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Sample records for academic teaching hospitals

  1. Impact of teaching intensity and academic status on medical resource utilization by teaching hospitals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisuke; Fushimi, Kiyohide

    2012-11-01

    Teaching hospitals require excess medical resources to maintain high-quality care and medical education. To evaluate the appropriateness of such surplus costs, we examined the impact of teaching intensity defined as activities for postgraduate training, and academic status as functions of medical research and undergraduate teaching on medical resource utilization. Administrative data for 47,397 discharges from 40 academic and 12 non-academic teaching hospitals in Japan were collected. Hospitals were classified into three groups according to intern/resident-to-bed (IRB) ratio. Resource utilization of medical services was estimated using fee-for-service charge schedules and normalized with case mix grouping. 15-24% more resource utilization for laboratory examinations, radiological imaging, and medications were observed in hospitals with higher IRB ratios. With multivariate adjustment for case mix and academic status, higher IRB ratios were associated with 10-15% more use of radiological imaging, injections, and medications; up to 5% shorter hospital stays; and not with total resource utilization. Conversely, academic status was associated with 21-33% more laboratory examinations, radiological imaging, and medications; 13% longer hospital stays; and 10% more total resource utilization. While differences in medical resource utilization by teaching intensity may not be associated with indirect educational costs, those by academic status may be. Therefore, academic hospitals may need efficiency improvement and financial compensation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  3. The impact of academic calendar cycle on coronary artery bypass outcomes: a comparison of teaching and non-teaching hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The commencement of new academic cycle in July is presumed to be associated with poor patient outcomes, although supportive evidence is limited for cardiac surgery patients. We sought to determine if the new academic cycle affected the outcomes of patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 10-year nationwide in-hospital data from 1998–2007. Only patients who underwent CABG in the first and final academic 3-month calendar quarter were included. Generalized multivariate regression was used to assess indicators of hospital quality of care such as risk-adjusted mortality, total complications and “failure to rescue“ (FTOR) - defined as death after a complication. Results Of the 1,056,865 CABG operations performed in the selected calendar quarters, 698,942 were at teaching hospitals. The risk-adjusted mortality, complications and FTOR were higher in the beginning of the academic year [Odds ratio = 1.14, 1.04 and 1.19 respectively; p < 0.001 for all] irrespective of teaching status. However, teaching status was associated with lower mortality (OR 0.9) despite a higher complication rate (OR 1.02); [p < 0.05 for both]. The July Effect thus contributed to only a 2.4% higher FTOR in teaching hospitals compared to 19% in non teaching hospitals. Conclusions The July Effect is reflective of an overall increase in morbidity in all hospitals at the beginning of the academic cycle and it had a pronounced effect in non-teaching hospitals. Teaching hospitals were associated with lower mortality despite higher complication rates in the beginning of the academic cycle compared to non-teaching hospitals. The July effect thus cannot be attributed to presence of trainees alone. Ultramini abstract This study compares the July effect in teaching and non-teaching hospitals and demonstrates that this effect is not unique to teaching hospitals for CABG patients. In fact, teaching hospitals have somewhat

  4. Teaching Quality, Learning Satisfaction, and Academic Performance among Hospitality Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Wen-Hwa; Chung, Feng-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the teaching quality of culinary arts teachers and student learning satisfaction on the academic performance of hospitality students. This study surveys the students in hospitality departments at universities in Taiwan. A total of 406 (81.2%) valid questionnaires were received. Research results…

  5. Awareness regarding research skills among clinical and academic post graduate doctors in teaching hospitals of Karachi.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Mehr; Zehra, Nosheen; Ahmad, Farah; Obaid, Munazza Suharwardy

    2014-06-01

    To assess the awareness regarding research skills among clinical and academic post-graduate doctors in teaching hospitals of Karachi. The cross-sectional study was carried out from August to October 2012 in two teaching hospitals of Karachi. Total 92 doctors who were enrolled in academic and clinical post-graduation programmes were included in the study through convenience sampling. Data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire and analysed by SPSS version 20. The mean age of the 92 doctors was 30.4 + 3.4 years; 49 (53.3%) were clinical; and 43 (46.7%) were academic post-graduate trainee doctors. Besides, 74 (80.4%) post-graduate doctors had attended research methodology course during their academic or professional careers. Low level of competence was found regarding various research skills, such as 56 (60.8%) in statistics, 47 (51.09%) in paper preparation, 40 (43.5%) in study design, 39 (42.4%) both in result interpretation and paper presentation, 37 (40.2%) in protocol writing and 35 (38.04%) in sampling technique. Moreover, 68 (73.91%) doctors reported lack of research curriculum (p < 0.001) as reason for low research output in Pakistan. Post-graduate medical doctors showed positive attitude towards research, but they lacked research skills. They needed training in all aspects of research skills.

  6. Functional alignment, not structural integration, of medical schools and teaching hospitals is associated with high performance in academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Keroack, Mark A; McConkie, Nathan R; Johnson, Erika K; Epting, Gladys J; Thompson, Irene M; Sanfilippo, Fred

    2011-08-01

    Debates continue regarding optimal structures for governance and administration between medical schools and their teaching hospitals. Structural integration (SI) for 85 academic health centers was characterized as high (single leader or fiduciary) or low (multiple leaders or fiduciaries). Functional alignment (FA) was estimated from questionnaire responses by teaching hospitals' chief executive officers, and an index was calculated quantifying organizational collaboration across several functional areas. SI and FA were examined for their association with global performance measures in teaching, research, clinical care, finance, and efficiency. AHCs with high SI had significantly higher FA, though overlap between high-SI and low-SI institutions was considerable. SI was not significantly associated with any performance measure. In contrast, FA was significantly associated with higher performance in teaching, research, and finance but not clinical care and efficiency. FA between medical schools and their primary teaching hospitals more strongly predicts academic health centers' performance than does SI. As demands for greater collaboration increase under health reform, emphasis should be placed on increasing FA rather than SI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Process mapping evaluation of medication reconciliation in academic teaching hospitals: a critical step in quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Anne; Bowen, James M; Patel, Harsit; O'Brien, Chris; You, John J; Tahavori, Roshan; Doleweerd, Jeff; Berezny, Tim; Perri, Dan; Nieuwstraten, Carmine; Troyan, Sue; Patel, Ameen

    2016-12-30

    Medication reconciliation (MedRec) has been a mandated or recommended activity in Canada, the USA and the UK for nearly 10 years. Accreditation bodies in North America will soon require MedRec for every admission, transfer and discharge of every patient. Studies of MedRec have revealed unintentional discrepancies in prescriptions but no clear evidence that clinically important outcomes are improved, leading to widely variable practices. Our objective was to apply process mapping methodology to MedRec to clarify current processes and resource usage, identify potential efficiencies and gaps in care, and make recommendations for improvement in the light of current literature evidence of effectiveness. Process engineers observed and recorded all MedRec activities at 3 academic teaching hospitals, from initial emergency department triage to patient discharge, for general internal medicine patients. Process maps were validated with frontline staff, then with the study team, managers and patient safety leads to summarise current problems and discuss solutions. Across all of the 3 hospitals, 5 general problem themes were identified: lack of use of all available medication sources, duplication of effort creating inefficiency, lack of timeliness of completion of the Best Possible Medication History, lack of standardisation of the MedRec process, and suboptimal communication of MedRec issues between physicians, pharmacists and nurses. MedRec as practised in this environment requires improvements in quality, timeliness, consistency and dissemination. Further research exploring efficient use of resources, in terms of personnel and costs, is required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Comparison of Patient Outcome Measures between a Traditional Teaching Hospitalist Service and a Non-Teaching Hospitalist Service at an Academic Children's Hospital.

    PubMed

    Tarchichi, Tony R; Garrison, Jessica; Jeong, Kwonho; Fabio, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    Inpatient pediatric care is increasingly provided by pediatric hospitalists. This, in addition to changes in resident duty hour restrictions, has led to the creation of new models of care for inpatient pediatric patients. The objective of this study was to compare traditional outcome measures between a pediatric hospitalist-only service and a more traditional academic service in which care was provided by pediatric hospitalists, residents, and medical students. Attending physicians on the hospitalist-only service had an average of 1.7 years of post-residency experience compared to an average 16 years of experience for those working on the traditional academic service. This retrospective cohort study (hospitalist-only v. teaching service) used electronic medical records data of patients (n=1,059) admitted to a quaternary care, academic, children's hospital in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania with diagnoses of bronchiolitis, viral syndrome, and gastroenteritis from July 2011 to June 2014. Primary outcome measures included length of stay, hospital costs, and readmission rates. Patients with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis admitted to the hospitalist-only service had a significantly higher severity-of-illness-score than those admitted to the teaching service. A decreased length of stay and lower hospital costs were seen for patients admitted to the hospitalist-only service; however, these differences did not reach a level of statistical significance. There were no statistically significant differences in the outcome measures of patients with common pediatric illnesses admitted to a hospitalist-only versus a teaching hospitalist service. The model of a hospitalist-only service staffed by recent residency graduates may provide an efficient and effective model of care as patients admitted to this service had similar outcome measures to those patients cared for by more-experienced attending physicians.

  9. Virtual slide telepathology for an academic teaching hospital surgical pathology quality assurance program.

    PubMed

    Graham, Anna R; Bhattacharyya, Achyut K; Scott, Katherine M; Lian, Fangru; Grasso, Lauren L; Richter, Lynne C; Carpenter, John B; Chiang, Sarah; Henderson, Jeffrey T; Lopez, Ana Maria; Barker, Gail P; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2009-08-01

    assurance program found a small number of significant diagnostic discrepancies. We also found that implementation of a virtual slide telepathology quality assurance service improved the job satisfaction of academic subspecialty pathologists assigned to cover on-site surgical pathology services at a small, affiliated university hospital on a rotating part-time basis. These findings should be applicable to some community hospital group practices as well.

  10. Implementing Medical Teaching Policy in University Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engbers, Rik; Fluit, Cornelia Cornelia R. M. G.; Bolhuis, Sanneke; de Visser, Marieke; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Within the unique and complex settings of university hospitals, it is difficult to implement policy initiatives aimed at developing careers in and improving the quality of academic medical teaching because of the competing domains of medical research and patient care. Factors that influence faculty in making use of teaching policy incentives have…

  11. A Survey on the Prevalence of Alcoholism Among the Faculty and House Staff of an Academic Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Bary J.; Fitzgerald, Faith T.

    1988-01-01

    We studied the extent of alcoholism among faculty and house staff of an urban, university-based teaching hospital. Of 569 questionnaires sent, 282 (50%) were returned and 271 of these were complete enough to be interpretable. Of those responding, 12 (4%) were classified as alcoholic and 26 (10%) as possibly alcoholic. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of alcoholism in physicians from the different medical specialties or in regard to gender. Nevertheless, with 14% of the respondents to our questionnaire being classified as either alcoholics or possible alcoholics, it appears that this is a pervasive problem in our profession that deserves further study. PMID:3262952

  12. The disconnect of twin pillars: the growing rift in educational goals and methods between medical schools and the academic teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Tepper, Joshua D

    2002-01-01

    Academic teaching hospitals (ATH) and medical schools are the two main components of the Academic Health Sciences Centre (AHSC) organization. They have traditionally worked in a symbiotic, f relatively unstructured and somewhat fluid relationship. Now changes in the medical school approach are creating stress on this traditional partnership. First, medical schools are being driven by external pressures to better respond to societal needs. Medical schools are increasingly decentralizing their educational process to help produce physicians with the values and skills needed to meet the diverse needs of Canadian society. Second, internally, the changing nature of medical knowledge and skill sets has led to differences in the educational process with more formal standards and educational goals. Within this second change is a difference in the trainees moving through the educational system - today's future doctors represent a different value set and demographic profile than their predecessors. These changes pose both a challenge and an opportunity for ATHs. ATHs are well positioned to be leaders and facilitators of these changes. Doing so would help strengthen the system, and would ultimately help ATHs fulfil their complex and often competing mandates. Unfortunately, there are also incentives for ATHs to fight these trends. The response of ATHs to their evolving relationship with medical schools and universities will have a large influence on the future shape and function of the AHSC.

  13. Women and Teaching in Academic Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshbein, Laura D.; Fitzgerald, Kate; Riba, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article explores past, present, and future issues for women and teaching in academic psychiatry. A small study of didactic teaching responsibilities along faculty groups in one academic psychiatry department helps to illustrate challenges and opportunities for women in psychiatric teaching settings. Background: Although women have…

  14. Use of a Hands Free, Instantaneous, Closed-Loop Communication Device Improves Perception of Communication and Workflow Integration in an Academic Teaching Hospital: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Fang, Daniel Z; Patil, Teja; Belitskaya-Levy, Ilana; Yeung, Marianne; Posley, Keith; Allaudeen, Nazima

    2017-11-17

    Efficient and effective communication between providers is critical to quality patient care within a hospital system. Hands free communication devices (HFCD) allow instantaneous, closed-loop communication between physicians and other members of a multidisciplinary team, providing a communication advantage over traditional pager systems. HFCD have been shown to decrease emergency room interruptions, improve nursing communication, improve speed of information flow, and eliminate health care waste. We evaluated the integration of an HFCD with an existing alphanumeric paging system on an acute inpatient medicine service. We conducted a prospective, observational, survey-based study over twenty-four weeks in an academic tertiary care center with attending physicians and residents. Our intervention involved the implementation of an HFCD alongside the existing paging system. Fifty-six pre and post surveys evaluated the perception of improvement in communication and the integration of the HFCD into existing workflow. We saw significant improvements in the ability of an HFCD to help physicians communicate thoughts clearly, communicate thoughts effectively, reach team members, reach ancillary staff, and stay informed about patients. Physicians also reported better workflow integration during admissions, rounds, discharge, and teaching sessions. Qualitative data from post surveys demonstrated that the greatest strengths of the HFCD included the ability to reach colleagues and staff quickly, provide instant access to individuals of the care team, and improve overall communication. Integration of an instantaneous, hands free, closed loop communication system alongside the existing pager system can provide improvements in the perceptions of communication and workflow integration in an academic medicine service. Future studies are needed to correlate these subjective findings with objective measures of quality and safety.

  15. Who Teaches Academic Integrity and How Do They Teach It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Löfström, Erika; Trotman, Tiffany; Furnari, Mary; Shephard, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Whose role is it to teach academic integrity to university students? We explored academics' conceptions about their role in promoting academic integrity in two countries, namely New Zealand and Finland. We used Q methodology to find common configurations of perspectives that can help us understand the premises based on which academics approach the…

  16. Hospital Teaching Status and Patients' Outcomes After Colon Cancer Surgery.

    PubMed

    van Groningen, Julia T; Eddes, Eric H; Fabry, Hans F J; van Tilburg, Marc W A; van Nieuwenhoven, Ernst J; Snel, Yvonne; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J; de Noo, Mirre E

    2018-03-23

    It is increasingly accepted that quality of colon cancer surgery might be secured by combining volume standards with audit implementation. However, debate remains about other structural factors also influencing this quality, such as hospital teaching status. This study evaluates short-term outcomes after colon cancer surgery of patients treated in general, teaching or academic hospitals. All patients (n = 23,593) registered in the Dutch Colorectal Audit undergoing colon cancer surgery between 2011 and 2014 were included. Patients were divided into groups based on teaching status of their hospital. Main outcome measures were serious complications, failure to rescue (FTR) and 30-day or in-hospital mortality. Multivariate logistic regression models on these outcome measures and with hospital teaching status as primary determinant were used, adjusted for case-mix, year of surgery and hospital volume. Patients treated in teaching and academic hospitals showed higher adjusted serious complication rates, compared to patients treated in general hospitals (odds ratio 1.25 95% CI [1.11-1.39] and OR 1.23 [1.05-1.46]). However, patients treated in teaching hospitals had lower adjusted FTR rates than patients treated in general hospitals (OR 0.63 [0.44-0.89]). However, for all outcomes there was considerable between-hospitals variation within each type of teaching status. On average, patients treated in general hospitals had lower serious complication rates, but patients treated in teaching hospitals had more favorable FTR rates. Given the hospital variation within each hospital teaching type, it is possible to deliver excellent care regardless of the hospital teaching type.

  17. Did recent changes in Medicare reimbursement hit teaching hospitals harder?

    PubMed

    Konetzka, R Tamara; Zhu, Jingsan; Volpp, Kevin G

    2005-11-01

    To inform the policy debate on Medicare reimbursement by examining the financial effects of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) and subsequent adjustments on major academic medical centers, minor teaching hospitals, and nonteaching hospitals. The authors simulated the impacts of BBA and subsequent BBA adjustments to predict the independent effects of changes in Medicare reimbursement on hospital revenues using 1997-2001 Medicare Cost Reports for all short-term acute-care hospitals in the United States. The authors also calculated actual (nonsimulated) operating and total margins among major teaching, minor teaching, and nonteaching hospitals to account for hospital response to the changes. The BBA and subsequent refinements reduced Medicare revenues to a greater degree in major teaching hospitals, but the fact that such hospitals had a smaller proportion of Medicare patients meant that the BBA reduced overall revenues by similar percentages across major, minor, and nonteaching hospitals. Consistently lower margins may have made teaching hospitals more vulnerable to cuts in Medicare support. Recent Medicare changes affected revenues at teaching and nonteaching hospitals more similarly than is commonly believed. However, the Medicare cuts under the BBA probably exacerbated preexisting financial strain on major teaching hospitals, and increased Medicare funding may not suffice to eliminate the strain. This report's findings are consistent with recent calls to support needed services of teaching hospitals through all-payer or general funds.

  18. Teach the teacher: Training otolaryngology fellows to become academic educators.

    PubMed

    Cramer, John D; Chi, David H; Schaitkin, Barry M; Eibling, David E; Johnson, Jonas T

    2018-03-09

    Fellowship is the capstone of academic training and serves as preparation for an academic career. Fellows are expected to educate medical students and residents during and long after fellowship. However, little time is typically spent teaching fellows to become effective educators. We investigate a formal curriculum addressing teaching skills among fellows in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS). E-mail survey. We developed and implemented an educational program called Teach the Teacher to build skills as educators for fellows in OHNS. We conducted a survey of fellows from 2014 to 2017 in OHNS who participated in the course. The survey evaluated demographics, teaching experiences, and teaching limitations structured as yes/no and Likert-style questions (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree). Thirty fellows were surveyed with a response rate was 80%. Fellowship was rated highly as an experience that will make fellows a better academic educator (mean ± standard deviation: 4.54 ± 0.64). The most important components of teaching during fellowship were role modeling (4.67 ± 0.62), followed by teaching psychomotor skills in the operating room (4.29 ± 0.89), diagnostic reasoning (4.25 ± 0.66), and evidence-based medicine (4.25 ± 0.83). The Teach the Teacher course specifically was rated as a helpful experience (4.00 ± 0.90). The primary limitations to developing teaching skills during fellowship identified were lack of time, patient safety, and inexperience with hospital culture. Fellowship is a key time to improve skills as academic educators. Fellows value formal efforts to teach academic skills. NA. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. What Is Required to Develop Career Pathways for Teaching Academics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dawn; Roberts, Lynne; Ananthram, Subramaniam; Broughton, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    Despite the rise of teaching academic (teaching only) roles in Australia, the UK, the USA, and Canada, the experiences of teaching academics are not well documented in the literature. This article reports from a university-wide study that responded to the introduction of teaching academic roles during a major restructure of academic staff.…

  20. Device-associated infection rates and bacterial resistance in six academic teaching hospitals of Iran: Findings from the International Nocosomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC).

    PubMed

    Jahani-Sherafat, Somayeh; Razaghi, Maryam; Rosenthal, Victor D; Tajeddin, Elahe; Seyedjavadi, Simasadat; Rashidan, Marjan; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Rostampour, Maryam; Haghi, Arezo; Sayarbayat, Masoumeh; Farazmandian, Somayeh; Yarmohammadi, Tahere; Arshadi, Fardokht K; Mansouri, Nahid; Sarbazi, Mohammad R; Vilar, Mariano; Zali, Mohammad R

    2015-01-01

    Device-associated health care-acquired infections (DA-HAIs) pose a threat to patient safety, particularly in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, few data regarding DA-HAI rates and their associated bacterial resistance in ICUs from Iran are available. A DA-HAI surveillance study was conducted in six adult and pediatric ICUs in academic teaching hospitals in Tehran using CDC/NHSN definitions. We collected prospective data regarding device use, DA-HAI rates, and lengths of stay from 2584 patients, 16,796 bed-days from one adult ICU, and bacterial profiles and bacterial resistance from six ICUs. Among the DA-HAIs, there were 5.84 central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABs) per 1000 central line-days, 7.88 ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAPs) per 1000 mechanical ventilator-days and 8.99 catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) per 1000 urinary catheter-days. The device utilization ratios were 0.44 for central lines, 0.42 for mechanical ventilators and 1.0 for urinary catheters. The device utilization ratios of mechanical ventilators and urinary catheters were higher than those reported in the ICUs of the INICC and the CDC's NHSN reports, but central line use was lower. The DA-HAI rates in this study were higher than the CDC's NHSN report. However, compared with the INICC report, the VAP rate in our study was lower, while the CLAB rate was similar and the CAUTI rate was higher. Nearly 83% of the samples showed a mixed-type infection. The most frequent pathogens were Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterococcus spp. In the S. aureus isolates, 100% were resistant to oxacillin. Overall resistances of A. baumannii and K. pneumonia to imipenem were 70.5% and 76.7%, respectively. A multiple drug resistance phenotype was detected in 68.15% of the isolates. The DA-HAI rates in Iran were shown to be higher than the CDC-NHSN rates and similar to the INICC rates

  1. Women and teaching in academic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hirshbein, Laura D; Fitzgerald, Kate; Riba, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    This article explores past, present, and future issues for women and teaching in academic psychiatry. A small study of didactic teaching responsibilities along faculty groups in one academic psychiatry department helps to illustrate challenges and opportunities for women in psychiatric teaching settings. Although women have comprised half of all medical school admissions for over a decade, tenure-track positions are still largely dominated by men. In contrast, growing numbers of women have been entering academic medicine through clinical-track positions in which patient care and teaching, rather than research, are the key factors for promotion. Thus, the authors hypothesized better representation of clinical-track women in formal, didactic teaching within the medical school setting. The authors compared the numbers of tenure and clinical-track men and women teaching lectures to medical students and residents at the University of Michigan, Department of Psychiatry. Contrary to the hypothesis, the majority of didactic teaching was done by tenure-track men. Possible explanations and remedies for the continuing under-representation of women in academic psychiatry, particularly teaching settings, are explored. Suggestions are made for future areas in which female faculty might have opportunities for participation and leadership.

  2. Estimating the patient care costs of teaching in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Kane, Robert L; Bershadsky, Boris; Weinert, Craig; Huntington, Sally; Riley, William; Bershadsky, Julie; Ravdin, Jonathan I

    2005-07-01

    Because leaders at medical schools and teaching hospitals need current data to estimate the clinical costs of graduate medical education, the authors developed a new methodology to estimate the hospital costs associated with the presence of teaching physicians for the year 2002. A hospital accounting system was used to determine the case mix-adjusted direct variable costs for 41,522 inpatient admissions associated with or without a teaching physician. Prior to adjustment, teaching cases had greater median costs than non-teaching cases. After severity adjustment, teaching cases in aggregate were associated with an additional 4.4% of the total direct variable cost of inpatient admissions, or US 3.6 million dollars. The size of the teaching effect varied by service, ranging from -5.7% for medical services to 13 percent for behavioral services. The effect of teaching on cost centers such as laboratory, pharmacy, and radiology varied by specialty service. Teaching was associated with a negligible 0.7% relative difference in length of stay. The incremental effects of teaching on hospital patient care costs are modest. These analyses can be repeated annually to detect changes in teaching costs and to target areas of excessive cost for interventions that improve efficiency. Our results and methods for identifying hospital costs associated with teaching services may prove useful in negotiations between academic health centers and affiliated teaching hospitals.

  3. The "Teaching HMO": A New Academic Partner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gordon T.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The Harvard University Medical School (Massachusetts) and a community health maintenance organization (HMO) have formed the first medical school department to be based in a freestanding HMO, replicating the conventional teaching hospital clinical teaching model in a managed care situation. The model is seen as potentially transforming medical…

  4. Complex Dynamics in Academics' Developmental Processes in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautwein, Caroline; Nückles, Matthias; Merkt, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Improving teaching in higher education is a concern for universities worldwide. This study explored academics' developmental processes in teaching using episodic interviews and teaching portfolios. Eight academics in the context of teaching development reported changes in their teaching and change triggers. Thematic analyses revealed seven areas…

  5. The Reluctant Academic: Early-Career Academics in a Teaching-Orientated University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based on research into academic identities amongst early-career academics in a UK post-1992, teaching-orientated university. Literature around academic identity suggests five major academic roles: teaching, research, management, writing and networking. However, this appears to be a picture of an established mid-career academic in a…

  6. Academic detailing to teach aging and geriatrics.

    PubMed

    Duckett, Ashley; Cuoco, Theresa; Pride, Pamela; Wiley, Kathy; Iverson, Patty J; Marsden, Justin; Moran, William; Caton, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Geriatric education is a required component of internal medicine training. Work hour rules and hectic schedules have challenged residency training programs to develop and utilize innovative teaching methods. In this study, the authors examined the use of academic detailing as a teaching intervention in their residents' clinic and on the general medicine inpatient wards to improve clinical knowledge and skills in geriatric care. The authors found that this teaching method enables efficient, directed education without disrupting patient care. We were able to show improvements in medical knowledge as well as self-efficacy across multiple geriatric topics.

  7. Teaching and Academic Standards Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handleman, Chester

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the decline of educational standards as reflected in national test scores and discusses four pedagogic causes for this decline: the abandonment of written tests in favor of objective, true/false testing techniques; nonpunitive grading and attendance policies; excessive use of technology in the classroom; and academic grade inflation. (JP)

  8. The Academic Profession. Teaching in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrill, Paul H.; Spees, Emil R.

    Teaching in higher education is examined in terms of the normal duties and responsibilities of the college instructor, some of the newer instructional patterns and innovations, educational technology, and skills needed to guide the learning process. Chapters include: the context of higher education; roles in the academic profession; basic…

  9. Teaching Assistants and Academic Dishonesty: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, John Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study surveyed the preparation for, attitudes towards, and experiences with academic dishonesty among Teaching Assistants (TAs) at the University of Arkansas. Of the population of 470 TAs, this study included 184 responses for a response rate of 39.1%. The survey included two instruments created by the researcher. The first assessed TAs'…

  10. Academic Misconduct in Teaching Portfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erikson, Martin G.; Erlandson, Peter; Erikson, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Within academia, clear and standardised communication is vital. From this point of departure, we discuss the trustworthiness of teaching portfolios when used in assessment. Here, misconduct and fraud are discussed in terms of fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism, following the literature on research fraud. We argue that the portfolio's…

  11. Identifying Teaching Groups as a Basis for Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Academic development recognizes the strengths of communities, such as communities of practice or learning communities, in providing academics with supportive environments for the development of teaching. The problem academic development faces is that not enough academics are involved in these communities. Instead of trying to interest academics in…

  12. Teaching Criteria That Matter in University Academic Promotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subbaye, Reshma; Vithal, Renuka

    2017-01-01

    While many universities have taken steps to recognise teaching in academic promotions, debate continues on the teaching criteria to be used and their evaluation. This article analyses the 10 criteria that inform the evaluation of teaching and eventual promotion decisions at a South African university: rationale for teaching, teaching methods,…

  13. Challenges of using Hospital Information Systems by nurses: comparing academic and non-academic hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian, Leila; Dorosti, Nafise; Khajouei, Reza; Gohari, Sadrieh Hajesmaeel

    2017-06-01

    Hospital Information Systems (HIS) are used for easy access to information, improvement of documentation and reducing errors. Nonetheless, using these systems is faced with some barriers and obstacles. This study identifies the challenges and the obstacles of using these systems in the academic and non-academic hospitals in Kerman. This is a cross-sectional study which was carried out in 2015. The statistical population in this study consisted of the nurses who had been working in the academic and non-academic hospitals in Kerman. A questionnaire consisting of two sections was used. The first section consisted of the demographic information of the participants and the second section comprised 34 questions about the challenges of HIS use. Data were analyzed by the descriptive and statistical analysis (t-test, and ANOVA) using SPSS 19 software. The most common and important challenges in the academic hospitals were about human environment factors, particularly "negative attitude of society toward using HIS". In the non-academic hospitals, the most common and important challenges were related to human factors, and among them, "no incentive to use system" was the main factor. The results of the t-test method revealed that there was a significant relationship between gender and the mean score of challenges related to the organizational environment category in the academic hospitals and between familiarity with HIS and mean score of human environment factors (p<0.05). The results of the ANOVA test also revealed that the educational degree and work experience in the healthcare environment (years) in the academic hospitals have a significant relationship with the mean score related to the hardware challenges, as well, experience with HIS has a significant relationship, with the mean score related to the human challenges (p<0.05). The most important challenges in using the information systems are the factors related to the human environment and the human factors. The

  14. Teaching hospital planning: a case study and the need for reform.

    PubMed

    Davis, Christopher K; Smith, Harry

    2010-08-16

    Academic teaching hospitals and their networks can best serve patients and other stakeholders by achieving critical mass and scope of clinical services, teaching and research. Successful hospital reconfigurations are associated with a convincing case and majority clinician buy-in. The inscrutable political decision to relocate services away from a major teaching hospital campus and into a merged Queensland Children's Hospital was determined without broad stakeholder consultation or a transparent and accountable business case. This compromised process poses a significant and enduring risk to patient care and Queensland's paediatric, perinatal, adolescent and obstetric academic teaching hospital services. As the proposed major stakeholder in Australia's public hospitals and medical workforce training, the federal government should review this decision using an effective methodology incorporating relevant criteria. National guidelines are needed to ensure best practice in the future planning and auditing of major health care projects. The medical profession is responsible for ensuring that health care policy complies with reliable evidence and good practice.

  15. Academically Gifted Undergraduate Students: Their Preferred Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL-Khayat, Majed M.; AL-Hrout, Mosa A.; Hyassat, Mizyed A.

    2017-01-01

    Much attention is being paid to the students who give evidence of high achievement capability in specific academic fields. This interest includes choosing sufficient teaching strategies that suit their characteristics. However, this study aims at identifying what teaching strategies are preferred by academically gifted students in Princess Rahma…

  16. Embedding the Teaching of Academic Writing into Anthropology Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostert, Linda Ann; Townsend, Rodwell

    2018-01-01

    This paper lends support to the argument that students require a variety of teaching strategies to help them improve their academic writing. The study described here took place in 2014 in the context of embedding the teaching of academic writing into anthropology modules. The strategies implemented were microthemes, peer feedback, annotated…

  17. The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: Challenges for Malaysian Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harland, Tony; Raja Hussain, Raja Maznah; Bakar, Aishah Abu

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the adoption of the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) by 10 Malaysian university academics. SoTL was part of a pioneering sector-wide initiative for improving teaching and learning. The qualitative study showed that there had been no true learning phase for SoTL because academics had high expectations of rapid success…

  18. Using the Sociological Imagination to Teach about Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nell Trautner, Mary; Borland, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The sociological imagination is a useful tool for teaching about plagiarism and academic integrity, and, in turn, academic integrity is a good case to help students learn about the sociological imagination. ?We present an exercise in which the class discusses reasons for and consequences of dishonest academic behavior and then examines a series of…

  19. Potential of Mobile Learning in Teaching of ESL Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaki, Arlina Ahmad; Yunus, Melor Md

    2015-01-01

    The potentials of mobile learning in teaching academic writing skills for ESL students are explored in this paper. Although there have been studies on MALL to improve writing skills, academic writing was never really touched. Few aspects are covered like the changes in educational technology, defining MALL, identifying issues in academic writing…

  20. Can Near-Peer Teaching Improve Academic Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Brett; Fowler, James

    2014-01-01

    Near peer teaching is becoming increasingly popular within healthcare education. The experiences and effects of near-peer teaching upon the near-peer teachers' academic performance are poorly understood. In order to address this, the objective of this study was to examine whether a near-peer teaching program improved the overall clinical unit…

  1. Strengthening the Teaching Self-Efficacy of Early Career Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian Colin

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study exploring teaching self-efficacy (defined as a belief in capability to execute teaching-related tasks) in a higher education context. It is based on the views of 12 early career academics (ECAs) employed at Charles Sturt University who were interviewed to learn more about how their teaching self-efficacy…

  2. Predicting Academic Success from Academic Motivation and Learning Approaches in Classroom Teaching Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çetin, Baris

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to determine whether learning approaches and academic motivation together predict academic success of classroom teaching students. The sample of the study included 536 students (386 female, 150 male) studying at the Classroom Teaching Division of Canakkale 18 Mart University. Our research was designed as a prediction study. Data was…

  3. How and Why Academics Do and Do Not Use iPads for Academic Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiyegbayo, Olaojo

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluated how academics, at a mid-sized UK university, used their iPads for teaching. The data were gathered using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Eighty-four academics completed a survey while 22 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Eleven interviewees reported that they used their iPads for teaching purposes and the…

  4. Strategic planning in academic paediatric hospitals: The need for child health input

    PubMed Central

    Warkentin, Joel; Frewen, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of Canadian paediatric academic programs, previously operated as separate hospitals, have been integrated into larger teaching hospitals or regional health authorities. The present article describes the recent experience of the Children’s Hospital of Western Ontario within the London Health Sciences Centre (London, Ontario) to illustrate the potential deleterious effects of planning, system and program changes in a large academic hospital without child health input at the executive decision-making level. The vision of the London Health Sciences Centre Executive Leadership Team and Board of Directors was divergent from that of the paediatric health care providers, which resulted in the resignation of a number of paediatric subspecialists and compromised the ability of the Department of Paediatrics to deliver paediatric care and educate future professionals. The present article highlights the need for the involvement of paediatric stakeholders in strategic planning in the hope that other academic centres can learn from this experience. PMID:19030362

  5. Strategic planning in academic paediatric hospitals: The need for child health input.

    PubMed

    Warkentin, Joel; Frewen, Timothy

    2007-03-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of Canadian paediatric academic programs, previously operated as separate hospitals, have been integrated into larger teaching hospitals or regional health authorities. The present article describes the recent experience of the Children's Hospital of Western Ontario within the London Health Sciences Centre (London, Ontario) to illustrate the potential deleterious effects of planning, system and program changes in a large academic hospital without child health input at the executive decision-making level. The vision of the London Health Sciences Centre Executive Leadership Team and Board of Directors was divergent from that of the paediatric health care providers, which resulted in the resignation of a number of paediatric subspecialists and compromised the ability of the Department of Paediatrics to deliver paediatric care and educate future professionals. The present article highlights the need for the involvement of paediatric stakeholders in strategic planning in the hope that other academic centres can learn from this experience.

  6. [Academic teaching at the department of ophthalmology of the University Clinic of Saarland (UKS) : The Homburg "Ophthalmo-Week"].

    PubMed

    Käsmann-Kellner, B; Seitz, B

    2015-06-01

    Academic teaching activities at the department of ophthalmology of the University Clinic of Saarland (UKS) include the teaching of students during the "Ophthalmo-Week" with lectures and bedside teaching according to the academic conditions given by the law for medical schools in Germany, a spezialized course "Anterior Pole to Posterior Pole", teaching of locum students, students in their final year and tuition of PhD students. Demonstration of the development of a structured teaching concept for medical students in ophthalmology including blended learning. Description of the problems encountered and the changes made during the transition from ex cathedra teaching to a mixture of lectures and practical hands-on and patient-centered teaching of the current Homburg "Ophthalmo-Week". In addition, the aim is to emphasize the importance of structured and detailed evaluation as a means to continually improve academic teaching. In the light of the current demographic changes and the relative lack of young trainees in many medical specialities in Germany, good academic teaching is becoming more and more important. Good academic teaching including positive evaluations can elucidate the interest of medical students for non-mainstream medical specialties such as ophthalmology. In addition, good and profiled academic teaching promotes research by attracting medical students to apply for PhD work at these hospitals. Furthermore, the profile of the department can be improved in comparison to departments of the same specialty in neighboring universities. Transferability of methods of academic teaching is as important as sustainability. To keep up the high standards of blended learning all medical personnel of the hospital need to be involved during the short-term focused teaching periods.

  7. The "July Effect": A Look at July Medical Admissions in Teaching Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Mims, Lisa D; Porter, Maribeth; Simpson, Kit N; Carek, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effect of admission for myocardial infarction, heart failure, or pneumonia during the first academic quarter compared with all other quarters in teaching versus nonteaching hospitals on length of stay, cost, and mortality. Using data 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, multivariable modeling with an interaction term was used to test teaching hospital effect by academic quarter. Logistic regression was used for mortality and log-transformed linear models for cost and length of stay. Charlson Index scores were similar in teaching and nonteaching hospitals. Patients admitted to teaching hospitals for myocardial infarction in the first quarter had a higher risk-adjusted mortality (1.217; confidence interval, 1.147-1.290) than those admitted to a nonteaching hospital during the same quarter (0.849; confidence interval, 0.815-0.885). Mean cost heart failure admissions averaged $584 more, and the mean length of stay was longer (0.10; P = .0127), during the first academic quarter. These effects were not present for quarters 2 through 4. This study suggests small increases in mortality among patients admitted with myocardial infarction in the first academic quarter compared with all other quarters in teaching versus nonteaching hospitals. Increased cost and longer stay were seen for those admitted with heart failure. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  8. The Cognitive Coaching-Supported Reflective Teaching Approach in English Language Teaching: Academic and Permanence Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyildiz, Seçil Tümen; Semerci, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the cognitive coaching-supported reflective teaching approach in English language teaching on the academic success of students and on the permanence of success. It was conducted during the spring semester of 2013/2014 academic year at the School of Foreign Languages, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey.…

  9. Organisational Commitments and Teaching Styles among Academics in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-Fang; Jing, Li-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    This research pioneered the investigation of the predictive power of organisational commitments for academics' teaching styles. Participants were 370 faculty members from 15 higher educational institutions in Beijing, the People's Republic of China. Results showed that academics' organisational commitments as measured by the Organisational…

  10. Not Just Good Science Teaching: Supporting Academic Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Cecilia; Weinburgh, Molly; Smith, Kathy Horak

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore ways in which they have worked together in understanding the complexities of academic language within the science classroom and discuss strategies they have used to teach academic language to young adolescent English Language Learners (ELLs) within inquiry-based science lessons. They discuss strategies they use…

  11. Advancing geriatrics education: an efficient faculty development program for academic hospitalists increases geriatric teaching.

    PubMed

    Mazotti, Lindsay; Moylan, Adam; Murphy, Elizabeth; Harper, G Michael; Johnston, C Bree; Hauer, Karen E

    2010-01-01

    Hospitalists care for an increasing number of older patients. As teachers, they are uniquely positioned to teach geriatric skills to residents. Faculty development programs focused on geriatrics teaching skills are often expensive and time-intensive, and may not enhance trainee learning. To evaluate a train-the-trainer (TTT) model designed to equip hospitalists with knowledge and skills to teach geriatric topics to residents in a time-constrained, resource-limited environment. Cross-sectional survey. Academic tertiary hospital. A 10-hour geriatric curriculum, the Reynolds Program for Advancing Geriatrics Education (PAGE), cotaught by geriatricians and hospitalists at preexisting noon conferences over 1 year that consisted of exportable teaching modules. Session leaders' and faculty participants' satisfaction, hospitalist geriatrics teaching self-efficacy, residents' self-report of frequency of geriatric teaching received, and frequency of geriatric skill use. The curriculum was highly rated by session leaders and hospitalist faculty. Hospitalists perceived improvement in geriatric teaching skills, indicating (1: "unlikely" to 5: "highly likely") that they are likely to use these teaching tools in the future (M = 4.61, standard deviation [SD] = 0.53). Residents reported both significantly more geriatrics teaching by hospitalists (P < 0.05) and a borderline significant increase in their practice of geriatric clinical skills (P = 0.05). A time-efficient geriatric faculty development program for hospitalists suggests improvement in the amount and quality of geriatrics teaching and skill practice among faculty and residents at an academic medical center. Concise faculty development programs within preexisting faculty meetings may be a feasible, successful method to increase geriatric skill development in the hospital setting. Copyright © 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  12. Teaching evidence-based practice in the hospital and the library: two different groups, one course.

    PubMed

    Blake, Lindsay; Ballance, Darra

    2013-01-01

    Key roles in teaching evidence-based practice (EBP) are of interest to many hospital and academic librarians. This article describes how three academic librarians, in collaboration with the academic medical center's EBP Nursing Council, developed a seminar consisting of three credit hours of instruction in the basics of evidence-based practice. The seminar consists of three core elements: basic principles of EBP and finding literature, clinical experience and integration of knowledge into the hospital setting, and patient education and participation. Emphasis is placed upon analysis of the literature, institutional models of practice change, and the importance of patient roles in guideline development.

  13. Teaching the Conventions of Academic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thonney, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Given the current emphasis on disciplinary discourses, it's not surprising that so little recent attention has been devoted to identifying conventions that are universal in academic discourse. In this essay, the author argues that there are shared features that unite academic writing, and that by introducing these features to first-year students…

  14. Publication, Teaching, and the Academic Reward Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Howard P.

    This examination of the academic reward structure at American universities involves an analysis of the marketplace for academic labor and an empirical investigation of the reward structure in several of the different disciplines found in the modern university. Four dimensions of the reward structure are considered: the merit raise, the annual…

  15. Evaluation of a teaching hospital necropsy service.

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, E F; Nicol, A G; Reid, I N

    1977-01-01

    The information returned to the hospital clinician after a necropsy was investigated in a series of 1000 patients. It was found that specific clinical queries were answered in 83% of cases, that the necropsy corrected the major clinical diagnosis in 36% of cases, and that 29% of cases were used for undergraduate or postgraduate teaching. The results demonstrate the continuing value of the necropsy as an investigative and educative procedure. PMID:874115

  16. Recommendations to University Managers for Facilitating Engagement of Academics with Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Research on community-based approaches to academic development has shown the importance of a collegial and supportive environment for teaching and learning about teaching. To investigate the environment in which academics work and teach, the research behind this article has defined a new concept, called "teaching groups". Teaching groups…

  17. Academics' Attitudes towards PhD Students' Teaching: Preparing Research Higher Degree Students for an Academic Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepsen, Denise M.; Varhegyi, Melinda M.; Edwards, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    An exploratory study of 473 academics in a metropolitan university investigated the attitudes of academic supervisors towards training for university teaching for doctoral students. The study investigated academic supervisors' levels of awareness and knowledge of teacher training opportunities, the relative importance of teaching--both lecturing…

  18. Association Between Teaching Status and Mortality in US Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Laura G.; Frakt, Austin B.; Khullar, Dhruv; Orav, E. John

    2017-01-01

    Importance Few studies have analyzed contemporary data on outcomes at US teaching hospitals vs nonteaching hospitals. Objective To examine risk-adjusted outcomes for patients admitted to teaching vs nonteaching hospitals across a broad range of medical and surgical conditions. Design, Setting, and Participants Use of national Medicare data to compare mortality rates in US teaching and nonteaching hospitals for all hospitalizations and for common medical and surgical conditions among Medicare beneficiaries 65 years and older. Exposures Hospital teaching status: major teaching hospitals (members of the Council of Teaching Hospitals), minor teaching hospitals (other hospitals with medical school affiliation), and nonteaching hospitals (remaining hospitals). Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcome was 30-day mortality rate for all hospitalizations and for 15 common medical and 6 surgical conditions. Secondary outcomes included 30-day mortality stratified by hospital size and 7-day mortality and 90-day mortality for all hospitalizations as well as for individual medical and surgical conditions. Results The sample consisted of 21 451 824 total hospitalizations at 4483 hospitals, of which 250 (5.6%) were major teaching, 894 (19.9%) were minor teaching, and 3339 (74.3%) were nonteaching hospitals. Unadjusted 30-day mortality was 8.1% at major teaching hospitals, 9.2% at minor teaching hospitals, and 9.6% at nonteaching hospitals, with a 1.5% (95% CI, 1.3%-1.7%; P < .001) mortality difference between major teaching hospitals and nonteaching hospitals. After adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, the same pattern persisted (8.3% mortality at major teaching vs 9.2% at minor teaching and 9.5% at nonteaching), but the difference in mortality between major and nonteaching hospitals was smaller (1.2% [95% CI, 1.0%-1.4%]; P < .001). After stratifying by hospital size, 187 large (≥400 beds) major teaching hospitals had lower adjusted overall 30-day

  19. Association Between Teaching Status and Mortality in US Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Burke, Laura G; Frakt, Austin B; Khullar, Dhruv; Orav, E John; Jha, Ashish K

    2017-05-23

    Few studies have analyzed contemporary data on outcomes at US teaching hospitals vs nonteaching hospitals. To examine risk-adjusted outcomes for patients admitted to teaching vs nonteaching hospitals across a broad range of medical and surgical conditions. Use of national Medicare data to compare mortality rates in US teaching and nonteaching hospitals for all hospitalizations and for common medical and surgical conditions among Medicare beneficiaries 65 years and older. Hospital teaching status: major teaching hospitals (members of the Council of Teaching Hospitals), minor teaching hospitals (other hospitals with medical school affiliation), and nonteaching hospitals (remaining hospitals). Primary outcome was 30-day mortality rate for all hospitalizations and for 15 common medical and 6 surgical conditions. Secondary outcomes included 30-day mortality stratified by hospital size and 7-day mortality and 90-day mortality for all hospitalizations as well as for individual medical and surgical conditions. The sample consisted of 21 451 824 total hospitalizations at 4483 hospitals, of which 250 (5.6%) were major teaching, 894 (19.9%) were minor teaching, and 3339 (74.3%) were nonteaching hospitals. Unadjusted 30-day mortality was 8.1% at major teaching hospitals, 9.2% at minor teaching hospitals, and 9.6% at nonteaching hospitals, with a 1.5% (95% CI, 1.3%-1.7%; P < .001) mortality difference between major teaching hospitals and nonteaching hospitals. After adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, the same pattern persisted (8.3% mortality at major teaching vs 9.2% at minor teaching and 9.5% at nonteaching), but the difference in mortality between major and nonteaching hospitals was smaller (1.2% [95% CI, 1.0%-1.4%]; P < .001). After stratifying by hospital size, 187 large (≥400 beds) major teaching hospitals had lower adjusted overall 30-day mortality relative to 76 large nonteaching hospitals (8.1% vs 9.4%; 1.2% difference [95% CI, 0

  20. You Can't Teach Me: Exploring Academic Resistance to Teaching Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaker, Lynley; Stein, Sarah J.; Spiller, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    Societal, governmental, and research expectations of universities in contemporary western society have led to increasing calls for teacher professionalism and accountability as well as research excellence and research-informed teaching. Consequently, demands on academic staff development continually emerge, which academics may view as oppressive.…

  1. Combining clinical practice and academic work in nursing: A qualitative study about perceived importance, facilitators and barriers regarding clinical academic careers for nurses in university hospitals.

    PubMed

    van Oostveen, Catharina J; Goedhart, Nicole S; Francke, Anneke L; Vermeulen, Hester

    2017-12-01

    To obtain in-depth insight into the perceptions of nurse academics and other stakeholders regarding the importance, facilitators and barriers for nurses combining clinical and academic work in university hospitals. Combining clinical practice and academic work facilitates the use of research findings for high-quality patient care. However, nurse academics move away from the bedside because clinical academic careers for nurses have not yet been established in the Netherlands. This qualitative study was conducted in two Dutch university hospitals and their affiliated medical faculties and universities of applied sciences. Data were collected between May 2015 and August 2016. We used purposive sampling for 24 interviews. We asked 14 participants in two focus groups for their perceptions of importance, facilitators and barriers in nurses' combined clinical and academic work in education and research. We audiotaped, transcribed and thematically analysed the interviews and focus groups. Three themes related to perceived importance, facilitators and barriers: culture, leadership and infrastructure. These themes represent deficiencies in facilitating clinical academic careers for nurses. The current nursing culture emphasises direct patient care, which is perceived as an academic misfit. Leadership is lacking at all levels, resulting in the underuse of nurse academics and the absence of supporting structures for nurses who combine clinical and academic work. The present nursing culture appears to be the root cause of the dearth of academic positions and established clinical academic posts. A culture change would require a show of leadership that would promote and enable combined research, teaching and clinical practice and that would introduce clinical academic career pathways for nurses. Meanwhile, nurse academics should collaborate with established medical academics for whom combined roles are mainstream, and they should take advantage of their established infrastructure

  2. Rural versus urban academic hospital mortality following stroke in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Turcotte, Stéphane; Légaré, France; Plant, Jeff; Poitras, Julien; Archambault, Patrick M.; Dupuis, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in Canada. While stroke care has improved dramatically over the last decade, outcomes following stroke among patients treated in rural hospitals have not yet been reported in Canada. Objectives To describe variation in 30-day post-stroke in-hospital mortality rates between rural and urban academic hospitals in Canada. We also examined 24/7 in-hospital access to CT scanners and selected services in rural hospitals. Materials and methods We included Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) data on adjusted 30-day in-hospital mortality following stroke from 2007 to 2011 for all acute care hospitals in Canada excluding Quebec and the Territories. We categorized rural hospitals as those located in rural small towns providing 24/7 emergency physician coverage with inpatient beds. Urban hospitals were academic centres designated as Level 1 or 2 trauma centres. We computed descriptive data on local access to a CT scanner and other services and compared mean 30-day adjusted post-stroke mortality rates for rural and urban hospitals to the overall Canadian rate. Results A total of 286 rural hospitals (3.4 million emergency department (ED) visits/year) and 24 urban hospitals (1.5 million ED visits/year) met inclusion criteria. From 2007 to 2011, 30-day in-hospital mortality rates following stroke were significantly higher in rural than in urban hospitals and higher than the Canadian average for every year except 2008 (rural average range = 18.26 to 21.04 and urban average range = 14.11 to 16.78). Only 11% of rural hospitals had a CT-scanner, 1% had MRI, 21% had in-hospital ICU, 94% had laboratory and 92% had basic x-ray facilities. Conclusion Rural hospitals in Canada had higher 30-day in-hospital mortality rates following stroke than urban academic hospitals and the Canadian average. Rural hospitals also have very limited local access to CT scanners and ICUs. These rural/urban discrepancies are cause for

  3. Rural versus urban academic hospital mortality following stroke in Canada.

    PubMed

    Fleet, Richard; Bussières, Sylvain; Tounkara, Fatoumata Korika; Turcotte, Stéphane; Légaré, France; Plant, Jeff; Poitras, Julien; Archambault, Patrick M; Dupuis, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in Canada. While stroke care has improved dramatically over the last decade, outcomes following stroke among patients treated in rural hospitals have not yet been reported in Canada. To describe variation in 30-day post-stroke in-hospital mortality rates between rural and urban academic hospitals in Canada. We also examined 24/7 in-hospital access to CT scanners and selected services in rural hospitals. We included Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) data on adjusted 30-day in-hospital mortality following stroke from 2007 to 2011 for all acute care hospitals in Canada excluding Quebec and the Territories. We categorized rural hospitals as those located in rural small towns providing 24/7 emergency physician coverage with inpatient beds. Urban hospitals were academic centres designated as Level 1 or 2 trauma centres. We computed descriptive data on local access to a CT scanner and other services and compared mean 30-day adjusted post-stroke mortality rates for rural and urban hospitals to the overall Canadian rate. A total of 286 rural hospitals (3.4 million emergency department (ED) visits/year) and 24 urban hospitals (1.5 million ED visits/year) met inclusion criteria. From 2007 to 2011, 30-day in-hospital mortality rates following stroke were significantly higher in rural than in urban hospitals and higher than the Canadian average for every year except 2008 (rural average range = 18.26 to 21.04 and urban average range = 14.11 to 16.78). Only 11% of rural hospitals had a CT-scanner, 1% had MRI, 21% had in-hospital ICU, 94% had laboratory and 92% had basic x-ray facilities. Rural hospitals in Canada had higher 30-day in-hospital mortality rates following stroke than urban academic hospitals and the Canadian average. Rural hospitals also have very limited local access to CT scanners and ICUs. These rural/urban discrepancies are cause for concern in the context of Canada's universal health care system.

  4. Student stress and academic performance: home hospital program.

    PubMed

    Yucha, Carolyn B; Kowalski, Susan; Cross, Chad

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether nursing students assigned to a home hospital experience less stress and improved academic performance. Students were assigned to a home hospital clinical placement (n = 78) or a control clinical placement (n = 79). Stress was measured using the Student Nurse Stress Index (SNSI) and Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory. Academic performance included score on the RN CAT, a standardized mock NCLEX-RN(®)-type test; nursing grade point average; and first attempt pass-fail on the NCLEX-RN. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups for age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, or score on the nurse entrance examination. There were significant changes in SNSI over time but not between groups. Academic load and state anxiety showed an interaction of time by group, with the home hospital group showing reductions over time, compared with the control group. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Academic Medical Centers and Community Hospitals Integration: Trends and Strategies.

    PubMed

    Fleishon, Howard B; Itri, Jason N; Boland, Giles W; Duszak, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Academic medical centers are widely recognized as vital components of the American health care system, generally differentiated from their community hospital peers by their tripartite mission of clinical care, education, and research. Community hospitals fill a critical and complementary role, serving as the primary sites for health care in most communities. Health care reform initiatives and economic pressures have created incentives for hospitals and health systems to integrate, resulting in a nationwide trend toward consolidation with academic medical centers leveraging their substantial assets to merge, acquire, or establish partnerships with their community peers. As these alliances accelerate, they have and will continue to affect the radiology groups providing services at these institutions. A deeper understanding of these new marketplace dynamics, changing relationships and potential strategies will help both academic and private practice radiologists adapt to this ongoing change. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Datagram: Income Analysis of University-Owned Teaching Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Joseph C.

    1978-01-01

    A survey conducted by the Department of Teaching Hospitals of the Association of American Medical Colleges is reported that shows income, expense, and general operating data for university-owned teaching hospitals. Sixty-one hospitals reported data that were keyed to Medicare cost reports. Self-pay and Medicare maintained their places as leading…

  7. Peer Observation of Teaching: Enhancing Academic Engagement for New Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Conor; O'Loughlin, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to uncover key motivations, barriers and outcomes associated with first-time users of peer observation of teaching within an Irish higher level academic context. Following preliminary research, a peer observation process was piloted on five self-selected peer observation faculty pairs involving peer observation training and…

  8. Changing Academic Teaching with Web 2.0 Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Barbara; Byles, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Academic teaching can change with the use of Web 2.0 technologies, such as blogs and wikis, as these enable a different pedagogical approach through collaborative learning and the social construction of knowledge. Student expectations of their university learning experience have changed as they expect e-learning to be part of the learning…

  9. Engaging Academic Staff in Transnational Teaching: The Job Satisfaction Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toohey, Danny; McGill, Tanya; Whitsed, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Transnational education (TNE) is an important facet of the international education learning and teaching landscape. Ensuring academics are positively engaged in TNE is a challenging but necessary issue for this form of educational provision if the risks inherent in TNE are to be successfully mitigated. This article explores job satisfaction for…

  10. No Academic Borders?: Transdisciplinarity in University Teaching and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, A. Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Transdisciplinarity has been a veritable mantra, especially in the humanities and social sciences, for twenty years or more. Yet academic structures and research application requirements still struggle to come to grips with cross-boundary research and teaching. Making universities more trans-discipline-friendly is a tricky task, however. As Wendy…

  11. Academic Freedom; To Teach and To Learn: Every Teacher's Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Anna S., Ed.

    The five chapters of this book on teachers' need and responsibility to prepare themselves for criticisms and attacks on their teaching methods and materials deal with the scope of censorship issues, the significance of academic freedom, recent judicial rulings, school-community tensions, and case studies of censorship cases. The first chapter,…

  12. Using Purposefully Created Stories to Teach Academic Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Changnam; Roberts, Carly; Coffey, Debra

    2017-01-01

    Students' knowledge of vocabulary affects their reading comprehension. Despite abundant research findings in vocabulary learning, practical instructional methods for use in schools are typically underdeveloped. This article proposes a research-based method for teaching the meanings of base academic vocabulary (i.e., Tier 2) words. The method…

  13. Changes in Japanese Academics' Teaching and Research, 1992-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Futao

    2015-01-01

    By analyzing relevant findings from two national surveys which were carried out in 1992 and 2011 with dozens of similar questions, the study explores changes in Japanese academics' major teaching and research activities and their views of these activities from 1992 to 2011. The study begins with a brief introduction to context and main policies…

  14. Teaching about NAFTA Using Academic Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Eileen M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines a teaching strategy called "constructive controversy" where students are required to argue both the pro and con positions concerning a controversial current topic. Describes students' response to a class using this method to examine the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Student response was generally favorable. (MJP)

  15. Roles and methods of performance evaluation of hospital academic leadership.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Yuan, Huikang; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xia; Yi, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly advancing implementation of public hospital reform urgently requires the identification and classification of a pool of exceptional medical specialists, corresponding with incentives to attract and retain them, providing a nucleus of distinguished expertise to ensure public hospital preeminence. This paper examines the significance of academic leadership, from a strategic management perspective, including various tools, methods and mechanisms used in the theory and practice of performance evaluation, and employed in the selection, training and appointment of academic leaders. Objective methods of assessing leadership performance are also provided for reference.

  16. Teaching strategies to incorporate genomics education into academic nursing curricula.

    PubMed

    Quevedo Garcia, Sylvia P; Greco, Karen E; Loescher, Lois J

    2011-11-01

    The translation of genomic science into health care has expanded our ability to understand the effects of genomics on human health and disease. As genomic advances continue, nurses are expected to have the knowledge and skills to translate genomic information into improved patient care. This integrative review describes strategies used to teach genomics in academic nursing programs and their facilitators and barriers to inclusion in nursing curricula. The Learning Engagement Model and the Diffusion of Innovations Theory guided the interpretation of findings. CINAHL, Medline, and Web of Science were resources for articles published during the past decade that included strategies for teaching genomics in academic nursing programs. Of 135 articles, 13 met criteria for review. Examples of effective genomics teaching strategies included clinical application through case studies, storytelling, online genomics resources, student self-assessment, guest lecturers, and a genetics focus group. Most strategies were not evaluated for effectiveness. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Hospitality and Collegial Community: An Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John B.

    2000-01-01

    Explains a collegial ethic of hospitality as a cardinal academic virtue and suggests a way of building a "collegium," the covenantal community of academe. Discusses how academicians can develop hospitable teaching, hospitable scholarship, and hospitable service. (Author/SLD)

  18. Shifting Goal Posts: The Impact of Academic Workforce Reshaping and the Introduction of Teaching Academic Roles on the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavell, Helen; Roberts, Lynne; Fyfe, Georgina; Broughton, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative study reports on findings from interviews with ten academics in an Australian university six to twelve months following academic workforce reshaping and the widespread introduction of teaching academic roles. The research aimed to determine how the workforce reshaping impacted on the capacity of academics with teaching…

  19. The Hospitalist Huddle: a 1-year experience of teaching Hospital Medicine utilizing the concept of peer teaching in medical education.

    PubMed

    Elhassan, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    The relatively new specialty of Hospital Medicine in the USA is one of the fastest growing fields in internal medicine. Academic hospitalists are largely involved in the medical education of postgraduate residents and medical students. Little is known about the effectiveness of peer-to-peer teaching in internal medicine residency training programs and how the medical residents perceive its educational value in learning Hospital Medicine. The Hospitalist Huddle is a weekly educational activity newly established by our Hospitalist Division to facilitate the concept of peer-to-peer teaching. It requires medical residents to teach and educate their peers about the clinical topics related to Hospital Medicine. Faculty hospitalists serve as facilitators during the teaching sessions. A survey disseminated at the end of the first year of its implementation examined the residents' perception of the educational value of this new teaching activity. Most residents reported that they see the Huddle as a useful educational forum which may improve their skills in teaching, create a better educational and learning environment during their inpatient rotation, and improve their understanding of Hospital Medicine. Most residents also prefer that their peers, rather than faculty hospitalists, run the activity and do the teaching. The survey results support the notion that teaching and learning with flat hierarchies can be an appealing educational method to medical residents to help them understand Hospital Medicine during their medical wards rotation. Some areas need to be improved and others need to be continued and emphasized in order to make this novel educational activity grow and flourish in terms of its educational value and residents' satisfaction.

  20. Physicians' job satisfaction and motivation in a public academic hospital.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Vasconcelos Filho, Paulo; de Souza, Miriam Regina; Elias, Paulo Eduardo Mangeon; D'Ávila Viana, Ana Luiza

    2016-12-07

    Physician shortage is a global issue that concerns Brazil's authorities. The organizational structure and the environment of a medical institution can hide a low-quality life of a physician. This study examines the relationship between the hospital work environment and physicians' job satisfaction and motivation when working in a large public academic hospital. The study was restricted to one large, multispecialty Brazil's hospital. Six hundred hospital physicians were invited to participate by e-mail. A short version of the Physician Worklife Survey (PWS) was used to measure working satisfaction. Physicians were also asked for socio-demographic information, medical specialty, and the intention to continue working in the hospital. Data from 141 questionnaires were included in the analyses. Forty-five physicians graduated from the hospital's university, and they did not intend to leave the hospital under any circumstance (affective bond). The motivating factor for beginning the career at the hospital and to continue working there were the connection to the medical school and the hospital status as a "prestigious academic hospital"; the physicians were more satisfied with the career than the specialty. Only 30% completely agreed with the statement "If I had to start my career over again, I would choose my current specialty," while 45% completely agreed with the statement "I am not well compensated given my training and experience." The greater point of satisfaction was the relationship with physician colleagues. They are annoyed about the amount of calls they are requested to take and about how work encroaches on their personal time. No significant differences between medical specialties were found in the analysis. The participants were satisfied with their profession. The fact that they remained at the hospital was related to the academic environment, the relationship with colleagues, and the high prestige in which society holds the institution. The points of

  1. Contemporary performance of U.S. teaching and nonteaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Shahian, David M; Nordberg, Paul; Meyer, Gregg S; Blanchfield, Bonnie B; Mort, Elizabeth A; Torchiana, David F; Normand, Sharon-Lise T

    2012-06-01

    To compare the performance of U.S. teaching and nonteaching hospitals using a portfolio of contemporary, publicly reported metrics. The authors classified acute care general hospitals filing a Medicare Institutional Cost Report according to teaching intensity: nonteaching, teaching, or Council of Teaching Hospitals member. They compared aggregate results across categories for Hospital Compare process compliance, mortality, and readmission rates (acute myocardial infarction [AMI], heart failure, pneumonia); Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) performance; compliance with Leapfrog standards; patient experience; patient services and key technologies; safety (computerized physician order entry, intensive care unit staffing, National Quality Forum safe practices, hospital-acquired conditions); and cost/resource utilization (Medicare-adjusted expense per case; Leapfrog efficiency and resource use standards). Availability of patient services and advanced technologies were associated with teaching intensity (P < .0001), as were most hospital safety metrics. Teaching intensity was favorably associated with SCIP performance, AMI and heart failure process scores, and mortality (P < .0001). It was unfavorably associated with higher AMI and pneumonia readmission rates (P < .0001) and lower scores for individual patient satisfaction measures. Costs per case were similar (P = .4194) across hospital categories after correction for federally allowed adjustments (case mix, wages, and low-income patient care). Teaching hospitals offer advanced clinical capabilities, educate the next generation of providers, care for disadvantaged urban populations, and are leaders in health care research and innovation. However, many stakeholders may be unaware of an additional value-relatively higher quality and safety in many areas, with similar adjusted costs.

  2. Is Hospital Teaching Status a Key Factor in Hospital Charge for Children with Hip Fractures?

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yubo; Pugely, Andrew; Karam, Matthew; Phisitkul, Phinit; Mendoza, Sergio; Johnston, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Proximal femur fractures cause significant pain and economic cost among pediatric patients. The purposes of this study were (a) to evaluate the distribution by hospital type (teaching hospital vs non-teaching hospital) of U.S. pediatric patients aged 1-20 years who were hospitalized with a closed hip fracture and (b) to discern the mean hospital charge and hospital length of stay after employing propensity score to reduce selec-tion bias. METHODS The 2006 Healthcare Cost and Uti-lization Project (HCUP) Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID) was queried for children aged up to 20 years that had principle diagnosis of hip fracture injury. Hip fractures were defined by International Classifi-cation of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modifica-tion codes 820.0, 820.2 and 820.8 under Section “Injury and Poisoning (800-999)” with principle internal fixation procedure codes 78.55, 79.15 and 79.35. Patient demographics and hospital status were presented and analyzed. Differences in mean hospital charge and hospital length of stay by hospital teaching status were assessed via two propensity score based methods. RESULTS In total, 1,827 patients were nation-ally included for analysis: 1,392 (76.2%) were treated at a teaching hospital and 435 (23.8%) were treated at a non-teaching hospital. The average age of the patients was 12.88 years old in teaching hospitals vs 14.33 years old in nonteaching hospitals. The propensity score based ad-justment method showed mean hospital charge was $34,779 in teaching hospitals and $32,891 in the non-teaching hospitals, but these differences were not significant (p=0.2940). Likewise, mean length of hospital stay was 4.1 days in teaching hospitals and 3.89 days in non-teaching hospitals, but these differences were also not significant (p=0.4220). Conclusions Hospital teaching status did not affect length of stay or total hospital costs in children treated surgically for proximal femur fractures. Future research should be directed at

  3. Nursing leadership in an academic hospital in Gauteng.

    PubMed

    Maboko, D R

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed at describing nursing leadership in an academic hospital in Gauteng, South Africa. Nurse managers' leadership styles affect nurses' attitudes, behaviour and work performance. However, little is known about how nurses experience nurse leadership and what leadership styles are found in academic hospitals in Gauteng. The study was based on Maxwell's framework of leadership (relationships, equipping, leadership and attitude). A qualitative design was used in order to describe the experiences of registered nurses and nurse managers. The population of the study was all registered nurses and nurse managers of the hospital in which the study was conducted. In phase one of the study, a discussion group with 35 registered nurses using the nominal group technique was held to respond to the following statement: 'Please explain how you have experienced leadership by nurse managers in this hospital'. In phase two of the study, five nurse managers were interviewed individually, using a semi-structured interview guide. Some nurse managers were practising autocratic leadership in this hospital. he nurse managers need to be taught about contemporary leadership styles such as transformational leadership and visionary leadership and also about supervision, role modelling and caring. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Developing 21st century accreditation standards for teaching hospitals: the Taiwan experience

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to establish teaching hospital accreditation standards anew with the hope that Taiwan's teaching hospitals can live up to the expectations of our society and ensure quality teaching. Methods The development process lasted two years, 2005-2006, and was separated into three stages. The first stage centered on leadership meetings and consensus building, the second on drafting the new standards with expert focus groups, and the third on a pilot study and subsequent revision. Results Our new teaching hospital accreditation standards have six categories and 95 standards as follows: educational resources (20 items), teaching and training plans and outcomes (42 items), research and results (9 items), development of clinical faculty and continuing education (8 items), academic exchanges and community education (8 items), and administration (8 items). Conclusions The new standards have proven feasible and posed reasonable challenges in the pilot study. We hope the new standards will strengthen teaching and research, and improve the quality of hospital services at the same time. PMID:20003505

  5. Does outsourcing paramedical departments of teaching hospitals affect educational status of the students?

    PubMed

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Atefimanesh, Pezhman; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali; Ahmadzadeh, Nahal; Kafaeimehr, Mohamadhosein; Emamgholizadeh, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing trend of outsourcing public departments. Teaching hospitals also outsourced some of their departments to private sectors. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the educational status of students in public and outsourced departments of teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. This study was conducted in six teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences, which had public and outsourced teaching departments in 2015. One hundred fifty students from the departments of radiology, physiotherapy and laboratory participated in this study and their perceptions about their educational status were assessed. A valid and reliable questionnaire was used; participation in the study was voluntary. Descriptive statistics such as mean (SD), t-test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov were used. No difference was detected between the educational status of students in public and outsourced departments of radiology, physiotherapy and laboratory (p>0.05). Based on the students' perception, the private sectors could maintain the educational level of the teaching departments similar to the public departments. It is recommended to involve all the stakeholders such as hospital administrators, academic staff and students in the decision- making process when changes in teaching environments are being considered.

  6. Does outsourcing paramedical departments of teaching hospitals affect educational status of the students?

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Atefimanesh, Pezhman; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali; Ahmadzadeh, Nahal; Kafaeimehr, Mohamadhosein; Emamgholizadeh, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an increasing trend of outsourcing public departments. Teaching hospitals also outsourced some of their departments to private sectors. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the educational status of students in public and outsourced departments of teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This study was conducted in six teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences, which had public and outsourced teaching departments in 2015. One hundred fifty students from the departments of radiology, physiotherapy and laboratory participated in this study and their perceptions about their educational status were assessed. A valid and reliable questionnaire was used; participation in the study was voluntary. Descriptive statistics such as mean (SD), t-test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov were used. Results: No difference was detected between the educational status of students in public and outsourced departments of radiology, physiotherapy and laboratory (p>0.05). Conclusion: Based on the students’ perception, the private sectors could maintain the educational level of the teaching departments similar to the public departments. It is recommended to involve all the stakeholders such as hospital administrators, academic staff and students in the decision- making process when changes in teaching environments are being considered. PMID:27683645

  7. General surgical services at an urban teaching hospital in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Elizabeth; Amado, Vanda; Jacobe, Mário; Sacks, Greg D; Bruzoni, Matias; Mapasse, Domingos; DeUgarte, Daniel A

    2015-10-01

    As surgery becomes incorporated into global health programs, it will be critical for clinicians to take into account already existing surgical care systems within low-income countries. To inform future efforts to expand the local system and systems in comparable regions of the developing world, we aimed to describe current patterns of surgical care at a major urban teaching hospital in Mozambique. We performed a retrospective review of all general surgery patients treated between August 2012 and August 2013 at the Hospital Central Maputo in Maputo, Mozambique. We reviewed emergency and elective surgical logbooks, inpatient discharge records, and death records to report case volume, disease etiology, and mortality. There were 1598 operations (910 emergency and 688 elective) and 2606 patient discharges during our study period. The most common emergent surgeries were for nontrauma laparotomy (22%) followed by all trauma procedures (18%), whereas the most common elective surgery was hernia repair (31%). The majority of lower extremity amputations were above knee (69%). The most common diagnostic categories for inpatients were infectious (31%), trauma (18%), hernia (12%), neoplasm (10%), and appendicitis (5%). The mortality rate was 5.6% (146 deaths), approximately half of which were related to sepsis. Our data demonstrate the general surgery caseload of a large, academic, urban training and referral center in Mozambique. We describe resource limitations that impact operative capacity, trauma care, and management of amputations and cancer. These findings highlight challenges that are applicable to a broad range of global surgery efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. What Makes an Excellent Lecturer? Academics' Perspectives on the Discourse of "Teaching Excellence" in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Margaret; Su, Feng

    2017-01-01

    In the context of the Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF), we examine academics' perspectives on the discourse of "teaching excellence" based on an empirical study with 16 participants from five post-1992 universities. The article reports the findings on academics' views of the term and concept of "teaching excellence",…

  9. Shaping Online Teaching Practices: The Influence of Professional and Academic Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael; Bradey, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the influence of professional and academic identities in online teaching practices in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: This paper draws on data from a longitudinal study of five professional degree academics teaching subjects in nursing, teaching, engineering, allied health sciences, and…

  10. Pharmaceutical service differences between teaching and community hospitals.

    PubMed

    Baumgardner, K P; Kabat, H F

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to inventory the highly specialized units maintained in teaching hospitals and compare and contrast the scope and level of pharmaceutical services provided in teaching and similar-size community hospitals. In 1989, a 30-item questionnaire was mailed to a sample of 120 teaching hospitals. The scope and level of services provided was compared with similar size hospitals in the 1989 American Society of Hospital Pharmacists' survey of hospital-based pharmaceutical services. Teaching hospitals maintain more licensed and occupied beds, are more likely to be a member of a nonprofit multisystem organization, maintain many specialized care units and high speed transportation vehicles, exercise more control over specialized drugs and products, provide a broader array of pharmacy services to ambulatory patient populations, offer a more extensive and broader array of clinical services, maintain more extensive drug information resources, exercise more comprehensive formulary management initiatives, engage in broader diversified service initiatives, and generate 50% more annual pharmacy costs per occupied bed than do similar-sized community hospitals. Teaching hospitals are complex organizations that provide care to patients who require higher levels of pharmaceutical services than those provided in similar-sized community hospitals.

  11. Strategies used to handle stress by academic physicians at a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Sara; Boman, John; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Research is limited regarding occupational stress and coping strategies among academic physicians; professionals whose work situation includes the three areas of clinical practice, research, and teaching. The aim was to gain knowledge of stress-coping strategies used by academic physicians. Seventeen academic physicians employed at the University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden. Qualitative analyses were conducted of data from five focus-group interviews. We identified eight different categories of coping strategies, e.g. self-awareness, time management, to cut corners, and to be in control. We also attempted to fit the dimensions of coping strategies into the models proposed by Folkman and Lazarus and Beehr and McGrath, respectively. The strategies were predominantly used to prevent stress from occurring, to manage anticipated stress, or to handle stress when occurring. Furthermore, the majority of the strategies identified could be placed in the problem-focused category, which we divided in a behavioural and a cognitive sub-category and in a new cognitive problem-focused and emotion-focused category. The study contributes to a wider understanding of the stress coping strategies academic physicians use. Further studies are needed to determine the consequences of these findings in order to enable the design of measures to reduce and prevent stress among academic physicians.

  12. Integration of an academic medical center and a community hospital: the Brigham and Women's/Faulkner hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Andrew J; Otten, Jeffrey R; Goldszer, Robert C; Hanson, Margaret; Trull, David J; Paulus, Kenneth; Brown, Monte; Dzau, Victor; Brennan, Troyen A

    2005-03-01

    Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), a major academic tertiary medical center, and Faulkner Hospital (Faulkner), a nearby community teaching hospital, both in the Boston, Massachusetts area, have established a close affiliation relationship under a common corporate parent that achieves a variety of synergistic benefits. Formed under the pressures of limited capacity at BWH and excess capacity at Faulkner, and the need for lower-cost clinical space in an era of provider risk-sharing, BWH and Faulkner entered into a comprehensive affiliation agreement. Over the past seven years, the relationship has enhanced overall volume, broadened training programs, lowered the cost of resources for secondary care, and improved financial performance for both institutions. The lessons of this relationship, both in terms of success factors and ongoing challenges for the hospitals, medical staffs, and a large multispecialty referring physician group, are reviewed. The key factors for success of the relationship have been integration of training programs and some clinical services, provision of complementary clinical capabilities, geographic proximity, clear role definition of each institution, commitment and flexibility of leadership and medical staff, active and responsive communication, and the support of a large referring physician group that embraced the affiliation concept. Principal challenges have been maintaining the community hospital's cost structure, addressing cultural differences, avoiding competition among professional staff, anticipating the pace of patient migration, choosing a name for the new affiliation, and adapting to a changing payer environment.

  13. The impact of outpatient clinical teaching on students' academic performance in obstetrics and gynecology.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Bahaeldin A; Elfaki, Omer A; Khan, Muhammed A

    2017-01-01

    Clinical teaching at outpatient settings is an essential part of undergraduate medical students' training. The increasing number of students in many medical schools and short hospital stays makes inpatient teaching alone insufficient to provide students with the required clinical skills. To make up this shortfall, outpatient clinical teaching has been implemented by our Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Khalid University, KSA, throughout the academic year 2015-2016. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of clinical teaching at outpatient settings on the academic performance of our students. In this comparative retrospective study, the effects of outpatient clinical teaching of obstetrics and gynecology on the academic performance of student was assessed through an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). During their course on obstetrics and gynecology, 58 students had their clinical teaching both at inpatient and outpatient settings and constituted "study group". The remaining 52 students had clinical teaching only at inpatient settings and were considered "control group". Students in both groups sat for OSCE at the end of week 8 of the gynecology course. Students in both groups sat for OSCE at the end of week 8 of the gynecology course. Four stations were used for assessment: obstetric history, gynecological history, obstetric physical examination of pregnant women, and gynecological procedure station. Twenty marks were allocated for each station giving a total score of 80. The OSCE scores for study group were compared with those of the control group using Student's t -test; p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The total mean OSCE score was statistically significantly higher in the study group (62.36 vs. 47.94, p < 0.001). The study group participants showed significantly higher scores in the gynecological procedure station (16.74 vs. 11.62, p < 0.0001) and obstetric examination station (16.72 vs. 10.79, p < 0

  14. Impact of students in non-teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Al Suwayri, Saad

    2017-04-01

    The placement of medical students in non-teaching hospitals is the norm worldwide. The suggestion that teaching standards are inferior in non-teaching hospitals has been studied and refuted. This study explores this from a different perspective: the impact of medical student presence on the teachers, hospital environment and patient care at King Saud Medical City, as assessed by clinical supervisors. A questionnaire was distributed to clinical supervisors on the internal medical rotation at King Saud Medical City, College of Medicine, Al Imam Muhammed Ibn Saud Islamic University, Saudi Arabia. The view of supervisors on the impact of medical students on clinical supervisors themselves, the hospital environment and patient care was elicited. This study explores… the impact of student presence on teachers, hospital environment and patient care RESULTS: Between 69 and 84 per cent of respondents believed medical students had a positive effect on their practice, including increased reflective practice, increased enthusiasm and prompts to review basic medical knowledge. Accordingly, 85 per cent of clinical supervisors believed that their continuing medical education had been improved. A majority of respondents reported a positive impact on the hospital environment, with 66 per cent believing patient care to have improved. Numerous studies have confirmed the standard of education in non-teaching hospitals to be as good as or better than in the corresponding teaching hospitals. It has also been shown that non-teaching hospitals fulfill the needs of medical students. It is suggested that this study demonstrates a positive impact of medical students on the clinical teachers in a non-teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia, with a significant proportion of teachers believing the hospital environment and quality of care to be improved by their presence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Hospital teaching intensity, patient race, and surgical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Silber, Jeffrey H; Rosenbaum, Paul R; Romano, Patrick S; Rosen, Amy K; Wang, Yanli; Teng, Yun; Halenar, Michael J; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Volpp, Kevin G

    2009-02-01

    To determine if the lower mortality often observed in teaching-intensive hospitals is because of lower complication rates or lower death rates after complications (failure to rescue) and whether the benefits at these hospitals accrue equally to white and black patients, since black patients receive a disproportionate share of their care at teaching-intensive hospitals. A retrospective study of patient outcomes and teaching intensity using logistic regression models, with and without adjusting for hospital fixed and random effects. Three thousand two hundred seventy acute care hospitals in the United States. Medicare claims on general, orthopedic, and vascular surgery admissions in the United States for 2000-2005 (N = 4,658,954 unique patients). Thirty-day mortality, in-hospital complications, and failure to rescue (the probability of death following complications). Combining all surgeries, compared with nonteaching hospitals, patients at very major teaching hospitals demonstrated a 15% lower odds of death (P < .001), no difference in complications, and a 15% lower odds of death after complications (failure to rescue) (P < .001). These relative benefits associated with higher resident-to-bed ratio were not experienced by black patients, for whom the odds of mortality and failure to rescue were similar at teaching and nonteaching hospitals, a pattern that is significantly different from that of white patients (P < .001). Survival after surgery is higher at hospitals with higher teaching intensity. Improved survival is because of lower mortality after complications (better failure to rescue) and generally not because of fewer complications. However, this better survival and failure to rescue at teaching-intensive hospitals is seen for white patients, not for black patients.

  16. The contributions of library and information services to hospitals and academic health sciences centers: a preliminary taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Abels, Eileen G.; Cogdill, Keith W.; Zach, Lisl

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a taxonomy of the contributions of library and information services (LIS) in hospitals and academic health sciences centers. The taxonomy emerges from a study with three objectives: to articulate the value of LIS for hospitals and academic health sciences centers in terms of contributions to organizational missions and goals, to identify measures and measurable surrogates associated with each LIS contribution, and to document best practices for communicating the value of LIS to institutional administrators. Methods: The preliminary taxonomy of LIS contributions in hospitals and academic health sciences centers is based on a review of the literature, twelve semi-structured interviews with LIS directors and institutional administrators, and a focus group of administrators from five academic, teaching, and nonteaching hospitals. Results: Derived from the balanced scorecard approach, the taxonomy of LIS contributions is organized on the basis of five mission-level concepts and fifteen organizational goals. LIS contributions are included only if they have measurable surrogates. Conclusions: The taxonomy of LIS contributions offers a framework for the collection of both quantitative and qualitative data in support of communicating the value of LIS in hospitals and academic health sciences centers. PMID:12113510

  17. Income Analysis of University-Owned Teaching Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Joseph C.

    1979-01-01

    The annual survey, undertaken by the Association of American Medical Colleges, of income, expense and general operating information for university-owned teaching hospitals is discussed. Focus is on sources of income, including state funds, Medicare, and insurance companies. (JMD)

  18. Poisonings at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, B; Singh, P M; Bharati, U; Dhungel, S

    2011-09-01

    Poisoning is an increasingly common social problem in Nepal. Studies on poisoning in semi urban areas of Nepal are minimal. Here we, present a prospective study of poisoning in semi urban area of capital, Kathmandu lasting for six years duration. Altogether there were 354 cases of various poisoning, admitted in Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital from Baisakh 2062 (April 16, 2005) to Chaitra 2067 (April 15, 2011). Male: Female ratio was 135:219 (1:1.6) and Age +/- SD was age 29.3 +/- 13.8 years. Age group (20-29 years) comprised of 138 patients (38.9% followed by < 20 years age group (92, 25.9%). Brahman/ chhetri (150, 42.4%) and Mongolian (146, 41.2%) ethnic groups were the main sufferers of poisoning, followed by newars (41, 11.6%) patients. Deliberate self harm was the cause for poisoning in maximum number of patients (156, 44.1%), followed by depression (64, 18.1%) and accidental poisoning (42, 11.9%). Organophosphorus (152, 42.9%), medicines (71, 20.1%), and rodenticide poisoning (38, 10.7%) were common poisons. Metacid (Methyl parathion) (46, 15.5%) was the most popular brand of poisoning agent used in Nepal for suicidal purpose. The over all mortality rate of poisoning in general was 7.1% with organophosphorus poisoning topping the list (19, 12.5%). We also present mad honey poisonings in a small group of 9 (3.2%) patients with M:F 8:1, age 26.5 +/- 8.8 years. Due precaution should be undertaken during their management as some of them may go into cardiopulmonary arrest and should not be considered benign when more than 5 tablespoonful wild honey is consumed.

  19. Modifying the Toyota Production System for continuous performance improvement in an academic children's hospital.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, F Bruder; Hendricks, James; Hagan, Patrick; DelBeccaro, Mark

    2009-08-01

    The Toyota Production System (TPS) has become a successful model for improving efficiency and eliminating errors in manufacturing processes. In an effort to provide patients and families with the highest quality clinical care, our academic children's hospital has modified the techniques of the TPS for a program in continuous performance improvement (CPI) and has expanded its application to educational and research programs. Over a period of years, physicians, nurses, residents, administrators, and hospital staff have become actively engaged in a culture of continuous performance improvement. This article provides background into the methods of CPI and describes examples of how we have applied these methods for improvement in clinical care, resident teaching, and research administration.

  20. Exploring Academic Motivation, Academic Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Teaching in Pre-Service Early Childhood Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedel, Emine Ferda

    2016-01-01

    This study is designed to explore academic motivation, academic self-efficacy and attitudes toward teaching in pre-service early childhood education teachers and to investigate the relationships among those variables. Data were gathered through questionnaires administered to 251 pre-service early childhood education teachers. Results indicated…

  1. 'Blueprint' for creating classroom facilities in teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hayes, O W

    1993-06-01

    Classroom facilities in teaching hospitals have evolved from simple rooms with blackboards to sophisticated amphitheaters with high-tech audiovisual equipment. This article presents a "blueprint," which was used in an osteopathic hospital, to renovate existing space into classrooms that are conducive to learning.

  2. How we enhanced medical academics skills and reduced social inequities using an academic teaching program.

    PubMed

    Martins, Antonio Camargo; Oliveira, Felipe Renê Alves; Delfino, Breno Matos; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; de Moraes, Fabio Henrique Pinto; Barbosa, Guilherme Viana; de Macedo, Lucas Felipe; Domingos, Tayna Da Silva; Da Silva, Dyemisson Pinheiro; Menezes, Charlene Cristine Rodrigues; Oliveira Filho, Edmar Santana; Pereira, Thales Augusto Da Silva; Piccirilli, Elizabeth Souza; Pinto, Wagner De Jesus

    2015-01-01

    The training of future physicians should be concurrent with the development of different skills and attitudes. This warrants the need to regularly provide students with opportunities for self-development throughout their academic career. This approach was exemplified in a medical school in the Brazilian Amazon, where students were allowed to play the role of high school teachers. As part of this exercise, they conducted reinforcement classes for high school students to increase the number of university admissions. The medical students were solely responsible for organizing and implementing this project, giving them the opportunity to develop teaching and leadership skills, enhance their understanding of communication and administration and contribute toward the society.

  3. Academic Primer Series: Key Papers About Teaching with Technology.

    PubMed

    Boysen-Osborn, Megan; Cooney, Robert; Gottlieb, Michael; Chan, Teresa M; Brown, Aaron; King, Andrew; Tobias, Adam; Thoma, Brent

    2017-06-01

    Modern learners have immediate, unlimited access to a wide variety of online resources . To appeal to this current generation of learners, educators must embrace the use of technology. However, educators must balance newer, novel technologies with traditional methods to achieve the best learning outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to review several papers useful for faculty members wishing to incorporate technology into instructional design. We identified a broad list of papers relevant to teaching and learning with technology within the online discussions of the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) Faculty Incubator. This list was augmented with suggestions by a guest expert (BT) and an open call on Twitter (tagged with the #meded and #FOAMed hashtags) yielding 24 papers. We then conducted a modified three-round Delphi process within the authorship group, including junior and senior faculty members, to identify the most impactful papers. We pared the list of 24 papers to five that were most highly rated. Two were research papers and three were commentaries or editorials. The authorship group reviewed and summarized these papers with specific consideration to their value to junior educators and faculty developers. This is a key reading list for junior faculty members and faculty developers interested in teaching with technology. The commentary contextualizes the importance of these papers for medical educators, to optimize use of technology in their teaching or incorporate into faculty development.

  4. Academic Primer Series: Key Papers About Teaching with Technology

    PubMed Central

    Boysen-Osborn, Megan; Cooney, Robert; Gottlieb, Michael; Chan, Teresa M.; Brown, Aaron; King, Andrew; Tobias, Adam; Thoma, Brent

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Modern learners have immediate, unlimited access to a wide variety of online resources. To appeal to this current generation of learners, educators must embrace the use of technology. However, educators must balance newer, novel technologies with traditional methods to achieve the best learning outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to review several papers useful for faculty members wishing to incorporate technology into instructional design. Methods We identified a broad list of papers relevant to teaching and learning with technology within the online discussions of the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) Faculty Incubator. This list was augmented with suggestions by a guest expert (BT) and an open call on Twitter (tagged with the #meded and #FOAMed hashtags) yielding 24 papers. We then conducted a modified three-round Delphi process within the authorship group, including junior and senior faculty members, to identify the most impactful papers. Results We pared the list of 24 papers to five that were most highly rated. Two were research papers and three were commentaries or editorials. The authorship group reviewed and summarized these papers with specific consideration to their value to junior educators and faculty developers. Conclusion This is a key reading list for junior faculty members and faculty developers interested in teaching with technology. The commentary contextualizes the importance of these papers for medical educators, to optimize use of technology in their teaching or incorporate into faculty development. PMID:28611895

  5. General Surgical Services at an Urban Teaching Hospital in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Elizabeth; Amado, Vanda; Jacobe, Mário; Sacks, Greg D.; Bruzoni, Matias; Mapasse, Domingos; DeUgarte, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background As surgery becomes incorporated into global health programs, it will be critical for clinicians to take into account already existing surgical care systems within low-income countries. In order to inform future efforts to expand the local system and systems in comparable regions of the developing world, we aimed to describe current patterns of surgical care at a major urban teaching hospital in Mozambique. Methods We performed a retrospective review of all general surgery patients treated between August 2012 and August 2013 at Hospital Central Maputo in Maputo, Mozambique. We reviewed emergency and elective surgical logbooks, inpatient discharge records, and death records to report case volume, disease etiology, and mortality. Results There were 1,598 operations (910 emergency, 688 elective) and 2,606 patient discharges during our study period. The most common emergent surgeries were for non-trauma laparotomy (22%) followed by all trauma procedures (18%), while the most common elective surgery was hernia repair (31%). The majority of lower extremity amputations were above knee (69%). The most common diagnostic categories for inpatients were infectious (31%), trauma (18%), hernia (12%), neoplasm (10%), and appendicitis (5%). The mortality rate was 5.6% (146 deaths), approximately half of which were related to sepsis. Conclusions Our data demonstrate the general surgery caseload of a large, academic, urban training and referral center in Mozambique. We describe resource limitations that impact operative capacity, trauma care, and management of amputations and cancer. These findings highlight challenges that are applicable to a broad range of global surgery efforts. PMID:25940163

  6. The Conflicts between Science Research and Teaching in Higher Education: An Academic's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2009-01-01

    Academics are now expected to manage increasingly demanding research, administrative, and teaching obligations. These demands in practice mean that the pressures to balance teaching and research duties render cultivating links between the two activities a less-than-intuitive process. The author describes the difficulties faced by academics in the…

  7. Making a Transition: The Development of Academics' Role and Identity in Online Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanaraj, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This paper explored the journey of three academics as they moved from face-to-face teaching to online teaching over a period of twenty months. From the findings of this study, it is recommended that for an academic to make an effective transition they need to be supported effectively to embrace the changes to their role and to their practice and…

  8. Individual and Organisational Factors Influencing Academics' Decisions to Pursue the Scholarship of Teaching ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Julianne; Sheard, Judithe; Carbone, Angela; Collins, Francesca

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) academics' perceptions of factors that promote and inhibit their pursuit of scholarship in their teaching work. It identifies critical factors that influence academics' attitudes, orientations and behaviours in respect to the scholarship of teaching, and from these builds a…

  9. Teaching Styles and Conceptions of Effective Teachers: Tibetan and Han Chinese Academics Compared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2011-01-01

    The principal objective of this research is to ascertain if the "research-teaching dichotomy" as revealed in the relationship between conceptions of effective teachers and teaching styles among Han Chinese academics can be found among Tibetan academics. As a preliminary objective, this research examines the appropriateness of the…

  10. Hospital Teaching Status and Medicare Expenditures for Complex Surgery.

    PubMed

    Pradarelli, Jason C; Scally, Christopher P; Nathan, Hari; Thumma, Jyothi R; Dimick, Justin B

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between hospital teaching intensity, Medicare payments, and perioperative outcomes. Several emerging payment policies penalize hospitals for low-value healthcare. Teaching hospitals may be at a disadvantage given the perception that they deliver care less efficiently. Using Medicare Provider and Analysis Review files, we studied patients from age 65 to 100 years who underwent abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair (n = 71,422), pulmonary resection (n = 93,056), or colectomy (n = 277,619) from 2009 to 2012. Patients' hospitals were categorized into quintiles of teaching intensity (very major, major, minor, very minor, and nonteaching hospitals) based on the resident-to-bed ratio. Risk-adjusted 30-day Medicare payments were price-standardized to account for graduate medical education payments, disproportionate share costs, and regional wage-index adjustments. Risk-adjusted perioperative outcomes were also assessed. Comparing risk-adjusted Medicare payments per episode of surgery, very major teaching hospitals were $14,145 more expensive than nonteaching hospitals for AAA repair ($45,570 vs $31,426; P < 0.001), $9,812 more expensive for pulmonary resection ($39,550 vs $29,738; P < 0.001), and $19,147 more expensive for colectomy ($51,893 vs $32,746; P < 0.001). However, after accounting for social subsidies and regional variation in Medicare spending, risk-adjusted Medicare payments were not statistically different between very major teaching hospitals and nonteaching hospitals for AAA repair ($29,946 vs $27,993; P = 0.18) and pulmonary resection ($25,407 vs $26,813; P = 1.00); a statistically significant but attenuated difference persisted for colectomy ($34,949 vs $30,352; P < 0.001). Very major teaching hospitals generally had higher risk-adjusted rates of serious complications and readmissions, but lower risk-adjusted rates of failure to rescue and 30-day mortality than did nonteaching hospitals. After price-standardization to account

  11. Academic medicine: a key partner in strengthening the primary care infrastructure via teaching health centers.

    PubMed

    Rieselbach, Richard E; Crouse, Byron J; Neuhausen, Katherine; Nasca, Thomas J; Frohna, John G

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, a worsening shortage of primary care physicians, along with structural deficiencies in their training, threaten the primary care system that is essential to ensuring access to high-quality, cost-effective health care. Community health centers (CHCs) are an underused resource that could facilitate rapid expansion of the primary care workforce and simultaneously prepare trainees for 21st-century practice. The Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education (THCGME) program, currently funded by the Affordable Care Act, uses CHCs as training sites for primary-care-focused graduate medical education (GME).The authors propose that the goals of the THCGME program could be amplified by fostering partnerships between CHCs and teaching hospitals (academic medical centers [AMCs]). AMCs would encourage their primary care residency programs to expand by establishing teaching health center (THC) tracks. Modifications to the current THCGME model, facilitated by formal CHC and academic medicine partnerships (CHAMPs), would address the primary care physician shortage, produce physicians prepared for 21st-century practice, expose trainees to interprofessional education in a multidisciplinary environment, and facilitate the rapid expansion of CHC capacity.To succeed, CHAMP THCs require a comprehensive consortium agreement designed to ensure equity between the community and academic partners; conforming with this agreement will provide the high-quality GME necessary to ensure residency accreditation. CHAMP THCs also require a federal mechanism to ensure stable, long-term funding. CHAMP THCs would develop in select CHCs that desire a partnership with AMCs and have capacity for providing a community-based setting for both GME and health services research.

  12. Do Organisational Commitments Matter in Teaching Approaches among Academics in Elite Universities in Beijing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang; Evans, Carol; Postiglione, Gerard A.

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated the statistical predictive power of organisational commitments for academics' teaching approaches. Participants were 268 academics working in six elite universities in Beijing, mainland China. Results showed that academics' organisational commitments as measured by the Organisational Commitment Inventory significantly…

  13. Taking Responsibility for Academic Integrity: A Collaborative Teaching and Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Julianne; Donnelly, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    La Trobe University, like many Australian universities, states that it values honest academic endeavour (Academic Integrity Policy 2011), and it can provide examples of good teaching practice in the areas of academic integrity, proper acknowledgment and avoiding plagiarism. Rather than relying on the chance that individuals will just develop good…

  14. Team Teaching Verbal, Mathematics, and Learning Skills. Howard University. The Center for Academic Reinforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Joan; Byrd, Roland

    Team teaching was used in three undergraduate courses to explore its potential for enhancing students' academic development. The courses were part of a program offered to freshmen with unrealized academic potential through the Howard University (District of Columbia) Center for Academic Reinforcement (CAR). A three-hour block of time was set aside…

  15. "Swim or Sink": State of Induction in the Deployment of Early Career Academics into Teaching at Makerere University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ssempebwa, Jude; Teferra, Damtew; Bakkabulindi, Fred Edward K.

    2016-01-01

    Conducted as part of a multi-country study of the teaching-related experiences and expectations of early career academics (ECAs) in Africa, this study investigated the major influences on the teaching practice of ECAs at Makerere University; the mechanisms by which these academics learn to teach; the teaching-related challenges they experience;…

  16. Challenges and opportunities for early-career Teaching-Focussed academics in the biosciences

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Katharine; Gretton, Sarah; Jones, Katherine; Tallents, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-seven percent of academics in UK Higher Education (HE) are in Teaching-Focussed positions, making major contributions to undergraduate programmes in an era of high student expectations when it comes to teaching quality. However, institutional support for Teaching-Focussed academics is often limited, both in terms of peer networking and opportunities for career development. As four early-career stage Teaching-Focussed academics working in a variety of institutions, we explore what motivated our choices to make teaching our primary academic activity, and the challenges that we have faced in doing so. In addition to highlighting the need for universities to fully recognise the achievements of teaching staff, we discuss the role that the various biosciences learned societies have in supporting Teaching-Focussed academics. We identify that there is a need for the learned societies to come together and pool their expertise in this area. The fragmented nature of the Teaching-Focussed academic community means that clear sources of national support are needed in order to best enable the next generation of bioscience educators to reach their full potential. PMID:25977754

  17. Challenges and opportunities for early-career Teaching-Focussed academics in the biosciences.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Katharine; Gretton, Sarah; Jones, Katherine; Tallents, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-seven percent of academics in UK Higher Education (HE) are in Teaching-Focussed positions, making major contributions to undergraduate programmes in an era of high student expectations when it comes to teaching quality. However, institutional support for Teaching-Focussed academics is often limited, both in terms of peer networking and opportunities for career development. As four early-career stage Teaching-Focussed academics working in a variety of institutions, we explore what motivated our choices to make teaching our primary academic activity, and the challenges that we have faced in doing so. In addition to highlighting the need for universities to fully recognise the achievements of teaching staff, we discuss the role that the various biosciences learned societies have in supporting Teaching-Focussed academics. We identify that there is a need for the learned societies to come together and pool their expertise in this area. The fragmented nature of the Teaching-Focussed academic community means that clear sources of national support are needed in order to best enable the next generation of bioscience educators to reach their full potential.

  18. How We Got Here: A Historical Look at the Academic Teaching Library and the Role of the Teaching Librarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariew, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines a brief history of the academic teaching library and, in consequence, it examines the changing role of librarians. As part of that history, the paper also discusses distinctions among various terms used to describe instructional activities in teaching libraries, such as "bibliographic instruction" and…

  19. Incidence of iatrogenic pneumothorax in the United States in teaching vs. non-teaching hospitals from 2000 to 2012.

    PubMed

    John, Jason; Seifi, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Iatrogenic pneumothorax is a patient safety indicator (PSI) representing a complication of procedures such as transthoracic needle aspiration, subclavicular needle stick, thoracentesis, transbronchial biopsy, pleural biopsy, and positive pressure ventilation. This study examined whether there was a significant difference in rate of iatrogenic pneumothorax in teaching hospitals compared to non-teaching hospitals from 2000 to 2012. We performed a retrospective cohort study on iatrogenic pneumothorax incidence from 2000 to 2012 using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) database. Pairwise t tests were performed. Odds ratios and P values were calculated, using a Bonferroni-adjusted α threshold, to examine differences in iatrogenic pneumothorax incidence in teaching vs. non-teaching hospitals. Our study revealed that after the year 2000, teaching hospitals had significantly greater iatrogenic pneumothorax incidence compared to non-teaching hospitals in every year of the study period (P<.001). Iatrogenic pneumothorax occurred with significantly greater incidence in teaching hospitals compared to non-teaching hospitals from 2000 to 2012. This trend may have been enhanced by the residency duty-hour regulations implemented in 2003 in teaching institutions, or due to higher rates of procedures in teaching institutions due to the nature of a tertiary center. Iatrogenic pneumothorax was more prevalent in teaching hospitals compared to non-teaching hospitals after the year 2000. Further randomized control studies are warranted to evaluate the etiology of this finding. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Are medical students accepted by patients in teaching hospitals?

    PubMed Central

    Marwan, Yousef; Al-Saddique, Muhammad; Hassan, Adnan; Karim, Jumanah; Al-Saleh, Mervat

    2012-01-01

    Background Worldwide, patients are the cornerstone of bedside teaching of medical students. In this study, the authors aimed to assess patients’ acceptability toward medical students in teaching hospitals of the Faculty of Medicine of Kuwait University. Methods Ninehundred and ninety five patients were approached in 14 teaching hospitals; 932 patients agreed to participate (refusal rate is 6.3%). A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Results In general, higher acceptance of students by patients was found when there is no direct contact between the patient and the student (e.g., reading patients’ files, presenting in outpatient clinic, observing doctors performing examination or procedures) compared to other situations (e.g., performing physical examination or procedures). Pediatrics patients showed higher acceptance of students compared to patients in other specialties, while Obstetrics/Gynecology patients showed the highest refusal of students. Gender of patients (especially females) and students appeared to affect the degree of acceptance of medical students by patients. Majority of the patients (436; 46.8%) believed that the presence of medical students in hospitals improves the quality of health care. Conclusion Patients are an important factor of bedside teaching. Clinical tutors must take advantage of patients who accept medical students. Clinical tutors and medical students should master essential communication skills to convince patients in accepting students, thus improving bedside teaching. Also, using simulation and standardization should be considered to address scenarios that most patients are unwilling to allow students to participate. PMID:22509091

  1. [A paradigm change in German academic medicine. Merger and privatization as exemplified with the university hospitals in Marburg and Giessen].

    PubMed

    Maisch, Bernhard

    2005-03-01

    1. The intended fusion of the university hospitals Marburg and Giessen in the state of Hessia is "a marriage under pressure with uncalculated risk" (Spiegel 2005). In the present political and financial situation it hardly appears to be avoidable. From the point of the view of the faculty of medicine in Marburg it is difficult to understand, that the profits of this well guided university hospital with a positive yearly budget should go to the neighboring university hospital which still had a fair amount of deficit spending in the last years.2. Both medical faculties suffer from a very low budget from the state of Hessia for research and teaching. Giessen much more than Marburg, have a substantial need for investments in buildings and infrastructure. Both institutions have a similar need for investments in costly medical apparatuses. This is a problem, which many university hospitals face nowadays.3. The intended privatisation of one or both university hospitals will need sound answers to several fundamental questions and problems:a) A privatisation potentially endangers the freedom of research and teaching garanteed by the German constitution. A private company will undoubtedly influence by active or missing additional support the direction of research in the respective academic institution. An example is the priorisation of clinical in contrast to basic research.b) With the privatisation practical absurdities in the separation of research and teaching on one side and hospital care on the other will become obvious with respect to the status of the academic employees, the obligatory taxation (16%) when a transfer of labor from one institution to the other is taken into account. The use of rooms for seminars, lectures and bedside with a double function for both teaching, research and hospital care has to be clarified with a convincing solution in everyday practice.c) The potential additional acquisition of patients, which has been advocated by the Hessian state

  2. Innovative Model for Information Assurance Curriculum: A Teaching Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, Sanjay; Pon, Damira; Bloniarz, Peter; Bangert-Drowns, Robert; Berg, George; Delio, Vince; Iwan, Laura; Hurbanek, Thomas; Schuman, Sandoor P.; Gangolly, Jagdish; Baykal, Adnan; Hobbs, Jon

    2006-01-01

    A novel idea for information security education created by the New York State Center for Information Forensics and Assurance (CIFA) is presented. This new approach incorporates a teaching hospital model originally developed for medical training. In this model, information security problems from industry and government are solved and abstracted…

  3. Maximizing Financial Resources in Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Terry S.

    1979-01-01

    The University of California at Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital created a healthier environment with inexpensive business procedures. Reported are: removal of billing responsibilities from faculty, separation of discharge functions from receptionist's functions, billing system/medical records system, and use of credit cards and…

  4. Assessing Governance Alternatives for University-Owned Public Teaching Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Evangeline L.

    The governance options matrix is provided to offer a way for state and university policymakers to examine the functioning environments of specific university-owned public teaching hospitals. With it, they can consider the benefits and problems involved with different options for governance. The issues related to the environmental factors affecting…

  5. 78 FR 32663 - Medicare Program; Notification of Closure of Teaching Hospitals and Opportunity To Apply for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... Closure of Teaching Hospitals and Application Process CMS has learned of the closure of two teaching hospitals; Infirmary West Hospital of Mobile, AL and Montgomery Hospital of Morristown, PA. The purpose of...) 010152 Infirmary West Mobile, AL..... 33660 November 1, 10.08 + 21.66 10.08 + 21.76 Hospital. 2012...

  6. Peer Observation of Teaching: Reflections of an Early Career Academic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eri, Rajaraman

    2014-01-01

    Peer observation of teaching (POT) is a reciprocal process where a peer observes another's teaching (classroom, virtual, on-line or even teaching resource such as unit outlines, assignments). Peers then provide constructive feedbacks that would enable teaching professional development through the mirror of critical reflection by both the observer…

  7. 78 FR 39730 - Medicare Program; Notification of Closure of Teaching Hospitals and Opportunity To Apply for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ...] Medicare Program; Notification of Closure of Teaching Hospitals and Opportunity To Apply for Available... Register on May 31, 2013 entitled ``Notification of Closure of Teaching Hospitals and Opportunity to Apply... typographical error when we misspelled the name of the city in which one of the closed teaching hospitals was...

  8. The Financial Status of Teaching Hospitals [and] The Underrepresentation of Minorities in Medicine. Second Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Graduate Medical Education.

    This study examines the evidence of deteriorating financial status for many of the nation's teaching hospitals, and the continuing underrepresentation of minorities in medicine. The study of teaching hospitals used existing financial data and information on both non-federal and Veterans Administration teaching hospitals. Results suggested the…

  9. Perceptions regarding workplace hazards at a veterinary teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Dustin R; Newman, Lee S; Lezotte, Dennis C; Morley, Paul S

    2010-07-01

    To assess perceptions of personnel working at a veterinary teaching hospital regarding risks of occupational hazards and compare those perceptions with assessments made by occupational safety experts. Cross-sectional study. A representative sample of personnel (n = 90) working at the veterinary teaching hospital at Colorado State University and a panel of 3 occupational safety experts. Hospital personnel ranked perceptions of 14 physical, chemical, and biological workplace hazards and listed the injuries, illnesses, and near misses they had experienced. The expert panel provided consensus rankings of the same 14 hazards for 9 sections of the facility. Risk perceptions provided by the 2 sources were compared. Risk perceptions did not differ significantly between hospital personnel and the expert panel for most of the site-specific comparisons (94/126 [75%]). Personnel perceived greater risks for some physical hazards (loud noises, sharps injuries, and ionizing radiation) and some chemical or materials exposures (insecticides or pesticides and tissue digester emissions). In contrast, the expert panel perceived greater risks for physical hazards (bite or crush and restraining and moving animals), chemical exposures (anesthetic waste gas), and biological exposures (Toxoplasma gondii, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, and allergens). Participants and safety experts had similar perceptions about occupational risks, but there were important differences where hospital personnel apparently overestimated or underappreciated the risks for workplace hazards. This type of study may be useful in guiding development of optimal workplace safety programs for veterinary hospitals.

  10. Relationships Among Academic Performance, Basic Skills, Subject Matter Knowledge, and Teaching Skills of Teacher Education Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Edith; Farokhi, Elizabeth

    1987-01-01

    In order to determine if successful academic performance assures good teaching, four measures of academic achievement of teacher education graduates of Georgia State University from 1981 through 1984 were correlated with on-the-job performance assessments. Results are presented and implications for education policies are discussed. (Author/MT)

  11. Australian Social Work Academics' Perceptions of Their Teaching Roles within Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldingay, Sophie; Lamaro Haintz, Greer; Ryan, Juliana; Hitch, Danielle; Macfarlane, Susie

    2017-01-01

    The marketisation of higher education (HE) has created a number of tensions and ideological dilemmas that may influence how academics see their roles and teaching practices. This paper explores how academics in the discipline of social work (who were also in leadership roles) perceive their roles and identities and manage the tensions and dilemmas…

  12. Analysis of Academic Administrators' Attitudes: Annual Evaluations and Factors That Improve Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Brian D.; Grasse, Nathan; Kapla, Dale; Hamel, Brad

    2017-01-01

    This article examines academic administrators' attitudes towards the academic evaluation process in the US and those factors that are utilised to improve teaching. We use path regressions to examine satisfaction with evaluation procedures, as well as the direct and indirect effects of these factors on perceptions of whether the evaluation process…

  13. A Social Constructionist Approach to Teaching and Learning Vocabulary for Italian for Academic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xerou, Eftychia; Papadima-Sophocleous, Salomi; Parmaxi, Antigoni

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the way Parmaxi and Zaphiris's (2015) social constructionist framework was used in order to teach and learn vocabulary in an Italian for Specific Academic Purposes (ISAP) tertiary course. The participants (beginner students) were guided to build in groups an artifact, i.e a specific academic vocabulary collection. To do so,…

  14. Early-Career Academics' Perceptions of Teaching and Learning in Hong Kong: Implications for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Keith; McNaught, Carmel; Wong, Kin-Chi; Li, Yi-Ching

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses early-career academics' development at a university in Hong Kong. Reflecting the impact of local context, the paper explores cultural and structural influences that can impinge on teaching and learning strategies for new academics. Barriers such as student learning behaviour and publication pressure may discourage new…

  15. Responding to Technological Change: IT Skills and the Academic Teaching Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Philip; Ip, Ken; Saintas, Patrick; Stanier, Stan; Palmer, Helen; Thomas, Nicola; Reast, Gareth; Barlow, Joyce; Maillardet, Fred

    2004-01-01

    Six academics in a new university were seconded to the role of part-time learning technology support. It was necessary to have an informed view of the IT skills level of all academic teaching staff. A selfassessment questionnaire was designed based on the core competencies in the European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL). The results were used to…

  16. The Teaching and Societal Services Nexus: Academics' Experiences in Three Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmén, Magnus; Ljungberg, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the perception of academics regarding how their experiences from societal interaction (third mission) inform their teaching and vice versa. We report on a phone survey of Swedish academics in three engineering-related disciplines. The findings show that there is a perceived positive and bidirectional relationship…

  17. The Rocky Terrain between Delocalized and Localized, Duplication and Originality: Learning to Write and Learning to Teach Academic English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessema, Kedir Assefa

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I report the action research I carried out on improving the teaching and learning of academic writing at a university. The action research sprang out of my experiences of learning and teaching academic writing. It sought locality and originality in what students read and write during academic writing courses. The macro and micro…

  18. Shifting Academic Careers: Implications for Enhancing Professionalism in Teaching and Supporting Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, William

    2014-01-01

    This Higher Education Academy (HEA) commissioned report provides a brief review of literature focusing on the changing nature of academic careers in the higher education sector, including any shift towards "teaching only" contracts. It also identifies key issues in terms of teaching and learning, continuing professional development and…

  19. Supporting New Academics' Use of Student Centred Strategies in Traditional University Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plush, Sally E.; Kehrwald, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the perceived advantages of student centred learning (SCL) in higher education, novice teaching academics' attempts to implement such approaches may be thwarted by a lack of experience with teaching in general and with SCL in particular, difficulties locating suitable practical advice on SCL, and the demands of early career academic…

  20. The Professor-Librarian: Academic Librarians Teaching Credit-Bearing Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, Karen; Ramsey, Peter; Jones, Galin

    2018-01-01

    Many academic librarians have ideas or opportunities for teaching information literacy courses for the library, outside the scope of their regular positions. Some additional librarians are asked to consider teaching credit-bearing courses for other departments at their institutions, based on graduate degrees they hold in fields besides library…

  1. Teaching-Focused Science Academics Supervising Research Students in Science Education: What's the Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Academics who specialise in improving the teaching of "hard" sciences like chemistry, biology, maths and physics are increasing in number and influence at Australian universities. Those in academia who have channelled their energies into teaching are delighted with this development. It means that many committed tertiary teachers can now look…

  2. Buying-Out Teaching for Research: The Views of Academics and Their Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erica; Smith, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the practice of buying-out teaching to create time for research. A study was carried out, at a regional university in Australia, with academics in receipt of research grant funds (and therefore with the means to buy out teaching), Heads of School, and the Deputy Vice Chancellors responsible respectively for research and for…

  3. The Effect of Computer Assisted Grammar Teaching on the Academic Success of Classroom Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyup, Bircan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of computer assisted grammar teaching on the academic success of classroom teacher candidates. The study group consists of 2nd grade students from Karadeniz Technical University Fatih, Faculty of Education, Department of Classroom Teaching in the educational year of 2010 to 2011. Experimental…

  4. A Paragraph-First Approach to the Teaching of Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugin, David

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of writing, and the teaching of developmental and ESL/EFL writing in particular, has historically given priority to the sentence, often in theory and almost always in practice. The writing approach modeled here simply argues that the paragraph should be given primacy of place in ESL/EFL academic writing instruction. The…

  5. Teaching Aptitude of Student Teachers and their Academic Achievements at Graduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajan, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation aims at studying teaching aptitude of student teachers with respect to their gender and academic achievement at graduate level examination. The sample for this study is selected by stratified random sampling from the Teacher Education institutions of Malabar area of Kerala. Teaching Aptitude Test Battery (T A T B)…

  6. Classrooms that Work: Teaching Generic Skills in Academic and Vocational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasz, Cathleen; And Others

    This report documents the second of two studies on teaching and learning generic skills in high schools. It extends the earlier work by providing a model for designing classroom instruction in both academic and vocational classrooms where teaching generic skills is an instructional goal. Ethnographic field methods were used to observe, record, and…

  7. The Role of Basic Need Satisfaction for Junior Academics' Goal Conflicts and Teaching Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esdar, Wiebke; Gorges, Julia; Wild, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Junior academics at German universities work and qualify in a highly competitive environment. Most of them have to cope with too little time for too many demands in research and teaching. As previous studies have shown, these work conditions may impair well-being due to goal conflicts and may threaten their teaching motivation. How could this be…

  8. Using Visual Literacy to Teach Science Academic Language: Experiences from Three Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly-Jackson, Charlease; Delacruz, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    This original pedagogical study captured three preservice teachers' experiences using visual literacy strategies as an approach to teaching English language learners (ELLs) science academic language. The following research questions guided this study: (1) What are the experiences of preservice teachers' use of visual literacy to teach science…

  9. Assessment of infection control practices in teaching hospitals of Quetta.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Muhammad; Majeed, Abdul; Saleem, Rana Muhammad; Manzoor, Farkhanda; Sharif, Saima

    2016-08-01

    To identify the gaps in infection control and prevention practices in teaching hospitals. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Bolan Medical Complex and Sandeman Medical College Hospital, Quetta, from August 2012 to January 2013.The study comprised members (n=7) of infection control committee who were interviewed through a self-developed, closed-ended questionnaire and their perception regarding infection control and prevention was recorded. Data was analysed using SPSS 16. Only 3(42.9%) of the committee members believed that the administrative factors for causing hospital-acquired infections were nurse-patient ratio. On the patient care side, 1(14.3%) participants at one of the hospitals attributed infections to antibiotic use, 5(71.4%) to invasive medical device and 1(14.3%) to other factors. Poor perception held by the members of infection control committee was the basic cause of bad outcome. Capacity-building of all the stakeholders is required.

  10. A tale of two cities: academic service, research, teaching and community practice partnerships delivering for disadvantaged Australian communities.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Claire L; Marley, John E

    2007-07-16

    An innovative team approach and integration of care across sectors, including general practices, community health services, allied health professionals and hospitals, can deliver high-quality comprehensive care in disadvantaged areas while providing teaching and research opportunities and community service. Academic general practice departments are committed to supporting and evaluating such models. A governance infrastructure that encourages strong partnerships across health care sectors is essential. With broad health partnership support, bulk-billing is viable in an Australian general practice team model providing health care to the disadvantaged.

  11. Is hospital teaching status a key factor in hospital charge for children with hip fractures?: preliminary findings from KID database.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yubo; Pugely, Andrew; Karam, Matthew; Phisitkul, Phinit; Mendoza, Sergio; Johnston, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Proximal femur fractures cause significant pain and economic cost among pediatric patients. The purposes of this study were (a) to evaluate the distribution by hospital type (teaching hospital vs non-teaching hospital) of U.S. pediatric patients aged 1-20 years who were hospitalized with a closed hip fracture and (b) to discern the mean hospital charge and hospital length of stay after employing propensity score to reduce selection bias. The 2006 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) was queried for children aged up to 20 years that had principle diagnosis of hip fracture injury. Hip fractures were defined by International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes 820.0, 820.2 and 820.8 under Section "Injury and Poisoning (800-999)" with principle internal fixation procedure codes 78.55, 79.15 and 79.35. Patient demographics and hospital status were presented and analyzed. Differences in mean hospital charge and hospital length of stay by hospital teaching status were assessed via two propensity score based methods. In total, 1,827 patients were nation-ally included for analysis: 1,392 (76.2%) were treated at a teaching hospital and 435 (23.8%) were treated at a non-teaching hospital. The average age of the patients was 12.88 years old in teaching hospitals vs 14.33 years old in nonteaching hospitals. The propensity score based adjustment method showed mean hospital charge was $34,779 in teaching hospitals and $32,891 in the non-teaching hospitals, but these differences were not significant (p=0.2940). Likewise, mean length of hospital stay was 4.1 days in teaching hospitals and 3.89 days in non-teaching hospitals, but these differences were also not significant (p=0.4220). Hospital teaching status did not affect length of stay or total hospital costs in children treated surgically for proximal femur fractures. Future research should be directed at identifying factors associated with variations in

  12. Teaching matters-academic professional development in the early 21st century.

    PubMed

    Fahnert, Beatrix

    2015-10-01

    Academic work at different career stages has changed and a broadened portfolio of expertise enables academics to adapt, maintain and advance their career. Development related to research activity is naturally driven by methodology and technology. Institutions and peers largely support development in the contexts of dissemination, measuring impact and obtaining funding. A European Commission High Level Group recommended pedagogic training for everyone teaching in Higher Education by 2020 with mandatory continuing professional development and with academic staff recruitment and promotion being linked to teaching performance. Early career teaching experience is already an expectation, and advantage is gained by developing recognized teaching expertise. More senior academics gain an advantage through recognition of higher levels of expertise, also covering elements of leadership and innovation in teaching. This review aims to raise awareness particularly of teaching-related skills within the dimensions of academic professional development in Higher Education, outlining some general directions for development and recognition in context of current challenges to support planning and identifying training needs and opportunities at different career stages. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing hospital disaster preparedness in Shiraz, Iran 2011: teaching versus private hospitals.

    PubMed

    Mahdaviazad, Hamideh; Abdolahifar, Gholam Reza

    2013-01-01

    In disasters, hospitals play a crucial role in supplying essential medical care to the society but there is no standardized checklist for assessing hospital disaster preparedness. The objective of this study was to recognize and compare almost all the components of disaster preparedness between teaching and private hospitals in Shiraz, Iran, focusing on incident command systems (ICS), communications, surge capacity, human resources, supply management, logistic service, case management, surveillance, laboratory and operating room management. From May to August 2011, we assessed the preparedness of teaching and private hospitals in Shiraz, using the 10-key component World Health Organization checklist. Twenty four out of 31 hospitals responded. The scores for preparedness of ICS, communication, surge capacity and human resources was 73.9 percent, 67.3 percent, 49 percent, and 52.6 percent respectively. The preparedness scores for supply management and logistic services were 68.5 percent and 61.8 percent. While the levels of preparedness of laboratory and operating room management were low, preparedness of the surveillance system and case management were 66.7 percent and 70.8 percent, respectively. The average total preparedness of all hospitals was 59.5 percent, with scores of 62.2 percent in teaching hospitals and 55 percent in private hospitals. At the time of our study, the total preparedness among hospitals was at the intermediate level, but in some key components such as operating room management, surge capacity, and human resources, the total preparedness was very limited and at an early stage of development, therefore, requiring urgent attention and improvement.

  14. Teaching hospital performance: towards a community of shared values?

    PubMed

    Mauro, Marianna; Cardamone, Emma; Cavallaro, Giusy; Minvielle, Etienne; Rania, Francesco; Sicotte, Claude; Trotta, Annarita

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the performance dimensions of Italian teaching hospitals (THs) by considering the multiple constituent model approach, using measures that are subjective and based on individual ideals and preferences. Our research replicates a study of a French TH and deepens it by adjusting it to the context of an Italian TH. The purposes of this research were as follows: to identify emerging views on the performance of teaching hospitals and to analyze how these views vary among hospital stakeholders. We conducted an in-depth case study of a TH using a quantitative survey method. The survey uses a questionnaire based on Parsons' social system action theory, which embraces the major models of organizational performance and covers three groups of internal stakeholders: physicians, caregivers and administrative staff. The questionnaires were distributed between April and September 2011. The results confirm that hospital performance is multifaceted and includes the dimensions of efficiency, effectiveness and quality of care, as well as organizational and human features. There is a high degree of consensus among all observed stakeholder groups about these values, and a shared view of performance is emerging. Our research provides useful information for defining management priorities to improve the performance of THs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between organizational structure and creativity in teaching hospitals

    PubMed Central

    REZAEE, RITA; MARHAMATI, SAADAT; NABEIEI, PARISA; MARHAMATI, RAHELEH

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Organization structure and manpower constitute two basic components of anorganization and both are necessary for stablishing an organization. The aim of this survey was to investigate the type of the organization structure (mechanic and organic) from viewpoint of senior and junior managers in Shiraz teaching hospitals and creativity in each of these two structures. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study, organization structure and organizational creation questionnaires were filled out by hospital managers. According to the statistical consultation and due to limited target population, the entire study population was considered as sample. Thus, the sample size in this study was 84 (12 hospitals and every hospital, n = 7). For data analysis, SPSS 14 was used and Spearman correlation coefficient and t-test were used. Results: Results showed that there is a negative association between centralization and complexity with organizational creation and its dimensions. Also there was a negative association between formalization and 4 organizational creation dimensions: reception change, accepting ambiguity, abet new view and less control outside (p=0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the creation in hospitals with organic structure is more than that in hospitals with mechanic structure. PMID:25512934

  16. Relationship between organizational structure and creativity in teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, Rita; Marhamati, Saadat; Nabeiei, Parisa; Marhamati, Raheleh

    2014-07-01

    Organization structure and manpower constitute two basic components of anorganization and both are necessary for stablishing an organization. The aim of this survey was to investigate the type of the organization structure (mechanic and organic) from viewpoint of senior and junior managers in Shiraz teaching hospitals and creativity in each of these two structures. In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study, organization structure and organizational creation questionnaires were filled out by hospital managers. According to the statistical consultation and due to limited target population, the entire study population was considered as sample. Thus, the sample size in this study was 84 (12 hospitals and every hospital, n = 7). For data analysis, SPSS 14 was used and Spearman correlation coefficient and t-test were used. RESULTS showed that there is a negative association between centralization and complexity with organizational creation and its dimensions. Also there was a negative association between formalization and 4 organizational creation dimensions: reception change, accepting ambiguity, abet new view and less control outside (p=0.001). The results of this study showed that the creation in hospitals with organic structure is more than that in hospitals with mechanic structure.

  17. Hospitalizations of Adults with Intellectual Disability in Academic Medical Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ailey, Sarah H.; Johnson, Tricia; Fogg, Louis; Friese, Tanya R.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) represent a small but important group of hospitalized patients who often have complex health care needs. Individuals with ID experience high rates of hospitalization for ambulatory-sensitive conditions and high rates of hospitalizations in general, even when in formal community care systems; however,…

  18. Team Teaching with Academic Core Curricula Teachers: Using Aviation Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berentsen, Lowell W.

    2006-01-01

    Technology education teachers today have at their disposal the skills, opportunity, experience, ingenuity, expertise, equipment, and environment to greatly improve students' ability to learn and apply the knowledge they have gained in their academic programs. When a technology education teacher joins forces with an academic core teacher, the…

  19. Is Academic Freedom a Threat to Teaching Introductory Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Donald P.

    2005-01-01

    Graves (2005) suggested that academic freedom might impede efforts to improve institutional performance and achieve the goals set for learning outcomes, cost efficiency, and preparing students for the workplace. The author's initial response to threats to academic freedom and calls for efficiency is to bristle, because he views these as threats to…

  20. Teaching Academic Vocabulary to Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Kristen D.; Sanchez, Victoria M.; Flynn, Lindsay; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the meaning of academic vocabulary words helps adolescents understand content-area text and improves their academic achievement. To demonstrate deep understanding of words, students reading below grade level and students with learning disabilities must be explicitly taught word meanings, encounter target words in illustrative contexts, and…

  1. Teaching Adolescent ELs to Write Academic-Style Persuasive Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The wide adoption of the new Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in the U.S. has increased expectations for all teachers to prepare all learners to read and write in academic ways. More knowledge is needed about instructional approaches that may lead adolescent English learners (ELs) to meet this goal. Developing academic literacy practices…

  2. Some Emerging Demographic Issues on Australia's Teaching Academic Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, Graeme

    2005-01-01

    Like other OECD nations, Australia is facing a crisis in the academic staff of its universities over the next two decades. This is a function of several factors, among which demographic elements are especially significant. The academic workforce of Australia is characterized by three distinct demographic features--age heaping, a concentration in…

  3. A Model Academic Advisement Manual for Teaching Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Rose T.; Hogges, Ralph

    The manual, for faculty advisors at Florida International University, provides information regarding policies and procedures relating to the academic advisement process. The introduction includes an academic advisement policy statement and the philosophy of the School of Health and Social Services. Part 2 provides an overview of the four phases of…

  4. Maternity and parental leave policies at COTH hospitals: an update. Council of Teaching Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Philibert, I; Bickel, J

    1995-11-01

    Because residents' demands for parental leave are increasing, updated information about maternity and paternity leave policies was solicited from hospitals that are members of the Council of Teaching Hospitals (COTH) of the AAMC. A 20-item questionnaire, combining forced-choice categories and open-ended questions, was faxed to 405 COTH hospitals in October 1994; 45% responded. A total of 77% of the respondents reported having written policies for maternity and/or parental leave; in 1989, only 52% of COTH hospitals had reported having such policies. Forty-one percent of the 1994 responding hospitals offered dedicated paid maternity leave, with a mean of 42 days allowed. Twenty-five percent of the respondents offered paternity leave, and 15% offered adoption leave. It is encouraging that the majority of the teaching hospitals that responded to the survey had adopted written policies, but the 23% without written policies remain a source of concern. Well-defined policies for maternity, paternity, and adoption leave can reduce stress and foster equity both for trainees requiring leave and for their colleagues.

  5. A Study of Primary Care Teaching Comparing Academic and Community-Based Settings

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Philip A; Nester, Carla

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare teaching activity and content between academic and community-based practices used in third year medical student primary care training. SETTING Academic and community-based primary care practices participating in third-year internal medicine, family medicine, and primary care core clerkships. PARTICIPANTS Five-hundred thirteen preceptor-student encounters involving 32 preceptors and 26 third-year medical students were evaluated. DESIGN Student-preceptor pairs collected a convenience sample of data from shared patient encounters. Preceptors recorded the content of teaching interventions, and students independently documented learning points received for each clinical encounter. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Comparison of problem exposure, frequency and content of teaching interventions, and the effect of patient complexity and patient care workload on teaching frequency was made between the acdemic and community-based practices. Several small differences were found in the frequency of clinical problem exposure between the two settings. The frequency and focus of teaching interventions did not differ by practice type. Teaching by community-based preceptors tended to decrease with increased patient care workload, but increased in academically based practices. CONCLUSIONS Although several differences exist between educational experiences in community- and academically based primary care practices, they appear to be minor and of minimal educational significance. PMID:11251745

  6. 42 CFR 415.190 - Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in... in Teaching Settings § 415.190 Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals. (a... schedule basis for the services of an assistant at surgery in a teaching hospital. This section is based on...

  7. 42 CFR 415.190 - Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in... in Teaching Settings § 415.190 Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals. (a... schedule basis for the services of an assistant at surgery in a teaching hospital. This section is based on...

  8. 42 CFR 415.162 - Determining payment for physician services furnished to beneficiaries in teaching hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... services furnished in a teaching hospital. (g) Aggregate per diem methods of apportionment—(1) For the... furnished to beneficiaries in teaching hospitals. 415.162 Section 415.162 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... BY PHYSICIANS IN PROVIDERS, SUPERVISING PHYSICIANS IN TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN...

  9. 42 CFR 415.162 - Determining payment for physician services furnished to beneficiaries in teaching hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... services furnished in a teaching hospital. (g) Aggregate per diem methods of apportionment—(1) For the... furnished to beneficiaries in teaching hospitals. 415.162 Section 415.162 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... BY PHYSICIANS IN PROVIDERS, SUPERVISING PHYSICIANS IN TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN...

  10. Social Support Behaviors and Work Stressors among Nurses: A Comparative Study between Teaching and Non-Teaching Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Amarneh, Basil Hameed

    2017-01-29

    The concept of "work stressors" has been well studied. However, in the field of nursing, studies concerning social support behaviors are limited. The aim of this study was to compare nurse work stressors, social support behaviors, and predictors of these variables among nurses in Jordanian teaching and non-teaching hospitals. A convenience sampling technique and a comparative quantitative research design were used in the current study. Two hundred and ninety-one nurses were recruited from five teaching hospitals, and 172 were recruited from eight non-teaching hospitals in Jordan. The Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) and the Inventory of Social Supportive Behaviors (ISSB) were used to collect data. The studied variables differed across hospitals. In some subscales, as well as in some individual items of the scales, nurse work stressors and social support behaviors differed between teaching and non-teaching hospitals. In teaching hospitals, the work shift was the only predictor of nurses' work stressors, whereas the work shift and model of nursing care were predictors of social support behaviors. In non-teaching hospitals, the work shift, level of education, and model of nursing care were predictors of nurse work stressors. Predictors of social support behaviors were marital status, model of nursing, and organizational structure. Regardless of the type of hospital, nurse stressors should be assessed and, once identified, managed by providing various social support behaviors. By turning a work environment into a healthy workplace, researchers and nurse leaders believe that improvements can be realized in recruitment and patient safety and quality.

  11. Hospital academic status and value of care for nonmetastatic colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Christine M; Epstein, Andrew J; Liao, Kaijun; Griggs, Jennifer J; Pollack, Craig E; Armstrong, Katrina

    2015-05-01

    The relationship between oncologic hospital academic status and the value of care for stage II and III colon cancer is unknown. Retrospective SEER-Medicare analysis of patients age ≥ 66 years with stage II or III colon cancer and seen by medical oncology. Eligible patients were diagnosed 2000 to 2009 and followed through December 31, 2010. Hospitals reporting a major medical school affiliation in the NCI Hospital File were classified as academic medical centers. The association between hospital academic status and survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models. The association with mean cost of care was estimated using generalized linear models with log link and gamma family and with cost of care at various quantiles using quantile regression models. Of 24,563 eligible patients, 5,707 (23%) received care from academic hospitals. There were no significant differences in unadjusted disease-specific median survival or adjusted risk of colon cancer death by hospital academic status (stage II hazard ratio = 1.12; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.28; P = .103; stage III hazard ratio = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.08; P = .763). Excepting patients at the upper limits of the cost distribution, there was no significant difference in adjusted cost by hospital academic status. We found no survival differences for elderly patients with stage II or III colon cancer, treated by a medical oncologist, between academic and nonacademic hospitals. Furthermore, cost of care was similar across virtually the full range of the cost distribution. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  12. Occupational Stress and Teaching Approaches among Chinese Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the predictive power of occupational stress for teaching approaches. Participants were 246 faculty members from a large university in Guangzhou in the People's Republic of China, who completed the Approaches to Teaching Inventory, four scales from the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised…

  13. Promoting Excellent Teaching: The Chair as Academic Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Bill

    Community college department chairs have many diverse responsibilities. One role which needs to be given more emphasis is that of "promoting excellent teaching." The three conditions which must be present for a department chair to begin promoting excellent teaching are open, honest, and positive communication; the ability to provide immediate…

  14. A comparative analysis of the CVP structure of nonprofit teaching and for-profit non-teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Lin; Forgione, Dana A; Younis, Mustafa Z

    2012-01-01

    Due to the market turbulence facing the hospital industry, the financial viability of teaching hospitals has been severely threatened. Their missions of education, research, and patient care even strengthen this crisis. Therefore, the objective of this study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the cost, volume, and profit (CVP) structure between large nonprofit urban teaching hospitals and small for-profit rural/suburban non-teaching hospitals. The following two hypotheses were developed: (1) large nonprofit urban teaching hospitals tend to have higher fixed cost, lower variable cost, lower total revenue adjusted by case mix index (CMI), and lower return on total assets (ROA); and (2) small for-profit rural/suburban non-teaching hospitals tend to have lower fixed cost, higher variable cost, higher total revenue adjusted by CMI, and higher ROA. Using 117 teaching hospitals and 102 non-teaching hospitals selected from the Medicare Cost Report database in 2005, the results from multiple regression indicated that large nonprofit teaching hospitals located in urban areas are more likely to have higher fixed cost and lower variable cost. While such cost structure doesn't necessarily affect their total revenue adjusted by CMI, it does lead to a lower return on hospitals' total assets. The results support our hypotheses in terms of fixed cost percentage, variable cost percentage, and ROA, but not total revenue adjusted by CMI. The results suggest that cost structure is significantly associated with hospitals' performance. Also, as teaching hospitals' portfolios of services and programs increase (e.g., provision of uncompensated care to Medicare and Medicaid patients and doing research), it becomes strategically necessary and critical to manage the allocation of resources or investments into the fixed capital that supports the business.

  15. Use of hospital beds: a cohort study of admissions to a provincial teaching hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P.; Meara, J.; Brodhurst, S.; Attwood, S.; Timbrell, M.; Gatherer, A.

    1988-01-01

    An instrument was developed to study the use of hospital beds and discharge arrangements of a cohort of 847 admissions to the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, for a three week period during February-March 1986. For only 38% of bed days were patients considered to have medical, nursing, or life support reasons for requiring a provincial teaching hospital bed. The requirements for a bed in the hospital decreased with the patient's age and length of stay in hospital. For only a tenth of patients was the general practitioner concerned in discussions with hospital staff about the patient's discharge and less than one third of patients had been given more than 24 hours' notice of discharge. Several features might increase the proportion of bed days that are occupied by patients with positive reasons for being in hospital. Among these are an increased frequency of ward rounds by consultants, or delegating discharge decisions by consultants to other staff; providing diagnostic related protocols for planning the length of stay in hospital; planned discharges; and providing liaison nurses to help with communication with primary care staff. PMID:3140977

  16. Treatment Patterns and Differences in Survival of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Between Academic and Non-Academic Hospitals in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Naomi; Bongers, Mathilda L; Coupé, Veerle M H; Smit, Egbert F; Groen, Harry J M; Welling, Alle; Schramel, Franz M N H; Uyl-de Groot, Carin A

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study are to analyze differences in survival between academic and non-academic hospitals and to provide insight into treatment patterns for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Results show the state of NSCLC survival and care in the Netherlands. The Netherlands Cancer Registry provided data on NSCLC survival for all Dutch hospitals. We used the Kaplan-Meier estimate to calculate median survival time by hospital type and a Cox proportional hazards model to estimate the relative risk of mortality (expressed as hazard ratios) for patients diagnosed in academic versus non-academic hospitals, with adjustment for age, gender, and tumor histology, and stratifying for disease stage. Data on treatment patterns in Dutch hospitals was obtained from 4 hospitals (2 academic, 2 non-academic). A random sample of patients diagnosed with NSCLC from January 2009 until January 2011 was identified through hospital databases. Data was obtained on patient characteristics, tumor characteristics, and treatments. The Cox proportional hazards model shows a significantly decreased hazard ratio of mortality for patients diagnosed in academic hospitals, as opposed to patients diagnosed in non-academic hospitals. This is specifically true for primary radiotherapy patients and patients who receive systemic treatment for non-metastasized NSCLC. Patients diagnosed in academic hospitals have better median overall survival than patients diagnosed in non-academic hospitals, especially for patients treated with radiotherapy, systemic treatment, or combinations. This difference may be caused by residual confounding since the estimates were not adjusted for performance status. A wide variety of surgical, radiotherapeutic, and systemic treatments is prescribed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The importance of academic teaching competence for the career development of university teachers: A comment from higher education pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Merkt, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    This contribution to the discussion focuses on which conditions at universities need to be established so that academic teaching skills become relevant to the career of university teachers. To find an answer, current findings on academic teaching are summarized from the literature.

  18. Crossing New Uncharted Territory: Shifts in Academic Identity as a Result of Modifying Teaching Practice in Undergraduate Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kensington-Miller, Barbara; Sneddon, Jamie; Stewart, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    The changes in academic identity a teacher may undergo, as they modify their teaching practice, will vary depending on their experiences and the support they receive. In this paper, we describe the shifts in academic identity of two lecturers, a mathematician and a mathematics educator, as they both made changes to their teaching practice by…

  19. Uncovering the Links between Prospective Teachers' Personal Responsibility, Academic Optimism, Hope, and Emotions about Teaching: A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Altay

    2014-01-01

    Prospective teachers' sense of personal responsibility has not been examined together with their academic optimism, hope, and emotions about teaching in a single study to date. However, to consider hope, academic optimism, and emotions about teaching together with personal responsibility is important to uncover the factors affecting…

  20. Otolaryngology outreach to Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital: a medical and educational partnership.

    PubMed

    Waller, B; Larsen-Reindorf, R; Duah, M; Opoku-Buabeng, J; Edwards, B M; Brown, D; Moyer, J; Prince, M; Basura, G J

    2017-07-01

    Medical and educational partnerships between high- and low-resourced countries provide opportunities to have a long-term meaningful impact on medical training and healthcare delivery. An otolaryngology partnership between Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana, and the University of Michigan Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery has been undertaken to enhance healthcare delivery at both institutions. A temporal bone dissection laboratory, with the equipment to perform dedicated otological surgery, and academic platforms for clinical and medical education and residency training have been established. This article describes the details of this partnership in otological surgery and hearing health, with an emphasis on creating in-country surgical simulation, training on newly acquired medical equipment and planning regarding the formulation of objectified metrics to gauge progress going forward.

  1. Essay Examination Prompts and the Teaching of Academic Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Daniel

    1986-01-01

    Presents a four-task typology (concept, relation, process, argumentation) of essay examination prompts, based on study of 284 prompts used in 15 academic departments at Western Illinois University, and shows how it can be used to help foreign students sharpen their English-language essay examination-taking skills. (CB)

  2. Creating the Academic Commons: Guidelines for Learning, Teaching, and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Thomas H.P.

    2011-01-01

    Today's library is still at the heart of all university activities, helping students and faculty become better learners, teachers, and researchers. In recent years there has emerged the formalizing of one or more of these activities into an Academic Commons. These centers of information have been labeled variously but they all share a commonality:…

  3. English Language Teaching and the Promotion of Academic Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntombela, Berrington

    2011-01-01

    Institutions of higher learning carry a burden of inculcating a culture of academic ethical behaviour among students as part of their responsibility to produce citizens of high calibre. In fact, this burden is more expedient and pronounced because of aberrant behaviours such as cheating that can potentially affect institutions' credibility. This…

  4. Income Taxation of Academics Studying or Teaching Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karjala, Dennis S.

    1994-01-01

    The income tax options available to college faculty who work abroad while maintaining ties to a U.S. academic institution are outlined, and the role of planning in optimizing those choices is explained. Issues addressed include definition of taxable income, record-keeping, distinction between exclusions and deductions, and fellowships. (MSE)

  5. Concept-Based Grammar Teaching: An Academic Responds to Azar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kent

    2007-01-01

    This response to Azar (this volume) intends to discuss from an academic's perspective the main points raised in her paper (i.e., grammar-based instruction and its relation to focus on form and error correction) and, to encourage a more concept-based approach to grammar instruction (CBT). A CBT approach to language development argues that the…

  6. Transformative Teaching: Changing Today's Classrooms Culturally, Academically, and Emotionally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryza, Kathleen; Brittingham, MaryAnn; Duncan, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    This book helps teachers support and engage the many different kinds of learners in schools. It examines the most effective strategies for leading diverse students in developing the skills they need inside and outside the classroom. By understanding and exploring students emotional, cultural, and academic needs, educators will be better prepared…

  7. Leadership for Quality University Teaching: How Bottom-Up Academic Insights Can Inform Top-Down Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Donald E.; Scott, Shelleyann

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the leadership implications from a study that explored how to increase the quality of teaching in a university thereby presenting data from the bottom up--the academic perspective--to inform leadership, policies, and academic development which generally flows from the top down. We report academics' perceptions of and…

  8. Academic Integrity as a Teaching & Learning Issue: From Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram Gallant, Tricia

    2017-01-01

    In 2008, I argued that a new approach to academic integrity in the 21st century was needed because the dominant approaches had been proven to be relatively ineffective (Bertram Gallant, 2008). This new approach, the teaching and learning approach, challenged educators to situate integrity practices within the goal of improving student learning, in…

  9. Student Academic Partners: Student Employment for Collaborative Learning and Teaching Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Rebecca; Millard, Luke; Brand, Stuart; Chapman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    During 2008, Birmingham City University (BCU) began to develop approaches to enable students to have a greater ownership of the enhancement of learning and teaching at the university in order to break down some of the real and perceived barriers between students and staff. This work led to the development of the Student Academic Partners scheme…

  10. A Splendid Torch: Learning and Teaching in Today's Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyre, Jodi Reeves, Ed.; Maclachlan, John C., Ed.; Williford, Christa, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    Six essays, written collaboratively by current and former Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) postdoctoral fellows, explore the contributions that today's academic libraries--as providers of resources, professional support, and space--are making to learning and teaching. Topics include the continuing evolution of the learning…

  11. The Effect of Peer Teaching on Mathematics Academic Achievement of the Undergraduate Students in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelkarim, Ra'ed; Abuiyada, Reem

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effects of peer teaching on mathematics academic achievement of the undergraduate students in Oman. The sample of this study composed of (32) undergraduate female students enrolled in the course, "Mathematics for Social Sciences I" in Mathematics and Sciences Unit in Dhofar University in spring semester 2014-2015.…

  12. An Assessment of the Effects of Teaching Methods on Academic Performance of Students in Accounting Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosal-Akman, Nazli; Simga-Mugan, Can

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the effect of teaching methods on the academic performance of students in accounting courses. The study was carried out over two semesters at a well-known university in Turkey in principles of financial accounting and managerial accounting courses. Students enrolled in the courses were assigned to treatment and control groups.…

  13. Proposing a Knowledge Base for Teaching Academic Content to English Language Learners: Disciplinary Linguistic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkan, Sultan; De Oliveira, Luciana C.; Lee, Okhee; Phelps, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: The current research on teacher knowledge and teacher accountability falls short on information about what teacher knowledge base could guide preparation and accountability of the mainstream teachers for meeting the academic needs of ELLs. Most recently, research on specialized knowledge for teaching has offered ways to…

  14. Teaching for Connection: Critical Thinking Skills, Problem Solving, and Academic and Occupational Competencies. Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Lowell E.

    This document contains 48 sample lesson plans that practicing teachers of vocational and academic education have developed to train vocational students to think critically and to solve problems. Discussed in the introduction are the following topics: critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making as the building blocks of teaching;…

  15. Casualization of Academics in the Australian Higher Education: Is Teaching Quality at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lama, Tek; Joullié, Jean-Etienne

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the issues casual academics face in Australia and whether these pose risks to teaching quality. The logic of the rampant casualisation in Australian universities is exposed first (i.e., mainly flexibility and cost saving to offset drops in government funding), followed by a discussion on the theoretical risks casualisation…

  16. Effect of Learning Cycle Approach-Based Science Teaching on Academic Achievement, Attitude, Motivation and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uyanik, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of learning cycle approach-based teaching on academic achievement, attitude, motivation and retention at primary school 4th grade science lesson. It was conducted pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design in this study. The study was conducted on a total of 65 students studying in two different…

  17. Chinese Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) Academics' Perceptions about Research in a Transitional Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Li; Millwater, Jan; Hudson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Research capacity building has become a prominent theme in higher education institutions in China and across the world. However, Chinese Teaching English as a Foreign Language academics' research output has been quite limited. In order to build their research capacity, it is necessary to understand their perceptions about research. This case study…

  18. Influence of Integration of Information Communication Technology in Teaching on Students' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbugua, Stephen Ngugi; Kiboss, Joel; Tanui, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Teachers must understand the context within which students' performance improvement takes place. Operational effectiveness and strategy are both essential to superior performance and strategy execution is crucial for quality and better students' academic result. ICT can be a catalyst by providing tools which teachers use to improve teaching and…

  19. The Relationship among Principals' Technology Leadership, Teaching Innovation, and Students' Academic Optimism in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Chuan-Chung; Yen, Hung-Chin; Kuan, Liu-Yen

    2014-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the relationships among principals' technology leadership, teaching innovations, and students' academic optimism by surveying elementary school educators across Taiwan. Of the total 1,080 questionnaires distributed, 755 valid surveys were returned for a 69.90% return rate. Teachers were asked to indicate the…

  20. Effectiveness of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment in Biology Teaching: Classroom Community Sense, Academic Achievement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yapici, I. Ümit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment (BCLE) in biology teaching on students' classroom community sense, their academic achievement and on their levels of satisfaction. In the study, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together. The study was carried out with 30 students in…

  1. Teaching Group Dynamics in Academic Settings: Basic Dilemmas and Some Tentative Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babed, Elisha Y.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses objectives of teachers of a college level psychology course dealing with group dynamics. A major problem encountered in teaching a group dynamics course in an academic setting is creating a balance between cognitive/intellectual and affective/personal learning. (Author/DB)

  2. Prospective Teachers' Future Time Perspective and Professional Plans about Teaching: The Mediating Role of Academic Optimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Altay

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the mediating role of prospective teachers' academic optimism in the relationship between their future time perspective and professional plans about teaching. A total of 396 prospective teachers voluntarily participated in the study. Correlation, regression, and structural equation modeling analyses were conducted in…

  3. Professional Development in Teaching and Learning for Early Career Academic Geographers: Contexts, Practices and Tensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vajoczki, Susan; Biegas, Tamara C.; Crenshaw, Melody; Healey, Ruth L.; Osayomi, Tolulope; Bradford, Michael; Monk, Janice

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the practices and tensions informing approaches to professional development for early career academic geographers who are teaching in higher education. We offer examples from Britain, Canada, Nigeria and the USA. The tensions include: institutional and departmental cultures; models that offer generic and…

  4. Supporting Academic Language Development in Elementary Science: A Classroom Teaching Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Karl Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Academic language is the language that students must engage in while participating in the teaching and learning that takes place in school (Schleppegrell, 2012) and science as a content area presents specific challenges and opportunities for students to engage with language (Buxton & Lee, 2014; Gee, 2005). In order for students to engage…

  5. Teaching Google Search Techniques in an L2 Academic Writing Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Sumi; Shin, Jeong-Ah

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-method study examines the effectiveness of teaching Google search techniques (GSTs) to Korean EFL college students in an intermediate-level academic English writing course. 18 students participated in a 4-day GST workshop consisting of an overview session of the web as corpus and Google as a concordancer, and three training sessions…

  6. Empirical Profiles of Academic Oral English Proficiency from an International Teaching Assistant Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Ikkyu

    2017-01-01

    Language proficiency constitutes a crucial barrier for prospective international teaching assistants (ITAs). Many US universities administer screening tests to ensure that ITAs possess the required academic oral English proficiency for their TA duties. Such ITA screening tests often elicit a sample of spoken English, which is evaluated in terms of…

  7. Teaching Assistants' Preparation for, Attitudes towards, and Experiences with Academic Dishonesty: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Michael; Hammons, James O.; Mamiseishvili, Ketevan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined teaching assistants' (TAs) preparation for, attitudes towards, and experiences with academic dishonesty at a public research university. Of 470 TAs, 184 (39%) completed the survey instrument. The major findings of the study were: (a) TAs were more satisfied with their informal than their formal preparation for dealing with…

  8. Facebook Groups as an Academic Teaching Aid: Case Study and Recommendations for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miron, Eli; Ravid, Gilad

    2015-01-01

    The move from a walled garden type Learning Management Systems (LMS) to open environments (like Facebook) forces us to adapt new teaching ways. This article offers a brief review of the use of Facebook groups in learning, describes the experience of using Facebook groups in an academic institute, explains the considerations for choosing the type…

  9. Sports Tribes and Academic Identity: Teaching the Sociology of Sport in a Changing Disciplinary Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dart, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Using data from 15 semi-structured interviews with UK-based early/mid-career academics, this paper offers an empirically informed assessment of how lecturers teaching/researching the sociology of sport are managing their careers in a changing higher education landscape. Those interviewed were involved in the delivery of sociological content to a…

  10. Case Meetings for Teaching English for Specific Academic Purposes in a Tertiary Aeronautical Engineering Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatzl, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an innovative adaptation of the case method to teaching English for specific academic purposes. Widespread in its traditional form in various content disciplines, the case method bears the potential for truly student-centred language instruction. The current application transforms learners from case analysts to case authors…

  11. Building Sustainable Academic Research in a "Teaching and Learning" Intensive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrams, Steve; Betts, Tony; Carton, Janet

    2008-01-01

    Academic research is increasingly interdisciplinary, inter-institutional and international. In this context, creating and maintaining the balance in the nexus between research, teaching and learning and industry interaction is central to the operation and reputation of a university-level institute. In seeking sustainability, the perennial…

  12. A Study on Simulation Methods in Academic Success with Reference to Teaching Biology for Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasikala, P.; Tanyong, Siriwan

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine the utility of simulation methods in biology teaching for nursing students and academic success. 100 students (50 control, 50 experimental) who studied at Srinivasa Teacher Training School, Kalikiri, Recognised by Sri Venkateswara University, Faculty of Education, Tirupati, AP, India, 2014-215…

  13. Preparedness to Teach: Experiences of the University of Ibadan Early Career Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udegbe, I. Bola

    2016-01-01

    This research examined the experiences of early career academics (ECAs) in terms of their preparedness to teach. Using a survey design involving 104 ECAs in a large Nigeria university, quantitative and qualitative data were obtained to address the research questions raised. Findings showed that (1) prior experience and training impacted on…

  14. The Effect of Teaching Strategy Based on Multiple Intelligences on Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali; Laei, Susan; Ahmadyan, Hamze

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Teaching Strategy based on Multiple Intelligences on students' academic achievement in sciences course. Totally 40 students from two different classes (Experimental N = 20 and Control N = 20) participated in the study. They were in the fifth grade of elementary school and were selected…

  15. Academic Staff Views of Quality Systems for Teaching and Learning: A Hong Kong Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John; Saram, Don Darshi De

    2005-01-01

    The "Teaching and Learning Quality Process Review" (TLQPR) recently completed in Hong Kong had an emphasis on education quality work. This paper analyses how, from the perspective of academic staff in one university in Hong Kong, the good intentions embedded in that idea are enhanced or subverted by the broader ?quality system setting in…

  16. Students' Perceptions of Teaching Technologies, Application of Technologies, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Austin, M. Jill

    2009-01-01

    This study examined business students' perceptions of four objectives (i.e., Enjoyment, Learning, Motivation, and Career Application) across five teaching technologies (i.e., Projector, PowerPoint, Video, the Internet, and Lecture), business professors' effective application of technologies, and students' academic performance. We collected data…

  17. Using Movement to Teach Academics: The Mind and Body as One Entity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minton, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    This book is developed to help teach curriculum through the use of movement and dance, while giving students a chance to use their creative problem-solving skills. The text describes a step-by-step process through which instructor and students can learn to transform academic concepts into actions and dances. Theoretical information is also…

  18. Teaching-Learning Conceptions and Academic Achievement: The Mediating Role of Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The current research aimed at examining the mediating role of test anxiety in the relationship between teaching-learning conceptions and academic achievement. The correlation investigation model was adopted in this research. The participants of the research were volunteering teachers (n = 108) and students (n = 526) from five different high…

  19. Survey of Current Academic Practices for Full-Time Postlicensure Nursing Faculty Who Teach Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanford, Karen J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine current academic practices of compensation, workload, rewards, and tenure and promotion for nursing faculty who teach graduate and postlicensure programs that are delivered 50% to 100% online. Deans and directors who are members of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) were the…

  20. The Role of an Academic Development Unit in Supporting Institutional VET Learning and Teaching Change Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fotinatos, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role and impact of a central academic development unit (ADU) within an institutional strategic and operational change management project. The primary goal of this project was to improve vocational education and training (VET) learning and teaching practice in an Australian dual-sector regional university.…

  1. The Ideal Research-Teaching Nexus in the Eyes of Academics: Building Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Van Driel, Jan H.; Van der Rijst, Roeland M.; Verloop, Nico; Visser, Anthonya

    2010-01-01

    Research and teaching are supposed to be closely related in universities. Among academics the belief in a symbiotic relationship is strong. However, it is unclear what form this relationship can take. Several authors have presented categories and dimensions to clarify this relationship and the aim of this project was to contribute to this…

  2. An ICT-Mediated Constructivist Approach for Increasing Academic Support and Teaching Critical Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng'ambi, Dick; Johnston, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    South African Universities are tasked with increasing student throughput by offering additional academic support. A second task is to teach students to challenge and question. One way of attempting to achieve these tasks is by using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The focus of this paper is to examine the effect of using an ICT…

  3. Competitive strategy in turbulent healthcare markets: an analysis of financially effective teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Langabeer, J

    1998-01-01

    As the healthcare marketplace, characterized by declining revenues and heavy price competition, continues to evolve toward managed care, teaching hospitals are being forced to act more like traditional industrial organizations. Profit-oriented behavior, including emphases on market strategies and competitive advantage, is now a necessity if these hospitals are going to survive the transition to managed care. To help teaching hospitals evaluate strategic options that maximize financial effectiveness, this study examined the financial and operating data for 100 major U.S. teaching hospitals to determine relationships among competitive strategy, market environment, and financial return on invested capital. Results should help major hospitals formulate more effective strategies to combat environmental turbulence.

  4. Teaching Academic Discussion Skills with a Card Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Curt; Wells, Terri

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a game used for teaching discussion skills to English as a Second Language (ESL) students. It was originally designed for students wanting to prepare for graduate study at U.S. universities has been since used for other ESL students wanting to improve conversation skills. The game focuses on common phrases helpful for…

  5. Teaching Behaviors, Academic Learning Time, and Student Achievement: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Charles; Berliner, David; Filby, Nikola; Marliave, Richard; Cahen, Leonard; Dishaw, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study (BTES) was to identify teaching activities and classroom conditions that foster student learning in elementary schools. The study focused on instruction in reading and mathematics at grades two and five. During the multi-year series of substudies comprising BTES, a variety of issues were…

  6. Academic Libraries as a Context for Teaching Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jon

    2008-01-01

    The teaching of mathematical modeling to undergraduate students requires that students are given ample opportunity to develop their own models and experience first-hand the process of model building. Finding an appropriate context within which modeling can be undertaken is not a simple task as it needs to be readily understandable and seen as…

  7. [The impact of a self-directed teaching approach on academic performance of medical students].

    PubMed

    Williams, Carolina; Santelices, Lucía; Ávila, Mario; Soto, Mauricio; Dougnac, Alberto

    2017-05-01

    Students should be encouraged to become reflexive and develop autonomous, lifelong learning habits. Therefore, teachers should focus on learning strategies which stimulate autonomous learning. To assess the impact of a self-directed teaching methodology on the academic performance of medical students in cellular biology and biochemistry. During 2013, 85 students received a traditional teaching methodology and during 2014, 85 students received a self-directed learning methodology. The grades obtained and the number of failures in the courses of cellular biology and biochemistry were compared in both groups. The percentages of students approved at the end of the courses during 2013 and 2014 were 64 and 96% respectively (p < 0.01). The grades obtained by the 2014 students were also significantly higher than those obtained by 2013 students. This study confirms that academic performance improves with a self-directed teaching approach.

  8. The Chains Around Academic Freedom in Teaching-Learning.

    PubMed

    Condon, Barbara Backer

    2017-04-01

    Freedom as a concept has been much debated. Is freedom an innate part of being, or does freedom even truly exists? These are questions that have gleaned countless hours of discourse over the years. Two components of freedom that can influence nurse higher education are freedom of speech, in the form of media, and academic freedom. The author of this column first introduces three views of freedom to demonstrate the differences surrounding it. A discussion of the media's use or misuse of freedom of speech and its influence on nursing education is then presented, followed by an examination of current threats to academic freedom in today's institutes of higher learning and specifically in the nursing education arena. The author concludes with suggestions on being a nurse educator through living as a humanbecoming professional while navigating issues surrounding nursing education.

  9. Financial burden of emergency preparedness on an urban, academic hospital.

    PubMed

    Petinaux, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the direct human resource costs of a hospital's emergency preparedness planning (in 2005) by surveying participants retrospectively. Forty participants (74% of the identified population) were surveyed. Using the self-reported hourly salary of the participant, a direct salary cost was calculated for each participant. The population was 40% male and 60% female; 65% had a graduate degree or higher; 65% were administrators; 35% were clinicians; and 50% reported that their job description included a reference to emergency planning activities. All participants spent a combined total of 3,654.25 hours on emergency preparedness activities, including 20.1% on personal education/training; 11.6% on educating other people; 39.3% on paperwork or equipment maintenance; 22.2% on attendance at meetings; 5.6% on drill participation; and <1% on other activities. Considering the participants' hourly salary, direct personal costs spent on emergency preparedness activities at the institution totaled US$232,417.Ten percent, all of whom were physicians, reported no compensation for their emergency preparedness efforts at the hospital level. As much as these results illustrate the strong commitment of the institution to its community, they represent a heavy burden in light of the often unfunded mandate of emergency preparedness planning that a hospital may incur. Such responsibility is carried to some extent by all hospitals.

  10. When a community hospital becomes an academic health centre.

    PubMed

    Topps, Maureen; Strasser, Roger

    2010-01-01

    With the burgeoning role of distributed medical education and the increasing use of community hospitals for training purposes, challenges arise for undergraduate and postgraduate programs expanding beyond traditional tertiary care models. It is of vital importance to encourage community hospitals and clinical faculty to embrace their roles in medical education for the 21st century. With no university hospitals in northern Ontario, the Northern Ontario School of Medicine and its educational partner hospitals identified questions of concern and collaborated to implement changes. Several themes emerged that are of relevance to any medical educational program expanding beyond its present location. Critical areas for attention include the institutional culture; human, physical and financial resources; and support for educational activities. It is important to establish and maintain the groundwork necessary for the development of thriving integrated community-engaged medical education. Done in tandem with advocacy for change in funding models, this will allow movement beyond the current educational environment. The ultimate goal is successful integration of university and accreditation ideals with practical hands-on medical care and education in new environments.

  11. The Impact of Quantum Teaching Strategy on Student Academic Achievements and Self-Esteem in Inclusive Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunarhadi; Kassim, Mustapa; Shaari, Abdull Sukor

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research was aimed at showing the impact of a teaching strategy called the Quantum Teaching Strategy on students' academic achievements in two school subjects, namely in Bahasa Indonesia and Science, in comparison to that experienced through classes using a conventional teaching strategy. This research also examined the role of…

  12. Awareness and practice of patients' rights among hospitalized patients at Wad-Medani Teaching Hospital, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Younis, Abobaker A H; Hassan, Amal H A; Dmyatti, Eylaph M E H; Elmubarak, Mehad A H; Alterife, Rahma A A; Salim, Rawan E O; Mohamed, Samar A B; Ahmed, Wefag S A M

    2017-03-30

    Patients' rights are a fundamental human right and an important part of modern health care practice. This is a cross-sectional descriptive analytic study, conducted amongst 263 patients at Wadi-Medani Teaching Hospital, Sudan, in March-April 2015. Most patients (95.2%) did not know about the Bill of Rights and most of them (92.8%) were not able to mention any of the patients' rights. The most practiced rights were: the right to be asked for permission before examination (88.1%), proper handling (87.8%), safety of the hospital (87%), presence of a third person when examining a female by a male doctor (85.6%), and admission file confidentiality (75.5%). The awareness of Sudan FMOH Patients' Bill of Rights was very low among patients at Wad-Medani Teaching Hospital, yet they showed a high satisfaction rate probably due to their low socioeconomic status, educational level and expectations. Therefore, awareness of patients' rights must be increased.

  13. LEARNING STYLE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH PREFERRED TEACHING METHODOLOGIES AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT.

    PubMed

    Bhalli, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Ishtiaq Ali; Sattar, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have categorized the learning styles in many ways. Kolb proposed a classification of learner's styles as convergers, divergers, assimilators and accommodators. Honey and Mumford simplified learning styles as activists, reflectors, theorists and pragmatists. Neil Fleming's VARK model (Visual, Auditory, Read/write and Kinesthetic) is also popular. This study was carried out to determine the frequency of learning styles (Honey and Mumford) of medical students and its correlation with preferred teaching methodologies and academic achievements. A total of 77 medical students of 4th year MBBS were selected through non-probability convenient sampling for this study. Honey and Mumford's learning style questionnaire, and a 2nd questionnaire to know their preference for different teaching methodologies were distributed to the students. Learning styles were identified and correlated with preferred teaching methodologies and academic achievements by Chi-square test. Mean age of the medical students was 22.75 ± 1.05 years. Twenty one (27.3%) participants were males and 56 (72.7%) females. By learning styles, 7 (9.1%) medical students were activists, 36 (46.8%) reflectors, 13 (16.9%) theorists and 21 (27.3%) were pragmatists. Out of 77 students, 22 preferred interactive lectures; 16, small group discussion; 20 problem based learning, 10 preferred demonstration on models. Only 01 students preferred one-way lecture as the best teaching methodology. No significant correlation was found between learning styles and preferred teaching methodologies and learning styles and academic scores. Most of the medical students had reflector (46.8%) and pragmatist (27.3%) learning styles. Majority preferred interactive lectures (28.57%) and problem based learning (25.98%) as teaching methodologies. Aligning our instructional strategies with learning styles of the medical students will improve learning and academic performance.

  14. Multiple intelligences and alternative teaching strategies: The effects on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding, and attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baragona, Michelle

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between multiple intelligence strengths and alternative teaching methods on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding and attitudes. The design was a quasi-experimental study, in which students enrolled in Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, a developmental biology course, received lecture only, problem-based learning with lecture, or peer teaching with lecture. These students completed the Multiple Intelligence Inventory to determine their intelligence strengths, the Students' Motivation Toward Science Learning questionnaire to determine student attitudes towards learning in science, multiple choice tests to determine academic achievement, and open-ended questions to determine conceptual understanding. Effects of intelligence types and teaching methods on academic achievement and conceptual understanding were determined statistically by repeated measures ANOVAs. No significance occurred in academic achievement scores due to lab group or due to teaching method used; however, significant interactions between group and teaching method did occur in students with strengths in logical-mathematical, interpersonal, kinesthetic, and intrapersonal intelligences. Post-hoc analysis using Tukey HSD tests revealed students with strengths in logical-mathematical intelligence and enrolled in Group Three scored significantly higher when taught by problem-based learning (PBL) as compared to peer teaching (PT). No significance occurred in conceptual understanding scores due to lab group or due to teaching method used; however, significant interactions between group and teaching method did occur in students with strengths in musical, kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and spatial intelligences. Post-hoc analysis using Tukey HSD tests revealed students with strengths in logical-mathematical intelligence and enrolled in Group Three scored significantly higher when taught by lecture as compared to PBL. Students with

  15. Overdosed prescription of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Charpiat, B; Henry, A; Leboucher, G; Tod, M; Allenet, B

    2012-07-01

    Paracetamol is the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic. Reviews of hospital use of paracetamol are scarce. Little is known about the appropriateness of the dose of paracetamol prescribed for hospitalized adults. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and the frequency of the overdosed prescription of paracetamol observed in adult patients over a 4.5-year period in a teaching hospital. Prescription analysis by pharmacists was performed once a week in six medical and three surgical departments and daily in a post-emergency unit. In cases of prescription error, the pharmacist notified the physician through an electronic alert when a computerized prescription order entry system was available or otherwise by face-to-face discussion. For each drug-related problem detected, the pharmacists recorded relevant details in a database. From October 2006 to April 2011, 44,404 prescriptions were reviewed and 480 alerts related to the overdosed prescription of paracetamol were made (1% of analyzed prescriptions). The extent of errors of dosage was within the intervals [90-120 mg/kg/d] and greater than 120 mg/kg/d for 87 and 11 patients respectively, who were prescribed a single non-combination paracetamol containing product. Sixty alerts concerned co-prescription of at least two paracetamol containing products with similar frequency for computerized (1.4/1000) or handwritten (1.2/1000) prescriptions. Prescriptions of paracetamol for hospitalized adults frequently exceed the recommended dosage. These results highlight the need for increased awareness of unintentional paracetamol overdose and support the initiation of an educational program aimed at physicians and nurses. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Transcatheter arterial revascularization outcomes at vascular and general surgery teaching hospitals and nonteaching hospitals are comparable.

    PubMed

    Bhamidipati, Castigliano M; LaPar, Damien J; Stukenborg, George J; Lutz, Charles J; Tracci, Margaret C; Cherry, Kenneth J; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Kern, John A

    2012-07-01

    Outcomes following transcatheter interventions at vascular and general surgery teaching hospitals (STH) are unknown. We examine whether surgery training programs influence clinically relevant outcomes after commonly performed endovascular procedures. Using an all-payer inpatient care database from 2008, we selected adults who underwent either endovascular carotid stenting, endografting of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm, endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, or peripheral arterial revascularization. Patients were stratified by procedures completed at Surgery Teaching (Participate in Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education [ACGME]-accredited vascular and general surgery programs), STH, or nonteaching hospitals (NTH). Hierarchical regression models assessed adverse outcomes and in-hospital mortality among groups. Of the 175,698 records, 44% of the patients were treated at STH, while 56% underwent procedures at NTH. The adjusted odds ratio of any complication or mortality at STH and NTH were similar. Transfers, weekend admissions, and nonelective cases were higher at STH (P < .001, respectively). Paradoxically, STH treated fewer patients with more than three comorbidities compared with NTH (STH: 47% vs NTH: 53%; P < .001). Surgical teaching status did not lower the adjusted odds of mortality for any procedure. Moreover, the occurrence of any complication (adjusted odds ratios, 0.9; 95% confidence interval, .82-1.14; P = .69) and mortality (adjusted odds ratios, 0.9; 95% confidence interval, .74-1.22; P = .67) were equivalent between vascular and general STH. Following commonly performed transcatheter vascular procedures, and despite more transfers, weekend admissions, and nonelective procedures completed at STH, complications, and mortality were comparable across centers. Copyright © 2012 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Council of Teaching Hospitals: Survey of Housestaff Stipends, Benefits and Funding, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Alison

    This report presents the results of an annual survey of housestaff stipends, benefits, and funding for physicians at teaching hospitals in 1992. The data, presented in 48 tables and 4 figures, are based on responses from 325 members of the Council of Teaching Hospitals (COTH), an 83 percent response rate to the survey. Chapter I contains stipend…

  18. The Effects of Scheduled Intern Rotation on the Cost and Quality of Teaching Hospital Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Eugene C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The effects of scheduled intern rotations on the cost and quality of inpatient care at a teaching hospital were studied for 1,705 rotation patients and 3,141 no-rotation patients. Systematic discontinuity of scheduled rotations may be a source of increased health care costs at teaching hospitals. (SLD)

  19. Pattern Of Leukaemia Patients Admitted In Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tariq Mehmood

    2016-01-01

    Any tissue of the body can give rise to cancer. However, those tissues which multiply rapidly are at high risk of developing cancer and haematopoietic system is one of them. Neoplasms of this system are known as leukaemia and lymphoma, according to the types of white cells involved. Study of cancer patterns in different societies, however can contribute a substantial knowledge about the aetiology of cancer. The present Study was designed and aimed to estimate the frequency of different types of leukaemia in patients admitted in Ayub Teaching hospital Abbottabad. Data from the patients admitted at oncology Department of Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad from 2010 to 2015 was collected and analysed to calculate cumulative and year-wise frequency of leukaemia and its major types. Frequency distribution with reference to gender and age was also calculated. In our analysis about 16% patients had acute myelocytic leukaemia and 32% patients had acute lymphocytic leukaemia; while chronic myeloid leukaemia outnumbered chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (11% and 3%); Hodgkin lymphoma was seen in 18% cases while Non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) was present in 20% cases. Out of the total, 150 cases (75%) belonged to mountainous areas of Hazara, i.e., 40 cases belonged to Kohistan, another 40 cases were residents of Battagram, 45 cases belonged to hilly areas of Mansehra and 25 cases to Kaghan valley, while only 50 (25%) cases were from the plain areas of Abbottabad and Haripur districts, i.e., 20 and 30 cases respectively. Leukaemia is more common in hilly areas of Hazara, since majority of the cases belonged to well-known mountainous regions of Kohistan, Battagram, Kaghan or Mansehra and only few cases belonged to the plain areas of Abbottabad and Haripur districts.

  20. 42 CFR 415.190 - Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in... Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.190 Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching... a fee schedule basis for the services of an assistant at surgery in a teaching hospital. This...

  1. 42 CFR 415.190 - Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in... Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.190 Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching... a fee schedule basis for the services of an assistant at surgery in a teaching hospital. This...

  2. 42 CFR 415.190 - Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in... Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.190 Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching... a fee schedule basis for the services of an assistant at surgery in a teaching hospital. This...

  3. Generational influences in academic emergency medicine: teaching and learning, mentoring, and technology (part I).

    PubMed

    Mohr, Nicholas M; Moreno-Walton, Lisa; Mills, Angela M; Brunett, Patrick H; Promes, Susan B

    2011-02-01

    For the first time in history, four generations are working together-traditionalists, baby boomers, generation Xers (Gen Xers), and millennials. Members of each generation carry with them a unique perspective of the world and interact differently with those around them. Through a review of the literature and consensus by modified Delphi methodology of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Aging and Generational Issues Task Force, the authors have developed this two-part series to address generational issues present in academic emergency medicine (EM). Understanding generational characteristics and mitigating strategies can help address some common issues encountered in academic EM. Through recognition of the unique characteristics of each of the generations with respect to teaching and learning, mentoring, and technology, academicians have the opportunity to strategically optimize interactions with one another. © 2011 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  4. Social Support Behaviors and Work Stressors among Nurses: A Comparative Study between Teaching and Non-Teaching Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Amarneh, Basil Hameed

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The concept of “work stressors” has been well studied. However, in the field of nursing, studies concerning social support behaviors are limited. The aim of this study was to compare nurse work stressors, social support behaviors, and predictors of these variables among nurses in Jordanian teaching and non-teaching hospitals. Design: A convenience sampling technique and a comparative quantitative research design were used in the current study. Two hundred and ninety-one nurses were recruited from five teaching hospitals, and 172 were recruited from eight non-teaching hospitals in Jordan. Methods: The Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) and the Inventory of Social Supportive Behaviors (ISSB) were used to collect data. Results: The studied variables differed across hospitals. In some subscales, as well as in some individual items of the scales, nurse work stressors and social support behaviors differed between teaching and non-teaching hospitals. In teaching hospitals, the work shift was the only predictor of nurses’ work stressors, whereas the work shift and model of nursing care were predictors of social support behaviors. In non-teaching hospitals, the work shift, level of education, and model of nursing care were predictors of nurse work stressors. Predictors of social support behaviors were marital status, model of nursing, and organizational structure. Conclusions: Regardless of the type of hospital, nurse stressors should be assessed and, once identified, managed by providing various social support behaviors. Clinical relevance: By turning a work environment into a healthy workplace, researchers and nurse leaders believe that improvements can be realized in recruitment and patient safety and quality. PMID:28146045

  5. [State of development of the role of academic nursing staff at German university hospitals in 2015].

    PubMed

    Tannen, Antje; Feuchtinger, Johanna; Strohbücker, Barbara; Kocks, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the increasing complexity of patient care it is recommended to promote more differentiated nursing staff structures and to integrate academic nurses, which is international standard and recommended by the German Science Council. The implementation level is unclear. What is the percentage of nurses with an academic degree at German university hospitals, and what are their task profiles? Standardised written survey by nursing directors of all 32 German university hospitals and medical universities in 2015. The response rate was 75 %. The ratio of nurses with an academic degree amounted to 1.7 % overall, and to 1.0 % in direct patient care. The activities of nurses with an academic degree correspond to international Advanced Nursing Practice approaches including conceptual development (76 %), support of evidence-based care (72 %), practice projects (64 %) and patient counselling (56 %). There were significant variations among hospitals nationwide concerning pay rates with a current lack of reliable pay structures. This is the first national survey to determine the quota of nurses with an academic degree in direct patient care. The ratio of 1 % is well below the 10 to 20 % recommended by the German Science Council - hence the need for immediate action and comprehensive reforms. A follow-up survey is planned for 2017. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Evaluation of participatory teaching methods in undergraduate medical students' learning along the first academic courses.

    PubMed

    Gal, Beatriz; Rubio, Margarita; Iglesias, Eva; González, Purificación

    2018-01-01

    The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) is an opportunity to redesign medical education. Academic training is now focused on acquiring not only knowledge, but also those competencies critical to face complex professional scenarios. Together with re-evaluating traditional teaching methods, EHEA has forced a technological shift in the way we teach. By critically assessing the impact of novel teaching methodologies, we can better define biomedical education demands. Here, we address this question on a sample of medical students instructed in basic subjects along the first two academic courses. Two hundred and one medical students participated in the study (n = 128 first year, n = 73 second year). Quantitative (conventional survey statistics) and qualitative (open coding) approaches were combined to analyze data from surveys, confidential questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and open discussion. First year medical students rated more positively the use of participatory methodologies than second year students. A major drawback is detected in the perceived workload. Active teaching methodologies show a strong reliance on their time of implementation for medical students, a key aspect to be considered in the design of integrative participatory curricula along the first academic courses.

  7. Evaluation of participatory teaching methods in undergraduate medical students’ learning along the first academic courses

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Margarita; Iglesias, Eva; González, Purificación

    2018-01-01

    The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) is an opportunity to redesign medical education. Academic training is now focused on acquiring not only knowledge, but also those competencies critical to face complex professional scenarios. Together with re-evaluating traditional teaching methods, EHEA has forced a technological shift in the way we teach. By critically assessing the impact of novel teaching methodologies, we can better define biomedical education demands. Here, we address this question on a sample of medical students instructed in basic subjects along the first two academic courses. Two hundred and one medical students participated in the study (n = 128 first year, n = 73 second year). Quantitative (conventional survey statistics) and qualitative (open coding) approaches were combined to analyze data from surveys, confidential questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and open discussion. First year medical students rated more positively the use of participatory methodologies than second year students. A major drawback is detected in the perceived workload. Active teaching methodologies show a strong reliance on their time of implementation for medical students, a key aspect to be considered in the design of integrative participatory curricula along the first academic courses. PMID:29346395

  8. Research Utilization among Nurses at a Teaching Hospital in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kyalo Mutisya, Albanus; KagureKarani, Anna; Kigondu, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the era of evidence based practice (EBP), health care delivery should be grounded on new or validated knowledge and evidence from research. The aim of the study was to assess research utilization by nurses and the influencing factors at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), the largest teaching hospital in Kenya. Methods: The study employed a descriptive design that utilized both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. It incorporated the Barriers to Research Utilization Scale. It was conducted in six specialized care areas at KNH. Data was collected using questionnaires, Focus Group Discussion and in-depth interviews. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 13 and qualitative data analyzed using themes. Results: The study found that 20.6% of the nurses were participating in research related to their work and 53.6% of these were implementing research findings to practice. Over 2/3 (70.5%) of the respondents were basing their evidence for practice on the knowledge gained during their nursing school. The three greatest barriers to research utilization were that research reports are not readily available (68.7%), unclear implications for practice (66.5%) and inadequate facilities for implementation (66.4%). Conclusion: It is recommended that sensitization trainings on nursing research/ utilization of findings in nursing practice be established to create awareness, motivate and enhance nurses' abilities and also facilities should be provided to enable implementation. PMID:26161364

  9. Research Utilization among Nurses at a Teaching Hospital in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kyalo Mutisya, Albanus; KagureKarani, Anna; Kigondu, Christine

    2015-06-01

    In the era of evidence based practice (EBP), health care delivery should be grounded on new or validated knowledge and evidence from research. The aim of the study was to assess research utilization by nurses and the influencing factors at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), the largest teaching hospital in Kenya. The study employed a descriptive design that utilized both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. It incorporated the Barriers to Research Utilization Scale. It was conducted in six specialized care areas at KNH. Data was collected using questionnaires, Focus Group Discussion and in-depth interviews. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 13 and qualitative data analyzed using themes. The study found that 20.6% of the nurses were participating in research related to their work and 53.6% of these were implementing research findings to practice. Over 2/3 (70.5%) of the respondents were basing their evidence for practice on the knowledge gained during their nursing school. The three greatest barriers to research utilization were that research reports are not readily available (68.7%), unclear implications for practice (66.5%) and inadequate facilities for implementation (66.4%). It is recommended that sensitization trainings on nursing research/ utilization of findings in nursing practice be established to create awareness, motivate and enhance nurses' abilities and also facilities should be provided to enable implementation.

  10. Congenital club foot in a teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adewole, O A; Giwa, S O; Kayode, M O; Shoga, M O; Balogun, R A

    2009-06-01

    Congenital club foot has been sparsely reported in literature in Nigeria, although it has been reported as the commonest congenital musculoskeletal abnormality. This study enumerates the point prevalence of this disease in a university teaching hospital in Lagos. Better understanding of the epidemiology in our community should improve awareness, and influence management. Between June 2005 and July 2006, 72 consecutive patients with congenital club feet were seen in the orthopaedic clinic of our Hospital. Demographic data, birth weight, family history, birth facility, maternal age and associated congenital anomalies were recorded and analysed using Statistical Programme for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15. A total of 72 patients were seen, 28 of whom had bilateral club feet resulting in a total of 100 feet. There were 38 males and 34 females. Only 29% presented in the first month of life and 28% in the second month. Maternal ages ranged between 19 and 38 years and no family history of congenital club foot was given,. Babies delivered outside the orthodox medical system (churches, traditional healers, home etc) constituted 28%. The commonest associated congenital anomalies were tibia hemimelia, hydrocephalus, inguinal hernia and umbilical hernia. A default rate of 28% was observed during treatment. Congenital club foot may not be uncommon in Nigeria. Late presentation and high default rate before correction of the deformity were observed. Establishment of special club foot clinics should reduce the default rate. Training of healthcare workers in maternity units as well as Public awareness should encourage early referral to specialists.

  11. Whither Teaching? Academics' Informal Learning about Teaching in the "Tiger Mother" University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a pluralistic view of academics' informal learning that draws on Habermas (1987), this article suggests that a great deal of academic learning results from tensions and incompatibilities between individual interests and those of employing institutions increasingly resonant with the ideology of New Public Management (NPM), with its…

  12. Cultural Diversity in the Curriculum: Perceptions and Attitudes of Irish Hospitality and Tourism Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Frances; Hearns, Niamh; Baum, Tom; Murray, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Academics are facing significant challenges in preparing indigenous students for employment in the multicultural working environment of hospitality and tourism organisations. In dealing with the impact of the new skills and flexibilities demanded by increasing globalisation, the indigenous workforce needs to possess a multicultural perspective and…

  13. Nutritional status among hospitalized children with mixed diagnoses at a referral teaching hospital in Manizales, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Santafé Sánchez, L R; Sánchez Rodríguez, D A; Villegas Galarza, A L; González-Correa, C H

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in the treatment of malnutrition in pediatric hospitals, this remains a problem that must be recognized and to call the attention of academia and health authorities to be handled in time. To evaluate the nutritional status of hospitalized children at a referral teaching hospital and to describe the current prevalence of malnutrition. The study was conducted during the months of February, March and April 2010 at the University Hospital Rafael Henao Toro Colombian Red Cross in Manizales, Colombia, South America. We evaluated all patients admitted to a day of each month by calculating the Z score of the, weight for age, height or length for age, body mass index, mid-arm circumference, triceps and subscapular folds for children under 5 years and height for age and body mass index for school children and adolescents. A total of 174 children (age 1-216 mo) were evaluated during the 3-days survey. There were 52.8% children less than 60 months old, 17.2% between 61 and 120 months and 29.9% over 121 months. There were 44.3% females and 55.7% males. Children from the urban residence were 83.3% and 16.6% were rural. The overall prevalence of underweight was 27%, stunting 22.4%, wasting 16.6% and overweight and obesity 6.3%. Males less than five years old were more affected than older children. Rural children were more affected than urban children. The prevalence of overweight children was greater in children 61-120 months than other ages. Given the observed levels of malnutrition, it takes up a system for early identification of children hospitalized with nutritional risk in order to provide adequate and timely support and prevent hospital-acquired malnutrition. This requires the use of previously validated pediatric protocols.

  14. Improvement of hospital processes through business process management in Qaem Teaching Hospital: A work in progress.

    PubMed

    Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H; Ebrahimipour, Hossein; Doosty, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    In a world of continuously changing business environments, organizations have no option; however, to deal with such a big level of transformation in order to adjust the consequential demands. Therefore, many companies need to continually improve and review their processes to maintain their competitive advantages in an uncertain environment. Meeting these challenges requires implementing the most efficient possible business processes, geared to the needs of the industry and market segments that the organization serves globally. In the last 10 years, total quality management, business process reengineering, and business process management (BPM) have been some of the management tools applied by organizations to increase business competiveness. This paper is an original article that presents implementation of "BPM" approach in the healthcare domain that allows an organization to improve and review its critical business processes. This project was performed in "Qaem Teaching Hospital" in Mashhad city, Iran and consists of four distinct steps; (1) identify business processes, (2) document the process, (3) analyze and measure the process, and (4) improve the process. Implementing BPM in Qaem Teaching Hospital changed the nature of management by allowing the organization to avoid the complexity of disparate, soloed systems. BPM instead enabled the organization to focus on business processes at a higher level.

  15. Teaching science content in nursing programs in Australia: a cross-sectional survey of academics.

    PubMed

    Birks, Melanie; Ralph, Nicholas; Cant, Robyn; Hillman, Elspeth; Chun Tie, Ylona

    2015-01-01

    Professional nursing practice is informed by biological, social and behavioural sciences. In undergraduate pre-registration nursing programs, biological sciences typically include anatomy, physiology, microbiology, chemistry, physics and pharmacology. The current gap in the literature results in a lack of information about the content and depth of biological sciences being taught in nursing curricula. The aim of this study was to establish what priority is given to the teaching of science topics in these programs in order to inform an understanding of the relative importance placed on this subject area in contemporary nursing education. This study employed a cross-sectional survey method. This paper reports on the first phase of a larger project examining science content in nursing programs. An existing questionnaire was modified and delivered online for completion by academics who teach science to nurses in these programs. This paper reports on the relative priority given by respondents to the teaching of 177 topics contained in the questionnaire. Of the relatively small population of academics who teach science to nursing students, thirty (n = 30) completed the survey. Findings indicate strong support for the teaching of science in these programs, with particular priority given to the basic concepts of bioscience and gross system anatomy. Of concern, most science subject areas outside of these domains were ranked as being of moderate or low priority. While the small sample size limited the conclusions able to be drawn from this study, the findings supported previous studies that indicated inadequacies in the teaching of science content in nursing curricula. Nevertheless, these findings have raised questions about the current philosophy that underpins nursing education in Australia and whether existing practices are clearly focused on preparing students for the demands of contemporary nursing practice. Academics responsible for the design and implementation of

  16. Large Variability in the Diversity of Physiologically Complex Surgical Procedures Exists Nationwide Among All Hospitals Including Among Large Teaching Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H; Thenuwara, Kokila; Lubarsky, David A

    2017-11-22

    Multiple previous studies have shown that having a large diversity of procedures has a substantial impact on quality management of hospital surgical suites. At hospitals with substantial diversity, unless sophisticated statistical methods suitable for rare events are used, anesthesiologists working in surgical suites will have inaccurate predictions of surgical blood usage, case durations, cost accounting and price transparency, times remaining in late running cases, and use of intraoperative equipment. What is unknown is whether large diversity is a feature of only a few very unique set of hospitals nationwide (eg, the largest hospitals in each state or province). The 2013 United States Nationwide Readmissions Database was used to study heterogeneity among 1981 hospitals in their diversities of physiologically complex surgical procedures (ie, the procedure codes). The diversity of surgical procedures performed at each hospital was quantified using a summary measure, the number of different physiologically complex surgical procedures commonly performed at the hospital (ie, 1/Herfindahl). A total of 53.9% of all hospitals commonly performed <10 physiologically complex procedures (lower 99% confidence limit [CL], 51.3%). A total of 14.2% (lower 99% CL, 12.4%) of hospitals had >3-fold larger diversity (ie, >30 commonly performed physiologically complex procedures). Larger hospitals had greater diversity than the small- and medium-sized hospitals (P < .0001). Teaching hospitals had greater diversity than did the rural and urban nonteaching hospitals (P < .0001). A total of 80.0% of the 170 large teaching hospitals commonly performed >30 procedures (lower 99% CL, 71.9% of hospitals). However, there was considerable variability among the large teaching hospitals in their diversity (interquartile range of the numbers of commonly performed physiologically complex procedures = 19.3; lower 99% CL, 12.8 procedures). The diversity of procedures represents a substantive

  17. Establishing in-hospital geriatrics services in Africa: Insights from the University of Benin Teaching Hospital geriatrics project

    PubMed Central

    Akoria, Obehi Aituaje

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unawareness of the peculiar healthcare needs of the elderly and resource constraints may be some reasons why until recently, Nigerian hospitals have not been equipped with the human and infrastructural resources required to meet older adults’ special healthcare needs. There is paucity of specialized health services for the elderly in Africa. Nigeria, with a population of over 170 million, did not have any healthcare facility with dedicated services for the elderly until 2012. The University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) in Nigeria was established in 1973 and created its geriatrics unit in October 2013. A prepared environment and trained interdisciplinary teams are pivotal in providing effective healthcare services for the elderly. The ongoing UBTH geriatrics project aims to provide specialized interdisciplinary health services to older adults and to provide training and continuing professional development in geriatrics for healthcare staff. In developing our inpatient services, we adopted the acute care for elders (ACE) model and worked in tandem with the “ABCs” of implementing ACE units. Results: In the face of limited resources, it was possible to establish a functional geriatrics unit with a trained interdisciplinary team. Family participation is central in our practice. Since October 2013, residents and house officers in internal medicine have been undertaking 4- and 12-weekly rotations, respectively. There is also a robust academic program, which includes once-weekly geriatric pharmacotherapy seminars, once-weekly interdisciplinary seminars, and 2-weekly journal club meetings alternating with seminars on geriatric assessment tools. Conclusions: It is possible to establish geriatric services and achieve best practices in resource-limited settings by investing on improving available human resources and infrastructure. We also make recommendations for setting up similar services in other parts of Africa. PMID:27549420

  18. Awareness of Patients' Rights among Inpatients of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital- A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Upasana; D'Souza, Brayal C; Seetharam, Arun Mavaji

    2017-09-01

    The rights of a patient are a set of rules of conduct which govern the interaction between the patients' and healthcare professionals. Every patient has a right to be informed about their rights and also the responsibility of the healthcare provider. To assess awareness among inpatient about patients' rights at an academic accredited hospital. A questionnaire based cross-sectional study was carried out among 350 patients admitted to the wards of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital. A 21-point questionnaire was developed based on standards of the National Accreditation Board for Hospitals and Healthcare Providers (NABH) and patients' charter of rights and validated. This charter of rights is also displayed in the hospital for patient's awareness. Frequencies and percentages were depicted. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Positive awareness among the patients ranged from 28% to 97.4%. Females were more aware of their rights than males for 11 out of the 21 patient rights items. Younger adults were more aware than any other age group participants. Participants who were admitted to wards of higher categories (deluxe rooms) had high degree of awareness about patients' rights and education. Patients from urban areas and higher educational status were more aware than patients coming from rural areas. The study concludes that effective measures should be taken to improve the overall awareness not only among patients but also among different stakeholders in the healthcare delivery system. Readability of the patients' rights charter with good readability score, developing and distributing patient education materials in simple language about the rights and responsibilities to the patient and their family/relatives during their stay in the hospital or at the time of registration.Continuing nursing and medical education in medical teaching institutions and hospitals should focus on patients' rights and its importance, its need for awareness and its consequences

  19. Maternal request CS--role of hospital teaching status and for-profit ownership.

    PubMed

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2007-05-01

    To examine whether hospitals' for-profit (FP) ownership and non-teaching status are associated with greater likelihood of maternal request cesarean (CS) relative to public and not-for-profit (NFP) and teaching status, respectively. Retrospective, cross-sectional, population-based study of Taiwan's National Health Insurance claims data, covering all 739,531 vaginal delivery-eligible singleton deliveries during 1997-2000, using multiple logistic regression analyses. Adjusted for maternal age and geographic location, FP district hospitals (almost all non-teaching), followed by ob/gyn clinics were significantly more likely to perform request CS (OR=3.5-2.3) than public and NFP teaching hospitals. Among non-teaching and teaching hospitals, FPs were more likely to perform request CS than public and NFP hospitals (OR=2.3 and 2.5, respectively). Our findings are consistent with greater propensity of physicians in FP institutions to accommodate patient requests involving revenue-maximizing procedures such as request CS. This effect is moderated by teaching hospitals' preference for complicated cases, consistent with their teaching mission and hi-tech infrastructure.

  20. New Academics' Perceptions of the Language of Teaching and Learning: Identifying and Overcoming Linguistic Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Seventy-seven new academics--59 at a large, public university in the UK and 18 at a medium-sized, private comprehensive university in the USA--were asked to read an extract of an article on the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) and mark the text according to categories of difficulty or dislike. Analysis of the data revealed six main…

  1. Cost-effectiveness of a hospitalist service in a public teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Scott; Balingit, Peter; Wali, Soma; Cope, Dennis

    2010-08-01

    The authors report implementing an academic hospitalist team as a cost-effective solution to the problem of an inpatient census that exceeds their public hospital's teaching service limits. Medi-Cal (California's Medicaid program) per diem reimbursement was the primary source of revenue, which rendered moot some traditional advantages of hospitalist services. The authors assessed cost-effectiveness by comparing average inpatient census, payment denial rate, and Medi-Cal reimbursement for internal medicine in 2008 and in 2007. They also focused on Medi-Cal patients admitted with low-risk chest pain in 2008, comparing the length-of-stay and denied-day rate data with data from 2005. Overall Medi-Cal reimbursement was $2,310,000 higher in 2008 than in 2007. Overall payment denial rate fell from 29% to 27.4%, while yearly admissions increased from 8,069 to 8,643, and the average daily census increased from 97.7 to 107.1 patients. For low-risk chest pain admissions, length of stay decreased from 2.48 to 1.92 days, denial rate decreased from 43.8% to 31.8%, and average reimbursement per inpatient day increased from $787 to $955. Total salary outlay for the first year of the service was approximately $310,000. By reducing payment denials and increasing the inpatient census, hospitalists were able to more than offset their compensation with a substantial increase in revenue under per diem reimbursement, which adds a new dimension to prior reports of cost-effectiveness of hospitalist services in diagnosis-based, capitated, or fee-for-service reimbursement systems. Hospitalists are a cost-effective solution to the problem of increasing inpatient workloads at public teaching hospitals.

  2. Twenty-four-Hour Intensivist Staffing in Teaching Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    There is an inherent tension between the training needs of inexperienced clinicians and the safety of the patients for whom they are responsible. Our society has accepted this tension as a necessary trade-off to maintain a competent workforce of physicians year after year. However, recent trends in medical education have diminished resident autonomy in favor of the safety of current patients. One dramatic example is the rapid increase in the number of academic ICUs that provide coverage by attending physicians at all hours. The potential benefits of this staffing model have strong face validity: improved quality and efficiency from the constant involvement of experienced intensivists, increased family and staff satisfaction from the immediate availability of attending physicians, and reduced burn-out among intensivists from reduced on-call responsibilities. Thus, many hospitals have moved toward 24-h coverage by attending intensivist physicians without evidence that these benefits actually accrue and perhaps without full consideration of possible unintended consequences. In this article, we discuss the potential benefits and risks of nocturnal intensivist staffing, considering the needs of current and future patients. Furthermore, we suggest that there remains sufficient uncertainty about these benefits and risks that it is both necessary and ethical to study the effects in earnest. PMID:22553264

  3. Paraprofessional-Delivered Video Prompting to Teach Academics to Students with Severe Disabilities in Inclusive Settings.

    PubMed

    Knight, Victoria F; Kuntz, Emily M; Brown, Melissa

    2018-02-07

    Video prompting is effective for teaching a variety of skills (e.g., daily living, communication) to students with autism and intellectual disability; yet, little research exists on the efficacy of these strategies on academic skills, in inclusive settings, and with typical intervention agents. Authors collaborated with paraprofessionals to select socially important academic skills (i.e., literacy, social studies, science, and math) aligned with students' IEPs and content taught in their inclusive classes. Results from the multiple probe across participants and skills design indicated a functional relation between the paraprofessional-delivered video prompting and correct responding to academic tasks for all three elementary students with autism and intellectual disability. Implications for practitioners, study limitations, and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  4. Generational Influences in Academic Emergency Medicine: Teaching and Learning, Mentoring, and Technology (Part I)

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Nicholas M.; Moreno-Walton, Lisa; Mills, Angela M.; Brunett, Patrick H.; Promes, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    For the first time in history, four generations are working together – Traditionalists, Baby Boomers, Generation Xers, and Millennials. Members of each generation carry with them a unique perspective of the world and interact differently with those around them. Through a review of the literature and consensus by modified Delphi methodology of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) Aging and Generational Issues Task Force, the authors have developed this two-part series to address generational issues present in academic emergency medicine (EM). Understanding generational characteristics and mitigating strategies can help address some common issues encountered in academic EM. Through recognition of the unique characteristics of each of the generations with respect to teaching and learning, mentoring, and technology, academicians have the opportunity to strategically optimize interactions with one another. PMID:21314779

  5. Improving operating room efficiency in academic children's hospital using Lean Six Sigma methodology.

    PubMed

    Tagge, Edward P; Thirumoorthi, Arul S; Lenart, John; Garberoglio, Carlos; Mitchell, Kenneth W

    2017-06-01

    Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is a process improvement methodology that utilizes a collaborative team effort to improve performance by systematically identifying root causes of problems. Our objective was to determine whether application of LSS could improve efficiency when applied simultaneously to all services of an academic children's hospital. In our tertiary academic medical center, a multidisciplinary committee was formed, and the entire perioperative process was mapped, using fishbone diagrams, Pareto analysis, and other process improvement tools. Results for Children's Hospital scheduled main operating room (OR) cases were analyzed, where the surgical attending followed themselves. Six hundred twelve cases were included in the seven Children's Hospital operating rooms (OR) over a 6-month period. Turnover Time (interval between patient OR departure and arrival of the subsequent patient) decreased from a median 41min in the baseline period to 32min in the intervention period (p<0.0001). Turnaround Time (interval between surgical dressing application and subsequent surgical incision) decreased from a median 81.5min in the baseline period to 71min in the intervention period (p<0.0001). These results demonstrate that a coordinated multidisciplinary process improvement redesign can significantly improve efficiency in an academic Children's Hospital without preselecting specific services, removing surgical residents, or incorporating new personnel or technology. Prospective comparative study, Level II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Promoting academic excellence through leadership development at the University of Washington: the Teaching Scholars Program.

    PubMed

    Robins, Lynne; Ambrozy, Donna; Pinsky, Linda E

    2006-11-01

    The University of Washington Teaching Scholars Program (TSP) was established in 1995 to prepare faculty for local and national leadership and promote academic excellence by fostering a community of educational leaders to innovate, enliven, and enrich the environment for teaching and learning at the University of Washington (UW). Faculty in the Department of Medical Education and Biomedical Informatics designed and continue to implement the program. Qualified individuals from the UW Health Sciences Professional Schools and foreign scholars who are studying at the UW are eligible to apply for acceptance into the program. To date, 109 faculty and fellows have participated in the program, the majority of whom have been physicians. The program is committed to interprofessional education and seeks to diversify its participants. The curriculum is developed collaboratively with each cohort and comprises topics central to medical education and an emergent set of topics related to the specific interests and teaching responsibilities of the participating scholars. Core sessions cover the history of health professions education, learning theories, educational research methods, assessment, curriculum development, instructional methods, professionalism, and leadership. To graduate, scholars must complete a scholarly project in curriculum development, faculty development, or educational research; demonstrate progress towards construction of a teaching portfolio; and participate regularly and actively in program sessions. The TSP has developed and nurtured an active cadre of supportive colleagues who are transforming educational practice, elevating the status of teaching, and increasing the recognition of teachers. Graduates fill key teaching and leadership positions at the UW and in national and international professional organizations.

  7. Introduction of bubble CPAP in a teaching hospital in Malawi.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, M; Blencowe, H; Mittermayer, K; Rylance, S; Couperus, A; Heikens, G T; Bandsma, R H J

    2011-01-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is relatively inexpensive and can be easily taught; it therefore has the potential to be the optimal respiratory support device for neonates in developing countries. The possibility of implementing bubble CPAP in a teaching hospital with a large neonatology unit but very limited resources was investigated. A CPAP system was developed consisting of a compressor, oxygen concentrator, water bottle to control the pressure and binasal prongs. Neonates with birthweights between 1 and 2·5 kg with persistent respiratory distress 4 hours after birth were eligible for bubble CPAP. In the 7-week introduction period from 11 March until 27 April 2008, 11 neonates were treated with CPAP. Five of these neonates met the inclusion criteria and six neonates did not meet these criteria. Of the five neonates who received CPAP and met the inclusion criteria, three survived. The six infants who did not meet the inclusion criteria included three preterm infants with apnoea (all died), two with birthweights <1 kg (both died) and a firstborn twin (1.2 kg) who survived. No major complications of CPAP occurred. Bubble CPAP could be used independently by nurses after a short training period. Successful long-term implementation of CPAP depends on the availability of sufficient trained nursing staff.

  8. Fetal outcome following cesarean section in a university teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Onankpa, Ben; Ekele, Bissallah

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate fetal outcome for the various indications for cesarean section. A review of all cases of cesarean section that were done in the maternity unit at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria, between January 2006 and April 2007, with emphasis on indications and perinatal outcome. There were 2562 total deliveries within the study period and 112 perinatal deaths giving a perinatal mortality rate of 43.7 per 1000 live births. Cesarean section accounted for 216 of the deliveries (8.4%) with 24 perinatal deaths (11.1%). Perinatal mortality from Cesarean sections accounted for 21.4% of the total deaths with severe birth asphyxia responsible for most perinatal deaths, 17 of 24 (70.8%). There were 174 emergency sections with 22 perinatal deaths, while 42 elective sections had 2 perinatal deaths. The main indications for cesarean section were cephalopelvic disproportion, 86 (39.8%); previous section plus an obstetric abnormality, 39 (18.1%); and prolonged obstructed labor, (10.2%), with perinatal deaths of 3, 2 and 1, respectively. The perinatal mortality among the cesarean deliveries were 11.1%, and the main cause of death was severe birth asphyxia. Emergency cesarean section was more likely than elective to result in a perinatal loss. The indication with the poorest fetal outcome was prolonged obstructed labor.

  9. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy--10-year experience at a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Sommerey, Sandra; Foroghi, Yalda; Chiapponi, Costanza; Baumbach, Sebastian F; Hallfeldt, Klaus K J; Ladurner, Roland; Gallwas, Julia K S

    2015-04-01

    Minimally invasive adrenalectomy has been adopted as the treatment of choice for benign adrenal tumors. This study aimed to investigate the outcome of laparoscopic adrenalectomies performed over a 10-year period at a teaching hospital. All laparoscopic adrenalectomies carried out between 1 April 2000 and 31 March 2010 were evaluated with respect to perioperative management, complications, conversion rate, learning curve, tumor size, and surgically relevant characteristics of different adrenal pathologies. Over a period of 10 years, 215 laparoscopic lateral transabdominal adrenalectomies were carried out for Conn's syndrome (n = 90), Cushing's syndrome (n = 72), pheochromocytoma (n = 30), metastatic disease (n = 8), incidentalomas (n = 10), and other rare adrenal pathologies (n = 5). Morbidity, mortality, and conversion rate were 7.0, 0.9, and 4.2 %, respectively. Patients with Cushing's disease and bilateral adrenalectomy showed a higher complication rate. In retrospect, the indication for a laparoscopic approach was at least questionable in five cases. During these 10 years, four surgeons unfamiliar with the technique received intensive training to a defined plan. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy represents a safe operating technique associated with few complications and a low conversion rate. Patients with severe Cushing's disease are prone to complications and require intensive monitoring postoperatively. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is associated with a learning curve, and particular emphasis should be given to surgical training.

  10. Review of orbital exenterations in Korle-Bu teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Ackuaku-Dogbe, E

    2011-06-01

    Orbital exenteration (OE) is a disfiguring procedure which typically involves removal of the entire contents of the orbit including the periorbita, appendages, eyelids and, sometimes, a varying amount of surrounding skin and bone. It results in devastating functional, aesthetic and psychological losses. This study reports an experience of OE in a Teaching Hospital in Accra Ghana. The records of all patients who underwent OE between November 2005 and October 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. These were cases seen at the orbit and oculoplastic clinic of the eye unit. A total of 25 patients underwent OE. Nineteen (76%) of these were for invasive orbital squamous cell carcinomas and six (24%) were for other cases. Only one patient had OE for a benign condition (orbital haemangioma). Four patients had lid sparing procedures. One of these was for a patient with extensive ocular surface squamous cell carcinoma. Five patients had recurrent tumours. Among those patients with squamous cell carcinoma, seven had previous procedures, sometimes multiple before reporting to our clinic. Orbital exenterations in developing countries are mostly for neglected periorbital and ocular surface malignancies. Educating patients to seek medical attention as soon as they notice a persistent conjunctival growth could prevent this.

  11. Perceived and Real Histopathology Turnaround Time: A Teaching Hospital Experience

    PubMed Central

    Atanda, Akinfenwa Taoheed; Yusuf, Ibrahim; Haruna, Muhammad Sanusi

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study aims to audit analytic turnaround time (TAT) in a histopathology laboratory with a view to assessing the timeliness of its reports, identify causes of delay in its TAT, and compare this with client perception of its performance. Materials and Methods: Records of 1440 batches of specimens processed over a 5-year period in the histopathology laboratory of a teaching hospital were retrieved from archives. From these, median and mean TATs were calculated and causes of delay identified. Questionnaires were also deployed to assess physicians’ perception of the laboratory's performance. Results: Analytic TAT was 3.6 ± 2 days, with 86.7% of reports being ready within 5 working days. The delays in timeliness of report generation were due mainly to residency training-related factors; tissue processing-related factors, and inadequate clinical information among others. Client perception of TAT rated the laboratory below average by 18.4%; average by 57.5%; good by 20.7%, and excellent in its performance by 3.4% of respondents. Conclusion: Even though physicians perceived the laboratory's TAT to be just average, its analytic TAT for reports is within acceptable international standards but with room for improvement in its performance. PMID:29089732

  12. [Cost of nursing turnover in a Teaching Hospital].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Paula Buck de Oliveira; Perroca, Marcia Galan; Jericó, Marli de Carvalho

    2016-02-01

    To map the sub processes related to turnover of nursing staff and to investigate and measure the nursing turnover cost. This is a descriptive-exploratory study, classified as case study, conducted in a teaching hospital in the southeastern, Brazil, in the period from May to November 2013. The population was composed by the nursing staff, using Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology. The total cost of turnover was R$314.605,62, and ranged from R$2.221,42 to R$3.073,23 per employee. The costs of pre-hire totaled R$101.004,60 (32,1%), and the hiring process consumed R$92.743,60 (91.8%) The costs of post-hire totaled R$213.601,02 (67,9%), for the sub process decreased productivity, R$199.982,40 (93.6%). The study identified the importance of managing the cost of staff turnover and the financial impact of the cost of the employee termination, which represented three times the average salary of the nursing staff.

  13. Chemistry Graduate Teaching Assistants' Experiences in Academic Laboratories and Development of a Teaching Self-image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatlin, Todd Adam

    Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) play a prominent role in chemistry laboratory instruction at research based universities. They teach almost all undergraduate chemistry laboratory courses. However, their role in laboratory instruction has often been overlooked in educational research. Interest in chemistry GTAs has been placed on training and their perceived expectations, but less attention has been paid to their experiences or their potential benefits from teaching. This work was designed to investigate GTAs' experiences in and benefits from laboratory instructional environments. This dissertation includes three related studies on GTAs' experiences teaching in general chemistry laboratories. Qualitative methods were used for each study. First, phenomenological analysis was used to explore GTAs' experiences in an expository laboratory program. Post-teaching interviews were the primary data source. GTAs experiences were described in three dimensions: doing, knowing, and transferring. Gains available to GTAs revolved around general teaching skills. However, no gains specifically related to scientific development were found in this laboratory format. Case-study methods were used to explore and illustrate ways GTAs develop a GTA self-image---the way they see themselves as instructors. Two general chemistry laboratory programs that represent two very different instructional frameworks were chosen for the context of this study. The first program used a cooperative project-based approach. The second program used weekly, verification-type activities. End of the semester interviews were collected and served as the primary data source. A follow-up case study of a new cohort of GTAs in the cooperative problem-based laboratory was undertaken to investigate changes in GTAs' self-images over the course of one semester. Pre-semester and post-semester interviews served as the primary data source. Findings suggest that GTAs' construction of their self-image is shaped through the

  14. The Effects of Teaching and Assessment Methods on Academic Performance: A Study of an Operations Management Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacristán-Díaz, Macarena; Garrido-Vega, Pedro; Alfalla-Luque, Rafaela; González-Zamora, María-del-Mar

    2016-01-01

    Whether the use of more active teaching-learning methods has a positive impact on academic performance remains unanswered. This article seeks to contribute to the issue by conducting a study of an Operations Management course with almost 1000 students per year over three consecutive academic years. The study compares three scenarios with differing…

  15. Teaching Academic Skills as an Answer to Behavioural Problems of Students with Emotional or Behavioural Disorders: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Worp-van der Kamp, Lidy; Pijl, Sip Jan; Bijstra, Jan O.; van den Bosch, Els J.

    2014-01-01

    Academic learning has always been a serious issue for students with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) and their teachers. However, teaching academic skills could be an important protective and curative factor for the problem behaviour of these students. The current review was conducted to study the effect of interventions developed to…

  16. Big Questions, Small Works, Lots of Layers: Documentary Video Production and the Teaching of Academic Research and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbritter, Bump; Blon, Noah; Creighton, Caron

    2011-01-01

    Documentary movie making is not academic writing. Nor is it traditional academic research. However, I have found it to be a remarkable vehicle for teaching both of these things...each semester I am amazed and humbled by the creativity and sincerity that my students bring to their work.

  17. Improvement of hospital processes through business process management in Qaem Teaching Hospital: A work in progress

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.; Ebrahimipour, Hossein; Doosty, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    In a world of continuously changing business environments, organizations have no option; however, to deal with such a big level of transformation in order to adjust the consequential demands. Therefore, many companies need to continually improve and review their processes to maintain their competitive advantages in an uncertain environment. Meeting these challenges requires implementing the most efficient possible business processes, geared to the needs of the industry and market segments that the organization serves globally. In the last 10 years, total quality management, business process reengineering, and business process management (BPM) have been some of the management tools applied by organizations to increase business competiveness. This paper is an original article that presents implementation of “BPM” approach in the healthcare domain that allows an organization to improve and review its critical business processes. This project was performed in “Qaem Teaching Hospital” in Mashhad city, Iran and consists of four distinct steps; (1) identify business processes, (2) document the process, (3) analyze and measure the process, and (4) improve the process. Implementing BPM in Qaem Teaching Hospital changed the nature of management by allowing the organization to avoid the complexity of disparate, soloed systems. BPM instead enabled the organization to focus on business processes at a higher level. PMID:25540784

  18. Matching of Learning Styles and Teaching Styles: Advantage and Disadvantage on Ninth-Grade Students' Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damrongpanit, Suntonrapot; Reungtragul, Auyporn

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify learning styles of ninth-grade students, to identify teaching styles of four subject teachers, and to compare four academic achievements between different matching conditions of students' learning styles and teachers' teaching styles. The research participants comprised of 3,382 ninth-grade students and,…

  19. Teaching Experience and Expectations of Early-Career Academics in Mozambique: The Case of Universidade Eduardo Mondlane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossa, Eugénia Flora Rosa; Buque, Domingos Carlos; Fringe, Jorge Jaime dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-methods study explored how early-career academics (ECA) at the Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (UEM) acquire pedagogical knowledge, develop their teaching experience as well as examine their expectations regarding the teaching profession. A questionnaire, composed mostly of closed questions and one open-ended question, was applied to 71…

  20. High Level of Emotional Intelligence Is Related to High Level of Online Teaching Self-Efficacy among Academic Nurse Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Nagia; Ali, Omar; Jones, James

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and online teaching self-efficacy among 115 academic nurse educators who teach online (totally, blended, or both). The sample was randomly drawn from the list of nursing schools accredited by Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE) with baccalaureate, master's…

  1. Leadership in Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Perspectives of Academics in Non-Formal Leadership Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeyer, Anne; Sheingold, Brenda Helen; Klopper, Hester C.; Warland, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Developing leaders and leadership are key factors to improve learning and teaching in higher education. Despite the abundance of literature concerning developing formal leadership, fewer studies have been conducted with academics in non-formal leadership roles that focus on how they develop their leadership in learning and teaching. Publication…

  2. Examining the Impact of Academic Development in the Engineering Faculties in Chile: Changes in Teaching Philosophy and Teachers' Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta Peña, Roxana; Tomás-Folch, Marina; Feixas, Mònica

    2017-01-01

    The Faculties of Engineering Sciences at Universidad Católica del Norte in Chile regard teacher training as a necessary tool for its academics' professional development and as a fundamental way to improve their teaching quality. The Teaching Unit for Innovation in Engineering (UIDIN) has developed a new curriculum and training programme which…

  3. Teaching Aids a Special Pedagogy Tool of Brain Development in School Children, Interest and Academic Achievement to Enhance Future Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohwojero, Chamberlain Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The school system is an institution where teachers adopt different teaching methods to impact knowledge and skills. The teaching method adopted by a class teacher has a great effect on children interest, academic achievement and brain development of a child. To support this fact the researcher used two groups of children from ten schools to carry…

  4. The Evolution of the Council of Academic Hospitals of Ontario Statement of Principles--A Successful Harmonization Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Katie; Lampson, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    To improve efficiency, consistency and transparency in clinical trial contract negotiations with industry sponsors, a Council of Academic Hospitals of Ontario (CAHO) committee facilitated the development of standard principles for member hospitals to follow during contract negotiation. Hospitals were encouraged to provide a link to the CAHO…

  5. Oiling the gate: a mobile application to improve the admissions process from the emergency department to an academic community hospital inpatient medicine service.

    PubMed

    Fung, Russell; Hyde, Jensen Hart; Davis, Mike

    2018-01-01

    The process of admitting patients from the emergency department (ED) to an academic internal medicine (AIM) service in a community teaching hospital is one fraught with variability and disorder. This results in an inconsistent volume of patients admitted to academic versus private hospitalist services and results in frustration of both ED and AIM clinicians. We postulated that implementation of a mobile application (app) would improve provider satisfaction and increase admissions to the academic service. The app was designed and implemented to be easily accessible to ED physicians, regularly updated by academic residents on call, and a real-time source of the number of open AIM admission spots. We found a significant improvement in ED and AIM provider satisfaction with the admission process. There was also a significant increase in admissions to the AIM service after implementation of the app. We submit that the implementation of a mobile app is a viable, cost-efficient, and effective method to streamline the admission process from the ED to AIM services at community-based hospitals.

  6. Factors Influencing Adoption of Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcer Prevention Programs in US Academic Medical Centers.

    PubMed

    Padula, William V; Valuck, Robert J; Makic, Mary Beth F; Wald, Heidi L

    2015-01-01

    Recent data show a decrease in hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (PUs) throughout US hospitals; these changes may be associated with increased success in implementing evidence-based practices for PU prevention. The purpose of this study was to identify wound care nurse perceptions of the primary factors that influenced the overall reduction of PUs. Cross-sectional descriptive survey. Surveys were sent to wound care nurses at 98 University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) hospitals. The UHC consists of more than 120 academic medical centers and affiliated facilities across the United States. Responses solicited from this survey represented a geographically diverse set of hospitals from less than 200 beds to more than 1000 beds. The survey questionnaire used a framework of 7 internal and 5 external influential factors for implementing evidence-based practices for PU prevention. Internal influential factors queried included availability of nurse specialists, high nursing job turnover, high PU rates, and prevention campaigns. External influential factors included data sharing, Medicare nonpayment policy, and applications for Magnet recognition. Hospital-acquired PU prevention experts at UHC hospitals were contacted through the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society membership directory to complete the questionnaire. Consenting participants were e-mailed a disclosure and online questionnaire; they were also sent monthly reminders until they either responded to the survey or declined participation. Fifty-five respondents (59% response rate) indicated several internal factors that influenced evidence-based practice: hospital prevention campaigns; the availability of nursing specialists; and the level of preventive knowledge among hospital staff. External influential factors included financial concerns; application for Magnet recognition; data sharing among peer institutions; and regulatory issues. These findings suggest that the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services

  7. Poisoning cases attending emergency department in Dhulikhel Hospital- Kathmandu University Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Marahatta, S B; Singh, J; Shrestha, R; Koju, R

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the characteristics of acute poisoning cases admitted to emergency department over a one year period. The demographic, clinical and psycho-social aspects of the patients were analysed. A hospital based study was carried out in the emergency department, Kathmandu University Teaching Hospital/ Dhulikhel Hospital, Dhulikhel analysing the data of the poisoning cases attended for one year. The study was carried out amongst inpatients attending emergency with acute poisoning. A total of 54 patients were admitted to the emergency department with acute poisoning. The female-to-male ratio was 1.34:1. Most poisoning occurred in the age group of above 40 years. The mean ages of female and male were 29.87 + or - 14.85 years and 35.54 + or - 15.02 years respectively. By occupation 40.38% of the cases were farmers. Only 35.29% of the patients were illiterate. 79.24% of the cases intentionally consume the poison. Organ phosphorus poisoning (OP) was the most common poisoning. Oral route was the commonest route of poisoning accounting 98.1%. Sixty-six percentage (66.66%) of the cases had the poison stored in their home with 27.7% bought from the market once needed. Among the cases of acute poisoning 5.55% were fatal. The following conclusions were reached: (1) females were at greater risk for poisoning than males, (2)self-poisoning cases constituted the majority of all poisonings, and (3) the main agents of self-poisoning were OP poisoning.

  8. Supporting Academic Language Development in Elementary Science: A Classroom Teaching Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Karl Gerhard

    Academic language is the language that students must engage in while participating in the teaching and learning that takes place in school (Schleppegrell, 2012) and science as a content area presents specific challenges and opportunities for students to engage with language (Buxton & Lee, 2014; Gee, 2005). In order for students to engage authentically and fully in the science learning that will take place in their classrooms, it is important that they develop their abilities to use science academic language (National Research Council, 2012). For this to occur, teachers must provide support to their students in developing the science academic language they will encounter in their classrooms. Unfortunately, this type of support remains a challenge for many teachers (Baecher, Farnsworth, & Ediger, 2014; Bigelow, 2010; Fisher & Frey, 2010) and teachers must receive professional development that supports their abilities to provide instruction that supports and scaffolds students' science academic language use and development. This study investigates an elementary science teacher's engagement in an instructional coaching partnership to explore how that teacher planned and implemented scaffolds for science academic language. Using a theoretical framework that combines the literature on scaffolding (Bunch, Walqui, & Kibler, 2015; Gibbons, 2015; Sharpe, 2001/2006) and instructional coaching (Knight, 2007/2009), this study sought to understand how an elementary science teacher plans and implements scaffolds for science academic language, and the resources that assisted the teacher in planning those scaffolds. The overarching goal of this work is to understand how elementary science teachers can scaffold language in their classroom, and how they can be supported in that work. Using a classroom teaching experiment methodology (Cobb, 2000) and constructivist grounded theory methods (Charmaz, 2014) for analysis, this study examined coaching conversations and classroom

  9. Hospital Teaching Status and Readmission after Open Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Patel, Madhukar S; Fong, Zhi Ven; Wojcik, Brandon M; Noorbakhsh, Abraham; Wilson, Samuel E; Chang, David C

    2018-03-01

    Readmission after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair to a different (non-index) hospital has been shown to be associated with high mortality rates. Factors influencing this association remain unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of hospital teaching status on non-index hospital readmission and mortality. An observational analysis of the longitudinally linked California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) database was conducted from 1995-2009. Patients who were readmitted within 30 days after open AAA repair were included. The primary outcome measured was mortality upon readmission. Over the 15-year study period, 3,475 readmissions after AAA were analyzed, of which 1,020 (29.4%) were to a non-index hospital. After adjusting for age, race, gender, insurance, comorbidities, perioperative factors, and reason for readmission, non-index readmission for patients undergoing their initial operation at a teaching hospital did not impact mortality (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.28-2.17, p=0.63). Non-index readmission for patients undergoing their initial operation at a non-teaching hospital, however, significantly increased mortality (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.04-2.54, p=0.03). Readmission to a different hospital is associated with a higher mortality rate for patients undergoing AAA repair at non-teaching hospitals. This effect is not seen in patients having their initial operation performed at teaching hospitals, possibly due to infrastructure at these hospitals allowing for decreased impact from fragmentation of care. In cases where triage to an index hospital for readmission is not possible, communication at a high level between the index hospital and readmission hospital is paramount. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Evaluation of drug administration errors in a teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Medication errors can occur at any of the three steps of the medication use process: prescribing, dispensing and administration. We aimed to determine the incidence, type and clinical importance of drug administration errors and to identify risk factors. Methods Prospective study based on disguised observation technique in four wards in a teaching hospital in Paris, France (800 beds). A pharmacist accompanied nurses and witnessed the preparation and administration of drugs to all patients during the three drug rounds on each of six days per ward. Main outcomes were number, type and clinical importance of errors and associated risk factors. Drug administration error rate was calculated with and without wrong time errors. Relationship between the occurrence of errors and potential risk factors were investigated using logistic regression models with random effects. Results Twenty-eight nurses caring for 108 patients were observed. Among 1501 opportunities for error, 415 administrations (430 errors) with one or more errors were detected (27.6%). There were 312 wrong time errors, ten simultaneously with another type of error, resulting in an error rate without wrong time error of 7.5% (113/1501). The most frequently administered drugs were the cardiovascular drugs (425/1501, 28.3%). The highest risks of error in a drug administration were for dermatological drugs. No potentially life-threatening errors were witnessed and 6% of errors were classified as having a serious or significant impact on patients (mainly omission). In multivariate analysis, the occurrence of errors was associated with drug administration route, drug classification (ATC) and the number of patient under the nurse's care. Conclusion Medication administration errors are frequent. The identification of its determinants helps to undertake designed interventions. PMID:22409837

  11. Evaluation of drug administration errors in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Berdot, Sarah; Sabatier, Brigitte; Gillaizeau, Florence; Caruba, Thibaut; Prognon, Patrice; Durieux, Pierre

    2012-03-12

    Medication errors can occur at any of the three steps of the medication use process: prescribing, dispensing and administration. We aimed to determine the incidence, type and clinical importance of drug administration errors and to identify risk factors. Prospective study based on disguised observation technique in four wards in a teaching hospital in Paris, France (800 beds). A pharmacist accompanied nurses and witnessed the preparation and administration of drugs to all patients during the three drug rounds on each of six days per ward. Main outcomes were number, type and clinical importance of errors and associated risk factors. Drug administration error rate was calculated with and without wrong time errors. Relationship between the occurrence of errors and potential risk factors were investigated using logistic regression models with random effects. Twenty-eight nurses caring for 108 patients were observed. Among 1501 opportunities for error, 415 administrations (430 errors) with one or more errors were detected (27.6%). There were 312 wrong time errors, ten simultaneously with another type of error, resulting in an error rate without wrong time error of 7.5% (113/1501). The most frequently administered drugs were the cardiovascular drugs (425/1501, 28.3%). The highest risks of error in a drug administration were for dermatological drugs. No potentially life-threatening errors were witnessed and 6% of errors were classified as having a serious or significant impact on patients (mainly omission). In multivariate analysis, the occurrence of errors was associated with drug administration route, drug classification (ATC) and the number of patient under the nurse's care. Medication administration errors are frequent. The identification of its determinants helps to undertake designed interventions.

  12. Financial, Resource Utilization and Mortality Impacts of Teaching Hospital Status on Pediatric Patients Admitted for Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Benson S; Meyer, Benjamin D; Lakhani, Saquib A

    2017-08-01

    With the changing healthcare landscape in the United States, teaching hospitals face increasing pressure to provide medical education as well as cost-effective care. Our study investigated the financial, resource utilization and mortality impact of teaching hospital status on pediatric patients admitted with sepsis. We conducted a retrospective, weighted statistical analysis of hospitalized children with the diagnosis of sepsis. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 2009 Kids' Inpatient Database provided the data for analysis. Diagnosis of sepsis and severity of illness levels were based on All Patient Refined Diagnosis-Related Groups of 720: Septicemia and Disseminated Infections. Teaching hospital status was based on presence of training programs. Statistical analysis was conducted using STATA 12.1 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX). Weighted analysis revealed 17,461 patients with sepsis-9982 in teaching and 7479 in nonteaching hospitals. When comparing all patients, length of stay (8.2 vs. 4.8, P < 0.001), number of procedures received (2.03 vs. 0.87, P < 0.001), mortality (4.7% vs. 1.6%, P < 0.001), costs per day ($2326 vs. $1736, P < 0.001) and total costs ($20,428 vs. $7960, P < 0.001) were higher in teaching hospitals. Even when stratified by severity classes, length of stay, number of procedures received and total costs were higher in teaching hospitals with no difference in mortality. Our study suggested that teaching hospitals provide pediatric inpatient care for sepsis at greater costs and resource utilization without a clear improvement in overall mortality rates in comparison with nonteaching hospitals.

  13. Teaching, research, and job satisfaction of prosthodontic faculty members in Indian academic dental institutions.

    PubMed

    Shigli, Kamal; Hebbal, Mamata; Nair, K Chandrasekharan

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine prosthodontic faculty members' satisfaction with their roles of teaching, research, and service in academic dental institutions of India. The head of the prosthodontic department of each institution was informed of the study by telephone and asked to invite his or her staff members to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire used a rating scale of 1=very dissatisfied, 2=dissatisfied, 3=neutral, 4=satisfied, and 5=very satisfied. The satisfaction score for each of the three categories was determined by summing the weights for all items related to the variable. In the study, 386 prosthodontic faculty members from 184 dental institutions were invited to participate, and 341 faculty members from 139 dental institutions completed the questionnaire. The data obtained were analyzed using statistical software. Most of the respondents were satisfied with their teaching and service items. Neutral responses were made for institutional teaching rewards, institutional financial support for research, release time offered by the institution, support for sabbatical leaves, technical assistance in analyzing data, secretarial and technical assistance, institutional research rewards, in-service training opportunities, and institutional service rewards. Dissatisfied responses were made regarding financial and academic support for making scientific presentations and attending conferences and seminars.

  14. Ten thousand steps: a pedometer study of junior dentists in a major British teaching hospital and a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Keat, R M; Thomas, M; McKechnie, A

    2017-05-01

    Sedentary behaviour is widely associated with deleterious health outcomes that in modern medicine have similar connotations to smoking tobacco and alcohol misuse. The integration of e-portfolio, e-logbook, British National Formulary (BNF) and encrypted emails has made smartphones a necessity for trainees. Smartphones also have the ability to record the amount of exercise taken, which allows activity at work to be monitored. The aim of this study to compare the activity of the same group of dental core trainees when they worked within a large multisite teaching hospital and a smaller district general hospital, to find out if supplementary activity was needed outside work. Data were collected from smartphones. To ensure continuity, data were collected only from those who had calibrated iPhones (n=10). At the teaching hospital six of the trainees walked over 10 000 steps a day while working (mean (SD) 10 004 (639)). At the district hospital none of the trainees walked 10 000 steps. The mean (SD) number of steps completed by all trainees was 6265 (119). Walking at work provides the full quota of recommended daily exercise most of the time for those working in the teaching hospital, but additional exercise is occasionally required. While working at the district hospital they walk less, meaning that they should try to increase their activity outside work. Trainees working in the teaching hospital walk significantly more steps than in the district hospital. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Academic, Industry and Student Perspectives on the Inclusion of "Vocational Knowledge" in a "Learning and Teaching Academic Standards Statement" for Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acuña, Tina Botwright; Kelder, Jo-Anne; Able, Amanda J.; Guisard, Yann; Bellotti, William D.; McDonald, Glenn; Doyle, Richard; Wormell, Paul; Meinke, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the perspective of industry stakeholders in a national project to develop a Learning and Teaching Academic Standards (LTAS) Statement for the Agriculture discipline. The AgLTAS Statement will be aligned with the Science LTAS Statement published in 2011 and comprise a discourse on the nature and extent of the Agriculture…

  16. Characterization of study focus of the Brazilian academic-scientific production about experimentation in Physics Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesendonk, F. S.; Terrazzan, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we presented a characterization of the recent academic and scientific literature on experiments in Physics Education in terms of focus and research intentions and results built through these investigations. For this, we used as a source of information 10 national Academic and Scientific Journals available on websites. By consulting these journals, we identified that 147 papers published from 2009 to 2013 had as their main focus the experimental research. We classified the Works in categories established a priori and subcategories established a posteriori. At the end, we found out that few articles deal with this issue (9%). Moreover, in most productions there is a superficial discussion of theoretical studies on the use of experimentation in teaching. This makes the contribution of these productions for the development of conceptual discussions about the potential and limited use of experimentation in Physics Education to be relatively small.

  17. Prescribing Pattern and Antibiotic Use for Hospitalized Children in a Northern Nigerian Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Lawal Waisu; Isah, Abdulmuminu; Musa, Shuaibu; Umar, Bilkisu

    2018-01-01

    Background: Assessment of patterns of drug to detect performance problems and compliance with standards facilitates objective comparisons and impact evaluation. Children are at higher risk of consequences of irrational prescribing and antibiotic misuse. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the prescribing pattern and utilization of antibiotics for children using standard prescribing indicators and indices of rational drug prescribing. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of prescriptions for pediatric inpatients at a teaching hospital in Northern Nigeria. Information was obtained from eligible prescriptions received over 24-month period using a modified WHO prescribing indicator form. The WHO prescribing indicators and the Index of Rational Drug Prescribing (IRDP) were used to evaluate prescriptions. Data were analyzed and presented as proportions, means, tables, and charts, comparing with WHO standards and with findings of similar studies. Results: There were 3908 eligible prescription orders, with a mean patient age of 3.1 (±2.7) years. With an average of 2.1 drugs per prescription, 66.8% were written with generic names, whereas a single antibiotic was included among 63% of prescriptions with antibiotics. Antibiotics and injections were contained in 49.5% and 67.7% of prescriptions, respectively. Medications were available in the Essential Medicines List in 95.5% of cases. The IRDP obtained is 2.99, against a standard of 5. Aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, and penicillins were the most common choices, whereas ampicillin/cloxacillin was the most common combination. Conclusion: Drug prescribing and antibiotic use were generally inappropriate compared with ideal standards. Continuous training/retraining on rational drug use, periodic monitoring, and use of treatment protocols in tertiary hospitals are recommended. PMID:29363633

  18. Teaching Hospital Inpatient Consultation to Psychology Trainees and Interns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabinet, Laille; Schubert, Daniel S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the value of training clinical psychologists in consultation-liaison roles for hospital patients in nonpsychiatric wards. Training would involve communication with hospital staff, the medical chart, case presentation, approach to the patient, differential diagnosis, and psychotropic medication. (KC)

  19. [Integrative review: a portrait of death and its implications in academic teaching].

    PubMed

    de Lima, Márcia Gabriela Rodrigues; Nietsche, Elisabeta Albertina; dos Santos, Solange Capaverde; Teixeira, Joice Ane; Bottega, Janilene Camara; Nicola, Glaucia Dal Omo; Ilha, Silomar

    2012-09-01

    This is an integrative literature review aimed at finding out how death, teaching about death and the dying process have been addressed in scientific publications in the health field. The research was performed using the Literatura da América Latina e Caribe em Ciências da Saúde e Base de Dados em Enfermagem (Latin America and Caribe Health Sciences Literature and Nursing Database) databases with the descriptors "death" and "teach". The survey covered national publications between 1998 and 2010, 14 articles were selected to compose the corpus of the study. The results indicated the lack of proper training by students, teachers and other health professionals to deal with death, since they had little or no preparation throughout their academic life. Thus, stimulating scientific production within this theme promotes a bigger diffusion of this specific knowledge and helps in the qualification and training of professionals to deal with death and the dying process.

  20. The eminent need for an academic program in universities to teach nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Juan Manuel; Vélez, Juan Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Nanomedicine is on the cutting edge of technology applied to medical and biological sciences. Nanodevices, nanomaterials, nanoinstruments, nanotechnologies, and nanotechniques (laboratory methods and procedures) are important for the modern practice of medicine and essential for research that could stimulate the discovery of new medical advances. Accordingly, there is an eminent need for implementing an academic program in universities to teach this indispensable and pragmatic discipline, especially in the departments of graduate studies and research in the areas of pharmacology, genetic engineering, proteomics, and molecular and cellular biology. PMID:21984868

  1. Impact of a Dedicated Emergency Medicine Teaching Resident Rotation at a Large Urban Academic Center.

    PubMed

    Ahn, James; Golden, Andrew; Bryant, Alyssa; Babcock, Christine

    2016-03-01

    In the face of declining bedside teaching and increasing emergency department (ED) crowding, balancing education and patient care is a challenge. Dedicated shifts by teaching residents (TRs) in the ED represent an educational intervention to mitigate these difficulties. We aimed to measure the perceived learning and departmental impact created by having TR. TRs were present in the ED from 12 pm-10 pm daily, and their primary roles were to provide the following: assist in teaching procedures, give brief "chalk talks," instruct junior trainees on interesting cases, and answer clinical questions in an evidence-based manner. This observational study included a survey of fourth-year medical students (MSs), residents and faculty at an academic ED. Surveys measured the perceived effect of the TR on teaching, patient flow, ease of procedures, and clinical care. Survey response rates for medical students, residents, and faculty are 56%, 77%, and 75%, respectively. MSs perceived improved procedure performance with TR presence and the majority agreed that the TR was a valuable educational experience. Residents perceived increased patient flow, procedure performance, and MS learning with TR presence. The majority agreed that the TR improved patient care. Faculty agreed that the TR increased resident and MS learning, as well as improved patient care and procedure performance. The presence of a TR increased MS and resident learning, improved patient care and procedure performance as perceived by MSs, residents and faculty. A dedicated TR program can provide a valuable resource in achieving a balance of clinical education and high quality healthcare.

  2. Experiences of clinical teaching for dental core trainees working in hospital.

    PubMed

    Mannion, C J; Brotherton, P

    2014-07-11

    There is recognition that the provision of excellence in education and training results in a skilled and competent workforce. However, the educational experiences of dental core trainees (DCT's) working in the hospital oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) setting have not been previously investigated. In this paper, we examine DCT's learning experiences both 'formal' and 'non-formal' within the hospital setting of ward and clinic-based teaching. Are hospital dental core trainees receiving a meaningful educational experience? To conclude this paper, the authors recommend methods, based upon sound educational principles, to maximise the value of clinical sessions for teaching.

  3. The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 and the financial health of teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Robert L; Fryer, George E; Chen, Frederick M; Morgan, Sarah E; Green, Larry A; Valente, Ernest; Miyoshi, Thomas J

    2004-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the most recent, complete data related to the specific effects of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 relative to the overall financial health of teaching hospitals. We also define cost report variables and calculations necessary for continued impact monitoring. We undertook a descriptive analysis of hospital cost report variables for 1996, 1998, and 1999, using simple calculations of total, Medicare, prospective payment system, graduate medical education (GME), and bad debt margins, as well as the proportion with negative total operating margins. Nearly 35% of teaching hospitals had negative operating margins in 1999. Teaching hospital total margins fell by nearly 50% between 1996 and 1999, while Medicare margins remained relatively stable. GME margins have fallen by nearly 24%, however, even as reported education costs have risen by nearly 12%. Medicare + Choice GME payments were less than 10% of those projected. Teaching hospitals realized deep cuts in profitability between 1996 and 1999; however, these cuts were not entirely attributable to the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Medicare payments remain an important financial cushion for teaching hospitals, more than one third of which operated in the red. The role of Medicare in supporting GME has been substantially reduced and needs special attention in the overall debate. Medicare + Choice support of the medical education enterprise is 90% less than baseline projections and should be thoroughly investigated. The Medicare Payment Advisory Commission, which has a critical role in evaluating the effects of Medicare policy changes, should be more transparent in its methods.

  4. Improved blood culture identification by FilmArray in cultures from regional hospitals compared with teaching hospital cultures.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Timothy J J; Bzdyl, Nicole; Chua, I-Ly Joanna; Urosevic, Nadezda M; Leung, Michael J; Geelhoed, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Rapid identification of bacteria isolated from blood cultures by direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is now in wide spread use in major centres but is not yet feasible in smaller hospital laboratories. A FilmArray multiplex PCR panel for blood culture isolate identification (BCID) provides an alternative approach to near point-of-care microbial identification in regional hospitals. We assessed the accuracy and time to identification of the BCID FilmArray in a consecutive series of 149 blood cultures from 143 patients in a teaching hospital and smaller regional hospitals, currently identified by direct MALDI-TOF and proprietary molecular methods. The BCID FilmArray contained 18 of 34 species and 20 of 23 species isolated from teaching and regional hospital, respectively. Overall, 85 % of the teaching hospital and 100 % of the regional hospital monomicrobial blood cultures were identified, compared with 60 and 68 %, respectively, for direct MALDI-TOF on the same cultures. There were no incorrect results from blood cultures containing Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Enterobacteriaceae. The three discrepant results were all in mixed cultures. The mean reduction in time to identification of blood culture isolates was 53 h, which did not include the time required to transport cultures from regional centres to a central laboratory. The overall performance of the BCID FilmArray is stronger in blood cultures from smaller regional hospitals that encounter a narrower range of bacterial species dominated by the commonest species. This approach is more suited to smaller clinical laboratories than the MALDI-TOF direct method.

  5. Comparison of the treatment practice and hospitalization cost of percutaneous coronary intervention between a teaching hospital and a general hospital in Malaysia: A cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun Yun; Wan Ahmad, Wan Azman; Low, Ee Vien; Liau, Siow Yen; Anchah, Lawrence; Hamzah, Syuhada; Liew, Houng-Bang; Mohd Ali, Rosli B; Ismail, Omar; Ong, Tiong Kiam; Said, Mas Ayu; Dahlui, Maznah

    2017-01-01

    The increasing disease burden of coronary artery disease (CAD) calls for sustainable cardiac service. Teaching hospitals and general hospitals in Malaysia are main providers of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), a common treatment for CAD. Few studies have analyzed the contemporary data on local cardiac facilities. Service expansion and budget allocation require cost evidence from various providers. We aim to compare the patient characteristics, procedural outcomes, and cost profile between a teaching hospital (TH) and a general hospital (GH). This cross-sectional study was conducted from the healthcare providers' perspective from January 1st to June 30th 2014. TH is a university teaching hospital in the capital city, while GH is a state-level general hospital. Both are government-funded cardiac referral centers. Clinical data was extracted from a national cardiac registry. Cost data was collected using mixed method of top-down and bottom-up approaches. Total hospitalization cost per PCI patient was summed up from the costs of ward admission and cardiac catheterization laboratory utilization. Clinical characteristics were compared with chi-square and independent t-test, while hospitalization length and cost were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test. The mean hospitalization cost was RM 12,117 (USD 3,366) at GH and RM 16,289 (USD 4,525) at TH. The higher cost at TH can be attributed to worse patients' comorbidities and cardiac status. In contrast, GH recorded a lower mean length of stay as more patients had same-day discharge, resulting in 29% reduction in mean cost of admission compared to TH. For both hospitals, PCI consumables accounted for the biggest proportion of total cost. The high PCI consumables cost highlighted the importance of cost-effective purchasing mechanism. Findings on the heterogeneity of the patients, treatment practice and hospitalization cost between TH and GH are vital for formulation of cost-saving strategies to ensure sustainable and

  6. Comparison of the treatment practice and hospitalization cost of percutaneous coronary intervention between a teaching hospital and a general hospital in Malaysia: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Azman; Low, Ee Vien; Liau, Siow Yen; Anchah, Lawrence; Hamzah, Syuhada; Liew, Houng-Bang; Mohd Ali, Rosli B.; Ismail, Omar; Ong, Tiong Kiam; Said, Mas Ayu; Dahlui, Maznah

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The increasing disease burden of coronary artery disease (CAD) calls for sustainable cardiac service. Teaching hospitals and general hospitals in Malaysia are main providers of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), a common treatment for CAD. Few studies have analyzed the contemporary data on local cardiac facilities. Service expansion and budget allocation require cost evidence from various providers. We aim to compare the patient characteristics, procedural outcomes, and cost profile between a teaching hospital (TH) and a general hospital (GH). Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from the healthcare providers’ perspective from January 1st to June 30th 2014. TH is a university teaching hospital in the capital city, while GH is a state-level general hospital. Both are government-funded cardiac referral centers. Clinical data was extracted from a national cardiac registry. Cost data was collected using mixed method of top-down and bottom-up approaches. Total hospitalization cost per PCI patient was summed up from the costs of ward admission and cardiac catheterization laboratory utilization. Clinical characteristics were compared with chi-square and independent t-test, while hospitalization length and cost were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test. Results The mean hospitalization cost was RM 12,117 (USD 3,366) at GH and RM 16,289 (USD 4,525) at TH. The higher cost at TH can be attributed to worse patients’ comorbidities and cardiac status. In contrast, GH recorded a lower mean length of stay as more patients had same-day discharge, resulting in 29% reduction in mean cost of admission compared to TH. For both hospitals, PCI consumables accounted for the biggest proportion of total cost. Conclusions The high PCI consumables cost highlighted the importance of cost-effective purchasing mechanism. Findings on the heterogeneity of the patients, treatment practice and hospitalization cost between TH and GH are vital for formulation of cost

  7. Assessment of inpatient admissions and top 25 medications for obese pediatric patients at two academic hospitals.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Peter N; Miller, Jamie L; Hagemann, Tracy M; Moffett, Brady S

    2016-08-15

    Inpatient admissions and the top 25 medications for obese pediatric patients at two academic hospitals were assessed. Children age 2-17 years were included if they were obese and admitted to either hospital on or after January 1, 2011, and discharged before December 31, 2011. Obesity was defined as a body mass index of ≥95th percentile for age and sex. The objectives of this study were to determine the percentage of hospital admissions involving obese children and compile a list of medications prescribed to these patients. The top 25 medications prescribed were further evaluated to determine their pharmacokinetic disposition in obese patients. Obese children accounted for 18.8% of the 15,119 admissions for children age 2-17 years at the two study hospitals. No significant difference was noted in the number of obese pediatric children admitted between institutions. A total of 28,234 medications were ordered for this population, with a median number of 8 medications prescribed per admission. Sixteen of the same medications (64.0%) ranked in the top 25 at each facility. The most commonly prescribed medications for these patients included analgesics, antimicrobials, corticosteroids, bronchodilators, and gastrointestinal agents. Obese children accounted for 18.8% of admissions for patients age 2-17 years at two academic hospitals over a 1-year period. The most commonly prescribed medications for these children included analgesics, antimicrobials, corticosteroids, bronchodilators, and gastrointestinal agents. The literature guiding the dosing of these medications in this population was limited to seven studies, representing just three medications. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of Teaching Materials in Basic Nursing Using Virtual Reality -Ceiling Image Teaching Materials of a Hospital Room-.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Keiko; Iwata, Naomi; Kodama, Hiromi; Hagiwara, Tomoko; Takai, Kiyako; Matsumoto, Maki

    2017-01-01

    It is difficult to understand nursing practically for students who have just started studying nursing, because they cannot imagine the actual medical scene. The authors expect that they can improve nursing learning through experiences in virtual medical environments supported by ICT (information and commnication technology). We developed teaching materials in nursing education, and in a previous study we reported that the use of a virtual hospital was useful for students who had not had medical experience. The aim of the present study was to have students consider the meaning of a hospital room ceiling. First, we showed them a few ceiling patterns, and they selected the best one among the patterns. After that, we showed the same one in a virtual hospital room. They had negative opinions about what they had thought was the best one at this time. This demonstrates that the virtual hospital room is effective when students evaluate the ceiling as a part of the hospital room.

  9. Experiences described by novice teaching academic staff in baccalaureate nursing education: a focus on mentoring.

    PubMed

    Anibas, Melissa; Brenner, Gail Hanson; Zorn, Cecelia R

    2009-01-01

    As the nursing faculty shortage grows, teaching academic staff (TAS) increasingly fill vacant faculty positions. The TAS have limited employment contracts and are usually master's prepared; although they are well grounded in nursing practice, they often are inadequately prepared and minimally supported in an academic teaching position. No study could be found in which the experiences and mentorship of novice TAS in baccalaureate nursing programs were explored. Understanding these issues is essential to guiding approaches that would enhance retention and strengthen the quality of nursing education. The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of novice TAS in baccalaureate nursing programs and how those experiences compare to their expectations and needs, with a focus on mentoring experiences. A descriptive qualitative design with focus group interviews was used with 10 participants from three settings participating in the study. Five categories emerged from the data: feelings, preparation for role and expectations, resources, challenges, and mentorship. Implications, a comparison with existing literature, and suggestions for further research are identified.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Staphylococcus species isolated from cats presented at a veterinary academic hospital in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Qekwana, Daniel Nenene; Sebola, Dikeledi; Oguttu, James Wabwire; Odoi, Agricola

    2017-09-15

    Antimicrobial resistance is becoming increasingly important in both human and veterinary medicine. This study investigated the proportion of antimicrobial resistant samples and resistance patterns of Staphylococcus isolates from cats presented at a veterinary teaching hospital in South Africa. Records of 216 samples from cats that were submitted to the bacteriology laboratory of the University of Pretoria academic veterinary hospital between 2007 and 2012 were evaluated. Isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing against a panel of 15 drugs using the disc diffusion method. Chi square and Fisher's exact tests were used to assess simple associations between antimicrobial resistance and age group, sex, breed and specimen type. Additionally, associations between Staphylococcus infection and age group, breed, sex and specimen type were assessed using logistic regression. Staphylococcus spp. isolates were identified in 17.6% (38/216) of the samples submitted and 4.6% (10/216) of these were unspeciated. The majority (61.1%,11/18) of the isolates were from skin samples, followed by otitis media (34.5%, 10/29). Coagulase Positive Staphylococcus (CoPS) comprised 11.1% (24/216) of the samples of which 7.9% (17/216) were S. intermedius group and 3.2% (7/216) were S. aureus. Among the Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) (1.9%, 4/216), S. felis and S. simulans each constituted 0.9% (2/216). There was a significant association between Staphylococcus spp. infection and specimen type with odds of infection being higher for ear canal and skin compared to urine specimens. There were higher proportions of samples resistant to clindamycin 34.2% (13/25), ampicillin 32.4% (2/26), lincospectin 31.6% (12/26) and penicillin-G 29.0% (11/27). Sixty three percent (24/38) of Staphylococcus spp. were resistant to one antimicrobial agent and 15.8% were multidrug resistant (MDR). MDR was more common among S. aureus 28.6% (2/7) than S. intermedius group isolates 11.8% (2

  11. Development of an "all-hazards" hospital disaster preparedness training course utilizing multi-modality teaching.

    PubMed

    Collander, Brett; Green, Brad; Millo, Yuri; Shamloo, Christine; Donnellan, Joyce; DeAtley, Craig

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to develop and evaluate an "all-hazards" hospital disaster preparedness training course that utilizes a combination of classroom lectures, skills sessions, tabletop sessions, and disaster exercises to teach the principles of hospital disaster preparedness to hospital-based employees. Participants attended a two-day, 16-hour course, entitled Hospital Disaster Life Support (HDLS). The course was designed to address seven core competencies of disaster training for healthcare workers. Specific disaster situations addressed during HDLS included: (1) biological; (2) conventional; (3) radiological; and (4) chemical mass-casualty incidents. The primary goal of HDLS was not only to teach patient care for a disaster, but more importantly, to teach hospital personnel how to manage the disaster itself. Knowledge gained from the HDLS course was assessed by pre- and post-test evaluations. Additionally, participants completed a course evaluation survey at the conclusion of HDLS to assess their attitudes about the course. Participants included 11 physicians, 40 nurses, 23 administrators/directors, and 10 other personnel (n = 84). The average score on the pre-test was 69.1 +/- 12.8 for all positions, and the post-test score was 89.5 +/- 6.7, an improvement of 20.4 points (p < 0.0001, 17.2-23.5). Participants felt HDLS was educational (4.2/5), relevant (4.3/5) and organized (4.3/5). Identifying an effective means of teaching hospital disaster preparedness to hospital-based employees is an important task. However, the optimal strategy for implementing such education still is under debate. The HDLS course was designed to utilize multiple teaching modalities to train hospital-based employees on the principles of disaster preparedness. Participants of HDLS showed an increase in knowledge gained and reported high satisfaction from their experiences at HDLS. These results suggest that HDLS is an effective way to train hospital-based employees in the area

  12. [The Health Technology Assessment Engine of the Academic Hospital of Udine: first appraisal].

    PubMed

    Vidale, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The Health Technology Assessment Engine (HTAE) of the Academic Hospital of Udine aggregates about one hundred of health technology assessment websites. It was born thanks to Google technology in 2008 and after about four years of testing it became public for everybody from the Homepage of the Italian Society of Health Technology Assessment (SIHTA). In this paper the first results obtained with this resource are reported. The role of the scientific librarian is examined not only as a support specialist in bibliographic search but also as a creative expert in managing new technologies for the community.

  13. Association between Hospital Birth Volume and Maternal Morbidity among Low-Risk Pregnancies in Rural, Urban, and Teaching Hospitals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Thao, Viengneesee; Hung, Peiyin; Tilden, Ellen; Caughey, Aaron B; Snowden, Jonathan M

    2016-05-01

    Objectives This study aims to examine the relationship between hospital birth volume and multiple maternal morbidities among low-risk pregnancies in rural hospitals, urban non-teaching hospitals, and urban teaching hospitals, using a representative sample of U.S. hospitals. Study Design Using the 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 607 hospitals, we identified 508,146 obstetric deliveries meeting low-risk criteria and compared outcomes across hospital volume categories. Outcomes include postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), chorioamnionitis, endometritis, blood transfusion, severe perineal laceration, and wound infection. Results Hospital birth volume was more consistently related to PPH than to other maternal outcomes. Lowest-volume rural (< 200 births) and non-teaching (< 650 births) hospitals had 80% higher odds (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.56-2.08) and 39% higher odds (AOR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.26-1.53) of PPH respectively, than those in corresponding high-volume hospitals. However, in urban teaching hospitals, delivering in a lower-volume hospital was associated with 14% lower odds of PPH (AOR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.80-0.93). Deliveries in rural hospitals had 31% higher odds of PPH than urban teaching hospitals (AOR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.13-1.53). Conclusions Low birth volume was a risk factor for PPH in both rural and urban non-teaching hospitals, but not in urban teaching hospitals, where higher volume was associated with greater odds of PPH. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. A Statewide Strategy for Expanding Graduate Medical Education by Establishing New Teaching Hospitals and Residency Programs.

    PubMed

    Nuss, Michelle A; Robinson, Ben; Buckley, Peter F

    2015-09-01

    The graduate medical education (GME) system in the United States is in need of reform to ensure that the physician workforce being trained is able to meet the current and future health care needs of the population. However, GME funding to existing teaching hospitals and programs relies heavily on support from Medicare, which was capped in 1997. Thus, new, innovative models to expand GME are needed. To address physician shortages, especially in primary care and general surgery and in rural areas, the state of Georgia implemented a statewide initiative. They increased medical school enrollment by 600 students from 2000 to 2010 and committed to establishing new GME programs at new teaching hospitals to train 400 additional residents by 2018. As increasing the capacity of GME programs likely increases the number of physicians practicing in the state, these efforts aim to encourage trainees to practice in Georgia. Although new teaching hospitals, like these, are eligible for new Medicare funding, this approach to expanding GME also incorporates state funding to cover the start-up costs associated with establishing a new teaching hospital and GME program.In this article, the authors provide background on the current state of GME funding in the United States and on the physician workforce and medical education system in Georgia. They then outline the steps taken to expand GME by establishing new teaching hospitals and programs. They conclude by sharing outcomes to date as well as challenges faced and lessons learned so that others can follow this novel model.

  15. Examining non-structural retrofitting status of teaching hospitals in Kerman against disasters

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Mahmood Nekooi; Moradi, Seyed Mobin; Amiresmaili, Mohammadreza

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective Continuous services provision of a hospital before and after a disaster is one of the most prominent issues that all people, especially the authorities must take into huge consideration. Concerning the experiences of previous earthquakes, the role and importance of nonstructural components becomes increasingly clear in the uninterrupted services of hospitals. In this study, non-structural retrofitting status of Kerman teaching hospitals was evaluated against natural disasters. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in the second half of 2014 on the teaching hospitals in Kerman (Iran). The study population consisted of all Kerman teaching hospitals. The research instrument was World Health Organization/Pan American Health Organization (WHO/PAHO) standard checklist. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics through SPSS 19. Results One hospital had a low retrofitting level, two hospitals had an average level and one had a high level. In the examined hospitals in this study, the medical gas section had the lowest preparedness against natural disasters, while the office, warehouse and furniture section had the highest resistance. Generally, the non-structural retrofitting status was 50% in one hospital and was between 65% and 85% in other hospitals. Conclusions Generally, the retrofitting status of hospitals was not at the ideal condition, most hospitals were in average condition. Concerning the high risk of hospitals in disasters, it is necessary that senior executives and managers of Kerman Province and Kerman University of Medical Sciences take some measures to retrofit these buildings and to reduce the risk of vulnerability. PMID:28713518

  16. Implementing managed alcohol programs in hospital settings: A review of academic and grey literature.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Hannah L; Kassam, Shehzad; Salvalaggio, Ginetta; Hyshka, Elaine

    2018-01-18

    People with severe alcohol use disorders are at increased risk of poor acute-care outcomes, in part due to difficulties maintaining abstinence from alcohol while hospitalised. Managed alcohol programs (MAP), which administer controlled doses of beverage alcohol to prevent withdrawal and stabilise drinking patterns, are one strategy for increasing adherence to treatment, and improving health outcomes for hospital inpatients with severe alcohol use disorders. Minimal research has examined the implementation of MAPs in hospital settings. We conducted a scoping review to describe extant literature on MAPs in community settings, as well as the therapeutic provision of alcohol to hospital inpatients, to assess the feasibility of implementing formal MAPs in hospital settings and identify knowledge gaps requiring further study. Four academic and 10 grey literature databases were searched. Evidence was synthesised using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Forty-two studies met review inclusion criteria. Twenty-eight examined the administration of alcohol to hospital inpatients, with most reporting positive outcomes related to prevention or treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Fourteen studies examined MAPs in the community and reported that they help stabilise drinking patterns, reduce alcohol-related harms and facilitate non-judgemental health and social care. MAPs in the community have been well described and research has documented effective provision of alcohol in hospital settings for addressing withdrawal. Implementing MAPs as a harm reduction approach in hospital settings is potentially feasible. However, there remains a need to build off extant literature and develop and evaluate standardised MAP protocols tailored to acute-care settings. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. [The contracting of teaching hospitals in the Brazilian Unified Health System].

    PubMed

    Lima, Sheyla Maria Lemos; Rivera, Francisco Javier Uribe

    2012-09-01

    This study identifies the potential and limitations of contracting to improve health care management, accountability and quality, and expand the participation of teaching hospitals in the health service network in the context of the Restructuring Program of Teaching Hospitals in the Brazilian Unified Health System. It is a case study of four teaching hospitals and their contracting State Health Departments. According to the hospital managers, the association is weak between contracting and the presence of mechanisms for hospital insertion into the health service network with practices and structures for managerial and healthcare qualification in the hospital. More structured hospitals in managerial and healthcare terms were more structured between contracting and the State Health Department. There was an increase in production of medium complexity outpatient care and a decrease in primary healthcare procedures. The proposal is for ongoing managerial development of the hospital and of the State Health Department, review of the operational plan, budgeting, monitoring mechanisms and an incentive system, bonding in the teams, among others.

  18. Pre-service science teachers' teaching self-efficacy in relation to personality traits and academic self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Senler, Burcu; Sungur-Vural, Semra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship among pre-service science teachers' personality traits, academic self-regulation and teaching self-efficacy by proposing and testing a conceptual model. For the specified purpose, 1794 pre-service science teachers participated in the study. The Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire were administered to assess pre-service science teachers' teaching self-efficacy, personality, and academic self-regulation respectively. Results showed that agreeableness, neuroticism, performance approach goals, and use of metacognitive strategies are positively linked to different dimensions of teaching self-efficacy, namely self-efficacy for student engagement, instructional strategies, and classroom management. In general, while agreeableness and neuroticism were found to be positively associated with different facets of self-regulation and teaching self-efficacy, openness was found to be negatively linked to these adaptive outcomes.

  19. Hospital waste management status in Iran: a case study in the teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Moradi, Arash; Mohammadi, Mojtaba Shah; Jorfi, Sahand

    2009-06-01

    Hospital waste materials pose a wide variety of health and safety hazards for patients and healthcare workers. Many of hospitals in Iran have neither a satisfactory waste disposal system nor a waste management and disposal policy. The main objective of this research was to investigate the solid waste management in the eight teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences. In this cross-sectional study, the main stages of hospital waste management including generation, separation, collection, storage, and disposal of waste materials were assessed in these hospitals, located in Tehran city. The measurement was conducted through a questionnaire and direct observation by researchers. The data obtained was converted to a quantitative measure to evaluate the different management components. The results showed that the waste generation rate was 2.5 to 3.01 kg bed(-1) day(-1), which included 85 to 90% of domestic waste and 10 to 15% of infectious waste. The lack of separation between hazardous and non-hazardous waste, an absence of the necessary rules and regulations applying to the collection of waste from hospital wards and on-site transport to a temporary storage location, a lack of proper waste treatment, and disposal of hospital waste along with municipal garbage, were the main findings. In order to improve the existing conditions, some extensive research to assess the present situation in the hospitals of Iran, the compilation of rules and establishment of standards and effective training for the personnel are actions that are recommended.

  20. Translational science and the hidden research system in universities and academic hospitals: a case study.

    PubMed

    Lander, Bryn; Atkinson-Grosjean, Janet

    2011-02-01

    Innovation systems (IS) and science policy scholarship predominantly focus on linkages between universities and industry, and the commercial translation of academic discoveries. Overlooked in such analyses are important connections between universities and academic hospitals, and the non-commercial aspects of translational science. The two types of institutions tend to be collapsed into a single entity-'the university'-and relational flows are lost. Yet the distinctions and flows between the two are crucial elements of translational science and the biomedical innovation system. This paper explores what has been called the 'hidden research system' that connects hospitals, universities, and their resources, with the clinical and scientific actors who make the linkages possible. Then, using a novel conceptual model of translational science, we examine the individual interactions and dynamics involved in a particular example of the biomedical innovation system at work: the diagnosis of IRAK-4 deficiency, a rare immunological disorder, and the translational flows that result. Contra to conventional IS analyses, we are able to point to the strong role of public-sector institutions, and the weak role of the private-sector, in the translational processes described here. Our research was conducted within a Canadian network of scientists and clinician-scientists studying the pathogenomics of immunological disorders and innate immunity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Teaching Hospitals and the Disconnect Between Technology Adoption and Comparative Effectiveness Research: The Case of the Surgical Robot.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Danil V; Li, Huilin; Lepor, Herbert; Gross, Cary P; Blustein, Jan

    2017-06-01

    The surgical robot, a costly technology for treatment of prostate cancer with equivocal marginal benefit, rapidly diffused into clinical practice. We sought to evaluate the role of teaching in the early adoption phase of the surgical robot. Teaching hospitals were the primary early adopters: data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project showed that surgical robots were acquired by 45.5% of major teaching, 18.0% of minor teaching and 8.0% of non-teaching hospitals during the early adoption phase. However, teaching hospital faculty produced little comparative effectiveness research: By 2008, only 24 published studies compared robotic prostatectomy outcomes to those of conventional techniques. Just ten of these studies (41.7%) were more than minimally powered, and only six (25%) involved cross-institutional collaborations. In adopting the surgical robot, teaching hospitals fulfilled their mission to innovate, but failed to generate corresponding scientific evidence.

  2. Quality of clinical supervision as perceived by attending doctors in university and district teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Busari, Jamiu O; Koot, Bart G

    2007-10-01

    Attending doctors (ADs) play important roles in the supervision of specialist registrars. Little is known, however, about how they perceive the quality of their supervision in different teaching settings. We decided to investigate whether there is any difference in how ADs perceive the quality of their supervision in university teaching hospital (UTH) and district teaching hospital (DTH) settings. We used a standardised questionnaire to investigate the quality of supervision as perceived by ADs. Fifteen items reflecting good teaching ability were measured on a 5-point Likert scale (1-5: never-always). We investigated for factors that influenced the perceived quality of supervision using Likert scale items (1-5: totally disagree-totally agree) and open-ended questionnaires. A total of 83 ADs (UTH: 51; DTH: 32) were eligible to participate in the survey. Of these, 43 (52%) returned the questionnaire (UTH: 25; DTH: 18). There was no difference in the overall mean of the 15 items between the UTH (3.67, standard deviation [SD] 0.35) and DTH (3.73, SD 0.31) ADs. Attending doctors in the DTH group rated themselves better at 'teaching technical skills' (mean 3.50, SD 0.70), compared with their UTH counterparts (mean 3.0, SD 0.76) (P = 0.03). Analysis of variance of the overall means revealed no significant difference between the different hospital settings. The results suggest that teaching hospital environments do not influence how ADs perceive the quality of their supervision. Lack of time for teaching was perceived as responsible for poor supervision. Other factors found to influence AD perceptions of good supervision included effective teaching skills, communication skills and provision of feedback.

  3. Clinical chemistry laboratory productivity: a comparison between a Canadian and a British teaching hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, A R; Gardner, M D

    1981-01-01

    the productivity of a clinical chemistry laboratory was measured in both a Canadian and a British tertiary care teaching hospital using 1977 data and the 1976 edition of the Canadian Schedule of Unit Values. Although productivity, measured as units produced per person or per paid hour, was lower in the British than in the Canadian teaching hospital-due to the British day-release system of staff-education-the output per actual worker hour was similar. We conclude, from this small study, that productivity in the laboratory services of the British National Health Service is not likely to be different from laboratory productivity elsewhere. PMID:7462437

  4. Improving academic performance of sport and exercise science undergraduate students in gross anatomy using a near-peer teaching program.

    PubMed

    Viana, Ricardo Borges; Campos, Mário Hebling; Santos, Douglas de Assis Teles; Xavier, Isabela Cristina Maioni; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; Andrade, Marília Santos; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa

    2018-04-16

    Peer and near-peer teaching programs are common in medical undergraduate courses. However, there are no studies that have investigated the effectiveness of a near-peer teaching program on the academic performance of undergraduate students pursuing sport and exercise science coursework. This study was conducted to analyze the effectiveness of such a program for students who participated in a course on the functional anatomy of the locomotor apparatus. A total of 39 student participants were divided into two groups: students in one group voluntarily attended at least one session of a near-peer teaching program, and students in the other group attended no sessions. The final grade (range 0-100%) was recorded and used as an indicator of academic performance. The final grade of students who attended the near-peer teaching program (69.5 ± 16.0%) was 38.7% higher (P = 0.002, d = 1.06) than those who did not (50.1 ± 20.4%). When the academic performance of the same students was evaluated in another course (exercise physiology) that did not offer a near-peer teaching program, there were no significant differences between the groups (students who attended or did not attend the near-peer teaching program). A significant positive association was found between near-peer teaching program frequency and the number of students approved and not approved in the course (P = 0.041). A significant difference (P = 0.001) was found in the attendance at regular classes between the group who participated in the near-peer teaching program (median: 62 hours; IQR [interquartile ranges]: 4.0 hours) and those who did not (median: 58 hours; IQR: 4.0 hours). Gender was not a moderating factor on academic performance or near-peer teaching program attendance. These results highlight the effectiveness of a near-peer teaching program on the academic performance of students from a sport and exercise science degree program while enrolled in an anatomy course. Anat Sci Educ.

  5. The challenge of developing academic language in Spanish and English through science: The case of two teachers' strategic teaching practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercuri, Sandra Patricia

    This case study examines the practice of two bilingual education teachers in an attempt to understand the planning and instructional activities occurring in their classrooms by focusing on students' academic language development during science instruction. This site was selected as an 'instrumental' case to examine for several reasons. This school is among the few in the district that is teaching science. Despite the political climate related to bilingual education, the teachers at this school offer an articulated dual immersion program from K to grade six. This site has experienced success in beginning to close the achievement gap between English learners and their native English speaking peers on standardized test measures. Using a qualitative approach, data was collected from two unique cases through detailed observations of classroom practice, audio-taped lessons, an initial and a follow up interview, artifacts and an initial survey. Scarcella's (2003) framework on academic language was used to analyze the different components of academic language of the science instruction. A theoretical framework from Stoddart et al. on levels of integrated planning expertise and Dell' Alba & Sandberg's concept of embodied understanding of practice also informed the study. Three main findings were drawn from this study: (a) academic language can be effectively taught through science instruction when teachers have the expertise to integrate language learning with science inquiry; (b) the teaching of and planning for academic language development through content is shaped over time by teachers' teaching and personal experiences with the content and their ability to integrate both; (c) While a theoretical model of academic language can be used to analyze teachers' instructional strategies during a science lesson, this model has limitations. Teachers' understanding of their own practice developed overtime shaped the way they manipulated the curriculum for their particular grade

  6. A Qualitative Study of the UK Academic Role: Positive Features, Negative Aspects and Associated Stressors in a Mainly Teaching-Focused University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darabi, Mitra; Macaskill, Ann; Reidy, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The literature demonstrates that stress in the working life of academics has increased over recent years. However, qualitative research on how academics cope with this is very scarce. Using online interviewing with thematic analysis, this paper examines how 31 academics in a post-92 predominantly teaching-focused UK university cope with the…

  7. From Laennec to lobotomy: teaching medical history at academic medical centers.

    PubMed

    Lerner, B H

    2000-05-01

    Although clinicians without a sense of history may not be condemned to repeat the past, the historical record offers many informative lessons. For one thing, history demonstrates the changing nature of scientific knowledge; current understandings of health and disease may prove as ephemeral as earlier discarded theories. In addition, history reminds us that social and cultural factors influence how physicians diagnose and treat various medical conditions. When attempting to teach the history of medicine at academic medical centers, instructors should be innovative as opposed to comprehensive. Students and residents are likely to find recent historical issues to be more relevant, particularly when such material can be integrated into the existing curriculum. Provocative topics include depictions of medicine in old Hollywood films, the contributions made by famous physicians at one's own institution, and historical debates over controversial events, such as the Tuskegee syphilis study and the use of lobotomy in mental institutions in the 1950s.

  8. Academic Achievement and Personality Traits of Faculty Members of Indian Agricultural Universities: Their Effect on Teaching and Research Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramesh, P.; Reddy, K. M.; Rao, R. V. S.; Dhandapani, A.; Siva, G. Samba; Ramakrishna, A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was undertaken to assess academic achievement, teaching aptitude and research attitude of Indian agricultural universities' faculty, to predict indicators for successful teachers and researchers, and thereby enhancing the quality of higher agricultural education. Methodology: Five hundred faculty members were selected to…

  9. Struggling to Handle Teaching and Research: A Study on Academic Work at Select Universities in the Chinese Mainland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Manhong; Du, Ping; Li, Linlin

    2014-01-01

    In order to raise the international reputation and quality of higher education in "China", the Ministry of Education initiated new university employment reform, which pressed academics to produce more research. Recent employment reform has aggravated the conflict between teaching and research. This study "uses" mixed methods to…

  10. A Study of Academic Exercises Used for Teaching Social Studies in English at Saint Joseph Bangna School Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBain, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to highlight the problems ESL students faced when studying social studies at Saint Joseph Bangna School. In particular, what improvements could be made to the kinds of academic exercises contained within the books & websites as teaching materials. It was designed around three research questions relating to what…

  11. Academic Uses of Video Games: A Qualitative Assessment of Research and Teaching Needs at a Large Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Shannon L.; Neeser, Amy E.; Bishoff, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Academic libraries develop collections and services for scholars who use video games in teaching and research. However, there are no assessments of related information and technology needs. The authors conducted 30 semi-structured interviews to gather data about these needs and understand how the University of Minnesota Libraries can facilitate…

  12. Arts Education Academics' Perceptions of eLearning & Teaching in Australian Early Childhood and Primary ITE Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William J.; Hunter, Mary Ann; Thomas, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an investigation of eLearning & teaching in Arts education in Australian Initial Teacher Education (ITE) degrees. This project used survey and interviews to collect data from academics in 16 universities in 5 Australian states regarding their experiences of eLearning and Arts education. A rigorous and…

  13. Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and Middle School. IES Practice Guide. NCEE 2014-4012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Scott; Lesaux, Nonie; Jayanthi, Madhavi; Dimino, Joseph; Proctor, C. Patrick; Morris, Joan; Gersten, Russell; Haymond, Kelly; Kieffer, Michael J.; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    As English learners face the double demands of building knowledge of a second language while learning complex grade-level content, teachers must find effective ways to make challenging content comprehensible for students. This updated English learner practice guide, "Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and…

  14. Knowledge Acquisition or Participation in Communities of Practice? Academics' Metaphors of Teaching and Learning at the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Elisabeth; Nückles, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Learning has been described by two conceptual metaphors: as individual acquisition of knowledge ("acquisition metaphor"), and as an enculturation into a subject community ("participation metaphor"). On the other hand, academics' conceptions of teaching are usually reported to vary between teacher and student orientation. In…

  15. Collaborative Close Reading of Teaching Texts: One Way of Helping Academics to Make Sense of their Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loads, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I draw attention to a lively and accessible way of helping academics to make sense of their practice as teachers. First, I define "collaborative close reading" and "teaching texts". Then I invite the reader to eavesdrop on three (lightly fictionalised) reading sessions. Finally, I suggest some guidelines for…

  16. A Meta-Analytic Study Concerning the Effect of Computer-Based Teaching on Academic Success in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batdi, Veli

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the effect of computer-based teaching (CBT) on students' academic success. The research used a meta-analytic method to reach a general conclusion by statistically calculating the results of a number of independent studies. In total, 78 studies (62 master's theses, 4 PhD theses, and 12 articles) concerning this…

  17. Role of the Direct Teaching Method in the Academic Achievement of Students in English at the Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Ishtiaq; Inamullah, Hafiz; Naseer-Ud-Din, Muhammad; Hafizatullah, Hafiz

    2009-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to determine the role of the direct teaching method in the academic achievement of students in English at the secondary level. To achieve the said objective, the "Solomon Four-Design pre-test/post-test equivalent group design" was considered to be the most useful design for this study. The pre-test…

  18. Increasing Instructional Efficiency When Using Simultaneous Prompting Procedure in Teaching Academic Skills to Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Olcay-Gul, Seray

    2016-01-01

    A multiple probe design across behaviors replicated across participants was used to examine the effects of a simultaneous prompting procedure delivered along with instructive feedback and observational learning stimuli when teaching academic skills to a small group of students with ASD. Different target skills were taught to each student in the…

  19. A Report on Using General-Case Programming to Teach Collateral Academic Skills to a Student in a Postsecondary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chezan, Laura C.; Drasgow, Erik; Marshall, Kathleen J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors' purpose in this report is to examine the application of general-case programming to teach collateral academic skills to a student with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and with a mild intellectual disability who was attending college. The authors use data drawn from their work with Tom to explain and…

  20. A comparison of congestive heart failure readmissions among teaching and nonteaching hospital services.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Carlos; House, Jeffrey; Ibrahim, Saif; Touchan, Jean N; Mooradian, Ariana

    2014-08-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of hospitalization in the United States. With the population trend shifting to a higher volume of elderly adults, the efficient management of HF will become increasingly essential. The development and implementation of The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and subsequent changes in reimbursement practices have made 30-day readmission rates a topic of much interest and relevance. The aim of the study was to compare rates of readmission among teaching and nonteaching hospitals. The authors gathered retrospective data on HF quality measures and readmission rates between August 2011 and July 2012, extracted from the institution's managerial accounting database. These data were compared among teaching and nonteaching hospitals. Patient demographics, readmission rates, readmission diagnoses, severity of illness, patient disposition, medications prescribed, cost of services, and mortality were reviewed. Analysis of variance was used for continuous variables; χ(2) analysis was used for evaluating categorical variables. A higher proportion of patients on the cardiology teaching service were men than on either the medicine teaching service or the medicine nonteaching service. Length of stay, case costs, and care costs were lowest for the cardiology teaching service; however, patient illness severity was lower on this service than on the other two services. Overall, readmissions and mortality were similar among all groups, but readmission for the same diagnosis was more likely on the cardiology service than on the medicine teaching and nonteaching services. Studies comparing teaching and nonteaching providers for an HF diagnosis are needed. Hospital readmission and mortality rates were similar across services and compared favorably with national data. Opportunities that target cost reduction and length of stay may be leveraged.

  1. Factors affecting the informal payments in public and teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Aboutorabi, Ali; Ghiasipour, Maryam; Rezapour, Aziz; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali; Tanoomand, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Informal payments in the health sector of many developing countries are considered as a major impediment to health care reforms. Informal payments are a form of systemic fraud and have adverse effects on the performance of the health system. In this study, the frequency and extent of informal payments as well as the determinants of these payments were investigated in general hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. In this cross-sectional study, 300 discharged patients were selected using multi-stage random sampling method. First, three hospitals were selected randomly; then, through a simple random sampling, we recruited 300 discharged patients from internal, surgery, emergency, ICU & CCU wards. All data were collected by structured telephone interviews and questionnaire. We analyzed data using Chi- square, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The results indicated that 21% (n=63) of individuals paid informally to the staff. About 4% (n=12) of the participants were faced with informal payment requests from hospital staff. There was a significant relationship between frequency of informal payments with marital status of participants and type of hospitals. According to our findings, none of the respondents had informal payments to physicians. The most frequent informal payments were in cash and were made to the hospitals' housekeeping staff to ensure more and better services. There was no significant relationship between the informal payments with socio-demographic characteristics, residential area and insurance status. Our findings revealed that many strategies can be used for both controlling and reducing informal payments. These include training patients and hospitals' staff, increasing income levels of employees, improving the quantity and quality of health services and changing the entrenched beliefs that necessitate informal payments.

  2. Balancing Academic Teaching, Research, and Service: a Paradigm Emerging from NSF-TUES Sponsored Project Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paor, D. G.

    2012-12-01

    As every academic administrator stresses in interviews with new faculty, the role of a professor today involves balancing three areas - teaching, research, and service. Few institutions can afford the old policy of promoting and tenuring faculty based solely on research output and grantsmanship, whilst ignoring poor teaching outcomes. Outreach activities involving parents and the extramural community are increasingly important as expensive universities and four-year colleges seek to demonstrate their relevance in the age of much less expensive community colleges and distance education. Nevertheless, many faculty complain that teaching and outreach duties compete for their valuable research time. Some fields of research have such broad impacts that they merit the dedicated time of our best scientists. However, other research projects constitute little more than publicly funded professorial hobbies. The challenge is to reliably identify and prioritize the research questions that merit investigation. IN ODU's geospatial visualization group, we instituted a policy requiring Ph.D. theses to include a component (at least one chapter) dedicated to the development and testing of learning resources. TAs test visualizations in their lab sections in tandem with their research studies. They must incorporate original geophysical mapping, modeling, and/or analysis in order to justify a degree in the Physics Department (the traditional home of Geophysics at our institution) rather than, say, the College of Education. Geospatial graduate students also train to offer planetarium presentations to the public using digital full-dome projection technology that can be used with a wide range of geoscience and planetary science topics. Thus they tackle the three aspects of academic work from the outset. In contrast, students in other programs frequently serve as TAs in their first and then switch to grant-supported RA work, resulting in a steady stream of new TAs with little or no

  3. Scheduling, revenue management, and fairness in an academic-hospital radiology division.

    PubMed

    Baum, Richard; Bertsimas, Dimitris; Kallus, Nathan

    2014-10-01

    Physician staff of academic hospitals today practice in several geographic locations including their main hospital. This is referred to as the extended campus. With extended campuses expanding, the growing complexity of a single division's schedule means that a naive approach to scheduling compromises revenue. Moreover, it may provide an unfair allocation of individual revenue, desirable or burdensome assignments, and the extent to which the preferences of each individual are met. This has adverse consequences on incentivization and employee satisfaction and is simply against business policy. We identify the daily scheduling of physicians in this context as an operational problem that incorporates scheduling, revenue management, and fairness. Noting previous success of operations research and optimization in each of these disciplines, we propose a simple unified optimization formulation of this scheduling problem using mixed-integer optimization. Through a study of implementing the approach at the Division of Angiography and Interventional Radiology at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, which is directed by one of the authors, we exemplify the flexibility of the model to adapt to specific applications, the tractability of solving the model in practical settings, and the significant impact of the approach, most notably in increasing revenue by 8.2% over previous operating revenue while adhering strictly to a codified fairness and objectivity. We found that the investment in implementing such a system is far outweighed by the large potential revenue increase and the other benefits outlined. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Costs of serious adverse events in a community teaching hospital, in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Mendoza, Luis Meave; Torres-Montes, Abraham; Soria-Orozco, Manuel; Padrón-Salas, Aldanely; Ramírez-Hernández, María Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Serious adverse events during hospital care are a worldwide reality and threaten the safety of the hospitalised patient. To identify serious adverse events related to healthcare and direct hospital costs in a Teaching Hospital in México. A study was conducted in a 250-bed Teaching Hospital in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Data were obtained from the Quality and Patient Safety Department based on 2012 incidents report. Every event was reviewed and analysed by an expert team using the "fish bone" tool. The costs were calculated since the event took place until discharge or death of the patient. A total of 34 serious adverse events were identified. The average cost was $117,440.89 Mexican pesos (approx. €7,000). The great majority (82.35%) were largely preventable and related to the process of care. Undergraduate medical staff were involved in 58.82%, and 14.7% of patients had suffered adverse events in other hospitals. Serious adverse events in a Teaching Hospital setting need to be analysed to learn and deploy interventions to prevent and improve patient safety. The direct costs of these events are similar to those reported in developed countries. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Current status of Staphylococcus aureus infection in a central teaching hospital in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianming; Song, Yan; Zhu, Yuanjun; Du, Xin; Li, Min

    2013-07-08

    To control the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals, infection control measures such as hand hygiene practices were introduced into the teaching hospitals in Shanghai, China, in 2008. Currently, there is limited information characterizing the latest hospital-acquired S. aureus infections in this area. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence, molecular characteristics, and genotype-phenotype correlation of hospital-acquired S. aureus infections in Huashan Hospital, one of the largest teaching hospitals in Shanghai. Among 608 hospital-acquired S. aureus clinical isolates obtained from January to December of 2011 in Huashan Hospital, 68.1% were MRSA. The predominant MRSA clones were ST239-SCCmecIII and ST5-SCCmecII. ST239 was mainly recovered from respiratory specimens and sterile body fluids, ST5 was associated with respiratory specimens and blood, and ST1 was most prevalent in urine samples. In this study, 31 dispersed sequence types (STs) of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) were identified, most of which caused skin/soft tissue infection and bacteremia. The frequencies of pvl-, muPA-, and qacA/B-positive isolates were 1.6, 9.9, and 11.8% respectively. MuPA was more frequently identified in ST1 and ST5, and qacA/B was more prevalent in ST239 and ST5. Most of the pvl-positive isolates were MSSA, whereas the majority of muPA- and qacA/B-positive isolates were MRSA. ST239 and ST5 had higher resistance rates to multiple antibiotics. In Huashan Hospital, the infection rate in the intensive care unit (ICU) was 3.9 per 1000 hospitalized days, but only 1.2 per 1000 hospitalized days in the other wards. Each ward harbored its own dominant STs. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed diversity within the same epidemic S. aureus clones originating from the same wards. There is still a high prevalence of MRSA infections in the teaching hospital in Shanghai. There were also differences in the major infection types caused by

  6. The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 and the Financial Health of Teaching Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Robert L.; Fryer, George E.; Chen, Frederick M.; Morgan, Sarah E.; Green, Larry A.; Valente, Ernest; Miyoshi, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND We wanted to evaluate the most recent, complete data related to the specific effects of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 relative to the overall financial health of teaching hospitals. We also define cost report variables and calculations necessary for continued impact monitoring. METHODS We undertook a descriptive analysis of hospital cost report variables for 1996, 1998, and 1999, using simple calculations of total, Medicare, prospective payment system, graduate medical education (GME), and bad debt margins, as well as the proportion with negative total operating margins. RESULTS Nearly 35% of teaching hospitals had negative operating margins in 1999. Teaching hospital total margins fell by nearly 50% between 1996 and 1999, while Medicare margins remained relatively stable. GME margins have fallen by nearly 24%, however, even as reported education costs have risen by nearly 12%. Medicare+Choice GME payments were less than 10% of those projected. CONCLUSIONS Teaching hospitals realized deep cuts in profitability between 1996 and 1999; however, these cuts were not entirely attributable to the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Medicare payments remain an important financial cushion for teaching hospitals, more than one third of which operated in the red. The role of Medicare in supporting GME has been substantially reduced and needs special attention in the overall debate. Medicare+Choice support of the medical education enterprise is 90% less than baseline projections and should be thoroughly investigated. The Medicare Payment Advisory Commission, which has a critical role in evaluating the effects of Medicare policy changes, should be more transparent in its methods. PMID:15053286

  7. Workload Impact of Medical Subspecialties in the Teaching Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Peenen, Hubert J.

    1973-01-01

    This paper documents, using a single test as a model, the significant increase in clinical laboratory workload which occurred in a university hospital when strong sections of nephrology, hematology-oncology, and immunology-rheumatology were added to the department of medicine. (Author)

  8. Malaria in Birmingham and a London teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Ellis, C J; Eykyn, S J; Watkins, P; Bell, M; Geddes, A M

    1979-02-10

    During the past five years the incidence of imported malaria increased among patients seen in East Birmingham Hospital and in St Thomas's Hospital, London. Plasmodium vivax was the predominant species in Birmingham, and was almost always acquired by Asian immigrants visiting the Indian subcontinent. In St Thomas's P falciparum was most commonly imported, usually by African immigrants visiting Nigeria and Ghana. Two patients (one Irish, one Japanese) died of falciparum malaria after visiting tropical Africa. In both hospitals the immigrant patients had seldom taken prophylactic drugs, and the few who had, ceased to do so on arrival in the UK and sometimes before leaving the malarious country. Apparently immigrants who visit their homeland do not consult their general practitioners before travelling, are given inappropriate advice, or do not take appropriate advice when given. Since the incidence of imported falciparum malaria in the UK is rising, the following points should be considered: the infection may be lethal, particularly in patients lacking immunity; it can mimic other diseases, which may lead to delayed diagnosis; severe disease may be associated with few parasites on a blood film, and even if the result is negative further tests should be performed; clinicians and hospital pharmacists should be aware of the need to keep permanent stocks of parenteral chloroquine and quinine preparations.

  9. IAIMS and JCAHO: implications for hospital librarians. Integrated Academic Information Management Systems. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations.

    PubMed

    Doyle, J D

    1999-10-01

    The roles of hospital librarians have evolved from keeping print materials to serving as a focal point for information services and structures within the hospital. Concepts that emerged from the Integrated Academic Information Management Systems (IAIMS) as described in the Matheson Report and the 1994 Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) standards have combined to propel hospital libraries into many new roles and functions. This paper will review the relationship of the two frameworks, provide a view of their commonalities, and establish the advantages of both for hospital librarianship as a profession.

  10. Crossing new uncharted territory: shifts in academic identity as a result of modifying teaching practice in undergraduate mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kensington-Miller, Barbara; Sneddon, Jamie; Stewart, Sepideh

    2014-08-01

    The changes in academic identity a teacher may undergo, as they modify their teaching practice, will vary depending on their experiences and the support they receive. In this paper, we describe the shifts in academic identity of two lecturers, a mathematician and a mathematics educator, as they both made changes to their teaching practice by implementing new questioning techniques in a large undergraduate mathematics course. Both the lecturers were members of the research group, which became their community of practice. Our findings recommend that lecturers endeavouring to step out and try changes to their teaching practice, particularly with large groups of students, belong to a community of practice. The community of practice provides a place for shared reflection, new learning, and opportunities to negotiate new identities.

  11. Implementing PDA technology in a medical library: experiences in a hospital library and an academic medical center library.

    PubMed

    Morgen, Evelyn Breck

    2003-01-01

    Personal digital assistants (PDAs) have grown from being a novelty in the late 1990s to an essential tool for healthcare professionals in the 2000s. This paper describes the experiences of a librarian who implemented PDA technology first in a hospital library, and then at an academic medical center library. It focuses on the role of the library in supporting PDA technology and resources. Included are programmatic issues such as training for library staff and clinicians, and technical issues such as Palm and Windows operating systems. This model could be used in either a hospital or academic health sciences library.

  12. THE EFFECT OF OUTPATIENT SERVICE QUALITY ON PATIENT SATISFACTION IN TEACHING HOSPITALS IN IRAN

    PubMed Central

    Pouragha, Behrouz; Zarei, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The quality of services plays a primary role in achieving patient satisfaction. The main purpose of this study was to explore the effect of outpatient service quality on patient satisfaction in teaching hospitals in Iran. Methods: this cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014. The study sample included 500 patients were selected with systematic random method from the outpatient departments (clinics) of four teaching hospitals in Tehran. The survey instrument was a questionnaire consisted of 44 items, which were confirmed its reliability and validity. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation, and multivariate regression methods with the SPSS.18 software. Results: According to the findings of this study, the majority of patients had a positive experience in the outpatient departments of the teaching hospitals and thus evaluated the services as good. Perceived service costs, physician consultation, physical environment, and information to patient were found to be the most important determinants of outpatient satisfaction. Conclusion: The results suggest that improving the quality of consultation, providing information to the patients during examination and consultation, creating value for patients by reducing costs or improving service quality, and enhancing the physical environment quality of the clinic can be regarded as effective strategies for the management of teaching hospitals toward increasing outpatient satisfaction. PMID:27047262

  13. A "Prepaid Package" for Obstetrics: Effect on Teaching and Patient Care in a University Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Philip E.

    1976-01-01

    The changing social milieu has removed the charity patient but not the need for a teaching population. The University Hospital's program is described, in which patients prepaid a fixed, single fee for all obstetrics-related care through the third post partum day. (LBH)

  14. Approaching Hospital-Bound/Home-Bound Special Education as an Opportunity for Innovation in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentin, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    Paradoxically some "extreme" didactic needs, such as those of students who are unable to attend normal education regularly (e.g., hospitalized and/or homebound students), have shown themselves to be ideal for the development of a teaching style aimed at stimulating the active role of the student, at fostering a learning process based…

  15. Health Care Delivery System Changes: A Special Challenge for Teaching Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    If major changes are made in the financing of health care to control costs, teaching hospitals are particularly vulnerable and will have to be as innovative in management and organizational approaches as clinically, using both short- and long-term survival strategies. (MSE)

  16. Factors Associated with Waiting Time for Breast Cancer Treatment in a Teaching Hospital in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedey, Florence; Wu, Lily; Ayettey, Hannah; Sanuade, Olutobi A.; Akingbola, Titilola S.; Hewlett, Sandra A.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Cole, Helen V.; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Adanu, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in Ghana. Data are limited on the predictors of poor outcomes in breast cancer patients in low-income countries; however, prolonged waiting time has been implicated. Among breast cancer patients who received treatment at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, this study…

  17. Factors contributing to the variability of direct costs for graduate medical education in teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Boex, J R

    1992-02-01

    Medicare's support of graduate medical education includes funds allocated to the direct costs of graduate medical education: housestaff stipends and benefits, faculty costs, and related educational costs such as classroom space. As reimbursed through the mechanism called the direct graduate medical education (DGME) pass-through, these direct costs have been reported to vary widely from one teaching hospital to another, with little explanation for this variation being available. Based on a national survey of 69 teaching hospitals--principally affiliated community teaching hospitals--the author suggests that a major cause for the variation in these costs might be found in their faculty-expenses component. It is further suggested that economies of scale may provide some clue as to the variability of these costs. The author also reports lower DGME costs for the survey sample than for the national sample, and suggests that the fact that community teaching hospital faculties include a significant volunteer component may account for some of these savings.

  18. Hospital economics of primary total knee arthroplasty at a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Healy, William L; Rana, Adam J; Iorio, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The hospital cost of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the United States is a major growing expense for the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). Many hospitals are unable to deliver TKA with profitable or breakeven economics under the current Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) hospital reimbursement system. The purposes of the current study were to (1) determine revenue, expenses, and profitability (loss) for TKA for all patients and for different payors; (2) define changes in utilization and unit costs associated with this operation; and (3) describe TKA cost control strategies to provide insight for hospitals to improve their economic results for TKA. From 1991 to 2009, Lahey Clinic converted a $2172 loss per case on primary TKA in 1991 to a $2986 profit per case in 2008. The improved economics was associated with decreasing revenue in inflation-adjusted dollars and implementation of hospital cost control programs that reduced hospital expenses for TKA. Reduction of hospital length of stay and reduction of knee implant costs were the major drivers of hospital expense reduction. During the last 25 years, our economic experience with TKA is concerning. Hospital revenues have lagged behind inflation, hospital expenses have been reduced, and our institution is earning a profit. However, the margin for TKA is decreasing and Managed Medicare patients do not generate a profit. The erosion of hospital revenue for TKA will become a critical issue if it leads to economic losses for hospitals or reduced access to TKA. Level III, Economic and Decision Analyses. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  19. Factors affecting nurse retention at an academic Magnet® hospital.

    PubMed

    Buffington, Annsley; Zwink, Jennifer; Fink, Regina; Devine, Deborah; Sanders, Carolyn

    2012-05-01

    : The aim of this study was to examine the factors affecting the retention of registered nurses (RNs) and validate the revised Casey-Fink Nurse Retention Survey (2009). : Creating an organizational culture of retention may reduce nurse turnover. Focusing on why nurses leave and identifying factors why nurses stay are essential. : A descriptive survey design gathered data from RNs with 1 or more years of experience providing direct patient care and employed in inpatient/ambulatory settings in an acute care, academic, Magnet hospital. : There were no statistically significant relationships between nurse respondents' perceptions of work environment/support/encouragement and age or years of experience. However, there were significant differences between inpatient and ambulatory nurse responses in several key areas including job satisfaction, mentorship, and educational support. Overall, nurses reported feeling a lack of support and recognition from managers. Results provide evidence to support improved strategies to foster nurse retention.

  20. Resident training in a teaching hospital: How do attendings teach in the real operative environment?

    PubMed

    Glarner, Carly E; Law, Katherine E; Zelenski, Amy B; McDonald, Robert J; Greenberg, Jacob A; Foley, Eugene F; Wiegmann, Douglas A; Greenberg, Caprice C

    2017-07-01

    The study aim was to explore the nature of intraoperative education and its interaction with the environment where surgical education occurs. Video and audio recording captured teaching interactions between colorectal surgeons and general surgery residents during laparoscopic segmental colectomies. Cases and collected data were analyzed for teaching behaviors and workflow disruptions. Flow disruptions (FDs) are considered deviations from natural case progression. Across 10 cases (20.4 operative hours), attendings spent 11.2 hours (54.7%) teaching, using directing (M = 250.1), and confirming (M = 236.1) most. FDs occurred 410 times, accounting for 4.4 hours of case time (21.57%). Teaching occurred with FD events for 2.4 hours (22.2%), whereas 77.8% of teaching happened outside FD occurrence. Teaching methods shifted from active to passive during FD events to compensate for patient safety. Understanding how FDs impact operative learning will inform faculty development in managing interruptions and improve its integration into resident education. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Academic profile, beliefs, and self-efficacy in research of clinical nurses: implications for the Nursing Research Program in a Magnet Journey™ hospital

    PubMed Central

    Leão, Eliseth Ribeiro; Farah, Olga Guilhermina; Reis, Elisa Aparecida Alves; de Barros, Claudia Garcia; Mizoi, Cristina Satoko

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the academic profile, research experience, beliefs, and self-efficacy in research of clinical nurses in a Magnet Journey™ hospital. Methods: Quantitative descriptive designed to assess research experience of clinical nurses. The survey was divided into demographics characteristics; scientific/academic profile (Nursing degree; membership in academic research groups, involvement in papers, teaching activities, scientific conferences, and posters presented); beliefs related to nursing research (about skills, benefits to career, reputation of institution, patient care; job satisfaction level); and Research Self-Efficacy (conducting literature review; evaluating quality of studies; using theory; understanding evidence; and scientific writing: putting ideas on paper easily; recognize and adapt the text to the reader; write to the standards required by science; write with objectivity, logical sequence, coherence, simplicity, clarity, and precision; insert the references in the text correctly; write the references appropriately; use correct spelling and grammar; write texts in English). Results: Most clinical nurses had low research experience, yet had positive beliefs in and perception of well-developed research skills. Conclusion: Our findings should contribute to the preparation of research programs aimed at facilitating the engagement of clinical nurses in the development of scientific projects. PMID:24488393

  2. Cost-Analysis of Seven Nosocomial Outbreaks in an Academic Hospital.

    PubMed

    Dik, Jan-Willem H; Dinkelacker, Ariane G; Vemer, Pepijn; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R; Lokate, Mariëtte; Sinha, Bhanu; Friedrich, Alex W; Postma, Maarten J

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial outbreaks, especially with (multi-)resistant microorganisms, are a major problem for health care institutions. They can cause morbidity and mortality for patients and controlling these costs substantial amounts of funds and resources. However, how much is unclear. This study sets out to provide a comparable overview of the costs of multiple outbreaks in a single academic hospital in the Netherlands. Based on interviews with the involved staff, multiple databases and stored records from the Infection Prevention Division all actions undertaken, extra staff employment, use of resources, bed-occupancy rates, and other miscellaneous cost drivers during different outbreaks were scored and quantified into Euros. This led to total costs per outbreak and an estimated average cost per positive patient per outbreak day. Seven outbreaks that occurred between 2012 and 2014 in the hospital were evaluated. Total costs for the hospital ranged between €10,778 and €356,754. Costs per positive patient per outbreak day, ranged between €10 and €1,369 (95% CI: €49-€1,042), with a mean of €546 and a median of €519. Majority of the costs (50%) were made because of closed beds. This analysis is the first to give a comparable overview of various outbreaks, caused by different microorganisms, in the same hospital and all analyzed with the same method. It shows a large variation within the average costs due to different factors (e.g. closure of wards, type of ward). All outbreaks however cost considerable amounts of efforts and money (up to €356,754), including missed revenue and control measures.

  3. Estimates of costs by DRG in Sydney teaching hospitals: an application of the Yale cost model.

    PubMed

    Palmer, G; Aisbett, C; Fetter, R; Winchester, L; Reid, B; Rigby, E

    1991-01-01

    The results are reported of a first round of costing by DRG in seven major teaching hospital sites in Sydney using the Yale cost model. These results, when compared between the hospitals and with values of relative costs by DRG from the United States, indicate that the cost modelling procedure has produced credible and potentially useful estimates of casemix costs. The rationale and underlying theory of cost modelling is explained, and the need for further work to improve the method of allocating costs to DRGs, and to improve the cost centre definitions currently used by the hospitals, is emphasised.

  4. Sleep practices among medical students in Pediatrics Department of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chinawa, J M; Chukwu, B F; Obu, H A

    2014-01-01

    Medical students are a population who are at great risk of having bad sleep practice and hygiene due to demanding clinical and academic activities. Poor sleep practices are a disturbing and destabilizing phenomenon. It affects many people and can affect the quality of work, performance and education of medical students. Determining the sleep practices and behaviors could be useful to establish a systematic mental health curriculum in medical schools. The objectives of this study is to describe sleep practices among undergraduate medical students in a Nigerian University. Sleep practices were investigated using a convenience sample of medical students from the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Ituku Ozalla, Enugu from October 2012 to February 2013. A total number of participants enrolled were 241 consisting of 150 male and 90 female medical students. However, 222 (response rate: 92.1%) completed and returned the questionnaire. The median number of hours of night sleep on a weekday and weekend were 6 and 7 h respectively. There was a significant correlation between the number of hours of sleep and use of caffeine (Spearman r = -0.148, P < 0.0321). Ninety two (45.3%) had a sleep latency of 10-30 min while 157 (70.7%) woke up 1-2 times/night. Twenty five (11.3%) experience unusual sleep practices such as sleep walking, talking or night terrors. Medical students in our institution have varying degrees of sleeping practice and behavior and this may affect academic performance.

  5. Case study teaching in high school biology: Effects on academic achievement, problem solving skills, teamwork skills, and science attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolnick, Ronald

    The purpose of this study was to examine the constructivist-based " case study teaching methodology" in High School Biology classes, specifically investigating the effect this methodology had on Academic Achievement, Science Attitudes, Problem Solving Skills, and Teamwork Skills. The effect of Teacher Beliefs toward constructivist learning environments was also explored and investigated, using a quantitative measure (the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey, or CLES). A quasi-experimental design used eleven classes, five teachers, and two hundred fifty two high school biology students over two separate, consecutive quarters of a school year. Two researcher-made instruments measured Academic Achievement after each study quarter. T-Tests were used to compare the Experimental Group (Case Study Teaching Methodology) to the Control Group (Traditional Teaching) during each study quarter. Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT) scores were used as a covariate for ANCOVA tests. Case Study Teaching Methodology had a statistically significant improvement on Academic Achievement during the first study quarter, but not the second quarter. Case Study Teaching Methodology had a statistically significant improvement on four of seven Science Attitudes, Problem Solving Skills, and Teamwork Skills during the second quarter of the study. This study is significant in that it addresses a knowledge gap regarding the effects of the constructivist-based case study teaching methodology on secondary science education. The theoretical implications of this study are meaningful: empirical evidence is added to the growing knowledge base regarding the benefits of constructivist theory. The practical implications are equally meaningful: case study teaching methodology is supported as an effective application of constructivist theory in the secondary science classroom.

  6. Factors affecting length of stay in teaching hospitals of a middle-income country

    PubMed Central

    Khosravizadeh, Omid; Vatankhah, Soudabeh; Bastani, Peivand; Kalhor, Rohollah; Alirezaei, Samira; Doosty, Farzane

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The length of stay (LOS) in hospitals is a widely used and important criteria for evaluating hospital performance. The aim of this study was to determine factors affecting LOS in teaching hospitals of Qazvin Providence. Methods In this cross-sectional study, patients’ health records were randomly selected from archives in teaching hospitals of Qazvin in 2013. Data were collected through a data entry form and were analyzed using Kolmogorov–Smirnov, Kruskal–Wallis, and Mann–Whitney U tests at the significant level of 0.05. Results The mean of hospital LOS was 5.45 ± 6.14 days. Age, employment, marital status, history of previous admission, patient condition at discharge, method of payment, and type of treatment had an impact on LOS (p<0.05). Other factors, including gender, place of residence, and type of admission, did not affect LOS. Conclusion Because hospitals consume a perceptible part of resources in a health system, controlled and optimized use of its resources help to save a lot. Therefore, this study showed many clinical and nonclinical factors affect LOS in evaluating these factors, which may reduce inappropriate hospital stays and decrease costs. PMID:27957301

  7. Pharmacy Information Systems in Teaching Hospitals: A Multi-dimensional Evaluation Study.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Alireza; Rabiei, Reza; Moghaddasi, Hamid; Deimazar, Ghasem

    2016-07-01

    In hospitals, the pharmacy information system (PIS) is usually a sub-system of the hospital information system (HIS). The PIS supports the distribution and management of drugs, shows drug and medical device inventory, and facilitates preparing needed reports. In this study, pharmacy information systems implemented in general teaching hospitals affiliated to medical universities in Tehran (Iran) were evaluated using a multi-dimensional tool. This was an evaluation study conducted in 2015. To collect data, a checklist was developed by reviewing the relevant literature; this checklist included both general and specific criteria to evaluate pharmacy information systems. The checklist was then validated by medical informatics experts and pharmacists. The sample of the study included five PIS in general-teaching hospitals affiliated to three medical universities in Tehran (Iran). Data were collected using the checklist and through observing the systems. The findings were presented as tables. Five PIS were evaluated in the five general-teaching hospitals that had the highest bed numbers. The findings showed that the evaluated pharmacy information systems lacked some important general and specific criteria. Among the general evaluation criteria, it was found that only two of the PIS studied were capable of restricting repeated attempts made for unauthorized access to the systems. With respect to the specific evaluation criteria, no attention was paid to the patient safety aspect. The PIS studied were mainly designed to support financial tasks; little attention was paid to clinical and patient safety features.

  8. [Practical training for paramedics : Transformation at the Leipzig University teaching hospital].

    PubMed

    Girrbach, F F; Bernhard, M; Wessel, M; Gries, A; Bercker, S

    2017-01-01

    The "Notfallsanitätergesetz" (the law pertaining to paramedics), which came into effect in January 2014, has fundamentally changed the training of health personnel in German prehospital emergency medicine. The apprenticeship now takes 3 years including 720 h of practical training in eligible hospitals. To date, however, there has been little experience of how the contents of the guidelines for practical training ("Ausbildungs- und Prüfungsverordnung") can be reasonably applied in the teaching hospitals. In a total of nine interdisciplinary working group meetings between October 2014 and June 2016, we developed a curriculum concerning the practical training of paramedics to implement the contents of the guidelines for practical training in a didactically and an organizationally meaningful way. The implementation of the practical training of paramedics is an excellent chance for the teaching hospitals to contribute to higher quality prehospital emergency medicine. Otherwise, the teaching hospitals face an organizational and personal effort that is not to be underestimated. Thus, a modular curriculum constitutes the possibility of standardizing practical training and simultaneously reducing the time and expenditure for the participating hospitals. The development of a unique curriculum for the practical training of paramedics may contribute to standardized, high-quality, and cost-efficient training.

  9. Restructuring within an academic health center to support quality and safety: the development of the Center for Quality and Safety at the Massachusetts General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Bohmer, Richard M J; Bloom, Jonathan D; Mort, Elizabeth A; Demehin, Akinluwa A; Meyer, Gregg S

    2009-12-01

    Recent focus on the need to improve the quality and safety of health care has created new challenges for academic health centers (AHCs). Whereas previously quality was largely assumed, today it is increasingly quantifiable and requires organized systems for improvement. Traditional structures and cultures within AHCs, although well suited to the tripartite missions of teaching, research, and clinical care, are not easily adaptable to the tasks of measuring, reporting, and improving quality. Here, the authors use a case study of Massachusetts General Hospital's efforts to restructure quality and safety to illustrate the value of beginning with a focus on organizational culture, using a systematic process of engaging clinical leadership, developing an organizational framework dependent on proven business principles, leveraging focus events, and maintaining executive dedication to execution of the initiative. The case provides a generalizable example for AHCs of how applying explicit management design can foster robust organizational change with relatively modest incremental financial resources.

  10. Teaching residents to communicate: the use of a telephone triage system in an academic ambulatory clinic.

    PubMed

    Caralis, Panagiota

    2010-09-01

    This study evaluated the use of a telephone triage system in an academic primary care clinic and its impact on communication, patient management and satisfaction. A "telephone clinic" was created using a triage nurse to answer patients' calls to an academic primary care clinic, staffed by house staff physicians. Chart reviews were conducted of all medical records of patients who called and were referred to the telephone clinic during a six month period. A total of 1135 patient calls were monitored. Using a random selection process, 366 patient calls were studied and 42% of these patients were called back two weeks after the initial call and were interviewed. Of the 336 calls, 68% of the calls were serious enough to be referred to a house staff physician. Symptom complaints accounted for 64% of the telephone calls; 4% of patients were sent to the emergency room or admitted to the hospital directly based on the information from the call. Telephone calls enhanced patients' access to specialty care consultative services and 14% of patients who called received a new medication prescription. Patients' satisfaction with the communication and the overall care provided by the "telephone clinic" was highly rated. The telephone contact initiated by the patients resulted in expedited access for patients whose symptoms were serious enough to require immediate referral to the emergency room or direct hospital admission. In a primary care practice, the telephone can be a major source of communication for practitioners, office staff and patients. The creation of a "telephone clinic" which utilizes nurses and house staff physicians trained and dedicated to telephone communication directly with patients resulted in more efficient management and greater satisfaction for patients. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. A networking approach to reduce academic and social isolation for junior doctors working in rural hospitals in India.

    PubMed

    Vyas, R; Zachariah, A; Swamidasan, I; Doris, P; Harris, I

    2012-07-01

    Graduates from Christian Medical College (CMC) Vellore face many challenges while doing their service obligation in smaller hospitals, including academic and social isolation. To overcome these challenges, CMC aspired through its Fellowship in Secondary Hospital Medicine (FSHM), a 1-year blended on-site and distance-learning program, to provide academic and social support through networking for junior doctors working in rural areas. The purpose of this paper is to report the evaluation of the networking components of the FSHM program, with a focus on whether it succeeded in providing academic and social support for these junior doctors. A mixed method evaluation was done using written surveys for students and faculty and telephone interviews for students. Evidence for validity was gathered for the written survey. Criteria for validity were also applied for the qualitative data analysis. The major strengths of networking with faculty and peers identified were that it provided social support,, academic support through discussion about patient management problems and a variety of cases seen in the hospital, guidance on projects and reminders about deadlines. Recommendations for improvement included use of videoconferencing and Yahoo Groups. It is useful to incorporate networking into distance-learning educational programs for providing support to junior doctors working in rural hospitals.

  12. Association between chest compression rates and clinical outcomes following in-hospital cardiac arrest at an academic tertiary hospital

    PubMed Central

    Kilgannon, J. Hope; Kirchhoff, Michael; Pierce, Lisa; Aunchman, Nicholas; Trzeciak, Stephen; Roberts, Brian W

    2016-01-01

    Aims Recent guidelines for management of cardiac arrest recommend chest compression rates of 100-120 compressions/min. However, animal studies have found cardiac output to increase with rates up to 150 compressions/min. The objective of this study was to test the association between chest compression rates during cardiopulmonary resuscitation for in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) and outcome. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study at a single academic medical center. Inclusion criteria: age ≥18, IHCA, cardiopulmonary resuscitation performed. We analyzed chest compression rates measured by defibrillation electrodes, which recorded changes in thoracic impedance. The primary outcome was return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). We used multivariable logistic regression to determine odds ratios for ROSC by chest compression rate categories (100-120, 121-140, >140 compressions/min), adjusted for chest compression fraction (proportion of time chest compressions provided) and other known predictors of outcome. We set 100-120 compressions/min as the reference category for the multivariable model. Results We enrolled 222 consecutive patients and found a mean chest compression rate of 139±15. Overall 53% achieved ROSC; among 100-120, 121-140, and >140 compressions/min, ROSC was 29%, 64%, and 49% respectively. A chest compression rate of 121-140 compressions/min had the greatest likelihood of ROSC, odds ratio 4.48 (95% CI 1.42-14.14). Conclusions In this sample of adult IHCA patients, a chest compression rate of 121-140 compressions/min had the highest odds ratio of ROSC. Rates above the currently recommended 100-120 compressions/min may improve the chances of ROSC among IHCA patients. PMID:27666168

  13. Applying the Balanced Scorecard approach in teaching hospitals: a literature review and conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Annarita; Cardamone, Emma; Cavallaro, Giusy; Mauro, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    Teaching hospitals (THs) simultaneously serve three different roles: offering medical treatment, teaching future doctors and promoting research. The international literature recognises such organisations as 'peaks of excellence' and highlights their economic function in the health system. In addition, the literature describes the urgent need to manage the complex dynamics and inefficiency issues that threaten the survival of teaching hospitals worldwide. In this context, traditional performance measurement systems that focus only on accounting and financial measures appear to be inadequate. Given that THs are highly specific and complex, a multidimensional system of performance measurement, such as the Balanced Scorecard (BSC), may be more appropriate because of the multitude of stakeholders, each of whom seek a specific type of accountability. The aim of the paper was twofold: (i) to review the literature on the BSC and its applications in teaching hospitals and (ii) to propose a scorecard framework that is suitable for assessing the performance of THs and serving as a guide for scholars and practitioners. In addition, this research will contribute to the ongoing debate on performance evaluation systems by suggesting a revised BSC framework and proposing specific performance indicators for THs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Plastic surgeons’ self-reported operative infection rates at a Canadian academic hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wendy KY; Kaur, Manraj Nirmal; Thoma, Achilleas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection rates are of great interest to patients, surgeons, hospitals and third-party payers. While previous studies have reported hospital-acquired infection rates that are nonspecific to all surgical services, there remain no overall reported infection rates focusing specifically on plastic surgery in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the reported surgical site infection rate in plastic surgery procedures over a 10-year period at an academic hospital in Canada. METHODS: A review was conducted on reported plastic surgery surgical site infection rates from 2003 to 2013, based on procedures performed in the main operating room. For comparison, prospective infection surveillance data over an eight-year period (2005 to 2013) for nonplastic surgery procedures were reviewed to estimate the overall operative surgical site infection rates. RESULTS: A total of 12,183 plastic surgery operations were performed from 2003 to 2013, with 96 surgical site infections reported, corresponding to a net operative infection rate of 0.79%. There was a 0.49% surgeon-reported infection rate for implant-based procedures. For non-plastic surgery procedures, surgical site infection rates ranged from 0.04% for cataract surgery to 13.36% for high-risk abdominal hysterectomies. DISCUSSION: The plastic surgery infection rate at the study institution was found to be <1%. This rate was equal to, or somewhat less than, surgical site infection rates. However, these results do not report patterns of infection rates germane to procedures, season, age groups or sex. To provide more in-depth knowledge of this topic, multicentre studies should be conducted. PMID:25535460

  15. Plastic surgeons' self-reported operative infection rates at a Canadian academic hospital.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wendy Ky; Kaur, Manraj Nirmal; Thoma, Achilleas

    2014-01-01

    Surgical site infection rates are of great interest to patients, surgeons, hospitals and third-party payers. While previous studies have reported hospital-acquired infection rates that are nonspecific to all surgical services, there remain no overall reported infection rates focusing specifically on plastic surgery in the literature. To estimate the reported surgical site infection rate in plastic surgery procedures over a 10-year period at an academic hospital in Canada. A review was conducted on reported plastic surgery surgical site infection rates from 2003 to 2013, based on procedures performed in the main operating room. For comparison, prospective infection surveillance data over an eight-year period (2005 to 2013) for nonplastic surgery procedures were reviewed to estimate the overall operative surgical site infection rates. A total of 12,183 plastic surgery operations were performed from 2003 to 2013, with 96 surgical site infections reported, corresponding to a net operative infection rate of 0.79%. There was a 0.49% surgeon-reported infection rate for implant-based procedures. For non-plastic surgery procedures, surgical site infection rates ranged from 0.04% for cataract surgery to 13.36% for high-risk abdominal hysterectomies. The plastic surgery infection rate at the study institution was found to be <1%. This rate was equal to, or somewhat less than, surgical site infection rates. However, these results do not report patterns of infection rates germane to procedures, season, age groups or sex. To provide more in-depth knowledge of this topic, multicentre studies should be conducted.

  16. Postplacental intrauterine device insertion at a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Jatlaoui, Tara C; Marcus, Michele; Jamieson, Denise J; Goedken, Peggy; Cwiak, Carrie

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether postplacental intrauterine device (IUD) insertion can be safely and effectively performed within a teaching program. This was a prospective cohort of 177 subjects planning vaginal delivery enrolled antenatally who desired postplacental IUD insertion of either the copper T380A IUD or levonorgestrel IUS. Insertions were performed primarily by resident physicians following a training session. Follow-up included a 4- to 8-week visit and telephone calls at 3 and 6 months. Ninety-nine subjects underwent successful postplacental IUD insertion of 100 attempts. Seventeen expulsions (17%) were noted: 10 complete and 7 partial. The study identified no differences in outcome by training level; however, the study lacked statistical power to evaluate anything other than large differences. Postplacental IUD insertions can be safely and effectively performed within a training program. A training protocol may safely and feasibly be initiated among physicians, advanced practice clinicians or trainees with no prior experience with postplacental IUD insertion. By initiating this practice, access to highly effective contraception may increase for patients who have difficulty returning for a visit or otherwise receiving effective methods. © 2014.

  17. Teaching hospital financial status and patient outcomes following ACGME duty hour reform.

    PubMed

    Navathe, Amol S; Silber, Jeffrey H; Small, Dylan S; Rosen, Amy K; Romano, Patrick S; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Wang, Yanli; Zhu, Jingsan; Halenar, Michael J; Volpp, Kevin G

    2013-04-01

    To examine whether hospital financial health was associated with differential changes in outcomes after implementation of 2003 ACGME duty hour regulations. Observational study of 3,614,174 Medicare patients admitted to 869 teaching hospitals from July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005. Interrupted time series analysis using logistic regression to adjust for patient comorbidities, secular trends, and hospital site. Outcomes included 30-day mortality, AHRQ Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs), failure-to-rescue (FTR) rates, and prolonged length of stay (PLOS). All eight analyses measuring the impact of duty hour reform on mortality by hospital financial health quartile, in postreform year 1 ("Post 1") or year 2 ("Post 2") versus the prereform period, were insignificant: Post 1 OR range 1.00-1.02 and Post 2 OR range 0.99-1.02. For PSIs, all six tests showed clinically insignificant effect sizes. The FTR rate analysis demonstrated nonsignificance in both postreform years (OR 1.00 for both). The PLOS outcomes varied significantly only for the combined surgical sample in Post 2, but this effect was very small, OR 1.03 (95% CI 1.02, 1.04). The impact of 2003 ACGME duty hour reform on patient outcomes did not differ by hospital financial health. This finding is somewhat reassuring, given additional financial pressure on teaching hospitals from 2011 duty hour regulations. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  18. Teaching Hospital Financial Status and Patient Outcomes Following ACGME Duty Hour Reform

    PubMed Central

    Navathe, Amol S; Silber, Jeffrey H; Small, Dylan S; Rosen, Amy K; Romano, Patrick S; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Wang, Yanli; Zhu, Jingsan; Halenar, Michael J; Volpp, Kevin G

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether hospital financial health was associated with differential changes in outcomes after implementation of 2003 ACGME duty hour regulations. Data Sources/Study Setting Observational study of 3,614,174 Medicare patients admitted to 869 teaching hospitals from July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005. Study Design Interrupted time series analysis using logistic regression to adjust for patient comorbidities, secular trends, and hospital site. Outcomes included 30-day mortality, AHRQ Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs), failure-to-rescue (FTR) rates, and prolonged length of stay (PLOS). Principal Findings All eight analyses measuring the impact of duty hour reform on mortality by hospital financial health quartile, in postreform year 1 (“Post 1”) or year 2 (“Post 2”) versus the prereform period, were insignificant: Post 1 OR range 1.00–1.02 and Post 2 OR range 0.99–1.02. For PSIs, all six tests showed clinically insignificant effect sizes. The FTR rate analysis demonstrated nonsignificance in both postreform years (OR 1.00 for both). The PLOS outcomes varied significantly only for the combined surgical sample in Post 2, but this effect was very small, OR 1.03 (95% CI 1.02, 1.04). Conclusions The impact of 2003 ACGME duty hour reform on patient outcomes did not differ by hospital financial health. This finding is somewhat reassuring, given additional financial pressure on teaching hospitals from 2011 duty hour regulations. PMID:22862427

  19. Organ donation after circulatory death in a university teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulos, S; Treasure, E; Silvester, W; Opdam, H; Warrillow, S J; Jones, D

    2016-07-01

    Although organ transplantation is well established for end-stage organ failure, many patients die on waiting lists due to insufficient donor numbers. Recently, there has been renewed interest in donation after circulatory death (DCD). In a retrospective observational study we reviewed the screening of patients considered for DCD between March 2007 and December 2012 in our hospital. Overall, 148 patients were screened, 17 of whom were transferred from other hospitals. Ninety-three patients were excluded (53 immediately and 40 after review by donation staff). The 55 DCD patients were younger than those excluded (P=0.007) and they died from hypoxic brain injury (43.6%), intraparenchymal haemorrhage (21.8%) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (14.5%). Antemortem heparin administration and bronchoscopy occurred in 50/53 (94.3%) and 22/55 (40%) of cases, respectively. Forty-eight patients died within 90 minutes and proceeded to donation surgery. Associations with not dying in 90 minutes included spontaneous ventilation mode (P=0.022), absence of noradrenaline infusion (P=0.051) and higher PaO2:FiO2 ratio (P=0.052). The number of brain dead donors did not decrease over the study period. The time interval between admission and death was longer for DCD than for the 45 brain dead donors (5 [3-11] versus 2 [2-3] days; P<0.001), and 95 additional patients received organ transplants due to DCD. Introducing a DCD program can increase potential organ donors without reducing brain dead donors. Antemortem investigations appear to be acceptable to relatives when included in the consent process.

  20. Some Correlates of Electronic Health Information Management System Success in Nigerian Teaching Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Adebowale I; Popoola, Sunday O

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, an electronic health information management system (EHIMS) is crucial for patient care in hospitals. This paper explores the aspects and elements that contribute to the success of EHIMS in Nigerian teaching hospitals. The study adopted a survey research design. The population of study comprised 442 health information management personnel in five teaching hospitals that had implemented EHIMS in Nigeria. A self-developed questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. The findings revealed that there is a positive, close relationship between all the identified factors and EHIMS’s success: technical factors (r = 0.564, P < 0.05); social factors (r = 0.616, P < 0.05); organizational factors (r = 0.621, P < 0.05); financial factors (r = 0.705, P < 0.05); and political factors (r = 0.589, P < 0.05). We conclude that consideration of all the identified factors was highly significant for the success of EHIMS in Nigerian teaching hospitals. PMID:25983557

  1. Effects of implementing time-variable postgraduate training programmes on the organization of teaching hospital departments.

    PubMed

    van Rossum, Tiuri R; Scheele, Fedde; Sluiter, Henk E; Paternotte, Emma; Heyligers, Ide C

    2018-01-31

    As competency-based education has gained currency in postgraduate medical education, it is acknowledged that trainees, having individual learning curves, acquire the desired competencies at different paces. To accommodate their different learning needs, time-variable curricula have been introduced making training no longer time-bound. This paradigm has many consequences and will, predictably, impact the organization of teaching hospitals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of time-variable postgraduate education on the organization of teaching hospital departments. We undertook exploratory case studies into the effects of time-variable training on teaching departments' organization. We held semi-structured interviews with clinical teachers and managers from various hospital departments. The analysis yielded six effects: (1) time-variable training requires flexible and individual planning, (2) learners must be active and engaged, (3) accelerated learning sometimes comes at the expense of clinical expertise, (4) fast-track training for gifted learners jeopardizes the continuity of care, (5) time-variable training demands more of supervisors, and hence, they need protected time for supervision, and (6) hospital boards should support time-variable training. Implementing time-variable education affects various levels within healthcare organizations, including stakeholders not directly involved in medical education. These effects must be considered when implementing time-variable curricula.

  2. Defining teaching hospitals' GME strategy in response to new financial and market challenges.

    PubMed

    Wray, J L; Sadowski, S M

    1998-04-01

    The authors present an overview of current graduate medical education (GME) issues, particularly the financial challenges to teaching hospitals resulting from the Balanced Budget and Tax Payer Relief Acts of 1997 and other recent market-driven factors. They describe in detail the nature of Medicare GME payments before and after the 1997 legislation, with specific examples, and explain the negative financial impact of the legislation and aspects of the legislation that are designed to alleviate that impact. Other factors influencing GME program size and composition are also discussed, including oversupplies or shortages of physicians, the concern that teaching hospitals are using public funds to train international medical graduates, changing training requirements, etc. The authors also describe a recent consulting assignment during which they assisted a major teaching hospital to develop a GME strategy that was responsive to the organization's mission and patients and that took into account future GME financing challenges. Detailed explanations are given of how the consultants analyzed the hospital's GME programs and finances, developed and ranked key institution-specific program criteria (strategic, organizational and operational, and financial), and, in consultation with all key stakeholders, formulated a GME strategy specific to the institution's needs. The authors conclude by cautioning that each institution's GME strategy will be different, but that it is important for institutions to develop such strategies to better face future challenges.

  3. Improving identification and documentation of pressure ulcers at an urban academic hospital

    PubMed Central

    Dahlstrom, Marcus; Best, Thomas; Baker, Christine; Doeing, Diane; Davis, Andrew; Doty, Judith; Arora, Vineet M.

    2012-01-01

    Background A two-year quality improvement campaign at a single teaching hospital was launched to improve the identification, documentation, and treatment of pressure ulcers (PUs) after Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) declared severe hospital-acquired PUs are “never-events.” Method The campaign included (1) reference materials, (2) new documentation templates, (3) staff education, and (4) hospital-wide mattress replacement. An ongoing retrospective chart review of frail older patients determined the presence of PU documentation, which provider (nurse or physician) documented the PU, and which descriptors (stage, size, or location) were used. Results The campaign significantly increased the proportion of PUs completely documented by nurses from 27% to 55% following mattress replacement and resident education (OR 3.68, p = 0.001, 95% CI: 1.68–8.08). A similar improvement was observed for physician documentation increasing from 12% to 36% following the same interventions however this change was not statistically significant (OR 2.11, p = 0.12, 95% CI: 0.82–5.39). These improvements were short-lived due to the implementation of electronic medical records (EMR) for nursing notes. Although the percentage of PUs completely documented by nurses decreased following EMR implementation, it increased in the following months, above the pre-campaign baseline as nurses adapted to the new documentation system. However, after EMR implementation, complete PU documentation by physicians fell to a nadir of 0% and did not recover. Discussion A multi-component campaign to improve the quality of PU documentation by both physicians and nurses can yield positive gains. However, these improvements were short-lived due to EMR implementation, which acutely worsened documentation of PUs. This emphasizes the importance of frequent and repeated interventions to sustain quality improvement successes. PMID:21500755

  4. Comparison of hospital outcomes and resource use in acute COPD exacerbation patients managed by teaching versus nonteaching services in a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Abusaada, Khalid; Alsaleh, Leen; Herrera, Victor; Du, Yuan; Baig, Hassan; Everett, George

    2017-06-01

    The impact of teaching versus nonteaching services on outcomes and resource use in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is unknown. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of an internal medicine teaching service compared to a nonteaching service on outcomes and resource use in patients admitted with AECOPD in a community teaching hospital. A retrospective cohort study of patients admitted for a primary diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation to Florida Hospital Orlando, a large community teaching hospital, between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2014. Data were extracted from Premier administrative database. Risk adjusted length of stay (LOS), cost of hospitalization, 30-day readmissions, and mortality rate were measured. Risk adjustment for outcomes was based on Premier CareScience methodology. A total of 1419 patients were included, 306 in the teaching group and 1113 in the nonteaching group. Risk adjusted cost and LOS were significantly lower in the teaching group compared to the nonteaching group (observed/expected cost 0.66 vs 1.06, P < .001) and (observed/expected LOS 0.93 vs 1.69, P < .001), respectively. No significant difference was found between the 2 groups in risk adjusted mortality and readmissions (P = .48 and .89, respectively). Use of consults was significantly lower in the teaching groups with 73% vs 31% of the patient in the teaching group had no consults compared to the nonteaching group (P < .001). The teaching service was significantly associated with decreased use of consults after adjustment for other variables (odds ratio, 0.17, 95% CI, 0.15-0.23, P < .001). The teaching service had more favorable outcomes compared to nonteaching services in patients hospitalized for AECOPD. The physician practice model has a major impact on the cost, LOS, and use of consults in patients with AECOPD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Auditing of clinical research ethics in a children's and women's academic hospital.

    PubMed

    Bortolussi, Robert; Nicholson, Diann

    2002-06-01

    Canadian and international guidelines for research ethics practices have advocated that research ethics boards (REBs) should implement mechanisms to review and monitor human research. Despite this, few Canadian REBs fulfil this expectation. The objective of this report is to summarize the results of 6 audits of clinical research ethics conducted between 1992 and 2000 in a children's and women's academic hospital in Canada in an effort to guide other academic centres planning a similar process. Research audits were conducted by members of a research audit review committee made up of REB volunteers. With use of random and selective processes, approximately 10% of research protocols were audited through interviews with research investigators and research coordinators and by sampling research records. Predetermined criteria were used to assess evidence of good record keeping, data monitoring, adherence to protocol, consents and the recording of adverse events during the research study. An estimate of time required to undertake an audit was made by recall of participants and records. Thirty-five research studies were reviewed including 16 multicentre clinical trials and 19 single-site clinical studies. Review of record keeping and research practice revealed some deficiencies: researchers failed to maintain original authorization (7%) or renewal documentation (9%); there was 1 instance of improper storage of medication; in 5% of 174 participants for whom consent was reviewed, an outdated consent form had been used, and in 4% the signature of the enrolee was not properly shown. Other deficiencies in consent documentation occurred in less than 2% of cases. Nineteen recommendations were made with respect to deficiencies and process issues. A total of 9 to 20 person-hours are required to review each protocol in a typical audit of this type. Information from research audits has been useful to develop educational programs to correct deficiencies identified through the audits

  6. General internal medicine reappears in the teaching hospital: the experience of the Royal Victoria Hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Kong, H. H.; Flegel, K. M.; Coke, W.; Hoey, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The internal medicine unit of the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal was created in 1979 to improve the training of residents and the care of patients. The practices of four internists were brought together in one part of the institution, and within 2 years there were 10 attending staff and 6 residents. The unit now provides continuing care for 2500 patients, many of whom have multisystem or potentially lethal problems. Residents and attending staff share the responsibility of providing 24-hour coverage. The group handles 5000 outpatient visits per year (20% of them being consultations) and provides a general medical consulting service for other hospital departments, with about 300 consultations per year. The creation of the unit, with highly visible role models, appears to have given new prestige to general internists in the hospital. The unit has served as a model for the reorganization of the other medical clinics and provides a base for research in health care delivery. PMID:7139501

  7. Computed tomographic studies of the head in a teaching hospital and a community hospital: a comparison

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, B.J.; Kirkwood, J.R.; Hanley, J.A.

    1982-11-01

    This investigation compared the use of computed tomography (CT) of the head at a large primary medical-school-affiliated hospital and at a large community hospital. There were two aims: first, to study the intrinsic characteristics of the patients in an attempt to determine the protential for developing accurate discrimination algorithms; and second, to study the patterns of neurodiagnostic tests used at these facilities. The results indicated that separability of patients into normal and abnormal categories at both institutions was extremely small. In addition, there was no significant difference in the numbers or types of ancillary tests used at both institutions. Overall,more » these data once more confirm the difficulty of altering CT usage patterns in primary or secondary hospitals without significantly affecting the number of abnormal patients identified.« less

  8. Trends in neurosurgical complication rates at teaching vs nonteaching hospitals following duty-hour restrictions.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Travis M; Tranmer, Bruce I; Horgan, Michael A; Rughani, Anand I

    2012-11-01

    In 2003 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education implemented duty-hour restrictions for residents, with an unclear impact on patient care. The authors hypothesize that implementation of duty-hour restrictions is not associated with decreased morbidity for neurosurgical patients. This hypothesis was tested with the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to examine inpatient complications associated with a common elective procedure, craniotomy for meningioma. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried for all patients admitted for elective craniotomy for meningioma from 1998 to 2008, excluding the year 2003. Each case was queried for common in-hospital postoperative complications. The complication rate was compared for 5-year epochs at teaching and nonteaching hospitals before (1998-2002) and after (2004-2008) the adoption of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work-hour restriction. Multivariate analysis was performed to control for the effects of age and medical comorbidities. We identified 21177 patients who met inclusion criteria. We identified an effect of age, preexisting medical comorbidity, and timing of surgery on postoperative complication rates. At teaching hospitals, the complication rate increased from 14% to 16% (P < .001). In contrast, this increase was not mirrored at nonteaching hospitals, which saw a nearly constant postoperative complication rate of 15% from 1998 to 2002 and 15% for the years 2004 to 2008 (P = .979). This effect remained significant in a multivariate analysis including age and existing comorbidities as covariates (P = .016). In patients undergoing craniotomy for meningioma, postoperative complication rates increased at teaching hospitals, but not at nonteaching hospitals over the 5-year epochs before and after 2003.

  9. Malpractice awareness among surgeons at a teaching hospital in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Asfandyar; Ali, Sajid; Ejaz, Sadaf; Farooqi, Marium; Ahmed, Syed Salman; Jawaid, Imran

    2012-11-06

    The duty of a doctor to take care presumes the person who offers medical advice and treatment to unequivocally possess the skills and knowledge to do so. However, a sense of responsibility cannot be guaranteed in the absence of accountability, which in turn requires a comprehensive medical law system to be in place. Such a system is almost non-existent in Pakistan. Keeping the above in mind, we designed this study to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of surgeons regarding malpractice at a tertiary care center in Pakistan. This was an observational, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study conducted during a three month period from 31st March, 2012 to 30th June, 2012 at Civil Hospital, Karachi. Surgeons who were available during the period of our study and had been working in the hospital for at least 6 months were included. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed after seeking informed, written consent. The specialties included were general surgery, cardiothoracic surgery, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, plastic surgery, pediatric surgery, orthopedic surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgery and gynecology and obstetrics. The study questionnaire comprised of four sections. The first section was concerned with the demographics of the surgeons. The second section analyzed the knowledge of the respondents regarding professional negligence and malpractice. The third section assessed the attitudes surgeons with regard to malpractice. The last section dealt with the general and specific practices and experiences of surgeons regarding malpractice. Of the 319 surgeons interviewed, 68.7% were oblivious of the complete definition of malpractice. Leaving foreign objects inside the patient (79.6%) was the most commonly agreed upon form of malpractice, whereas failure to break news in entirety (43.9%) was most frequently disagreed. In the event of a medical error, majority (67.7%) were ready to disclose their error to the patient. The most

  10. Malpractice awareness among surgeons at a teaching hospital in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The duty of a doctor to take care presumes the person who offers medical advice and treatment to unequivocally possess the skills and knowledge to do so. However, a sense of responsibility cannot be guaranteed in the absence of accountability, which in turn requires a comprehensive medical law system to be in place. Such a system is almost non-existent in Pakistan. Keeping the above in mind, we designed this study to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of surgeons regarding malpractice at a tertiary care center in Pakistan. Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study conducted during a three month period from 31st March, 2012 to 30th June, 2012 at Civil Hospital, Karachi. Surgeons who were available during the period of our study and had been working in the hospital for at least 6 months were included. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed after seeking informed, written consent. The specialties included were general surgery, cardiothoracic surgery, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, plastic surgery, pediatric surgery, orthopedic surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgery and gynecology and obstetrics. The study questionnaire comprised of four sections. The first section was concerned with the demographics of the surgeons. The second section analyzed the knowledge of the respondents regarding professional negligence and malpractice. The third section assessed the attitudes surgeons with regard to malpractice. The last section dealt with the general and specific practices and experiences of surgeons regarding malpractice. Results Of the 319 surgeons interviewed, 68.7% were oblivious of the complete definition of malpractice. Leaving foreign objects inside the patient (79.6%) was the most commonly agreed upon form of malpractice, whereas failure to break news in entirety (43.9%) was most frequently disagreed. In the event of a medical error, majority (67.7%) were ready to disclose their error

  11. Quality improvement of medical records in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Attena, F; Di Palma, M A; Esposito, S; Galdo, V; Gimigliano, A; Parmeggiani, C; Agozzino, E

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of the MR compilation in some Operative Units of the "Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria--II Università di Napoli" (AOU- SUN)-Italy, before and after an intervention of quality improvement, underlining the potential differences in the behaviour of different specialists (physicians vs. surgeons). Two random samples of 660 MRs were reviewed. A four-step program was developed: (1) first assessment of the MR; (2) implementation of the MR quality, sending a letter with the purpose of the study, the results obtained in the first step from that ward, the guidelines to correctly fill out the MR; (3) follow-up step four months later; (4) comparison of the data before and after the distribution of the guidelines using indicators of completeness of all sections of MR, clarity of handwriting and presence and clarity of signature. The main concerns were related to the signature of the duty physician (present in 2.0% and legible in only 15.4%), the presence of the letter of discharge (18.0%) and the clarity of the days of hospital stay (32.0%). After the intervention the improvement of the quality of compilation was modest and regarded mainly medical rather than surgical wards. The improvement was not satisfying since from a medical and a legal point of view the indicators should reach 100% of clarity and completeness. A further study is being carried out to improve the involvement of health care professional, so that such requirements will be perceived as a common goal, not as mere bureaucratic initiatives.

  12. The performance of the ethics committees in teaching hospitals affiliated with mashhad university of medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Meraji, Marziyhe; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Ramezan Ghorbani, Nahid; Nezami, Azar

    2014-04-01

    During the last three decades, ethics committees have been formed with a growing trend. These committees have a satisfactory and effective impact on the pattern of patient care and its performance. The medical ethics committee is considered one of the most active committees in hospitals, having the aim of providing necessary approaches for the optimal use of the findings in empirical science and diagnostic treatment and observance of Islamic noble values in performing medical affairs. The aim of this study is to assess the performance of the ethics committees, in the teaching hospitals affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, in Mashhad. Subjects of this study include teaching hospitals in Mashhad, affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences and the tool used in gathering the data was a questionnaire, completed based on the information provided by the proceedings of the meetings held by the ethics committees. Also, for the purpose of gathering the suggestions, specifically on the improvement of the performance, a meeting was held with the representatives from hospitals' ethics committees. During the meeting, work reports were presented and recommendations made, based on those presentations. . Findings of the present study suggest that all hospitals under study, have an ethics committee, of which 85.7% operate in combination with other committees. The composition of the members of the committees, in 57.1% of the hospitals, was based on the guidelines for hospital evaluation. For the performance of the medical ethics committees to improve, it is recommended that the hospital administration and evaluation section, hold regular meetings and oblige members to participate more actively.

  13. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcal contamination of cellular phones of personnel in a veterinary teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hospital-associated infections are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in veterinary patients. With the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria, these infections can be particularly difficult to eradicate. Sources of hospital-associated infections can include the patients own flora, medical staff and inanimate hospital objects. Cellular phones are becoming an invaluable feature of communication within hospitals, and since they are frequently handled by healthcare personnel, there may be a potential for contamination with various pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of contamination of cellular phones (hospital issued and personal) carried by personnel at the Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Centre with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Results MRSP was isolated from 1.6% (2/123) and MRSA was isolated from 0.8% (1/123) of cellular phones. Only 21.9% (27/123) of participants in the study indicated that they routinely cleaned their cellular phone. Conclusions Cellular phones in a veterinary teaching hospital can harbour MRSP and MRSA, two opportunistic pathogens of significant concern. While the contamination rate was low, cellular phones could represent a potential source for infection of patients as well as infection of veterinary personnel and other people that might have contact with them. Regardless of the low incidence of contamination of cellular phones found in this study, a disinfection protocol for hospital-issued and personal cellular phones used in veterinary teaching hospitals should be in place to reduce the potential of cross-contamination. PMID:22533923

  14. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcal contamination of cellular phones of personnel in a veterinary teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Julian, Timothy; Singh, Ameet; Rousseau, Joyce; Weese, J Scott

    2012-07-10

    Hospital-associated infections are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in veterinary patients. With the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria, these infections can be particularly difficult to eradicate. Sources of hospital-associated infections can include the patients own flora, medical staff and inanimate hospital objects. Cellular phones are becoming an invaluable feature of communication within hospitals, and since they are frequently handled by healthcare personnel, there may be a potential for contamination with various pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of contamination of cellular phones (hospital issued and personal) carried by personnel at the Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Centre with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSP was isolated from 1.6% (2/123) and MRSA was isolated from 0.8% (1/123) of cellular phones. Only 21.9% (27/123) of participants in the study indicated that they routinely cleaned their cellular phone. Cellular phones in a veterinary teaching hospital can harbour MRSP and MRSA, two opportunistic pathogens of significant concern. While the contamination rate was low, cellular phones could represent a potential source for infection of patients as well as infection of veterinary personnel and other people that might have contact with them. Regardless of the low incidence of contamination of cellular phones found in this study, a disinfection protocol for hospital-issued and personal cellular phones used in veterinary teaching hospitals should be in place to reduce the potential of cross-contamination.

  15. Academic performance and perception of learning following a peer coaching teaching and assessment strategy.

    PubMed

    Moore, Catherine; Westwater-Wood, Sarah; Kerry, Roger

    2016-03-01

    Peer coaching has been associated with positive effects on learning. Specifically, these associations have been explored in complex healthcare professions. A social theory of learning has been proposed as a key component of the utility of peer coaching. Further, within the peer coaching model, assessment has been considered as an important driver. Empirical support for these dimensions of the model is lacking. To quantify assessment achievements and explore emergent attitudes and beliefs about learning related to a specific peer coaching model with integrated assessment. A longitudinal study based in a UK Higher Education Institute recorded assessment achievements and surveyed attitudes and beliefs in consecutive Year 1 undergraduate (physiotherapy) students (n = 560) between 2002 and 2012. A 6% improvement in academic achievement was demonstrated following the introduction of a peer coaching learning model. This was increased by a further 5% following the implementation of an integrated assessment. The improvement related to an overall averaged increase of one marking band. Students valued the strategy, and themes relating to the importance of social learning emerged from survey data. Peer coaching is an evidence-based teaching and learning strategy which can facilitate learning in complex subject areas. The strategy is underpinned by social learning theory which is supported by emergent student-reported attitudes.

  16. Differential use of learning strategies in first-year higher education: the impact of personality, academic motivation, and teaching strategies.

    PubMed

    Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Coertjens, Liesje; Van Daal, Tine; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Although the evidence in support of the variability of students' learning strategies has expanded in recent years, less is known about the explanatory base of these individual differences in terms of the joint influences of personal and contextual characteristics. Previous studies have often investigated how student learning is associated with either personal or contextual factors. This study takes an integrative research perspective into account and examines the joint effects of personality, academic motivation, and teaching strategies on students' learning strategies in a same educational context in first-year higher education. In this study, 1,126 undergraduate students and 90 lecturers from eight professional bachelor programmes in a university college participated. Self-report measures were used to measure students' personality, academic motivation, and learning strategies. Students' processing and regulation strategies are mapped using the Inventory of Learning Styles. Key characteristics of more content-focused versus learning-focused teaching strategies were measured. Multivariate multi-level analysis was used to take the nested data structure and interrelatedness of learning strategies into account. Different personality traits (openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism) and academic motivation (amotivation, autonomous, and controlled motivation) were found to be independently associated with student learning strategies. Besides these student characteristics, also teaching strategies were found to be directly associated with learning strategies. The study makes clear that the impact of teaching strategies on learning strategies in first-year higher education cannot be overlooked nor overinterpreted, due to the importance of students' personality and academic motivation which also partly explain why students learn the way they do. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Surveillance of nosocomial infections in the Yaounde University Teaching Hospital, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nouetchognou, Julienne Stéphanie; Ateudjieu, Jérôme; Jemea, Bonaventure; Mesumbe, Edmond Nzene; Mbanya, Dora

    2016-12-08

    Nosocomial infections (NI) represent a real public health problem in developing countries. Their surveillance is recommended to provide needed information for better control. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and distribution of NI in the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital (YUTH). It was a longitudinal and descriptive study targeting hospitalized patients in the intensive care, gynaecological, surgical and neonatal units. Each consenting patient was administered a questionnaire at the beginning of the study and followed up daily for the duration of their hospitalization using a standardized grid to detect all nosocomial infections. Cumulative incidence was used to estimate NI frequency. There were 307 patients included. The cumulative incidence and specific mortality rate of NI were 19.21% (16.9-21.5) and 28% (16.2-42.5) respectively. Septicaemia (20.34%), infection of the skin and soft tissues (20.34%) and urinary tract infections (15.25%) were the most frequent type of NI. Klebsiella spp. was the most frequently isolated bacterium (27%). Nosocomial infections contribute to high hospital morbidity in the Yaounde University Teaching Hospital. Strategies need to be identified for a sustainable and continuous monitoring of NI in all health facilities of Cameroon. In addition, Further studies should identify NI determinants and interventions for efficient and better control.

  18. Optimization of clinical teaching unit call schedules at the Ottawa hospital through tabu search heuristics.

    PubMed

    White, Christine A; White, George M

    2002-01-01

    The task of scheduling medical staff for evening rounds in the Clinical Teaching Unit of the Ottawa Hospital is a long complicated task due to its complexity. Three main classifications of staff, combined with various rotations, skill sets, clinical teams and vacation periods have combined to create a difficult scheduling problem. As there were no commercial packages available to solve this particular task, a study was made of heuristic scheduling and optimization techniques and a program based on a variation of the tabu search heuristic was written and tested. This system is being used to schedule medical staff at the Ottawa Hospital.

  19. Optimization of clinical teaching unit call schedules at the Ottawa hospital through tabu search heuristics.

    PubMed Central

    White, Christine A.; White, George M.

    2002-01-01

    The task of scheduling medical staff for evening rounds in the Clinical Teaching Unit of the Ottawa Hospital is a long complicated task due to its complexity. Three main classifications of staff, combined with various rotations, skill sets, clinical teams and vacation periods have combined to create a difficult scheduling problem. As there were no commercial packages available to solve this particular task, a study was made of heuristic scheduling and optimization techniques and a program based on a variation of the tabu search heuristic was written and tested. This system is being used to schedule medical staff at the Ottawa Hospital. PMID:12463953

  20. Engineering students' and faculty perceptions of teaching methods and the level of faculty involvement that promotes academic success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpilo, Lacy N.

    Student academic success is a top priority of higher education institutions in the United States and the trend of students leaving school prior to finishing their degree is a serious concern. Accountability has become a large part of university and college ratings and perceived success. Retention is one component of the accountability metrics used by accreditation agencies. In addition, there are an increasing number of states allocating funds based in part on retention (Seidman, 2005). Institutions have created initiatives, programs, and even entire departments to address issues related to student academic success to promote retention. Universities and colleges have responded by focusing on methods to retain and better serve students. Retention and student academic success is a primary concern for high education institutions; however, engineering education has unique retention issues. The National Science Board (2004) reports a significant decline in the number of individuals in the United States who are training to become engineers, despite the fact that the number of jobs that utilize an engineering background continues to increase. Engineering education has responded to academic success issues by changing curriculum and pedagogical methods (Sheppard, 2001). This descriptive study investigates the perception of engineering students and faculty regarding teaching methods and faculty involvement to create a picture of what is occurring in engineering education. The population was the engineering students and faculty of Colorado State University's College of Engineering. Data from this research suggests that engaging teaching methods are not being used as often as research indicates they should and that there is a lack of student-faculty interaction outside of the classroom. This research adds to the breadth of knowledge and understanding of the current environment of engineering education. Furthermore, the data allows engineering educators and other higher

  1. Microbiological Assessment of Indoor Air of Teaching Hospital Wards: A case of Jimma University Specialized Hospital.

    PubMed

    Fekadu, Samuel; Getachewu, Bahilu

    2015-04-01

    Hospital environment represents a congenial situation where microorganisms and susceptible patients are indoors together. Thus, the objective of this study is to provide fundamental data related to the microbial quality of indoor air of Jimma University Specialized Hospital wards, to estimate the health hazard and to create standards for indoor air quality control. The microbial quality of indoor air of seven wards of Jimma University Specialized Hospital was determined. Passive air sampling technique, using open Petri-dishes containing different culture media, was employed to collect sample twice daily. The concentrations of bacteria and fungi aerosols in the indoor environment of the wards ranged between 2123 - 9733 CFU/m(3). The statistical analysis showed that the concentrations of bacteria that were measured in all studied wards were significantly different from each other (p-value=0.017), whereas the concentrations of fungi that were measured in all sampled wards were not significantly different from each other (p-value=0.850). Moreover, the concentrations of bacteria that were measured at different sampling time (morning and afternoon) were significantly different (p-value =0.001). All wards that were included in the study were heavily contaminated with bacteria and fungi. Thus, immediate interventions are needed to control those environmental factors which favor the growth and multiplication of microbes, and it is vital to control visitors and students in and out the wards. Moreover, it is advisable that strict measures be put in place to check the increasing microbial load in the hospital environment.

  2. [Outpatient Surgery in German ENT in Teaching Hospitals--Economic Nonsense?].

    PubMed

    Bermüller, C; Hahn, J; Franzen, M; Sommer, F

    2015-05-01

    There is an ever-increasing demand to increase efficiency and decrease costs in health care. This leads to an growing number of outpatient surgeries which are less cost effective. Especially in the setting of university teaching hospitals, this may lead to both an undersupply of qualified physicians, as well as to a worsening of clinical training of residents. In order to quantify a possible undersupply and estimate the expense of teaching residents, the time for medical procedures needs to be quantified and compared between board-certified physicians and residents. This was the aim of the current study. All outpatient adenotomies of children with or without paracentesis or tympanic drainage insertion performed in 2012 in 2 ENT teaching hospitals were analyzed. The length of the surgical procedure as well as the level of training of the surgeon was analyzed. Operating times of residents in training were analyzed stratified by training level and then compared to operation times of board-certified ENT surgeons. 255 procedures were analyzed. Significant differences of the mean operation time could be identified depending on the level of training of residents compared to board-certified ENT surgeons for all investigated training levels. E. g. 1(st) year residents' surgeries required 2.4 times more time than those of board-certified ENT surgeons. Based on an analysis of outpatient ENT-surgical procedures it becomes apparent that due to the extended operating times of residents in training outpatient surgery is by far less cost-effective than by board-certified physicians. To cope with the demand of teaching residents for their clinical training, more resources are necessary in the setting of teaching hospitals. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Small Academic Hospital Experience

    PubMed Central

    Factor, Oren B.; Vu, Charles C.; Schneider, Jeffrey G.; Witten, Matthew R.; Schubach, Scott L.; Gittleman, Alicia E.; Catell, Donna T.; Haas, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been shown to have increased local control and overall survival relative to conventional external beam radiation therapy in patients with medically inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Excellent rates of local control have been demonstrated both in clinical trials and in single-center studies at large academic institutions. However, there is limited data on the experiences of small academic hospitals with SBRT for stage I NSCLC. The purpose of this study is to report the local control and overall survival rates in patients treated with SBRT for stage I NSCLC at Winthrop-University Hospital (WUH), a small academic hospital. Materials/Methods: This is a retrospective review of 78 stage I central and peripheral NSCLC tumors treated between December 2006 and July 2012 with SBRT at WUH. Treatment was given utilizing fiducials and a respiratory tracking system. If the fiducials were not trackable, a spine tracking system was used for tumor localization. CT-based planning was performed using the ray trace algorithm. Treatment was delivered over consecutive days to a median dose of 4800 cGy delivered in four fractions. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to calculate local control and overall survival. Results: The median age was 78.5 years. Fifty-four percent of the patient population was female. Sixty seven percent of the tumors were stage IA, and 33% of the tumors were stage IB. Fifty-three percent of the tumors were adenocarcinomas and 29% were squamous cell carcinomas, with the remainder being of unknown histology or NSCLC, not otherwise specified The 2-year local control rate was 87%, and the 2-year overall survival was 68%. Conclusion: Our findings support that local control and overall survival at a small academic hospital are comparable to that of larger academic institutions’ published experiences with SBRT for stage I NSCLC. PMID:25368843

  4. College students' role models, learning style preferences, and academic achievement in collaborative teaching: absolute versus relativistic thinking.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2008-01-01

    Based on the perspective of postformal operations, this study investigated whether college students' role models (technical teachers vs. lecturing teachers) and preferred learning styles (experience-driven mode vs. theory-driven mode) in collaborative teaching courses would be moderated by their cognitive development (absolute thinking vs. relativistic thinking) and examine whether academic achievement of students would be contingent upon their preferred learning styles. Two hundred forty-four college students who have taken the technical courses with collaborative teaching participated in this study. The results showed that those participants with absolute thinking perceived the modeling advantage of technical teachers was greater than that of lecturing teachers, preferred the experience-driven mode over the theory-driven mode, and displayed differential academic achievement between technical courses and general courses. On the other hand, the students with relativistic thinking revealed no difference in perceived modeling advantage of role models, learning styles preferences, and academic achievement between two categories of courses. In addition, this research indicates that college students' preferred learning styles would interact with course category (technical courses vs. general courses) to display differential academic achievement. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  5. Academic English Teaching for Postgraduates Based on Self-Regulated Learning Environment: A Case Study of Academic Reading Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This study selects postgraduate students in the first grade as the participants, based on their needs analysis, classroom presentations and performance of assignments completion, through the methodology of case study, the results show that students at the university level even the graduate levels still struggle with academic English. Thus, this…

  6. Evolving pattern of anaesthesia for caesarean section experience at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Amadasun, F E; Idehen, H O; Edomwonyi, N P

    2013-01-01

    The WHO puts caesarean section rate in Nigeria at 1.8%. This is much higher in teaching, specialist and referral hospitals. In our centre University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), the average annual rate is 33.4%. General anaesthesia is the predominant choice for caesarean section (C/S) in most centres. The trend is increasing towards regional anaesthesia. Many studies have reported the trend in several centres. This study examined the evolving pattern in our centre. To examine the evolving pattern of anaesthetic technique for caesarean section, at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. A ten-year retrospective period (2001-2010), data were pooled from the computerized data system of the department of obstetrics and gynaecology. Also, anaesthetic chart and staff records from the department of anaesthesiology were studied. Information about C/S, anaesthetic method and anaesthetist profile were derived from these sources. The data were analysed and presented as simple frequency and nominal data. Six thousand, six hundred and eleven C/S were done over the 10-year period. Emergency C/S was 82%, while 12% were elective cases. Average annual rate of anaesthetic technique used was regional anaesthesia 76.5% and general anaesthesia 23.5%. The use of regional anaesthesia grew from 30% in 2001, to 89% in 2010. Number of anaesthetists increased from 22 in 2001 to 37 in 2010. The study shows an increasing use of regional anaesthesia for C/S, predominantly subarachnoid blockade.

  7. Evaluation of the work satisfaction of the teaching physicians practicing in the hospitals of Tunis.

    PubMed

    Ben Khelil, Mehdi; Mlika, Mona; Haj Salem, Nidhal; Chadly, Ali; Banasr, Ahmed; Hamdoun, Moncef

    2017-06-01

    Job satisfaction is a key element in managing human resources despite the scope of practice. It is intimately linked to motivation but acts independently. To evaluate the degree of job satisfaction of the teaching physicians practicing in the hospitals of Tunis. It was a descriptive study including a sample of 75 teaching physicians practicing in Tunis hospitals, selected randomly and anonymously with a 1:20 scale with a matching based on the grade and the speciality. The evaluation was carried out by the Saphora-Job satisfaction questionnaire. The 75 physicians who participated had a sex ratio (M / F) of 0.42. The Median seniority was of seven years. The majority of physicians who participated in the study had a professional experience of less than 10 years (72%) and were mostly Assistant Professors (57.3%). The overall job satisfaction rating of participants in the study was 3.13 ± 1.2. Indicators that were related to relatively high satisfaction were represented by the relationship between colleagues, the nature of work and the adequacy of work and personal life. Indicators that were linked to the lowest satisfaction were represented by knowledge and access to regulation, remuneration and knowledge of the organization of the institution. Our study suggested the need for serious discussions between the different stakeholders about teaching physicians' salary ranges and opportunities for personal development as well as reward system for hospital-based physicians.

  8. Initiating Intrapartum Nitrous Oxide in an Academic Hospital: Considerations and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Migliaccio, Laura; Lawton, Robyn; Leeman, Lawrence; Holbrook, Amanda

    2017-05-01

    A 50%-50% mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen has long been used for managing pain during labor in many countries, but only recently has this intrapartum analgesic technique become popular in the United States. Nitrous oxide is considered minimal sedation and a safe pain management alternative. Many facilities are now interested in providing laboring women this analgesic option. The process of establishing use of nitrous oxide in a large institution can be complicated and may seem daunting. This brief report describes the challenges that occurred during the process of initiating nitrous oxide for pain management during childbirth at an academic medical center and discusses various committee roles. Nurses at the University of New Mexico Hospital now directly oversee the administration of nitrous oxide to women in labor in accordance to an established guideline. Despite limited available research, the guideline also allows offering nitrous oxide as a pain management technique for women with opioid dependence. Key components of the guideline and specifics related to education, cost, and safety are reviewed. © 2017 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  9. Safety-Net Academic Hospital Experience in Following Up Noncritical Yet Potentially Significant Radiologist Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Kadom, Nadja; Doherty, Gemma; Solomon, Alexandra; Close, Madison; Friedman, Scott; Gregson, Deborah; Rostad, Bradley S; Moses, James M; Norbash, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    In this retrospective study, we identified the types of noncritical recommendations radiologists issued over a 15-day period, the percentage of noncritical radiology recommendations that were not acted on or acknowledged in the medical records, potential causes for recommendations not being acted on, and the potential risk of harm to patients. We conducted a retrospective review of radiology reports and patient records from January 1, 2014, to January 15, 2014, at a large tertiary academic center and regional safety-net hospital. A total of 6851 reports were reviewed; 857 (13%) contained at least one noncritical recommendation, with 978 total recommendations. The two most common recommendations were additional imaging (63%, n = 615) and clinical correlation (23%, n = 229). The majority of radiology recommendations were followed (67%, n = 655), but 323 cases (33%) contained no evidence that recommendations were followed. Of those that were not followed, 39% (n = 126) had no documentation in the medical records of the recommendation being acknowledged. Of those, 32% (n = 40) had important findings, half of which (n = 20) could have benefited from a verbal communication (18 mass lesions, two instances of fetal death). Radiologists' recommendations contained in written reports of noncritical findings may not be consistently followed or acknowledged in the medical records. Our study shows that a few report recommendations that were not consistently followed or acknowledged contained findings that referred to potentially harmful conditions. The results triggered an investment in systems improvement at the studied institution.

  10. Peripartum hysterectomy: two years experience at Nelson Mandela Academic hospital, Mthatha, Eastern Cape South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wandabwa, J N; Businge, C; Longo-Mbenza, B; Mdaka, M L; Kiondo, P

    2013-06-01

    Obstetric haemorrhage is the leading direct cause of maternal mortality in South Africa. To determine the incidence, indications, associations and maternal outcomes of emergency peripartum hysterectomies. A descriptive and retrospective analysis of patients who had peripartum hysterectomy between 1(st) February 2007 and 31(st) January 2009 in Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital at Mthatha city. The incidence of 0.95% of peripartum hysterectomies (n=63 or 9.5/1000 births) increased with the increasing maternal age from 0.121% at age of less than 20 years to 0.5% at age more or equal to 30 years. Similarly the incidence increased with parity from 0.332% for Primiparity to 0.468% at parity of four or more. The indications for the operation were uterine atony 19/63 (30.2%), secondary haemorrhage/puerperal sepsis 17/63 (27%) and ruptured uterus 16/63 (23.4%). The main intra operative complication was haemorrhage 13/63 (20.6%). Repeat laparotomy was done in 10/63 (15%) of patients due to haemorrhage. Admission to intensive care unit was 25/63 (39.7%). The case specific mortality rate was of 19 % (n=12). The main causes of death were hypovolaemic shock and septicemia. The incidence of peripartum hysterectomies was high and was associated with ruptured uterus and puerperal sepsis which are preventable.

  11. Anesthesia Capacity in Ghana: A Teaching Hospital's Resources, and the National Workforce and Education.

    PubMed

    Brouillette, Mark A; Aidoo, Alfred J; Hondras, Maria A; Boateng, Nana A; Antwi-Kusi, Akwasi; Addison, William; Hermanson, Alec R

    2017-12-01

    Quality anesthetic care is lacking in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Global health leaders call for perioperative capacity reports in limited-resource settings to guide improved health care initiatives. We describe a teaching hospital's resources and the national workforce and education in this LMIC capacity report. A prospective observational study was conducted at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Kumasi, Ghana, during 4 weeks in August 2016. Teaching hospital data were generated from observations of hospital facilities and patient care, review of archival records, and interviews with KATH personnel. National data were obtained from interviews with KATH personnel, correspondence with Ghana's anesthesia society, and review of public records. The practice of anesthesia at KATH incorporated preanesthesia clinics, intraoperative management, and critical care. However, there were not enough physicians to consistently supervise care, especially in postanesthesia care units (PACUs) and the critical care unit (CCU). Clean water and electricity were usually reliable in all 16 operating rooms (ORs) and throughout the hospital. Equipment and drugs were inventoried in detail. While much basic infrastructure, equipment, and medications were present in ORs, patient safety was hindered by hospital-wide oxygen supply failures and shortage of vital signs monitors and working ventilators in PACUs and the CCU. In 2015, there were 10,319 anesthetics administered, with obstetric and gynecologic, general, and orthopedic procedures comprising 62% of surgeries. From 2011 to 2015, all-cause perioperative mortality rate in ORs and PACUs was 0.65% or 1 death per 154 anesthetics, with 99% of deaths occurring in PACUs. Workforce and education data at KATH revealed 10 anesthesia attending physicians, 61 nurse anesthetists (NAs), and 7 anesthesia resident physicians in training. At the national level, 70 anesthesia attending physicians and 565 NAs cared for Ghana's population

  12. Changing trends in venous thromboembolism-related imaging in Western Australian teaching hospitals, 2002-2010.

    PubMed

    Segard, Tatiana; Macdonald, William B G

    2013-02-04

    To determine trends in referral for venous thromboembolism (VTE) imaging in Western Australian teaching hospitals. Retrospective audit of the WA picture archiving and communication system, PathWest Laboratory Medicine records, the hospital morbidity database at the four adult teaching hospitals in Perth, WA, and the WA death registry. All patients referred for VTE-related imaging, and all hospital separations for pulmonary embolism (PE) during 2002-2010. Number of referrals for computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), ventilation-perfusion lung scintigraphy, leg ultrasound and plasma D-dimer assay; hospital separations for PE and deaths from PE. Referrals for VTE-related imaging increased by 34%, while PE-related imaging increased by 65% during the study period, owing entirely to referrals for CTPA, which increased by more than 500%. The number of hospital separations for PE increased by 45% over the same period and the prevalence of PE among referred patients fell from 22.1% in 2002 to 19.5% in 2010. There was no fall in the death rate from PE in WA during the study period (P = 0.19). The number of D-dimer tests performed in the same hospitals increased by 42% over the study period. The increased number of referrals for PE-related imaging resulted in more diagnoses but no reduction in deaths from PE in WA. Widespread D-dimer testing did not reduce referrals for imaging and is likely to have resulted in increased referrals. Increased imaging leads to overdiagnosis of clinically insignificant PE, and alternative strategies are required to reduce PE death rates.

  13. Evaluation of the head and neck cancer patient population and the incidence of hospitalization at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Hazelden, Lindsay A; Newman, Matthew J; Shuey, Stephanie; Waldfogel, Julie M; Brown, Victoria T

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Patients with head and neck cancer are at risk for disease- and treatment-related toxicities that may be severe enough to require hospitalization. The risk factors associated with hospitalization in these patients are not well defined. Methods We conducted a single-center, retrospective observational study of patients with head and neck cancer receiving chemotherapy at an academic medical center infusion clinic in a one-year period. The primary objective was to characterize the head and neck cancer population at an academic medical center. Secondary objectives included describing the clinical and social factors associated with hospitalization. Results There were 109 patients with head and neck cancer included in the analysis. Of these patients, 38 (35%) were hospitalized. The factors that were significantly associated with hospitalization on univariable logistic regression were former alcohol abuse, being on a nonstandard of care chemotherapy regimen, and having a chemotherapy agent discontinued. On multivariable logistic regression, the factor that was significantly associated with hospitalization was having a chemotherapy agent discontinued. The most common reasons for hospitalization included shortness of breath/respiratory failure, fever/neutropenic fever, and infection. The most common new supportive care medications prescribed at discharge were stool softeners or laxatives and opioids. Conclusion This study identified several factors which may be useful to identify patients as high risk for hospitalization and the next steps will be to determine and study the role of the pharmacist in preventing hospitalization of these patients. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of adding a pharmacist to the head and neck cancer multidisciplinary team.

  14. The Effect of an Education-Themed Movie on the Academic Motivation of Teacher Candidates and Their Attitude Towards Teaching Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontas, Hakki

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of an education-themed movie on the academic motivation of teacher candidates and their attitude towards teaching profession. The study was carried out in the fall term in 2014-2015 academic year with the participation of 89 teacher candidates (53 in experimental group and 36 for control group).…

  15. Informal Conversations about Teaching and Their Relationship to a Formal Development Program: Learning Opportunities for Novice and Mid-Career Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in informal activities, like conversations with colleagues, is one way that professionals can learn within workplace contexts. Informal conversations present opportunities for academics to learn about teaching. The current study investigated academics' experience of informal conversations, and their experience of the relations between…

  16. Academic Advising: New Insights for Teaching and Learning in the First Year. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series No. 46. NACADA Monograph Series No. 14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Mary Stuart, Ed.; McCalla-Wriggins, Betsy, Ed.; White, Eric R., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Grounded in the philosophy that academic advising is a robust form of one-on-one teaching, this monograph places advising in a new light, one that brings it to the center of the institutional mission and activity. This monograph challenges all readers to embrace the tremendous potential that academic advising has for educating today's college…

  17. [Certified quality management according to DIN ISO 9001 in a radiology department at a university hospital: measurable changes in academic quality indicators?].

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, J; Habermann, C; Utler, C; Grzyska, U; Weber, C; Adam, G; Koops, A

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the changes in academic quality indicators after implementation of a quality management system according to DIN ISO 9001:2000. After implementation and certification of a quality management system, the actual state based on quality indicators from the fields of student teaching, research, continuing education and the satisfaction of referring physician was determined. After implementation of an action plan for the individual areas, the temporal changes in the ratios were documented in the follow-up. The evaluation of teaching performance obtained by questionnaire among the students of the radiology course showed a steady increase in satisfaction (mean value 2003: 2.7; 2007: 3.9). In the field of research an increase in scientific output was achieved based on the number of an internal publication score (2002: 99 points; 2006: 509). Repeated opinion surveys among our referring physicians found improvements in indicators for the appointment of investigations, consulting service and waiting times for the investigation, while the waiting times for internal transport service did not improve. Exemplary measurements of the success of the advanced training of the staff demonstrated the need for continuing education for quality improvement. The evaluation of quality indicators showed over time a measurable positive impact on processes of a radiological University Hospital after implementation of a QM system according to DIN ISO 9001:2000. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  18. Teaching strategies and academic performances of undergraduates in quaid-I-azam medical college, bahawalpur.

    PubMed

    Shaukat, Asma; Arain, Tariq Mahmud; Alam, Mazhar Faiz; Shahid, Amna Mahmud

    2007-10-01

    to assess the outcomes and competencies of medical undergraduates regarding their learning abilities after introducing Clinical Presentation Curriculum (CPC) instead of Traditional Curriculum in Quaid-i-Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur. a cross-sectional comparative study. 3rd and 4th year MBBS class during session 2004-2005 at Quaid-i-Azam Medical College (QMC), Bahawalpur. Five hundred students of 3rd year and 4th year MBBS who were taught for 176 and 172 hours respectively, appeared in 20 tests during session 2004-2005, were included in the study. Students were taught pathology according to Traditional Curricular model for 88 and 86 hours, respectively during college hours. Ten class tests each of 3rd and 4th year MBBS were taken and scores recorded. In the next step, the same group of students were taught in accordance with CPC model for 88 and 86 hours respectively in college hours. Ten class tests each were taken and scores recorded. A standardized questionnaire was given to all 500 students after finishing with each curricular model and then the results were compared on SPSS 8.0 regarding their study trends, thinking abilities, intellectual skills and liking of CPC. Chi-square test was used to get significance values and percentages were used for the evaluation of differences. This study detected the positive effects of CPC model not only on study trends and thought process but also had the beneficial effects on learning potential of students in QMC where traditional curriculum was being followed for teaching students. When compared with traditional curricula, CPC model significantly ( p =< 0.01) improved the learning methods to improve knowledge and intellectual skills e.g; group discussions, internet use, reading latest and relevant journals and visits to wards and concerned teachers. Academic performances of these students significantly (p =< 0.01) improved regarding their class test attendance, class room attendance and marks obtained in tests when

  19. Job satisfaction of nurses in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Negussie, Nebiat

    2016-03-01

    In Ethiopia nurses have played a very important role in providing timely and quality health service in healthcare organizations. However, there is a limited literature in the area of nurses' job satisfaction in Ethiopian public hospitals. The objective of this research is to measure job satisfaction of nurses in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital and to determine the influencing factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 2012 to June 2012 in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital. All full-time nurses with nonsupervisory management position and more than 1 year of work experience were invited to participate in the study. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire was used to collect the data. A total of 175 copies of the questionnaires were returned out of 186 copies distributed to the respondents. The results indicated that nurses were not satisfied by their job (mean=2.21, SD=0.52). Remuneration (r=0.71, P<0.01) and job advancement (r=0.69, P<0.01) were statically significant and strongly correlated with nurses' job satisfaction. Job security was associated with highest satisfaction (r=0.41, P<0.05) CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Remuneration and job advancement were the most important factors for nurses' job satisfaction. Hospital administrators as well as health policy makers need to address the two major identified sources of nurses' job dissatisfaction in the study (i.e. remuneration and narrow opportunity of job advancement) and take appropriate measures to overcome their consequences.

  20. Assessing the Quality of Services Provided in the Teaching Hospitals: A Case Study of Iran.

    PubMed

    Ravangard, Ramin; Farhadi, Payam; Shokrpour, Nasrin; Niyas, Maryam; Sajjadnia, Zahra

    Service quality is the most important factor in the success of health care organizations; because of their vital and important services, even very small errors can be followed by great and irreparable harm and damage. This study aimed to assess the quality of services provided in the teaching hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2015. This is an applied, cross-sectional, and descriptive-analytical study conducted in 2015 in the teaching hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. A sample of 290 inpatients with at least 2 days of admission to hospital was selected using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. The results showed that there were significant negative gaps in all dimensions (P > .001), and the highest and lowest means and SD of negative gaps were related to empathy (-1.35 ± 1.4) and assurance (-0.52 ± 0.95). Moreover, the results showed that there was a significant negative correlation between the patients' age and the total mean of the patients' expectations. According to the results, the studied hospitals had not been able to meet the expectations of their patients in any of the service quality dimensions. Therefore, to improve the service quality dimensions, the authors recommend holding training courses on how to interact with patients and meet their needs, providing adequate and proper information about the diseases and their treatment for the patients, having adequate medical staff, and so on.

  1. Hand hygiene compliance by health care workers at a teaching hospital, Kingston, Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Alison M; Tennant, Ingrid A; Martin, Allie C; Ehikhametalor, Kelvin; Reynolds, Glendee; Thoms-Rodriguez, Camille-Ann; Nagassar, Rajeev; Hoilett, Tena-Kim; Allen, Roxanne; Redwood, Tahira; Crandon, Ivor

    2016-10-31

    Consistent practice of hand hygiene (HH) has been shown to reduce the incidence and spread of hospital acquired infections. The objectives of this study were to determine the level of compliance and possible factors affecting compliance with HH practices among HCWs at a teaching hospital in Kingston, Jamaica. A prospective observational study was undertaken at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) over a two weeks period. Trained, validated observers identified opportunities for hand hygiene as defined by the WHO "Five Hand Hygiene Moments" and recorded whether appropriate hand hygiene actions were taken or missed. Observations were covert to prevent the observer's presence influencing the behaviour of the healthcare workers (HCWs) and targeted areas included the intensive care units (ICUs), surgical wards and surgical outpatient departments. A ward infrastructure survey was also done. Data were entered and analysed using SPSS version 16 for Windows. Chi-square analysis using Pearson's formula was used to test associations between 'exposure' factors and the outcome 'compliance'. A total of 270 hand hygiene opportunities were observed and the overall compliance rate was 38.9%. No differences were observed between the various types of HCWs or seniority. HCWs were more likely to perform hand hygiene if the indication was 'after' rather than 'before' patient contact (p = 0.001). This study underscores the need for improvement in HH practices among HCWs in a teaching hospital. Health education with particular attention to the need for HH prior to physical contact with patients is indicated.

  2. Outbreak of Salmonella infantis infection in a large animal veterinary teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Tillotson, K; Savage, C J; Salman, M D; Gentry-Weeks, C R; Rice, D; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Hendrickson, D A; Jones, R L; Nelson, W; Traub-Dargatz, J L

    1997-12-15

    During the past 11 years, there have been numerous reports of outbreaks of salmonellosis involving horses in veterinary teaching hospitals. Some of these outbreaks have been associated with Salmonella serotypes not commonly associated with infection of horses. Salmonella infantis is among the more common Salmonella serotypes isolated from human beings, and is an important pathogen in the broiler chicken industry. However, it was not commonly isolated from horses or cattle on a national basis between 1993 and 1995. In this report, we describe an outbreak of S infantis infection among large animals, primarily horses, in a veterinary teaching hospital and the control measures that were implemented. Factors that appeared to be key in control of this outbreak in this hospital included providing biosecurity training sessions for hospital personnel, adopting a standard operating procedure manual for biosecurity procedures, installing additional handwashing sinks throughout the facility, painting the interior of the facility with a nontoxic readily cleanable paint, replacing the dirt flooring in 4 stalls with concrete flooring, and removing noncleanable surfaces such as rubber stall mats, wooden hay storage bins, and open grain bins. Our experience with this outbreak suggests that although it is virtually impossible to eliminate Salmonella organisms from the environment, minimizing contamination is possible. Prevention of nosocomial infection must be approached in a multifaceted manner and care must be taken to search out covert sources of contamination, especially if standard intervention procedures do not prevent spread of the disease.

  3. [Evaluation of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid prescriptions in a teaching hospital of Parisian suburb].

    PubMed

    Dupont, C; Massé, C; Auvert, B; Page, B; Heym, B; Espinasse, F; Hanslik, T; Rouveix, E

    2008-03-01

    Prospective study of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (amox-clav) prescriptions in the medical departments of a teaching hospital that prescribes this antibiotic very often. From April to May 2004, each patient treated by amox-clav was included. Data were collected (age, sex, past diseases, associated-diseases, reason for hospitalization, prior antibiotic therapy, date of amox-clav prescription, indication for amox-clav prescription, other associated antibiotics, nosocomial or community-acquired infection, site of infection, bacteriologic samples and bacterial identification, treatment duration and status of the physician). Data were analysed by a muldisciplinary group and compared with a referential used for antibiotic prescriptions in our hospital. One hundred and two medical files were analysed. Seventy-one percent of amox-clav prescriptions were in adequation with the referential. Combination of three criteria (indication of antibiotic therapy, choice of amox-clav and of an antibiotic combination) showed that 58 (57%) was acceptable, 29 (28%) was debatable and 15 (15%) was unacceptable. Unacceptable prescriptions were often made by a junior. The majority of inadequate antibiotic prescriptions referred to acute pulmonary infections. Antibiotic combinations were often inadequate and treatment duration was too long. The quality of the prescription was more accurate when made by a senior. An effort should be made in our teaching hospital to optimize antibiotic prescriptions.

  4. The Efficiency of Computer-Aided Instruction and Creative Drama on Academic Achievement in Teaching of Integers to Seventh Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Abdullah; Özturk, Mesut; Ertör, Eren

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to compare computer-aided instruction, creative drama and traditional teaching methods in teaching of Integers to the seventh grade students. The study was conducted in a primary school with eighty-seven students (N=87) in a county of Agri, in spring term of academic year 2011-2012. A non equivalent control group quasi experimental…

  5. Comparison of Students' Perceptions of Their Teaching-Learning Environments in Three Professional Academic Disciplines: A Valuable Tool for Quality Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haarala-Muhonen, Anne; Ruohoniemi, Mirja; Katajavuori, Nina; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored differences in students' perceptions of their teaching-learning environments in three professional academic disciplines at the University of Helsinki, using a modified version of the Experiences of Teaching & Learning Questionnaire. A total of 426 first-year students from the Faculties of Law, Pharmacy and Veterinary…

  6. Computer-assisted instruction: a library service for the community teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    McCorkel, J; Cook, V

    1986-04-01

    This paper reports on five years of experience with computer-assisted instruction (CAI) at Winthrop-University Hospital, a major affiliate of the SUNY at Stony Brook School of Medicine. It compares CAI programs available from Ohio State University and Massachusetts General Hospital (accessed by telephone and modem), and software packages purchased from the Health Sciences Consortium (MED-CAPS) and Scientific American (DISCOTEST). The comparison documents one library's experience of the cost of these programs and the use made of them by medical students, house staff, and attending physicians. It describes the space allocated for necessary equipment, as well as the marketing of CAI. Finally, in view of the decision of the National Board of Medical Examiners to administer the Part III examination on computer (the so-called CBX) starting in 1988, the paper speculates on the future importance of CAI in the community teaching hospital.

  7. Equipment and Energy Usage in a Large Teaching Hospital in Norway.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Tarald; Martinez, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a study of how equipment is used in a Norwegian University hospital and suggests ways to reduce hospital energy consumption. Analysis of energy data from Norway's newest teaching hospital showed that electricity consumption was up to 50% of the whole-building energy consumption. Much of this is due to the increasing energy intensity of hospital-specific equipment. Measured power and reported usage patterns for equipment in the studied departments show daytime energy intensity of equipment at about 28.5 kBTU/ft2 per year (90 kWh/m2 per year), compared to building code standard value of only 14.9 kBTU/ft2 (47 kWh/m2 per year) for hospitals. This article intends to fill gaps in our understanding of how users and their equipment affect the energy balance in hospitals and suggests ways in which designers and equipment suppliers can help optimize energy performance while maintaining quality in the delivery of health services.

  8. A taxonomy of seven-day readmissions to an urban teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Burke, Daniel; Link, Nate; Bails, Douglas; Fang, Yixin; Janjigian, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of unplanned hospital readmissions is necessary for accurate prediction and prevention. To identify specific mechanisms of unplanned readmissions through medical narratives obtained from chart reviews. Retrospective chart review. Urban tertiary care hospital. Two hundred seventy patients accounted for 335 unplanned 7-day readmissions between July 2010 and July 2011. Readmissions were classified into 1 of 5 distinct categories. Readmitted subjects were more likely to have had a longer length of stay during the first admission compared to nonreadmitted patients. Readmissions due to unpredictable/unpreventable complications or unrelated events constituted the highest percentage at 46%. Readmissions due to patient factors such as substance abuse, signing out against medical advice, or nonadherence to the treatment plan constituted 31%. Readmissions designated as preventable accounted for 24%. Among preventable readmissions, the most common cause was incomplete management of the index diagnosis. The interobserver level of agreement across the 5 major categories was substantial. We found through detailed chart review of patients readmitted within 7 days to an urban teaching hospital that the majority of readmissions were not avoidable and were often due to unpredictable or unpreventable complications of the primary diagnosis from the index hospitalization or to patient behaviors that contradicted the treatment plan. These results question the value of readmissions as a valid metric of quality and support future interventions in hospital systems to reduce preventable readmissions. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  9. Stimulating Creativity by Integrating Research and Teaching Across the Academic Disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Creativity is a human adventure fueled by the process of exploration. But how do we explore our intellectual interests? In this talk, I'll propose that we seek out our creative opportunities using an inherent natural process. This process might, therefore, exploit search strategies found across diverse natural systems - ranging from the way animals forage for food to the way the human eye locates information embedded within complex patterns. The symbolic significance of this hypothesis lies in its call for educational institutes to provide environments that encourage our natural explorations rather those that stamp restrictive, artificial `order' on the process. To make my case, I'll review some of my own research trajectories followed during my RCSA Cottrell Scholarship at the University of Oregon (UO). My first conclusion will be that it is fundamentally unnatural to declare divides across disciplines. In particular, the infamous `art-science divide' is not a consequence of our natural creative searches but instead arises from our practical inability to accommodate the rapid drive toward academic specialization. Secondly, divides between research and teaching activities are equally unnatural - both endeavors are driven by the same creative strategy and are intertwined within the same natural process. This applies equally to the experiences of professors and students. I will end with specific success stories at the UO. These include a NSF IGERT project (focused on accelerating students' transitions from classroom to research experiences) and a collaboration between architects and professors to design a building (the recently opened Lewis Integrative Science Building) that encourages daily encounters between students and professors across research disciplines.

  10. Hospital Practice Versus Evidence-Based Obstetrics: Categorizing Practices for Normal Birth in an Egyptian Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Karima; Elnoury, Amr; Cherine, Mohamed; Sholkamy, Hania; Hassanein, Nevine; Mohsen, Lamia; Breebaart, Miral; Shoubary, Abdel Aziz

    2006-01-01

    Background Little is known of common normal labor hospital practices in Egypt or of their relationship to evidence-based obstetrics. This study documented facility-based practices for normal labor and delivery in Egypt for the first time by categorizing 44 practices observed in a busy obstetric teaching hospital according to the World Health Organization (WHO) Technical Working Group on Normal Birth classification of normal birth practices. Methods A multidisciplinary approach combined directly observing practices that were applied to individual laboring women and their newborns, observing ward activities, interviews, and focus groups. One hundred seventy-five normal births were observed in their entirety, over 28 days and nights, by medically trained observers using an observation checklist that documented 537 variables for each woman. Mothers were interviewed postpartum, and findings were shared with practitioners for their feedback. Observed practices were categorized according the 1999 WHO classification of 59 practices for normal birth, depending on their usefulness, effectiveness, or harmfulness. Results There was infrequent use of beneficial practices that should be encouraged and an unexpectedly high level of harmful practices that should be eliminated. Some beneficial practices were applied inappropriately, and practices of unproved benefit were also documented, some of which are potentially harmful to childbearing mothers and their babies. Conclusions Hospital practices for normal labor were largely not in accordance with the WHO evidence-based classification of practices for normal birth. The findings are worrying, given the increasing proportion of hospital-based births in Egypt and the country’s improved but relatively high maternal and neonatal mortality rates. Obstacles to following evidence-based protocols for normal labor require examination. PMID:16336369

  11. Neonatal mortality and morbidity in the post-implementation period of a neonatal teaching program in provincial hospitals in Laos.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S; Bounnack, S; Hoehn, T

    2018-01-01

    Aim of this study was to analyze neonatal mortality and morbidity in the post-implementation period of a neonatal teaching program to examine a possible impact on neonatal outcomes. This study is a retrospective data analysis of all neonatal patients treated in five provincial hospitals in Laos after implementation of a neonatal teaching program. A simulation-based teaching program aims to have positive impact on the theoretical and practical skill of hospital staff in the field of newborn care. A comparison between pre-implementation and post-implementation data of newborns admitted to provincial hospitals in Laos was used to quantify the effect of repetitive teaching on neonatal outcomes. Neonatal mortality and morbidity as well as case fatality rates of infections and asphyxia decreased in the post-implementation period. In contrast, neonatal mortality rate as well as case fatality rate of prematurity increased. The total neonatal mortality rate increased in the post-implementation period. The pre-implementation and post-implementation data enable longitudinal comparisons between hospitals and highlight the differences between hospitals concerning neonatal mortality and morbidity in provincial hospitals in Laos. These data can serve as a basis for an individual adaption of the teaching program to the unique requirements of each single hospital. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Protocol of the sepsivit study: a prospective observational study to determine whether continuous heart rate variability measurement during the first 48 hours of hospitalisation provides an early warning for deterioration in patients presenting with infection or sepsis to the emergency department of a Dutch academic teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Quinten, Vincent M; van Meurs, Matijs; Renes, Maurits H; Ligtenberg, Jack J M; Ter Maaten, Jan C

    2017-11-17

    One in five patients with sepsis deteriorates within 48 hours after hospital admission. Regrettably, a clear tool for the early detection of deterioration is still lacking. The SepsiVit study aims to determine whether continuous heart rate variability (HRV) measurement can provide an early warning for deterioration in patients presenting with suspected infection or sepsis to the emergency department (ED). The protocol of a prospective observational study in the ED. We will include 171 adult medical patients presenting with suspected infection or sepsis and at least two systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria. Patients with known pregnancy, cardiac transplantation or not admitted to our hospital are excluded.High sample frequency ECG signals (500 Hz), respiratory rate, blood pressure and peripheral oxygen saturation will be recorded continuously during the first 48 hours of hospitalisation using a bedside patient monitor (Philips IntelliVue MP70). Primary endpoint is patient deterioration, defined as the development of organ dysfunction, unplanned intensive care unit admission or in-hospital mortality. The ECG data will be used for offline HRV analysis. We will compare the HRV between two groups (deterioration/no deterioration) and analyse whether HRV provides an early warning for deterioration. Furthermore, we will create a multivariate predictive model for deterioration based on heart rate, respiratory rate and HRV. As planned secondary analyses, we (1) perform a subgroup analysis for patients with pneumosepsis and urosepsis and (2) determine whether HRV using lower sample frequencies (1 Hz or less) suffices to predict deterioration. The Institutional Review Board of the University Medical Center Groningen granted a waiver for the study (METc 2015/164). Results will be disseminated through international peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. A lay summary of the results will be provided to the study participants. NTR6168; Pre-results.

  13. Facilitating and Creating Synergies between Teaching and Research: The Role of the Academic Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, David B.; Mello, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching and research are often seen as activities that compete for a faculty member's time and energy. This perceived disconnect between teaching and research has been reinforced by a number of norms within the academy as well as by institutional practices related to how faculty are managed and rewarded. This article argues that teaching and…

  14. Educational Value Units: A Mission-Based Approach to Assigning and Monitoring Faculty Teaching Activities in an Academic Medical Department.

    PubMed

    Regan, Linda; Jung, Julianna; Kelen, Gabor D

    2016-12-01

    Increasing emphasis on revenue generation could jeopardize the fundamental notion of what it means to be faculty. Despite being a core mission, education is often marginalized in academic medical departments, and expectations of faculty effort in this area are often vague. A potential solution is mission-based budgeting (MBB), which refers to the allocation of resources based on core-mission-related priorities. From December 2012 to March 2013, the authors developed an educational value unit (EVU) system (using an MBB approach) to assign and monitor teaching activities related to the core departmental educational mission at the Department of Emergency Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medicine. EVUs were based on learner contact time, with one EVU equal to roughly one hour of in-person time with medical students or residents. Core education faculty vetted the proposed system; educational leaders determined the total EVUs needed and assessed the impact of their equitable distribution among faculty; and faculty members selected preferences and were assigned EVU obligations. For academic year 2013-2014, 5,896 EVUs were distributed among 54 faculty. At the end of the year, complete EVU data were available for 47 faculty. Of these, only 6 failed to complete their assigned EVU obligations. All core teaching activities were covered, and educational efforts were distributed more equitably across faculty. The system is being refined, with an emphasis on incorporating learner outcome metrics, refining the teaching grid, incorporating failure to meet EVU obligations into yearly faculty evaluations, and disseminating the system to other departments and institutions.

  15. An ethics consultation service in a teaching hospital. Utilization and evaluation.

    PubMed

    La Puma, J; Stocking, C B; Silverstein, M D; DiMartini, A; Siegler, M

    1988-08-12

    A newly established formal ethics consultation service in a university teaching hospital was prospectively evaluated. A physician-ethicist interviewed and examined patients, interviewed family and others as needed, and entered a formal consultation note in the medical record. The requesting physician and the consultant independently completed structured questionnaires. Fifty-one consultation requests were received from 45 physicians from seven departments between July 1, 1986, and June 30, 1987. Seventeen (33%) of 51 patients were in the intensive care unit, and 19 patients (37%) were fully oriented at the time of consultation. Overall, 61% of the patients survived to leave the hospital. The requesting physician sought assistance with withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment in 49% of cases, with resuscitation issues in 37%, and with legal issues in 31%. Assistance with more than one issue was sought in 39 cases (76%). In 36 cases (71%), the requesting physician stated that the consultation was "very important" in patient management, in clarifying ethical issues, or in learning about medical ethics. We conclude that ethics consultation performed by physician-ethicists provides useful, clinically acceptable assistance in a teaching hospital.

  16. Pattern of poisoning cases in Emergency Department of Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Thapa, S R; Lama, P; Karki, N; Khadka, S B

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the pattern and severity of poisoning cases in Emergency Department of Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal (KMCTH). Retrospective observational study. Hospital records of all admissions to the Emergency Department of Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital (KMCTH) following acute poisoning were revised and all data from February 2007 to February 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. This retrospective observational study was performed on 148 cases of poisoning who attended Emergency Department of KMCTH over a period of one year. The overall male to female ratio was 1.05:1. Poisoning was most common in the age group 21-30 years (40.5%). The most common causes of poisoning in adults were organophosphorous compounds and in children was kerosene oil. Oral route (79.05%) was the most common route of administration. 66.2% of cases were intentional poisoning for suicidal attempt. Students (43.9%) and service holders (18.9%) were commonly involved in poisoning. It was seen that adult between 21-30 years of age were more prone to suicidal poisoning with organophosphorous compounds and children of 1-10 years of age were more susceptible to accidental poisoning with kerosene oil.

  17. Patient education process in teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Seyedin, Hesam; Goharinezhad, Salime; Vatankhah, Soodabeh; Azmal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Patient education is widely recognized as a core component of nursing. Patient education can lead to quality outcomes including adherence, quality of life, patients' knowledge of their illness and self-management. This study aimed to clarify patient education process in teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013. In this descriptive quantitative study, the sample covered 187 head nurses selected from ten teaching hospitals through convenience sampling. Data were collected with a questionnaire developed specifically for this study. The questionnaire measured patient education process in four dimensions: need assessment, planning, implementing and evaluating. The overall mean score of patient education was 3.326±0.0524. Among the four dimensions of the patient education process, planning was in the highest level (3.570±0.0591) and the lowest score belonged to the evaluation of patient education (2.840 ±0.0628). Clarifying patient education steps, developing standardized framework and providing easily understandable tool-kit of the patient education program will improve the ability of nurses in delivering effective patient education in general and specialized hospitals.

  18. Predicting future staffing needs at teaching hospitals: use of an analytical program with multiple variables.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Christine C; Ashley, Stanley W; Zinner, Michael J; Moore, Francis D

    2007-04-01

    To develop a model to predict future staffing for the surgery service at a teaching hospital. Tertiary hospital. A computer model with potential future variables was constructed. Some of the variables were distribution of resident staff, fellows, and physician extenders; salary/wages; work hours; educational value of rotations; work units, inpatient wards, and clinics; future volume growth; and efficiency savings. Outcomes Number of staff to be hired, staffing expense, and educational impact. On a busy general surgery service, we estimated the impact of changes in resident work hours, service growth, and workflow efficiency in the next 5 years. Projecting a reduction in resident duty hours to 60 hours per week will require the hiring of 10 physician assistants at a cost of $1 134 000, a cost that is increased by $441 000 when hiring hospitalists instead. Implementing a day of didactic and simulator time (10 hours) will further increase the costs by $568 000. A 10% improvement in the efficiency of floor care, as might be gained by advanced information technology capability or by regionalization of patients, can mitigate these expenses by as much as 21%. On the other hand, a modest annual growth of 2% will increase the costs by $715 000 to $2 417 000. To simply replace residents with alternative providers requires large amounts of human and fiscal capital. The potential for simple efficiencies to mitigate some of this expense suggests that traditional patterns of care in teaching hospitals will have to change in response to educational mandates.

  19. Managing daily surgery schedules in a teaching hospital: a mixed-integer optimization approach.

    PubMed

    Pulido, Raul; Aguirre, Adrian M; Ortega-Mier, Miguel; García-Sánchez, Álvaro; Méndez, Carlos A

    2014-10-15

    This study examined the daily surgical scheduling problem in a teaching hospital. This problem relates to the use of multiple operating rooms and different types of surgeons in a typical surgical day with deterministic operation durations (preincision, incision, and postincision times). Teaching hospitals play a key role in the health-care system; however, existing models assume that the duration of surgery is independent of the surgeon's skills. This problem has not been properly addressed in other studies. We analyze the case of a Spanish public hospital, in which continuous pressures and budgeting reductions entail the more efficient use of resources. To obtain an optimal solution for this problem, we developed a mixed-integer programming model and user-friendly interface that facilitate the scheduling of planned operations for the following surgical day. We also implemented a simulation model to assist the evaluation of different dispatching policies for surgeries and surgeons. The typical aspects we took into account were the type of surgeon, potential overtime, idling time of surgeons, and the use of operating rooms. It is necessary to consider the expertise of a given surgeon when formulating a schedule: such skill can decrease the probability of delays that could affect subsequent surgeries or cause cancellation of the final surgery. We obtained optimal solutions for a set of given instances, which we obtained through surgical information related to acceptable times collected from a Spanish public hospital. We developed a computer-aided framework with a user-friendly interface for use by a surgical manager that presents a 3-D simulation of the problem. Additionally, we obtained an efficient formulation for this complex problem. However, the spread of this kind of operation research in Spanish public health hospitals will take a long time since there is a lack of knowledge of the beneficial techniques and possibilities that operational research can offer for

  20. Containing costs in public sector hospitals--a strategy for the future. Lessons from a large teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Kane-Berman, J D; Taylor, S P

    1990-08-04

    Escalating costs of providing health care are cause for worldwide concern. In South Africa there is increasing concern about expenditure in the public and the private health care sectors. Although public sector expenditure has increased in per capita terms over the past 2 decades, at the micro-level comparison of expenditure over a 14-year period in one major teaching hospital region indicates that, despite increasing complexity and sophistication, real costs have not escalated at a greater rate than the consumer price index, if extraordinary factors are discounted. The development and utilisation of productivity and performance indicators are reviewed and some mechanisms for containing costs in public hospitals are discussed. These include formalized strategic planning and allocation of resources, rationalisation and reorganisation of services, improved productivity and utilisation of scarce health manpower, improved accounting and management information systems, and the development and use of measures of outcome. Concern is expressed regarding excessive quantification of costs and efficiency to the detriment of health care in general.

  1. Hospital clonal dissemination of Enterobacter aerogenes producing carbapenemase KPC-2 in a Chinese teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaohua; Yang, Yang; Hu, Fupin; Zhu, Demei

    2014-02-01

    Carbapenems are first-line agents for the treatment of serious nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. However, resistance to carbapenems has increased dramatically among Enterobacteriaceae in our hospital. In this study, we report clonal dissemination caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes (CREA). In 2011, CREA was identified from 12 patients admitted to the neurosurgical ward. All 12 clinical isolates were non-susceptible to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoxitin, ertapenem, imipenem or meropenem. All isolates carried the gene encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2), except for the isolate E4. However, a remarkably lower expression level of the porin OmpF was detected in the non-KPC-2-producing isolate E4 on SDS-PAGE compared with the carbapenem-susceptible isolate. Epidemiological and molecular investigations showed that a single E. aerogenes strain (PFGE type A), including seven KPC-2-producing clinical isolates, was primarily responsible for the first isolation and subsequent dissemination. In a case-control study, we identified risk factors for infection/colonization with CREA. Mechanical ventilation, the changing of sickbeds and previous use of broad-spectrum antibiotics were identified as potential risk factors. Our findings suggest that further studies should focus on judicious use of available antibiotics, implementation of active antibiotic resistance surveillance and strict implementation of infection-control measures to avoid the rapid spread or clonal dissemination caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in healthcare facilities.

  2. Patient Safety in Obstetrics and Gynecology Departments of two Teaching Hospitals in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Bindiya; Guleria, Kiran; Arora, Renu

    2016-01-01

    A healthy safety culture is integral to positive health care. A sound safety climate is required in Obstetrics and Gynecology to prevent adverse outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess and compare patient safety culture in two departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Using a closed-ended standard version of Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS), respondents were asked to answer 42 survey items, grouped into 10 dimensions and two outcome variables in two tertiary care teaching hospitals in Delhi. Qualitative data were compared using Fisher's exact test and chi-square test wherever applicable. Mean values were calculated and compared using unpaired t-test. The overall survey response rate was 55%. A positive response rate of 57% was seen in the overall perception of patient safety that ranged from very good to acceptable. Sixty-four percent showed positive teamwork across hospital departments and units, while 36% gave an affirmative opinion with respect to interdepartmental handoffs. However, few adverse events (0-10) were reported in the last 12 months and only 38% of mistakes by doctors were reported. Half of the respondents agreed that their mistakes were held against them. There was no statistical difference in the safety culture between the two hospitals. Although the perception of patient safety and standards of patient safety were high in both the hospitals' departments, there is plenty of scope for improvement with respect to event reporting, positive feedback, and nonpunitive error.

  3. High bacterial load of indoor air in hospital wards: the case of University of Gondar teaching hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gizaw, Zemichael; Gebrehiwot, Mulat; Yenew, Chalachew

    2016-01-01

    The air inhaled by people is abundantly populated with microorganisms which also are called bioaerosols. Bioaerosols is a colloidal suspension, formed by liquid droplets and particles of solid matter in the air, whose components contain or have attached to them viruses, fungal spores and conidia, bacterial endospores, plant pollen and fragments of plant tissues. They account for 5-34 % of indoor air pollution. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the bacteriological concentration and to identify specific species of bacteria in the indoor air of Gondar University teaching hospital. Air samples were taken from 14 randomly selected wards. Bacterial measurements were made by passive air sampling technique i.e., the settle plate method. In each ward five Petri dishes were exposed for 30 and 60 min in the morning and afternoon. Bacteria were collected on nutrient agar and blood agar media. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted. The quantitative analysis was mainly conducted to determine bacterial load or number of bacteria in the indoor air. Bacterial load was enumerated as colony forming units. Qualitative analysis was conducted to identify specific species of bacteria. For this study we have selected Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus which had high public health concern. Mannitol test was used to isolate Staphylococcus aureus, whereas Bacitracin test was conducted to isolate Streptococcus pyogene. The result of this study indicated that the highest bacterial load which was 1468 CFU/m(3) has been recorded at 2:00 PM in Ward C at 60 min exposure time and the lowest bacterial concentration (i.e., 480 CFU/m(3)) was recorded at 8:00 AM in physiotherapy ward. Based on the result bacterial concentration of indoor air of Gondar University teaching hospital was found between 480 and 1468 CFU/m(3). The result of one way ANOVA showed that the highest mean bacterial concentration (1271.00 CFU/m(3)) was found in Medical ward and the

  4. Quality assessment of clinical education services in teaching hospitals located in Kerman, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid; Gozashti, Mohammad Hossein; Komsari, Samane; Mohammadtaghizadeh, Sedigheh; Amiresmaili, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Clinical education is one of the most important components of the resource generation function of health systems, and it has a very important role in graduates’ competency with respect to effective, practical education. This study aimed to assess the quality of clinical services in Kerman’s teaching hospitals located in southeastern Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 on 303 medical students at different levels of medical education at Kerman’s teaching hospitals. A modified SERVQUAL instrument was used to collect the data after its validity and reliability were checked. The data were analyzed by SPSS 18.0 using the paired t-test, Kruskal-Wallis, and post hoc tests, when appropriate. Results In all five dimensions of quality, gaps were observed between students’ perceptions and expectations as follows: Assurance (mean = −1.18), Responsiveness (−1.56), Empathy (−1.4), Reliability (−1.27), and Tangibles (−1.21). There was a significant difference between the quality perceptions and expectations of the medical students (p < 0.001). A significant difference was observed between three educational levels, including externships, internships, and assistantships regarding the dimensions of the quality gaps (p < 0.001). Conclusion The clinical services provided by teaching hospitals in the study did not meet the students’ expectations at any of the three educational levels. As we precisely assessed the dimensions and items that had the higher quality gaps, it was apparent that, for most part, clinical education officials could improve the quality by designing interventions, which would not be very difficult to do. PMID:26767094

  5. Quality assessment of clinical education services in teaching hospitals located in Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid; Gozashti, Mohammad Hossein; Komsari, Samane; Mohammadtaghizadeh, Sedigheh; Amiresmaili, Mohammadreza

    2015-11-01

    Clinical education is one of the most important components of the resource generation function of health systems, and it has a very important role in graduates' competency with respect to effective, practical education. This study aimed to assess the quality of clinical services in Kerman's teaching hospitals located in southeastern Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 on 303 medical students at different levels of medical education at Kerman's teaching hospitals. A modified SERVQUAL instrument was used to collect the data after its validity and reliability were checked. The data were analyzed by SPSS 18.0 using the paired t-test, Kruskal-Wallis, and post hoc tests, when appropriate. In all five dimensions of quality, gaps were observed between students' perceptions and expectations as follows: Assurance (mean = -1.18), Responsiveness (-1.56), Empathy (-1.4), Reliability (-1.27), and Tangibles (-1.21). There was a significant difference between the quality perceptions and expectations of the medical students (p < 0.001). A significant difference was observed between three educational levels, including externships, internships, and assistantships regarding the dimensions of the quality gaps (p < 0.001). The clinical services provided by teaching hospitals in the study did not meet the students' expectations at any of the three educational levels. As we precisely assessed the dimensions and items that had the higher quality gaps, it was apparent that, for most part, clinical education officials could improve the quality by designing interventions, which would not be very difficult to do.

  6. A survey of digital radiography practice in four South African teaching hospitals: an illuminative study.

    PubMed

    Nyathi, T; Chirwa, Tf; van der Merwe, Dg

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess radiographer familiarity and preferences with digital radiography in four teaching hospitals and thereafter make recommendations in line with the migration from screen film to digital radiography. A questionnaire was designed to collect data from either qualified or student radiographers from four teaching hospitals. From the four teaching hospitals, there were a total of 205 potential respondents. Among other things, responses regarding experiences and preferences with digital radiography, quality control procedures, patient dose, advantages and disadvantages of digital radiography were sought. The information collected was based on self-reporting by the participants. The study is exploratory in nature and descriptive statistics were generated from the collected data using Microsoft Excel 2007 and StatsDirect software. Sixty-three out of 205 (31%) radiographers from all the four radiology centers responded to the circulated questionnaire. Only 15% (8) of the qualified radiographers had 4 or more years of experience with digital radiography compared to 68% (36) for the same amount of experience with screen-film radiography. Sixty-one percent (38) of the participants had been exposed to digital radiography during their lectures while at university. A small proportion, 16% (10) of the respondents underwent formal training in quality control procedures on the digital X-ray units they were using. Slightly more than half (55%) of the participants felt it was easier for them to retake an image in digital radiography than in screen film radiography. The results of this survey showed that the participants are familiar with digital radiography and have embraced this relatively new technology as shown by the fact that they can identify both its advantages and disadvantages as applied to clinical practice. However, there are minimal quality control procedures specific to digital radiography being undertaken as such there is need for

  7. Pattern and outcome of congenital malformations in newborn babies in a Nigerian teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Ambe, J P; Madziga, A G; Akpede, G O; Mava, Y

    2010-01-01

    Several types of congenital malformations have been seen in our settings, but the frequencies and pattern are not known. To review the prevalence and pattern of congenital malformation in the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, over a 10-year period. This was a retrospective study carried out in a semi-urban Nigerian Teaching Hospital. All admissions into SCBU from 1991 to 2000 were reviewed, using both the admission and discharge records. The information extracted from the case note of each patient included sex, age and weight on presentation, maternal age and parity, gestational age, presence of associated neonatal illnesses such as jaundice, sepsis and the type of malformation on physical examination only. Three hundred and ten (13.9%) of 2233 admissions had major congenital malformation. Thirty one (10%) gave a history of antenatal care while 279(90%) had no record of receiving antenatal care. Of the 310 babies, 140 (45.2%) abnormalities were of the gastro-intestinal system and 75 (24.2%) of central nervous system. Anterior abdominal wall defect 77(24.8%) was the commonest type of malformation seen followed by neural tube defect 63(20.3%) and imperforate anus 31(10.0%). Gastro-intestinal malformations were associated with a mortality rate of 60.9% as compared with 21.1% in those with central nervous system malformations. The high prevalence of malformation seen in this study could be associated with the fact that majority (75.4%) of the mothers delivered their babies outside the teaching hospital, whose antenatal care are unknown. The occurrence of congenital malformations is very high in North Eastern Nigeria, Environmental factors may have a role.

  8. Comparing Academic Library Spending with Public Libraries, Public K-12 Schools, Higher Education Public Institutions, and Public Hospitals between 1998-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regazzi, John J.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the overall spending trends and patterns of growth of Academic Libraries with Public Libraries, K-12 schools, higher education institutions, and hospitals in the period of 1998 to 2008. Academic Libraries, while showing a growth of 13% over inflation for the period, far underperformed the growth of the other public institutions…

  9. Retrospective study of suicide cases admitted in Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Kajal; Devkota, Krishna Chandra

    2004-12-01

    A retrospective study of suicide cases admitted to Emergency Department and latter admitted to Department of Medicine and followed by Department of Psychiatry, Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital. This study covered a period of 4 yrs. i.e. from January 2000 to December 2003. During this period total 118 cases were admitted. Out of which 39 male and 58 female cases were studied. Suicide was their common motive. The most common poison was organophosphorous compounds. Age group of attempt suicide are between 15-45 yrs. Depression, post-schizophrenic depression and clear psychosocial stress were important cause of suicide in this study.

  10. A STUDY OF EMERGENCY PSYCHIATRIC REFERRALS IN A TEACHING GENERAL HOSPITAL1

    PubMed Central

    Kelkar, D.K.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Malhotra, S.

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY The socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of one hundred consecutive referrals from emergency O.P.D. of a teaching general hospital were studied. The referral rate was 5.4%. The source, reason and purpose of the referrals were studied. Half of the patients had presented with somatic symptoms. Altered sensorium, suicidal attempt and excitements together constituted one third of all emergency referrals. The diagnosis of neurosis was given in half of the patients and one third of all patients were labelled as suffering from hysterical neurosis. The nature of the presenting complaints and psychiatric diagnoses were comparable to that of the other studies. PMID:21965939

  11. Six cases of sepsis caused by Pantoea agglomerans in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Liberto, Maria Carla; Matera, Giovanni; Puccio, Rossana; Lo Russo, Teresa; Colosimo, Elena; Focà, Emanuele

    2009-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans is an environmental organism which may seldom cause opportunistic infections. Here we report on a 6 case outbreak in a teaching hospital. Within three months . agglomerans was isolated from blood cultures of 5 patients from oncology and 1 patient from ICU departments. P. agglomerans was in pure culture in 5 cases, while in the last one Rahnella aquatilis and Candida famata were also isolated. Therefore, P. agglomerans is able to produce nosocomial infections in patients with primary pathology often associated with immune suppression.

  12. [Darier and Ferrand dermatofibrosarcoma. About 7 cases at the Ouagadougou teaching hospital, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Traoré, S S; Zida, M; Baro, F T; Boukoungou, G; Goumbri, O M; Sano, D; Guira, A

    2007-05-01

    The authors report 7 cases of dermatofibrosarcoma of Darier and Ferrand over a 7 year- period at the Yalgado-Ouédraogo teaching hospital, that is to say an average of 1 case per year. A male predominance was noted (4 males and 3 females), average age: 48; 5 recurrences out of 7, with an average delay of 3 years for recurrence, preferentially localised on the trunk (5 cases) and thigh (2 cases). They emphasize the importance of wide surgical exeresis and histopathology essential to confirm the diagnosis. Finally they point out the importance of clinical surveillance because of frequent recurrences.

  13. Fibreoptic gastro-intestinal endoscopy at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Nkrumah, Kofi N; Archampong, Emmanuel Q

    2017-12-01

    Fibreoptic (or Flexible) endoscopy has revolutionized and completely transformed practice of gastroenterology, and many other medical specialties, over the past half century or so. At the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra the development of this facility has evolved gradually, especially involving specialists from the Departments of Medicine and Surgery since the 1970s. This article is an attempt to trace and record this journey and to highlight some of the problems and challenges yet to be overcome. It is an anecdotal account based on the authors' recollection with attempts at verification of important dates.

  14. Student learning style preferences in college-level biology courses: Implications for teaching and academic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitton, Jennifer Susan

    Education research has focused on defining and identifying student learning style preferences and how to incorporate this knowledge into teaching practices that are effective in engaging student interest and transmitting information. One objective was determining the learning style preferences of undergraduate students in Biology courses at New Mexico State University by using the online VARK Questionnaire and an investigator developed survey (Self Assessed Learning Style Survey, LSS). Categories include visual, aural, read-write, kinesthetic, and multimodal. The courses differed in VARK single modal learning preferences (p = 0.035) but not in the proportions of the number of modes students preferred (p = 0.18). As elsewhere, the majority of students were multimodal. There were similarities and differences between LSS and VARK results and between students planning on attending medical school and those not. Preferences and modalities tended not to match as expected for ratings of helpfulness of images and text. To detect relationships between VARK preferred learning style and academic performance, ANOVAs were performed using modality preferences and normalized learning gains from pre and post tests over material taught in the different modalities, as well as on end of semester laboratory and lecture grades. Overall, preference did not affect the performance for a given modality based activity, quiz, or final lecture or laboratory grades (p > 0.05). This suggests that a student's preference does not predict an improved performance when supplied with material in that modality. It is recommended that methods be developed to aid learning in a variety of modalities, rather than catering to individual learning styles. Another topic that is heavily debated in the field of education is the use of simulations or videos to replace or supplement dissections. These activities were compared using normalized learning gains from pre and post tests, as well as attitude surveys

  15. HEALTH WORKERS' PERCEPTIONON THE QUALITY OF SERVICE AND CORPORATE CULTURE OF A TEACHING HOSPITAL IN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Akpan, Etukumana Etiobong; Bassey, Orie Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Quality of service delivery remains the most important issue in hospitals since patients expect higher standard care and services. This quality service is rooted in the culture of the health care organization. Therefore,this study seeks to determine health workers' perception on the quality of service and corporate culture at University of Uyo Teaching hospital, Uyo, Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out. Using structured questionnaire and convenient sampling technique, data were collected from 250 hospital workers.The responses on questions to elicit the hospital's quality of service and corporate culture were rated on a five-point Likert Scale as follows; Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Neutral(N), Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree (SD). Data entry and analysis were performed using Epi Info 3.2.2 (CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA). The minimum and maximum ages of the respondents were 21 years and 60 years respectively. The mean, median and mode ages in the respondents were 34.6 (± 7.88) years, 33 years, and 30 years respectively. Majority of the study respondents were in the age group of 31-40 years (30%), female (56.8%) and Doctors (36%). The respondents' positive perception on quality of service offered by the hospital was 69.2% (OR 5.05, 95% CI 3.39-7.52, P < 0.00001). The subjects' positive perception on the organization values for the individual worker was 54.4% (OR 1.42, 95% CI 0.99- 2.06, P = 0.049). However, only 43.2% of the subjects accepted that the management of the hospital was flexible and understands the important of balancing their work/personal life (OR 0.58, 95%CI 0.40-0.84), P = 0.002).Thirty-eight percentages (38%) accepted that top management of the hospital communicates changes in decisions that affect employees (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.26-0.55), P < 0.00001). Majority of the workers in the various professions accepted that the hospital offer quality services as obtained in other hospitals. Majority of the workers in all the

  16. Imagine! On the Future of Teaching and Learning and the Academic Research Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kelly E.

    2014-01-01

    In the future, what role will the academic research library play in achieving the mission of higher education? This essay describes seven strategies that academic research libraries can adopt to become future-present libraries--libraries that foster what Douglas Thomas and John Seely Brown have called "a new culture of learning." Written…

  17. Academic Continuity: Staying True to Teaching Values and Objectives in the Face of Course Interruptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Terence

    2015-01-01

    Academic continuity planning is an emerging tool for dealing with class cancellation associated with natural disasters, acts of violence and the threat of pandemics. However, academic continuity can also be an issue with respect to less dramatic events, such as power outages, inclement weather, or the temporary unavailability of an instructor,…

  18. Changing Mechanisms of Governmentality? Academic Development in New Zealand and Student Evaluations of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, M.; Grant, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    Academic (or educational) development is a relatively recent project in universities. In Aotearoa New Zealand there were two waves of foundation for academic development, separated by almost 20 years, during which time much in national and international higher education had changed. This article draws on empirical and archival data to propose that…

  19. Teaching Is ... Opening up Spaces to Explore Academic Work in Fluid and Volatile Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Kirsten; Selkrig, Mark; Manathunga, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Universities are built upon the collaborative work of academic staff and students, yet the nature of this work has been undergoing profound and rapid change. Pressures within Australia's higher education sector have led to a fracturing of traditional academic roles and growing feelings of disconnection. While there have been many narrative,…

  20. Transforming Leaders into Stewards of Teaching Excellence: Building and Sustaining an Academic Culture through Leadership Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Candice; Bassell, Kellie; Fillmore, Laura; Stephenson, Winsome

    2018-01-01

    Nursing must transform education and practice to meet the changing healthcare environment; yet, steps to desired change remain unknown. Academic leaders are well-positioned to initiate change and transform the academic landscape. However, many advance to leadership positions with minimal orientation to the role. Moreover, leaders in academic…

  1. The "Truth" of Academic Development: How Did It Get to Be about "Teaching and Learning"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Mark; Grant, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The nature of academic development in contemporary universities has been a recent focus in the literature. Highlighting the diversity of practices that exist under its name, "academic development" has been described by some as an ambiguous project and a fragmented field, while others suggest a more coherent project, pointing out a near…

  2. What Are Academic Administrators Doing To Improve Undergraduate Education? Accent on Improving College Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genthon, Michele

    This paper presents the results of a study of 1,053 institutions that revealed several beliefs and trends among chief academic officers about improving undergraduate education. Among the beliefs and trends discovered are the following: (1) most commonly reported academic practices for undergraduate educational improvement were faculty recruitment,…

  3. Challenging Perspectives on Learning and Teaching in the Disciplines: The Academic Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Kerri-Lee D.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study of academic staff perspectives on disciplinary communities and skill development in disciplinary contexts. Fifty-five academic staff were interviewed across eight disciplines in four Australian universities. Responses of historians and mathematicians are the focus of this article. A socio-constructivist framework…

  4. Articulate--Academic Writing, Refereeing Editing and Publishing Our Work in Learning, Teaching and Educational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisker, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Most work on writing and publication processes focuses on writing support for undergraduates or postgraduates writing in the disciplines, while work on academic identities frequently considers development as a university teacher. This essay consider the reviewing process for academics who write, whether doctoral students, researchers, teachers or…

  5. Prescription Pattern of Analgesic Drugs for Patients Receiving Palliative Care in a Teaching Hospital in India.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Vishma Hydie; Nair, Shoba N; Soumya, M S; Tarey, S D

    2016-01-01

    Drugs used in the palliative care unit for managing symptoms are major contributors toward the expenditure occurring in palliative care. This study was conducted to understand the prescription pattern of analgesic drugs in the patients who are receiving palliative care in a teaching hospital in India by a retrospective study of case records. Case record based, retrospective, descriptive study was conducted at the Pain and Palliative Care Department of St. John's Medical College Hospital, Bengaluru. Case record files of all patients referred to Pain and Palliative Care Department for the treatment of pain in the year of 2012 were studied. Patients' age, gender, diagnoses, numerical pain rating scale (0-10), drugs prescribed, dosage, frequency, route of administration were recorded. The difference in drug utilization between the genders was done using Chi-square test. Data were collected from 502 patients of which 280 (56%) were males and 222 (44%) were females. Twelve percent of patients had mild pain (1-3), 34% had moderate pain (4-6), and 54% had severe pain (7-10). The most commonly used analgesic drugs were opioids (47%), followed by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (36%). The opioids used were tramadol (56%), and morphine (38%). Ninety percent of patients with numerical pain scale more than 6 received morphine. There was no difference in analgesic drug utilization with regards to gender. Prescription pattern differed depending on the severity of pain. Opioids were the most commonly used drugs for pain management. The study shows that prescription pattern in palliative care unit of this hospital was in accordance with WHO pain management guidelines. The study showed the current trend in prescription of analgesic drugs in the teaching hospital where the study was conducted.

  6. The readmission rates in patients with versus those without diabetes mellitus at an urban teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Sonmez, Halis; Kambo, Varinder; Avtanski, Dimiter; Lutsky, Larry; Poretsky, Leonid

    2017-12-01

    We examined the 30-day hospital readmission rates and their association with the admission diagnosis and the length of stay (LOS) in patients with diabetes versus those without diabetes mellitus (DM) in an urban teaching hospital. In this retrospective study, we compared the 30-day readmission rates in patients with DM (n=16,266) versus those without DM (n=86,428) at an urban teaching hospital between January 1, 2013, and September 30, 2015. In individuals with a secondary diagnosis of DM, we analyzed the relationship between readmission rates and the ten most common Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Groups (MS-DRGs). Additionally, we examined the relationship between the LOS and readmission rates in patients with diabetes and those without DM. The 30-day readmission rates adjusted for age and gender were higher in patients with DM compared to those without DM (15.3% vs. 8.4%, respectively, <0.001). The increased risk of readmissions was present both in patients with a primary or a secondary diagnosis of DM. For the secondary diagnosis of DM, statistically significant difference was present for two out of the ten most common DRGs (DRG # 313 [chest pain], and # 392 [esophagitis, gastroenteritis, and miscellaneous digestive disorders], p=0.045 and 0.009, respectively). There was a direct correlation between LOS and readmission rates in both patients with diabetes and those without DM (p<0.001 for both). The 30-day readmission rates are higher in patients with DM compared to patients without DM. DM is an independent risk factor for hospital readmissions. The readmission rates correlate directly with LOS in both patients with diabetes and those without DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [(Inter)national and regional health goals in academic social-medical education conception for teaching medical students at the Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen].

    PubMed

    Simoes, E; Hildenbrand, S; Rieger, M A

    2012-07-01

    Social medicine deals with the specific interactions between medicine and society within a constantly changing social environment. The Institute of Occupational and Social Medicine, University Hospital Tuebingen, focuses on this relationship within the academic teaching of the Medical Faculty. Many of the issues thus directly affect the national health objectives and especially the health targets of the state of Baden-Württemberg, summarised in the Health Strategy Baden-Wuerttemberg. In addition to the recommendations of the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) for the social medicine curriculum and the specific definition of the content by the Tuebingen medical faculty, national and regional health-care goals are also taken into account in the teaching conception. Classes are increasingly offered as training courses in small groups (seminars, group work with practical training), instead of classic lectures. These teaching methods allow the students to take part more actively in social medicine issues and to think and act within a comprehensive understanding of health management based on societal goals and the needs of a good health system. The concept is supported by the curriculum design element "log-book skills" of the Medical Faculty of Tuebingen. Feedback elements for teachers and students shape the further development of the concept. In dealing with real system data, practical experience on site and case vignettes, the students experience the links between societal influences, political objectives and medical action as well as the importance of accessibility of medical services for equity in health chances. The fact that advice and expertise play a crucial role in accessibility is a component to which too little attention is paid and calls for emphasis in the teaching concept. This teaching approach will deepen the understanding of the influence of psychosocial context factors and the conditions of the structural framework on the medical

  8. Implementing Activities Developed by the Organ Transplantation Academic Society of the Hospital Dom Vicente Scherer: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Tech, A W; Cruz, L V; Cornelli, M; do Valle Pereira, C; Bertoglio, J; Brasil, B; Acosta, C; Perusato, P; Monteiro, A J C; Marinho, G; Zanon, M; Souza, A P S; Garcia, C D

    2016-09-01

    The number of academic societies has been growing significantly in Brazilian universities, offering an extra opportunity for the development of educational activities and research. Because organ donation and transplantation is an area still insufficiently approached during the graduation of health professionals, we evaluated how academic societies might be a valuable tool. Participants of the course promoted by the Organ Transplantation Academic Society of the Hospital Dom Vicente Scherer were evaluated through the use of a questionnaire and cognitive tests with 16 multiple-choice questions about topics approached during the course, before and after the lectures. Topics approached consisted of a general introduction about transplantation in Brazil, brain death, organ allocation and removal, post-transplant follow-up, and clinical cases. Of the 45 participants, 30 answered the tests at both times. The subjects were students of medicine, nursing, and phonoaudiology; 93.3% were organ donors, 84.6% said their families knew about this decision, and 65% had relatives who were organ donors. The mean score of correct answers was 7.63 of 16 before the activities and 12.54 after activities, demonstrating a 64.4% improvement. The improvement in performance suggests that academic societies are a useful resource for educational purposes and for students to get a deeper insight about organ donation and transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diversity of Bacterial Communities on Four Frequently Used Surfaces in a Large Brazilian Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Pereira da Fonseca, Tairacan Augusto; Pessôa, Rodrigo; Felix, Alvina Clara; Sanabani, Sabri Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Frequently used hand-touch surfaces in hospital settings have been implicated as a vehicle of microbial transmission. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population on four frequently used surfaces using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Surface samples were collected from four sites, namely elevator buttons (EB), bank machine keyboard buttons (BMKB), restroom surfaces, and the employee biometric time clock system (EBTCS), in a large public and teaching hospital in São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, with a total of 926 bacterial families and 2832 bacterial genera. Moreover, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera, including Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The presence of these pathogens in frequently used surfaces enhances the risk of exposure to any susceptible individuals. Some of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity on these surfaces are poor personal hygiene and ineffective routine schedules of cleaning, sanitizing, and disinfecting. Strict standards of infection control in hospitals and increased public education about hand hygiene are recommended to decrease the risk of transmission in hospitals among patients. PMID:26805866

  10. Diversity of Bacterial Communities on Four Frequently Used Surfaces in a Large Brazilian Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Pereira da Fonseca, Tairacan Augusto; Pessôa, Rodrigo; Felix, Alvina Clara; Sanabani, Sabri Saeed

    2016-01-22

    Frequently used hand-touch surfaces in hospital settings have been implicated as a vehicle of microbial transmission. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population on four frequently used surfaces using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Surface samples were collected from four sites, namely elevator buttons (EB), bank machine keyboard buttons (BMKB), restroom surfaces, and the employee biometric time clock system (EBTCS), in a large public and teaching hospital in São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, with a total of 926 bacterial families and 2832 bacterial genera. Moreover, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera, including Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The presence of these pathogens in frequently used surfaces enhances the risk of exposure to any susceptible individuals. Some of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity on these surfaces are poor personal hygiene and ineffective routine schedules of cleaning, sanitizing, and disinfecting. Strict standards of infection control in hospitals and increased public education about hand hygiene are recommended to decrease the risk of transmission in hospitals among patients.

  11. Simulation-Based Dysphagia Training: Teaching Interprofessional Clinical Reasoning in a Hospital Environment.

    PubMed

    Miles, Anna; Friary, Philippa; Jackson, Bianca; Sekula, Julia; Braakhuis, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated hospital readiness and interprofessional clinical reasoning in speech-language pathology and dietetics students following a simulation-based teaching package. Thirty-one students participated in two half-day simulation workshops. The training included orientation to the hospital setting, part-task skill learning and immersive simulated cases. Students completed workshop evaluation forms. They filled in a 10-question survey regarding confidence, knowledge and preparedness for working in a hospital environment before and immediately after the workshops. Students completed written 15-min clinical vignettes at 1 month prior to training, immediately prior to training and immediately after training. A marking rubric was devised to evaluate the responses to the clinical vignettes within a framework of interprofessional education. The simulation workshops were well received by all students. There was a significant increase in students' self-ratings of confidence, preparedness and knowledge following the study day (p < .001). There was a significant increase in student overall scores in clinical vignettes after training with the greatest increase in clinical reasoning (p < .001). Interprofessional simulation-based training has benefits in developing hospital readiness and clinical reasoning in allied health students.

  12. The role of place on healthcare quality improvement: A qualitative case study of a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Melo, Sara

    2018-03-02

    This article examines how the built environment impacts, and is impacted by, healthcare staff day to day practice, care outcomes and the design of new quality and patient safety (Q&PS) projects. It also explores how perceptions of the built environment affect inter-professional dynamics. In doing so, it contributes to the overlooked interplay between the physical, social, and symbolic dimensions associated with a hospital's place. The study draws on 46 in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted at a large teaching hospital in Portugal formed by two buildings. Interview transcripts were analysed inductively using thematic analysis. The major contribution of this study is to advance the understanding of the interactions among the different dimensions of place on Q&PS improvement. For example, findings indicate that some of the characteristics of the physical infrastructure of the hospital have a negative impact on the quality of care provided and/or significantly limit the initiatives that can be implemented to improve it, including refurbishment works. However, decisions on refurbishment works were also influenced by the characteristics of the patient population, hospital budget, etc. Likewise, clinicians' emotional reactions to the limitations of the buildings depended on their expectations of the buildings and the symbolic projections they attributed to them. Nevertheless, differences between clinicians' expectations regarding the physical infrastructure and its actual features influenced clinicians' views on Q&PS initiatives designed by non-clinicians. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Evaluation of performance of the Medical Research Department in 'Research naive' non-academic hospital: An audit.

    PubMed

    Kuyare, Mukta Sunil; Sarve, Parag Vijayrao; Dalal, Komal S; Tripathi, Raakhi K

    2016-01-01

    Conducting medical research is not limited to academia and pharmaceutical industry but even multispeciality hospitals need to venture in this area along with patient care. To develop research culture among well-established non-acedemic hospital is always difficult and challenging task. This article attempts to evaluate the performance of the department in 'Research naïve' hospital in the last two years and review the strengths and challenges it faced at each step. This was a retrospective document analysis study evaluating the steps towards setting and sustaining of Medical Research Department of Bhaktivedanta Hospital during the period of January 2013 to June 2015 (30 Months). The authors developed a checklist (along with performance indicators) to assess the Preparatory phase and Activity phase of the research department which were evaluated by Institute Quality Management Team. Each step of both phases was also reviewed in terms of strengths and challenges as perceived by the authors. During 2 year journey of research naïve Hospital, Institute had witnessed Hospital initiated (n=24, 59%) and sponsored projects (n=17, 41%) in all specialties. HRC reviewed (n=2.13) projects per meeting for administrative consideration while IEC reviewed (n=2.15) projects for scientific and ethical review. Challenges during preparatory phases were circumvent by immense cooperation of hospital management for initial investment, sensitization through research workshops for consultants, established procedures and trained support manpower and constant encouragement by research coordinator. Considering evaluation of 41 studies in very first 2 years in 'Research naive non academic institute demonstrated successful implementation of trio model of Hospital Research Committee for administrative review, IEC for scientific-ethical review, centralized MRD for coordinating all research projects under one roof which may act as role model for Research naive institutes.

  14. Evaluation of performance of the Medical Research Department in ‘Research naive’ non-academic hospital: An audit

    PubMed Central

    Kuyare, Mukta Sunil; Sarve, Parag Vijayrao; Dalal, Komal S.; Tripathi, Raakhi K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Conducting medical research is not limited to academia and pharmaceutical industry but even multispeciality hospitals need to venture in this area along with patient care. To develop research culture among well-established non-acedemic hospital is always difficult and challenging task. This article attempts to evaluate the performance of the department in ‘Research naïve’ hospital in the last two years and review the strengths and challenges it faced at each step. Methods: This was a retrospective document analysis study evaluating the steps towards setting and sustaining of Medical Research Department of Bhaktivedanta Hospital during the period of January 2013 to June 2015 (30 Months). The authors developed a checklist (along with performance indicators) to assess the Preparatory phase and Activity phase of the research department which were evaluated by Institute Quality Management Team. Each step of both phases was also reviewed in terms of strengths and challenges as perceived by the authors. Results: During 2 year journey of research naïve Hospital, Institute had witnessed Hospital initiated (n=24, 59%) and sponsored projects (n=17, 41%) in all specialties. HRC reviewed (n=2.13) projects per meeting for administrative consideration while IEC reviewed (n=2.15) projects for scientific and ethical review. Challenges during preparatory phases were circumvent by immense cooperation of hospital management for initial investment, sensitization through research workshops for consultants, established procedures and trained support manpower and constant encouragement by research coordinator. Conclusion: Considering evaluation of 41 studies in very first 2 years in ‘Research naive non academic institute demonstrated successful implementation of trio model of Hospital Research Committee for administrative review, IEC for scientific-ethical review, centralized MRD for coordinating all research projects under one roof which may act as role model for

  15. Night shift fatigue among anaesthesia trainees at a major metropolitan teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Lancman, B M

    2016-05-01

    Night shifts expose anaesthesia trainees to the risk of fatigue and, potentially, fatigue-related performance impairment. This study examined the workload, fatigue and coping strategies of anaesthesia trainees during night shifts. A blinded survey-based study was undertaken at a major single centre metropolitan teaching hospital in Australia. All ten anaesthesia trainees who worked night shifts participated. The survey collected data on duration of night shifts, workload, and sleep patterns. Fatigue was assessed using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). There were 93 night shifts generating data out of a potential 165. Trainees tended to sleep an increasing amount before their shift as the nights progressed from 1 to 5. Night 1 was identified as an 'at risk' night due to the amount of time spent awake before arriving at work (32% awake for U+003E8 hours); on all other nights trainees were most likely to have slept 6-8 hours. The KSS demonstrated an increase in sleepiness of 3 to 4 points on the scale from commencement to conclusion of a night shift. The Night 1 conclusion sleepiness was markedly worse than any other night with 42% falling into an 'at-risk' category. The findings demonstrate fatigue and inadequate sleep in anaesthesia trainees during night shifts in a major metropolitan teaching hospital. The data obtained may help administrators prepare safer rosters, and junior staff develop improved strategies to reduce the likelihood of fatigue.

  16. A study of poisoning cases in emergency Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Khadka, S B; Khadka, S B

    2005-01-01

    To determine the pattern and severity of poisoning cases in emergency Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital. Retrospective observational study. All the poisoning cases due to various agents who attended Emergency from 1st of April 2002 to 30th of March 2003 were evaluated retrospectively. A total of 67 poisoning cases attended emergency Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital over a period of one year. The overall female to male ratio was 1.09:1. Most poisoning occurred in the age group 21-30 for adults (38.8%) and 2-5 yrs for the children. Organophosphorous was the most common poisoning for the adults where as kerosene was common in children. Oral route was the most common route of administration which accounted 86.57%. Students (35.8%) and housewife (23.3%) were commonly involved in self poisoning. Intentional poisoning comprised 58.2% of all poisonings. Majority of the intentional poisoning occurred in the female housewife & students of younger age group but accidental poisoning was found common in children under five years mostly with kerosene ingestion.

  17. Etiology of strokes and hemiplegia in children presenting at Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Tahir Saeed; Rehman, Anis ur; Ahmed, Basharat

    2006-01-01

    Strokes in pediatric age group are not common. However diagnosing the cause of stroke will help in providing preventive and curative treatment. Present study was conducted to find etiology of strokes/hemiplegia in children. This study was conducted in Department of Pediatrics, Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad from December 2002 to December 2005. All children from two months to fifteen years of age were included in the study. Children with weakness due to acute poliomyelitis and Guillan barre syndrome were excluded. Investigations were based on findings on history and clinical examination and included full blood count, PT, APTT, Platelets count, ECG, Echocardiography, hematocrit, lumber puncture with CSF analysis and culture and CT-scan skull. Data of all the patients presenting with strokes/hemiplegia was entered on prepared proforma. The main etiology of strokes was intracranial infection causing strokes in 23(56.09%)children and majority of children (78.26%) in this group were below five years. Etiology was un-known in 7(17.07%) children after necessary available investigations. Intracranial infection Infections that is meningitis and encephalitis are commonest etiology of strokes and hemiplegia in paediatrics patients presenting at Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad.

  18. Ectopic pregnancy management in Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad: a ten year survey.

    PubMed

    Deeba, Farhat; Khan, Bushra; Khattak, Samina Naseem

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is a common life-threatening emergency in the developing world. It is a cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in the first trimester and these mortalities can be reduced if it is properly managed. The objective of this study was to assess the variable clinical presentations and outcome of treatment of ectopic pregnancy in Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad. Two hundred and fifty-five patients with ectopic pregnancy managed in Ayub Teaching Hospital over period of 10 years, were included in the study. The clinical presentation, diagnostic modalities and out come of treatment were recorded and analysed. Out of 255 patients 43 (16.86%) had un-ruptured tubal pregnancy, 183 (71.76%) had ruptured ectopic pregnancy and 22 (8.62%) had chronic ectopic pregnancy. At laparotomy, salpingectomy was done in 229 (89.80%) patients, salpingo-ophrectomy in 2 patients (0.78%), linear salpingostomy in 15 (5.88%) patients. Medical treatment was given to 5 patients and 8 patients were treated conservatively. There was no maternal mortality. In spite of various recent advances in the management of ectopic pregnancy, conventional surgical treatment by laparotomy is still the most widely used modality of treatment in our institution. With appropriate and prompt management, maternal mortality due to ectopic pregnancy can be prevented.

  19. [67 cases of face and neck cellulitis managed at the Brazzaville Teaching Hospital].

    PubMed

    Itiere Odzili, F A; Mahoungou Guimbi, K; Boumandoki, P J C; Otiobanda, G F; Ovoundard, M; Ondzotto, G

    2014-12-01

    Face and neck cellulitis is an infection of cellular adipose tissues of the head and neck. These are common complications but true diagnostic and therapeutic emergencies. We had for aim to analyze the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of these infections treated under local anesthesia at the Brazzaville teaching hospital. We conducted a retrospective study from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2008 on 67 cases of patients admitted to the ENT and Stomatology units of the Brazzaville teaching hospital. We included 47 male (70%) and 20 female (30%) patients (sex ratio 2.35) with a mean age 21 years (range 14-69 years of age). The cause of infection was dental in 75% of cases, lymph nodes in 24% of cases, and otologic in 1% of cases. The treatment was medical and surgical. Cervico-facial cellulitis more frequently concerns young adults. Neglect, poor oral hygiene, and ignorance contribute to the occurrence of these complications. The main portal of entry is dental. The authors recommend the antibiotic and corticosteroid therapy associated with incision and drainage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Profile of neurological admissions at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu.

    PubMed

    Ekenze, O S; Onwuekwe, I O; Ezeala Adikaibe, B A

    2010-01-01

    The burden of Neurological diseases may be on the increase especially in developing countries. Improved outcome in these settings may require appreciation of the spectrum of Neurological diseases and the impediments to their management. We aim to determine the profile of neurological admissions and the challenges of managing these diseases at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu South East Nigeria. Analysis of Neurological admissions into the medical wards of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu from January 2003 to December 2007. Neurological admissions comprise about 14.8% of medical admissions. There were 640 (51%) males and 609 (49%) females. The spectrum of neurological diseases were stroke 64.9%, central nervous system infections (21.8% ), HIV related neurological diseases 3.5%, hypertensive encephalopathy (3.4%), dementia (3%), subarachnoid haemorrhage (2.2%), Guillian Barre syndrome (1.2%), Parkinson's disease (1.1%), myasthenia gravis (1.0%), motor neurone disease and peripheral neuropathy and accounted for 0.8% and 0.6% respectively. Overall, noninfectious disease accounted for 78.2% of neurological admissions while infectious diseases accounted for 11.8%. A wide spectrum of neurological diseases occurs in our setting. The high incidence of CNS infections indicates that efforts should be geared towards preventive measures. A major challenge to be addressed in the management of neurological diseases in our setting is the lack of specialized facilities.

  1. Toward Safer Transitions: A Curriculum to Teach and Assess Hospital-to-Hospice Handoffs.

    PubMed

    Darrah, Neha J; O'Connor, Nina R

    2016-06-01

    Patient handoffs are an increasingly emphasized skill in medical and nursing education, and handoff education is required by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Traditional handoff tools lack content that is unique to hospice and palliative medicine. The objective of the study was to develop a comprehensive curriculum to teach and assess patient handoffs in hospice and palliative medicine fellowships. Eight hospice physicians, nurse practitioners, and nurses were interviewed to determine core content for a hospital-to-hospice handoff. This content was used to create a verbal handoff template and direct observation assessment tool, which were reviewed by the same hospice providers for content validity. The handoff template was taught to two groups of palliative medicine fellows and one group of internal medicine residents using an interactive didactic and role play, and feedback was obtained to further refine the curriculum. After refinement, the complete handoff curriculum (verbal handoff template, didactic with role play, assessment by faculty using direct observation tool) was successfully integrated into a hospice and palliative medicine fellowship, satisfying Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements related to transitions in care. The hospital-to-hospice handoff is a unique opportunity to teach patient safety in a palliative medicine context. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Two decades of minilaparotomy female sterilisation at the university of benin teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Aisien, A O; Oronsaye, A U

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate female sterilisation through minilaparotomy approach in University of Benin Teaching Hospital over a 20-year period. This was a retrospective study in which the case notes of 156 clients who accepted permanent method of contraception out of 14771 acceptors of family planning methods in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital between January 1985 and December 2004 were retrieved and analyzed for socio-demographic characteristics of the clients, timing, technique, type of anaesthesia used and the complications associated with the procedure. The incidence of female sterilisation was 1%, mean age and parity were 36.9 +/- 3.6years and 6.4 +/- 1.6 respectively. 80.8% had interval sterilisation and the tubal occlusion was mainly by Pomeroy's technique. Local anaesthesia under heavy sedation was used in 85.9% of the clients. Surgical complications occurred in 3.24% and were uterine perforation, bladder and intestinal injuries and bleeding from the fallopian tube and the mesosalpinx. 3.85% had wound infection and 1.94% anaesthetic complications. Effectiveness was 100% and there was no mortality. Our institution would need to scale up counseling of clients for permanent method of contraception to improve on the poor acceptability. Careful surgical techniques with local anaesthesia alone or with light sedation and adherence to infection prevention practices would reduce the incidence of surgical, anaesthetic complications and wound sepsis that would ensure client satisfaction.

  3. The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: Help for Academic Tour Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saathoff, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    The presence of scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL), or its absence, has greatly impacted my undergraduate studies. While professors are experts in their subject matter, they do not always know how to reach students. SoTL provides resources to address such disconnects. Just-in-time teaching (JiTT) is one example of a SoTL-informed teaching…

  4. Getting Started in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: A "How To" Guide for Science Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Susan L.; Myatt, Paula M.

    2014-01-01

    SoTL stands for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. The acronym, said "sottle" or "sote-all," describes research that involves rigorous examination of teaching and learning by faculty who are actively involved in the educational process. The number of natural-science faculty engaged in SoTL is increasing, and their…

  5. Academic Pedagogies, Quality Logics and Performative Universities: Evaluating Teaching and What Students Want

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Jill

    2009-01-01

    Universities have focused on teaching and learning at a time when quality has become the marker of distinction in international higher education markets. Education markets have meant pedagogical relations have become contractualised with a focus on student satisfaction, exemplified in consumer-oriented generic evaluations of teaching. This article…

  6. Between Teaching and Research: Challenges of the Academic Profession in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Marko; Ledic, Jasminka

    2016-01-01

    Discussions about synergy or independence of teaching and research are present in many studies (Bilic, 2009; Brew & Boud, 1995; Enders & Teichler, 1997; Griffiths, 2004; Jakovljevic, 2010; Jenkins, 2000; Ramsden & Moses, 1992). Humboldt's model introduced synergy between teaching and research, thus highlighting the importance of…

  7. Using Constructivist Teaching Strategies to Enhance Academic Outcomes of Students with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpan, Joseph P.; Beard, Lawrence A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades many teaching strategies have been proposed by various educators to improve education of all students including students with special needs. No single one of these proposed teaching strategies meets the needs of all students. The new Every Student Succeeds Act, successor to No Child Left behind Law, which transfers oversight…

  8. Academics' Perceptions of the Impact of Internal Quality Assurance on Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, Orlanda; Sin, Cristina; Videira, Pedro; Amaral, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Internal quality assurance systems are expected to improve the institutions' core mission of teaching and learning. Using data gathered through an online survey, distributed in 2014/2015, to the teaching staff of all Portuguese private and public higher education institutions, this paper examines the impact of internal quality assurance systems on…

  9. A Handbook for Teaching & Learning in Higher Education: Enhancing Academic Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Heather, Ed.; Ketteridge, Steve, Ed.; Marshall, Stephanie, Ed.

    This book was written to support the excellence in teaching required to bring about learning of the highest quality. Chapters seek to offer the best practical advice in teaching, learning, and assessment, as well as references to research findings. An introductory section sets out the purpose of the book and examines the changing role and place of…

  10. Ideologies "of" English Language Teaching in Iranian Academic Research: Mainstream, Alternative, and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirhosseini, Seyyed-Abdolhamid; Ghafar Samar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Mainstream trends of English language teaching (ELT) are predominantly constructed within the epistemological boundaries shaped by the traditional conceptions of linguistics, learning, and teaching as well as positivist research methodology. What tends to be overshadowed by such conceptions is the underlying foundational belief structure of ELT…

  11. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by cancer patients at Zhejiang University Teaching Hospital Zhuji Hospital, China.

    PubMed

    Teng, Lisong; Jin, Ketao; He, Kuifeng; Bian, Chunge; Chen, Weili; Fu, Kaiyan; Zhu, Tieming; Jin, Zhigang

    2010-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is garnering increasing interest and acceptance among the general population throughout the world. The use of CAM by cancer patients is very common in China. The referenced English literature has no rural community-based study from China on this subject. This study was conducted to define the prevalence, pattern of use, and reasons for using CAM by cancer patients at Zhejiang University Teaching Hospital Zhuji Hospital (ZUTH-ZJH), China. Face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire were used to determine the use of CAM by cancer patients. All consenting cancer patients were interviewed as they presented at the Department of Surgical Oncology of ZUTH-ZJH, from September 2009 to February 2010. One hundred and twenty one patients were interviewed; 64 (52.9%) were males and 57 (47.1%) were females. One hundred and thirteen patients (93.4%) have used CAM at some time during their current cancer illness, fifty two (46.0%) are female and sixty one (54.0%) are male patients; 8 (6.6%) patients have not used any form of CAM. Chinese medicine (73.5.0%) was the most commonly reported CAM modality. Over 71.7% of those who used CAM were satisfied, only 28.3% were disappointed. Twenty eight users (24.8%) did not see any benefit from the CAM, but eighty one patients (71.7%) could describe some specific benefits. Only one patient will use orthodox medicine instead of CAM in the future, almost all patients will continue to use CAM in the future. CAM use is very common among cancer patients in local area of China. Most users obtain the expected benefits, and adverse events are uncommon. It is imperative that oncologists should explore the use of CAM with their cancer patients and work towards an integrated model of health-care provision. This knowledge will enable oncologists to better counsel the patients.

  12. Academic health centers in competitive markets.

    PubMed

    Reuter, J; Gaskin, D

    1997-01-01

    Academic health center (AHC) hospitals and other major teaching hospitals have funded a portion of their academic missions through patient care revenues. Using all-payer state discharge data, this DataWatch presents information on how these institutions are being affected by market changes. Although AHCs are not as successful as other hospitals are in attracting managed care patients, competitive pressures had not eroded AHCs' financial status as of 1994. However, increasing enrollment in managed care and potential changes in both Medicare and Medicaid suggest that pressure on the financing of these institutions' social missions will continue to grow over time.

  13. Differences in Routine Laboratory Ordering Between a Teaching Service and a Hospitalist Service at a Single Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Ellenbogen, Michael I; Ma, Madeleine; Christensen, Nicholas P; Lee, Jungwha; O'Leary, Kevin J

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that the overutilization of laboratory tests ("labs") for hospitalized patients is common and can cause adverse health outcomes. Our objective was to compare the ordering tendencies for routine complete blood counts (CBC) and chemistry panels by internal medicine residents and hospitalists. This observational study included a survey of medicine residents and hospitalists and a retrospective analysis of labs ordering data. The retrospective data analysis comprised patients admitted to either the teaching service or nonteaching hospitalist service at a single hospital during 2014. The survey asked residents and hospitalists about their practices and preferences on labs ordering. The frequency and timing of one-time and daily CBC and basic chemistry panel ordering for teaching service and hospitalist patients were obtained from our data warehouse. The average number of CBCs per patient per day and chemistry panels per patient per day was calculated for both services and multivariate regression was performed to control for patient characteristics. Forty-four of 120 (37%) residents and 41 of 53 (77%) hospitalists responded to the survey. Forty-four (100%) residents reported ordering a daily CBC and chemistry panel rather than one-time labs at patient admission compared with 22 (54%) hospitalists ( P < 0.001). For CBCs, teaching service patients averaged 1.72/day and hospitalist service patients averaged 1.43/day ( P < 0.001). For basic chemistry panels, teaching service patients averaged 1.96/day and hospitalist service patients averaged 1.78/day ( P < 0.001). Results were similar in multivariate regression models adjusting for patient characteristics. Residents' self-reported and actual use of CBCs and chemistry panels is significantly higher than that of hospitalists in the same hospital. Our results reveal an opportunity for greater supervision and improved instruction of cost-conscious ordering practices.

  14. Inspiring Exemplary Teaching and Learning: Perspectives on Teaching Academically Talented College Students--A Companion Piece to "Teaching and Learning in Honors." National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Larry, Ed.; Zubizarreta, John, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This monograph is a companion piece to "Teaching and Learning in Honors." The authors in this monograph are dedicated to exploring the sometimes magical, sometimes ordinary, sometimes rewarding, sometimes challenging connections between good teaching and deep, lasting learning. Questions regarding students' learning, pedagogical…

  15. Associations between teaching effectiveness scores and characteristics of presentations in hospital medicine continuing education.

    PubMed

    Ratelle, John T; Wittich, Christopher M; Yu, Roger C; Newman, James S; Jenkins, Sarah M; Beckman, Thomas J

    2015-09-01

    There is little research regarding characteristics of effective continuing medical education (CME) presentations in hospital medicine (HM). Therefore, we sought to identify associations between validated CME teaching effectiveness scores and characteristics of CME presentations in the field of HM. This was a cross-sectional study of participants and didactic presentations from a national HM CME course in 2014. Participants provided CME teaching effectiveness (CMETE) ratings using an instrument with known validity evidence. Overall CMETE scores (5-point scale: 1 = strongly disagree; 5 = strongly agree) were averaged for each presentation, and associations between scores and presentation characteristics were determined using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The threshold for statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. A total of 277 out of 368 participants (75.3%) completed evaluations for the 32 presentations. CMETE scores (mean [standard deviation]) were significantly associated with the use of audience response (4.64 [0.16]) versus no audience response (4.49 [0.16]; P = 0.01), longer presentations (≥30 minutes: 4.67 [0.13] vs <30 minutes: 4.51 [0.18]; P = 0.02), and larger number of slides (≥50: 4.66 [0.17] vs <50: 4.55 [0.17]; P = 0.04). There were no significant associations between CMETE scores and use of clinical cases, defined goals, or summary slides. To our knowledge, this is the first study regarding associations between validated teaching effectiveness scores and characteristics of effective CME presentations in HM. Our findings, which support previous research in other fields, indicate that CME presentations may be improved by increasing interactivity through the use of audience response systems and allowing longer presentations. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  16. Changing Economics of Health Care Are Devastating Academic Medical Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Werf, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Once a financially healthy part of American universities, many academic health centers are struggling to survive. Many are merging with for-profit chains or declaring bankruptcy. The advance of managed care and insurance companies focusing on reducing costs appears to be affecting teaching hospitals more than community hospitals. (MSE)

  17. New roles: professional staff sharing between a hospital and an academic library.

    PubMed

    Just, Melissa L

    2003-01-01

    Childrens Hospital Los Angeles is a pediatric hospital and research institute affiliated with the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California (USC). Historically, the library at Childrens Hospital was staffed by a hospital-employed librarian. In 1999, the library position was outsourced to USC's Norris Medical Library. The new position is staffed by a librarian who divides her time equally between two locations: the Childrens Hospital Library and the Norris Medical Library. This staff sharing arrangement has three primary goals: increase the collaboration between the libraries; improve access to resources and library staff expertise; and provide faster document delivery service to the Childrens Hospital library. This paper presents the details of the position, and addresses the pros and cons for both libraries and the librarian.

  18. A quantitative summary of nutrition support services in a veterinary teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, S

    1991-04-01

    A full-time nutrition support service provided 1,133 consultations in a small animal teaching hospital from July 1986 to June 1988, consisting of 840 dogs, 260 cats, 23 exotic species, and 10 consultations with incomplete information. The dog and cat consultations represented 2.1 and 3.7% of canine and feline admissions, respectively. Consultations involved the determination of nutritional goals which led to recommendations of specific dietary regimens. Most frequent requests were for diet evaluation and diet formulation to meet estimated calorie and protein needs during illness and stress (23%), for specific calorie or nutrient modification given a working diagnosis (23%), and for avoidance of tissue utilization or weight loss (23%). Frequently involved single organ systems were gastrointestinal (16%), liver (12%), kidney (9%), and pancreas (4%), but multiple system involvement was more common (19%). Most frequent diagnostic categories were metabolic disorders (17%), chronic organ failure (17%), and neoplasia (12%). Enteral nutrition was preferred for 98% of consultations. Voluntary consumption was deemed adequate in 81% of consultations, and highly palatable balanced homemade diets and specialty products were recommended in 74% of these. Human hospital liquid enteral products were used in 95% of consultations recommending involuntary feeding, either fed alone, blended with petfoods, or supplemented with modules of protein or fat. The service demonstrated that full-time nutrition support can be utilized effectively in a small animal teaching hospital. Further development of such services will depend on research focused especially on determination of case-specific nutritional goals, patient responses, and cost effectiveness.

  19. Budget impact analysis of pemetrexed introduction: case study from a teaching hospital perspective, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chanjaruporn, Farsai; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Sooksriwong, Cha-oncin; Kaojarern, Sming

    2011-09-01

    Thailand does not currently require Budget Impact Analysis (BIA) assessment. The present study aimed to estimate the annual drug cost and the incremental impact on the hospital pharmaceutical budget of the introduction of pemetrexed to a Thai teaching hospital. The budget impact model was conducted in accordance with the Guidelines for preparing submissions to the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC). The model variables consisted of number of patients, growth rate of lung cancer, uptake rate of pemetrexed over time, unit prices of drugs, and the length and cost of treatment. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine changes in budgetary impact due to variation of parameters or assumptions in the model. The introduction of pemetrexed was estimated to cause considerable costs for the teaching hospital. In the base-case analysis, the incremental costs were estimated at 8,553,984 Baht in the first year increasing to 12, 118, 144 Baht, 17,820,800 Baht and 17,820,800 Baht in the following years. The 4-year net budgetary impact was 20,154,480 Baht or approximately 127,560 Baht per patient. Sensitivity analyses found that number of treatment cycles andproportion of patients assumed to be treated with pemetrexed were the two most important influencing factors in the model. New costly innovative interventions should be evaluated using the BIA model to determine whether they are affordable. The Thai government should consider requiring the BIA study as one of the requirements for drug submission to assist in the determination of listing and subsidizing decision for medicines.

  20. Stroke among young adults at the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, A F; Sanya, E O; Bello, T O

    2012-01-01

    Stroke in young adults is relatively rare and there are very few hospital reports about it in Nigeria. The aetiologic mechanisms of stoke among young adults are quite distinct from those of the adults' populations. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the frequency, aetiologic mechanisms and prognosis of stroke among young adults at the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital Osogbo Nigeria. The study was both retrospective and descriptive. Case notes of stroke patients aged 16-45 years managed at the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital Osogbo from June 2005 till February 2008 were retrieved. Demographic data, clinical profile of stroke, laboratory investigation results and treatment outcomes were collated. Clinical diagnosis and classification of stroke was mainly clinical using the WHO clinical criteria. Only 3 patients had cranial CT scan. Out of the total number of 208 stroke patients managed during this period, 27(12.9%) were aged 45 years and below. This comprised of 17 males and 10 females. The age range was between 23-45 years. Using the WHO clinical criteria, there were 14 cases of heamorrhagic CVD and 13 cases of ischaemic CVD. The three cranial CT scan that were done revealed cerebral infarction which was consistent with the clinical diagnosis. Severe hypertension was found in 16 (59.2%) patients on admission. 3 patients had clinical and electrocardiographic evidence of rheumatic heart disease with infective endocarditis. Other risk factors included Sickle cell disease, cardiac arrhythmias etc. 8 out of the 27 patients died giving a percentage mortality of 29.6% and 7 patients were discharged against medical advice. Heamorrhagic stroke was slightly more frequent than ischaemic CVD. Systemic hypertension was also found to be prevalent among these young Nigerian adults with stroke. However, it was difficult to unravel the aetiologic mechanisms of stroke in this study because of paucity of investigations.