. The first part is retrospective. It seeks first to capture the general tenor of recent spoken research findings through illustrative examples. The article then considers the sociocultural issues that arose when the relevance of these…
Nicodemus, Brenda; Emmorey, Karen
Spoken language (unimodal) interpreters often prefer to interpret from their non-dominant language (L2) into their native language (L1). Anecdotally, signed language (bimodal) interpreters express the opposite bias, preferring to interpret from L1 (spoken language) into L2 (signed language). We conducted a large survey study ("N" =…
Salverda, Anne Pier; Altmann, Gerry T. M.
Participants saw a small number of objects in a visual display and performed a visual detection or visual-discrimination task in the context of task-irrelevant spoken distractors. In each experiment, a visual cue was presented 400 ms after the onset of a spoken word. In experiments 1 and 2, the cue was an isoluminant color change and participants…
Taft, Marcus; Castles, Anne; Davis, Chris; Lazendic, Goran; Nguyen-Hoan, Minh
There is increasing evidence that orthographic information has an impact on spoken word processing. However, much of this evidence comes from tasks that are subject to strategic effects. In the three experiments reported here, we examined activation of orthographic information during spoken word processing within a paradigm that is unlikely to…
Zou, Lijuan; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Youyi; Xia, Zhichao; Shu, Hua
Orthographic influences in spoken word recognition have been previously examined in alphabetic languages. However, it is unknown whether orthographic information affects spoken word recognition in Chinese, which has a clean dissociation between orthography (O) and phonology (P). The present study investigated orthographic effects using event…
Video is becoming a prevalent medium for e-learning. Lecture videos contain text information in both the presentation slides and lecturer's speech. This paper examines the relative utility of automatically recovered text from these sources for lecture video retrieval. To extract the visual information, we automatically detect slides within the videos and apply optical character recognition to obtain their text. Automatic speech recognition is used similarly to extract spoken text from the recorded audio. We perform controlled experiments with manually created ground truth for both the slide and spoken text from more than 60 hours of lecture video. We compare the automatically extracted slide and spoken text in terms of accuracy relative to ground truth, overlap with one another, and utility for video retrieval. Results reveal that automatically recovered slide text and spoken text contain different content with varying error profiles. Experiments demonstrate that automatically extracted slide text enables higher precision video retrieval than automatically recovered spoken text.
Hill, Laura E.; Weston, Margaret; Hayes, Joseph M.
Former English Learner students who have improved their facility with English to such a degree that they have been reclassified by their school districts as fluent in the English language are among the best performing students in the state. Because these Reclassified Fluent English Proficient (RFEP) students have much better academic outcomes than…
Science as a second language: Analysis of Emergent Bilinguals performance and the impact of English language proficiency and first language characteristics on the Colorado measures of academic success for science
Bruno, Joanna K.
In an age when communication is highly important and states across the nation, including Colorado, have adopted Common Core State Standards, the need for academic language is even more important than ever. The language of science has been compared to a second language in that it uses specific discourse patterns, semantic rules, and a very specific vocabulary. There is a need for educators to better understand how language impacts academic achievement, specifically concerning Emergent Bilinguals (EBs). Research has identified the need to study the role language plays in content assessments and the impact they have on EBs performance (Abedi, 2008b; Abedi, Hofestter & Lord, 2004; Abedi & Lord, 2001). Since language is the means through which content knowledge is assessed, it is important to analyze this aspect of learning. A review of literature identified the need to create more reliable and valid content assessments for EBs (Abedi, 2008b) and to further study the impact of English proficiency on EBs performance on standardized assessments (Solorzano, 2008; Wolf, & Leon, 2009). This study contributes to the literature by analyzing EBs performance on a state-level science content assessment, taking into consideration English language proficiency, receptive versus productive elements of language, and students' home language. This study further contributes by discussing the relationship between language proficiency, and the different strands of science (physical, life, and earth) on the state science assessment. Finally, this study demonstrates that home language, English language proficiency, and receptive and productive elements of language are predictive of EBs' achievement on the CMAS for science, overall and by strand. It is the blending of the social (listening and speaking) with the academic (reading and writing) that is also important and possibly more important.
Tabossi, P; Collina, S; Mazzetti, M; Zoppello, M
Five experiments explored the role of the syllable in the processing of spoken Italian. According to the syllabic hypothesis, the sublexical unit used by speakers of Romance languages to segment speech and access the lexicon is the syllable. However, languages with different degrees of acoustic-phonetic transparency give rise to syllabic effects that vary in robustness. It follows from this account that speakers of phonologically similar languages should behave in a similar way. By exploiting the similarities between Spanish and Italian, the authors tested this prediction in Experiments 1-4. Indeed, Italian listeners were found to produce syllabic effects similar to those observed in Spanish listeners. In Experiment 5, the predictions of the syllabic hypothesis with respect to lexical access were tested. The results corroborated these predictions. The findings are discussed in relation to current models of speech processing.
Toivanen, Juhani; Väyrynen, Eero; Seppänen, Tapio
In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic features were derived and automatically computed from the speech samples. Two application scenarios were tested: the first scenario was speaker-independent for a small domain of speakers while the second scenario was completely speaker-independent. Human listening experiments were conducted to assess the perceptual adequacy of the emotional speech samples. Statistical classification experiments indicated that, with the optimal combination of prosodic feature vectors, automatic emotion discrimination performance close to human emotion recognition ability was achievable.
Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort, this study examines the role that bilingualism plays in children's academic developmental trajectories during their early school years, with particular attention on the school environment (N = 16,380). Growth-curve results showed that despite starting with lower math scores in kindergarten, Mixed Bilingual children fully closed the math gap with their White English Monolingual peers by fifth grade. However, because non-English-Dominant Bilinguals and non-English Monolinguals started kindergarten with significantly lower reading and math scores compared to their English Monolingual peers, by fifth grade the former groups still had significantly lower scores. School-level factors explained about one third of the reductions in the differences in children's academic performance.
Jiang, Bing; Song, Yan; Wei, Si; Liu, Jun-Hua; McLoughlin, Ian Vince; Dai, Li-Rong
A key problem in spoken language identification (LID) is to design effective representations which are specific to language information. For example, in recent years, representations based on both phonotactic and acoustic features have proven their effectiveness for LID. Although advances in machine learning have led to significant improvements, LID performance is still lacking, especially for short duration speech utterances. With the hypothesis that language information is weak and represented only latently in speech, and is largely dependent on the statistical properties of the speech content, existing representations may be insufficient. Furthermore they may be susceptible to the variations caused by different speakers, specific content of the speech segments, and background noise. To address this, we propose using Deep Bottleneck Features (DBF) for spoken LID, motivated by the success of Deep Neural Networks (DNN) in speech recognition. We show that DBFs can form a low-dimensional compact representation of the original inputs with a powerful descriptive and discriminative capability. To evaluate the effectiveness of this, we design two acoustic models, termed DBF-TV and parallel DBF-TV (PDBF-TV), using a DBF based i-vector representation for each speech utterance. Results on NIST language recognition evaluation 2009 (LRE09) show significant improvements over state-of-the-art systems. By fusing the output of phonotactic and acoustic approaches, we achieve an EER of 1.08%, 1.89% and 7.01% for 30 s, 10 s and 3 s test utterances respectively. Furthermore, various DBF configurations have been extensively evaluated, and an optimal system proposed.
Barron, Anne; Pandarova, Irina; Muderack, Karoline
The present study, situated in the area of variational pragmatics, contrasts tag question (TQ) use in Ireland and Great Britain using spoken data from the Irish and British components of the International Corpus of English (ICE). Analysis is on the formal and functional level and also investigates form-functional relationships. Findings reveal…
I investigate the spoken dialogue of four Indian novels in English: Mulk Raj Anand's "Untouchable" (1935), Khushwant Singh's "Train to Pakistan" (1956), Rasipuram Krishnaswami Narayan's "The World of Nagaraj" (1990), and Rohinton Mistry's "Family Matters" (2002). Roger Fowler has said that literature, as a form of discourse, articulates ideology;…
Peyghambarian, Farideh; Ashraf, Hamid; Fatemi, Mohammad Ali
GoEnglish.Me can provide EFL learners with authentic materials in a variety of topics. In addition to authentic materials, the site can offer an opportunity of learning real Spoken English by American Native Speakers. To achieve the purpose of this study, you can probe the effect of GoEnglish.Me on lower-intermediate EFL learners' speaking…
A survey of teachers in all elementary and secondary schools in Vancouver (British Columbia) identified students for whom English was the second language and gathered information on the students' grade level, birthplace, first language, ability to understand spoken and written English, ability to speak and write in English, need for language…
This paper deals with English teachers who work with deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) students. In France deaf students are required to attend foreign language classes--mostly English classes. The purpose is not to teach them British sign language (BSL) or American sign language (ASL), but written and/or spoken English. Indeed, sign languages are…
Parker, Caroline E.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Irwin, Clare W.
This "Stated Briefly" report is a companion piece that summarizes the results of another report of the same name. The study examined student and program characteristics that are related to English proficiency and content area achievement for English language learner (ELL) students in one urban district in Connecticut. Study authors found…
Parker, Caroline E.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Irwin, Clare W.
This "Stated Briefly" report is a companion piece that summarizes the results of another report of the same name. The study examined student and program characteristics that are related to English proficiency and content area achievement for English language learner students in one urban district in New England. The study found that…
Dafouz, Emma; Camacho, Mar; Urquia, Elena
For years, universities worldwide have offered English-medium degrees as a way to attract international students and staff, enhance their institutional profile and promote multilingualism. In Europe and the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), English-medium instruction (EMI) is more recent, but the dimension and speed of its implementation has…
Bridging Academic Discourse for Emergent Bilingual Preschoolers: A Spanish-English Dual Language Teacher's Instructional Practices and Extratextual Talk during Shared Readings across Two Different Genres and Languages
Sembiante, Sabrina F.
This qualitative case study examines the nature of a dual language preschool teacher's instructional practices and extratextual talk during shared-book reading practices with two different genres of books in Spanish and English. Specifically, I explore the interpersonal, ideational, and textual features of one teacher's talk in English- and…
Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Metindogan, Aysegul; Evans, Melanie
This study examined the influence of parenting styles, parent-child academic involvement at home, and parent-school contact on academic skills and social behaviors among kindergarten-age children of Caribbean immigrants. Seventy immigrant mothers and fathers participated in the study. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that fathers'…
This state-of-the-art review reports on the major studies conducted in the field of "Deutsch als Wissenschaftssprache" (academic German) since the late 1990s. To begin with, the current position of German as a language of academic communication nationally and internationally will be discussed, focusing especially on the challenges posed…
Tudor Sarver, Whitney Ann
This study explores the academic lives of three multilingual undergraduate student writers in order to better understand how they have constructed their academic literacies and academic identities since taking the required English courses at a mid-sized state university. Within the overarching discussions of academic discourse and the idea of…
Crume, Peter Kirk
This dissertation study seeks to understand how teachers who work in an ASL/English bilingual educational program for preschool children conceptualize and utilize phonological instruction of American Sign Language (ASL). While instruction that promotes phonological awareness of spoken English is thought to provide educational benefits to young…
Flowerdew, John; Li, Yongyan
Within a global trend of the anglicization of academic publishing, in the humanities and social sciences (HSS) publication in indigenous languages, nevertheless, in many contexts, continues to thrive. Given that the overall anglicization of academic publishing tends to be negotiated at the local level, this study seeks to discover how a…
There has been growing concern among researchers and scholars about how nonnative-English-speaking academics in the "expanding circle" (Kachru, 2001, p. 520) cope with challenges while publishing in English in international refereed journals in the center. Most found that academics from peripheral countries where English is a foreign…
Xu, Jiang; Gannon, Patrick J; Emmorey, Karen; Smith, Jason F; Braun, Allen R
Symbolic gestures, such as pantomimes that signify actions (e.g., threading a needle) or emblems that facilitate social transactions (e.g., finger to lips indicating "be quiet"), play an important role in human communication. They are autonomous, can fully take the place of words, and function as complete utterances in their own right. The relationship between these gestures and spoken language remains unclear. We used functional MRI to investigate whether these two forms of communication are processed by the same system in the human brain. Responses to symbolic gestures, to their spoken glosses (expressing the gestures' meaning in English), and to visually and acoustically matched control stimuli were compared in a randomized block design. General Linear Models (GLM) contrasts identified shared and unique activations and functional connectivity analyses delineated regional interactions associated with each condition. Results support a model in which bilateral modality-specific areas in superior and inferior temporal cortices extract salient features from vocal-auditory and gestural-visual stimuli respectively. However, both classes of stimuli activate a common, left-lateralized network of inferior frontal and posterior temporal regions in which symbolic gestures and spoken words may be mapped onto common, corresponding conceptual representations. We suggest that these anterior and posterior perisylvian areas, identified since the mid-19th century as the core of the brain's language system, are not in fact committed to language processing, but may function as a modality-independent semiotic system that plays a broader role in human communication, linking meaning with symbols whether these are words, gestures, images, sounds, or objects.
The Allied Health Certificate Program at Massachusetts' Bunker Hill Community College has been successfully integrating academic and vocational education since 1986. The integration of English as a Second Language, academic education, and occupational training was a direct response to requests from business and industry for a competitive…
For non-native English writers, second language (L2) advanced academic literacy encompasses knowledge of the rhetorical, linguistic, social and cultural features of academic discourse as well as knowledge of English as used by their academic disciplines. Literacy is acquired through a socialization process embedded in social practice, patterned by…
There is growing evidence that the lack of competence of university ESL (English as a second language) students in academic writing affects their overall academic performance. Olivas and Li (2006) connected low second-language proficiency levels in English to poor academic performance of international students studying at both university and…
LASTRA, YOLANDA; SOLA, DONALD F.
THE FIRST OF TWO VOLUMES PREPARED FOR TEACHING THE COCHABAMBA DIALECT OF QUECHUA TO SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH, THIS DOCUMENT IS MADE UP OF 12 UNITS THAT COMPRISE A 6-WEEK INTENSIVE COURSE OF 20 CLASS HOURS A WEEK. EACH UNIT CONSISTS OF ONE OR MORE DIALOGS TO BE MEMORIZED, A DIALOG REVIEW, A SECTION ON GRAMMAR WITH ACCOMPANYING EXERCISES, CONVERSATION,…
Previous research within the field of argumentation has established that argumentation plays an important role in a variety of professions. Written argumentation has been extensively explored and investigated to examine its various aspects, including argument structures and schemes, argumentative strength, the role of audience, the evaluation of…
Minnesota Department of Education, 2017
This document contains all of the Minnesota kindergarten academic standards in the content areas of Arts, English Language Arts, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies. For each content area there is a short overview followed by a coding diagram of how the standards are organized and displayed. This document is adapted from the official versions…
Numerous studies have investigated the linguistic expression of stance and evaluation in university registers, focusing especially on academic research writing and to a lesser extent classroom teaching. The present study extends previous research in two ways: (1) it compares and contrasts the use of a wide range of lexico-grammatical features used…
Canadian Council on Learning, 2008
Canada depends on a steady flow of immigrants to maintain a viable workforce within an aging population. Without immigration, Canada's dependency ratio--the number of employed versus non-employed individuals--would grow dangerously unbalanced. In recent years, most immigrants have come from countries where the spoken language is not English or…
Abedi, Jamal; Levine, Harold G.
English language learners (ELLs) face a challenging academic future in learning a new language while simultaneously mastering content in the language they may be struggling to learn. Assessment plays an extremely important role in the academic careers of ELL students, perhaps more so than for native speakers of English. Major changes and…
British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.
The seven papers in this collection describe projects in English for academic purposes. Analysis of the communication needs of learners is discussed in "English for Academic Purposes: Practice Material for the Listening Comprehension and Writing Needs of Overseas Students," by R.R. Jordon and Alan Matthews. The pedagogic advantages of…
Roy-Campbell, Zaline M.
English is spoken in five countries as the native language and in numerous other countries as an official language and the language of instruction. In countries where English is the native language, it is taught to speakers of other languages as an additional language to enable them to participate in all domains of life of that country. In many…
Ramesh, R.; Sumathi, B.
English is a language, which is spoken by numerous people across the world. It has acquired a prominent place in meeting the communicational needs of the people. Grammar is a set of rules that helps the people to use the language better. In schools, the teachers of English are considered as the most important factor in making the study of English…
Suprasegmental features are of paramount importance in spoken English. Yet, these pronunciation features are marginalised in EFL/ESL teaching-learning. This article reported a study that was aimed at improving the students' mastery of English suprasegmental features through the use of reflective learning method. The study adopted Kemmis and…
From the perspective of World Englishes (i.e., varieties of English in different regions of the world), mutual intelligibility is a key issue for both listeners and speakers. Nevertheless, learners often have an idealized notion of native-speaker spoken norms and may be in favor of more prestigious inner circle models than others. This study…
Wiltshire, Caroline R.; Harnsberger, James D.
English as spoken as a second language in India has developed distinct sound patterns in terms of both segmental and prosodic characteristics. We investigate the differences between two groups varying in native language (Gujarati, Tamil) to evaluate to what extent Indian English (IE) accents are based on a single target phonological-phonetic…
Chen, Hsueh Chu
This paper includes two interrelated studies. The first production study investigates the timing patterns of English as spoken by Chinese learners with different dialect backgrounds. The second comprehension study explores native and non-native speakers' assessments of the intelligibility of Chinese-accented English, and examines the effects of…
McInerney, Dennis M.; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Amy Kwok Hap
This study examined the prediction of academic self-concept (English and Mathematics) and learning strategies (deep and surface), and their direction of effect, on academic achievement (English and Mathematics) of 8,354 students from 16 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Two competing models were tested to ascertain the direction of effect: Model A…
Lin, Grace Hui Chin; Chien, Paul Shih-chieh
Teaching English became a professional and academic field from a half century ago. Many researches for teacher education and teacher training have been conducted in order to raise the English as well as the foreign language trainers' knowledge and capabilities in carrying out effective lessons in classroom. During second millennium of speedily…
McCracken, H. Thomas, Ed.; Larson, Richard L., Ed.; Entes, Judith, Ed.
In this collection of 32 narrative essays, scholars and teachers of English and English education share their excitement as they reflect on their professional growth over the last 30 years. The firsthand stories in the collection represent "a study of theory and applied theory, grounded in personal experience and academic study over many…
Lee, Okhee; Buxton, Cory A.
Despite the expectation that all students should achieve high academic standards, content area instruction and English for speakers of other languages instruction for English language learners (ELLs) have traditionally been conceptualized as separate domains, resulting in educational inequities for ELLs. This is because effective instruction to…
De Sousa, Diana Soares; Greenop, Kirston; Fry, Jessica
Background: Emergent bilingual Zulu-English speaking children in South Africa have spoken but no written proficiency in Zulu (L1), yet are required to learn to spell English (L2) via English-only literacy instruction. Little research exists on emergent bilingual's phonological awareness (PA) and spelling development, with no L1 formal literacy…
Querol-Julian, Mercedes; Fortanet-Gomez, Inmaculada
Evaluation in academic discourse has received considerable attention from researchers. Much of the work on evaluation has focused, however, on written genres, and less attention has been paid to how evaluation unfolds in spoken academic genres. In our present research, we are interested in disclosing how the interpersonal meaning of evaluation is…
Cecil, Nancy Lee
Compares teacher expectations for Black children who speak Black Dialect with Black children who speak Standard English. Concludes that teachers expect significantly greater overall academic achievement, reading success, and intelligence from children who speak Standard English. (MM)
Charubusp, Sasima; Chinwonno, Apasara
This study investigated the effects of Academic Literacy-Based Intervention (ALI) on 30 undergraduate Thai university students' English reading proficiency. Based on the English reading proficiency test, these students were sub-classified into 2 groups, 15 in the high English reading proficiency group and 15 in the low English reading proficiency…
Parsons, Adelaide H.; Perdreau, Cornelia
Designed for faculty who are new to the Ohio Program of Intensive English (OPIE), this handbook is intended as an orientation and basic reference guide. The OPIE is described as a program established at Ohio University in 1967 to offer intensive or semi-intensive English language training for non-native speakers who need English for academic study…
Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen; Mehta, Sonya; Grabowski, Thomas J.
To investigate the impact of sensory-motor systems on the neural organization for language, we conducted an H215O-PET study of sign and spoken word production (picture-naming) and an fMRI study of sign and audio-visual spoken language comprehension (detection of a semantically anomalous sentence) with hearing bilinguals who are native users of American Sign Language (ASL) and English. Directly contrasting speech and sign production revealed greater activation in bilateral parietal cortex for signing, while speaking resulted in greater activation in bilateral superior temporal cortex (STC) and right frontal cortex, likely reflecting auditory feedback control. Surprisingly, the language production contrast revealed a relative increase in activation in bilateral occipital cortex for speaking. We speculate that greater activation in visual cortex for speaking may actually reflect cortical attenuation when signing, which functions to distinguish self-produced from externally generated visual input. Directly contrasting speech and sign comprehension revealed greater activation in bilateral STC for speech and greater activation in bilateral occipital-temporal cortex for sign. Sign comprehension, like sign production, engaged bilateral parietal cortex to a greater extent than spoken language. We hypothesize that posterior parietal activation in part reflects processing related to spatial classifier constructions in ASL and that anterior parietal activation may reflect covert imitation that functions as a predictive model during sign comprehension. The conjunction analysis for comprehension revealed that both speech and sign bilaterally engaged the inferior frontal gyrus (with more extensive activation on the left) and the superior temporal sulcus, suggesting an invariant bilateral perisylvian language system. We conclude that surface level differences between sign and spoken languages should not be dismissed and are critical for understanding the neurobiology of language
This study compares native English, Spanish, Lao, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, Arabic, and all other ELL students over one, two, three, and four-year spans to determine if certain groups appear to face more difficulties in developing early reading mastery by third grade. This study also examines whether socio-economic status impacts the…
Mahmood, Muhammad Asim; Asghar, Muhammad; Jabeen, Farhat
This paper aims at discovering the nature and extent of deviation in the articulation of consonants in Pakistani English due to the impact of mother tongue. A detailed experiment has been carried out with the help of Praat to analyze the acoustic properties of /?/ and /ð/ sounds spoken by Pakistani speakers. The research reveals that Pakistani…
THE WORK PRESENTED IN THIS STUDY IS AN INVESTIGATION OF THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF LANGUAGE. THE COMPLEXITY OF THE ENGLISH DIALECT SPOKEN IN NEW YORK CITY PARALLELS THE COMPLEXITY OF THE CITY'S CHANGING SOCIAL STRUCTURE. DATA GATHERED FROM THE LARGER SPEECH COMMUNITY SHOW THAT THE VARIATION IN INDIVIDUAL SPEECH PATTERNS IS REFLECTED IN A HIGHLY…
Bishop, D. V. M.
A total of 79 profoundly deaf 8- to 12-year-old children were tested for comprehension of spoken, written, and signed (Paget-Gorman Sign System, PGSS) English grammatical contrasts. It is concluded that the PGSS provides a communication channel that does not hinder language acquisition, but does not overcome the grammatical problems of deaf…
This paper examines the semantic associations of words found in the business lexical environment by using a one-million word corpus of both spoken and written Business English. The key method of analysis is that of semantic prosody or semantic association; the notion that words associate with collocates that are themselves related, often either…
Numerous reasons can be cited by scholars concerning lexical problems that face anyone embarking upon such an enterprise as that of preparing a Basque-English dictionary. First, "euskera," a term given to this ancient tongue, is both written and spoken today as it was millennia ago. Second, Basque, as a result, has not been subjected to constant…