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Sample records for academic teaching hospitals

  1. Replacing the academic medical center's teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Reves, J G; Smith, Stuart; Greenberg, Ray; Johnson, Donald

    2005-11-01

    Addressing the need for updated teaching hospital facilities is one of the most significant issues that an academic medical center faces. The authors describe the process they underwent in deciding to build a new facility at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC). Initial issues included whether or not the teaching hospital would continue to play a role in clinical education and whether to replace or renovate the existing facility. Once the decision to build was reached, MUSC had to choose between an on-campus or distant site for the new hospital and determine what the function of the old hospital would be. The authors examine these questions and discuss the factors involved in different stages of decision making, in order to provide the academic medicine community guidance in negotiating similar situations. Open communication within MUSC and with the greater community was a key component of the success of the enterprise to date. The authors argue that decisions concerning site, size, and focus of the hospital must be made by developing university-wide and community consensus among many different constituencies. The most important elements in the success at MUSC were having unified leadership, incorporating constituent input, engaging an external consultant, remaining unfazed by unanticipated challenges, and adhering to a realistic, aggressive timetable. The authors share their strategies for identifying and successfully managing these complex and potentially divisive aspects of building a new teaching hospital. PMID:16249296

  2. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  3. Academic health center teaching hospitals in transition: a perspective from the field.

    PubMed

    Cyphert, S T; Colloton, J W; Levey, S

    1997-01-01

    A study of 11 Academic Health Center Teaching Hospitals (ATHs) in 11 states found that cost reduction programs, internal reorganizations, reengineering, benchmarking, and broadened entrepreneurial activity were prominent among the strategic initiatives reported in dealing with an increasingly turbulent environment. Although none of the ATHs had experienced negative net margins, we conclude that today's competitive healthcare system requires ATHs be reimbursed separately for their educational and other societally related costs to assist them in competing on a level playing fields. PMID:9543922

  4. Positioning academic medical centers and teaching hospitals to thrive in the next decade.

    PubMed

    Morris, D E

    1985-06-01

    Market share for academic medical centers and teaching hospitals will decline over the next five years necessitating new strategies to ensure growth and profitability. These types of institutions are, however, in a strong position to compete and gain market share locally by building a defensible competitive advantage. This article offers three avenues for increasing market share: networking, brand name product differentiation, and business diversification. PMID:10271804

  5. How one teaching hospital system and one medical school are jointly affirming their academic mission.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, M; Rabkin, M T; Tosteson, D C

    1997-06-01

    The economic forces that are reshaping the practice of medicine and the funding of medical research will have great impact on clinical education and research in teaching hospitals and their associated medical schools. Changes in the setting of and approach to medical education will need to be made in order to continue to train physicians at the same high level as in the past and to maintain the productivity of our national biomedical research enterprise and its contributions to health. Academic leaders, such as department chiefs who have clinical service responsibilities, are finding it more and more difficult to manage simultaneously the demands of the clinical business, education, and research. In an effort to organize a teaching hospital and a medical school in a manner that would position them to maintain more effectively their common academic mission front and center with the clinical business, Harvard Medical School and the Beth Israel Hospital created a joint venture in 1996. The new nonprofit Institute for Education and Research has education and research as its top (and only) mission. It is designed to provide additional and specific academic leadership and to enable the joint venture to undertake strategic planning for the academic mission. In addition to the challenges it faces from changes in the external environment, the Institute for Education and Research will need to establish a new pattern of interactions internally within the parent institutions. Collaborations with department chairs and faculty are an essential ingredient for its success. It is hoped that this structure will prove to be a useful template for organizing other medical school-hospital collaborations on behalf of the academic mission. PMID:9200578

  6. Wiring a medical school and teaching hospital for telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Hjelm, N M; Lee, J C K; Cheng, D; Chui, C

    2002-06-01

    The planning and installation of a telemedicine system for communication within a teaching hospital and its academic and hospital units with a capacity for accommodation of up to 400 video-stations is described. The system is intended for improving the communication between patients and health professionals, and between the health professionals themselves. It also provides the basis for improving pre-graduate teaching, especially problem-based learning, and all aspects of postgraduate teaching. PMID:12052428

  7. Wiring a medical school and teaching hospital for telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Hjelm, N M; Lee, J C; Cheng, D; Chui, C

    2001-05-01

    The planning and installation of a telemedicine system for communication within a teaching hospital and its academic and hospital units with a capacity for accommodation of up to 400 video-stations is described. The system is intended for improving the communication between patients and health professionals, and between the health professionals themselves. It also provides the basis for improving pre-graduate teaching, especially problem-based learning, and all aspects of postgraduate teaching. PMID:11311677

  8. Success factors in merging teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Thier, Samuel O; Kelley, William N; Pardes, Herbert; Knight, Amy Wimpey; Wietecha, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Merger has served as a major strategy for the leaders of academic medical centers (i.e., teaching hospitals) who are pursuing health system development for their institutions. Applying hindsight to their personal experience, the authors explore common themes in several mergers that have survived the test of time. Although many elements influence merger outcomes, experience suggests several of unique importance. These include effective leadership in the areas of creating trust, managing uncertainty, ensuring medical staff stability, and bridging cultural divides across the organizations. While a quantitative business case should support any merger, the authors' experiences underscore the importance of successfully assessing and managing organizational and individual dynamics when bringing together major teaching hospitals. PMID:24362373

  9. Who Teaches Academic Integrity and How Do They Teach It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Löfström, Erika; Trotman, Tiffany; Furnari, Mary; Shephard, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Whose role is it to teach academic integrity to university students? We explored academics' conceptions about their role in promoting academic integrity in two countries, namely New Zealand and Finland. We used Q methodology to find common configurations of perspectives that can help us understand the premises based on which academics approach the…

  10. Developing the academic thoracic surgeon: teaching surgery.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, W A; Greene, P S

    2000-04-01

    Teaching surgery can be a very gratifying experience for those of us involved in academic thoracic surgery. Fundamentals of a good residency program require that patients should always be placed in the highest priority. However, the residency program should also be committed to teaching as a priority. Creating the proper operating room environment is essential for optimal conduct of the operation. This environment is similar to that of the airline industry, which is known as crew or cockpit resource management. The design of a teaching program needs to have evaluation as one of its key elements. In addition to resident evaluation, it is also important to have faculty evaluation by the residents. The goal of any residency program should be to foster the development of the future leaders in our specialty. The information contained within this article represents the art and science of teaching thoracic surgery as applied by the faculty in the Division of Cardiac Surgery at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. PMID:10727957

  11. Device-associated infection rates and bacterial resistance in six academic teaching hospitals of Iran: Findings from the International Nocosomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC).

    PubMed

    Jahani-Sherafat, Somayeh; Razaghi, Maryam; Rosenthal, Victor D; Tajeddin, Elahe; Seyedjavadi, Simasadat; Rashidan, Marjan; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Rostampour, Maryam; Haghi, Arezo; Sayarbayat, Masoumeh; Farazmandian, Somayeh; Yarmohammadi, Tahere; Arshadi, Fardokht K; Mansouri, Nahid; Sarbazi, Mohammad R; Vilar, Mariano; Zali, Mohammad R

    2015-01-01

    Device-associated health care-acquired infections (DA-HAIs) pose a threat to patient safety, particularly in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, few data regarding DA-HAI rates and their associated bacterial resistance in ICUs from Iran are available. A DA-HAI surveillance study was conducted in six adult and pediatric ICUs in academic teaching hospitals in Tehran using CDC/NHSN definitions. We collected prospective data regarding device use, DA-HAI rates, and lengths of stay from 2584 patients, 16,796 bed-days from one adult ICU, and bacterial profiles and bacterial resistance from six ICUs. Among the DA-HAIs, there were 5.84 central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABs) per 1000 central line-days, 7.88 ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAPs) per 1000 mechanical ventilator-days and 8.99 catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) per 1000 urinary catheter-days. The device utilization ratios were 0.44 for central lines, 0.42 for mechanical ventilators and 1.0 for urinary catheters. The device utilization ratios of mechanical ventilators and urinary catheters were higher than those reported in the ICUs of the INICC and the CDC's NHSN reports, but central line use was lower. The DA-HAI rates in this study were higher than the CDC's NHSN report. However, compared with the INICC report, the VAP rate in our study was lower, while the CLAB rate was similar and the CAUTI rate was higher. Nearly 83% of the samples showed a mixed-type infection. The most frequent pathogens were Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterococcus spp. In the S. aureus isolates, 100% were resistant to oxacillin. Overall resistances of A. baumannii and K. pneumonia to imipenem were 70.5% and 76.7%, respectively. A multiple drug resistance phenotype was detected in 68.15% of the isolates. The DA-HAI rates in Iran were shown to be higher than the CDC-NHSN rates and similar to the INICC rates

  12. Teaching Academic Vocabulary to Foreign Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anne V.

    1976-01-01

    A method of teaching academic vocabulary to the intermediate to advanced EFL graduate students is discussed. Academic vocabulary includes non-technical vocabulary used in the research process, analysis and evaluation. Criteria for selecting academic vocabulary items are explained. Selected items and sample exercises for each area are given. (SCC)

  13. Developing Marketing Strategies for University Teaching Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Daniel J.

    1980-01-01

    University teaching hospitals face increasing competition from community hospitals, expanding regulation of health care, consumerism, and a declining urban population base. New marketing strategies are seen as ways in which teaching hospitals can achieve better relationships with institutions, practitioners, and surrounding communities and…

  14. Theme: Teaching Academically Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Maynard J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Will We Serve the Academically Disadvantaged?" (Iverson); "Using Centers of Learning to Reach Academically Disadvantaged Students" (Gentry); "Georgia's Special Lamb Project Adoption Program" (Farmer); "Teacher Expectations" (Powers); "Providing Instruction for Special Populations" (Jewell); and "The Educational Reform Movement and…

  15. General Practice Teaching--Within the Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, M.

    1976-01-01

    A program of integrated teaching by consultants and general practitioners is described. The teaching took place in the hospitals used for the purpose by the Medical Faculty of the University of Birmingham. (Author)

  16. The Reluctant Academic: Early-Career Academics in a Teaching-Orientated University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based on research into academic identities amongst early-career academics in a UK post-1992, teaching-orientated university. Literature around academic identity suggests five major academic roles: teaching, research, management, writing and networking. However, this appears to be a picture of an established mid-career academic in a…

  17. Complex Dynamics in Academics' Developmental Processes in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautwein, Caroline; Nückles, Matthias; Merkt, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Improving teaching in higher education is a concern for universities worldwide. This study explored academics' developmental processes in teaching using episodic interviews and teaching portfolios. Eight academics in the context of teaching development reported changes in their teaching and change triggers. Thematic analyses revealed seven areas…

  18. Teaching hospital planning: a case study and the need for reform.

    PubMed

    Davis, Christopher K; Smith, Harry

    2010-08-16

    Academic teaching hospitals and their networks can best serve patients and other stakeholders by achieving critical mass and scope of clinical services, teaching and research. Successful hospital reconfigurations are associated with a convincing case and majority clinician buy-in. The inscrutable political decision to relocate services away from a major teaching hospital campus and into a merged Queensland Children's Hospital was determined without broad stakeholder consultation or a transparent and accountable business case. This compromised process poses a significant and enduring risk to patient care and Queensland's paediatric, perinatal, adolescent and obstetric academic teaching hospital services. As the proposed major stakeholder in Australia's public hospitals and medical workforce training, the federal government should review this decision using an effective methodology incorporating relevant criteria. National guidelines are needed to ensure best practice in the future planning and auditing of major health care projects. The medical profession is responsible for ensuring that health care policy complies with reliable evidence and good practice. PMID:20712545

  19. Academic health center hospitals: alternative responses to financial stress.

    PubMed

    Jones, K R; Sloate, S G

    1987-01-01

    Academic health center hospitals face challenges to their survival in an increasingly competitive, challenging, and entrepreneurial environment. University hospitals face a number of major stresses and are responding in various ways to ensure their financial viability. PMID:3305420

  20. Teaching Assistants and Academic Dishonesty: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, John Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study surveyed the preparation for, attitudes towards, and experiences with academic dishonesty among Teaching Assistants (TAs) at the University of Arkansas. Of the population of 470 TAs, this study included 184 responses for a response rate of 39.1%. The survey included two instruments created by the researcher. The first assessed TAs'…

  1. Hospital management principles applicable to the veterinary teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Harris, Donna L; Lloyd, James W; Marrinan, Mike

    2004-01-01

    The Skills, Knowledge, Aptitude, and Attitude (SKA) Subcommittee of the National Commission on Veterinary Economic Issues (NCVEI) has identified the need for veterinary teaching hospitals (VTH) to be at the forefront of progressive business management to serve as a model for both students and practitioners to emulate. To provide a foundation for developing a model, this study reviewed pertinent literature applicable to the management of a VTH. Much of the literature relevant to VTH management relates to work completed for the human side of medicine (academic health centers, or AHCs) or to the private sector. This review explores management practices in strategic planning, financial management, human resource management, marketing, pricing, operations, and legal issues. It is concluded that strategic management is important to provide the foundation for success in the VTH. In addition, periodic financial reports are recommended, as are the development and use of benchmarks for financial management. Establishing positive, motivating human resource practices is also suggested, along with development of a marketing plan based on a clear understanding of VTH core competencies and the market's specific needs. PMID:15510343

  2. Academic Misconduct in Teaching Portfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erikson, Martin G.; Erlandson, Peter; Erikson, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Within academia, clear and standardised communication is vital. From this point of departure, we discuss the trustworthiness of teaching portfolios when used in assessment. Here, misconduct and fraud are discussed in terms of fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism, following the literature on research fraud. We argue that the portfolio's…

  3. Identifying Teaching Groups as a Basis for Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Academic development recognizes the strengths of communities, such as communities of practice or learning communities, in providing academics with supportive environments for the development of teaching. The problem academic development faces is that not enough academics are involved in these communities. Instead of trying to interest academics in…

  4. Teaching Prayer: Pilot Survey of Academic Courses on Personal Prayer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baesler, E. James

    The practical concerns of an individual interested in learning about prayer in an academic context are interconnected with the practical concerns about teaching an academic course on prayer. A pilot study proposed to investigate and evaluate the context and content of academic courses on personal prayer from the perspective of teaching prayer,…

  5. The Teaching Nursing Home as an Academic Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Philip G.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the origins of the teaching nursing home concept, describes its goals and major components, and explores some of the problems in developing it as an academic program. Asserts that the teaching nursing home, if properly developed, can be a strong academic program that improves geriatric patient care, research, and teaching. (Author/ABB)

  6. Implications of Academic Dishonesty for Teaching in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Augustus E.

    2003-01-01

    Academic dishonesty among students reveals potential problems in the teaching of psychology. In particular, a teaching pedagogy that emphasizes information delivery, and uses examinations as a method to discriminate among students aspiring for social and financial status, contributes to an academic climate of dishonesty. As a constructive…

  7. Teaching evidence-based practice in the hospital and the library: two different groups, one course.

    PubMed

    Blake, Lindsay; Ballance, Darra

    2013-01-01

    Key roles in teaching evidence-based practice (EBP) are of interest to many hospital and academic librarians. This article describes how three academic librarians, in collaboration with the academic medical center's EBP Nursing Council, developed a seminar consisting of three credit hours of instruction in the basics of evidence-based practice. The seminar consists of three core elements: basic principles of EBP and finding literature, clinical experience and integration of knowledge into the hospital setting, and patient education and participation. Emphasis is placed upon analysis of the literature, institutional models of practice change, and the importance of patient roles in guideline development. PMID:23394424

  8. Using the Sociological Imagination to Teach about Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nell Trautner, Mary; Borland, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The sociological imagination is a useful tool for teaching about plagiarism and academic integrity, and, in turn, academic integrity is a good case to help students learn about the sociological imagination. ?We present an exercise in which the class discusses reasons for and consequences of dishonest academic behavior and then examines a series of…

  9. Potential of Mobile Learning in Teaching of ESL Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaki, Arlina Ahmad; Yunus, Melor Md

    2015-01-01

    The potentials of mobile learning in teaching academic writing skills for ESL students are explored in this paper. Although there have been studies on MALL to improve writing skills, academic writing was never really touched. Few aspects are covered like the changes in educational technology, defining MALL, identifying issues in academic writing…

  10. Marginal Worth: Teaching and the Academic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lionel S.

    The contemporary academic labor market is examined using concepts from labor market economics and sociology to elucidate why teaching, universally acknowledged to be at the center of American academic life, is not at the center of the academic labor market and is only modestly rewarded. First, tenets of the neoclassical labor market model are…

  11. How and Why Academics Do and Do Not Use iPads for Academic Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiyegbayo, Olaojo

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluated how academics, at a mid-sized UK university, used their iPads for teaching. The data were gathered using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Eighty-four academics completed a survey while 22 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Eleven interviewees reported that they used their iPads for teaching purposes and the…

  12. Predicting Academic Success from Academic Motivation and Learning Approaches in Classroom Teaching Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çetin, Baris

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to determine whether learning approaches and academic motivation together predict academic success of classroom teaching students. The sample of the study included 536 students (386 female, 150 male) studying at the Classroom Teaching Division of Canakkale 18 Mart University. Our research was designed as a prediction study. Data was…

  13. Can Near-Peer Teaching Improve Academic Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Brett; Fowler, James

    2014-01-01

    Near peer teaching is becoming increasingly popular within healthcare education. The experiences and effects of near-peer teaching upon the near-peer teachers' academic performance are poorly understood. In order to address this, the objective of this study was to examine whether a near-peer teaching program improved the overall clinical unit…

  14. Strengthening the Teaching Self-Efficacy of Early Career Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian Colin

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study exploring teaching self-efficacy (defined as a belief in capability to execute teaching-related tasks) in a higher education context. It is based on the views of 12 early career academics (ECAs) employed at Charles Sturt University who were interviewed to learn more about how their teaching self-efficacy…

  15. Roles and methods of performance evaluation of hospital academic leadership.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Yuan, Huikang; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xia; Yi, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly advancing implementation of public hospital reform urgently requires the identification and classification of a pool of exceptional medical specialists, corresponding with incentives to attract and retain them, providing a nucleus of distinguished expertise to ensure public hospital preeminence. This paper examines the significance of academic leadership, from a strategic management perspective, including various tools, methods and mechanisms used in the theory and practice of performance evaluation, and employed in the selection, training and appointment of academic leaders. Objective methods of assessing leadership performance are also provided for reference. PMID:27061556

  16. Not Just Good Science Teaching: Supporting Academic Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Cecilia; Weinburgh, Molly; Smith, Kathy Horak

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore ways in which they have worked together in understanding the complexities of academic language within the science classroom and discuss strategies they have used to teach academic language to young adolescent English Language Learners (ELLs) within inquiry-based science lessons. They discuss strategies they use…

  17. A Utility Model for Teaching Load Decisions in Academic Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, William F.; Zemsky, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Presents a utility model for academic department decision making and describes the structural specifications for analyzing it. The model confirms the class-size utility asymmetry predicted by the authors' academic rachet theory, but shows that marginal utility associated with college teaching loads is always negative. Curricular structure and…

  18. Organisational Commitments and Teaching Styles among Academics in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-Fang; Jing, Li-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    This research pioneered the investigation of the predictive power of organisational commitments for academics' teaching styles. Participants were 370 faculty members from 15 higher educational institutions in Beijing, the People's Republic of China. Results showed that academics' organisational commitments as measured by the Organisational…

  19. The Teaching of Critical Thinking Skills by Academic Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetzfridt, Nicholas J.

    Teaching critical thinking is a relatively new dimension of bibliographic instruction (BI) in the academic environment. It marks a departure from the teaching of "user skills" in which the primary concern is enabling library patrons to determine the appropriateness of reference tools and to use those tools effectively. This report assembles a…

  20. Nonsimulation Academic Games and the Teaching of Language Usage Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, J. Richard

    The effectiveness of certain nonsimulation academic games in a gaming system called Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT) was investigated as a method of teaching the skills of capitalization and punctuation. A sample of 138 eighth-grade students participated in an 18-day experiment comparing three teaching methods: gaming, in which students were taught…

  1. Teaching and Learning: A Model for Academic and Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiering, Marjorie S.; Bogner, Drew; Buli-Holmberg, Jorun

    2011-01-01

    Learners are multi-faceted, unique people. Discovering the whole individual is incumbent upon realizing the teaching/learning environments, common social and societal realities, and belief and value systems respective of academic and socio-societal factors that establish who one is as a learner and teacher. In "Learning and Teaching," the authors…

  2. Jordanian nurses' job satisfaction and intent to stay: comparing teaching and non-teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Mrayyan, Majd T

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify variables of Jordanian nurses' job satisfaction and intent to stay, compare the phenomena of interest in teaching and non-teaching hospitals, and correlate the two concepts of nurses' job satisfaction and intent to stay. A convenience sample of 433 nurses was obtained from three teaching hospitals and two non-teaching hospitals. Nurses were "neither satisfied nor dissatisfied" and were "neutral" in reporting their intent to stay at their current jobs. Nurses who were working in non-teaching hospitals reported higher job satisfaction and intent to stay rates than those working in teaching hospitals. Nurses' job satisfaction and intent to stay were at the borderlines, which require the immediate attention of nursing and hospital administrators. Nurses' job satisfaction and intent to stay, particularly in teaching hospitals, have to be promoted; thus, interventions have to be effectively initiated and maintained at the unit and organizational levels. PMID:17540315

  3. Integration of an academic medical center and a community hospital: the Brigham and Women's/Faulkner hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Andrew J; Otten, Jeffrey R; Goldszer, Robert C; Hanson, Margaret; Trull, David J; Paulus, Kenneth; Brown, Monte; Dzau, Victor; Brennan, Troyen A

    2005-03-01

    Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), a major academic tertiary medical center, and Faulkner Hospital (Faulkner), a nearby community teaching hospital, both in the Boston, Massachusetts area, have established a close affiliation relationship under a common corporate parent that achieves a variety of synergistic benefits. Formed under the pressures of limited capacity at BWH and excess capacity at Faulkner, and the need for lower-cost clinical space in an era of provider risk-sharing, BWH and Faulkner entered into a comprehensive affiliation agreement. Over the past seven years, the relationship has enhanced overall volume, broadened training programs, lowered the cost of resources for secondary care, and improved financial performance for both institutions. The lessons of this relationship, both in terms of success factors and ongoing challenges for the hospitals, medical staffs, and a large multispecialty referring physician group, are reviewed. The key factors for success of the relationship have been integration of training programs and some clinical services, provision of complementary clinical capabilities, geographic proximity, clear role definition of each institution, commitment and flexibility of leadership and medical staff, active and responsive communication, and the support of a large referring physician group that embraced the affiliation concept. Principal challenges have been maintaining the community hospital's cost structure, addressing cultural differences, avoiding competition among professional staff, anticipating the pace of patient migration, choosing a name for the new affiliation, and adapting to a changing payer environment. PMID:15734807

  4. Accounting for teaching hospitals' higher costs and what to do about them.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Joseph P

    2003-01-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) have higher costs per case and also lower margins than either other teaching hospitals or community hospitals. The differences in margins stem mostly from differences in the intensity with which similar patients are treated, as well as hospitals' ability to generate revenue to cover the costs of that greater intensity, rather than graduate medical education per se. How much patient care capacity should be supported in AHCs and who should be treated with the greater intensity they offer are open questions. If there is to be a public trust fund to subsidize AHCs, it should be financed from general revenues. PMID:14649439

  5. Teaching the Conventions of Academic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thonney, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Given the current emphasis on disciplinary discourses, it's not surprising that so little recent attention has been devoted to identifying conventions that are universal in academic discourse. In this essay, the author argues that there are shared features that unite academic writing, and that by introducing these features to first-year students…

  6. Academics' Attitudes towards PhD Students' Teaching: Preparing Research Higher Degree Students for an Academic Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepsen, Denise M.; Varhegyi, Melinda M.; Edwards, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    An exploratory study of 473 academics in a metropolitan university investigated the attitudes of academic supervisors towards training for university teaching for doctoral students. The study investigated academic supervisors' levels of awareness and knowledge of teacher training opportunities, the relative importance of teaching--both lecturing…

  7. Recommendations to University Managers for Facilitating Engagement of Academics with Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Research on community-based approaches to academic development has shown the importance of a collegial and supportive environment for teaching and learning about teaching. To investigate the environment in which academics work and teach, the research behind this article has defined a new concept, called "teaching groups". Teaching groups…

  8. Teaching the Lecturers: Academic Staff Learning about Online Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northcote, Maria; Reynaud, Daniel; Beamish, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Developing online teaching skills can occur through involvement in learn-by-doing strategies, which incorporates informal, organic or need-driven strategies. Such processes are sometimes labeled as "bottom-up" staff development processes. In other contexts, teaching staff are formally directed to develop online teaching skills through a series of…

  9. Commentary: Is Teaching Privately Academic Freedom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Harold B.

    2009-01-01

    In this commentary, the author contends that, if teaching became less private and faculty interacted with each other about teaching more in the way they discuss research, the quality of education would improve. He discusses some ways to facilitate that interaction. In the author's own experience, actually sitting in on a course taught by a…

  10. Changing environment and the academic medical center: the Johns Hopkins Hospital.

    PubMed

    Heyssel, R M

    1989-01-01

    Academic medical centers need strong patient bases and strong financial bases to educate and to support research. After careful delineation of its mission with regard to patient care, research, and education, the Johns Hopkins Hospital expanded its health care delivery capabilities and strengthened its position in the health care marketplace by acquisitions of and mergers with other hospitals and a health maintenance organization in the Baltimore area. The resulting conglomerate, operating under the direction of a holding company, the Johns Hopkins Health System, has achieved its goals of expanding patient care capabilities, broadening the patient base, and enlarging the asset base and cash flow. Half the medical residents at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine receive training at nontraditional sites, and further expansion of teaching activities is being explored. Potential roles of traditional and nontraditional teachers in these activities are discussed. PMID:2914070

  11. Teaching Beliefs and Teaching Styles of Mathematics Teachers and Their Relationship with Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canto-Herrera, Pedro; Salazar-Carballo, Humberto

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between beliefs and teaching styles of teachers of mathematics and their students' academic performance in high schools of Yucatan. For this purpose, a questionnaire was administered to 72 high school mathematics teachers and the student academic achievement score of 1241 were used. A…

  12. Peer Observation of Teaching: Enhancing Academic Engagement for New Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Conor; O'Loughlin, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to uncover key motivations, barriers and outcomes associated with first-time users of peer observation of teaching within an Irish higher level academic context. Following preliminary research, a peer observation process was piloted on five self-selected peer observation faculty pairs involving peer observation training and…

  13. Changing Academic Teaching with Web 2.0 Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Barbara; Byles, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Academic teaching can change with the use of Web 2.0 technologies, such as blogs and wikis, as these enable a different pedagogical approach through collaborative learning and the social construction of knowledge. Student expectations of their university learning experience have changed as they expect e-learning to be part of the learning…

  14. Faculty Gender Effects on Academic Research and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gander, James P.

    1999-01-01

    A study estimated the effects of college faculty gender differences on research and teaching productivity, using a sample of 523 four-year institutions for the academic year 1987-1988. Results indicate that female faculty have significant marginal productivity in research at liberal arts institutions but not in other institution categories.…

  15. Trends in Clinically Significant Pain Prevalence Among Hospitalized Cancer Patients at an Academic Hospital in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Yun; Ho, Shung-Tai; Wu, Shang-Liang; Chu, Chi-Ming; Sung, Chun-Sung; Wang, Kwua-Yun; Liang, Chun-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Clinically significant pain (CSP) is one of the most common complaints among cancer patients during repeated hospitalizations, and the prevalence ranges from 24% to 86%. This study aimed to characterize the trends in CSP among cancer patients and examine the differences in the prevalence of CSP across repeated hospitalizations. A hospital-based, retrospective cohort study was conducted at an academic hospital. Patient-reported pain intensity was assessed and recorded in a nursing information system. We examined the differences in the prevalence of worst pain intensity (WPI) and last evaluated pain intensity (LPI) of ≥4 or ≥7 points among cancer inpatients from the 1st to the 18th hospitalization. Linear mixed models were used to determine the significant difference in the WPI and LPI (≥4 or ≥7 points) at each hospitalization. We examined 88,133 pain scores from the 1st to the 18th hospitalization among cancer patients. The prevalence of the 4 CSP types showed a trend toward a reduction from the 1st to the 18th hospitalization. There was a robust reduction in the CSP prevalence from the 1st to the 5th hospitalization, except in the case of LPI ≥ 7 points. The prevalence of a WPI ≥ 4 points was significantly higher (0.240-fold increase) during the 1st hospitalization than during the 5th hospitalization. For the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th hospitalizations, there was a significantly higher prevalence of a WPI ≥ 4 points compared with the 5th hospitalization. We also observed significant reductions in the prevalence of a WPI ≥ 7 points during the 1st to the 4th hospitalizations, an LPI ≥ 4 points during the 1st to the 3rd hospitalizations, and an LPI ≥ 7 points during the 1st to the 2nd hospitalization. Although the prevalence of the 4 CSP types decreased gradually, it is impossible to state the causative factors on the basis of this observational and descriptive study. The next step will examine the factors that determine the CSP prevalence among

  16. Information Technology Diffusion in Academic Teaching: An Institutional Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveh, Gali; Tubin, Dorit; Pliskin, Nava

    Even though diffusion of information and communication technology (ICT) in academic teaching has been fast, the expected benefits in pedagogy and structure have yet to materialize. Rogers' diffusion theory, which focuses on adoption and rejection of innovation, can explain the proliferation of ICT usage in academia, but the lack of ICT-based pedagogical and structural changes are beyond the scope of diffusion theory. The objective of this paper is to broaden the theoretical base for explaining the state of ICT in academia via the alternative conceptual lens of institutional theory, which focuses on the relationship between the organization and its environment. With the institutional theory perspective in mind, we suggest that further pedagogical and structural changes in academic courses should not be expected as a result of ICT implementation in academic teaching.

  17. Taking Teaching Seriously--Academic Freedom Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacken, Donal M.

    Academic freedom, at institutions of higher education, is discussed in terms of questions raised about the ability of an institution to dismiss an instructor. In the first case, "Martin v. Parrish," the instructor was dismissed for using profanity in the class. The second case, "Carley v. Arizona Board of Regents," centered on the importance of…

  18. [Approach to academic detailing as a hospital pharmacist].

    PubMed

    Nishikori, Atsumi

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a new medical fee system was introduced for the clinical activities of hospital pharmacists responsible for in-patient pharmacotherapy monitoring in medical institutions in Japan. The new medical system demands greater efforts to provide the most suitable and safest medicine for each patient. By applying the concept of academic detailing to clinical pharmacists' roles in hospitals, I present drug use evaluation in three disease states (peptic ulcer, insomnia, and osteoporosis). To analyze these from multiple aspects, we not only need knowledge of drug monographs (clinical and adverse drug effects), but also the ability to evaluate a patient's adherence and cost-effectiveness. If we combine the idea of academic detailing with a clinical pharmacist's role, it is necessary to strengthen drug information skills, such as guideline or literature search skills and journal evaluation. Simultaneously, it is important to introduce new pharmaceutical education curriculums regarding evidence-based medicine (EBM), pharmacoeconomics, and professional communication in order to explore pharmacists' roles in the future. PMID:24584015

  19. Income Analysis of University-Owned Teaching Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Joseph C.

    1979-01-01

    The annual survey, undertaken by the Association of American Medical Colleges, of income, expense and general operating information for university-owned teaching hospitals is discussed. Focus is on sources of income, including state funds, Medicare, and insurance companies. (JMD)

  20. The process of VNA affiliation with a major teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Harris, M D

    1992-01-01

    Affiliation among agencies with differing staff, resources, organizational structure, policies, and programs is never easy. The author discusses major components of an affiliation between a visiting nurse association and its former competitor--a major teaching hospital. PMID:1506912

  1. Teaching about NAFTA Using Academic Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Eileen M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines a teaching strategy called "constructive controversy" where students are required to argue both the pro and con positions concerning a controversial current topic. Describes students' response to a class using this method to examine the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Student response was generally favorable. (MJP)

  2. Poisonings at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, B; Singh, P M; Bharati, U; Dhungel, S

    2011-09-01

    Poisoning is an increasingly common social problem in Nepal. Studies on poisoning in semi urban areas of Nepal are minimal. Here we, present a prospective study of poisoning in semi urban area of capital, Kathmandu lasting for six years duration. Altogether there were 354 cases of various poisoning, admitted in Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital from Baisakh 2062 (April 16, 2005) to Chaitra 2067 (April 15, 2011). Male: Female ratio was 135:219 (1:1.6) and Age +/- SD was age 29.3 +/- 13.8 years. Age group (20-29 years) comprised of 138 patients (38.9% followed by < 20 years age group (92, 25.9%). Brahman/ chhetri (150, 42.4%) and Mongolian (146, 41.2%) ethnic groups were the main sufferers of poisoning, followed by newars (41, 11.6%) patients. Deliberate self harm was the cause for poisoning in maximum number of patients (156, 44.1%), followed by depression (64, 18.1%) and accidental poisoning (42, 11.9%). Organophosphorus (152, 42.9%), medicines (71, 20.1%), and rodenticide poisoning (38, 10.7%) were common poisons. Metacid (Methyl parathion) (46, 15.5%) was the most popular brand of poisoning agent used in Nepal for suicidal purpose. The over all mortality rate of poisoning in general was 7.1% with organophosphorus poisoning topping the list (19, 12.5%). We also present mad honey poisonings in a small group of 9 (3.2%) patients with M:F 8:1, age 26.5 +/- 8.8 years. Due precaution should be undertaken during their management as some of them may go into cardiopulmonary arrest and should not be considered benign when more than 5 tablespoonful wild honey is consumed. PMID:22808816

  3. 'Blueprint' for creating classroom facilities in teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hayes, O W

    1993-06-01

    Classroom facilities in teaching hospitals have evolved from simple rooms with blackboards to sophisticated amphitheaters with high-tech audiovisual equipment. This article presents a "blueprint," which was used in an osteopathic hospital, to renovate existing space into classrooms that are conducive to learning. PMID:8349484

  4. [A paradigm change in German academic medicine. Merger and privatization as exemplified with the university hospitals in Marburg and Giessen].

    PubMed

    Maisch, Bernhard

    2005-03-01

    1. The intended fusion of the university hospitals Marburg and Giessen in the state of Hessia is "a marriage under pressure with uncalculated risk" (Spiegel 2005). In the present political and financial situation it hardly appears to be avoidable. From the point of the view of the faculty of medicine in Marburg it is difficult to understand, that the profits of this well guided university hospital with a positive yearly budget should go to the neighboring university hospital which still had a fair amount of deficit spending in the last years.2. Both medical faculties suffer from a very low budget from the state of Hessia for research and teaching. Giessen much more than Marburg, have a substantial need for investments in buildings and infrastructure. Both institutions have a similar need for investments in costly medical apparatuses. This is a problem, which many university hospitals face nowadays.3. The intended privatisation of one or both university hospitals will need sound answers to several fundamental questions and problems:a) A privatisation potentially endangers the freedom of research and teaching garanteed by the German constitution. A private company will undoubtedly influence by active or missing additional support the direction of research in the respective academic institution. An example is the priorisation of clinical in contrast to basic research.b) With the privatisation practical absurdities in the separation of research and teaching on one side and hospital care on the other will become obvious with respect to the status of the academic employees, the obligatory taxation (16%) when a transfer of labor from one institution to the other is taken into account. The use of rooms for seminars, lectures and bedside with a double function for both teaching, research and hospital care has to be clarified with a convincing solution in everyday practice.c) The potential additional acquisition of patients, which has been advocated by the Hessian state

  5. Shaping Online Teaching Practices: The Influence of Professional and Academic Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael; Bradey, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the influence of professional and academic identities in online teaching practices in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: This paper draws on data from a longitudinal study of five professional degree academics teaching subjects in nursing, teaching, engineering, allied health sciences, and…

  6. Hurricane Katrina's Impact on Tulane's Teaching Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Ian L.

    2007-01-01

    On Monday, August 29, 2005 Hurricane Katrina passed east of New Orleans causing minimal damage to Tulane's Medical Center. Later that day, levees that protected the city failed and several feet of water entered the hospitals and school buildings. Emergency generators provided power for 36 hours before running out of fuel. Temperatures in the hospitals soared into the upper 90's and conditions were made intolerable by 100% humidity and backed-up sewage. For several days, faculty, residents, nurses and hospital personnel performed heroically, caring for patients in appalling conditions, hand-ventilating critically ill patients in shifts. Approximately 200 patients, and 1500 additional personnel would be evacuated on Wednesday and Thursday from a makeshift heliport on Tulane's parking garage. Current disaster plans may be inadequate should facilities be inaccessible for months because of damage or contamination. Contingency plans also need to be made should outside disaster relief be markedly delayed as was the case with Katrina. PMID:18528490

  7. The BMET (biomedical equipment technician) career: academic curricula, hospital needs, & employee perceptions.

    PubMed

    Majercik, S M

    1991-01-01

    Research conducted over a two-year (1988-1989) period compared the concepts of job performance of Biomedical Equipment Technicians (BMETs) with the job descriptions and academic requirements of healthcare organizations and the current academic curricula used to teach biomedical equipment technology. This study indicated that, while the BMETs and healthcare organizations held similar views of job performance requirements, there was disparity concerning the BMET's academic requirements as viewed by healthcare organizations when compared to the BMET's perception of academic preparedness. There was an even greater disparity between those perceptions and requirements when compared to the academic programs currently in place. PMID:10115433

  8. Erratum: maternal mortality in Cameroon: a university teaching hospital report.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This erratum corrects article: "Maternal mortality in Cameroon: a university teaching hospital report." The Pan African Medical Journal. 2015;21:16. doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.21.16.3912[This corrects the article on p. 16 in vol. 21, PMID: 26401210.]. PMID:26816561

  9. Maximizing Financial Resources in Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Terry S.

    1979-01-01

    The University of California at Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital created a healthier environment with inexpensive business procedures. Reported are: removal of billing responsibilities from faculty, separation of discharge functions from receptionist's functions, billing system/medical records system, and use of credit cards and…

  10. Dealing with the complex dynamics of teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    van Rossum, Tiuri R; Scheele, Fedde; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; Sluiter, Henk E; Heyligers, Ide C

    2016-01-01

    Innovation and change in postgraduate medical education programs affects teaching hospital organizations, since medical education and clinical service are interrelated.Recent trends towards flexible, time-independent and individualized educational programs put pressure on this relationship. This pressure may lead to organizational uncertainty, unbalance and friction making it an important issue to analyze.The last decade was marked by a transition towards outcome-based postgraduate medical education. During this transition competency-based programs made their appearance. Although competency-based medical education has the potential to make medical education more efficient, the effects are still under debate. And while this debate continues, the field of medical education is already introducing next level innovations: flexible and individualized training programs. Major organizational change, like the transition to flexible education programs, can easily lead to friction and conflict in teaching hospital organizations.This article analyses the organizational impact of postgraduate medical education innovations, with a particular focus on flexible training and competency based medical education. The characteristics of teaching hospital organizations are compared with elements of innovation and complexity theory.With this comparison the article argues that teaching hospital organizations have complex characteristics and behave in a non-linear way. This perspective forms the basis for further discussion and analysis of this unexplored aspect of flexible and competency based education. PMID:27048264

  11. Innovative Model for Information Assurance Curriculum: A Teaching Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, Sanjay; Pon, Damira; Bloniarz, Peter; Bangert-Drowns, Robert; Berg, George; Delio, Vince; Iwan, Laura; Hurbanek, Thomas; Schuman, Sandoor P.; Gangolly, Jagdish; Baykal, Adnan; Hobbs, Jon

    2006-01-01

    A novel idea for information security education created by the New York State Center for Information Forensics and Assurance (CIFA) is presented. This new approach incorporates a teaching hospital model originally developed for medical training. In this model, information security problems from industry and government are solved and abstracted…

  12. Early Career Academic Perceptions, Attitudes and Professional Development Activities: Questioning the Teaching and Research Gap to Further Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Kelly E.; Lodge, Jason M.; Bosanquet, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Early career academia is a challenging time, particularly as academics are facing increasing pressures to excel across a range of areas. Boyer argued for the "true scholar" versed in the overlapping areas of scholarship in research, teaching, integration and engagement. Academic developers have an important role to play in assisting the…

  13. Exploring Academic Motivation, Academic Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Teaching in Pre-Service Early Childhood Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedel, Emine Ferda

    2016-01-01

    This study is designed to explore academic motivation, academic self-efficacy and attitudes toward teaching in pre-service early childhood education teachers and to investigate the relationships among those variables. Data were gathered through questionnaires administered to 251 pre-service early childhood education teachers. Results indicated…

  14. Academic medicine: a key partner in strengthening the primary care infrastructure via teaching health centers.

    PubMed

    Rieselbach, Richard E; Crouse, Byron J; Neuhausen, Katherine; Nasca, Thomas J; Frohna, John G

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, a worsening shortage of primary care physicians, along with structural deficiencies in their training, threaten the primary care system that is essential to ensuring access to high-quality, cost-effective health care. Community health centers (CHCs) are an underused resource that could facilitate rapid expansion of the primary care workforce and simultaneously prepare trainees for 21st-century practice. The Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education (THCGME) program, currently funded by the Affordable Care Act, uses CHCs as training sites for primary-care-focused graduate medical education (GME).The authors propose that the goals of the THCGME program could be amplified by fostering partnerships between CHCs and teaching hospitals (academic medical centers [AMCs]). AMCs would encourage their primary care residency programs to expand by establishing teaching health center (THC) tracks. Modifications to the current THCGME model, facilitated by formal CHC and academic medicine partnerships (CHAMPs), would address the primary care physician shortage, produce physicians prepared for 21st-century practice, expose trainees to interprofessional education in a multidisciplinary environment, and facilitate the rapid expansion of CHC capacity.To succeed, CHAMP THCs require a comprehensive consortium agreement designed to ensure equity between the community and academic partners; conforming with this agreement will provide the high-quality GME necessary to ensure residency accreditation. CHAMP THCs also require a federal mechanism to ensure stable, long-term funding. CHAMP THCs would develop in select CHCs that desire a partnership with AMCs and have capacity for providing a community-based setting for both GME and health services research. PMID:24128617

  15. Possible adverse drug events leading to hospital admission in a Brazilian teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Varallo, Fabiana Rossi; Capucho, Helaine Carneiro; da Silva Planeta, Cleópatra; de Carvalho Mastroianni, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Drug safety problems can lead to hospital admission. In Brazil, the prevalence of hospitalization due to adverse drug events is unknown. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of hospitalization due to adverse drug events and to identify the drugs, the adverse drug events, and the risk factors associated with hospital admissions. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was performed in the internal medicine ward of a teaching hospital in São Paulo State, Brazil, from August to December 2008. All patients aged ≥18 years with a length of stay ≥24 hours were interviewed about the drugs used prior to hospital admission and their symptoms/complaints/causes of hospitalization. RESULTS: In total, 248 patients were considered eligible. The prevalence of hospitalization due to potential adverse drug events in the ward was 46.4%. Overprescribed drugs and those indicated for prophylactic treatments were frequently associated with possible adverse drug events. Frequently reported symptoms were breathlessness (15.2%), fatigue (12.3%), and chest pain (9.0%). Polypharmacy was a risk factor for the occurrence of possible adverse drug events. CONCLUSION: Possible adverse drug events led to hospitalization in a high-complexity hospital, mainly in polymedicated patients. The clinical outcomes of adverse drug events are nonspecific, which delays treatment, hinders causality analysis, and contributes to the underreporting of cases. PMID:24626940

  16. Individual and Organisational Factors Influencing Academics' Decisions to Pursue the Scholarship of Teaching ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Julianne; Sheard, Judithe; Carbone, Angela; Collins, Francesca

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) academics' perceptions of factors that promote and inhibit their pursuit of scholarship in their teaching work. It identifies critical factors that influence academics' attitudes, orientations and behaviours in respect to the scholarship of teaching, and from these builds a…

  17. Teaching Styles and Conceptions of Effective Teachers: Tibetan and Han Chinese Academics Compared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2011-01-01

    The principal objective of this research is to ascertain if the "research-teaching dichotomy" as revealed in the relationship between conceptions of effective teachers and teaching styles among Han Chinese academics can be found among Tibetan academics. As a preliminary objective, this research examines the appropriateness of the Effective Teacher…

  18. The Experience of Academic Learning: Uneven Conceptions of Learning across Research and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Greg; Calkins, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Research and teaching are often construed by academic staff as incongruous activities that have little overlap in practice. Many studies on the relationship of teaching and research assume an inherent competition or "rivalry" between these two practices. In this study, we draw on a framework that conceptualizes these academic practices…

  19. Epidemiology of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis in cats hospitalized in a veterinary teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Babyak, Jonathan M; Sharp, Claire R

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the epidemiology of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis in cats hospitalized in a veterinary teaching hospital. DESIGN Observational study. ANIMALS 246 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES During a 3-month period, daily treatment records were evaluated for all hospitalized cats. Information extracted included signalment, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, diagnostic test results, diagnosis, duration of hospitalization, and outcome (survival or death). Cats were classified into 1 of 4 disease categories (sepsis [confirmed infection and SIRS], infection [confirmed infection without SIRS], noninfectious SIRS [SIRS without a confirmed infection], and no SIRS [no SIRS or infection]). RESULTS Of the 246 cats, 26 and 3 were hospitalized 2 and 3 times, respectively; thus, 275 hospitalizations were evaluated. When SIRS was defined as the presence of ≥ 2 of 4 SIRS criteria, 17 cats had sepsis, 16 had infections, 81 had noninfectious SIRS, and 161 were classified in the no SIRS category at hospital admission. The prevalence of sepsis at hospital admission was 6.2 cases/100 admissions. Four cats developed sepsis while hospitalized, resulting in a sepsis incidence rate of 1.5 cases/100 hospital admissions. Four of 17 cats with sepsis at hospital admission and 3 of 4 cats that developed sepsis while hospitalized died or were euthanized, resulting in a mortality rate of 33.3% for septic cats; 239 hospitalizations resulted in survival, 28 resulted in euthanasia, and 8 resulted in death. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that many hospitalized cats have evidence of SIRS and some have sepsis. In cats, sepsis is an important clinical entity with a high mortality rate. PMID:27308883

  20. Unplanned Readmissions after Hospitalization for Severe Sepsis at Academic Medical Center-Affiliated Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, John P.; Hohmann, Samuel F.; Wang, Henry E.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In the United States (US), national efforts to reduce hospital readmissions have been enacted, including the application of substantial insurance reimbursement penalties for hospitals with elevated rates. Readmissions after severe sepsis remain under-studied and could possibly signify lapses in care and missed opportunities for intervention. We sought to characterize 7- and 30-day readmission rates following hospital admission for severe sepsis as well as institutional variations in readmission. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of 345,657 severe sepsis discharges from University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) hospitals in 2012. SETTING US PATIENTS We applied the commonly cited method described by Angus, et al. for identification of severe sepsis, including only discharges with sepsis present on admission. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS We identified unplanned, all-cause readmissions within 7- and 30-days of discharge using claims-based algorithms. Using mixed effects logistic regression, we determined factors associated with 30-day readmission. We used risk-standardized readmission rates (RSRRs) to assess institutional variations. Among 216,328 eligible severe sepsis discharges, there were 14,932 readmissions within 7 days (6.9%; 95% CI 6.8–7.0) and 43,092 within 30 days (19.9%; 95% CI 19.8–20.1). Among those readmitted within 30 days, 66.9% had an infection and 40.3% had severe sepsis on readmission. Patient severity, length of stay, and specific diagnoses were associated with increased odds of 30-day readmission. Observed institutional 7-day readmission rates ranged from 0–12.3%, 30-day rates from 3.6–29.1%, and 30-day RSRRs from 14.1–31.1%. Greater institutional volume, teaching status, trauma services, location in the Northeast and lower ICU rates were associated with poor RSRR performance. CONCLUSIONS Severe sepsis readmission places a substantial burden on the healthcare system, with one-in-fifteen and one-in-five severe sepsis discharges

  1. Hospitalizations of Adults with Intellectual Disability in Academic Medical Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ailey, Sarah H.; Johnson, Tricia; Fogg, Louis; Friese, Tanya R.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) represent a small but important group of hospitalized patients who often have complex health care needs. Individuals with ID experience high rates of hospitalization for ambulatory-sensitive conditions and high rates of hospitalizations in general, even when in formal community care systems; however,…

  2. Point prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in two teaching hospitals of Amhara region in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Yallew, Walelegn Worku; Kumie, Abera; Yehuala, Feleke Moges

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) is a major safety issue affecting the quality of care of hundreds of millions of patients every year, in both developed and developing countries, including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, there is no comprehensive research that presents the whole picture of HAIs in hospitals. The objective of this study was to examine the nature and extent of HAIs in Ethiopia. Methods A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted in two teaching hospitals. All eligible inpatients admitted for at least 48 hours on the day of the survey were included. The survey was conducted in dry and wet seasons of Ethiopia, that is, in March to April and July 2015. Physicians and nurses collected the data according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of HAIs. Coded and cleaned data were transferred to SPSS 21 and STATA 13 for analysis. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the prevalence of HAIs and relationship between explanatory and outcome variables. Results A total of 908 patients were included in this survey, the median age of the patients was 27 years (interquartile range: 16–40 years). A total of 650 (71.6%) patients received antimicrobials during the survey. There were 135 patients with HAI, with a mean prevalence of 14.9% (95% confidence interval 12.7–17.1). Culture results showed that Klebsiella spp. (22.44%) and Staphylococcus aureus (20.4%) were the most commonly isolated HAI-causing pathogens in these hospitals. The association of patient age and hospital type with the occurrence of HAI was statistically significant. Conclusion It was observed that the prevalence of HAI was high in the teaching hospitals. Surgical site infections and pneumonia were the most common types of HAIs. Hospital management should give more attention to promoting infection prevention practice for better control of HAIs in teaching hospitals. PMID:27601932

  3. Taking Responsibility for Academic Integrity: A Collaborative Teaching and Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Julianne; Donnelly, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    La Trobe University, like many Australian universities, states that it values honest academic endeavour (Academic Integrity Policy 2011), and it can provide examples of good teaching practice in the areas of academic integrity, proper acknowledgment and avoiding plagiarism. Rather than relying on the chance that individuals will just develop good…

  4. The Relationship between Academics' Conceptions of Knowledge, Research and Teaching--A Metaphor Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Van Driel, Jan H.; Van Der Rijst, Roeland M.; Verloop, Nico; Visser, Anthonya

    2009-01-01

    Universities are supposed to be institutes where research and teaching are closely related. To understand this relationship fully, it is necessary to learn how academics perceive these key components. Different conceptions among academics may stem from varying conceptions of knowledge. Thirty academics were interviewed by means of metaphors about…

  5. Team Teaching Verbal, Mathematics, and Learning Skills. Howard University. The Center for Academic Reinforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Joan; Byrd, Roland

    Team teaching was used in three undergraduate courses to explore its potential for enhancing students' academic development. The courses were part of a program offered to freshmen with unrealized academic potential through the Howard University (District of Columbia) Center for Academic Reinforcement (CAR). A three-hour block of time was set aside…

  6. Six years' experience of symphysiotomy in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Norman, R J

    1978-12-30

    One hundred and sixty-one symphysiotomies were performed at Harari Maternity Hospital, Rhodesia, over a 6-year period. Indications for the operation are discussed and fetal and maternal results reviewed. Seventy-two patients suffered from postoperative complications but the majority of these were minor and of short duration. Multiparous patients did not have a higher morbidity than did primiparous ones. It is concluded that symphysiotomy has a useful role to play in a teaching hospital, provided it is performed by an experienced surgeon on carefully selected patients. PMID:746479

  7. Reimbursing for the costs of teaching and research in Finnish hospitals: a stochastic frontier analysis.

    PubMed

    Linna, Miika; Häkkinen, Unto

    2006-03-01

    In this study stochastic frontier cost function was used to estimate the teaching and research costs of Finnish hospitals. Predicted efficiency adjusted costs were calculated and compared to evaluate the current level of teaching and research reimbursement. The efficiency adjustment had significant impact on the marginal and average cost estimates of the teaching and research output. The results suggest that the average rate of teaching and research reimbursement should be approximately 14.6% of the total operating costs in university teaching hospitals. The main finding was that the university teaching hospitals were underfunded with respect to both research and teaching output. PMID:16612572

  8. Over Time, How Do Post-Ph.D. Scientists Locate Teaching and Supervision within Their Academic Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    While building a strong research profile is usually seen as key for those seeking a traditional academic position, teaching is also understood as central to academic practice. Still, we know little of how post-Ph.D. researchers seeking academic posts locate teaching and supervision in their academic practice, nor how their views may shift as they…

  9. Implementing electronic medication management at an Australian teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Day, Richard O; Roffe, David J; Richardson, Katrina L; Baysari, Melissa T; Brennan, Nicholas J; Beveridge, Sandy; Melocco, Teresa; Ainge, John; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2011-11-01

    We describe the implementation of an electronic medication management system (eMMS) in an Australian teaching hospital, to inform future similar exercises. The success of eMMS implementation depends on: a positive workplace culture (leadership, teamwork and clinician ownership); acceptance of the major impact on work practices by all staff; timely system response to user feedback; training and support for clinicians; a usable system; adequate decision support. PMID:22060071

  10. Predicting Academics' Willingness to Participate in Peer Review of Teaching: A Quantitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kiri; Boehm, Emilia; Chester, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Peer review of teaching is a collegial process designed to help academics reflect on and improve their teaching practice. Considerable research supports the value of peer review of teaching. However, uptake of voluntary programs is typically low. Few studies have examined the predictors of engagement in voluntary peer review. This study surveyed…

  11. The Effectiveness of Peer Review of Teaching When Performed between Early-Career Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodman, Richard J.; Parappilly, Maria B.

    2015-01-01

    The success of peer review of teaching (PRT) in shaping teaching practice during an academic's formative years may depend on the peers' teaching experience and the frequency of evaluation. Two Australian early-career University lecturers with no previous experience of peer review performed a single PRT on one another following a one week academic…

  12. Teaching hospital performance: towards a community of shared values?

    PubMed

    Mauro, Marianna; Cardamone, Emma; Cavallaro, Giusy; Minvielle, Etienne; Rania, Francesco; Sicotte, Claude; Trotta, Annarita

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the performance dimensions of Italian teaching hospitals (THs) by considering the multiple constituent model approach, using measures that are subjective and based on individual ideals and preferences. Our research replicates a study of a French TH and deepens it by adjusting it to the context of an Italian TH. The purposes of this research were as follows: to identify emerging views on the performance of teaching hospitals and to analyze how these views vary among hospital stakeholders. We conducted an in-depth case study of a TH using a quantitative survey method. The survey uses a questionnaire based on Parsons' social system action theory, which embraces the major models of organizational performance and covers three groups of internal stakeholders: physicians, caregivers and administrative staff. The questionnaires were distributed between April and September 2011. The results confirm that hospital performance is multifaceted and includes the dimensions of efficiency, effectiveness and quality of care, as well as organizational and human features. There is a high degree of consensus among all observed stakeholder groups about these values, and a shared view of performance is emerging. Our research provides useful information for defining management priorities to improve the performance of THs. PMID:24560230

  13. Interprofessional education in academic family medicine teaching units

    PubMed Central

    Price, David; Howard, Michelle; Hilts, Linda; Dolovich, Lisa; McCarthy, Lisa; Walsh, Allyn E.; Dykeman, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT PROBLEM ADDRESSED The new family health teams (FHTs) in Ontario were designed to enable interprofessional collaborative practice in primary care; however, many health professionals have not been trained in an interprofessional environment. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM To provide health professional learners with an interprofessional practice experience in primary care that models teamwork and collaborative practice skills. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The 2 academic teaching units of the FHT at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont, employ 6 types of health professionals and provide learning environments for family medicine residents and students in a variety of health care professions. Learners engage in formal interprofessional education activities and mixed professional and learner clinical consultations. They are immersed in an established interprofessional practice environment, where all team members are valued and contribute collaboratively to patient care and clinic administration. Other contributors to the success of the program include the physical layout of the clinics, the electronic medical record communications system, and support from leadership for the additional clinical time commitment of delivering interprofessional education. CONCLUSION This academic FHT has developed a program of interprofessional education based partly on planned activities and logistic enablers, and largely on immersing learners in a culture of long-standing interprofessional collaboration. PMID:19752260

  14. Transfusion monitoring: care practice analysis in a public teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Valesca Nunes; Paixão, Isabella Bertolin; Perrone, Ana Carolina Amaral de São José; Monteiro, Maria Inês; dos Santos, Kelli Borges

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the process of recording transfusion monitoring at a public teaching hospital. Methods A descriptive and retrospective study with a quantitative approach, analyzing the instruments to record transfusion monitoring at a public hospital in a city in the State of Minas Gerais (MG). Data were collected on the correct completion of the instrument, time elapsed from transfusions, records of vital signs, type of blood component more frequently transfused, and hospital unit where transfusion was performed. Results A total of 1,012 records were analyzed, and 53.4% of them had errors in filling in the instruments, 6% of transfusions started after the recommended time, and 9.3% of patients had no vital signs registered. Conclusion Failures were identified in the process of recording transfusion monitoring, and they could result in more adverse events related to the administration of blood components. Planning and implementing strategies to enhance recording and to improve care delivered are challenging. PMID:27074233

  15. Challenges and opportunities for early-career Teaching-Focussed academics in the biosciences.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Katharine; Gretton, Sarah; Jones, Katherine; Tallents, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-seven percent of academics in UK Higher Education (HE) are in Teaching-Focussed positions, making major contributions to undergraduate programmes in an era of high student expectations when it comes to teaching quality. However, institutional support for Teaching-Focussed academics is often limited, both in terms of peer networking and opportunities for career development. As four early-career stage Teaching-Focussed academics working in a variety of institutions, we explore what motivated our choices to make teaching our primary academic activity, and the challenges that we have faced in doing so. In addition to highlighting the need for universities to fully recognise the achievements of teaching staff, we discuss the role that the various biosciences learned societies have in supporting Teaching-Focussed academics. We identify that there is a need for the learned societies to come together and pool their expertise in this area. The fragmented nature of the Teaching-Focussed academic community means that clear sources of national support are needed in order to best enable the next generation of bioscience educators to reach their full potential. PMID:25977754

  16. Challenges and opportunities for early-career Teaching-Focussed academics in the biosciences

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Katharine; Gretton, Sarah; Jones, Katherine; Tallents, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-seven percent of academics in UK Higher Education (HE) are in Teaching-Focussed positions, making major contributions to undergraduate programmes in an era of high student expectations when it comes to teaching quality. However, institutional support for Teaching-Focussed academics is often limited, both in terms of peer networking and opportunities for career development. As four early-career stage Teaching-Focussed academics working in a variety of institutions, we explore what motivated our choices to make teaching our primary academic activity, and the challenges that we have faced in doing so. In addition to highlighting the need for universities to fully recognise the achievements of teaching staff, we discuss the role that the various biosciences learned societies have in supporting Teaching-Focussed academics. We identify that there is a need for the learned societies to come together and pool their expertise in this area. The fragmented nature of the Teaching-Focussed academic community means that clear sources of national support are needed in order to best enable the next generation of bioscience educators to reach their full potential. PMID:25977754

  17. 42 CFR 415.190 - Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in... in Teaching Settings § 415.190 Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals. (a... schedule basis for the services of an assistant at surgery in a teaching hospital. This section is based...

  18. 42 CFR 415.190 - Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in... in Teaching Settings § 415.190 Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals. (a... schedule basis for the services of an assistant at surgery in a teaching hospital. This section is based...

  19. How we enhanced medical academics skills and reduced social inequities using an academic teaching program.

    PubMed

    Martins, Antonio Camargo; Oliveira, Felipe Renê Alves; Delfino, Breno Matos; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; de Moraes, Fabio Henrique Pinto; Barbosa, Guilherme Viana; de Macedo, Lucas Felipe; Domingos, Tayna Da Silva; Da Silva, Dyemisson Pinheiro; Menezes, Charlene Cristine Rodrigues; Oliveira Filho, Edmar Santana; Pereira, Thales Augusto Da Silva; Piccirilli, Elizabeth Souza; Pinto, Wagner De Jesus

    2015-01-01

    The training of future physicians should be concurrent with the development of different skills and attitudes. This warrants the need to regularly provide students with opportunities for self-development throughout their academic career. This approach was exemplified in a medical school in the Brazilian Amazon, where students were allowed to play the role of high school teachers. As part of this exercise, they conducted reinforcement classes for high school students to increase the number of university admissions. The medical students were solely responsible for organizing and implementing this project, giving them the opportunity to develop teaching and leadership skills, enhance their understanding of communication and administration and contribute toward the society. PMID:25301145

  20. Evidence-Based Narratives to Reconcile Teaching Practices in Academic Disciplines with the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinnell, Rosanne; Russell, Carol; Thompson, Rachel; Marshall, Nancy; Cowley, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Connecting discipline scholars with the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) is accepted as an essential part of professional academic practice across the higher education sector irrespective of discipline. To connect meaningfully with teaching practice, SoTL needs to be translated by the discipline scholar and narratives related to the…

  1. How We Got Here: A Historical Look at the Academic Teaching Library and the Role of the Teaching Librarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariew, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines a brief history of the academic teaching library and, in consequence, it examines the changing role of librarians. As part of that history, the paper also discusses distinctions among various terms used to describe instructional activities in teaching libraries, such as "bibliographic instruction" and…

  2. Tuberculosis treatment outcomes among hospital workers at a public teaching and national referral hospital in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Makori, L.; Gikera, M.; Wafula, J.; Chakaya, J.; Edginton, M. E.; Kumar, A. M. V.

    2013-01-01

    Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Ken-ya, a large referral and teaching hospital. Objective: 1) To document tuberculosis (TB) case notification rates and trends; 2) to describe demographic, clinical and workplace characteristics and treatment outcomes; and 3) to examine associations between demographic and clinical characteristics, HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome) treatment and anti-tuberculosis treatment outcomes among hospital workers with TB at KNH during the period 2006–2011. Design: A retrospective cohort study involving a review of medical records. Results: The TB case notification rate among hospital staff ranged between 413 and 901 per 100 000 staff members per year; 51% of all cases were extra-pulmonary TB; 74% of all cases were among medical, paramedical and support staff. The TB-HIV coinfection rate was 60%. Only 75% had a successful treatment outcome. Patients in the retreatment category, those with unknown HIV status and those who were support staff had a higher risk of poor treatment outcomes. Conclusion: The TB case rate among hospital workers was unacceptably high compared to that of the general population, and treatment outcomes were poor. Infection control in the hospital and management of staff with TB requires urgent attention. PMID:26393055

  3. A comparative analysis of the CVP structure of nonprofit teaching and for-profit non-teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Lin; Forgione, Dana A; Younis, Mustafa Z

    2012-01-01

    Due to the market turbulence facing the hospital industry, the financial viability of teaching hospitals has been severely threatened. Their missions of education, research, and patient care even strengthen this crisis. Therefore, the objective of this study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the cost, volume, and profit (CVP) structure between large nonprofit urban teaching hospitals and small for-profit rural/suburban non-teaching hospitals. The following two hypotheses were developed: (1) large nonprofit urban teaching hospitals tend to have higher fixed cost, lower variable cost, lower total revenue adjusted by case mix index (CMI), and lower return on total assets (ROA); and (2) small for-profit rural/suburban non-teaching hospitals tend to have lower fixed cost, higher variable cost, higher total revenue adjusted by CMI, and higher ROA. Using 117 teaching hospitals and 102 non-teaching hospitals selected from the Medicare Cost Report database in 2005, the results from multiple regression indicated that large nonprofit teaching hospitals located in urban areas are more likely to have higher fixed cost and lower variable cost. While such cost structure doesn't necessarily affect their total revenue adjusted by CMI, it does lead to a lower return on hospitals' total assets. The results support our hypotheses in terms of fixed cost percentage, variable cost percentage, and ROA, but not total revenue adjusted by CMI. The results suggest that cost structure is significantly associated with hospitals' performance. Also, as teaching hospitals' portfolios of services and programs increase (e.g., provision of uncompensated care to Medicare and Medicaid patients and doing research), it becomes strategically necessary and critical to manage the allocation of resources or investments into the fixed capital that supports the business. PMID:23155742

  4. The Effectiveness of the Constant Time Delay Procedure in Teaching Pre-School Academic Skills to Children with Developmental Disabilities in a Small Group Teaching Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldemir, Ozgul; Gursel, Oguz

    2014-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are trained using different teaching arrangements. One of these arrangements is called small-group teaching. It has been ascertained that a small-group teaching arrangement is more effective than a one-to-one teaching arrangement. In that sense, teaching academic skills to pre-school children in small-group…

  5. Separating the "Teaching" from the "Academic": Possible Unintended Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerlind, Gerlese S.

    2011-01-01

    Academics' development as teachers is traditionally considered independently from their development in other aspects of their work, or from their development as an academic holistically. Through the analysis of two previous phenomenographic studies of academics' experiences of: (1) their growth and development as an academic holistically; and (2)…

  6. Trends in Clinically Significant Pain Prevalence Among Hospitalized Cancer Patients at an Academic Hospital in Taiwan: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Yun; Ho, Shung-Tai; Wu, Shang-Liang; Chu, Chi-Ming; Sung, Chun-Sung; Wang, Kwua-Yun; Liang, Chun-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Clinically significant pain (CSP) is one of the most common complaints among cancer patients during repeated hospitalizations, and the prevalence ranges from 24% to 86%. This study aimed to characterize the trends in CSP among cancer patients and examine the differences in the prevalence of CSP across repeated hospitalizations. A hospital-based, retrospective cohort study was conducted at an academic hospital. Patient-reported pain intensity was assessed and recorded in a nursing information system. We examined the differences in the prevalence of worst pain intensity (WPI) and last evaluated pain intensity (LPI) of ≥ 4 or ≥ 7 points among cancer inpatients from the 1st to the 18th hospitalization. Linear mixed models were used to determine the significant difference in the WPI and LPI (≥ 4 or ≥ 7 points) at each hospitalization. We examined 88,133 pain scores from the 1st to the 18th hospitalization among cancer patients. The prevalence of the 4 CSP types showed a trend toward a reduction from the 1st to the 18th hospitalization. There was a robust reduction in the CSP prevalence from the 1st to the 5th hospitalization, except in the case of LPI ≥ 7 points. The prevalence of a WPI ≥ 4 points was significantly higher (0.240-fold increase) during the 1st hospitalization than during the 5th hospitalization. For the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th hospitalizations, there was a significantly higher prevalence of a WPI ≥ 4 points compared with the 5th hospitalization. We also observed significant reductions in the prevalence of a WPI ≥ 7 points during the 1st to the 4th hospitalizations, an LPI ≥ 4 points during the 1st to the 3rd hospitalizations, and an LPI ≥ 7 points during the 1st to the 2nd hospitalization. Although the prevalence of the 4 CSP types decreased gradually, it is impossible to state the causative factors on the basis of this observational and descriptive study. The next step will examine the factors that determine the CSP prevalence among cancer

  7. Financial burden of emergency preparedness on an urban, academic hospital.

    PubMed

    Petinaux, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the direct human resource costs of a hospital's emergency preparedness planning (in 2005) by surveying participants retrospectively. Forty participants (74% of the identified population) were surveyed. Using the self-reported hourly salary of the participant, a direct salary cost was calculated for each participant. The population was 40% male and 60% female; 65% had a graduate degree or higher; 65% were administrators; 35% were clinicians; and 50% reported that their job description included a reference to emergency planning activities. All participants spent a combined total of 3,654.25 hours on emergency preparedness activities, including 20.1% on personal education/training; 11.6% on educating other people; 39.3% on paperwork or equipment maintenance; 22.2% on attendance at meetings; 5.6% on drill participation; and <1% on other activities. Considering the participants' hourly salary, direct personal costs spent on emergency preparedness activities at the institution totaled US$232,417.Ten percent, all of whom were physicians, reported no compensation for their emergency preparedness efforts at the hospital level. As much as these results illustrate the strong commitment of the institution to its community, they represent a heavy burden in light of the often unfunded mandate of emergency preparedness planning that a hospital may incur. Such responsibility is carried to some extent by all hospitals. PMID:20066636

  8. The Balanced Budget Act of 1997: its impact on U.S. teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Dickler, R; Shaw, G

    2000-05-16

    The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 had a profound impact on the financing and organization of many health care services. The Act disproportionately affected U.S. teaching hospitals, leading to substantial budget reductions in many institutions and the threat of cuts in major programs and services that teaching hospitals provide to communities. This paper examines the overall financial and organizational impact of the Balanced Budget Act on teaching hospitals and considers its effect on residency education. It also discusses to what degree the Balanced Budget Refinement Act of 1999 will mitigate these effects and posits other solutions to the serious financial issues facing teaching hospitals in the United States. PMID:10819706

  9. The Rocky Terrain between Delocalized and Localized, Duplication and Originality: Learning to Write and Learning to Teach Academic English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessema, Kedir Assefa

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I report the action research I carried out on improving the teaching and learning of academic writing at a university. The action research sprang out of my experiences of learning and teaching academic writing. It sought locality and originality in what students read and write during academic writing courses. The macro and micro…

  10. Early-Career Academics' Perceptions of Teaching and Learning in Hong Kong: Implications for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Keith; McNaught, Carmel; Wong, Kin-Chi; Li, Yi-Ching

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses early-career academics' development at a university in Hong Kong. Reflecting the impact of local context, the paper explores cultural and structural influences that can impinge on teaching and learning strategies for new academics. Barriers such as student learning behaviour and publication pressure may discourage new…

  11. The Teaching and Societal Services Nexus: Academics' Experiences in Three Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmén, Magnus; Ljungberg, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the perception of academics regarding how their experiences from societal interaction (third mission) inform their teaching and vice versa. We report on a phone survey of Swedish academics in three engineering-related disciplines. The findings show that there is a perceived positive and bidirectional relationship…

  12. University Teachers' Experiences of Academic Leadership and Their Approaches to Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsden, Paul; Prosser, Michael; Trigwell, Keith; Martin, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    The study examined associations between university teachers' experiences of academic leadership, their perceptions of a specific academic context and their approaches to teaching in a particular subject that was taught in that context. The sample consisted of 439 lecturers in Australian universities in four fields of study. Lecturers completed…

  13. The Effect on Academic Health Centers of Tertiary Care in Community Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, David A.; Rosenfeld, Lisa A.

    1984-01-01

    The growing cost of medical education and the provision of care to the indigent can be endangered by the dilution of revenue sources traditionally available to the academic health centers but which are being taken over by suburban hospitals. (Author/MLW)

  14. Cultural Diversity in the Curriculum: Perceptions and Attitudes of Irish Hospitality and Tourism Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Frances; Hearns, Niamh; Baum, Tom; Murray, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Academics are facing significant challenges in preparing indigenous students for employment in the multicultural working environment of hospitality and tourism organisations. In dealing with the impact of the new skills and flexibilities demanded by increasing globalisation, the indigenous workforce needs to possess a multicultural perspective and…

  15. A Paragraph-First Approach to the Teaching of Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugin, David

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of writing, and the teaching of developmental and ESL/EFL writing in particular, has historically given priority to the sentence, often in theory and almost always in practice. The writing approach modeled here simply argues that the paragraph should be given primacy of place in ESL/EFL academic writing instruction. The…

  16. The Effect of Computer Assisted Grammar Teaching on the Academic Success of Classroom Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyup, Bircan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of computer assisted grammar teaching on the academic success of classroom teacher candidates. The study group consists of 2nd grade students from Karadeniz Technical University Fatih, Faculty of Education, Department of Classroom Teaching in the educational year of 2010 to 2011. Experimental…

  17. Classrooms that Work: Teaching Generic Skills in Academic and Vocational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasz, Cathleen; And Others

    This report documents the second of two studies on teaching and learning generic skills in high schools. It extends the earlier work by providing a model for designing classroom instruction in both academic and vocational classrooms where teaching generic skills is an instructional goal. Ethnographic field methods were used to observe, record, and…

  18. Shifting Academic Careers: Implications for Enhancing Professionalism in Teaching and Supporting Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, William

    2014-01-01

    This Higher Education Academy (HEA) commissioned report provides a brief review of literature focusing on the changing nature of academic careers in the higher education sector, including any shift towards "teaching only" contracts. It also identifies key issues in terms of teaching and learning, continuing professional development and…

  19. Experiences of the Relation between Teaching and Research: What Do Academics Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Jane; Bond, Carol H.

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with a small number of academic staff who had previously expressed strong views on the teaching-research relationship revealed substantial variation in their experiences of the relationship. Five qualitatively different experiences of the teaching-research relationship were evident, ranging from incompatibility, to transmission of new…

  20. University Academics' Experience of Research and Its Relationship to Their Experience of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Michael; Martin, Elaine; Trigwell, Keith; Ramsden, Paul; Middleton, Heather

    2008-01-01

    There has been a growing research debate over the relations between university teaching and research. This paper contributes to that debate by describing the variation in the way university academics' experience research, then linking that empirical evidence with previous work to explicate the relations between variation in research, teaching, and…

  1. Teaching-Focused Science Academics Supervising Research Students in Science Education: What's the Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Academics who specialise in improving the teaching of "hard" sciences like chemistry, biology, maths and physics are increasing in number and influence at Australian universities. Those in academia who have channelled their energies into teaching are delighted with this development. It means that many committed tertiary teachers can now look…

  2. The Dislocation of Teaching and Research and the Reconfiguring of Academic Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, William

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between teaching and research is a touchstone in thinking about higher education. However, the last 40 years has seen the "dislocation" of these core academic activities as a result of policy and operational decisions to distinguish the way they are funded, managed, assessed and rewarded. The activities of "teaching" and…

  3. The Role of Basic Need Satisfaction for Junior Academics' Goal Conflicts and Teaching Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esdar, Wiebke; Gorges, Julia; Wild, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Junior academics at German universities work and qualify in a highly competitive environment. Most of them have to cope with too little time for too many demands in research and teaching. As previous studies have shown, these work conditions may impair well-being due to goal conflicts and may threaten their teaching motivation. How could this be…

  4. Teaching Aptitude of Student Teachers and their Academic Achievements at Graduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajan, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation aims at studying teaching aptitude of student teachers with respect to their gender and academic achievement at graduate level examination. The sample for this study is selected by stratified random sampling from the Teacher Education institutions of Malabar area of Kerala. Teaching Aptitude Test Battery (T A T B)…

  5. Buying-Out Teaching for Research: The Views of Academics and Their Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erica; Smith, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the practice of buying-out teaching to create time for research. A study was carried out, at a regional university in Australia, with academics in receipt of research grant funds (and therefore with the means to buy out teaching), Heads of School, and the Deputy Vice Chancellors responsible respectively for research and for…

  6. Peer Observation of Teaching: Reflections of an Early Career Academic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eri, Rajaraman

    2014-01-01

    Peer observation of teaching (POT) is a reciprocal process where a peer observes another's teaching (classroom, virtual, on-line or even teaching resource such as unit outlines, assignments). Peers then provide constructive feedbacks that would enable teaching professional development through the mirror of critical reflection by both the observer…

  7. Academic Game Bowls as a Teaching/Learning Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Andrea T.

    1986-01-01

    The article describes an academic events program in which gifted and talented students (grades one to 12) voluntarily participated in a variety of different academic contests. Development and planning aspects are reviewed and several activities suggested. (Author/CL)

  8. A Search for Correlations Between Teaching Style, Academic Gain, and Epistemology of Introductory Physics Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, Abigail; Kuhl, Dennis

    2011-04-01

    Ideally, a physics class would improve both students' academic abilities and their attitudes towards physics. This study was designed both to investigate any correlation between academic ability and epistemology, and to examine the effects of teaching style on academic and epistemological growth. Over four hundred students in high school and college introductory physics courses were given two pre- and post-instruction surveys: the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE) to measure knowledge of physics and the Epistemological Beliefs Assessment for Physical Science (EBAPS) to quantify epistemological beliefs about physics. The average normalized gains from each class were then compared to teaching style. It was found that, though different teaching styles produced drastically different academic gains, student epistemologies remained fairly constant.

  9. Contribution of academic departments of general practice to undergraduate teaching, and their plans for curriculum development.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, L A; Spencer, J A; Jones, R H

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. In 1991, the General Medical Council suggested the development of a new undergraduate curriculum, on a 'core plus electives' basis. The combination of National Health Service reforms and the rising profile of academic departments of general practice had led to a consideration of general practice as an alternative teaching environment. These departments now face escalating expectations from their medical schools of their ability to provide additional community based teaching. AIM. The aim of this study was to investigate the present contribution of academic departments of general practice to undergraduate teaching and their plans for curriculum development, including the introduction of community-based clinical skills teaching. METHOD. A questionnaire was circulated in June 1993 to all academic departments of general practice in the United Kingdom and Eire. RESULTS. Twenty seven out of 28 questionnaires were returned. Twenty two departments provided pre-clinical teaching and all provided a clinical practice attachment. Eight medical schools were organizing community-based clinical skills teaching, and in two this formed the basis for a community-based medical attachment. Eight planned to reduce the factual content of their curricula and introduce problem-based learning while nine were contemplating a 'core plus electives' option. Fourteen medical schools had primary care input in teaching basic clinical skills and an additional seven planned to introduce this. Problems encountered by the general practitioner tutors in teaching clinical skills included insufficient time and resources and poor self-esteem; they identified a need for good central and peripheral organization. CONCLUSION. Compared with a 1988 study, academic departments of general practice are increasingly involved in teaching both general practice and general medical skills at undergraduate level. Curriculum change is occurring rapidly, with an increasing trend towards community teaching

  10. Teaching matters-academic professional development in the early 21st century.

    PubMed

    Fahnert, Beatrix

    2015-10-01

    Academic work at different career stages has changed and a broadened portfolio of expertise enables academics to adapt, maintain and advance their career. Development related to research activity is naturally driven by methodology and technology. Institutions and peers largely support development in the contexts of dissemination, measuring impact and obtaining funding. A European Commission High Level Group recommended pedagogic training for everyone teaching in Higher Education by 2020 with mandatory continuing professional development and with academic staff recruitment and promotion being linked to teaching performance. Early career teaching experience is already an expectation, and advantage is gained by developing recognized teaching expertise. More senior academics gain an advantage through recognition of higher levels of expertise, also covering elements of leadership and innovation in teaching. This review aims to raise awareness particularly of teaching-related skills within the dimensions of academic professional development in Higher Education, outlining some general directions for development and recognition in context of current challenges to support planning and identifying training needs and opportunities at different career stages. PMID:26347300

  11. Council of Teaching Hospitals: Survey of Housestaff Stipends, Benefits and Funding, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Alison

    This report presents the results of an annual survey of housestaff stipends, benefits, and funding for physicians at teaching hospitals in 1992. The data, presented in 48 tables and 4 figures, are based on responses from 325 members of the Council of Teaching Hospitals (COTH), an 83 percent response rate to the survey. Chapter I contains stipend…

  12. The Evolution of the Council of Academic Hospitals of Ontario Statement of Principles--A Successful Harmonization Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Katie; Lampson, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    To improve efficiency, consistency and transparency in clinical trial contract negotiations with industry sponsors, a Council of Academic Hospitals of Ontario (CAHO) committee facilitated the development of standard principles for member hospitals to follow during contract negotiation. Hospitals were encouraged to provide a link to the CAHO…

  13. Family Physicians and Teaching Hospitals: A Litany of Woes

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Niels H.

    1984-01-01

    Retreat of family physicians from caring for their patients in teaching hospitals has been partly imposed and partly passively accepted. Confusion of patient, family doctor and consultant relationships has resulted. Town/gown and family physician/specialist communication problems disrupt a proper model of care. Family physicians need to take individual and group action to initiate change, but little action has been evident. Everyone is the loser. We should reinstitute a model in which family physicians are the closest professionals to their patients, wherever they are in the health care system. Demonstrating the value of family physician coordination of care and continuity of care will positively affect the current financial `loss leader' status of this work. PMID:21279057

  14. 42 CFR 415.190 - Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in... Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.190 Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching... a fee schedule basis for the services of an assistant at surgery in a teaching hospital....

  15. 42 CFR 415.190 - Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in... Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.190 Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching... a fee schedule basis for the services of an assistant at surgery in a teaching hospital....

  16. 42 CFR 415.190 - Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in... Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.190 Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching... a fee schedule basis for the services of an assistant at surgery in a teaching hospital....

  17. Evolution of Hospital-based Pharmacy Teaching Programs from 1989-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raehl, Cynthia; Bond, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed databases from four U.S. National Clinical Pharmacy Services Studies and the American Hospital Association for trends in hospital involvement in pharmacy education. Detailed findings indicated that clinical pharmacy services within the nation's teaching hospitals are not standardized and that financial pressures impede a full, consistent…

  18. Teaching Adolescent ELs to Write Academic-Style Persuasive Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The wide adoption of the new Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in the U.S. has increased expectations for all teachers to prepare all learners to read and write in academic ways. More knowledge is needed about instructional approaches that may lead adolescent English learners (ELs) to meet this goal. Developing academic literacy practices…

  19. Team Teaching with Academic Core Curricula Teachers: Using Aviation Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berentsen, Lowell W.

    2006-01-01

    Technology education teachers today have at their disposal the skills, opportunity, experience, ingenuity, expertise, equipment, and environment to greatly improve students' ability to learn and apply the knowledge they have gained in their academic programs. When a technology education teacher joins forces with an academic core teacher, the…

  20. A Model Academic Advisement Manual for Teaching Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Rose T.; Hogges, Ralph

    The manual, for faculty advisors at Florida International University, provides information regarding policies and procedures relating to the academic advisement process. The introduction includes an academic advisement policy statement and the philosophy of the School of Health and Social Services. Part 2 provides an overview of the four phases of…

  1. Is Academic Freedom a Threat to Teaching Introductory Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Donald P.

    2005-01-01

    Graves (2005) suggested that academic freedom might impede efforts to improve institutional performance and achieve the goals set for learning outcomes, cost efficiency, and preparing students for the workplace. The author's initial response to threats to academic freedom and calls for efficiency is to bristle, because he views these as threats to…

  2. Supporting Distance Learners and Academic Faculty Teaching at a Distance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Kate; Bicknell-Holmes, Tracy; Latta, Gail F.

    There are three challenges academic institutions must address in order to achieve the goal of ensuring that distant students are afforded the opportunities of independent learning: (1) academic libraries must effectively utilize technology to make the information resources in their research collections accessible to distant students; (2) academic…

  3. Crossing New Uncharted Territory: Shifts in Academic Identity as a Result of Modifying Teaching Practice in Undergraduate Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kensington-Miller, Barbara; Sneddon, Jamie; Stewart, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    The changes in academic identity a teacher may undergo, as they modify their teaching practice, will vary depending on their experiences and the support they receive. In this paper, we describe the shifts in academic identity of two lecturers, a mathematician and a mathematics educator, as they both made changes to their teaching practice by…

  4. Uncovering the Links between Prospective Teachers' Personal Responsibility, Academic Optimism, Hope, and Emotions about Teaching: A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Altay

    2014-01-01

    Prospective teachers' sense of personal responsibility has not been examined together with their academic optimism, hope, and emotions about teaching in a single study to date. However, to consider hope, academic optimism, and emotions about teaching together with personal responsibility is important to uncover the factors affecting…

  5. Occupational Stress and Teaching Approaches among Chinese Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the predictive power of occupational stress for teaching approaches. Participants were 246 faculty members from a large university in Guangzhou in the People's Republic of China, who completed the Approaches to Teaching Inventory, four scales from the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised…

  6. Promoting Excellent Teaching: The Chair as Academic Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Bill

    Community college department chairs have many diverse responsibilities. One role which needs to be given more emphasis is that of "promoting excellent teaching." The three conditions which must be present for a department chair to begin promoting excellent teaching are open, honest, and positive communication; the ability to provide immediate…

  7. Teaching Effectiveness, Course Evaluation, and Academic Performance: The Role of Academic Delay of Gratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2009-01-01

    Academic delay of gratification is a significant and positive predictor of students' final course grades, even after controlling for the effect of their rating of the course, expected grade, and degree of interest, importance, and utility of the academic task. Students' expected course grades are by far the strongest predictor of their final…

  8. Twenty-four-Hour Intensivist Staffing in Teaching Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    There is an inherent tension between the training needs of inexperienced clinicians and the safety of the patients for whom they are responsible. Our society has accepted this tension as a necessary trade-off to maintain a competent workforce of physicians year after year. However, recent trends in medical education have diminished resident autonomy in favor of the safety of current patients. One dramatic example is the rapid increase in the number of academic ICUs that provide coverage by attending physicians at all hours. The potential benefits of this staffing model have strong face validity: improved quality and efficiency from the constant involvement of experienced intensivists, increased family and staff satisfaction from the immediate availability of attending physicians, and reduced burn-out among intensivists from reduced on-call responsibilities. Thus, many hospitals have moved toward 24-h coverage by attending intensivist physicians without evidence that these benefits actually accrue and perhaps without full consideration of possible unintended consequences. In this article, we discuss the potential benefits and risks of nocturnal intensivist staffing, considering the needs of current and future patients. Furthermore, we suggest that there remains sufficient uncertainty about these benefits and risks that it is both necessary and ethical to study the effects in earnest. PMID:22553264

  9. Improvement of hospital processes through business process management in Qaem Teaching Hospital: A work in progress

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.; Ebrahimipour, Hossein; Doosty, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    In a world of continuously changing business environments, organizations have no option; however, to deal with such a big level of transformation in order to adjust the consequential demands. Therefore, many companies need to continually improve and review their processes to maintain their competitive advantages in an uncertain environment. Meeting these challenges requires implementing the most efficient possible business processes, geared to the needs of the industry and market segments that the organization serves globally. In the last 10 years, total quality management, business process reengineering, and business process management (BPM) have been some of the management tools applied by organizations to increase business competiveness. This paper is an original article that presents implementation of “BPM” approach in the healthcare domain that allows an organization to improve and review its critical business processes. This project was performed in “Qaem Teaching Hospital” in Mashhad city, Iran and consists of four distinct steps; (1) identify business processes, (2) document the process, (3) analyze and measure the process, and (4) improve the process. Implementing BPM in Qaem Teaching Hospital changed the nature of management by allowing the organization to avoid the complexity of disparate, soloed systems. BPM instead enabled the organization to focus on business processes at a higher level. PMID:25540784

  10. Evaluation of ureteroscopy outcome in a teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Al-Naimi, Abdulla; Alobaidy, Abdulqadir; Majzoub, Ahmad; Ibrahim, Tarek Ahmed Amin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate factors affecting semi-rigid ureteroscopy (URS) results highlighting the influence of teaching on its outcomes. Material and methods We reviewed the files of 891 adult patients who had undergone 1182 ureteroscopies at our institute during the period from July 2008 to June 2011. The outcomes of all URSs were evaluated. Outcomes were measured by stone- free rate and presence of complications, which were assessed using the Clavien-Dindo system. Patients were divided into 2 groups; Group 1 (favorable outcome) became stone- free after the first URS and had no documented complications, while Group 2 (unfavorable outcome) had residual stones and/or complications. Group 2 was subdivided according to the skill level of the operating surgeon into two subgroups. Patients belonging to subgroup A had their procedures performed by urology trainees under direct supervision of expert urologists, while those in subgroup B had their procedures performed by the expert urologists themselves. All groups were compared using univariate (chi-square and t tests) and multivariate (logistic regression) statistical tests to identify significant risk factors. All data was analyzed using SPSS. Results A total of 1182 URSs were evaluated. 958 patients had a favorable outcome (Group 1) while 224 patients had an unfavorable outcome (Group 2). Factors associated with an unfavorable outcome include location of the presenting stone (p<0.001) and presence of stone impaction (p<0.001). No statistically significant differences were detected in the overall complication rate between trainees and expert urologists. Trainees stone- free rate was comparable to that of experts; 90.3% vs. 91.1%, respectively, p=0.6. Conclusion Factors such as stone impaction and proximal location are associated with an unfavorable surgical outcome. In a high- volume teaching hospital, semi-rigid URS done by trainees under direct supervision is safe and their outcome is comparable to literature findings.

  11. Analysis of uterine rupture at university teaching hospital Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Nousheen; Yousfani, Sajida

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the risk factors, management modalities, fetomaternal outcome of uterine rupture cases at University teaching hospital in Pakistan. Methods: This retrospective descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences (LUMHS) for a period of one year from January 1st to December 31st 2012. Main outcome measures were frequency, age, parity, booking status, risk factors, management modalities, fetal and maternal mortality associated with uterine rupture. The data was collected on pre-designed proforma analysed using SPSS Version 16 statistical package. Results: The frequency of ruptured uteri was calculated to be 0.67%, giving a ratio of 1:148 deliveries. Highest incidence was found in age group 25-30 (44.26%) with mean age of 30.36 years. and parity group 2-3 (57.37%) with mean parity 4.08. The risk factors for ruptured uterus include Caesarean section 43(70.49%), injudicious use of oxytocin 33(54.09%), obstructed labour 15 (24.59%) and multiparty 18 (29.50%). Repair of uterus was performed in 47(77.04%) cases. Maternal case fatality was 5(8.19%), while foetal wastage was 51 (83.60%). Conclusion: This study confirms the existence of a serious preventable obstetric problem, with significant maternal mortality and foetal wastage. Integrated efforts include Health education, focused antenatal care, skilled attendance, avoidance of injudicious use of oxytocin, and need of hospital based deliveries in patients with caesarean section which should be intensified to reduce this drastic obstetrical complication. PMID:26430430

  12. Acute leukaemias in adult Ethiopians in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Shamebo, M

    1994-01-01

    Eighty-two consecutive cases of acute leukaemias in adult Ethiopians were admitted to the Tikur Anbessa (Black Lion) Hospital, a teaching and referral hospital in Addis Abeba, Ethiopia, from January 1982 to December 1992. These cases were studied to describe the clinical and haematological findings, response to therapy and prognosis. The age range was 13-78 (mean 29.6) years. The male to female ratio was 1.6:1. Acute myeloblastic (AML) and acute lymphoblastic (ALL) leukaemias occurred in 53.7% and 46.3%, respectively. The commonest symptoms were anaemia, fever and bleeding tendencies. The commonest signs were pallor, fever, sternal tenderness and purpura. Splenomegaly was more commonly seen in ALL patients. The haematological findings were anaemia (mean Hgb 6.35 g%), leucocytosis (mean WBC count 88,507/mm3) and thrombocytopenia (mean platelet count 31,700/mm3). Of the patients eligible for evaluation treated with chemotherapeutic agents, only 38.4% of ALL and 6.2% of AML achieved complete remission. Twenty-seven patients with ALL died from one day to 84 (median 1.0) months after diagnosis. Ten are lost to follow-up from two weeks to 36 (median 2.5) months, one is still alive 40 months after diagnosis. Thirty-nine of the AML patients died from one day to nine (median 0.3) months after diagnosis. Five are lost to follow-up from two weeks to two and a half (median 2.0) months. The causes of death were sepsis and bleeding, separately or in combination. Increasing numbers of acute leukaemia patients are being referred to this centre. Therefore, attempts should be made to equip it for the treatment of such cases. PMID:8187778

  13. Antifungal agent utilization evaluation in hospitalized neutropenic cancer patients at a large teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Vazin, Afsaneh; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali; Ghalesoltani, Setareh

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate pattern of using of three antifungal drugs: fluconazole, amphotericin B and voriconazole, at the hematology–oncology and bone marrow transplant wards of one large teaching hospital. In a prospective cross-sectional study, we evaluated the appropriateness of using antifungal drugs in patients, using Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. All the data were recorded daily by a pharmacist in a form designed by a clinical pharmacist and infectious diseases specialist, for antifungals usage, administration, and monitoring. During the study, 116 patients were enrolled. Indications of prescribing amphotericin B, fluconazole, and voriconazole were appropriate according to guidelines in 83.4%, 80.6%, and 76.9% respectively. The duration of treatments were appropriate according to guidelines in 75%, 64.5%, and 71.1% respectively. The dose of voriconazole was appropriate according to guidelines in 46.2% of patients. None of the patients received salt loading before administration of amphotericin B. The most considerable problems with the mentioned antifungals were about the indications and duration of treatment. In addition, prehydration for amphotericin B and dosage of voriconazole were not completely compatible with the mentioned guidelines. A suitable combination of controlling the use of antifungals and educational programs could be essential for improving the general process of using antifungal drugs at our hospital. PMID:26064070

  14. Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, North-West Nigeria: Hospital-Based Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Ugwa, EA

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) remains a common problem worldwide and the role of douching as a predisposing factor is unclear. Aim: This study was undertaken to highlight the prevalence and predisposing factors of VVC in North-west Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective study done at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), North-west. AKTH is a 500-bed tertiary hospital located in Kano, the most populous state in Nigeria. Ethical clearance was obtained. Three hundred patients with VVC were recruited from the gynecologic and general outpatients’ clinics of AKTH. Research structured questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic and clinical information. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 statistical software (SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). Frequency, mean and simple percentages were used to analyze data. Result: Candida albicans was the most frequent cause of the positive high vaginal swabs constituting 84.5% (316/374) while Proteus vulgaris was the least frequent cause constituting 0.53% (2/374). Fifty-three percent (143/270) of those with VVC were aged 26–35 years; the married were 80% (216/270) and those who were unmarried were 20% (54/270). Douching was the commonest predisposing factor occurring in 42.5% (115/270) of cases. Conclusion: VVC was the most prevalent cause of vaginosis in North-west Nigeria, and douching was the commonest predisposing factor. PMID:26229716

  15. Leadership for Quality University Teaching: How Bottom-Up Academic Insights Can Inform Top-Down Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Donald E.; Scott, Shelleyann

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the leadership implications from a study that explored how to increase the quality of teaching in a university thereby presenting data from the bottom up--the academic perspective--to inform leadership, policies, and academic development which generally flows from the top down. We report academics' perceptions of and…

  16. Cost of nursing turnover in a Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Paula Buck de Oliveira; Perroca, Marcia Galan; Jericó, Marli de Carvalho

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To map the sub processes related to turnover of nursing staff and to investigate and measure the nursing turnover cost. METHOD This is a descriptive-exploratory study, classified as case study, conducted in a teaching hospital in the southeastern, Brazil, in the period from May to November 2013. The population was composed by the nursing staff, using Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology. RESULTS The total cost of turnover was R$314.605,62, and ranged from R$2.221,42 to R$3.073,23 per employee. The costs of pre-hire totaled R$101.004,60 (32,1%), and the hiring process consumed R$92.743,60 (91.8%) The costs of post-hire totaled R$213.601,02 (67,9%), for the sub process decreased productivity, R$199.982,40 (93.6%). CONCLUSION The study identified the importance of managing the cost of staff turnover and the financial impact of the cost of the employee termination, which represented three times the average salary of the nursing staff. PMID:27007427

  17. Burn injuries in a young nigerian teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Olaitan, P B; Fadiora, S O; Agodirin, O S

    2007-06-30

    A total of 36 patients were seen and managed at the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria, over a period of five years (2000 to 2004). There were 28 males and 8 females (male to female ratio, 3.5:1). The ages ranged from 1 to 46 yr (mean, 14.5 yr). The burn surface area percentage ranged between 2.5 and 70% (mean, 22.9%). Flame constituted the commonest source of injury (66.7%). Other agents were scalding (9 patients = 25%) and electrical burns (3 patients = 8.3%). The sources of flame burns were kerosene lantern/stove explosion (7 patients = 29.2%); petrol explosion (7 patients = 29.2%); road accidents followed by an explosion (3 patients = 12.5%); one case each (4.2%%) involving ethanol explosion, gun powder explosion, firewood, a lighted candle that ignited furniture and then a whole house; and other unexplained sources (3 patients = 12.5%). Mortality in this study was 7 cases (19.4%). Death was due to acute respiratory distress syndrome in one patient, sepsis in five, and tetanus infection in one. We conclude that most of the injuries were preventable. Education regarding refuelling a lighted lantern/stove, discouraging the storing of petrol in the house, and driving with care will reduce the number of accidents and subsequent possible burn injuries. Children should be monitored carefully to prevent scalding from hot water and food. PMID:21991070

  18. Clinical experience with adolescent diabetes in a Nigerian teaching hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Akanji, A. O.

    1996-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus presenting in adolescents age 10 to 20 years accounts for less than 5% of all diabetes in tropical African countries. Consequently, inadequate attention is paid to the medical and psychosocial problems attendant on adolescent diabetes in those countries. This article highlights our clinical experience in the management of 30 adolescent diabetic subjects who presented consecutively in the diabetic clinic of a major Nigerian teaching hospital. In these patients, adolescent diabetes appeared heterogeneous, comprising classical insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in approximately 80%; the remaining fraction (20%) was contributed variably by malnutrition-related diabetes (MRDM) and an "atypical" form of IDDM. The most common medical complications were recurrent hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis, and infections. About 80% of the patients were poor, and up to two thirds had to withdraw from school or trade because of recurrent illness. One third of the girls had a history of unwanted pregnancies. Almost all (93%) had a history of general rebelliousness and clinic truancy. Therefore, the high prevalence of acute metabolic decompensation may be related to the increased frequency of psychosocial problems, especially poverty, in these patients. It is suggested that agencies in tropical Africa increase welfare facilities for adolescent chronic disease, and also establish and encourage clinics dedicated to adolescent diabetes care. PMID:8776066

  19. Consultation and referral patterns from a teaching hospital emergency department.

    PubMed

    Cortazzo, J M; Guertler, A T; Rice, M M

    1993-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe consultation and referral patterns from a military emergency department (ED). The design of the study consisted of a prospective analysis of consultations and referrals from Madigan Army Medical Center ED during April 1990, an Army Medical Center with multiple residencies, including emergency medicine (EM). Patient population included active and retired military personnel, their families, and civilian emergency medical system-transported patients. ED visits averaged 60,000 per year. The overall rate of consultation and referral was 39.9%; 10.7% were consultations, whereas 29.2% were referrals. PGY-2 and -3 EM residents consultation rates were higher than average. Of all ED visits, 19.7% resulted in consultations or referrals to surgical services, 13.6% to medical services, and 2.8% to pediatrics. ED patients frequently are referred to or result in consultations with non-EM physicians. Differences in consultation by level of training and the impact of consultation on consulting services both deserve further investigation. Review of EM resident use of consultation and referral may focus evaluation of ED care in teaching hospitals. PMID:8395848

  20. Clinical experience with adolescent diabetes in a Nigerian teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Akanji, A O

    1996-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus presenting in adolescents age 10 to 20 years accounts for less than 5% of all diabetes in tropical African countries. Consequently, inadequate attention is paid to the medical and psychosocial problems attendant on adolescent diabetes in those countries. This article highlights our clinical experience in the management of 30 adolescent diabetic subjects who presented consecutively in the diabetic clinic of a major Nigerian teaching hospital. In these patients, adolescent diabetes appeared heterogeneous, comprising classical insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in approximately 80%; the remaining fraction (20%) was contributed variably by malnutrition-related diabetes (MRDM) and an "atypical" form of IDDM. The most common medical complications were recurrent hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis, and infections. About 80% of the patients were poor, and up to two thirds had to withdraw from school or trade because of recurrent illness. One third of the girls had a history of unwanted pregnancies. Almost all (93%) had a history of general rebelliousness and clinic truancy. Therefore, the high prevalence of acute metabolic decompensation may be related to the increased frequency of psychosocial problems, especially poverty, in these patients. It is suggested that agencies in tropical Africa increase welfare facilities for adolescent chronic disease, and also establish and encourage clinics dedicated to adolescent diabetes care. PMID:8776066

  1. Labial adhesion in children at the Jos University Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Ephraim; Ocheke, Amaka Ngozi; Samuels, Nathaniel E. O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Labial adhesion is one of the most common reasons for gynaecologic consultations in children. We sought to determine the prevalence of labial adhesions, mode of presentation and treatment in children at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of labial adhesions in children from January 2004 to December 2013. Data on paediatric gynaecological consultations, and labial adhesions were retrieved from the gynaecological clinic and the theatre records. The case notes of those with labial adhesions were retrieved and the relevant data extracted. Results: The total number of paediatric patients seen at the gynaecology clinic over the study period was 379 and 25 had labial adhesion (6.6%). The majority (88%) presented in the first 2 years of life, all the patients were asymptomatic, and 2 (8%) had surgical separation of the adhesions while the rest were managed conservatively. A total of 5 (20%) came for follow-up. While 2 (8%) came a week later following surgical management, 3 (12%) came back more than 6 months later due to recurrence following conservative management. Conclusion: Labial adhesions account for significant proportion of paediatric gynaecologic consultations. They are usually asymptomatic, occur in the first 2 years of life and frequently managed conservatively. PMID:27251516

  2. The Inadequacy of Academic Environment Contributes to Inadequate Teaching and Learning Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quasim, Shahla; Arif, Muhammad Shahbaz

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at the inadequacy of academic environment as an indicator contributing to the inadequate teaching and learning situation in Pakistan. The main focus is to look into the low proficiency of students in the subject of English at secondary school level. A comprehensive questionnaire was designed from the literature concerned and The…

  3. The Ideal Research-Teaching Nexus in the Eyes of Academics: Building Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Van Driel, Jan H.; Van der Rijst, Roeland M.; Verloop, Nico; Visser, Anthonya

    2010-01-01

    Research and teaching are supposed to be closely related in universities. Among academics the belief in a symbiotic relationship is strong. However, it is unclear what form this relationship can take. Several authors have presented categories and dimensions to clarify this relationship and the aim of this project was to contribute to this…

  4. Relating Academics' Ways of Integrating Research and Teaching to Their Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; van Driel, Jan H.; van der Rijst, Roeland M.; Visser, Anthonya; Verloop, Nico

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of studies has been carried out regarding the way academics view the research-teaching nexus, while other studies have focused on the students' experience of research-intensive environments. This study links these two research streams, and describes how 12 staff members in a faculty of humanities integrate research into their…

  5. The Effect of Teaching Strategy Based on Multiple Intelligences on Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali; Laei, Susan; Ahmadyan, Hamze

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Teaching Strategy based on Multiple Intelligences on students' academic achievement in sciences course. Totally 40 students from two different classes (Experimental N = 20 and Control N = 20) participated in the study. They were in the fifth grade of elementary school and were selected…

  6. Building Sustainable Academic Research in a "Teaching and Learning" Intensive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrams, Steve; Betts, Tony; Carton, Janet

    2008-01-01

    Academic research is increasingly interdisciplinary, inter-institutional and international. In this context, creating and maintaining the balance in the nexus between research, teaching and learning and industry interaction is central to the operation and reputation of a university-level institute. In seeking sustainability, the perennial…

  7. Teaching for Connection: Critical Thinking Skills, Problem Solving, and Academic and Occupational Competencies. Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Lowell E.

    This document contains 48 sample lesson plans that practicing teachers of vocational and academic education have developed to train vocational students to think critically and to solve problems. Discussed in the introduction are the following topics: critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making as the building blocks of teaching;…

  8. Casualization of Academics in the Australian Higher Education: Is Teaching Quality at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lama, Tek; Joullié, Jean-Etienne

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the issues casual academics face in Australia and whether these pose risks to teaching quality. The logic of the rampant casualisation in Australian universities is exposed first (i.e., mainly flexibility and cost saving to offset drops in government funding), followed by a discussion on the theoretical risks casualisation…

  9. Demystifying Institutional Practices: Critical Pragmatism and the Teaching of Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Nigel; Hadley, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    Three approaches to the teaching of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) are identified, the Critical approach, the Pragmatic approach, and the Critical Pragmatic approach. Critical EAP is appealing pedagogically because of its restive questioning of discourse norms, although it can seem reactionary at times. By focusing on the acquisition of the…

  10. Case Meetings for Teaching English for Specific Academic Purposes in a Tertiary Aeronautical Engineering Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatzl, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an innovative adaptation of the case method to teaching English for specific academic purposes. Widespread in its traditional form in various content disciplines, the case method bears the potential for truly student-centred language instruction. The current application transforms learners from case analysts to case authors…

  11. Effect of Learning Cycle Approach-Based Science Teaching on Academic Achievement, Attitude, Motivation and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uyanik, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of learning cycle approach-based teaching on academic achievement, attitude, motivation and retention at primary school 4th grade science lesson. It was conducted pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design in this study. The study was conducted on a total of 65 students studying in two different…

  12. Effectiveness of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment in Biology Teaching: Classroom Community Sense, Academic Achievement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yapici, I. Ümit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment (BCLE) in biology teaching on students' classroom community sense, their academic achievement and on their levels of satisfaction. In the study, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together. The study was carried out with 30 students in…

  13. Students' Perceptions of Teaching Technologies, Application of Technologies, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Austin, M. Jill

    2009-01-01

    This study examined business students' perceptions of four objectives (i.e., Enjoyment, Learning, Motivation, and Career Application) across five teaching technologies (i.e., Projector, PowerPoint, Video, the Internet, and Lecture), business professors' effective application of technologies, and students' academic performance. We collected data…

  14. Academic Staff Views of Quality Systems for Teaching and Learning: A Hong Kong Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John; Saram, Don Darshi De

    2005-01-01

    The "Teaching and Learning Quality Process Review" (TLQPR) recently completed in Hong Kong had an emphasis on education quality work. This paper analyses how, from the perspective of academic staff in one university in Hong Kong, the good intentions embedded in that idea are enhanced or subverted by the broader ?quality system setting in which…

  15. Teaching Assistants' Preparation for, Attitudes towards, and Experiences with Academic Dishonesty: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Michael; Hammons, James O.; Mamiseishvili, Ketevan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined teaching assistants' (TAs) preparation for, attitudes towards, and experiences with academic dishonesty at a public research university. Of 470 TAs, 184 (39%) completed the survey instrument. The major findings of the study were: (a) TAs were more satisfied with their informal than their formal preparation for dealing with…

  16. Facebook Groups as an Academic Teaching Aid: Case Study and Recommendations for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miron, Eli; Ravid, Gilad

    2015-01-01

    The move from a walled garden type Learning Management Systems (LMS) to open environments (like Facebook) forces us to adapt new teaching ways. This article offers a brief review of the use of Facebook groups in learning, describes the experience of using Facebook groups in an academic institute, explains the considerations for choosing the type…

  17. Evidence-Based Practice for Teaching Academics to Students with Severe Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Fred; Knight, Victoria F.; Browder, Diane M.; Smith, Bethany R.

    2012-01-01

    A review of the literature was conducted for articles published between 2003 and 2010 to build a case for the degree to which evidence-based practices were documented for teaching academic skills to students with severe developmental disabilities. This review extended earlier comprehensive work in literacy, mathematics, and science for the…

  18. Using Movement to Teach Academics: The Mind and Body as One Entity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minton, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    This book is developed to help teach curriculum through the use of movement and dance, while giving students a chance to use their creative problem-solving skills. The text describes a step-by-step process through which instructor and students can learn to transform academic concepts into actions and dances. Theoretical information is also…

  19. The Difficult Transition? Teaching, Research, Service: Examining the Preparedness of Communication Faculty Entering the Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Toni Selena; Hickerson, Corey

    2013-01-01

    This study, based on a survey of graduate students seeking employment, examines the categories and levels of preparedness of new professors/instructors as they enter academe. Preparedness was examined in several ways--specifically knowledge about higher education requirements and their preparation for teaching, advising, and service in the field…

  20. Influence of Integration of Information Communication Technology in Teaching on Students' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbugua, Stephen Ngugi; Kiboss, Joel; Tanui, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Teachers must understand the context within which students' performance improvement takes place. Operational effectiveness and strategy are both essential to superior performance and strategy execution is crucial for quality and better students' academic result. ICT can be a catalyst by providing tools which teachers use to improve teaching and…

  1. An Assessment of the Effects of Teaching Methods on Academic Performance of Students in Accounting Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosal-Akman, Nazli; Simga-Mugan, Can

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the effect of teaching methods on the academic performance of students in accounting courses. The study was carried out over two semesters at a well-known university in Turkey in principles of financial accounting and managerial accounting courses. Students enrolled in the courses were assigned to treatment and control groups.…

  2. Prospective Teachers' Future Time Perspective and Professional Plans about Teaching: The Mediating Role of Academic Optimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Altay

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the mediating role of prospective teachers' academic optimism in the relationship between their future time perspective and professional plans about teaching. A total of 396 prospective teachers voluntarily participated in the study. Correlation, regression, and structural equation modeling analyses were conducted in…

  3. Academic Achievement at the University of Maiduguri: A Survey of Teaching-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiboyewa, D. A.; Umar, Muhammad Amin

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the teaching-learning environment at the University of Maiduguri. The study used survey design. The population comprised of the 77 academic departments in the eleven faculties at the University of Maiduguri. A total of 29 departments were randomly and proportionally drawn from the 77 departments. The smallest sample (21…

  4. A Study on Simulation Methods in Academic Success with Reference to Teaching Biology for Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasikala, P.; Tanyong, Siriwan

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine the utility of simulation methods in biology teaching for nursing students and academic success. 100 students (50 control, 50 experimental) who studied at Srinivasa Teacher Training School, Kalikiri, Recognised by Sri Venkateswara University, Faculty of Education, Tirupati, AP, India, 2014-215…

  5. Professional Development in Teaching and Learning for Early Career Academic Geographers: Contexts, Practices and Tensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vajoczki, Susan; Biegas, Tamara C.; Crenshaw, Melody; Healey, Ruth L.; Osayomi, Tolulope; Bradford, Michael; Monk, Janice

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the practices and tensions informing approaches to professional development for early career academic geographers who are teaching in higher education. We offer examples from Britain, Canada, Nigeria and the USA. The tensions include: institutional and departmental cultures; models that offer generic and…

  6. Kindergarten Teachers Adjust Their Teaching Practices in Accordance with Children's Academic Pre-Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakarinen, Eija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Siekkinen, Martti; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which kindergarten children's academic pre-skills are associated with their teachers' subsequent teaching practices. The pre-skills in reading and math of 1268 children (655 boys, 613 girls) were measured in kindergarten in the fall. A pair of trained observers used the Classroom Assessment Scoring System…

  7. Student Academic Partners: Student Employment for Collaborative Learning and Teaching Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Rebecca; Millard, Luke; Brand, Stuart; Chapman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    During 2008, Birmingham City University (BCU) began to develop approaches to enable students to have a greater ownership of the enhancement of learning and teaching at the university in order to break down some of the real and perceived barriers between students and staff. This work led to the development of the Student Academic Partners scheme…

  8. The Effect of Peer Teaching on Mathematics Academic Achievement of the Undergraduate Students in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelkarim, Ra'ed; Abuiyada, Reem

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effects of peer teaching on mathematics academic achievement of the undergraduate students in Oman. The sample of this study composed of (32) undergraduate female students enrolled in the course, "Mathematics for Social Sciences I" in Mathematics and Sciences Unit in Dhofar University in spring semester 2014-2015.…

  9. Using Visual Literacy to Teach Science Academic Language: Experiences from Three Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly-Jackson, Charlease; Delacruz, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    This original pedagogical study captured three preservice teachers' experiences using visual literacy strategies as an approach to teaching English language learners (ELLs) science academic language. The following research questions guided this study: (1) What are the experiences of preservice teachers' use of visual literacy to teach…

  10. Survey of Current Academic Practices for Full-Time Postlicensure Nursing Faculty Who Teach Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanford, Karen J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine current academic practices of compensation, workload, rewards, and tenure and promotion for nursing faculty who teach graduate and postlicensure programs that are delivered 50% to 100% online. Deans and directors who are members of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) were the…

  11. The Relationship among Principals' Technology Leadership, Teaching Innovation, and Students' Academic Optimism in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Chuan-Chung; Yen, Hung-Chin; Kuan, Liu-Yen

    2014-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the relationships among principals' technology leadership, teaching innovations, and students' academic optimism by surveying elementary school educators across Taiwan. Of the total 1,080 questionnaires distributed, 755 valid surveys were returned for a 69.90% return rate. Teachers were asked to indicate the…

  12. Diffusion of innovation I: Formulary acceptance rates of new drugs in teaching and non-teaching British Columbia hospitals--a hospital pharmacy perspective.

    PubMed

    D'Sa, M M; Hill, D S; Stratton, T P

    1994-12-01

    Lag times in the diffusion of new drugs in the hospital setting have both patient care and pharmaceutical industry implications. This two-part series uses diffusion theory to examine differences in the adoption rates of new drugs in British Columbia teaching and non-teaching hospitals. Formulary addition of a new drug by a hospital's Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee was considered the adoption indicator. Time for adoption was defined as the difference between a drug's Canadian market approval date and the date of formulary addition. Surveys were mailed in September 1990 to 41 hospital pharmacies (response rate = 88%), asking respondents to provide formulary inclusion dates of 29 drugs marketed between July 1987 and March 1990. A significant difference (Mann-Whitney U Test, p < 0.0358) in median adoption time was observed between the six teaching and 25 non-teaching study hospitals, with the former adopting a new drug in 7.5 months versus the latter adopting a new drug in 12.1 months. PMID:10139270

  13. Competitive strategy in turbulent healthcare markets: an analysis of financially effective teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Langabeer, J

    1998-01-01

    As the healthcare marketplace, characterized by declining revenues and heavy price competition, continues to evolve toward managed care, teaching hospitals are being forced to act more like traditional industrial organizations. Profit-oriented behavior, including emphases on market strategies and competitive advantage, is now a necessity if these hospitals are going to survive the transition to managed care. To help teaching hospitals evaluate strategic options that maximize financial effectiveness, this study examined the financial and operating data for 100 major U.S. teaching hospitals to determine relationships among competitive strategy, market environment, and financial return on invested capital. Results should help major hospitals formulate more effective strategies to combat environmental turbulence. PMID:10338929

  14. Quality of care in African-American patients admitted for congestive heart failure at a university teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Ilksoy, Nurcan; Moore, Renee H; Easley, Kirk; Jacobson, Terry A

    2006-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that the quality of congestive heart failure (CHF) treatment for hospitalized patients varies. The goal of this study was to evaluate the compliance of physicians at a large, inner-city teaching hospital with current evidence-based guidelines. A retrospective review of the medical records of 104 patients admitted with CHF was conducted. Quality-of-care indicators were assessed, including the use of echocardiograms, the administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and beta blockers to appropriate patients, and lifestyle and medication counseling at discharge. The assessment of left ventricular (LV) function was documented in 96.1% of patients (n = 100). A total of 65 patients (92.8%) with systolic dysfunction were considered to be ideal candidates for ACE inhibitor therapy. Of these 65 patients, 58 (89.2%) were discharged on ACE inhibitors. Of 41 patients with LV systolic dysfunction who were considered to be ideal candidates for beta-blocker therapy, only 10 (24.4%) were discharged on beta-blocker therapy. Of all patients with CHF, 50% received discharge counseling on medication compliance, 48% received counseling on a low-salt diet, and only 9% were told to monitor daily weight. This study shows that in a major academic teaching hospital, there is a need for improvement in the use of beta-blocker therapy as well as greater emphasis on patient education strategies regarding diet, medication adherence, and monitoring daily weight. PMID:16490439

  15. Concept-Based Grammar Teaching: An Academic Responds to Azar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kent

    2007-01-01

    This response to Azar (this volume) intends to discuss from an academic's perspective the main points raised in her paper (i.e., grammar-based instruction and its relation to focus on form and error correction) and, to encourage a more concept-based approach to grammar instruction (CBT). A CBT approach to language development argues that the…

  16. Creating the Academic Commons: Guidelines for Learning, Teaching, and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Thomas H.P.

    2011-01-01

    Today's library is still at the heart of all university activities, helping students and faculty become better learners, teachers, and researchers. In recent years there has emerged the formalizing of one or more of these activities into an Academic Commons. These centers of information have been labeled variously but they all share a commonality:…

  17. Teaching the Academic Argument in a University EFL Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacha, Nahla Nola

    2010-01-01

    An educational challenge that many university EFL students face is the production of written academic arguments as part of their required essays. Although the importance of argumentative writing in education is uncontested, and research shows that EFL students find difficulties in producing such texts, it is not adequately dealt with for the L1…

  18. Teaching Library Skills to Academically Unprepared College Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooks, James D.

    This study compared the effectiveness of the traditional library lecture and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in scheduled credit classes in library skills. Subjects were 18 college freshman attending branch campuses who were academically underprepared for college level study and who also lacked basic library skills. Eleven students were taught…

  19. Students' Evaluation of Teaching, Approaches to Learning, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diseth, Age

    2007-01-01

    Students' evaluation and perception of the learning environment are considered to be important predictors of students' approaches to learning. These variables may also account for variance in academic outcome, such as in examination grades, but previous research has rarely included a comparison between all of these variables. This article…

  20. Political Beliefs and the Academic Responsibilities of Undergraduate Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, Jamie; Blaney, David L.; Dunn, Kevin; Goff, Patricia; Leonard, Eric K.; Sharoni, Simona

    2008-01-01

    This forum reconstructs a roundtable discussion about the academic responsibilities of International Relations professors with respect to their undergraduate students. Specifically, participants discuss the proper pedagogical role of professors' personal political beliefs and the best ways to encourage undergraduate students to engage political…

  1. Physician clinical alignment and integration: a community-academic hospital approach.

    PubMed

    Salas-Lopez, Debbie; Weiss, Sandra Jarva; Nester, Brian; Whalen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    An overwhelming need for change in the U.S. healthcare delivery system, coupled with the need to improve clinical and financial outcomes, has prompted hospitals to direct renewed efforts toward achieving high quality and cost-effectiveness. Additionally, with the dawn of accountable care organizations and increasing focus on patient expectations, hospitals have begun to seek physician partners through clinical alignment. Contrary to the unsuccessful alignment strategies of the 1990s, today's efforts are more mutually beneficial, driven by the need to achieve better care coordination, increased access to infrastructure, improved quality, and lower costs. In this article, we describe a large, academic, tertiary care hospital's approach to developing and implementing alignment and integration models with its collaboration-ready physicians and physician groups. We developed four models--short of physicians' employment with the organization--tailored to meet the needs of both the physician group and the hospital: (1) medical directorship (group physicians are appointed to serve as medical directors of a clinical area), (2) professional services agreement (specific clinical services, such as overnight admissions help, are contracted), (3) co-management services agreement (one specialty group co-manages all services within the specialty service lines), and (4) lease arrangement (closest in scope to employment, in which the hospital pays all expenses and receives all revenue). Successful hospital-physician alignment requires careful planning and the early engagement of legal counsel to ensure compliance with federal statutes. Establishing an integrated system with mutually identified goals better positions hospitals to deliver cost-effective and high-quality care under the new paradigm of healthcare reform. PMID:24988674

  2. A small grant funding program to promote innovation at an academic research hospital.

    PubMed

    Orrell, Kelsey; Yankanah, Rosanna; Heon, Elise; Wright, James G

    2015-10-01

    Innovation is important for the improvement of health care. A small grant innovation funding program was implemented by the Hospital for Sick Children(SickKids) for the Perioperative Services group, awarding relatively small funds (approximately $10 000) in order to stimulate innovation. Of 48 applications,26 (54.2%) different innovation projects were funded for a total allocation of $227 870. This program demonstrated the ability of small grants to stimulate many applications with novel ideas, a wide range of innovations and reasonable academic productivity. PMID:26384144

  3. A small grant funding program to promote innovation at an academic research hospital

    PubMed Central

    Orrell, Kelsey; Yankanah, Rosanna; Heon, Elise; Wright, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Innovation is important for the improvement of health care. A small grant innovation funding program was implemented by the Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) for the Perioperative Services group, awarding relatively small funds (approximately $10 000) in order to stimulate innovation. Of 48 applications, 26 (54.2%) different innovation projects were funded for a total allocation of $227 870. This program demonstrated the ability of small grants to stimulate many applications with novel ideas, a wide range of innovations and reasonable academic productivity. PMID:26384144

  4. 42 CFR 415.162 - Determining payment for physician services furnished to beneficiaries in teaching hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... exceed $30,000. Example No: 2. Dr. Smith received $25,000 from Hospital X for services as a department head in a teaching hospital. Dr. Smith also voluntarily furnished direct medical services to... compensated services ($25,000) exceeds the $30,000 maximum amount allowable for all of Dr. Smith's...

  5. Teaching Academic Vocabulary to Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Kristen D.; Sanchez, Victoria; Flynn, Lindsay J.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the efforts of a U.S. History teacher to directly teach word meanings using the "robust vocabulary instruction" (RVI) approach, because research supports this method as a way to improve vocabulary knowledge for a range of students, including adolescents reading below grade level (i.e., struggling readers) and…

  6. Academic Libraries as a Context for Teaching Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jon

    2008-01-01

    The teaching of mathematical modeling to undergraduate students requires that students are given ample opportunity to develop their own models and experience first-hand the process of model building. Finding an appropriate context within which modeling can be undertaken is not a simple task as it needs to be readily understandable and seen as…

  7. Teaching Behaviors, Academic Learning Time, and Student Achievement: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Charles; Berliner, David; Filby, Nikola; Marliave, Richard; Cahen, Leonard; Dishaw, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study (BTES) was to identify teaching activities and classroom conditions that foster student learning in elementary schools. The study focused on instruction in reading and mathematics at grades two and five. During the multi-year series of substudies comprising BTES, a variety of issues were…

  8. Teaching Academic Discussion Skills with a Card Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Curt; Wells, Terri

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a game used for teaching discussion skills to English as a Second Language (ESL) students. It was originally designed for students wanting to prepare for graduate study at U.S. universities has been since used for other ESL students wanting to improve conversation skills. The game focuses on common phrases helpful for…

  9. Australian Academics Teaching in Singapore: Striving for Cultural Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Lee; Wallace, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Within a framework of shrinking public funding for universities, competition for students and pressures for the internationalization of education, Australian universities have formed partnerships with Asian organizations to offer Australian degrees to fee-paying students in their home countries. Teaching Asian students in Asia is complex,…

  10. Multiple intelligences and alternative teaching strategies: The effects on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding, and attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baragona, Michelle

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between multiple intelligence strengths and alternative teaching methods on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding and attitudes. The design was a quasi-experimental study, in which students enrolled in Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, a developmental biology course, received lecture only, problem-based learning with lecture, or peer teaching with lecture. These students completed the Multiple Intelligence Inventory to determine their intelligence strengths, the Students' Motivation Toward Science Learning questionnaire to determine student attitudes towards learning in science, multiple choice tests to determine academic achievement, and open-ended questions to determine conceptual understanding. Effects of intelligence types and teaching methods on academic achievement and conceptual understanding were determined statistically by repeated measures ANOVAs. No significance occurred in academic achievement scores due to lab group or due to teaching method used; however, significant interactions between group and teaching method did occur in students with strengths in logical-mathematical, interpersonal, kinesthetic, and intrapersonal intelligences. Post-hoc analysis using Tukey HSD tests revealed students with strengths in logical-mathematical intelligence and enrolled in Group Three scored significantly higher when taught by problem-based learning (PBL) as compared to peer teaching (PT). No significance occurred in conceptual understanding scores due to lab group or due to teaching method used; however, significant interactions between group and teaching method did occur in students with strengths in musical, kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and spatial intelligences. Post-hoc analysis using Tukey HSD tests revealed students with strengths in logical-mathematical intelligence and enrolled in Group Three scored significantly higher when taught by lecture as compared to PBL. Students with

  11. Association between Hospital Birth Volume and Maternal Morbidity among Low-Risk Pregnancies in Rural, Urban, and Teaching Hospitals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Thao, Viengneesee; Hung, Peiyin; Tilden, Ellen; Caughey, Aaron B; Snowden, Jonathan M

    2016-05-01

    Objectives This study aims to examine the relationship between hospital birth volume and multiple maternal morbidities among low-risk pregnancies in rural hospitals, urban non-teaching hospitals, and urban teaching hospitals, using a representative sample of U.S. hospitals. Study Design Using the 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 607 hospitals, we identified 508,146 obstetric deliveries meeting low-risk criteria and compared outcomes across hospital volume categories. Outcomes include postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), chorioamnionitis, endometritis, blood transfusion, severe perineal laceration, and wound infection. Results Hospital birth volume was more consistently related to PPH than to other maternal outcomes. Lowest-volume rural (< 200 births) and non-teaching (< 650 births) hospitals had 80% higher odds (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.56-2.08) and 39% higher odds (AOR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.26-1.53) of PPH respectively, than those in corresponding high-volume hospitals. However, in urban teaching hospitals, delivering in a lower-volume hospital was associated with 14% lower odds of PPH (AOR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.80-0.93). Deliveries in rural hospitals had 31% higher odds of PPH than urban teaching hospitals (AOR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.13-1.53). Conclusions Low birth volume was a risk factor for PPH in both rural and urban non-teaching hospitals, but not in urban teaching hospitals, where higher volume was associated with greater odds of PPH. PMID:26731180

  12. Sources of Construction Funds in Teaching Hospitals, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eng, Mary

    1981-01-01

    Data compiled from the American Hospital Association's annual surveys on the sources of funding for hospital construction are provided. The pattern of financing hospital construction in institutions shifted dramatically during the last decade with the most striking change in the use of debt financing. (MLW)

  13. Translational science and the hidden research system in universities and academic hospitals: a case study.

    PubMed

    Lander, Bryn; Atkinson-Grosjean, Janet

    2011-02-01

    Innovation systems (IS) and science policy scholarship predominantly focus on linkages between universities and industry, and the commercial translation of academic discoveries. Overlooked in such analyses are important connections between universities and academic hospitals, and the non-commercial aspects of translational science. The two types of institutions tend to be collapsed into a single entity-'the university'-and relational flows are lost. Yet the distinctions and flows between the two are crucial elements of translational science and the biomedical innovation system. This paper explores what has been called the 'hidden research system' that connects hospitals, universities, and their resources, with the clinical and scientific actors who make the linkages possible. Then, using a novel conceptual model of translational science, we examine the individual interactions and dynamics involved in a particular example of the biomedical innovation system at work: the diagnosis of IRAK-4 deficiency, a rare immunological disorder, and the translational flows that result. Contra to conventional IS analyses, we are able to point to the strong role of public-sector institutions, and the weak role of the private-sector, in the translational processes described here. Our research was conducted within a Canadian network of scientists and clinician-scientists studying the pathogenomics of immunological disorders and innate immunity. PMID:21168250

  14. Evaluation of standardized teaching plans for hospitalized pediatric patients: a performance improvement project.

    PubMed

    Blagojevic, Joanne; Stephens, Sigrid

    2008-01-01

    Discharge teaching in a pediatric hospital setting is difficult because the situation involves multiple learners, time constraints, and differing skill levels of nurse teachers. Shortened length of stay forces nurses to complete patient education efficiently. Unstructured education can lead to failed learning, as evidenced by readmissions and postdischarge feedback. A performance improvement project was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of standardized teaching plans for diabetes mellitus and infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Preliminary data indicated a passing score of at least 90% on posttests by all learners, suggesting that standardized teaching plans may help nurses complete prescribed discharge teaching. PMID:18507236

  15. Academic hospital staff compliance with a fecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening program

    PubMed Central

    Vlachonikolou, Georgia; Gkolfakis, Paraskevas; Sioulas, Athanasios D; Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Melissaratou, Anastasia; Moustafa, Giannis-Aimant; Xanthopoulou, Eleni; Tsilimidos, Gerasimos; Tsironi, Ioanna; Filippidis, Paraskevas; Malli, Chrysoula; Dimitriadis, George D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    AIM To measure the compliance of an Academic Hospital staff with a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program using fecal immunochemical test (FIT). METHODS All employees of “Attikon” University General Hospital aged over 50 years were thoroughly informed by a team of physicians and medical students about the study aims and they were invited to undergo CRC screening using two rounds of FIT (DyoniFOB® Combo H, DyonMed SA, Athens, Greece). The tests were provided for free and subjects tested positive were subsequently referred for colonoscopy. One year after completing the two rounds, participants were asked to be re-screened by means of the same test. RESULTS Among our target population consisted of 211 employees, 59 (27.9%) consented to participate, but only 41 (19.4%) and 24 (11.4%) completed the first and the second FIT round, respectively. Female gender was significantly associated with higher initial participation (P = 0.005) and test completion - first and second round - (P = 0.004 and P = 0.05) rates, respectively. Physician’s (13.5% vs 70.2%, P < 0.0001) participation and test completion rates (7.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.0001 for the first and 2.3% vs 34%, P < 0.0001 for the second round) were significantly lower compared to those of the administrative/technical staff. Similarly, nurses participated (25.8% vs 70.2%, P = 0.0002) and completed the first test round (19.3% vs 57.6%, P = 0.004) in a significant lower rate than the administrative/technical staff. One test proved false positive. No participant repeated the test one year later. CONCLUSION Despite the well-organized, guided and supervised provision of the service, the compliance of the Academic Hospital personnel with a FIT-based CRC screening program was suboptimal, especially among physicians. PMID:27574556

  16. Whither Teaching? Academics' Informal Learning about Teaching in the "Tiger Mother" University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a pluralistic view of academics' informal learning that draws on Habermas (1987), this article suggests that a great deal of academic learning results from tensions and incompatibilities between individual interests and those of employing institutions increasingly resonant with the ideology of New Public Management (NPM), with its…

  17. A Statewide Strategy for Expanding Graduate Medical Education by Establishing New Teaching Hospitals and Residency Programs.

    PubMed

    Nuss, Michelle A; Robinson, Ben; Buckley, Peter F

    2015-09-01

    The graduate medical education (GME) system in the United States is in need of reform to ensure that the physician workforce being trained is able to meet the current and future health care needs of the population. However, GME funding to existing teaching hospitals and programs relies heavily on support from Medicare, which was capped in 1997. Thus, new, innovative models to expand GME are needed. To address physician shortages, especially in primary care and general surgery and in rural areas, the state of Georgia implemented a statewide initiative. They increased medical school enrollment by 600 students from 2000 to 2010 and committed to establishing new GME programs at new teaching hospitals to train 400 additional residents by 2018. As increasing the capacity of GME programs likely increases the number of physicians practicing in the state, these efforts aim to encourage trainees to practice in Georgia. Although new teaching hospitals, like these, are eligible for new Medicare funding, this approach to expanding GME also incorporates state funding to cover the start-up costs associated with establishing a new teaching hospital and GME program.In this article, the authors provide background on the current state of GME funding in the United States and on the physician workforce and medical education system in Georgia. They then outline the steps taken to expand GME by establishing new teaching hospitals and programs. They conclude by sharing outcomes to date as well as challenges faced and lessons learned so that others can follow this novel model. PMID:26312605

  18. Quality of bedside teaching in internal wards of Qaem and Imam Reza hospitals in Mashhad

    PubMed Central

    Jamaazghandi, Alireza; Emadzadeh, Ali; Vakili, Vida; Bazaz, Seyed Mojtaba Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bedside teaching is a patient-based teaching method in medical education. The present study has been conducted with the aim of investigating the quality of bedside teaching in the internal wards of Qaem and Imam Reza Educational Hospitals. Methods: This study follows a mixed qualitative-quantitative approach using checklists on educational clinical rounds in Imam Reza and Qaem Hospitals in Mashhad. In the first stage consisting of qualitative study, the parts related to the quality of bedside teaching were recognized and a checklist was designed in three domains of patient comfort (8 questions), targeted teaching (14 questions) and group dynamics (8 questions), and its reliability and validity were verified. In the next step, data were collected and then analyzed using SPSS 16 software through statistical techniques of independent t-test, one-way ANOVA and variance analysis. Results: In total, 113 educational rounds were investigated in this study. Among them, 59 (52.2%) and 54 (47.8%) educational rounds have been investigated in Imam Reza and Qaem Hospitals, respectively. The average total score of bedside teaching was 180.8 out of 300 in the internal wards of both Imam Reza and Qaem Hospitals. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that generally the quality of bedside teaching in Imam Reza and Qaem Hospitals of Mashhad is low according to the qualitative standards considered in this study. Holding educational workshops along with more familiarity of the professors with effective bedside teaching strategies could be effective in improving the quality of educational rounds. PMID:26396735

  19. Effects of ownership, subsidization and teaching activities on hospital costs in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Farsi, Mehdi; Filippini, Massimo

    2008-03-01

    This paper explores the cost structure of Swiss hospitals, focusing on differences due to teaching activities and those related to ownership and subsidization types. A stochastic total cost frontier with a Cobb-Douglas functional form has been estimated for a panel of 148 general hospitals over the six-year period from 1998 to 2003. Inpatient cases adjusted by DRG cost weights and ambulatory revenues are considered as two separate outputs. The adopted econometric specification allows for unobserved heterogeneity across hospitals. The results suggest that teaching activities are an important cost-driving factor and hospitals that have a broader range of specialization are relatively more costly. The excess costs of university hospitals can be explained by more extensive teaching activities as well as the relative complexity of the offered medical treatments from a teaching point of view. However, even after controlling for such differences university hospitals have shown a relatively low cost-efficiency especially in the first two or three years of the sample period. The analysis does not provide any evidence of significant efficiency differences across ownership/subsidy categories. PMID:17619236

  20. [GPs' self-perception of their own role compared with hospital, ambulatory, academic, and health organisation physicians].

    PubMed

    Daghio, Maria Monica; Gaglianò, Giuseppe; Bevini, Massimo; Cadioli, Tiziano; Delvecchio, Carlo; Guidetti, Patrizia; Lorenzetti, Manuela; Fattori, Giuseppe; Ciardullo, Anna Vittoria

    2005-05-01

    Aim of the present study was to explore how the 76 general practitioners (GPs) - serving Carpi district (90,000 residents) - value their own role compared with the hospital, ambulatory, academic, and health organisation physicians'. GPs had a positive self-image only in comparison with health organisation doctors (7 vs 7 grades). GPs disappointed with themselves when comparing their role with ambulatory (-1.6 grades), academic (-1.9 grades) and hospital doctors (-2.2 grades). Secondarily, GPs perceived patients' valuing their professional role mostly 'subordinate' to the other physicians', except health organisation colleagues'. PMID:15977651

  1. Generational influences in academic emergency medicine: teaching and learning, mentoring, and technology (part I).

    PubMed

    Mohr, Nicholas M; Moreno-Walton, Lisa; Mills, Angela M; Brunett, Patrick H; Promes, Susan B

    2011-02-01

    For the first time in history, four generations are working together-traditionalists, baby boomers, generation Xers (Gen Xers), and millennials. Members of each generation carry with them a unique perspective of the world and interact differently with those around them. Through a review of the literature and consensus by modified Delphi methodology of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Aging and Generational Issues Task Force, the authors have developed this two-part series to address generational issues present in academic emergency medicine (EM). Understanding generational characteristics and mitigating strategies can help address some common issues encountered in academic EM. Through recognition of the unique characteristics of each of the generations with respect to teaching and learning, mentoring, and technology, academicians have the opportunity to strategically optimize interactions with one another. PMID:21314779

  2. Generational Influences in Academic Emergency Medicine: Teaching and Learning, Mentoring, and Technology (Part I)

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Nicholas M.; Moreno-Walton, Lisa; Mills, Angela M.; Brunett, Patrick H.; Promes, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    For the first time in history, four generations are working together – Traditionalists, Baby Boomers, Generation Xers, and Millennials. Members of each generation carry with them a unique perspective of the world and interact differently with those around them. Through a review of the literature and consensus by modified Delphi methodology of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) Aging and Generational Issues Task Force, the authors have developed this two-part series to address generational issues present in academic emergency medicine (EM). Understanding generational characteristics and mitigating strategies can help address some common issues encountered in academic EM. Through recognition of the unique characteristics of each of the generations with respect to teaching and learning, mentoring, and technology, academicians have the opportunity to strategically optimize interactions with one another. PMID:21314779

  3. Migration of patients between five urban teaching hospitals in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Galanter, William L; Applebaum, Andrew; Boddipalli, Viveka; Kho, Abel; Lin, Michael; Meltzer, David; Roberts, Anna; Trick, Bill; Walton, Surrey M; Lambert, Bruce L

    2013-04-01

    To quantify the extent of patient sharing and inpatient care fragmentation among patients discharged from a cohort of Chicago hospitals. Admission and discharge dates and patient ZIP codes from 5 hospitals over 2 years were matched with an encryption algorithm. Admission to more than one hospital was considered fragmented care. The association between fragmentation and socio-economic variables using ZIP-code data from the 2000 US Census was measured. Using validation from one hospital, patient matching using encrypted identifiers had a sensitivity of 99.3 % and specificity of 100 %. The cohort contained 228,151 unique patients and 334,828 admissions. Roughly 2 % of the patients received fragmented care, accounting for 5.8 % of admissions and 6.4 % of hospital days. In 3 of 5 hospitals, and overall, the length of stay of patients with fragmented care was longer than those without. Fragmentation varied by hospital and was associated with the proportion of non-Caucasian persons, the proportion of residents whose income fell in the lowest quartile, and the proportion of residents with more children being raised by mothers alone in the zip code of the patient. Patients receiving fragmented care accounted for 6.4 % of hospital days. This percentage is a low estimate for our region, since not all regional hospitals participated, but high enough to suggest value in creating Health Information Exchange. Fragmentation varied by hospital, per capita income, race and proportion of single mother homes. This secure methodology and fragmentation analysis may prove useful for future analyses. PMID:23381645

  4. Big Questions, Small Works, Lots of Layers: Documentary Video Production and the Teaching of Academic Research and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbritter, Bump; Blon, Noah; Creighton, Caron

    2011-01-01

    Documentary movie making is not academic writing. Nor is it traditional academic research. However, I have found it to be a remarkable vehicle for teaching both of these things...each semester I am amazed and humbled by the creativity and sincerity that my students bring to their work.

  5. Teaching Academic Skills as an Answer to Behavioural Problems of Students with Emotional or Behavioural Disorders: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Worp-van der Kamp, Lidy; Pijl, Sip Jan; Bijstra, Jan O.; van den Bosch, Els J.

    2014-01-01

    Academic learning has always been a serious issue for students with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) and their teachers. However, teaching academic skills could be an important protective and curative factor for the problem behaviour of these students. The current review was conducted to study the effect of interventions developed to…

  6. Cost-Analysis of Seven Nosocomial Outbreaks in an Academic Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Dik, Jan-Willem H.; Dinkelacker, Ariane G.; Vemer, Pepijn; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R.; Lokate, Mariëtte; Sinha, Bhanu; Friedrich, Alex W.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Nosocomial outbreaks, especially with (multi-)resistant microorganisms, are a major problem for health care institutions. They can cause morbidity and mortality for patients and controlling these costs substantial amounts of funds and resources. However, how much is unclear. This study sets out to provide a comparable overview of the costs of multiple outbreaks in a single academic hospital in the Netherlands. Methods Based on interviews with the involved staff, multiple databases and stored records from the Infection Prevention Division all actions undertaken, extra staff employment, use of resources, bed-occupancy rates, and other miscellaneous cost drivers during different outbreaks were scored and quantified into Euros. This led to total costs per outbreak and an estimated average cost per positive patient per outbreak day. Results Seven outbreaks that occurred between 2012 and 2014 in the hospital were evaluated. Total costs for the hospital ranged between €10,778 and €356,754. Costs per positive patient per outbreak day, ranged between €10 and €1,369 (95% CI: €49-€1,042), with a mean of €546 and a median of €519. Majority of the costs (50%) were made because of closed beds. Conclusions This analysis is the first to give a comparable overview of various outbreaks, caused by different microorganisms, in the same hospital and all analyzed with the same method. It shows a large variation within the average costs due to different factors (e.g. closure of wards, type of ward). All outbreaks however cost considerable amounts of efforts and money (up to €356,754), including missed revenue and control measures. PMID:26863145

  7. Leadership in Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Perspectives of Academics in Non-Formal Leadership Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeyer, Anne; Sheingold, Brenda Helen; Klopper, Hester C.; Warland, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Developing leaders and leadership are key factors to improve learning and teaching in higher education. Despite the abundance of literature concerning developing formal leadership, fewer studies have been conducted with academics in non-formal leadership roles that focus on how they develop their leadership in learning and teaching. Publication…

  8. Matching of Learning Styles and Teaching Styles: Advantage and Disadvantage on Ninth-Grade Students' Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damrongpanit, Suntonrapot; Reungtragul, Auyporn

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify learning styles of ninth-grade students, to identify teaching styles of four subject teachers, and to compare four academic achievements between different matching conditions of students' learning styles and teachers' teaching styles. The research participants comprised of 3,382 ninth-grade…

  9. A STUDY OF THE EXISTING PRACTICES OF SELECTED COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES RELATING TO ACADEMIC RANKING OF ACCOUNTING TEACHING STAFF.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHAPMAN, LOWELL

    A 90 PERCENT RESPONSE FROM 143 RANDOMLY SELECTED COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES SHOWED A HIGH DEGREE OF CONSISTENCY IN THEIR ACADEMIC RANKING OF THE ACCOUNTING TEACHING STAFF. THE STUDY SOUGHT TO DETERMINE (1) THE INSTITUTIONS' POLICIES FOR ADVANCEMENT ABOVE THE RANK OF ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, AND (2) WHETHER FACTORS SUCH AS TEACHING EXPERIENCE,…

  10. Teaching Aids a Special Pedagogy Tool of Brain Development in School Children, Interest and Academic Achievement to Enhance Future Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohwojero, Chamberlain Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The school system is an institution where teachers adopt different teaching methods to impact knowledge and skills. The teaching method adopted by a class teacher has a great effect on children interest, academic achievement and brain development of a child. To support this fact the researcher used two groups of children from ten schools to carry…

  11. Software engineering in medical informatics: the academic hospital as learning environment.

    PubMed

    Prins, H; Cornet, R; van den Berg, F M; van der Togt, R; Abu-Hanna, A

    2002-01-01

    In 2001, the revised course Software Engineering has been implemented in the Medical Informatics curriculum at the Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam. This 13 weeks, full-time course consists of three parts: internship, theory and project. All parts are provided in problem-oriented manner with special attention for relevant skills such as project management, documentation and presentation. During the internship, students observe how health care professionals at several hospital wards work and how information supply is organized. In the theory part, students study concepts and methods of software engineering by means of case descriptions and self-directed learning. During the project, they apply their acquired knowledge to an observed, clinical information problem and complete several stages of the software engineering process. Evaluation by inquiry showed that, compared to other courses, students spent more time, and distributed their time more evenly, during the whole period of the course. In conjunction with theory, a combination of internship and project in a hospital seems to provide a surplus value compared to a practical in a computer laboratory. The integration of software theory, clinical practice and problem-based approach, contributed to the enthusiastic, intensive and realistic way students learned in this important topic that might be chosen as a future profession. PMID:15460769

  12. Restructuring within an academic health center to support quality and safety: the development of the Center for Quality and Safety at the Massachusetts General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Bohmer, Richard M J; Bloom, Jonathan D; Mort, Elizabeth A; Demehin, Akinluwa A; Meyer, Gregg S

    2009-12-01

    Recent focus on the need to improve the quality and safety of health care has created new challenges for academic health centers (AHCs). Whereas previously quality was largely assumed, today it is increasingly quantifiable and requires organized systems for improvement. Traditional structures and cultures within AHCs, although well suited to the tripartite missions of teaching, research, and clinical care, are not easily adaptable to the tasks of measuring, reporting, and improving quality. Here, the authors use a case study of Massachusetts General Hospital's efforts to restructure quality and safety to illustrate the value of beginning with a focus on organizational culture, using a systematic process of engaging clinical leadership, developing an organizational framework dependent on proven business principles, leveraging focus events, and maintaining executive dedication to execution of the initiative. The case provides a generalizable example for AHCs of how applying explicit management design can foster robust organizational change with relatively modest incremental financial resources. PMID:19940570

  13. The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 and the Financial Health of Teaching Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Robert L.; Fryer, George E.; Chen, Frederick M.; Morgan, Sarah E.; Green, Larry A.; Valente, Ernest; Miyoshi, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND We wanted to evaluate the most recent, complete data related to the specific effects of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 relative to the overall financial health of teaching hospitals. We also define cost report variables and calculations necessary for continued impact monitoring. METHODS We undertook a descriptive analysis of hospital cost report variables for 1996, 1998, and 1999, using simple calculations of total, Medicare, prospective payment system, graduate medical education (GME), and bad debt margins, as well as the proportion with negative total operating margins. RESULTS Nearly 35% of teaching hospitals had negative operating margins in 1999. Teaching hospital total margins fell by nearly 50% between 1996 and 1999, while Medicare margins remained relatively stable. GME margins have fallen by nearly 24%, however, even as reported education costs have risen by nearly 12%. Medicare+Choice GME payments were less than 10% of those projected. CONCLUSIONS Teaching hospitals realized deep cuts in profitability between 1996 and 1999; however, these cuts were not entirely attributable to the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Medicare payments remain an important financial cushion for teaching hospitals, more than one third of which operated in the red. The role of Medicare in supporting GME has been substantially reduced and needs special attention in the overall debate. Medicare+Choice support of the medical education enterprise is 90% less than baseline projections and should be thoroughly investigated. The Medicare Payment Advisory Commission, which has a critical role in evaluating the effects of Medicare policy changes, should be more transparent in its methods. PMID:15053286

  14. Chemistry Graduate Teaching Assistants' Experiences in Academic Laboratories and Development of a Teaching Self-image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatlin, Todd Adam

    Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) play a prominent role in chemistry laboratory instruction at research based universities. They teach almost all undergraduate chemistry laboratory courses. However, their role in laboratory instruction has often been overlooked in educational research. Interest in chemistry GTAs has been placed on training and their perceived expectations, but less attention has been paid to their experiences or their potential benefits from teaching. This work was designed to investigate GTAs' experiences in and benefits from laboratory instructional environments. This dissertation includes three related studies on GTAs' experiences teaching in general chemistry laboratories. Qualitative methods were used for each study. First, phenomenological analysis was used to explore GTAs' experiences in an expository laboratory program. Post-teaching interviews were the primary data source. GTAs experiences were described in three dimensions: doing, knowing, and transferring. Gains available to GTAs revolved around general teaching skills. However, no gains specifically related to scientific development were found in this laboratory format. Case-study methods were used to explore and illustrate ways GTAs develop a GTA self-image---the way they see themselves as instructors. Two general chemistry laboratory programs that represent two very different instructional frameworks were chosen for the context of this study. The first program used a cooperative project-based approach. The second program used weekly, verification-type activities. End of the semester interviews were collected and served as the primary data source. A follow-up case study of a new cohort of GTAs in the cooperative problem-based laboratory was undertaken to investigate changes in GTAs' self-images over the course of one semester. Pre-semester and post-semester interviews served as the primary data source. Findings suggest that GTAs' construction of their self-image is shaped through the

  15. Estimates of costs by DRG in Sydney teaching hospitals: an application of the Yale cost model.

    PubMed

    Palmer, G; Aisbett, C; Fetter, R; Winchester, L; Reid, B; Rigby, E

    1991-01-01

    The results are reported of a first round of costing by DRG in seven major teaching hospital sites in Sydney using the Yale cost model. These results, when compared between the hospitals and with values of relative costs by DRG from the United States, indicate that the cost modelling procedure has produced credible and potentially useful estimates of casemix costs. The rationale and underlying theory of cost modelling is explained, and the need for further work to improve the method of allocating costs to DRGs, and to improve the cost centre definitions currently used by the hospitals, is emphasised. PMID:10117339

  16. Adapting teaching styles to accommodate learning preferences for effective hospital development.

    PubMed

    Eshleman, Kelly Y

    2008-12-01

    Hospital development professionals in organ procurement organizations engage in many roles in the hospital. The important role of educator requires making the most of each teaching opportunity by understanding the characteristics of the learning audience and applying proven principles of adult educational design, with a focus on collaborative learning and variety in presentation techniques. The goal is to provide effective education, enabling hospital staff to transfer this learning to the job setting, with the outcome of facilitating a supportive process that saves lives through organ donation. PMID:19186583

  17. Academic, Industry and Student Perspectives on the Inclusion of "Vocational Knowledge" in a "Learning and Teaching Academic Standards Statement" for Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acuña, Tina Botwright; Kelder, Jo-Anne; Able, Amanda J.; Guisard, Yann; Bellotti, William D.; McDonald, Glenn; Doyle, Richard; Wormell, Paul; Meinke, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the perspective of industry stakeholders in a national project to develop a Learning and Teaching Academic Standards (LTAS) Statement for the Agriculture discipline. The AgLTAS Statement will be aligned with the Science LTAS Statement published in 2011 and comprise a discourse on the nature and extent of the Agriculture…

  18. Teaching, research, and job satisfaction of prosthodontic faculty members in Indian academic dental institutions.

    PubMed

    Shigli, Kamal; Hebbal, Mamata; Nair, K Chandrasekharan

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine prosthodontic faculty members' satisfaction with their roles of teaching, research, and service in academic dental institutions of India. The head of the prosthodontic department of each institution was informed of the study by telephone and asked to invite his or her staff members to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire used a rating scale of 1=very dissatisfied, 2=dissatisfied, 3=neutral, 4=satisfied, and 5=very satisfied. The satisfaction score for each of the three categories was determined by summing the weights for all items related to the variable. In the study, 386 prosthodontic faculty members from 184 dental institutions were invited to participate, and 341 faculty members from 139 dental institutions completed the questionnaire. The data obtained were analyzed using statistical software. Most of the respondents were satisfied with their teaching and service items. Neutral responses were made for institutional teaching rewards, institutional financial support for research, release time offered by the institution, support for sabbatical leaves, technical assistance in analyzing data, secretarial and technical assistance, institutional research rewards, in-service training opportunities, and institutional service rewards. Dissatisfied responses were made regarding financial and academic support for making scientific presentations and attending conferences and seminars. PMID:22659708

  19. Malaria in Birmingham and a London teaching hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, C J; Eykyn, S J; Watkins, P; Bell, M; Geddes, A M

    1979-01-01

    During the past five years the incidence of imported malaria increased among patients seen in East Birmingham Hospital and in St Thomas's Hospital, London. Plasmodium vivax was the predominant species in Birmingham, and was almost always acquired by Asian immigrants visiting the Indian subcontinent. In St Thomas's P falciparum was most commonly imported, usually by African immigrants visiting Nigeria and Ghana. Two patients (one Irish, one Japanese) died of falciparum malaria after visiting tropical Africa. In both hospitals the immigrant patients had seldom taken prophylactic drugs, and the few who had, ceased to do so on arrival in the UK and sometimes before leaving the malarious country. Apparently immigrants who visit their homeland do not consult their general practitioners before travelling, are given inappropriate advice, or do not take appropriate advice when given. Since the incidence of imported falciparum malaria in the UK is rising, the following points should be considered: the infection may be lethal, particularly in patients lacking immunity; it can mimic other diseases, which may lead to delayed diagnosis; severe disease may be associated with few parasites on a blood film, and even if the result is negative further tests should be performed; clinicians and hospital pharmacists should be aware of the need to keep permanent stocks of parenteral chloroquine and quinine preparations. PMID:367507

  20. Workload Impact of Medical Subspecialties in the Teaching Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Peenen, Hubert J.

    1973-01-01

    This paper documents, using a single test as a model, the significant increase in clinical laboratory workload which occurred in a university hospital when strong sections of nephrology, hematology-oncology, and immunology-rheumatology were added to the department of medicine. (Author)

  1. Epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a tertiary referral teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, R S; Champion, A C; Reid, D W

    2009-10-01

    A genotypically indistinguishable strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Australian epidemic strain III: AES III) has previously been found in a proportion of adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) in Tasmania, Australia. The aim of this study was to identify a source of these infections within the major tertiary referral hospital for the State of Tasmania, and to determine if this strain could be isolated from settings other than the CF lung. A total of 120 isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from clinical and environmental sources within the hospital and from environmental locations in the hospital vicinity. These isolates were genotyped by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute method. Confirmation of similar genotypes identified by RAPD-PCR was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with restriction enzyme SpeI. AES III was not recovered from any source other than the respiratory secretions of CF patients. P. aeruginosa in the non-CF settings was found to be panmictic, and no cross-infection or acquisition of hospital environment strains by patients was observed. PMID:19699556

  2. Factors Associated with Waiting Time for Breast Cancer Treatment in a Teaching Hospital in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedey, Florence; Wu, Lily; Ayettey, Hannah; Sanuade, Olutobi A.; Akingbola, Titilola S.; Hewlett, Sandra A.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Cole, Helen V.; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Adanu, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in Ghana. Data are limited on the predictors of poor outcomes in breast cancer patients in low-income countries; however, prolonged waiting time has been implicated. Among breast cancer patients who received treatment at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, this study…

  3. A Method to Estimate the Number of House Officers Required in Teaching Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Linda S.; Bernstein, Sol

    1980-01-01

    A method of estimating the number of house officers needed for direct patient care in teaching hospitals is discussed. An application of the proposed method is illustrated for 11 clinical services at the Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center. (Author/MLW)

  4. 42 CFR 415.162 - Determining payment for physician services furnished to beneficiaries in teaching hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining payment for physician services furnished to beneficiaries in teaching hospitals. 415.162 Section 415.162 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM SERVICES FURNISHED BY PHYSICIANS IN PROVIDERS,...

  5. Persistence and transmission of Salmonella Infantis in a veterinary teaching hospital

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis isolates obtained from patients or the environment of a veterinary teaching hospital over a period of nine years following a nosocomial outbreak to determine whether isolates were epidemiologically related or represented ...

  6. Approaching Hospital-Bound/Home-Bound Special Education as an Opportunity for Innovation in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentin, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    Paradoxically some "extreme" didactic needs, such as those of students who are unable to attend normal education regularly (e.g., hospitalized and/or homebound students), have shown themselves to be ideal for the development of a teaching style aimed at stimulating the active role of the student, at fostering a learning process based…

  7. A "Prepaid Package" for Obstetrics: Effect on Teaching and Patient Care in a University Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Philip E.

    1976-01-01

    The changing social milieu has removed the charity patient but not the need for a teaching population. The University Hospital's program is described, in which patients prepaid a fixed, single fee for all obstetrics-related care through the third post partum day. (LBH)

  8. THE EFFECT OF OUTPATIENT SERVICE QUALITY ON PATIENT SATISFACTION IN TEACHING HOSPITALS IN IRAN

    PubMed Central

    Pouragha, Behrouz; Zarei, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The quality of services plays a primary role in achieving patient satisfaction. The main purpose of this study was to explore the effect of outpatient service quality on patient satisfaction in teaching hospitals in Iran. Methods: this cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014. The study sample included 500 patients were selected with systematic random method from the outpatient departments (clinics) of four teaching hospitals in Tehran. The survey instrument was a questionnaire consisted of 44 items, which were confirmed its reliability and validity. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation, and multivariate regression methods with the SPSS.18 software. Results: According to the findings of this study, the majority of patients had a positive experience in the outpatient departments of the teaching hospitals and thus evaluated the services as good. Perceived service costs, physician consultation, physical environment, and information to patient were found to be the most important determinants of outpatient satisfaction. Conclusion: The results suggest that improving the quality of consultation, providing information to the patients during examination and consultation, creating value for patients by reducing costs or improving service quality, and enhancing the physical environment quality of the clinic can be regarded as effective strategies for the management of teaching hospitals toward increasing outpatient satisfaction. PMID:27047262

  9. Critical Incident Reporting System in Teaching Hospitals in Turkey: A Survey Study

    PubMed Central

    Şalvız, Emine Aysu; Edipoğlu, Saadet İpek; Sungur, Mukadder Orhan; Altun, Demet; Büget, Mehmet İlke; Seyhan, Tülay Özkan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Critical incident reporting systems (CIRS) and morbidity–mortality meetings (MMMs) offer the advantages of identifying potential risks in patients. They are key tools in improving patient safety in healthcare systems by modifying the attitudes of clinicians, nurses and staff (human error) and also the system (human and/or technical error) according to the analysis and the results of incidents. Methods One anaesthetist assigned to an administrative and/or teaching position from all university hospitals (UHs) and training and research hospitals (TRHs) of Turkey (n=114) was contacted. In this survey study, we analysed the facilities of anaesthetists in Turkish UHs and TRHs with respect to CIRS and MMMs and also the anaesthetists’ knowledge, experience and attitudes regarding CIs. Results Anaesthetists from 81 of 114 teaching hospitals replied to our survey. Although 96.3% of anaesthetists indicated CI reporting as a necessity, only 37% of departments/hospitals were reported to have CIRS. True definition of CI as “an unexpected /accidental event” was achieved by 23.3% of anaesthetists with CIRS. MMMs were reported in 60.5% of hospitals. Nevertheless, 96% of anaesthetists believe that CIRS and MMMs decrease the incidence of CI occurring. CI occurrence was attributed to human error as 4 [1–5]/10 and 3 [1–5]/10 in UHs and TRHs, respectively (p=0.005). In both hospital types, technical errors were evaluated as 3 [1–5]/10 (p=0.498). Conclusion This first study regarding CIRS in the Turkish anaesthesia departments/hospitals highlights the lack of CI knowledge and CIRS awareness and use in anaesthesia departments/teaching hospitals in Turkey despite a safety reporting system set up by the Turkish Ministry of Health. PMID:27366560

  10. Pharmacy Information Systems in Teaching Hospitals: A Multi-dimensional Evaluation Study

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Alireza; Moghaddasi, Hamid; Deimazar, Ghasem

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In hospitals, the pharmacy information system (PIS) is usually a sub-system of the hospital information system (HIS). The PIS supports the distribution and management of drugs, shows drug and medical device inventory, and facilitates preparing needed reports. In this study, pharmacy information systems implemented in general teaching hospitals affiliated to medical universities in Tehran (Iran) were evaluated using a multi-dimensional tool. Methods This was an evaluation study conducted in 2015. To collect data, a checklist was developed by reviewing the relevant literature; this checklist included both general and specific criteria to evaluate pharmacy information systems. The checklist was then validated by medical informatics experts and pharmacists. The sample of the study included five PIS in general-teaching hospitals affiliated to three medical universities in Tehran (Iran). Data were collected using the checklist and through observing the systems. The findings were presented as tables. Results Five PIS were evaluated in the five general-teaching hospitals that had the highest bed numbers. The findings showed that the evaluated pharmacy information systems lacked some important general and specific criteria. Among the general evaluation criteria, it was found that only two of the PIS studied were capable of restricting repeated attempts made for unauthorized access to the systems. With respect to the specific evaluation criteria, no attention was paid to the patient safety aspect. Conclusions The PIS studied were mainly designed to support financial tasks; little attention was paid to clinical and patient safety features. PMID:27525164

  11. [Study of tasks performed by nurses in a teaching hospital].

    PubMed

    Costa, Rita de Almeida; Shimizu, Helena Eri

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tasks performed by nurses at hospitalization units (maternity, general medicine, surgical and pediatric) in a training hospital in order to better know which factors make it difficult to outline their role as well as the meaning of their actions. It's a descriptive-type qualitative research. Twenty nurses were interviewed following a half-structured script. Nurses perceive that they perform help-providing tasks more frequently, followed by administrative tasks, dealing with the information system and educational tasks. The lack of skilled human resources, essentially nurses, infrastructure, valorization of nursing care and its workers, work organization and integration among members of the multi-disciplinary staff were identified as work-hampering factors. PMID:17094327

  12. Horizontal strabismus surgical outcomes in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Z; Dooley, I; Fahy, G

    2014-06-01

    Strabismus may result in impaired stereopsis, diplopia, undesirable appearance, amblyopia and negative psychological impact. This study provides epidemiological and surgical outcome information about patients attending University College Hospital Galway requiring strabismus surgery. We report a retrospective analysis of 75 consecutive patients, who underwent horizontal strabismus surgery. Sixty-one (81.3%) patients had clinically significant refractive errors, hyperopia being the most common. Thirty-four (45.3%) patients had amblyopia and nine (12%) required further treatment. A cosmetically acceptable result with a post-operative ocular deviation within 25 prism dioptres of straight (grade 2) was achieved in 70/75 (93.3%) of patients. The overall mean change in ocular deviation per mm of muscle operated was 3.25 prism dioptre/mm. The outcomes of strabismus surgery in an Irish hospital compare very favourably with other jurisdictions. This data will help plan service delivery. PMID:24988834

  13. Factors affecting the informal payments in public and teaching hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Aboutorabi, Ali; Ghiasipour, Maryam; Rezapour, Aziz; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali; Tanoomand, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Informal payments in the health sector of many developing countries are considered as a major impediment to health care reforms. Informal payments are a form of systemic fraud and have adverse effects on the performance of the health system. In this study, the frequency and extent of informal payments as well as the determinants of these payments were investigated in general hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 300 discharged patients were selected using multi-stage random sampling method. First, three hospitals were selected randomly; then, through a simple random sampling, we recruited 300 discharged patients from internal, surgery, emergency, ICU & CCU wards. All data were collected by structured telephone interviews and questionnaire. We analyzed data using Chi- square, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The results indicated that 21% (n=63) of individuals paid informally to the staff. About 4% (n=12) of the participants were faced with informal payment requests from hospital staff. There was a significant relationship between frequency of informal payments with marital status of participants and type of hospitals. According to our findings, none of the respondents had informal payments to physicians. The most frequent informal payments were in cash and were made to the hospitals’ housekeeping staff to ensure more and better services. There was no significant relationship between the informal payments with socio-demographic characteristics, residential area and insurance status. Conclusion: Our findings revealed that many strategies can be used for both controlling and reducing informal payments. These include training patients and hospitals’ staff, increasing income levels of employees, improving the quantity and quality of health services and changing the entrenched beliefs that necessitate informal payments. PMID:27390685

  14. The eminent need for an academic program in universities to teach nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Juan Manuel; Vélez, Juan Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Nanomedicine is on the cutting edge of technology applied to medical and biological sciences. Nanodevices, nanomaterials, nanoinstruments, nanotechnologies, and nanotechniques (laboratory methods and procedures) are important for the modern practice of medicine and essential for research that could stimulate the discovery of new medical advances. Accordingly, there is an eminent need for implementing an academic program in universities to teach this indispensable and pragmatic discipline, especially in the departments of graduate studies and research in the areas of pharmacology, genetic engineering, proteomics, and molecular and cellular biology. PMID:21984868

  15. [Integrative review: a portrait of death and its implications in academic teaching].

    PubMed

    de Lima, Márcia Gabriela Rodrigues; Nietsche, Elisabeta Albertina; dos Santos, Solange Capaverde; Teixeira, Joice Ane; Bottega, Janilene Camara; Nicola, Glaucia Dal Omo; Ilha, Silomar

    2012-09-01

    This is an integrative literature review aimed at finding out how death, teaching about death and the dying process have been addressed in scientific publications in the health field. The research was performed using the Literatura da América Latina e Caribe em Ciências da Saúde e Base de Dados em Enfermagem (Latin America and Caribe Health Sciences Literature and Nursing Database) databases with the descriptors "death" and "teach". The survey covered national publications between 1998 and 2010, 14 articles were selected to compose the corpus of the study. The results indicated the lack of proper training by students, teachers and other health professionals to deal with death, since they had little or no preparation throughout their academic life. Thus, stimulating scientific production within this theme promotes a bigger diffusion of this specific knowledge and helps in the qualification and training of professionals to deal with death and the dying process. PMID:23405826

  16. Applying the Balanced Scorecard approach in teaching hospitals: a literature review and conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Annarita; Cardamone, Emma; Cavallaro, Giusy; Mauro, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    Teaching hospitals (THs) simultaneously serve three different roles: offering medical treatment, teaching future doctors and promoting research. The international literature recognises such organisations as 'peaks of excellence' and highlights their economic function in the health system. In addition, the literature describes the urgent need to manage the complex dynamics and inefficiency issues that threaten the survival of teaching hospitals worldwide. In this context, traditional performance measurement systems that focus only on accounting and financial measures appear to be inadequate. Given that THs are highly specific and complex, a multidimensional system of performance measurement, such as the Balanced Scorecard (BSC), may be more appropriate because of the multitude of stakeholders, each of whom seek a specific type of accountability. The aim of the paper was twofold: (i) to review the literature on the BSC and its applications in teaching hospitals and (ii) to propose a scorecard framework that is suitable for assessing the performance of THs and serving as a guide for scholars and practitioners. In addition, this research will contribute to the ongoing debate on performance evaluation systems by suggesting a revised BSC framework and proposing specific performance indicators for THs. PMID:23081849

  17. Prevalence of auditory changes in newborns in a teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Valeriana de Castro; Barbosa, Maria Alves

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The precocious diagnosis and the intervention in the deafness are of basic importance in the infantile development. The loss auditory and more prevalent than other joined riots to the birth. Objective: Esteem the prevalence of auditory alterations in just-born in a hospital school. Method: Prospective transversal study that evaluated 226 just-been born, been born in a public hospital, between May of 2008 the May of 2009. Results: Of the 226 screened, 46 (20.4%) had presented absence of emissions, having been directed for the second emission. Of the 26 (56.5%) children who had appeared in the retest, 8 (30.8%) had remained with absence and had been directed to the Otolaryngologist. Five (55.5%) had appeared and had been examined by the doctor. Of these, 3 (75.0%) had presented normal otoscopy, being directed for evaluation of the Evoked Potential Auditory of Brainstem (PEATE). Of the total of studied children, 198 (87.6%) had had presence of emissions in one of the tests and, 2 (0.9%) with deafness diagnosis. Conclusion: The prevalence of auditory alterations in the studied population was of 0,9%. The study it offers given excellent epidemiologists and it presents the first report on the subject, supplying resulted preliminary future implantation and development of a program of neonatal auditory selection. PMID:25991933

  18. Some Correlates of Electronic Health Information Management System Success in Nigerian Teaching Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Adebowale I; Popoola, Sunday O

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, an electronic health information management system (EHIMS) is crucial for patient care in hospitals. This paper explores the aspects and elements that contribute to the success of EHIMS in Nigerian teaching hospitals. The study adopted a survey research design. The population of study comprised 442 health information management personnel in five teaching hospitals that had implemented EHIMS in Nigeria. A self-developed questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. The findings revealed that there is a positive, close relationship between all the identified factors and EHIMS’s success: technical factors (r = 0.564, P < 0.05); social factors (r = 0.616, P < 0.05); organizational factors (r = 0.621, P < 0.05); financial factors (r = 0.705, P < 0.05); and political factors (r = 0.589, P < 0.05). We conclude that consideration of all the identified factors was highly significant for the success of EHIMS in Nigerian teaching hospitals. PMID:25983557

  19. Defining teaching hospitals' GME strategy in response to new financial and market challenges.

    PubMed

    Wray, J L; Sadowski, S M

    1998-04-01

    The authors present an overview of current graduate medical education (GME) issues, particularly the financial challenges to teaching hospitals resulting from the Balanced Budget and Tax Payer Relief Acts of 1997 and other recent market-driven factors. They describe in detail the nature of Medicare GME payments before and after the 1997 legislation, with specific examples, and explain the negative financial impact of the legislation and aspects of the legislation that are designed to alleviate that impact. Other factors influencing GME program size and composition are also discussed, including oversupplies or shortages of physicians, the concern that teaching hospitals are using public funds to train international medical graduates, changing training requirements, etc. The authors also describe a recent consulting assignment during which they assisted a major teaching hospital to develop a GME strategy that was responsive to the organization's mission and patients and that took into account future GME financing challenges. Detailed explanations are given of how the consultants analyzed the hospital's GME programs and finances, developed and ranked key institution-specific program criteria (strategic, organizational and operational, and financial), and, in consultation with all key stakeholders, formulated a GME strategy specific to the institution's needs. The authors conclude by cautioning that each institution's GME strategy will be different, but that it is important for institutions to develop such strategies to better face future challenges. PMID:9580713

  20. Serum osmolality in alcohol ingestions: differences in availability among laboratories of teaching hospital, nonteaching hospital, and commercial facilities.

    PubMed

    Eisen, T F; Lacouture, P G; Woolf, A

    1989-05-01

    Freezing point depression osmometry is preferred over vapor pressure with ingestions of volatile substances. Sixty-six laboratories nationwide (23 teaching hospital, 22 nonteaching hospital, and 21 commercial facilities) were surveyed to determine the availability and use of these techniques. Overall, 80% conducted serum osmometry (teaching, 100%; nonteaching, 82%; commercial, 57%). Freezing point depression was the most common method used by all laboratories; however, 33% of commercial laboratories and 11% of nonteaching laboratories used vapor pressure exclusively. One half of all laboratory supervisors did not identify why one method was preferred. Only 3% identified vapor pressure as a possible source of error in ingestions of volatile substances. Most laboratories estimated that they were aware of the patient diagnosis less than 50% of the time. Because vapor pressure osmometry is a potential source of false negative results when estimating serum concentrations of volatile substances, clinicians treating patients who have ingested ethanol, ethylene glycol, isopropanol, or methanol need to be aware of the methodology used in their reference laboratories. PMID:2712885

  1. The Intricate Relationship Between a Medical School and a Teaching Hospital: A Case Study in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mubuuke, Aloysius Gonzaga; Businge, Francis; Mukule, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between medical schools and teaching hospitals is full of opportunities but also challenges even though they have complementary goals that could enhance each other. Although medical schools and teaching hospitals may face some similar challenges around the world, there could be context-specific observations that differ in resource-rich versus resource-limited settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that are perceived to have influenced the relationship between a medical school and a teaching hospital in Uganda, a resource-limited setting. Methods This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study in which key informant individual interviews were conducted with senior administrators and senior staff members of the Mulago Hospital and Makerere University Medical School. The interviews explored factors perceived to have favoured the working relationship between the two institutions, challenges faced and likely future opportunities. Both quantitative and qualitative data were generated. Thematic analysis was used with the qualitative data. Results Respondents reported a strained relationship between the two institutions, with unfavourable factors far outweighing the favourable factors influencing the relationship. Key negative reported factors included having different administrative set-ups, limited opportunities to share funds and to forge research collaborations, unexploited potential of sharing human resources to address staff shortages, as well as a lack of a memorandum of understanding between the two institutions. Discussion This study identifies barriers in the existing relationship between a teaching hospital and medical college in a resource-poor country. It proposes a collaborative model, rather than competitive model, for the two institutions that may work in both resource-limited and resource-rich settings. PMID:25758388

  2. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcal contamination of cellular phones of personnel in a veterinary teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hospital-associated infections are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in veterinary patients. With the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria, these infections can be particularly difficult to eradicate. Sources of hospital-associated infections can include the patients own flora, medical staff and inanimate hospital objects. Cellular phones are becoming an invaluable feature of communication within hospitals, and since they are frequently handled by healthcare personnel, there may be a potential for contamination with various pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of contamination of cellular phones (hospital issued and personal) carried by personnel at the Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Centre with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Results MRSP was isolated from 1.6% (2/123) and MRSA was isolated from 0.8% (1/123) of cellular phones. Only 21.9% (27/123) of participants in the study indicated that they routinely cleaned their cellular phone. Conclusions Cellular phones in a veterinary teaching hospital can harbour MRSP and MRSA, two opportunistic pathogens of significant concern. While the contamination rate was low, cellular phones could represent a potential source for infection of patients as well as infection of veterinary personnel and other people that might have contact with them. Regardless of the low incidence of contamination of cellular phones found in this study, a disinfection protocol for hospital-issued and personal cellular phones used in veterinary teaching hospitals should be in place to reduce the potential of cross-contamination. PMID:22533923

  3. Organ donation after circulatory death in a university teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulos, S; Treasure, E; Silvester, W; Opdam, H; Warrillow, S J; Jones, D

    2016-07-01

    Although organ transplantation is well established for end-stage organ failure, many patients die on waiting lists due to insufficient donor numbers. Recently, there has been renewed interest in donation after circulatory death (DCD). In a retrospective observational study we reviewed the screening of patients considered for DCD between March 2007 and December 2012 in our hospital. Overall, 148 patients were screened, 17 of whom were transferred from other hospitals. Ninety-three patients were excluded (53 immediately and 40 after review by donation staff). The 55 DCD patients were younger than those excluded (P=0.007) and they died from hypoxic brain injury (43.6%), intraparenchymal haemorrhage (21.8%) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (14.5%). Antemortem heparin administration and bronchoscopy occurred in 50/53 (94.3%) and 22/55 (40%) of cases, respectively. Forty-eight patients died within 90 minutes and proceeded to donation surgery. Associations with not dying in 90 minutes included spontaneous ventilation mode (P=0.022), absence of noradrenaline infusion (P=0.051) and higher PaO2:FiO2 ratio (P=0.052). The number of brain dead donors did not decrease over the study period. The time interval between admission and death was longer for DCD than for the 45 brain dead donors (5 [3-11] versus 2 [2-3] days; P<0.001), and 95 additional patients received organ transplants due to DCD. Introducing a DCD program can increase potential organ donors without reducing brain dead donors. Antemortem investigations appear to be acceptable to relatives when included in the consent process. PMID:27456178

  4. Pre-service science teachers' teaching self-efficacy in relation to personality traits and academic self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Senler, Burcu; Sungur-Vural, Semra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship among pre-service science teachers' personality traits, academic self-regulation and teaching self-efficacy by proposing and testing a conceptual model. For the specified purpose, 1794 pre-service science teachers participated in the study. The Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire were administered to assess pre-service science teachers' teaching self-efficacy, personality, and academic self-regulation respectively. Results showed that agreeableness, neuroticism, performance approach goals, and use of metacognitive strategies are positively linked to different dimensions of teaching self-efficacy, namely self-efficacy for student engagement, instructional strategies, and classroom management. In general, while agreeableness and neuroticism were found to be positively associated with different facets of self-regulation and teaching self-efficacy, openness was found to be negatively linked to these adaptive outcomes. PMID:23866205

  5. A profile and educational framework for physician managers in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Barrable, W

    1988-01-01

    The role of the physician executive is explored in this article using a case study approach to outline administrative performance. Based on a survey of clinician executives at University Hospital in London, Ontario, a profile of background characteristics, activities and responsibilities, and reports on physician attitudes on the merit of administrative training, qualities that make good physician leaders, ethics in health care, and the nature of physician participation in management is presented. Recommendations from this research for developing an administrative training program designed for clinician executives in a teaching hospital follow. PMID:10316246

  6. Use of potentially inappropriate medications in hospitalized elderly at a teaching hospital: A comparison between Beers 2003 and 2012 criteria

    PubMed Central

    Momin, Taufik G.; Pandya, Rushi N.; Rana, Devang A.; Patel, Varsha J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To detect the prevalence and pattern of use of Potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in hospitalized elderly patients of a tertiary care teaching hospital using Beers 2012 criteria and to compare the same with Beers 2003 criteria. Materials and Methods: Prescriptions of the elderly patients aged 65 years and above were collected from the medicine ward and analyzed. PIMs were identified with help of Beers 2003 and Beers 2012 criteria and comparison was made between the two criteria. Predictors associated with use of PIM were identified using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 210 patients received 2,267 drugs. According to Beers 2003 criteria, 60 (28.57%) elderly patients received at least one PIM and 2.9% drugs were prescribed inappropriately. According to Beers 2012 criteria, 84 (40%) elderly received at least one PIM while 22 (10.47%) received multiple PIMs and about 5% drugs were prescribed inappropriately. The most commonly prescribed PIM was mineral oil-liquid paraffin (30, 14.3%) followed by spironolactone (25, 11.9%), digoxin (19, 9%), and benzodiazepines (14, 6.7%). There was a significant association between the number of patients receiving more than six drugs and the use of PIMs (P < 0.01). Use of more than 10 drugs was a significant predictor for use of PIMs in the elderly. Conclusion: The study shows high prevalence of prescribing PIMs in hospitalized elderly patients. Beers 2012 criteria are more effective in identifying PIMs than Beers 2003 criteria. PMID:24347769

  7. Telemedicine activity at a Canadian university medical school and its teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Aires, L M; Finley, J P

    2000-01-01

    Dalhousie University Medical School and its teaching hospitals have been providing clinical telemedicine services since 1987. The object of the present study was to assess the extent and growth of telemedicine at the medical school and teaching hospitals, as well as to evaluate the obstacles to its deployment. This was achieved by conducting structured personal interviews with telemedicine providers. Twenty telemedicine programmes were identified, of which 15 were operational and five were being planned. The number of established telemedicine projects had doubled in the six months preceding the study. A wide variety of telemedicine services were provided, ranging from clinical consultations in a number of medical specialties to patient education, grand rounds and continuing medical education. These services were provided to sites in a wide area in the Maritime region and internationally. The three most important obstacles to the implementation of telemedicine were a lack of knowledge about telemedicine (80% of respondents), time constraints (75%) and funding (70%). PMID:10824388

  8. Noncompliance pattern due to medication errors at a Teaching Hospital in Srikot, India

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Heenopama; Thawani, Vijay; Raina, Rangeel Singh; Kothiyal, Gitanjali; Chakarabarty, Mrinmoy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the medication errors leading to noncompliance in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital of a teaching institution from Srikot, Garhwal, Uttarakhand to analyze the medication errors in 500 indoor prescriptions from medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics and ENT departments over five months and 100 outdoor patients of medicine department. Results: Medication error rate for indoor patients was found to be 22.4 % and 11.4% for outdoor patients as against the standard acceptable error rate 3%. Maximum errors were observed in the indoor prescriptions of the surgery department accounting for 44 errors followed by medicine 32 and gynecology 25 in the 500 cases studied leading to faulty administration of medicines. Conclusion: Many medication errors were noted which go against the practice of rational therapeutics. Such studies can be directed to usher in the rational use of medicines for increasing compliance and therapeutic benefits. PMID:23833376

  9. Needlestick injuries at a tertiary teaching hospital in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Seng, M; Sng, G K J; Zhao, X; Venkatachalam, I; Salmon, S; Fisher, D

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the incidence and risk to staff groups for sustaining needlestick injuries (NSIs) in the National University Hospital (NUH), Singapore. A retrospective cohort review of incident NSI cases was undertaken to determine the injury rate, causation, and epidemiological profile of such injuries. Analysis of the risk of sustaining recurrent NSI by occupation and location was done using the Cox proportional hazards model. There were 244 NSI cases in 5957 employees in NUH in 2014, giving an incidence rate of 4·1/100 healthcare workers (HCWs) per year. The incidence rate was highest for doctors at 21·3, and 2·7 for nurses; 40·6% of injuries occurred in wards, and 32·8% in operating theatres. There were 27 cases of repeated NSI cases. The estimated cost due to NSIs in NUH ranged from US$ 109 800 to US$ 563 152 in 2014. We conclude that creating a workplace environment where top priority is given to prevention of NSIs in HCWs, is essential to address the high incidence of reported NSIs. The data collected will be of value to inform the design of prevention programmes to reduce further the risk of NSIs in HCWs. PMID:27151164

  10. Cancer Mortality Pattern in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akinde, Olakanmi Ralph; Phillips, Adekoyejo Abiodun; Oguntunde, Olubanji Ajibola; Afolayan, Olatunji Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and about 70% of all cancer deaths occurred in low- and middle-income countries. The cancer mortality pattern is quite different in Africa compared to other parts of the world. Extensive literature research showed little or no information about the overall deaths attributable to cancer in Nigeria. Aims and Objectives. This study aims at providing data on the patterns of cancer deaths in our center using the hospital and autopsy death registers. Methodology. Demographic, clinical data of patients who died of cancer were extracted from death registers in the wards and mortuary over a period of 14 years (2000–2013). Results. A total of 1436 (4.74%) cancer deaths out of 30287 deaths recorded during the period. The male to female ratio was 1 : 2.2 and the peak age of death was between 51 and 60 years. Overall, breast cancer was responsible for most of the deaths. Conclusion. The study shows that the cancers that accounted for majority of death occurred in organs that were accessible to screening procedures and not necessary for survival. We advise regular screening for precancerous lesions in these organs so as to reduce the mortality rate and burden of cancer. PMID:25628656

  11. The Effect of Availability of Manpower on Trauma Resuscitation Times in a Tertiary Academic Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Quek, Nathaniel Xin Ern; Koh, Zhi Xiong; Nadkarni, Nivedita; Singaram, Kanageswari; Ho, Andrew Fu Wah; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock

    2016-01-01

    Background For trauma patients, delays to assessment, resuscitation, and definitive care affect outcomes. We studied the effects of resuscitation area occupancy and trauma team size on trauma team resuscitation speed in an observational study at a tertiary academic institution in Singapore. Methods From January 2014 to January 2015, resuscitation videos of trauma team activated patients with an Injury Severity Score of 9 or more were extracted for review within 14 days by independent reviewers. Exclusion criteria were patients dead on arrival, inter-hospital transfers, and up-triaged patients. Data captured included manpower availability (trauma team size and resuscitation area occupancy), assessment (airway, breathing, circulation, logroll), interventions (vascular access, imaging), and process-of-care time intervals (time to assessment/intervention/adjuncts, time to imaging, and total time in the emergency department). Clinical data were obtained by chart review and from the trauma registry. Results Videos of 70 patients were reviewed over a 13-month period. The median time spent in the emergency department was 154.9 minutes (IQR 130.7–207.5) and the median resuscitation team size was 7, with larger team sizes correlating with faster process-of-care time intervals: time to airway assessment (p = 0.08) and time to disposition (p = 0.04). The mean resuscitation area occupancy rate (RAOR) was 1.89±2.49, and the RAOR was positively correlated with time spent in the emergency department (p = 0.009). Conclusion Our results suggest that adequate staffing for trauma teams and resuscitation room occupancy are correlated with faster trauma resuscitation and reduced time spent in the emergency department. PMID:27136299

  12. Nutritional risk, malnutrition and nutritional support among hospitalized patients in orthopedics/spinal surgery of a Hohhot teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nannan; Dong, Yalin; Huo, Ting; Shao, Yanqing; Xing, Wenhua; Li, Shuwen

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of nutritional status (the prevalence of nutritional risk, malnutrition, overweight and obesity) and the nutritional support of the hospitalized patients from admission to discharge or over a two-week period in orthopedics/ spinal surgery of a teaching hospital in Hohhot were investigated. 432 patients from two wards of the orthopedics/spinal surgery from Jan to Dec 2013, the traditional spinal surgery and the minimally invasive spinal surgery, were selected and detected in this study. The Nutritional Risk Score 2002 (NRS 2002) was used to determine the patients' nutritional status within 48 h after admission and during their hospitalization. The overall prevalence of nutritional risk, malnutrition, overweight and obesity at admission was 11.6%, 12.7%, 35.9% and 7.41%, respectively. Overall, there were 88.0% of the patients who were at nutritional risk received nutritional support, while 14.1% of non-risk patients received a redundant nutritional support. The overall prevalence of nutritional risk changed from 11.6% at admission to 19.4% upon discharge (p<0.05), and the prevalence of malnutrition changed from 12.7% to 20.6% (p<0.05). The prevalence of overweight and obesity, which changed from 35.9% to 31.0% and from 7.41% to 5.79% respectively, didn't experience statistically significant evolution. NRS 2002 was a feasible nutritional risk screening tool for patients in spinal surgery of orthopedics department. Patients' prevalence of nutritional risk and malnutrition increased significantly in spinal surgery of this hospital. Some inappropriate uses of nutritional support were observed in orthopedics/spinal surgery, and nutritional support guidelines or protocols should be promoted by a professional committee. PMID:27222410

  13. Incidence of Potential Drug-Drug Interaction and Related Factors in Hospitalized Neurological Patients in two Iranian Teaching Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Namazi, Soha; Pourhatami, Shiva; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin; Roosta, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Reciprocal drug interactions are among the most common causes of adverse drug reactions. We investigated the incidence and related risk factors associated with mutual drug interactions in relation to prescriptions written in the neurology wards of two major teaching hospitals in Shiraz, southern Iran. Methods: Data was collected from hand-written prescriptions on a daily basis. Mutual drug interactions were identified using Lexi-Comp 2012 version 1.9.1. Type D and X drug interactions were considered as potential drug-drug interactions. The potential risk factors associated with drug-drug interactions included the patient’s age and gender, number of medications and orders, length of hospitalization and the type of neurological disorder. To determine potential drug-drug interactions, relevant interventions were suggested to the physicians or nurses and the outcome of the interventions were documented. Results: The study comprised 589 patients, of which 53% were males and 47% females, with a mean age of 56.65±18.19 SD years. A total of 4942 drug orders and 3784 medications were prescribed among which 4539 drug-drug interactions were detected, including 4118 type C, 403 type D, and 18 type X. Using a logistic regression model, the number of medications, length of hospitalization and non-vascular type of the neurological disorder were found to be significantly associated with potential drug-drug interactions. From the total interventions, 74.24% were accepted by physicians and nurses. Conclusion: Potentially hazardous reciprocal drug interactions are common among patients in neurology wards. Clinical pharmacists can play a critical role in the prevention of drug-drug interactions in hospitalized patients. PMID:25429173

  14. The challenge of developing academic language in Spanish and English through science: The case of two teachers' strategic teaching practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercuri, Sandra Patricia

    This case study examines the practice of two bilingual education teachers in an attempt to understand the planning and instructional activities occurring in their classrooms by focusing on students' academic language development during science instruction. This site was selected as an 'instrumental' case to examine for several reasons. This school is among the few in the district that is teaching science. Despite the political climate related to bilingual education, the teachers at this school offer an articulated dual immersion program from K to grade six. This site has experienced success in beginning to close the achievement gap between English learners and their native English speaking peers on standardized test measures. Using a qualitative approach, data was collected from two unique cases through detailed observations of classroom practice, audio-taped lessons, an initial and a follow up interview, artifacts and an initial survey. Scarcella's (2003) framework on academic language was used to analyze the different components of academic language of the science instruction. A theoretical framework from Stoddart et al. on levels of integrated planning expertise and Dell' Alba & Sandberg's concept of embodied understanding of practice also informed the study. Three main findings were drawn from this study: (a) academic language can be effectively taught through science instruction when teachers have the expertise to integrate language learning with science inquiry; (b) the teaching of and planning for academic language development through content is shaped over time by teachers' teaching and personal experiences with the content and their ability to integrate both; (c) While a theoretical model of academic language can be used to analyze teachers' instructional strategies during a science lesson, this model has limitations. Teachers' understanding of their own practice developed overtime shaped the way they manipulated the curriculum for their particular grade

  15. Impact of a Dedicated Emergency Medicine Teaching Resident Rotation at a Large Urban Academic Center

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, James; Golden, Andrew; Bryant, Alyssa; Babcock, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the face of declining bedside teaching and increasing emergency department (ED) crowding, balancing education and patient care is a challenge. Dedicated shifts by teaching residents (TRs) in the ED represent an educational intervention to mitigate these difficulties. We aimed to measure the perceived learning and departmental impact created by having TR. Methods TRs were present in the ED from 12pm–10pm daily, and their primary roles were to provide the following: assist in teaching procedures, give brief “chalk talks,” instruct junior trainees on interesting cases, and answer clinical questions in an evidence-based manner. This observational study included a survey of fourth-year medical students (MSs), residents and faculty at an academic ED. Surveys measured the perceived effect of the TR on teaching, patient flow, ease of procedures, and clinical care. Results Survey response rates for medical students, residents, and faculty are 56%, 77%, and 75%, respectively. MSs perceived improved procedure performance with TR presence and the majority agreed that the TR was a valuable educational experience. Residents perceived increased patient flow, procedure performance, and MS learning with TR presence. The majority agreed that the TR improved patient care. Faculty agreed that the TR increased resident and MS learning, as well as improved patient care and procedure performance. Conclusion The presence of a TR increased MS and resident learning, improved patient care and procedure performance as perceived by MSs, residents and faculty. A dedicated TR program can provide a valuable resource in achieving a balance of clinical education and high quality healthcare. PMID:26973739

  16. Comparing Academic Library Spending with Public Libraries, Public K-12 Schools, Higher Education Public Institutions, and Public Hospitals between 1998-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regazzi, John J.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the overall spending trends and patterns of growth of Academic Libraries with Public Libraries, K-12 schools, higher education institutions, and hospitals in the period of 1998 to 2008. Academic Libraries, while showing a growth of 13% over inflation for the period, far underperformed the growth of the other public institutions…

  17. Professionalism of physicians at a major teaching hospital during the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Narita, M; Tokuda, Y; Barnett, P

    2016-07-01

    It poses a serious problem if physicians leave a hospital without having a replacement or without permission. A huge earthquake followed by a devastating tsunami seriously damaged the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant. This disaster overwhelmed a major teaching hospital in the local area and many hospital employees, including some resident physicians, left the premises. Since the threat of severe radiation exposure poses a potentially greater lifetime risk to younger individuals, letting the young resident physicians leave the hospital was not only allowed, it was actually recommended by many attending physicians and hospital administrators. The hospital administrator was required to make the difficult decision of whether to make all efforts to provide the highest level of medical care, including keeping all of the physicians on the premises, or to evacuate the resident physicians in order to preserve their health and their potential future contributions to healthcare. Consideration and compassion needed to be provided to all people, regardless of the reason they wanted to leave. From an ethical perspective, the roles of performance under these complex circumstances should be understood and embraced by us as individuals, professionals, supervisors and society as a whole. PMID:27121040

  18. A Report on Using General-Case Programming to Teach Collateral Academic Skills to a Student in a Postsecondary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chezan, Laura C.; Drasgow, Erik; Marshall, Kathleen J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors' purpose in this report is to examine the application of general-case programming to teach collateral academic skills to a student with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and with a mild intellectual disability who was attending college. The authors use data drawn from their work with Tom to explain and…

  19. Role of the Direct Teaching Method in the Academic Achievement of Students in English at the Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Ishtiaq; Inamullah, Hafiz; Naseer-Ud-Din, Muhammad; Hafizatullah, Hafiz

    2009-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to determine the role of the direct teaching method in the academic achievement of students in English at the secondary level. To achieve the said objective, the "Solomon Four-Design pre-test/post-test equivalent group design" was considered to be the most useful design for this study. The pre-test was used to…

  20. Struggling to Handle Teaching and Research: A Study on Academic Work at Select Universities in the Chinese Mainland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Manhong; Du, Ping; Li, Linlin

    2014-01-01

    In order to raise the international reputation and quality of higher education in "China", the Ministry of Education initiated new university employment reform, which pressed academics to produce more research. Recent employment reform has aggravated the conflict between teaching and research. This study "uses" mixed methods to…

  1. Perception of Teachers' Knowledge, Attitude and Teaching Skills as Predictor of Academic Performance in Nigerian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adediwura, A. A.; Tayo, Bada

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship/effect of students' perception of teachers' knowledge of subject matter, attitude to work and teaching skills on students' academic performance. The population consisted of senior secondary three (SS.III) students in the South West Nigeria senior secondary schools. The study sample consisted of 1600…

  2. Presenting Chained and Discrete Tasks as Non-Targeted Information when Teaching Discrete Academic Skills through Small Group Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkenstine, Karen Jones; Collins, Belva C.; Schuster, John W.; Kleinert, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Special education teachers often search for effective strategies to teach a variety of skills to students with moderate to severe disabilities through small group instruction. The investigators examined the acquisition of academic skills as well as chained and discrete tasks presented as nontargeted information by a small group of students with…

  3. Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and Middle School. IES Practice Guide. NCEE 2014-4012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Scott; Lesaux, Nonie; Jayanthi, Madhavi; Dimino, Joseph; Proctor, C. Patrick; Morris, Joan; Gersten, Russell; Haymond, Kelly; Kieffer, Michael J.; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    As English learners face the double demands of building knowledge of a second language while learning complex grade-level content, teachers must find effective ways to make challenging content comprehensible for students. This updated English learner practice guide, "Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and…

  4. A Review of Technology-Based Interventions to Teach Academic Skills to Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Victoria; McKissick, Bethany R.; Saunders, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted for articles published between 1993 and 2012 to determine the degree to which technology-based interventions can be considered an evidence-based practice to teach academic skills to individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Criteria developed by Horner et al. ("Except Child"…

  5. Teaching Strategies and Gender Based Learning Environments: How They Relate to Self-Efficacy, Participatory Behaviors, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This mixed method participatory action research study investigated the relationships of effective teaching strategies and gender based learning environments to pre-adolescent females' self-efficacy of mathematical ability, classroom participatory behaviors, and academic achievement in the area of mathematics. Research-based teaching…

  6. Knowledge Acquisition or Participation in Communities of Practice? Academics' Metaphors of Teaching and Learning at the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Elisabeth; Nückles, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Learning has been described by two conceptual metaphors: as individual acquisition of knowledge ("acquisition metaphor"), and as an enculturation into a subject community ("participation metaphor"). On the other hand, academics' conceptions of teaching are usually reported to vary between teacher and student orientation. In…

  7. Collaborative Close Reading of Teaching Texts: One Way of Helping Academics to Make Sense of their Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loads, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I draw attention to a lively and accessible way of helping academics to make sense of their practice as teachers. First, I define "collaborative close reading" and "teaching texts". Then I invite the reader to eavesdrop on three (lightly fictionalised) reading sessions. Finally, I suggest some guidelines for…

  8. War injuries during the Gulf War: experience of a teaching hospital in Kuwait.

    PubMed Central

    Behbehani, A.; Abu-Zidan, F.; Hasaniya, N.; Merei, J.

    1994-01-01

    The war injuries of 361 patients admitted to Mubarak Al-Kabeer Teaching Hospital, during the Gulf War are reported. More abdominal and chest injuries were seen in this series in comparison with other conflicts owing to the short evacuation time. Of the injuries, 54% were caused by gunshots, 34% were fragment injuries and 5.5% were glass and stab injuries. Civilians accounted for 50% of the injured. Wound infection rate was 7%, average hospital stay was 8.8 days and hospital mortality was 5.5%. We advocate radical wound excision, exploration of penetrating wounds of neck and abdomen, and mainly conservative management of chest injuries that do not involve the mediastinum. PMID:7702326

  9. Gender inequality in acute coronary syndrome patients at Omdurman Teaching Hospital, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Mirghani, Hyder O.; Elnour, Mohammed A.; Taha, Akasha M.; Elbadawi, Abdulateef S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gender differences among patients with the acute coronary syndrome is still being debated, no research has been done on gender inequality among coronary syndrome patients in Sudan. Objectives: To study gender differences in presentation, management, and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome in Sudan. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive longitudinal study was conducted in Omdurman Teaching Hospital between July 2014 and August 2015. Patients were invited to sign a written informed consent form, were interviewed and examined by a physician, and then followed during their hospital stay. Information collected includes coronary risk factors, vital signs, echocardiography findings, arrhythmias, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and death. The Ethical Committee of Omdurman Teaching Hospital approved the research. Results: A total of 197 consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients were included, 43.1% were females. A significant statistical difference was evident between males and females regarding the type of acute coronary syndrome, its presentation, and time of presentation to the hospital, smoking, and receipt of thrombolysis (P < 0.05). No differences were found with regard to age, hypertension, diabetes, family history of myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, and in-hospital acute coronary complications (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Women were less likely to receive thrombolytic therapy, present with chest pain, and diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. No gender differences were found in acute coronary syndrome risk factors apart from smoking, which was more common in males, and there were no differences between males and females as regards in-hospital complications. PMID:27186156

  10. Crossing new uncharted territory: shifts in academic identity as a result of modifying teaching practice in undergraduate mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kensington-Miller, Barbara; Sneddon, Jamie; Stewart, Sepideh

    2014-08-01

    The changes in academic identity a teacher may undergo, as they modify their teaching practice, will vary depending on their experiences and the support they receive. In this paper, we describe the shifts in academic identity of two lecturers, a mathematician and a mathematics educator, as they both made changes to their teaching practice by implementing new questioning techniques in a large undergraduate mathematics course. Both the lecturers were members of the research group, which became their community of practice. Our findings recommend that lecturers endeavouring to step out and try changes to their teaching practice, particularly with large groups of students, belong to a community of practice. The community of practice provides a place for shared reflection, new learning, and opportunities to negotiate new identities.

  11. Balancing Academic Teaching, Research, and Service: a Paradigm Emerging from NSF-TUES Sponsored Project Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paor, D. G.

    2012-12-01

    As every academic administrator stresses in interviews with new faculty, the role of a professor today involves balancing three areas - teaching, research, and service. Few institutions can afford the old policy of promoting and tenuring faculty based solely on research output and grantsmanship, whilst ignoring poor teaching outcomes. Outreach activities involving parents and the extramural community are increasingly important as expensive universities and four-year colleges seek to demonstrate their relevance in the age of much less expensive community colleges and distance education. Nevertheless, many faculty complain that teaching and outreach duties compete for their valuable research time. Some fields of research have such broad impacts that they merit the dedicated time of our best scientists. However, other research projects constitute little more than publicly funded professorial hobbies. The challenge is to reliably identify and prioritize the research questions that merit investigation. IN ODU's geospatial visualization group, we instituted a policy requiring Ph.D. theses to include a component (at least one chapter) dedicated to the development and testing of learning resources. TAs test visualizations in their lab sections in tandem with their research studies. They must incorporate original geophysical mapping, modeling, and/or analysis in order to justify a degree in the Physics Department (the traditional home of Geophysics at our institution) rather than, say, the College of Education. Geospatial graduate students also train to offer planetarium presentations to the public using digital full-dome projection technology that can be used with a wide range of geoscience and planetary science topics. Thus they tackle the three aspects of academic work from the outset. In contrast, students in other programs frequently serve as TAs in their first and then switch to grant-supported RA work, resulting in a steady stream of new TAs with little or no

  12. A systematic comparison of teaching hospital and remote-site clinical education.

    PubMed

    Friedman, C P; Stritter, F T; Talbert, L M

    1978-07-01

    This paper present a methodology for examining activities of medical students on multisite clinical clerkships to determine whether differences exist in the educational experience offered at various sites. Five criterion variables are explored: distribution of student activities, type or class of clinical conditions encountered by students, degree of "esoterism" of those conditions, type of student role, and flexibility of student role. A format for data collection, employing a specially designed activity recording pad, was developed as part of the study. Application of this method to a clerkship in obstetrics and gynecology documents the existence of systematic differences in the educational experiences offered at different sites, particularly with regard to type of activities undertaken and conditions encountered. Most notably, the results suggest that it is fallacious to dichotomize clerkship sites as "academic" or "community" based. It is found that community hospitals themselves can differ markedly and offer an experience paralleling that of the academic referral center. PMID:671498

  13. Patient Safety in Obstetrics and Gynecology Departments of two Teaching Hospitals in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bindiya; Guleria, Kiran; Arora, Renu

    2016-01-01

    Background: A healthy safety culture is integral to positive health care. A sound safety climate is required in Obstetrics and Gynecology to prevent adverse outcomes. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess and compare patient safety culture in two departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Materials and Methods: Using a closed-ended standard version of Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS), respondents were asked to answer 42 survey items, grouped into 10 dimensions and two outcome variables in two tertiary care teaching hospitals in Delhi. Qualitative data were compared using Fisher's exact test and chi-square test wherever applicable. Mean values were calculated and compared using unpaired t-test. Results: The overall survey response rate was 55%. A positive response rate of 57% was seen in the overall perception of patient safety that ranged from very good to acceptable. Sixty-four percent showed positive teamwork across hospital departments and units, while 36% gave an affirmative opinion with respect to interdepartmental handoffs. However, few adverse events (0-10) were reported in the last 12 months and only 38% of mistakes by doctors were reported. Half of the respondents agreed that their mistakes were held against them. There was no statistical difference in the safety culture between the two hospitals. Conclusions: Although the perception of patient safety and standards of patient safety were high in both the hospitals' departments, there is plenty of scope for improvement with respect to event reporting, positive feedback, and nonpunitive error. PMID:27385879

  14. Patient education process in teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Seyedin, Hesam; Goharinezhad, Salime; Vatankhah, Soodabeh; Azmal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patient education is widely recognized as a core component of nursing. Patient education can lead to quality outcomes including adherence, quality of life, patients' knowledge of their illness and self-management. This study aimed to clarify patient education process in teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013. In this descriptive quantitative study, the sample covered 187 head nurses selected from ten teaching hospitals through convenience sampling. Data were collected with a questionnaire developed specifically for this study. The questionnaire measured patient education process in four dimensions: need assessment, planning, implementing and evaluating. Results: The overall mean score of patient education was 3.326±0.0524. Among the four dimensions of the patient education process, planning was in the highest level (3.570±0.0591) and the lowest score belonged to the evaluation of patient education (2.840 ±0.0628). Conclusion: Clarifying patient education steps, developing standardized framework and providing easily understandable tool-kit of the patient education program will improve the ability of nurses in delivering effective patient education in general and specialized hospitals. PMID:26478878

  15. Academic Duty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Donald

    This book by a former university president examines the state of the research university faculty, focusing on teaching and how success at teaching can be evaluated; ethical problems in reviewing the work of others, research and how it is supported; outside commitments; and research misconduct. Chapters include: "Academic Freedom, Academic Duty,"…

  16. Quality assessment of clinical education services in teaching hospitals located in Kerman, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid; Gozashti, Mohammad Hossein; Komsari, Samane; Mohammadtaghizadeh, Sedigheh; Amiresmaili, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Clinical education is one of the most important components of the resource generation function of health systems, and it has a very important role in graduates’ competency with respect to effective, practical education. This study aimed to assess the quality of clinical services in Kerman’s teaching hospitals located in southeastern Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 on 303 medical students at different levels of medical education at Kerman’s teaching hospitals. A modified SERVQUAL instrument was used to collect the data after its validity and reliability were checked. The data were analyzed by SPSS 18.0 using the paired t-test, Kruskal-Wallis, and post hoc tests, when appropriate. Results In all five dimensions of quality, gaps were observed between students’ perceptions and expectations as follows: Assurance (mean = −1.18), Responsiveness (−1.56), Empathy (−1.4), Reliability (−1.27), and Tangibles (−1.21). There was a significant difference between the quality perceptions and expectations of the medical students (p < 0.001). A significant difference was observed between three educational levels, including externships, internships, and assistantships regarding the dimensions of the quality gaps (p < 0.001). Conclusion The clinical services provided by teaching hospitals in the study did not meet the students’ expectations at any of the three educational levels. As we precisely assessed the dimensions and items that had the higher quality gaps, it was apparent that, for most part, clinical education officials could improve the quality by designing interventions, which would not be very difficult to do. PMID:26767094

  17. Causes of gas gangrene seen at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwankwo, Okechukwu Emmanuel

    2008-04-01

    Gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis) is rarely seen and this rarity, coupled with its dramatic presentation and often devastating outcome, makes each case of gas gangrene a spectacular and memorable experience. This study analyses the cases managed, the causes and outcome. Gunshot wounds, compounded by late presentation with its accompanying florid infections, were seen as the causes in 14 cases of gas gangrene seen at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu during the four-year study period from July 2000 to June 2004. PMID:18453489

  18. Study of type 2 diabetes mellitus cases at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Dhungel, Sanjib; Devkota, Krishna Chandra; Chhetri, Pramod; Bhattarai, Praveen; Shrestha, Ananta

    2004-12-01

    A total of 110 cases attending diabetic clinic at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital were studied. Associated risk factors and co-morbid conditions were analyzed. Among them 63.6% have systolic BP more than 130 mm of Hg and 24.5% have diastolic BP more than 85 mm of Hg reflecting hypertension as most common co-morbid condition. Various complications of diabetes in studied subjects are highlighted. Eighty percent of patients have fasting blood sugar more than 110 mg% and 93.0% have post-prandial blood sugar more than 140 mg% reflecting poor overall glycemic control despite the use of medication. PMID:16295737

  19. Study of cases of hypertension admitted at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Dhungel, Sanjib; Shrestha, Ananta; Bhattarai, Prabeen; Paudel, Badri

    2004-06-01

    Hundred cases of hypertension admitted to medical ward at Nepal Medical College and Teaching Hospital were studied and analysed. They constituted 9.4% of the total admitted patients in the medical ward. Association of hypertension with other diseases is highlighted. Thirty two percent of these hypertensives were diabetic and 22.0% of hypertensives also had Chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD). Different types of complications of hypertension seen in the studied subjects are mentioned. Only 19.0% of hypertensives had their blood pressure controlled and the rest were uncontrolled hypertensives. PMID:15449651

  20. [Description of workloads and fatigue experienced among health workers in a teaching hospital].

    PubMed

    Santana, Leni de Lima; Miranda, Fernanda Moura D'Almeida; Karino, Márcia Eiko; Baptista, Patrícia Campos Pavan; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andres; Sarquis, Leila Maria Mansano

    2013-03-01

    This is an exploratory, descriptive and quantitative study, based on the following categories: work process, workloads and fatigue in a teaching hospital in Curitiba in the southern region of Brazil. The article characterizes the load and stress experienced in a university hospital, based on a previous study entitled "System for monitoring the health of nursing workers" (SIMOSTE). The results show that females were the most affected (85.9%) and the most affected professionals were nursing assistants (53.1%). The highest number of sick leaves was due to diseases of the osteoarticular system (25.2%) and the most significant loads were mechanical and physiological with 33.06% each. These results may support intervention strategies in the policies directed toward the workers' health to ensure a better quality of life and consequently improve the quality of care provided to the user. PMID:23781725

  1. Women's perceptions of caesarean section: reflections from a Turkish teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Tatar, M; Günalp, S; Somunoğlu, S; Demirol, A

    2000-05-01

    Caesarean section as a contentious topic has attracted attention world-wide and different dimensions of the issue has been investigated. The primary reason behind these initiatives have been the upsurge of caesarean sections both in the developed and developing world and the realisation that the operation may not always contribute positively to the mother's and baby's health. By contrast, several studies have demonstrated both the short and long term negative effects. Research has also revealed that factors other than medical necessity play an important role in the decision to perform a caesarean section. Turkey, although reliable data does not exist, can be classified among the countries experiencing the caesarean epidemic, at least among highly educated and wealthy mothers. This research, exploring the perceptions of mothers in a teaching hospital with a high caesarean rate, is a rare example of its kind in Turkey. The main finding is the dissatisfaction of the mothers undergoing caesareans during their stay in the hospital. PMID:10728843

  2. Changing Economics of Health Care Are Devastating Academic Medical Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Werf, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Once a financially healthy part of American universities, many academic health centers are struggling to survive. Many are merging with for-profit chains or declaring bankruptcy. The advance of managed care and insurance companies focusing on reducing costs appears to be affecting teaching hospitals more than community hospitals. (MSE)

  3. Changing Environment and the Academic Medical Center: The Johns Hopkins Hospital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyssel, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    Johns Hopkins Hospital expanded its health care delivery capabilities and strengthened its position in the marketplace by acquisitions of and mergers with other hospitals and a health maintenance organization. The resulting conglomerate has achieved its goals of expanding patient care, broadening the patient base, and enlarging the asset base and…

  4. Prescription Pattern of Analgesic Drugs for Patients Receiving Palliative Care in a Teaching Hospital in India

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Vishma Hydie; Nair, Shoba N; Soumya, MS; Tarey, SD

    2016-01-01

    Background: Drugs used in the palliative care unit for managing symptoms are major contributors toward the expenditure occurring in palliative care. This study was conducted to understand the prescription pattern of analgesic drugs in the patients who are receiving palliative care in a teaching hospital in India by a retrospective study of case records. Methods: Case record based, retrospective, descriptive study was conducted at the Pain and Palliative Care Department of St. John's Medical College Hospital, Bengaluru. Case record files of all patients referred to Pain and Palliative Care Department for the treatment of pain in the year of 2012 were studied. Patients’ age, gender, diagnoses, numerical pain rating scale (0–10), drugs prescribed, dosage, frequency, route of administration were recorded. The difference in drug utilization between the genders was done using Chi-square test. Data were collected from 502 patients of which 280 (56%) were males and 222 (44%) were females. Twelve percent of patients had mild pain (1–3), 34% had moderate pain (4–6), and 54% had severe pain (7–10). The most commonly used analgesic drugs were opioids (47%), followed by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (36%). The opioids used were tramadol (56%), and morphine (38%). Ninety percent of patients with numerical pain scale more than 6 received morphine. There was no difference in analgesic drug utilization with regards to gender. Prescription pattern differed depending on the severity of pain. Opioids were the most commonly used drugs for pain management. Conclusion: The study shows that prescription pattern in palliative care unit of this hospital was in accordance with WHO pain management guidelines. The study showed the current trend in prescription of analgesic drugs in the teaching hospital where the study was conducted. PMID:26962282

  5. Medication error detection in two major teaching hospitals: What are the types of errors?

    PubMed Central

    Saghafi, Fatemeh; Zargarzadeh, Amir H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increasing number of reports on medication errors and relevant subsequent damages, especially in medical centers has become a growing concern for patient safety in recent decades. Patient safety and in particular, medication safety is a major concern and challenge for health care professionals around the world. Our prospective study was designed to detect prescribing, transcribing, dispensing, and administering medication errors in two major university hospitals. Materials and Methods: After choosing 20 similar hospital wards in two large teaching hospitals in the city of Isfahan, Iran, the sequence was randomly selected. Diagrams for drug distribution were drawn by the help of pharmacy directors. Direct observation technique was chosen as the method for detecting the errors. A total of 50 doses were studied in each ward to detect prescribing, transcribing and administering errors in each ward. The dispensing error was studied on 1000 doses dispensed in each hospital pharmacy. Results: A total of 8162 number of doses of medications were studied during the four stages, of which 8000 were complete data to be analyzed. 73% of prescribing orders were incomplete and did not have all six parameters (name, dosage form, dose and measuring unit, administration route, and intervals of administration). We found 15% transcribing errors. One-third of administration of medications on average was erroneous in both hospitals. Dispensing errors ranged between 1.4% and 2.2%. Conclusion: Although prescribing and administrating compromise most of the medication errors, improvements are needed in all four stages with regard to medication errors. Clear guidelines must be written and executed in both hospitals to reduce the incidence of medication errors. PMID:25364360

  6. Evaluation of pharmacy information system in teaching, private and social services Hospitals in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Saghaeiannejad-Isfahani, Sakineh; Mirzaeian, Razieh; Jannesari, Hasan; Ehteshami, Asghar; Feizi, Awat; Raeisi, Ahmadreza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Supporting a therapeutic approach and medication therapy management, the pharmacy information system (PIS) acts as one of the pillars of hospital information system. This ensures that medication therapy is being supported with an optimal level of safety and quality similar to other treatments and services. Materials and Methods: The present study is an applied, cross-sectional study conducted on the PIS in use in selected hospitals. The research population included all users of PIS. The research sample is the same as the research population. The data collection instrument was the self-designed checklist developed from the guidelines of the American Society of Health System Pharmacists, Australia pharmaceutical Society and Therapeutic guidelines of the Drug Commission of the German Medical Association. The checklist validity was assessed by research supervisors and PIS users and pharmacists. Findings: The findings of this study were revealed that regarding the degree of meeting the standards given in the guidelines issued by the Society of Pharmacists, the highest rank in observing input standards belonged to Social Services hospitals with a mean score of 32.75. Although teaching hospitals gained the highest score both in process standards with a mean score of 29.15 and output standards with a mean score of 43.95, the private hospitals had the lowest mean score of 23.32, 17.78, 24.25 in input, process and output standards, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the findings, it can be claimed that the studied hospitals had a minimal compliance with the input, output and processing standards related to the PIS. PMID:25013832

  7. Diversity of Bacterial Communities on Four Frequently Used Surfaces in a Large Brazilian Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Pereira da Fonseca, Tairacan Augusto; Pessôa, Rodrigo; Felix, Alvina Clara; Sanabani, Sabri Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Frequently used hand-touch surfaces in hospital settings have been implicated as a vehicle of microbial transmission. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population on four frequently used surfaces using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Surface samples were collected from four sites, namely elevator buttons (EB), bank machine keyboard buttons (BMKB), restroom surfaces, and the employee biometric time clock system (EBTCS), in a large public and teaching hospital in São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, with a total of 926 bacterial families and 2832 bacterial genera. Moreover, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera, including Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The presence of these pathogens in frequently used surfaces enhances the risk of exposure to any susceptible individuals. Some of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity on these surfaces are poor personal hygiene and ineffective routine schedules of cleaning, sanitizing, and disinfecting. Strict standards of infection control in hospitals and increased public education about hand hygiene are recommended to decrease the risk of transmission in hospitals among patients. PMID:26805866

  8. Simulation-Based Dysphagia Training: Teaching Interprofessional Clinical Reasoning in a Hospital Environment.

    PubMed

    Miles, Anna; Friary, Philippa; Jackson, Bianca; Sekula, Julia; Braakhuis, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated hospital readiness and interprofessional clinical reasoning in speech-language pathology and dietetics students following a simulation-based teaching package. Thirty-one students participated in two half-day simulation workshops. The training included orientation to the hospital setting, part-task skill learning and immersive simulated cases. Students completed workshop evaluation forms. They filled in a 10-question survey regarding confidence, knowledge and preparedness for working in a hospital environment before and immediately after the workshops. Students completed written 15-min clinical vignettes at 1 month prior to training, immediately prior to training and immediately after training. A marking rubric was devised to evaluate the responses to the clinical vignettes within a framework of interprofessional education. The simulation workshops were well received by all students. There was a significant increase in students' self-ratings of confidence, preparedness and knowledge following the study day (p < .001). There was a significant increase in student overall scores in clinical vignettes after training with the greatest increase in clinical reasoning (p < .001). Interprofessional simulation-based training has benefits in developing hospital readiness and clinical reasoning in allied health students. PMID:26803776

  9. Questionnaire survey of working relationships between nurses and doctors in University Teaching Hospitals in Southern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ogbimi, Roseline I; Adebamowo, Clement A

    2006-01-01

    Background Smooth working relationships between nurses and doctors are necessary for efficient health care delivery. However, previous studies have shown that this is often absent with negative impact on the quality of health care delivery. In 2002, we studied factors that affect nurse-doctor working relationships in University Teaching Hospitals (UTH) in Southern Nigeria in order to characterize it and identify managerial and training needs that might be used to improve it. Method Questionnaire survey of doctors and nurses working in four UTH in Southern Nigeria was done in 2002. The setting and subjects were selected by random sampling procedures. Information on factors in domains of work, union activities, personnel and hospital management were studied using closed and open-ended questionnaires. Results Nurse-doctor working relationships were statistically significantly affected by poor after-work social interaction, staff shortages, activist unionism, disregard for one's profession, and hospital management and government policies. In general, nurses had better opinion of doctors' work than doctors had about nurses' work. Conclusion Working relationships between doctors and nurses need to be improved through improved training and better working conditions, creation of better working environment, use of alternative methods of conflict resolution and balanced hospital management and government policies. This will improve the retention of staff, job satisfaction and efficiency of health care delivery in Nigeria. PMID:16504039

  10. Resistance and integron characterization of Acinetobacter baumannii in a teaching hospital in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, C.; Long, Q.; Qian, K.; Fu, T.; Zhang, Z.; Liao, P.; Xie, J.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 189 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were collected in 2011 from a teaching hospital in Chongqing, China. Susceptibility data showed strains carrying integrons were significantly more resistant to all tested antibiotics that strains lacking integrons. Five types of gene cassettes belonging to class I integrons were identified in this study, and for the first time two types of gene cassettes belonging to class II integrons are reported. Most of the cassettes belong to a class I integron (136/144) encoding arr3, aacA4, dfrA17, aadA5, aadB, cat, blaOXA10, aadA1, aadA2, dfrA and aacC1. Isolates contained a class I gene cassette; AadA2-HP-dfrA was the prevalent strain in this hospital. A class II integron was detected in eight strains, which contained the type IV fimbriae expression regulatory gene pilR and sulfate adenylyltransferase, suggesting a possible role in multidrug resistance. The major epidemic strains from intensive care unit patients belong to international clone 2. In conclusion, the presence of integrons was significantly associated with multiple drug resistance of A. baumannii in this hospital, and class I integron isolates bearing AadA2-HP-dfrA were the prevalent strain in this hospital. PMID:26649184

  11. Large Epidemiological Influenza A Outbreak in a Teaching Hospital from Guatemala City

    PubMed Central

    Mejía, Carlos; Silvestre, Monica; Cazali, Iris; García, Judith; Sánchez, Ruth; García, Leticia; Castillo, Leticia; Escobar, Ingrid; Terraza, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To describe the characteristics and interventions to control a large epidemiological Influenza A Outbreak. Methods. During the months of February to April 2006, a large outbreak of Influenza A was detected, which affected Health Care Workers and hospitalized patients in a large teaching Hospital in Guatemala City. Interventions to interrupt transmission were implemented and included barrier methods (N95 masks, respiratory isolation measures, etc.) and enhanced hand hygiene, vaccination of healthy Health Care Workers (HCW), restrictions for patient visits. Results. From February to April 2006, 59 hospitalized patients diagnosed with Influenza A. 19 AIDS patients (mortality: 71%) and 5/40 (12.5%) in other diseases: cancer (3), severe cardiac failure (1) and severe malnutrition (1). The attack rate at day 20 in doctors and medical students was 21% while in other HCW it was 10.5%. Within 3 weeks of the beginning of the plan, deaths were stopped and no more cases in HCW were detected after 3 additional weeks. Conclusion. A rapid, comprehensive plan for the control of nosocomial epidemic Influenza A outbreaks is essential to limit severe morbidity and mortality in hospitals who attend large immunocompromised populations, including AIDS patients. HCW regular vaccinations programs are mandatory. PMID:24052881

  12. Diversity of Bacterial Communities on Four Frequently Used Surfaces in a Large Brazilian Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Pereira da Fonseca, Tairacan Augusto; Pessôa, Rodrigo; Felix, Alvina Clara; Sanabani, Sabri Saeed

    2016-02-01

    Frequently used hand-touch surfaces in hospital settings have been implicated as a vehicle of microbial transmission. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population on four frequently used surfaces using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Surface samples were collected from four sites, namely elevator buttons (EB), bank machine keyboard buttons (BMKB), restroom surfaces, and the employee biometric time clock system (EBTCS), in a large public and teaching hospital in São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, with a total of 926 bacterial families and 2832 bacterial genera. Moreover, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera, including Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The presence of these pathogens in frequently used surfaces enhances the risk of exposure to any susceptible individuals. Some of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity on these surfaces are poor personal hygiene and ineffective routine schedules of cleaning, sanitizing, and disinfecting. Strict standards of infection control in hospitals and increased public education about hand hygiene are recommended to decrease the risk of transmission in hospitals among patients. PMID:26805866

  13. An ethnographic investigation of junior doctors' capacities to practice interprofessionally in three teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Milne, Jacqueline; Greenfield, David; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative practice among early career staff is at the bedrock of interprofessional care. This study investigated factors influencing the enactment of interprofessional practice by using the day-to-day role of six junior doctors in three teaching hospitals as a gateway to understand the various professions' interactive behaviours. The contextual framework used for the study was Strauss' theory of negotiated order. Ethnographic techniques were applied to observe the actions and interactions of participants on typical working days in their hospital environments. Field notes were created and thematic analysis was applied to the data. Three themes explored were culture, communication, and collaboration. Issues identified highlight the bounded organisational and professional cultures within which junior doctors work, and systemic problems in interprofessional interaction and communication in the wards of hospitals. There are indications that early career doctors are interprofessional isolates. The constraints of short training terms and pressure from multi-faceted demands on junior doctors can interfere with the establishment of meaningful relationships with nurses and other health professionals. The realisation of sustained interprofessional practice is, therefore, practically and structurally difficult. Enabling factors supporting the sharing of expertise are outweighed by barriers associated with professional and hospital organisational cultures, poor interprofessional communication, and the pressure of competing individual task demands in the course of daily practice. PMID:25646898

  14. Use of non-formulary drugs in children at a Brazilian teaching hospital: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Tramontina, Mariana Y.; Heineck, Isabela; Dos Santos, Luciana

    Objective To characterise the prescription of non-formulary drugs to children and neonates at a Brazilian teaching hospital and identify adverse drug reactions (ADRs), drug interactions, and prescription of potentially hazardous medicines. Methods A prospective exploratory study was carried out between January and May 2011 at the general paediatric wards and paediatric oncology, paediatric intensive care, and neonatal care units of the study hospital. Non-formulary drugs were categorised as approved, off-label, or not approved for use in children according to Brazilian compendia. Electronic health records were actively searched for ADRs and the possibility of moderate to severe interactions between non-formulary drugs and other medicines was determined with the Micromedex® database. Results Overall, 109 children or neonates received non-formulary drugs. Of these drugs, 54% were approved for use in children, 12.2% were used off-label, and 33.8% were not approved for use in children. Non-formulary drugs accounted for 13.4% of total prescriptions; 5.3% of drugs had a potential for interactions and five were possibly associated with ADRs. Conclusions Prescription of non-formulary drugs not approved for use in children was common at the study hospital. Studies such as this provide information on the use of medicines for special indications and permit assessment of the relevance of hospital formularies for the paediatric population. PMID:24155845

  15. Identifying and communicating the contributions of library and information services in hospitals and academic health sciences centers

    PubMed Central

    Abels, Eileen G.; Cogdill, Keith W.; Zach, Lisl

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article introduces a systematic approach to identifying and communicating the value of library and information services (LIS) from the perspective of their contributions to achieving organizational goals. Methods: The contributions of library and information services (CLIS) approach for identifying and communicating the value of LIS draws on findings from a multimethod study of hospitals and academic health sciences centers. Results: The CLIS approach is based on the concept that an individual unit's value to an organization can be demonstrated by identifying and measuring its contributions to organizational goals. The CLIS approach involves seven steps: (1) selecting appropriate organizational goals that are meaningful in a specific setting; (2) linking LIS contributions to organizational goals; (3) obtaining data from users on the correspondence between LIS contributions and LIS services; (4) selecting measures for LIS services; (5) collecting and analyzing data for the selected measures; (6) planning and sustaining communication with administrators about LIS contributions; and (7) evaluating findings and revising selected goals, contributions, and services as necessary. Conclusions: The taxonomy of LIS contributions and the CLIS approach emerged from research conducted in hospitals and academic health sciences centers and reflect the mission and goals common in these organizations. However, both the taxonomy and the CLIS approach may be adapted for communicating the value of LIS in other settings. PMID:14762462

  16. The Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM) Questionnaire Identifies Quality of Instruction as a Key Factor Predicting Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Joaquim Edson

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study analyzes the reliability of the PHEEM questionnaire translated into Portuguese. We present the results of PHEEM following distribution to doctors in three different medical residency programs at a university hospital in Brazil. INTRODUCTION Efforts to understand environmental factors that foster effective learning resulted in the development of a questionnaire to measure medical residents’ perceptions of the level of autonomy, teaching quality and social support in their programs. METHODS The questionnaire was translated using the modified Brislin back-translation technique. Cronbach’s alpha test was used to ensure good reliability and ANOVA was used to compare PHEEM results among residents from the Surgery, Anesthesiology and Internal Medicine departments. The Kappa coefficient was used as a measure of agreement, and factor analysis was employed to evaluate the construct strength of the three domains suggested by the original PHEEM questionnaire. RESULTS The PHEEM survey was completed by 306 medical residents and the resulting Cronbach’s alpha was 0.899. The weighted Kappa was showed excellent reliability. Autonomy was rated most highly by Internal Medicine residents (63.7% ± 13.6%). Teaching was rated highest in Anesthesiology (66.7% ± 15.4%). Residents across the three areas had similar perceptions of social support (59.0% ± 13.3% for Surgery; 60.5% ± 13.6% for Internal Medicine; 61.4% ± 14.4% for Anesthesiology). Factor analysis suggested that nine factors explained 58.9% of the variance. CONCLUSIONS This study indicates that PHEEM is a reliable instrument for measuring the quality of medical residency programs at a Brazilian teaching hospital. The results suggest that quality of teaching was the best indicator of overall response to the questionnaire. PMID:19060994

  17. Hospitalized but not Admitted: Characteristics of Patients with “Observation Status” at an Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Sheehy, Ann M.; Graf, Ben; Gangireddy, Sreedevi; Hoffman, Robert; Ehlenbach, Mary; Heidke, Cynthia; Fields, Sheilah; Liegel, Barbara; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Importance The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)defines observation status for hospitalized patients as a “well-defined set of specific, clinically appropriate services,” usually lasting <24 hours, and that in “only rare and exceptional cases” should last > 48 hours. Although an increasing proportion of observation care occurs on hospital wards, studies of patients with observation status have focused on the efficiency of dedicated units. Objective To describe inpatient and observation care. Design and Setting Descriptive study of all inpatient and observation stays between July 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 at the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, a 566 bed tertiary academic medical center. Participants All patients with observation or inpatient stays during the study period. Main Outcome and Measures Patient demographics, length of stay, difference between cost and reimbursement per stay, and percent of patients discharged to skilled nursing facilities. Results Of 43,853 stays, 4,578 (10.4%) were observation, with 1,141 distinct diagnosis codes. Average observation length of stay was 33.3 hours, with 44.4% of stays <24 hours, and 16.5% >48 hours. Observation care had a negative margin per stay (-$331); the inpatient margin per stay was positive (+$2,163). Adult General Medicine patients accounted for 2,404 (52.5%) of all observation stays; 25.4% of the 9,453 Adult General Medicine stays were observation. The mean length of stay for general medicine observation patients was 41.1 hours, with 32.6% of stays < 24 hours, and 26.4% >48 hours. As compared to observation patients on other clinical services, Adult General Medicine had the highest percent >65 years (40.9%), highest percent female (57.9%), highest percent discharged to skilled nursing facilities (11.6%) and the most negative margin per stay (-$1,378). Conclusions and Relevance In an academic medical center, observation status for hospitalized patients differed markedly

  18. A Bourdieusian Approach to Academic Reading: Reflections on a South African Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Lloyd; Meo, Analía Inés

    2015-01-01

    As in many other parts of the world, "academic literacy" has emerged as both a concern and a contested concept in South African universities. In this article we focus specifically on academic reading, which we argue is a relatively underemphasized aspect of academic literacy. This article is the product of reflections on academic reading…

  19. Night shift fatigue among anaesthesia trainees at a major metropolitan teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Lancman, B M

    2016-05-01

    Night shifts expose anaesthesia trainees to the risk of fatigue and, potentially, fatigue-related performance impairment. This study examined the workload, fatigue and coping strategies of anaesthesia trainees during night shifts. A blinded survey-based study was undertaken at a major single centre metropolitan teaching hospital in Australia. All ten anaesthesia trainees who worked night shifts participated. The survey collected data on duration of night shifts, workload, and sleep patterns. Fatigue was assessed using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). There were 93 night shifts generating data out of a potential 165. Trainees tended to sleep an increasing amount before their shift as the nights progressed from 1 to 5. Night 1 was identified as an 'at risk' night due to the amount of time spent awake before arriving at work (32% awake for U+003E8 hours); on all other nights trainees were most likely to have slept 6-8 hours. The KSS demonstrated an increase in sleepiness of 3 to 4 points on the scale from commencement to conclusion of a night shift. The Night 1 conclusion sleepiness was markedly worse than any other night with 42% falling into an 'at-risk' category. The findings demonstrate fatigue and inadequate sleep in anaesthesia trainees during night shifts in a major metropolitan teaching hospital. The data obtained may help administrators prepare safer rosters, and junior staff develop improved strategies to reduce the likelihood of fatigue. PMID:27246936

  20. Engineering students' and faculty perceptions of teaching methods and the level of faculty involvement that promotes academic success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpilo, Lacy N.

    Student academic success is a top priority of higher education institutions in the United States and the trend of students leaving school prior to finishing their degree is a serious concern. Accountability has become a large part of university and college ratings and perceived success. Retention is one component of the accountability metrics used by accreditation agencies. In addition, there are an increasing number of states allocating funds based in part on retention (Seidman, 2005). Institutions have created initiatives, programs, and even entire departments to address issues related to student academic success to promote retention. Universities and colleges have responded by focusing on methods to retain and better serve students. Retention and student academic success is a primary concern for high education institutions; however, engineering education has unique retention issues. The National Science Board (2004) reports a significant decline in the number of individuals in the United States who are training to become engineers, despite the fact that the number of jobs that utilize an engineering background continues to increase. Engineering education has responded to academic success issues by changing curriculum and pedagogical methods (Sheppard, 2001). This descriptive study investigates the perception of engineering students and faculty regarding teaching methods and faculty involvement to create a picture of what is occurring in engineering education. The population was the engineering students and faculty of Colorado State University's College of Engineering. Data from this research suggests that engaging teaching methods are not being used as often as research indicates they should and that there is a lack of student-faculty interaction outside of the classroom. This research adds to the breadth of knowledge and understanding of the current environment of engineering education. Furthermore, the data allows engineering educators and other higher

  1. Surveillance of ESBL producing multidrug resistant Escherichia coli in a teaching hospital in India

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Shakti; Dubey, Debasmita; Sahu, Mahesh C.; Padhy, Rabindra N

    2014-01-01

    Objective To record nosocomial and community-acquired accounts of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains, isolated from clinical samples of a teaching hospital by surveillance, over a period of 39 months (November 2009-January 2013). Methods Clinical samples from nosocomial sources, i.e., wards and cabins, intensive care unit (ICU) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and community (outpatient department, OPD) sources of the hospital, were used for isolating strains of E. coli, which were subjected for testing for production of ‘extended spectrum beta-lactamase’-(ESBL) enzyme as well as determining antibiotic sensitivity pattern with 23 antibiotics. Results Of the total 1642 (100%) isolates, 810 (49.33%) strains were from OPD and 832 (50.66%) were from hospital settings. Occurrence of infectious E. coli strains increased in a mathematical progression in community sources, but in nosocomial infections, such values remained almost constant in each quarter. A total of 395 (24.05%) ESBL strains were isolated from the total 810 isolates of community; of the total of 464 (28.25%) isolates of wards and cabins, 199 (12.11%) were ESBL strains; and among the total of 368 (22.41%) isolates of ICU and NICU, ESBLs were 170 (10.35%); the total nosocomial ESBL isolates, 369 (22.47%) were from the nosocomial total of 832 (50.66%) isolates. Statistically, it was confirmed that ESBL strains were equally distributed in community or hospital units. Antibiogram of 23 antibiotics revealed progressive increases of drug-resistance against each antibiotic with the maximum resistance values were recorded against gentamicin: 92% and 79%, oxacillin: 94% and 69%, ceftriaxone: 85% and 58%, and norfloxacin 97% and 69% resistance, in nosocomial and community isolates, respectively. Conclusions This study revealed the daunting state of occurrence of multidrug resistant E. coli and its infection dynamics in both community and hospital settings.

  2. Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Review of Management Guidelines in a Large Obstetrics and Gynecology Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C. D.; Brekken, A. L.

    1993-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a severe, life-threatening soft tissue infection that results in rapid and progressive destruction of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous tissue. Because of its varied clinical presentation and bacteriological make-up, it has been labelled with many other names such as acute streptococcal gangrene, gangrenous erysipelas, necrotizing erysipelas, hospital gangrene, and acute dermal gangrene. Although described by Hippocrates and Galen, it has received increasing attention in obstetrical and gynecological literature only within the last 20 years. This review includes two recent cases successfully managed at Parkland Memorial Hospital, Dallas, Texas. The first patient was a 50 year old, morbidly obese, diabetic woman who presented with a small, painful lesion on the vulva. After failing triple antibiotic therapy with ampicillin, clindamycin, and gentamicin, the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis of the vulva was made, and she was taken to the operating room for extensive excision. She was discharged home on hospital day 29. The second patient was a 65 year old, obese, diabetic woman with risk factors for atherosclerosis who had a wound separation after an abdominal hysterectomy. Two days later a loss of resistance to probing was noted in the subcutaneous tissue. Necrotizing fasciitis was suspected, and she was taken to the operating room for resection. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 27. The mortality rate after diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis has been reported to be 30% to 60%. We review the literature and outline the guidelines used in a large Ob/Gyn teaching hospital to minimize the adverse outcome. Lectures on soft-tissue infections are included on a regular basis. The high-risk factors of age over 50, diabetes, and atherosclerosis are emphasized. The need for early diagnosis and surgical treatment within 48 hours is stressed, and any suspicious lesions or wound complications are reported to experienced senior house

  3. College students' role models, learning style preferences, and academic achievement in collaborative teaching: absolute versus relativistic thinking.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2008-01-01

    Based on the perspective of postformal operations, this study investigated whether college students' role models (technical teachers vs. lecturing teachers) and preferred learning styles (experience-driven mode vs. theory-driven mode) in collaborative teaching courses would be moderated by their cognitive development (absolute thinking vs. relativistic thinking) and examine whether academic achievement of students would be contingent upon their preferred learning styles. Two hundred forty-four college students who have taken the technical courses with collaborative teaching participated in this study. The results showed that those participants with absolute thinking perceived the modeling advantage of technical teachers was greater than that of lecturing teachers, preferred the experience-driven mode over the theory-driven mode, and displayed differential academic achievement between technical courses and general courses. On the other hand, the students with relativistic thinking revealed no difference in perceived modeling advantage of role models, learning styles preferences, and academic achievement between two categories of courses. In addition, this research indicates that college students' preferred learning styles would interact with course category (technical courses vs. general courses) to display differential academic achievement. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:18447085

  4. Academic performance and perception of learning following a peer coaching teaching and assessment strategy.

    PubMed

    Moore, Catherine; Westwater-Wood, Sarah; Kerry, Roger

    2016-03-01

    Peer coaching has been associated with positive effects on learning. Specifically, these associations have been explored in complex healthcare professions. A social theory of learning has been proposed as a key component of the utility of peer coaching. Further, within the peer coaching model, assessment has been considered as an important driver. Empirical support for these dimensions of the model is lacking. To quantify assessment achievements and explore emergent attitudes and beliefs about learning related to a specific peer coaching model with integrated assessment. A longitudinal study based in a UK Higher Education Institute recorded assessment achievements and surveyed attitudes and beliefs in consecutive Year 1 undergraduate (physiotherapy) students (n = 560) between 2002 and 2012. A 6% improvement in academic achievement was demonstrated following the introduction of a peer coaching learning model. This was increased by a further 5% following the implementation of an integrated assessment. The improvement related to an overall averaged increase of one marking band. Students valued the strategy, and themes relating to the importance of social learning emerged from survey data. Peer coaching is an evidence-based teaching and learning strategy which can facilitate learning in complex subject areas. The strategy is underpinned by social learning theory which is supported by emergent student-reported attitudes. PMID:26143145

  5. The Effect of an Education-Themed Movie on the Academic Motivation of Teacher Candidates and Their Attitude Towards Teaching Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontas, Hakki

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of an education-themed movie on the academic motivation of teacher candidates and their attitude towards teaching profession. The study was carried out in the fall term in 2014-2015 academic year with the participation of 89 teacher candidates (53 in experimental group and 36 for control group).…

  6. Academic Advising: New Insights for Teaching and Learning in the First Year. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series No. 46. NACADA Monograph Series No. 14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Mary Stuart, Ed.; McCalla-Wriggins, Betsy, Ed.; White, Eric R., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Grounded in the philosophy that academic advising is a robust form of one-on-one teaching, this monograph places advising in a new light, one that brings it to the center of the institutional mission and activity. This monograph challenges all readers to embrace the tremendous potential that academic advising has for educating today's college…

  7. Informal Conversations about Teaching and Their Relationship to a Formal Development Program: Learning Opportunities for Novice and Mid-Career Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in informal activities, like conversations with colleagues, is one way that professionals can learn within workplace contexts. Informal conversations present opportunities for academics to learn about teaching. The current study investigated academics' experience of informal conversations, and their experience of the relations between…

  8. Factors Associated With Waiting Time for Breast Cancer Treatment in a Teaching Hospital in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dedey, Florence; Wu, Lily; Ayettey, Hannah; Sanuade, Olutobi A; Akingbola, Titilola S; Hewlett, Sandra A; Tayo, Bamidele O; Cole, Helen V; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Adanu, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Background Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in Ghana. Data are limited on the predictors of poor outcomes in breast cancer patients in low-income countries; however, prolonged waiting time has been implicated. Among breast cancer patients who received treatment at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, this study evaluated duration and factors that influenced waiting time from first presentation to start of definitive treatment. Method We conducted a hospital-based retrospective study of 205 breast cancer patients starting definitive treatment at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital between May and December 2013. We used descriptive statistics to summarize patient characteristics. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests and Spearman rank correlation were performed to examine the patients, health system, and health worker factors associated with median waiting time. Poisson regression was used to examine the determinants of waiting time. Results The mean age of the patients was 51.1 ± 11.8 years. The median waiting time was 5 weeks. The determinants of waiting time were level of education, age, income, marital status, ethnicity, disease stage, health insurance status, study sites, time interval between when biopsy was requested and when results were received and receipt of adequate information from health workers. Conclusion A prolonged waiting time to treatment occurs for breast cancer patients in Ghana, particularly for older patients, those with minimal or no education, with lower income, single patients, those with late disease, those who are insured, and who did not receive adequate information from the health workers. Time to obtain biopsy reports should be shortened. Patients and providers need education on timely treatment to improve prognosis. PMID:27091222

  9. Academic English Teaching for Postgraduates Based on Self-Regulated Learning Environment: A Case Study of Academic Reading Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This study selects postgraduate students in the first grade as the participants, based on their needs analysis, classroom presentations and performance of assignments completion, through the methodology of case study, the results show that students at the university level even the graduate levels still struggle with academic English. Thus, this…

  10. Development of a Hospital-based Massage Therapy Course at an Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Dion, Liza J.; Cutshall, Susanne M.; Rodgers, Nancy J.; Hauschulz, Jennifer L.; Dreyer, Nikol E.; Thomley, Barbara S.; Bauer, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Background: Massage therapy is offered increasingly in US medical facilities. Although the United States has many massage schools, their education differs, along with licensure and standards. As massage therapy in hospitals expands and proves its value, massage therapists need increased training and skills in working with patients who have various complex medical concerns, to provide safe and effective treatment. These services for hospitalized patients can impact patient experience substantially and provide additional treatment options for pain and anxiety, among other symptoms. The present article summarizes the initial development and description of a hospital-based massage therapy course at a Midwest medical center. Methods: A hospital-based massage therapy course was developed on the basis of clinical experience and knowledge from massage therapists working in the complex medical environment. This massage therapy course had three components in its educational experience: online learning, classroom study, and a 25-hr shadowing experience. The in-classroom study portion included an entire day in the simulation center. Results: The hospital-based massage therapy course addressed the educational needs of therapists transitioning to work with interdisciplinary medical teams and with patients who have complicated medical conditions. Feedback from students in the course indicated key learning opportunities and additional content that are needed to address the knowledge and skills necessary when providing massage therapy in a complex medical environment. Conclusions: The complexity of care in medical settings is increasing while the length of hospital stay is decreasing. For this reason, massage provided in the hospital requires more specialized training to work in these environments. This course provides an example initial step in how to address some of the educational needs of therapists who are transitioning to working in the complex medical environment. PMID

  11. The role of teaching and research hospitals in improving global health (in a globalized world).

    PubMed

    Leggat, Sandra G; Tse, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Globalization is impacting on Hong Kong and Australia in different ways, but the experience of the public healthcare systems in both jurisdictions suggests a need for teaching and research hospitals to refocus from the management of international patients to better meet the needs for global health. Traditional globalization suggests a stockpiling of capital--a focus on improving global health suggests dismantling the stockpiles and sharing access to the necessary data, information, knowledge and discoveries to further develop local health expertise. Consistent with its position as a leading healthcare provider, the University Health Network (UHN) has been reflecting on the impact of increasing globalization on hospitals. The goals of the UHN paper on globalization are threefold--to suggest how the external and internal environments of hospitals will change as a result of globalization; to suggest a role for hospitals in a globalized world; and to stimulate discussion and debate. Given our perspective, from the other side of the world, we are pleased to contribute to the discussion and debate but will limit our comments to the future role of teaching and research hospitals based on some of the experiences of Australia and Hong Kong. The citizens of Hong Kong have been acutely aware of the issue of globalization--the excellent deep-water harbour has ensured the position of Hong Kong as a major trading hub. Hong Kong has also had a continually evolving role as a financial centre and gateway to China, and with China's accession to the World Trade Organization the impact of globalization will be even greater. On the other hand, the citizens of Australia have lived with geographic isolation, relatively limited natural resources and a small population, all of which have limited their role in global trade and financial markets. However, both Hong Kong and Australia have seen recent benefits from the increasing speed of communication and information transfer and exchange

  12. Factors associated with the patient safety climate at a teaching hospital1

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Raíssa Bianca; Simões, Ana Lúcia de Assis; Barichello, Elizabeth; Barbosa, Maria Helena

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: to investigate the association between the scores of the patient safety climate and socio-demographic and professional variables. Methods: an observational, sectional and quantitative study, conducted at a large public teaching hospital. The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire was used, translated and validated for Brazil. Data analysis used the software Statistical Package for Social Sciences. In the bivariate analysis, we used Student's t-test, analysis of variance and Spearman's correlation of (α=0.05). To identify predictors for the safety climate scores, multiple linear regression was used, having the safety climate domain as the main outcome (α=0.01). Results: most participants were women, nursing staff, who worked in direct care to adult patients in critical areas, without a graduate degree and without any other employment. The average and median total score of the instrument corresponded to 61.8 (SD=13.7) and 63.3, respectively. The variable professional performance was found as a factor associated with the safety environment for the domain perception of service management and hospital management (p=0.01). Conclusion: the identification of factors associated with the safety environment permits the construction of strategies for safe practices in the hospitals. PMID:26487138

  13. Role of Organizational Climate in Organizational Commitment: The Case of Teaching Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Mohammad Amin; Barati, Omid; Ghoroghchian, Malake-sadat; Montazer-alfaraj, Razieh; Ranjbar Ezzatabadi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective The commitment of employees is affected by several factors, including factors related to the organizational climate. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between organizational commitment of nurses and the organizational climate in hospital settings. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 at two teaching hospitals in Yazd, Iran. A total of 90 nurses in these hospitals participated. We used stratified random sampling of the nursing population. The required data were gathered using two valid questionnaires: Allen and Meyer's organizational commitment standard questionnaire and Halpin and Croft's Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire. Data analysis was done through SPSS 20 statistical software (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). We used descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation coefficient for the data analysis. Results The findings indicated a positive and significant correlation between organizational commitment and organizational climate (r = 0.269, p = 0.01). There is also a significant positive relationship between avoidance of organizational climate and affective commitment (r = 0.208, p = 0.049) and between focus on production and normative and continuance commitment (r = 0.308, p = 0.003). Conclusion Improving the organizational climate could be a valuable strategy for improving organizational commitment. PMID:27169007

  14. Assessing the operating efficiencies of teaching hospitals by an enhancement of the AHA/AAMC method. American Hospital Association/Association of American Medical Colleges.

    PubMed

    Morey, R C; Retzlaff-Roberts, D L; Fine, D J; Loree, S W

    2000-01-01

    In the ongoing effort to control costs, comparisons among hospitals' efficiency levels, if valid, can help identify "best practices" across institutions and uncover situations that need corrective intervention. The authors present an extension of the "adjusted cost per equivalent discharge" approach, which incorporates case-mix-severity differences, regional labor cost differentials, and inpatient/outpatient mix, but does not take into account such factors as the differences in hospital sizes, extents of the teaching mission, or quality of care delivered. The alternative approach yields information that suggests where an institution's total operating costs might be reduced with no change in any of the hospital's outputs or operating environment, through comparison with a "peer group" of other hospitals, matched according to the subject hospital's number of beds, the quality of care the hospital delivers, the extent of medical education carried out, the level of case-mix-adjusted discharges, and outpatient activities. A difficulty with this approach (as with others) is that measurement of some of the additional facets (e.g., quality of care) is still evolving, so its main contribution at this time is to provide a construct and method capable of incorporating these important added considerations. Hospital rankings achieved by applying the current and alternative approaches to a real set of teaching hospitals operating in FY 1987 are compared. While the rankings produced by the two approaches are loosely similar, the authors show that some significant differences do appear and can be at least partially explained by the incorporation of the additional factors mentioned above. PMID:10667873

  15. Self-Efficacy and Participation in Choosing the Teaching Profession as Predictors of Academic Motivation among Arab Student's Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbaria, Qutaiba Ali

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the link between learning motivation among teaching trainees and self-efficacy and the rate of participation in choosing the profession of teaching. The main assumptions: There will be a clear positive link between the rate of self-efficacy of students and academic motivation, with its various elements.…

  16. Comparison of Students' Perceptions of Their Teaching-Learning Environments in Three Professional Academic Disciplines: A Valuable Tool for Quality Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haarala-Muhonen, Anne; Ruohoniemi, Mirja; Katajavuori, Nina; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored differences in students' perceptions of their teaching-learning environments in three professional academic disciplines at the University of Helsinki, using a modified version of the Experiences of Teaching & Learning Questionnaire. A total of 426 first-year students from the Faculties of Law, Pharmacy and Veterinary…

  17. Perceptions of the Research-Teaching Nexus and Job Satisfaction: An Analysis from the Carnegie International Survey of the Academic Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Esther E.; Yakir, Ruth

    This study used data from the 1991-93 Carnegie International Survey of the Academic Profession to examine the perceptions of college faculty in regard to the emphasis on research over teaching in advanced-industrialized higher education systems, the compatibility of research and teaching, and job satisfaction. It focused on data from 8 countries…

  18. The Efficiency of Computer-Aided Instruction and Creative Drama on Academic Achievement in Teaching of Integers to Seventh Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Abdullah; Özturk, Mesut; Ertör, Eren

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to compare computer-aided instruction, creative drama and traditional teaching methods in teaching of Integers to the seventh grade students. The study was conducted in a primary school with eighty-seven students (N=87) in a county of Agri, in spring term of academic year 2011-2012. A non equivalent control group quasi experimental…

  19. Re-Conceptualising the Concept of a Nexus? A Survey of 12 Scottish IS/IM Academics' Perceptions of a Nexus between Teaching, Research, Scholarship and Consultancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kevin; Wakelin, Sonia J.

    2009-01-01

    The discussion into nexes between teaching, research and scholarship continues to expand. Positivistic studies have attempted to "measure" research output to evaluate teaching performance. Interpretive-based studies suggest staff perceive a nexus to exist. This paper investigates the perceptions of academic staff with regards the nexes between…

  20. A survey of digital radiography practice in four South African teaching hospitals: an illuminative study

    PubMed Central

    Nyathi, T; Chirwa, TF; van der Merwe, DG

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess radiographer familiarity and preferences with digital radiography in four teaching hospitals and thereafter make recommendations in line with the migration from screen film to digital radiography. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was designed to collect data from either qualified or student radiographers from four teaching hospitals. From the four teaching hospitals, there were a total of 205 potential respondents. Among other things, responses regarding experiences and preferences with digital radiography, quality control procedures, patient dose, advantages and disadvantages of digital radiography were sought. The information collected was based on self-reporting by the participants. The study is exploratory in nature and descriptive statistics were generated from the collected data using Microsoft Excel 2007 and StatsDirect software. Results: Sixty-three out of 205 (31%) radiographers from all the four radiology centers responded to the circulated questionnaire. Only 15% (8) of the qualified radiographers had 4 or more years of experience with digital radiography compared to 68% (36) for the same amount of experience with screen-film radiography. Sixty-one percent (38) of the participants had been exposed to digital radiography during their lectures while at university. A small proportion, 16% (10) of the respondents underwent formal training in quality control procedures on the digital X-ray units they were using. Slightly more than half (55%) of the participants felt it was easier for them to retake an image in digital radiography than in screen film radiography. Conclusion: The results of this survey showed that the participants are familiar with digital radiography and have embraced this relatively new technology as shown by the fact that they can identify both its advantages and disadvantages as applied to clinical practice. However, there are minimal quality control procedures specific to digital

  1. A Qualitative Analysis of Implementation of Antimicrobial Stewardship at 3 Academic Hospitals: Understanding the Key Influences on Success

    PubMed Central

    Jeffs, Lianne; Thampi, Nisha; Maione, Maria; Steinberg, Marilyn; Morris, Andrew M; Bell, Chaim M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inappropriate use of antimicrobials is linked to the development and spread of drug-resistant pathogens and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, lengths of hospital stay, and health care costs. “Antimicrobial stewardship” is the umbrella term for an evidence-based knowledge translation strategy involving comprehensive quality improvement activities to optimize the use of antimicrobials, improve patient outcomes, reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance and hospital-acquired infections such as Clostridium difficile, and decrease health care costs. Objective: To assess the perceptions and experiences of antimicrobial stewardship program leaders in terms of clinicians’ attitudes toward and behaviours related to antimicrobial prescribing. Methods: In this qualitative study, semistructured interviews were conducted with 6 antimicrobial stewards (2 physicians and 4 pharmacists) at 3 academic hospitals between June and August 2013. Results: The following 3 key themes emerged from the interviews: getting the right people on board, building collegial relationships, and rapidly establishing a track record. The study results elucidated the role and mechanisms that the program leader and other antimicrobial stewards used to influence other clinicians to engage in effective utilization of antimicrobials. The results also highlighted the methods employed by members of the antimicrobial stewardship team to tailor their strategies to the local context and to stakeholders of participating units; to gain credibility by demonstrating the impact of the antimicrobial stewardship program on clinical outcomes and cost; and to engage senior leaders to endorse and invest in the antimicrobial stewardship program, thereby adding to the antimicrobial stewards’ credibility and their ability to influence the uptake of effective antimicrobial use. Conclusions: Collectively, these results offer insight into processes and mechanisms of influence employed

  2. Study of patient satisfaction in a surgical unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, P.H.; Gupta, Shakti

    2012-01-01

    Background The hospitals have evolved from being an isolated sanatorium to a place with five star facilities. Patients and their relatives coming to the hospital not only expect world-class treatment, but also other facilities to make their stay comfortable in the hospital. This change in expectation has come due to tremendous growth of media and its exposure, as well as commercialization and improvement in facilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of patient/relatives satisfaction at tertiary care teaching hospital and feedback from them for improvement of the same. Methods The study was conducted by 1. Review of available national and international literature on the subject. 2. Carrying out survey amongst 50 patients and their relatives at one of the surgical unit by using structured questionnaire. 3. By analyzing the data using appropriate statistical methods. Results Eighty two percent people were satisfied with the service at admission counter while 81% were satisfied with room preparation at the time of admission. The nursing services satisfied 80% of people while 92% were satisfied with explanation about disease and treatment by doctor. The behavior of nurses, doctors and orderlies satisfied 92, 92 and 83% of people. The cleanliness of toilets satisfied only 49% while diet services satisfied 78% of people. Conclusion The five major satisfiers were behavior of doctors, explanation about disease and treatment, courtesy of staff at admission counter, behavior and cooperation of nurses. The five major dissatisfiers were cleanliness of toilets, quality of food, explanation about rules and regulation, behavior of orderlies and sanitary attendant and room preparedness. PMID:25983455

  3. Nurses exposure to workplace violence in a large teaching hospital in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Rashidian, Arash; Arab, Mohammad; Akbari-Sari, Ali; Hakimzadeh, Seyyed Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Workplace violence is one of the factors which can strongly reduce job satisfaction and the quality of working life of nurses. The aim of this study was to measure nurses’ exposure to workplace violence in one of the major teaching hospitals in Tehran in 2010. Methods: We surveyed the nurses in a cross-sectional design in 2010. The questionnaire was adapted from a standardized questionnaire designed collaboratively by the International Labor Office (ILO), the International Health Organization (IHO), the International Council of Nurses (ICN), and the Public Services International (PSI). Finally, in order to analyze the relationships among different variables in the study, T-test and Chi-Square test were used. Results: Three hundred and one nurses responded to the questionnaire (a response rate of 73%). Over 70% of the nurses felt worried about workplace violence. The participants reported exposure to verbal abuse (64% CI: 59-70%), bullying-mobbing (29% CI: 24-34%) and physical violence (12% CI: 9-16%) at least once during the previous year. Relatives of hospital patients were responsible for most of the violence. Nurses working in the emergency department and outpatient clinics were more likely to report having experienced violence. Nurses were unlikely to report violence to hospital managers, and 40% of nurses were unaware of any existing policies within the hospital for reducing violence. Conclusion: We observed a considerable level of nurse exposure to workplace violence. The high rate of reported workplace violence demonstrates that the existing safeguards that aim to protect the staff from abusive patients and relatives are inadequate. PMID:25396205

  4. Antibiotic consumption in non-teaching Lebanese hospitals: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Katia; Hanna, Pierre A; Salameh, Pascale; Raad, Etwal B

    2016-01-01

    The rising threat of antibiotic resistance is linked to patterns of antibiotic use in hospital settings where global efforts are undertaken to encourage reporting and benchmarking antibiotic consumption in an attempt to improve prescription regimens. In Lebanon, where data concerning the level of antibiotic consumption in hospitals is scarce, the aim of our paper is to track the intensity of antibiotic consumption in order to identify potential evidence of antibiotic misuse or abuse. The study is conducted in 2012 for a period of 12-month using data from pharmacy records in 27 non-teaching Lebanese hospitals according to the Anatomical, Therapeutic and chemical classification system and Defined Daily Dose (ATC/DDD) recommended by the World Health Organization and compiling data on ABC Calc software version 3.1. Results show that the average antibiotic consumption excluding pediatric cases is 72.56 Defined Daily Dose per 100 Bed-Days (DDD/100BD). Total broad spectrum antibiotic consumption is 12.14 DDD/100BD with no significant difference found between public and private hospitals (p>0.05 for all). The most commonly used antibiotics were Amoxycillin/Clavulanic acid, Ceftriaxone, Amoxycillin and Cefuroxime for parenteral use. Consumption of beta-lactams, Cephalosporins, Carbapenems, Monobactams and quinolones did not vary significantly by region, occupancy rate, number of beds including the number of intensive care unit beds. Our data findings provides baseline information on patterns of antibiotic consumption in Lebanon and the issue calls for concerted efforts to encourage data reporting on national basis and to correlate future findings with results of antibiotic susceptibility testing which can provide insights and tools needed to assess the public health consequences of antimicrobial misuse and to evaluate the impact of antibiotic resistance containment interventions. PMID:26806876

  5. A comparative study of collimation in bedside chest radiography for preterm infants in two teaching hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Stollfuss, J.; Schneider, K.; Krüger-Stollfuss, I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Unnecessary exposure of the abdomen, arms or head may lead to a substantial increase of the radiation dose in portable chest X-rays on the neonatal intensive care unit. The objective was to identify potential factors influencing inappropriate exposure of non-thoracic structures in two teaching hospitals. Methods The study analysed 200 consecutive digital chest radiographs in 20 preterm neonates (mean gestation 25 ± 1 weeks). Demographical data, tube settings and exposure parameters were recorded. To grade the collimation, we used a scoring system with a maximum of 12 exposed non-thoracic structures. Length of gestation, age, the radiographer, years of experience in performing X-rays and the number of in situ catheters or lines, were correlated with collimation quality. Results There was no significant difference between the rates of optimal images obtained in the two hospitals (0.32 vs 0.39, n.s.). Scores showed that most suboptimal images had only mildly reduced image quality (1.40 ± 1.38 vs 1.20 ± 1.43, n.s.). Length of gestation or presence of surgical drains, catheters and tubes had no obvious effects on the exposure of non-thoracic structures. Large intra-individual variation in optimal collimation (14–86%) was noted for the radiographers in both hospitals; this was unrelated to their respective years of experience. Conclusion In our study, the only identifiable factor influencing the collimation of portable chest radiographs in preterm infants was the radiographer’s dedication and awareness. There were no apparent differences between the hospitals investigated. Exposure of non-thoracic structures was relatively frequent and mainly involved the proximal humeri. PMID:26937444

  6. "Teach Us How to Do It Properly!" An Australian Academic Integrity Student Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretag, Tracey; Mahmud, Saadia; Wallace, Margaret; Walker, Ruth; McGowan, Ursula; East, Julianne; Green, Margaret; Partridge, Lee; James, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The results of a large online student survey (n?=?15,304), on academic integrity at six Australian universities, indicate that a majority of respondents reported a good awareness of academic integrity and knowledge of academic integrity policy at their university and were satisfied with the information and support they receive. Response varied…

  7. Awareness, Knowledge, Attitude and Skills of Telemedicine among Health Professional Faculty Working in Teaching Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Telemedicine is an emerging technology in health sector in India. The success of any new technology depends on many factors including the knowledge and understanding of the concept, skills acquired, attitude towards technology and working environment by the concerned professionals. Aim The main objective of this study was to assess the awareness, knowledge, attitude and skills of telemedicine among the health professionals working in the teaching hospitals of Puducherry Region of India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out among various healthcare professionals using a proper sampling frame obtained from a list of teaching hospitals located in Puducherry Union Territory, India. A total of 120 teaching faculties and practitioners from the preclinical, para-clinical and clinical departments were taken up for the study. A pre-validated self-administered questionnaire was used for the survey to assess the awareness, knowledge, attitude and skills of telemedicine. The questionnaires were mailed to the respondents and the completed questionnaires were analysed as per the study objectives using descriptive statistics for the quantitative data and content analysis for the qualitative data. Results The knowledge level of the respondents was found to be good with 41% of the respondents, 35% possess fair knowledge and 24% don’t have adequate knowledge of telemedicine. With regard to the attitude towards telemedicine 39% of the respondents possess high attitude, 31% possess moderate attitude and 30% possess low level of attitude. Investigations on the skills of the respondents on telemedicine showed that 19% respondents are highly skilled or experts, 25% are moderately skilled which includes learners or beginners, and 56% are unskilled in handling telemedicine and its related equipments. Conclusion The findings of the study suggest that although the respondents experience and knowledge are limited in telemedicine technology a fair

  8. Neuropsychological, Academic, and Adaptive Functioning in Children Who Survive In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and Resuscitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Robin D.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study of 25 children, ages 2-15, who survived a cardiac arrest while hospitalized, found that a majority of subjects exhibited low-average to deficient levels of performance on neuropsychologic, achievement, and adaptive behavior measures. Duration of cardiac arrest and a medical risk score were significantly correlated with decreased…

  9. Predictors of preoperative anxiety among surgical patients in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital, South Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hospitalization and surgery are critical negative life events that lead to the experience of considerable anxiety in patients. Patients may perceive the day of surgery as the biggest and the most threatening day in their lives. There is paucity of information on predictors of anxiety in the current study area. The main objective of this study is to assess predictors of preoperative anxiety among patients scheduled for surgery in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted using quantitative data collection technique in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital from February 13 to April 13, 2012 on 239 patients scheduled for surgery. The data were collected by five trained diploma nurses using structured interviewer administered questionnaires that were prepared based on state trait anxiety inventory measurement scale. The quantitative data were entered into SPSS for windows version 16. 0 and descriptive, simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Results A total of 239 patients were enrolled in the study with a response rate of 93.0%. Their mean age was 42.7 ± 1.8 years (range 16 to 85 years). Nearly over half 53.6% were females, while 48.1% illiterate, 72.4% Oromo and 56.5% were Muslim followers. Significant preoperative anxiety was seen in 70.3% patients. The most common factors that lead to anxiety were fear of death 38.1% and fear of unknown origin 24.3% and the most common strategy mentioned by patient in reducing anxiety were talking to other patient 79.8% and religious belief. Conclusions In the present study, two third 70.3% of preoperative patients had anxiety. Factors which were positively correlated with anxiety were trait anxiety, single and divorced, time of operation and income. Factors which were shown to reduce anxiety were preoperative anxiety related information provision and afternoon operation. Health professionals working in the hospital

  10. Development of an effective risk management system in a teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Unsafe health care provision is a main cause of increased mortality rate amongst hospitalized patients all over the world. A system approach to medical error and its reduction is crucial that is defined by clinical and administrative activities undertaken to identify, evaluate, and reduce the risk of injury. The aim of this study was to develop and implement a risk management system in a large teaching hospital in Iran, especially of the basis of WHO guidelines and patient safety context. Methods WHO draft guideline and patient safety reports from different countries were reviewed for defining acceptable framework of risk management system. Also current situation of mentioned hospital in safety matter and dimensions of patient safety culture was evaluated using HSOPSC questionnaire of AHRQ. With adjustment of guidelines and hospital status, the conceptual framework was developed and next it was validated in expert panel. The members of expert panel were selected according to their role and functions and also their experiences in risk management and patient safety issues. The validated framework consisted of designating a leader and coordinator core, defining communications, and preparing the infrastructure for patient safety education and culture-building. That was developed on the basis of some values and commitments and included reactive and proactive approaches. Results The findings of reporting activities demonstrated that at least 3.6 percent of hospitalized patients have experienced adverse events and 5.3 percent of all deaths in the hospital related with patient safety problems. Beside the average score of 12 dimensions of patient safety culture was 46.2 percent that was considerably low. The “non-punitive responses to error” had lowest positive score with 21.2 percent. Conclusion It is of paramount importance for all health organizations to lay necessary foundations in order to identify safety risks and improve the quality of care. Inadequate

  11. Scribe Impacts on Provider Experience, Operations, and Teaching in an Academic Emergency Medicine Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Jeremy J.; Wallenstein, Joshua; Ackerman, Jeremy D.; Akhter, Murtaza; Ander, Douglas; Keadey, Matthew T.; Capes, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physicians dedicate substantial time to documentation. Scribes are sometimes used to improve efficiency by performing documentation tasks, although their impacts have not been prospectively evaluated. Our objective was to assess a scribe program’s impact on emergency department (ED) throughput, physician time utilization, and job satisfaction in a large academic emergency medicine practice. Methods We evaluated the intervention using pre- and post-intervention surveys and administrative data. All site physicians were included. Pre- and post-intervention data were collected in four-month periods one year apart. Primary outcomes included changes in monthly average ED length of stay (LOS), provider-specific average relative value units (RVUs) per hour (raw and normalized to volume), self-reported estimates of time spent teaching, self-reported estimates of time spent documenting, and job satisfaction. We analyzed data using descriptive statistics and appropriate tests for paired pre-post differences in continuous, categorical, and ranked variables. Results Pre- and post-survey response rates were 76.1% and 69.0%, respectively. Most responded positively to the intervention, although 9.5% reported negative impressions. There was a 36% reduction (25%–50%; p<0.01) in time spent documenting and a 30% increase (11%–46%, p<0.01) in time spent in direct patient contact. No statistically significant changes were seen in job satisfaction or perception of time spent teaching. ED volume increased by 88 patients per day (32–146, p=0.04) pre- to post- and LOS was unchanged; rates of patients leaving against medical advice dropped, and rates of patients leaving without being seen increased. RVUs per hour increased 5.5% and per patient 5.3%; both were statistically significant. No statistically significant changes were seen in patients seen per hour. There was moderate correlation between changes in ED volume and changes in productivity metrics. Conclusion

  12. Analysis of the quality of hospital information systems in Isfahan teaching hospitals based on the DeLone and McLean model

    PubMed Central

    Saghaeiannejad-Isfahani, Sakineh; Saeedbakhsh, Saeed; Jahanbakhsh, Maryam; Habibi, Mahboobeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quality is one of the most important criteria for the success of an information system, which refers to its desirable features of the processing system itself. The aim of this study was the analysis of system quality of hospital information systems (HIS) in teaching hospitals of Isfahan based on the DeLone and McLean model. Materials and Methods: This research was an applied and analytical-descriptive study. It was performed in teaching hospitals of Isfahan in 2010. The research population consisted of the HIS's users, system designers and hospital information technology (IT) authorities who were selected by random sampling method from users’ group (n = 228), and system designers and IT authorities (n = 52) using census method. The data collection tool was two researcher-designed questionnaires. Questionnaires’ reliability was estimated by using Cronbach's alpha was calculated. It was 97.1% for the system designers and IT authorities’ questionnaire and 92.3% for system users’ questionnaire. Results: Findings showed that the mean of system quality score in a variety of HIS and among different hospitals was significantly different and not the same (P value ≥ 0.05). In general, Kosar (new version) system and Rahavard Rayaneh system have dedicated the highest and the lowest mean scores to themselves. The system quality criterion overall mean was 59.6% for different HIS and 57.5% among different hospitals respectively. Conclusion: According to the results of the research, it can be stated that based on the applied model, the investigated systems were relatively desirable in terms of quality. Thus, in order to achieve a good optimal condition, it is necessary to pay particular attention to the improving factors of system quality, type of activity, type of specialty and hospital ownership type. PMID:25767816

  13. Teaching neuraxial anesthesia techniques for obstetric care in a Ghanaian referral hospital: achievements and obstacles.

    PubMed

    Olufolabi, Adeyemi J; Atito-Narh, Evans; Eshun, Millicent; Ross, Vernon H; Muir, Holly A; Owen, Medge D

    2015-06-01

    Anesthesia providers in low-income countries may infrequently provide regional anesthesia techniques for obstetrics due to insufficient training and supplies, limited manpower, and a lack of perceived need. In 2007, Kybele, Inc. began a 5-year collaboration in Ghana to improve obstetric anesthesia services. A program was designed to teach spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery and spinal labor analgesia at Ridge Regional Hospital, Accra, the second largest obstetric unit in Ghana. The use of spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery increased significantly from 6% in 2006 to 89% in 2009. By 2012, >90% of cesarean deliveries were conducted with spinal anesthesia, despite a doubling of the number performed. A trial of spinal labor analgesia was assessed in a small cohort of parturients with minimal complications; however, protocol deviations were observed. Although subsequent efforts to provide spinal analgesia in the labor ward were hampered by anesthesia provider shortages, spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery proved to be practical and sustainable. PMID:25988637

  14. Maternal mortality in a teaching hospital in southern India. A 13-year study.

    PubMed

    Rao, K B

    1975-10-01

    During the 13 years 1960-1972, in a teaching hospital that serves a predominantly rural and semiurban population in southern India, there were 74,384 deliveries and 1245 maternal deaths, a maternal mortality rate of 16.7 per 1000 births. Direct obstetric factors caused 854 (65.5%) of these deaths. The leading indirect or associated causes of maternal deaths were anemia, cerebrovascular accidents, and infectious hepatitis. During the past 13 years, monthly maternal mortality meetings have helped to reduce the incidence of avoidable factors in maternal deaths among patients from the city but not among those brought from the surrounding countryside. The important causes of maternal deaths in this developing country, and their prevention, are individually discussed. PMID:1080844

  15. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcal colonization in dogs entering a veterinary teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Hanselman, Beth A; Kruth, Stephen; Weese, J Scott

    2008-01-01

    Nasal, axillary and rectal swabs were collected from 193 dogs admitted to the Ontario Veterinary College Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Enrichment culture was performed and coagulase positive staphylococci were identified via standard methods. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was isolated from 4/193 (2.1%) dogs, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans were each isolated from 1/193 (0.5%) dogs. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius was not identified. All S. pseudintermedius isolates were unrelated on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Evaluation of the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant staphylococcal colonization is necessary to understand the apparent emergence of these strains and to develop appropriate control strategies. PMID:17643874

  16. Teaching physicians-in-training to address racial disparities in health: a hospital-community partnership.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; Kohrman, Claire; Lemon, Maurice; Vickers, Dennis L.

    2003-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in health care continue to be a major impediment to improving the health of many communities in the United States. Efforts must be directed at the multiple social, economic, and historic determinants of health disparities. In addition, health care providers must be aware of these determinants and must have the tools to address them in their individual relationships with patients. This article describes a partnership that arose out of the mutual recognition by a community organization and public hospital of the need to (a) teach physicians how to recognize the root causes of health disparities, (b) improve their cross-cultural understanding and communication, and (c) enhance their awareness of the capacity of community resources to positively impact their patients' lives. PMID:12815083

  17. Prophylactic Antibiotic Management of Surgical Patients Noted as "Allergic" to Penicillin at Two Academic Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard H; Jacques, Paul St; Wanderer, Jonathan P; Bombulie, Mark R; Agarwalla, Niraj

    2016-05-01

    We studied prophylactic antibiotics administered at 2 academic medical centers during a 6-year period where a cephalosporin was indicated but an "allergy" to penicillin was noted. Another drug (typically vancomycin or clindamycin) was substituted approximately 80% of the time; this occurred frequently even when symptoms unrelated to acute hypersensitivity were listed. In >50% of cases, the reaction was either omitted or vague (e.g., simply "rash"). Given the estimated 1% cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins with similar R1 side chains, many of these patients could have received either the prescribed cephalosporin or another cephalosporin with a different R1 side chain. PMID:26556109

  18. Stimulating Creativity by Integrating Research and Teaching Across the Academic Disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Creativity is a human adventure fueled by the process of exploration. But how do we explore our intellectual interests? In this talk, I'll propose that we seek out our creative opportunities using an inherent natural process. This process might, therefore, exploit search strategies found across diverse natural systems - ranging from the way animals forage for food to the way the human eye locates information embedded within complex patterns. The symbolic significance of this hypothesis lies in its call for educational institutes to provide environments that encourage our natural explorations rather those that stamp restrictive, artificial `order' on the process. To make my case, I'll review some of my own research trajectories followed during my RCSA Cottrell Scholarship at the University of Oregon (UO). My first conclusion will be that it is fundamentally unnatural to declare divides across disciplines. In particular, the infamous `art-science divide' is not a consequence of our natural creative searches but instead arises from our practical inability to accommodate the rapid drive toward academic specialization. Secondly, divides between research and teaching activities are equally unnatural - both endeavors are driven by the same creative strategy and are intertwined within the same natural process. This applies equally to the experiences of professors and students. I will end with specific success stories at the UO. These include a NSF IGERT project (focused on accelerating students' transitions from classroom to research experiences) and a collaboration between architects and professors to design a building (the recently opened Lewis Integrative Science Building) that encourages daily encounters between students and professors across research disciplines.

  19. Exposure to blood among mortuary workers in teaching hospitals in south-west Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ogunnowo, Babatunde; Anunobi, Charles; Onajole, Adebayo; Odeyemi, Kofoworola

    2012-01-01

    Background Mortuary workers like other health workers are exposed to blood borne pathogens at work. A baseline assessment is important to plan for programmes to safeguard the health of workers. The aim of this study is to determine exposure rates to blood among mortuary workers in teaching hospitals in South West Nigeria. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out between March and May 2008. All mortuary workers working in six (6) teaching hospitals, 80 in total were included in the study. Data was collected with the aid of a 15- item self administered questionnaire. Data was analysed with the aid of EPI-INFO 2002. Statistical associations were explored using odds ratio and confidence intervals. Results A total of 76 respondents completed questionnaire giving a response rate of 95%; 3 males and 1 female declined to participate, the mean age of respondents was 38.2 years, 48(72.6%), 53(85.5%) and 50(73.5%) of the workers had been exposed to blood through cuts, blood splash and needle stick injury. Duration at work was significantly associated with blood splash. Workers who had worked 5years and above were 0.10 times (95% confidence interval 0.00–.0.78) as likely to experience blood splash compared to those who had worked under 5 years. Only 5(10.4%) of workers with needle stick injury had completed three doses of Hepatitis B vaccine. The specific confirmation by antibody titre was however not done in this study. Conclusion Exposure to blood was very common with blood splash emerging as the most common route of exposure. There is a need for vaccination of all mortuary workers with three doses of Hepatitis B Vaccine to protect their health. In addition, education of workers on risks and institution of standard operating procedure are crucial to safeguard the health of mortuary workers. PMID:22593797

  20. Spatial distribution and accessibility to public sector tertiary care teaching hospitals in Karachi: A Geographic Information Systems application.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Masood Ali; Ali, Mir Shabbar

    2016-07-01

    Optimal utilization of specialized curative healthcare services is contingent on spatial access to tertiary-care hospitals by the targeted population. The objectives of this study were to determine the spatial distribution of public sector tertiary-care teaching hospitals in Karachi, and to use GIS and network analysis for modeling the accessibility to these hospitals for Karachi residents. Maps of three, six, and nine kilometer buffers were created around the five selected hospitals to determine which towns of Karachi are either entirely or partially covered/accessible. Most of the towns in Karachi were covered either partially or completely by the three buffers and service areas of 3,6, and 9 kilometers around the five selected hospitals. This study highlights the limitations of using publicly available data for road network, and the need for creating and making available in public domain, comprehensive road network vector dataset in conjunction with population breakdowns by administrative subdivisions. PMID:27427142

  1. Prescribing patterns of target-specific oral anticoagulants: an academic hospital perspective

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Stacy A.; Yarbrough, Peter M.; Rose, Richard S.; Lanspa, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Target-specific oral anticoagulants have been rapidly adopted into clinical practice for stroke prophylaxis and venous thromboembolism treatment, raising concerns about off-label prescribing practices. We conducted a retrospective review of consecutive patients prescribed dabigatran, rivaroxaban or apixaban prior to inpatient hospitalization over an 18-month period to examine the off-label prescribing frequency, contraindications and related complications. Chart review included baseline demographics, hospital admitting service, outpatient prescribing service, renal function, therapeutic indication, echocardiographic findings, contraindications, major bleeding events and vital status. We identified 160 patients who received a target-specific oral anticoagulant prior to hospitalization. Over half (53.1%) of the patients received rivaroxaban, 43.7% received dabigatran and 3.1% received apixaban. Atrial fibrillation (68.1%) and venous thromboembolism treatment (25.6%) were the most common indications. Ninety percent of patients had a U.S. Foods and Drugs Administration (FDA)-approved indication for therapy. Major bleeding events occurred in 4.4% of patients. Cardiology was the most common prescribing and admitting service (43.8 and 31.3%), and more frequently adhered to FDA-approved indications (97 vs. 84%, P = 0.01). There were no significant differences between prescribing services regarding major contraindications (P = 0.14) and major bleeding events (P = 0.77). Off-label prescription rates for target-specific oral anticoagulants were infrequent and not associated with increased adverse events. PMID:26414695

  2. Distribution of bacterial contamination in a teaching hospital in Tehran - a special focus on Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Mirzaii, Mehdi; Emaneini, Mohammad; Maleknejad, Parviz; Jonaidi, Nematollah; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani; Aligholi, Marzieh; Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Halimi, Shahnaz; Taherikalani, Morovat; Kasaeian, Amir

    2012-03-01

    There are documents that confirm the cycle of bacterial transmission between patients, staff, and the inanimate environment. The environment may have more effect on intensive care units (ICUs), because the patients who require intensive care have unstable clinical conditions and are more sensitive to infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacteria in air and inanimate surface in the ICUs and to compare the microbial levels to standard levels.Air and inanimate surface in the four ICUs of a teaching hospital underwent weekly surveillance by means of air sampler and swabs for a period of six-month. Total bacterial counts were evaluated onto trypticase soy agar and mannitol salt agar (MSA).A total of 725 samples [air (168) and inanimate surfaces (557)] were collected. The total mean ± SD CFU/m3 of airborne bacteria in all of the ICUs were 115.93 ± 48.04. The most common bacteria in air of the ICUs were Gram-positive cocci (84.2%). The total mean ± SD airborne of Staphylococcus aureus was 12.10±8.11 CFU/m3. The highest levels of S. aureus contamination were found in ventilators and bed ledges. More suitable disinfection of hospital environments and monthly rotation in utilization of the various disinfectant agents are needed for the prevention of airborne and inanimate transmission of S. aureus. PMID:22510282

  3. T cell subset profile in healthy Zambian adults at the University Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Chisenga, Caroline Cleopatra; Kelly, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Symptom-free human immunodeficiency virus antibody-negative Zambian adults (51 subjects, aged 20 to 62 years, 33.3% women and 66.7% men) were studied to establish T cell subset reference ranges. Methods We carried out across sectional study at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka. Blood samples were collected from healthy donor volunteers from hospital health care staff, between February and March 2015. Immunopheno typing was undertaken to characterize Tcell subsets using the markers CD3, CD4, CD8, α4β7, Ki67, CD25, CCR7, CD54RA, CD57, CD28, CD27 and HLA-DR. Results Among 51 volunteers, Women had significantly higher absolute CD4 count (median 1042; IQR 864, 1270) than in men (671; 545, 899) (p=0.003). Women also had more CD4 cells expressing homing, naïve, effector and effector memory T cell subsets compared to men. However, in the CD8 population, only the effector cells were significantly different with women expressing more than the males. Conclusion We provide early reference range for T cell subsets in Zambian adults and conclude that among the African women some T cell subsets are higher than men. PMID:27231509

  4. Quality of nursing care and satisfaction of patients attended at a teaching hospital1

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Juliana Santana; Silva, Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo; Minamisava, Ruth; Bezerra, Ana Lúcia Queiroz; de Sousa, Maiana Regina Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Objectives assess the quality of nursing care, the patients' satisfaction and the correlation between both. Method cross-sectional study, involving 275 patients hospitalized at a teaching hospital in the Central-West of Brazil. The data were collected through the simultaneous application of three instruments. Next, they were included in an electronic database and analyzed in function of the positivity, median value and Spearman's correlation coefficients. Results among the nursing care assessed, only two were considered safe - hygiene and physical comfort; nutrition and hydration - while the remainder were classified as poor. Nevertheless, the patients were satisfied with the care received in the domains assessed: technical-professional, confidence and educational. This can be justified by the weak to moderate correlation that was observed among these variables. Conclusion Despite the quality deficit, the patients' satisfaction level with the nursing care received was high. These results indicate that the institution needs to center its objectives on a continuing evaluation system of the care quality, aiming to attend to the patients' expectations. PMID:25029057

  5. Patient Experience of Nursing Quality in a Teaching Hospital in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al Momani, M; Al Korashy, H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Examining the quality of nursing care from the patient's perspective is an important element in quality evaluation. The extent to which patients’ expectations are met will influence their perceptions and their satisfaction with the quality of care received. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among admitted patients at King Khalid Teaching Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected (from January 2011 to March 2011) from a convenience sample of 448 patients using a 42-items questionnaire assessing six dimensions of the nursing care provided to, during hospitalization. Results: On a four–point scale (4-higly agree,3-agree, 2-disagree, and 1-higly disagree). The individual items of nursing care showing the lowest means were the information received from the nurses about self-help (2.81), the information about the laboratory results (2.76) and the way the nurse shared the patient's feeling (2.72). A strong correlation existed between the overall perception level and the variables of gender (P=0.01), and the types of department (0.004). Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate negative experiences of patients with nursing care in dimensions of information, caring behavior, and nurse competency and technical care. Awareness of the importance of these dimensions of nursing care and ongoing support to investigate patients’ perception periodically toward quality of nursing care are critical to success the philosophy of patient centered health care. PMID:23113223

  6. Evaluation of an intensive care unit in a teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Adu-Gyamfi, Y; al-Ghassab, G; al-Suleiman, S A; al-Sibai, M H; Wosornu, L

    1992-01-01

    Intensive Care Units (ICU) in general hospitals have become a standard requirement in tertiary care centres. However, the appropriateness of their use is not widely known. We have used the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS) to evaluate a multidisciplinary ICU in a teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia. The average occupancy rate was 79%, the nurse: patient ratio was 1:1.4, duration of stay 4.1 +/- 3.5 days, and mortality was 1.4%. The distribution of severity of illness was as follows: Classes I & II, 82%, and Classes III & IV, 18%. The average TISS points were: daily per patient 15.1 +/- 2.7 (range 11.5-21.7), total per day 125.6 +/- 38.2 (range 35-211), and patient points per nurse was 21.1. We conclude that, although less than 20% of patients required unique ICU services, the use of our ICU was appropriate to the current medical and manpower training needs of the community it was designed to serve, but the basis of nurses' complaints of overwork remains to be determined. PMID:1399373

  7. Empathy from the Nurses' Viewpoint in Teaching Hospitals of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Parvan, Kobra; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Seyedrasooly, Alehe; Dadkhah, Delavar; Jabarzadeh, Faranak

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Empathy is the ability to put one in the place of others and to better understand their feelings and experiences. According to researchers, there is a type of challenge in using this concept in nursing field. In most cases, the term empathy substitutes other concepts. Regarding this point, it seems quite necessary to research and discuss different dimensions of this concept in different studies. This study aimed to determine empathy regarding the nurses' point of view. Methods: In this descriptive study sample size was selected according to study population or in the other hand all the nurses in 3 general hospital was selected because they are the most important teaching hospital in Tabriz. LEP (La Monica Empathy Profile) was used as empathy tool. Data were analyzed by SPSS Ver. 13.0. Results: In nonverbal behavior dimension, touching the patient was considered as the most effective methods. On the other hand, nurses could not always be able to control stress and they could not always being with patients to show their empathy. Many people believe that nurses showed very little feelings while raggedly the reflective enclosure and they occasionally had to change their schedules to talk to patients. Conclusion: In most cases the nurses support nonverbal behavior, such as reflective, close and touching encountering in establishing relationship with the patient. However, to improve this situation, planning for nurses to become familiar with the ways through which they can express their interest to show empathy would be effective PMID:25276746

  8. Needlestick injury among medical personnel in Accident and Emergency Department of two teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ng, Y W; Hassim, I Noor

    2007-03-01

    Needlestick injury has been recognized as one of the occupational hazards which results in transmission of bloodborne pathogens. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 136 health care workers in the Accident and Emergency Department of two teaching hospitals from August to November 2003 to determine the prevalence of cases and episodes of needlestick injury. In addition, this study also assessed the level of knowledge of blood-borne diseases and Universal Precautions, risk perception on the practice of Universal Precautions and to find out factors contributing to needlestick injury. Prevalence of needlestick injury among the health care workers in the two hospitals were found to be 31.6% (N = 43) and 52.9% (N = 87) respectively. Among different job categories, medical assistants appeared to face the highest risk of needlestick injury. Factors associated with needlestick injury included shorter tenure in one's job (p < 0.05). Findings of this study support the hypothesis that health care workers are at risk of needlestick injury while performing procedures on patients. Therefore, comprehensive infection control strategies should be applied to effectively reduce the risk of needlestick injury. PMID:17682562

  9. Auditing Analgesic Use in Post-operative Setting in a Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bathini, Prapthi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Managing postoperative pain efficiently is one important therapeutic challenge in the hospitals. Combination use of analgesics is in vogue, where in drugs from the opioid and non-opioid group are given synergistically. The aim of this study is to audit the use of different analgesics on the first postoperative day. Effort has been made to look into the drug or drug combinations used and other factors associated with their use. Materials and Methods: Retrospective, cross sectional observational study was conducted over a period of 11 months in a tertiary care teaching hospital at Hyderabad with approval from institutional ethics committee. Medical records of 649 patients on the first postoperative day were analysed for analgesics by various indicators. Results: Average number of drugs per encounter was 4.23. Percentage of patients prescribed drugs from national essential drug list/WHO was 81.94%. Most common analgesic (monotherapy) prescribed was tramadol followed by diclofenac and the most common combination drugs prescribed were tramadol+Paracetamol. The most common route of administration was intravenous. All the drugs except piroxicam, were in the lower limit of the recommended daily dose. Conclusion: The present study gives an idea of the overall pattern of analgesic drug use in postoperative patients. The drug combinations used, the most common single use drug can be made out. The health professionals can be encouraged to prescribe by generic name and from the National List of Essential Medicines NLEMs. PMID:26023565

  10. A review of cleft lip and palate management: Experience of a Nigerian Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Efunkoya, Akinwale Adeyemi; Omeje, Kelvin Uchenna; Amole, Ibiyinka Olushola; Osunde, Otasowie Daniel; Akpasa, Izegboya Olohitae

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cleft lip (CL) and palate (CLP) management is multidisciplinary. A cleft team was formed in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital to address the health needs of cleft patients in the centre. Aim: This paper aims at documenting the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH) management protocol for orofacial clefts and also to review our experience with CLP surgeries performed at AKTH since our partnering with Smile Train. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of all the cleft patients surgically treated from January 2006 to December 2014 under Smile Train sponsorship was undertaken. A descriptive narrative of the cleft team protocol was also given. Results: One hundred and fifty-five patients (80 males, 75 females) had surgical repairs of either the lip or palate. CL patients were 83 (53.55%), while CLP patients were 45 (29.03%) and isolated cleft palate patients were 27 (17.42%). Conclusion: The inclusion of various specialities in the cleft team is highly desirable. Poverty level amongst our patients frequently limits our management to surgical treatment sponsored by the Smile Train, despite the presence of other residual problems. PMID:26712291

  11. Utilization of potentially inappropriate medications in elderly patients in a tertiary care teaching hospital in India

    PubMed Central

    Jhaveri, Binit N.; Patel, Tejas K.; Barvaliya, Manish J; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the use of potentially inappropriate medicines in elderly inpatients in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed for cases of elderly patients admitted between January 2010 and December 2010. Data on age, gender, diagnosis, duration of hospital stay, treatment, and outcome were collected. Prescriptions were assessed for the use of potentially inappropriate medications in geriatric patients by using American Geriatric Society Beer's criteria (2012) and PRISCUS list (2010). Results: A total of 676 geriatric patients (52.12% females) were admitted in the medicine ward. The average age of geriatric patients was 72.69 years. According to Beer's criteria, at least one inappropriate medicine was prescribed in 590 (87.3%) patients. Metoclopramide (54.3%), alprazolam (9%), diazepam (8%), digoxin > 0.125 mg/day (5%), and diclofenac (3.7%) were the commonly used inappropriate medications. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in heart and renal failure patients was the commonly identified drug–disease interaction. According to PRISCUS list, at least one inappropriate medication was prescribed in 210 (31.06%) patients. Conclusion: Use of inappropriate medicines is highly prevalent in elderly patients. PMID:25276629

  12. Antibiotic prescribing in two private sector hospitals; one teaching and one non-teaching: A cross-sectional study in Ujjain, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The worldwide increase in antibiotic resistant bacteria is of great concern. One of the main causes is antibiotic use which is likely to be high but is poorly described in India. The aim was to analyze and compare antibiotic prescribing for inpatients, in two private sector tertiary care hospitals; one Teaching and one Non-teaching, in Ujjain, India. Methods A cross-sectional study with manual data collection was carried out in 2008. Antibiotic prescribing was recorded for all inpatients throughout their hospital stay. Demographic profile of inpatients and prescribed antibiotics were compared. WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classifications for antibiotics was used and Defined Daily Doses (DDD) were calculated per patient day. Results A total of 8385 inpatients were admitted during the study period. In the Teaching hospital (TH) 82% of 3004 and in the Non-teaching hospital (NTH) 79% of 5381 patients were prescribed antibiotics. The most commonly prescribed antibiotic groups were; fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides in the TH and, 3rd generation cephalosporins and combination of antibiotics in the NTH. Of the prescriptions, 51% in the TH and 87% in the NTH (p<0.001) were for parenteral route administration. Prescribing by trade name was higher in the NTH (96%) compared with the TH (63%, p<0.001). Conclusions The results from both hospitals show extensive antibiotic prescribing. High use of combinations of antibiotics in the NTH might indicate pressure from pharmaceutical companies. There is a need to formulate and implement; based on local prescribing and resistance data; contextually appropriate antibiotic prescribing guidelines and a local antibiotic stewardship program. PMID:22788873

  13. Trauma Registry Development for Jos University Teaching Hospital: Report of the First Year Experience.

    PubMed

    Ozoilo, Kenneth N; Ali, Mariam; Peter, Solomon; Chirdan, Lohfa; Mock, Charles

    2015-08-01

    Adequate intervention in trauma management and prevention requires a well-documented database for objective study of the disease characteristics, hence the need for a trauma registry. The aim and objective of this study is to document in a database all patients admitted in our hospital following trauma. This study was conducted at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. Beginning 1 January 2012, data was collected on a trauma data sheet and transferred to a 3-page, 80-point questionnaire on Epi info3.5.2 software and stored in a standalone desktop computer. Four hundred fifty-nine patients were registered. Road traffic collisions were the most common causes of trauma, 312 (70.0 %), followed by gunshots, 58 (12.6 %). Mechanism of injury was blunt in 307 patients (66.9 %) and penetrating in 152 patients (33.1 %). Only 9 patients (2.0 %) were brought in by ambulance; majority came by public transportation, 401 (87.4 %). Eighty four patients (18.3 %) suffered various complications; 342 (74.5 %) were discharged home in satisfactory condition, and there were 32 hospital mortalities (7.0 %). Challenges encountered include difficulty in data collection, lack of computer software and internet access, no dedicated registry staff and no funding to engage, train and retain data gathering and management personnel. Our results provide data in support of the known epidemiology of trauma in our environment. Challenges encountered can be overcome using local assets and resources. PMID:26702237

  14. The Research-Teaching Nexus among Academics from 15 Institutions in Beijing, Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang; Shin, Jung-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    For long, the research-teaching nexus has maintained the interest of the scholarly community. The present study introduced a process variable--teaching styles--into the investigation of the association between research and teaching. The study adopted a predominantly quantitative-driven, mixed research method design, with a questionnaire survey…

  15. HIV quality of care assessment at an academic hospital: outcomes and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Christine A; Neeman, Naama; Davis, Roger B; Schulze, Joanne; Libman, Howard; Markson, Larry; Aronson, Mark; Bell, Sigall K

    2012-01-01

    Rapid changes in HIV treatment guidelines and antiretroviral therapy drug safety data add to the increasing complexity of caring for HIV-infected patients and amplify the need for continuous quality monitoring. The authors created an electronic HIV database of 642 patients who received care in the infectious disease (ID) and general medicine clinics in their academic center to monitor HIV clinical performance indicators. The main outcome measures of the study include process measures, including a description of how the database was constructed, and clinical outcomes, including HIV-specific quality improvement (QI) measures and primary care (PC) measures. Performance on HIV-specific QI measures was very high, but drug toxicity monitoring and PC-specific QI performance were deficient, particularly among ID specialists. Establishment of HIV QI data benchmarks as well as standards for how data will be measured and collected are needed and are the logical counterpart to treatment guidelines. PMID:22326983

  16. Metabolic syndrome and associated factors among outpatients of Jimma University Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Abda, Edris; Hamza, Leja; Tessema, Fasil; Cheneke, Waqtola

    2016-01-01

    Background Developing countries are now experiencing the epidemiologic transition, whereby the burden of chronic diseases, like metabolic syndrome, is increasing. However, no study had previously been conducted to show the status of metabolic syndrome among outpatients of Jimma University Teaching Hospital. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated factors among adult (≥20 years) patients. Methods A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted in July 2014 among adult (≥20 years) patients attending Jimma University Teaching Hospital, outpatient department. All patients attending the outpatient department and were willing to participate in the study were included. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were undertaken for all the study subjects to know the status of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was identified using the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results A total of 225 participants were included in the study, of whom 106 (47.1%) were males and 119 (52.9%) were females. A total of 59 (26%) adults were found to have metabolic syndrome, which was seen more than twice as much in females, 42 (35%), as compared with males, 17 (16%), (P<0.01). The most frequent metabolic syndrome parameters were hypertension (45%), hyperglycemia (39%), decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (31%), central obesity (26%), and elevated triglycerides (18%). Elevated blood pressure is more common in females (44.5%) than in males (34.9%). Decreased HDL-cholesterol was observed among 37% of females versus 24% males (P<0.001) and 6% of males versus 45% females had central obesity (P<0.001). Hypertension and body mass index were significantly lower among males (35% and 14%) than females (45% and 41%) (P<0.01 and P<0.001), respectively. Conclusion It is demonstrated that metabolic syndrome is prevalent in adult outpatients in Jimma and increases as age increases; it

  17. Becoming a leader in patient satisfaction: changing the culture of care in an academic community hospital.

    PubMed

    Deitrick, Lynn M; Capuano, Terry A; Paxton, Stuart S; Stern, Glenn; Dunleavy, Jack; Miller, William L

    2006-01-01

    In the context of the current health care payer system, quality of care standards, financial incentives and consumer choice are not well aligned, yet competition for increased admissions has become a matter of survival. Satisfaction and loyalty are two constructs that are the most meaningful measures in the context of sustaining and increasing admissions. Lehigh Valley Hospital and Health Network (LVHHN) launched an ambitious patient satisfaction improvement initiative in 2001. LVHHN augmented existing patient service excellence programs with an ethnographic study of a representative unit. Interview and observational data were analyzed using NVivo software. These results (four distilled domains of patient experience) can then be used to identify key components of the care environment that made meaningful differences in the perceptions of patients and their satisfaction. A designated interdepartmental task force can then develop interventions from those learnings, track outcomes through the Press Ganey scores, and ultimately yield increased admissions through unit-specific process change across the hospital. Admissions for fiscal year 2001 to fiscal year 2003 increased from 5,817 to 7,795 patients. The clear value and return on this initiative for our organization included a 34% increase in patient admissions over a four-year period. Improvements in both patient satisfaction and loyalty were demonstrated by a 24% increase for the question, "Likelihood of your recommending this hospital to others" as measured by the Press Ganey Inpatient survey. This initiative demonstrates the successful application of qualitative methods in a clinical microsystem to better understand patient perceptions that determine their satisfaction with medical care. PMID:18681198

  18. Simulation of “a week care unit” organization in an academic hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnaeve, G.; Beguin, C.; Chevalier, P.; Philippe, M.

    2015-05-01

    Poor bed allocation to each specialty might lead to a surplus of available beds during weekends. The introduction of a “week unit” that is only available during working days may improve the efficiency of bed allocation by uniting the patient flow of two regular units, before converting the regular beds of one unit into week beds. In order to test the possible introduction of this system in three services of the Saint-Luc hospital, we created a simulation model that considers new allocation rules to direct the patients into the right unit.

  19. Physicians and the teaching of breast self-examination: implications from a survey at a university teaching hospital.

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, M S; Fletcher, S W; Bunce, L A

    1985-01-01

    We surveyed 80 physicians from four specialties (Family Medicine, General Medicine, General Surgery, Ob-Gyn) to investigate how they taught breast self-examination (BSE). Only half reported personally teaching BSE. Few MDs reported routinely using techniques to assess BSE competency. Most (72 per cent) claimed no formal training in teaching BSE; 10 per cent claimed no training at all. Techniques used to teach BSE may vary, and physicians may lack the training to teach BSE. PMID:4003638

  20. Assault and abuse of health care workers in a large teaching hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Yassi, A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the nature, extent and costs of injuries to health care workers caused by physical abuse. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Large acute and tertiary care teaching hospital in Winnipeg. PARTICIPANTS: All health care workers at the hospital who filed reports of abuse-related injuries and of verbal abuse and threatening behaviour from Apr. 1, 1991, to Mar. 31, 1993. OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of physical and verbal abuse of hospital personnel according to job category, type of injury, hours of staff time lost and estimates of costs compensated for abuse-related injuries. RESULTS: Of the 242 reported abuse-related injuries 194 (80.2%) occurred among the nursing personnel. The nurses in the medical units filed most (33.1%) of the reports. Although the psychiatric nurses filed fewer reports (35 [14.5%]) they had the highest rate of injuries per 100,000 paid hours among the nursing staff. Not surprisingly, the security officers were at highest risk, 53.5% having reported an abuse-related injury for a rate of 16.8 such injuries per 100,000 paid hours. Male staff members had a higher injury rate than their female counterparts in all occupational groups. Bruising or crushing was the most frequent type of injury (in 126 cases); the next most frequent were cuts and lacerations (in 47) and human bites and exposures to blood or body fluids (in 23). However, the 36 sprains and strains resulted in the largest amount of time lost. In all, over 8000 hours were lost due to abuse-related injuries, and over $76,000 was paid in workers' compensation benefits. Concurrently, 646 incidents of verbal abuse and threatening behaviour were reported. Only three abuse-related injuries and two incidents of verbal abuse were reported by physicians. CONCLUSIONS: Abuse-related injuries to health care workers in an urban hospital are prevalent, serious and can be costly in terms of time off work and compensation. Underreporting is likely, especially among physicians

  1. Should the "in situ" simulation become the new way in Belgium? Experience of an academic hospital.

    PubMed

    Pospiech, A; Lois, F; Van Dyck, M; Kahn, D; De Kock, M

    2013-01-01

    The place of simulation in medical education, particularly in anesthesia, appears to be more and more evident. However, the history of simulation in Belgium showed that the associated costs remain a barrier. The use of 'in situ' simulation, defined as the practice of simulation in the usual workplace, could solve the problem of providing access to this educational tool. Indeed, it allows reducing equipment and manpower costs: the needed equipment comes from the hospital, and supervision and organization are provided by staff members. It also provides access to simulation for a larger number of individuals on site. The environment is more realistic because the participants operate in their usual workplace, with their customary equipment and team. Furthermore, 'in situ' simulation allows participation of the paramedical staff. This allows developing skills related to teamwork and communication. Despite those numerous advantages, several difficulties persist. The associated logistic and organizational constraints can be cumbersome. PMID:24605415

  2. Student learning style preferences in college-level biology courses: Implications for teaching and academic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitton, Jennifer Susan

    Education research has focused on defining and identifying student learning style preferences and how to incorporate this knowledge into teaching practices that are effective in engaging student interest and transmitting information. One objective was determining the learning style preferences of undergraduate students in Biology courses at New Mexico State University by using the online VARK Questionnaire and an investigator developed survey (Self Assessed Learning Style Survey, LSS). Categories include visual, aural, read-write, kinesthetic, and multimodal. The courses differed in VARK single modal learning preferences (p = 0.035) but not in the proportions of the number of modes students preferred (p = 0.18). As elsewhere, the majority of students were multimodal. There were similarities and differences between LSS and VARK results and between students planning on attending medical school and those not. Preferences and modalities tended not to match as expected for ratings of helpfulness of images and text. To detect relationships between VARK preferred learning style and academic performance, ANOVAs were performed using modality preferences and normalized learning gains from pre and post tests over material taught in the different modalities, as well as on end of semester laboratory and lecture grades. Overall, preference did not affect the performance for a given modality based activity, quiz, or final lecture or laboratory grades (p > 0.05). This suggests that a student's preference does not predict an improved performance when supplied with material in that modality. It is recommended that methods be developed to aid learning in a variety of modalities, rather than catering to individual learning styles. Another topic that is heavily debated in the field of education is the use of simulations or videos to replace or supplement dissections. These activities were compared using normalized learning gains from pre and post tests, as well as attitude surveys

  3. Incorporating Undergraduate Advising in Teaching Information Literacy: Case Study for Academic Librarians as Advisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Courtney L.

    2008-01-01

    The National Academic Advising Association (NACADA) Council for the Advancement of Standards (CAS) provides program guidelines for student learning and development outcomes. These recommended academic advising guidelines parallel those of the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Information Literacy Competency Standards For Higher…

  4. Teaching Academic Courses Online: An Assessment of San Diego Miramar College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ju Yin

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the assessment of an online academic course delivered through WebCT at San Diego Miramar College in Southern California. The native and non-native college students who took this course experienced online academic instruction for the first time. WebCT gives learners both knowledge input and interactive practice by encouraging…

  5. Articulate--Academic Writing, Refereeing Editing and Publishing Our Work in Learning, Teaching and Educational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisker, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Most work on writing and publication processes focuses on writing support for undergraduates or postgraduates writing in the disciplines, while work on academic identities frequently considers development as a university teacher. This essay consider the reviewing process for academics who write, whether doctoral students, researchers, teachers or…

  6. Challenging Perspectives on Learning and Teaching in the Disciplines: The Academic Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Kerri-Lee D.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study of academic staff perspectives on disciplinary communities and skill development in disciplinary contexts. Fifty-five academic staff were interviewed across eight disciplines in four Australian universities. Responses of historians and mathematicians are the focus of this article. A socio-constructivist framework…

  7. The Academic Word List 10 Years on: Research and Teaching Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxhead, Averil

    2011-01-01

    The Academic Word List (AWL) is now widely used in English for academic purposes (EAP) classrooms in many countries, in a wide range of materials, in vocabulary tests, and as a major resource for researchers. In this article the author reflects on the impact of the AWL by looking at commonly asked questions about the list: What is the AWL? Is the…

  8. Imagine! On the Future of Teaching and Learning and the Academic Research Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kelly E.

    2014-01-01

    In the future, what role will the academic research library play in achieving the mission of higher education? This essay describes seven strategies that academic research libraries can adopt to become future-present libraries--libraries that foster what Douglas Thomas and John Seely Brown have called "a new culture of learning." Written…

  9. The "Truth" of Academic Development: How Did It Get to Be about "Teaching and Learning"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Mark; Grant, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The nature of academic development in contemporary universities has been a recent focus in the literature. Highlighting the diversity of practices that exist under its name, "academic development" has been described by some as an ambiguous project and a fragmented field, while others suggest a more coherent project, pointing out a near universal…

  10. Impact of Hospital Teaching Status on Mortality, Length of Stay and Cost Among Patients With Cardiac Arrest in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dolmatova, Elena V; Moazzami, Kasra; Klapholz, Marc; Kothari, Neil; Feurdean, Mirela; Waller, Alfonso H

    2016-09-01

    Limited data exist regarding the in-hospital outcomes in patients with cardiac arrest (CA) in teaching versus nonteaching hospital settings. Using the Nationwide (National) Inpatient Sample (2008 to 2012), 731,107 cases of CA were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition codes. Among these patients, 348,368 (47.6%) were managed in teaching hospitals and 376,035 (51.4%) in nonteaching hospitals. Patients in teaching hospitals with CA were younger (62.42 vs 68.08 years old), had less co-morbidities (p <0.001), were less likely to be white (54.6% vs 65.5%) and more likely to be uninsured (9.1% vs 7.6%). Mortality in patients with CA was significantly lower in teaching hospitals than in nonteaching hospitals (55.3% vs 58.8%; all p <0.001). The mortality remained significantly lower after adjusting for baseline patient and hospital characteristics (odds ratio 0.917, CI 0.899 to 0.937, p <0.001). However, the survival benefit was no longer present after adjusting for in-hospital procedures (OR 0.997, CI 0.974 to 1.02, p = 0.779). In conclusion, teaching status of the hospital was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality in patients with CA. The differences in mortality disappeared after adjusting for in-hospital procedures, indicating that routine application of novel therapeutic methods in patients with CA in teaching hospitals could translate into improved survival outcomes. PMID:27378144

  11. Increasing access to legal termination of pregnancy and postabortion contraception at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Macha, Swebby; Muyuni, Mutinta; Nkonde, Scholastica; Faúndes, Anibal

    2014-07-01

    The Zambian Association of Gynecology and Obstetrics is one of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) member societies participating in the FIGO Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences from the East, Central, and Southern Africa region. The activities included in this country's plan of action were to provide access to safe abortion within the full extent of the law to women receiving care at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, and to increase the proportion of women leaving the hospital with a contraceptive method. Zambian law regarding abortion is liberal, but in general it was not applied until very recently. The proportion of legal terminations of pregnancy among patients receiving abortion care at the hospital increased from 3.2% in 2009 to 7.7% in 2011, while the percentage of women leaving the hospital with a contraceptive method increased from 25.3% to 69.4% over the same period. PMID:24786142

  12. Acute Splenic Infarction at an Academic General Hospital Over 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ami, Schattner; Meital, Adi; Ella, Kitroser; Abraham, Klepfish

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Few case series provide a current, comprehensive, and detailed description of splenic infarction (SI), an uncommon condition. Retrospective chart review complemented by imaging evaluation and patient follow-up. All adult patients with a confirmed diagnosis of acute SI discharged over 10 years from a single academic center were studied. A systematic literature review was done to compile a complete list of SI etiologies. SI was found in 32 patients, 0.016% of admissions. Ages ranged from 18 to 86 (median 64) years. Cardiogenic emboli were the predominant etiology (20/32, 62.5%) and atrial fibrillation was frequent. Other patients had autoimmune disease (12.5%), associated infection (12.5%), or hematological malignancy (6%). Nine of the patients (28%) had been previously healthy or with no recognized morbidity predisposing to SI. In 5 of 9 hitherto silent antiphospholipid syndrome or mitral valve disease had been identified. Two remained cryptogenic. Most patients presented with abdominal pain (84%), often felt in the left upper quadrant or epigastrium. Associated symptoms, leukocytosis or increased serum lactate dehydrogenase occurred inconsistently (∼25% each). Chest X-ray showed suggestive Lt. supra-diaphragmatic findings in 22%. Thus, the typical predisposing factors and/or clinical presentation should suggest SI to the clinician and be followed by early imaging by computed tomography (CT), highly useful also in atypical presentations. Complications were rare and patients were discharged after 6.5 days (median) on anticoagulant treatment. The systematic literature review revealed an extensive list of conditions underlying SI. In some, SI may be the first and presenting manifestation. SI is a rare event but should be considered in predisposed patients or those with any combination of suggestive clinical features, especially abdominal pain CT evaluation is diagnostic and the outcome is good. PMID:26356690

  13. Acute Splenic Infarction at an Academic General Hospital Over 10 Years: Presentation, Etiology, and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Schattner, Ami; Ami, Schattner; Adi, Meital; Meital, Adi; Kitroser, Ella; Ella, Kitroser; Klepfish, Abraham; Abraham, Klepfish

    2015-09-01

    Few case series provide a current, comprehensive, and detailed description of splenic infarction (SI), an uncommon condition.Retrospective chart review complemented by imaging evaluation and patient follow-up.All adult patients with a confirmed diagnosis of acute SI discharged over 10 years from a single academic center were studied. A systematic literature review was done to compile a complete list of SI etiologies.SI was found in 32 patients, 0.016% of admissions. Ages ranged from 18 to 86 (median 64) years. Cardiogenic emboli were the predominant etiology (20/32, 62.5%) and atrial fibrillation was frequent. Other patients had autoimmune disease (12.5%), associated infection (12.5%), or hematological malignancy (6%). Nine of the patients (28%) had been previously healthy or with no recognized morbidity predisposing to SI. In 5 of 9 hitherto silent antiphospholipid syndrome or mitral valve disease had been identified. Two remained cryptogenic. Most patients presented with abdominal pain (84%), often felt in the left upper quadrant or epigastrium. Associated symptoms, leukocytosis or increased serum lactate dehydrogenase occurred inconsistently (∼25% each). Chest X-ray showed suggestive Lt. supra-diaphragmatic findings in 22%. Thus, the typical predisposing factors and/or clinical presentation should suggest SI to the clinician and be followed by early imaging by computed tomography (CT), highly useful also in atypical presentations. Complications were rare and patients were discharged after 6.5 days (median) on anticoagulant treatment. The systematic literature review revealed an extensive list of conditions underlying SI. In some, SI may be the first and presenting manifestation.SI is a rare event but should be considered in predisposed patients or those with any combination of suggestive clinical features, especially abdominal pain CT evaluation is diagnostic and the outcome is good. PMID:26356690

  14. Bacterial bloodstream infections in HIV-infected adults attending a Lagos teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Adeleye I; Sulaiman, Akanmu A; Solomon, Bamiro B; Chinedu, Obosi A; Victor, Inem A

    2010-08-01

    An investigation was carried out during October 2005-September 2006 to determine the prevalence of bloodstream infections in patients attending the outpatient department of the HIV/AIDS clinic at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria. Two hundred and one patients--86 males and 115 females--aged 14-65 years were recruited for the study. Serological diagnosis was carried out on them to confirm their HIV status. Their CD4 counts were done using the micromagnetic bead method. Twenty mL of venous blood sample collected from each patient was inoculated into a pair of Oxoid Signal blood culture bottles for 2-14 days. Thereafter, 0.1 mL of the sample was plated in duplicates on MacConkey, blood and chocolate agar media and incubated at 37 degrees C for 18-24 hours. The CD4+ counts were generally low as 67% of 140 patients sampled had < 200 cells/microL of blood. Twenty-six bacterial isolates were obtained from the blood samples and comprised 15 (58%) coagulase-negative staphylococci as follows: Staphylococcus epidermidis (7), S. cohnii cohnii (1), S. cohnii urealyticum (2), S. chromogenes (1), S. warneri (2), S. scuri (1), and S. xylosus (1). Others were 6 (23%) Gram-negative non-typhoid Salmonella spp., S. Typhimurium (4), S. Enteritidis (2); Pseudomonas fluorescens (1), Escherichia coli (1), Ochrobactrum anthropi (1), Moraxella sp. (1), and Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. Results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that coagulase-negative staphylococci had good sensitivities to vancomycin and most other antibiotics screened but were resistant mainly to ampicilin and tetracycline. The Gram-negative organisms isolated also showed resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and septrin. This study demonstrates that coagulase-negative staphylococci and non-typhoidal Salmonellae are the most common aetiological agents of bacteraemia among HIV-infected adults attending the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. The organisms were

  15. The characteristics of HIV and AIDS patients with deep vein thrombosis at Dr. George Mukhari Academic Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Mabuza, Honey L.; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is 10 times more prevalent in HIV and AIDS patients than in the general population and is more common in patients with severe immune suppression (CD4 < 200 cells/mL). Opportunistic infections render HIV and AIDS patients susceptible to a hypercoaguable state, including lower protein S levels. Aim and setting To present the profile of HIV and AIDS patients who developed DVT in the primary care wards of Dr. George Mukhari Academic Hospital (DGMAH), Garankuwa. Methods Cross-sectional study of clinical records of admitted HIV and AIDS patients without DVT to the primary care wards, DGMAH, from 01 February 2010 to 31 January 2011. Results Two hundred and twenty-nine patients were admitted and 17 (7.4%) developed DVT. Of those that developed DVT, eight (47%) had infection with tuberculosis (TB), four (24%) had pneumonia and four (24%) had gastroenteritis. The risk of developing DVT was 8/94 (8.5%) in those with TB, 4/53 (7.5%) in those with gastroenteritis and 4/75 (5.3%) in those with pneumonia. The mean duration of stay was 14.1 days in those with DVT versus 4.0 days in those without. Conclusion HIV (and AIDS) is a hypercoaguable state and the risk of DVT is relatively high in patients with opportunistic infections. HIV and AIDS patients who are admitted to hospital with opportunistic infections may benefit from anti-thrombotic prophylaxis and further studies are needed to evaluate this. PMID:26245588

  16. Comparative analysis of acute toxic poisoning in 2003 and 2011: analysis of 3 academic hospitals.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hak-Soo; Kim, Jung-Youn; Choi, Sung-Hyuk; Yoon, Young-Hoon; Moon, Sung-Woo; Hong, Yun-Sik; Lee, Sung-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Social factors may affect the available sources of toxic substances and causes of poisoning; and these factors may change over time. Additionally, understanding the characteristics of patients with acute toxic poisoning is important for treating such patients. Therefore, this study investigated the characteristics of patients with toxic poisoning. Patients visiting one of 3 hospitals in 2003 and 2011 were included in this study. Data on all patients who were admitted to the emergency departments with acute toxic poisoning were retrospectively obtained from medical records. Total 939 patients were analyzed. The average age of patients was 40.0 ± 20 yr, and 335 (36.9%) patients were men. Among the elements that did not change over time were the facts that suicide was the most common cause, that alcohol consumption was involved in roughly 1 of 4 cases, and that there were more women than men. Furthermore, acetaminophen and doxylamine remained the most common poisoning agents. In conclusion, the average patient age and psychotic drug poisoning has increased over time, and the use of lavage treatment has decreased. PMID:24133344

  17. A growing opportunity: Community gardens affiliated with US hospitals and academic health centers

    PubMed Central

    George, Daniel R.; Rovniak, Liza S.; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.; Hanson, Ryan; Sciamanna, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Community gardens can reduce public health disparities through promoting physical activity and healthy eating, growing food for underserved populations, and accelerating healing from injury or disease. Despite their potential to contribute to comprehensive patient care, no prior studies have investigated the prevalence of community gardens affiliated with US healthcare institutions, and the demographic characteristics of communities served by these gardens. Methods In 2013, national community garden databases, scientific abstracts, and public search engines (e.g., Google Scholar) were used to identify gardens. Outcomes included the prevalence of hospital-based community gardens by US regions, and demographic characteristics (age, race/ethnicity, education, household income, and obesity rates) of communities served by gardens. Results There were 110 healthcare-based gardens, with 39 in the Midwest, 25 in the South, 24 in the Northeast, and 22 in the West. Compared to US population averages, communities served by healthcare-based gardens had similar demographic characteristics, but significantly lower rates of obesity (27% versus 34%, P < .001). Conclusions Healthcare-based gardens are located in regions that are demographically representative of the US population, and are associated with lower rates of obesity in communities they serve. PMID:25599017

  18. Establishing a Personal Health Record System in an Academic Hospital: One Year's Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Hyun Jung; Jung, Se Young; Hwang, Hee; Yoo, Sooyoung; Baek, Hyunyoung; Lee, Kiheon; Bae, Woo Kyung; Han, Jong-Soo; Kim, Sarah; Park, Hwayeon

    2015-01-01

    Background Personal health records (PHRs) are web based tools that help people to access and manage their personalized medical information. Although needs for PHR are increasing, current serviced PHRs are unsatisfactory and researches on them remain limited. The purpose of this study is to show the process of developing Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (SNUBH)'s own PHR system and to analyze consumer's use pattern after providing PHR service. Methods Task force team was organized to decide service range and set the program. They made the system available on both mobile application and internet web page. The study enrolled PHR consumers who assessed PHR system between June 2013 and June 2014. We analyzed the total number of users on a monthly basis and the using pattern according to each component. Results The PHR service named Health4U has been provided from June 2013. Every patient who visited SNUBH could register Health4U service and view their medical data. The PHR user has been increasing, especially they tend to approach via one way of either web page or mobile application. The most frequently used service is to check laboratory test result. Conclusion For paradigm shift toward patient-centered care, there is a growing interest in PHR. This study about experience of establishing and servicing the Health4U would contribute to development of interconnected PHR. PMID:26019761

  19. Medicine utilization review at a university teaching hospital in New Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Aqil, M.; Bhadana, V.; Alam, M.S.; Pillai, K. K.; Kapur, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A prospective medicine usage evaluation based on prescription monitoring was conducted in the medicine OPD of our university teaching hospital to know prescribing trends of different categories of medicines. Materials and Methods: A total of 600 patients were included in the study comprising of 339 (56.5%) males and 261 (43.5%) females. The data were recorded within the OPD by a registered pharmacist on a medicine usage evaluation form, approved by The University Institutional Review Board (IRB). Results: A total of 2365 medicines were prescribed to 600 patients during the 3 months study period. The mean number of medicines per prescription were found to be 3.94. Medicines were most frequently prescribed as solid dosage forms (85.62%), especially tablets (70.82%), and liquid formulations (14.12%). Oral route (96.17%) was the most preferred mode of administration, followed by topical (2.11%) and parenteral (1.60%) routes. Combination therapy (94.33%) was more prevalent than monotherapy (5.66%). An overwhelming tendency for prescribing medicines by brand names (99%) was observed by the physicians. The most frequently prescribed class of medicines were antimicrobials > analgesics > cardiovascular > gastrointestinal agents. The most prescribed individual medicines among various therapeutic classes included isoniazid (antimicrobial), amlodipine (cardiovascular), metformin (hypoglycemic), cetirizine (antiallergic), rabeprazole (GI medicine), atorvastatin (hypolipidemic), dextromethorphan (respiratory medicine), alprazolam (sedative-hypnotic), paracetamol (analgesic). Conclusions: There is a considerable scope of improvement in the existing prescribing practice, especially prescribing by generic names, needs to be encouraged and a hospital formulary has to be developed for the purpose. The number of medicines to be included per prescription should be judged rationally and polypharmacy ought to be curbed. Use of antimicrobial also needs to be rationalized as

  20. Compliance With Guideline Statements for Urethral Catheterization in an Iranian Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Taleschian-Tabrizi, Negar; Farhadi, Fereshteh; Madani, Neda; Mokhtarkhani, Mohaddeseh; Kolahdouzan, Kasra; Hajebrahimi, Sakineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is believed that healthcare staff play an important role in minimizing complications related to urethral catheterization. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not healthcare staff complied with the standards for urethral catheterization. Methods: This study was conducted in Imam Reza teaching hospital, Tabriz, Iran, from July to September 2013. A total of 109 catheterized patients were selected randomly from surgical and medical wards and intensive care units (ICUs). A questionnaire was completed by healthcare staff for each patient to assess quality of care provided for catheter insertion, while catheter in situ, draining and changing catheter bags. Items of the questionnaire were obtained from guidelines for the prevention of infection. Data analysis was performed with SPSS 16. Results: The mean age of the patients was 50.54 ± 22.13. Of the 109 patients, 56.88% were admitted to ICUs. The mean duration of catheter use was 15.86 days. Among the 25 patients who had a urinalysis test documented in their hospital records, 11 were positive for urinary tract infection (UTI). The lowest rate of hand-washing was reported before bag drainage (49.52%). The closed drainage catheter system was not available at all. Among the cases who had a daily genital area cleansing, in 27.63% cases, the patients or their family members performed the washing. In 66.35% of cases, multiple-use lubricant gel was applied; single-use gel was not available. The rate of documentation for bag change was 79%. Conclusion: The majority of the guideline statements was adhered to; however, some essential issues, such as hand hygiene were neglected. And some patients were catheterized routinely without proper indication. Limiting catheter use to mandatory situations and encouraging compliance with guidelines are recommended. PMID:26673464

  1. Clinical Setting Influences Off-Label and Unlicensed Prescribing in a Paediatric Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Czarniak, Petra; Bint, Lewis; Favié, Laurent; Parsons, Richard; Hughes, Jeff; Sunderland, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence of off-label and unlicensed prescribing during 2008 at a major paediatric teaching hospital in Western Australia. Methods A 12-month retrospective study was conducted at Princess Margaret Hospital using medication chart records randomly selected from 145,550 patient encounters from the Emergency Department, Inpatient Wards and Outpatient Clinics. Patient and prescribing data were collected. Drugs were classified as off-label or unlicensed based on Australian registration data. A hierarchical system of age, indication, route of administration and dosage was used. Drugs were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Code. Results A total of 1,037 paediatric patients were selected where 2,654 prescriptions for 330 different drugs were prescribed to 699 patients (67.4%). Most off-label drugs (n = 295; 43.3%) were from the nervous system; a majority of unlicensed drugs were systemic hormonal preparations excluding sex hormones (n = 22, 32.4%). Inpatients were prescribed more off-label drugs than outpatients or Emergency Department patients (p < 0.0001). Most off-label prescribing occurred in infants and children (31.7% and 35.9% respectively) and the highest percentage of unlicensed prescribing (7.2%) occurred in infants (p < 0.0001). There were 25.7% of off-label and 2.6% of unlicensed medications prescribed across all three settings. Common reasons for off-label prescribing were dosage (47.4%) and age (43.2%). Conclusion This study confirmed off-label and unlicensed use of drugs remains common. Further, that prevalence of both is influenced by the clinical setting, which has implications in regards to medication misadventure, and the need to have systems in place to minimise medication errors. Further, there remains a need for changes in the regulatory system in Australia to ensure that manufacturers incorporate, as it becomes available, evidence regarding efficacy and safety of their drugs in children in the

  2. Adherence to Venous Thromboprophylaxis Guidelines for Medical and Surgical Inpatients of Teaching Hospitals, Shiraz-Iran

    PubMed Central

    Manoucheri, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) exerts a considerable burden on the health care systems. Although many practice guidelines have been developed regarding prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism, there is a large gap between the recommendations and the medical practice in health care centers. In this study, we tried to assess adherence of the medical team to guidelines for venous thromboprophylaxis in medical and surgical wards of teaching hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, a total number of 500 patients were recruited among hospitalized patients in neurosurgery, orthopedics, general surgery, internal medicine, and obstetrics & gynecology departments and surgical and medical intensive care units. Afterwards, adherence to thromboprophylaxis guidelines was assessed by comparing the medical records of patients with proper indications extracted from the American College of Chest Physicians Guidelines for VTE prophylaxis (ACCP, 9th edition). In other words, for each patient a comparison between proper indications of receiving thromboprophylaxis and the regimen used in practice was made. Results: Out of 472 patients assessed with respect to the appropriateness of the administered prophylaxis, 212 (45.1%) had received proper type of thromboprophylaxis with regard to ACCP guidelines. Orthopedic surgical wards showed the highest rate of appropriateness while neurosurgical wards showed the lowest rate of adherence (76% vs. 1.8%). The overall rate of inappropriateness was 54.9% (260 patients). Inappropriateness was divided into 3 categories: 1) patients had absolute indications to receive thromboprophylaxis but were not provided with any type of prophylaxis in practice (171 patients, 36.2% of total), 2) in presence of absolute indications, incorrect type of prophylaxis was administered (52 patients, 11% of total), 3) in absence of indications for thromboprophylaxis

  3. Impact of VANA academic-practice partnership participation on educational mobility decisions and teaching aspirations of nurses.

    PubMed

    Wyte-Lake, Tamar; Bowman, Candice; Needleman, Jack; Dougherty, Mary; Scarrott, Diana N; Dobalian, Aram

    2014-01-01

    This study reports findings assessing the influence of the Department of Veterans Affairs Nursing Academy (VANA) academic-practice partnership program on nurse decision making regarding educational mobility and teaching aspirations. We conducted national surveys with nursing faculty from VANA partnership sites in 2011 (N = 133) and 2012 (N = 74). Faculty who spent more hours per week in the VANA role and who reported an increase in satisfaction with their participation in VANA were more likely to have been influenced by their VANA experience in choosing to pursue a higher degree (p < .05). Sixty-nine percent of VANA faculty reported that they would be very interested in staying on as a VANA faculty member if the program should continue. Six measures were positively associated with VANA's influence on the desire to continue as faculty beyond the VANA pilot; support from VANA colleagues, quality of VANA students, amount of guidance with curriculum development, availability of administrative support, support for improving teaching methods, and overall satisfaction with VANA experience (p < .05). As the popularity of academic-practice partnerships grows and their list of benefits is further enumerated, motivating nurses to pursue both higher degrees and faculty roles should be listed among them based on results reported here. PMID:25223286

  4. The Changing Academic Profession in International and Quantitative Perspectives: A Focus on Teaching & Research Activities. Report of the International Conference on the Changing Academic Profession Project, 2010. RIHE International Seminar Reports. No.15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Institute for Higher Education, Hiroshima University (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Research Institute for Higher Education in Hiroshima University started a program of research on the Changing Academic Profession (CAP) in 2005. The fourth and final conference was held in Hiroshima in January 2010. The following papers are presented at the conference: (1) Differentiation and Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning in…

  5. STAAR: improving the reliability of care coordination and reducing hospital readmissions in an academic medical centre

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Jocelyn Alexandria; Carr, Laura S; Collins, Jacqueline; Doyle Petrongolo, Joanne; Hall, Kathryn; Murray, Jane; Smith, Jessica; Tata, Lee Ann

    2015-01-01

    Setting Massachusetts General Hospital embarked on a 4-year project to reduce readmissions in a high volume general medicine unit (November 2009 to September 2013). Objective To reduce 30-day readmissions to 10% through improved care coordination. Design As a before–after study, a total of 7586 patients admitted to the medicine unit during the intervention period included 2620 inpatients meeting high risk for readmission criteria. Of those, 2620 patients received nursing interventions and 539 patients received pharmacy interventions. Intervention The introduction of a Discharge Nurse (D/C RN) for patient/family coaching and a Transitional Care Pharmacist (TC PharmD) for predischarge medication reconciliation and postdischarge patient phone calls. Other interventions included modifications to multidisciplinary care rounds and electronic medication reconciliation. Main outcome measure All-cause 30-day readmission rates. Results Readmission rates decreased by 30% (21% preintervention to 14.5% postintervention) (p<0.05). From July 2010 to December 2011, rates of readmission among high-risk patients who received the D/C RN intervention with or without the TC PharmD medication reconciliation/education intervention decreased to 15.9% (p=0.59). From January to June 2010, rates of readmission among high-risk patients who received the TC PharmD postdischarge calls decreased to 12.9% (p=0.55). From June 2010 to December 2011, readmission rates for patients on the medical unit that did not receive the designated D/C RN or TC PharmD interventions decreased to 15.8% (p=0.61) and 16.2% (0.31), respectively. Conclusions A multidisciplinary approach to improving care coordination reduced avoidable readmissions both among those who received interventions and those who did not. This further demonstrated the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration. PMID:26246901

  6. Effects of Class Size and Adaptive Teaching Competency on Classroom Processes and Academic Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhwiler, Christian; Blatchford, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In many studies of class size effects, teacher characteristics are missing, even though many argue it is not class size that is important but teacher quality. In the present study teachers' effectiveness on the learning progress was assessed while teaching a unit with predefined learning objectives. To measure adaptive teaching competency a…

  7. Academic Pedagogies, Quality Logics and Performative Universities: Evaluating Teaching and What Students Want

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Jill

    2009-01-01

    Universities have focused on teaching and learning at a time when quality has become the marker of distinction in international higher education markets. Education markets have meant pedagogical relations have become contractualised with a focus on student satisfaction, exemplified in consumer-oriented generic evaluations of teaching. This article…

  8. The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: Help for Academic Tour Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saathoff, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    The presence of scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL), or its absence, has greatly impacted my undergraduate studies. While professors are experts in their subject matter, they do not always know how to reach students. SoTL provides resources to address such disconnects. Just-in-time teaching (JiTT) is one example of a SoTL-informed teaching…

  9. Teaching Assistants Who Instruct Preparatory Mathematics to Academically-Challenged First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tawfeeq, Dante A. L.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching preparatory mathematics to first-time college students--who come from economically impoverished high schools that have not prepared their students to do college level mathematics--can be a daunting task for teaching assistants (TAs). The preparation of TAs to assist such students in the mastery of mathematical content is a complex…

  10. Using Constructivist Teaching Strategies to Enhance Academic Outcomes of Students with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpan, Joseph P.; Beard, Lawrence A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades many teaching strategies have been proposed by various educators to improve education of all students including students with special needs. No single one of these proposed teaching strategies meets the needs of all students. The new Every Student Succeeds Act, successor to No Child Left behind Law, which transfers oversight…

  11. A Handbook for Teaching & Learning in Higher Education: Enhancing Academic Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Heather, Ed.; Ketteridge, Steve, Ed.; Marshall, Stephanie, Ed.

    This book was written to support the excellence in teaching required to bring about learning of the highest quality. Chapters seek to offer the best practical advice in teaching, learning, and assessment, as well as references to research findings. An introductory section sets out the purpose of the book and examines the changing role and place of…

  12. Moving Forward with Research-Enhanced Teaching: Perceptions of Undergraduate Students and Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuetherick, Brad

    2009-01-01

    This paper is presented in four different components: the first is how educators might conceptualise the integration of research, teaching and learning. The second and third points relate to student and staff perceptions of how they integrate research, teaching and learning, and the fourth is the influence of practice and policy on how they move…

  13. Getting Started in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: A "How To" Guide for Science Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Susan L.; Myatt, Paula M.

    2014-01-01

    SoTL stands for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. The acronym, said "sottle" or "sote-all," describes research that involves rigorous examination of teaching and learning by faculty who are actively involved in the educational process. The number of natural-science faculty engaged in SoTL is increasing, and their…

  14. Ideologies "of" English Language Teaching in Iranian Academic Research: Mainstream, Alternative, and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirhosseini, Seyyed-Abdolhamid; Ghafar Samar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Mainstream trends of English language teaching (ELT) are predominantly constructed within the epistemological boundaries shaped by the traditional conceptions of linguistics, learning, and teaching as well as positivist research methodology. What tends to be overshadowed by such conceptions is the underlying foundational belief structure of ELT…

  15. Towards Developing a Common Conception of Research-Based Teaching and Learning in an Academic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomster, Jaanika; Venn, Stephen; Virtanen, Viivi

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether bioscience teachers and researchers in a research-intensive university have consistent views on research-based teaching, and to evaluate whether teachers' conceptions and views on practical teaching methods are aligned. Fifty-eight teachers completed a questionnaire concerning conceptions and practices of…

  16. Online Medical Literature Consultation Habits of Academic Teaching Physicians in the EU and CIS Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Voort, Chiel T. M.; Swenne, Cees A.; van der Hoorn-van Velthoven, Catharina A. M.; Belt, Johannes H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Both in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and in the European Union (EU2004), ample availability of up to date medical scientific literature is important for progress in medical science and for the education of the next generation of healthcare workers. The aim of this research is to assess if the use of online medical literature among academic teaching (AT) physicians is at the same level in the CIS as in the EU2004. Methodology/Principal Findings In the capital cities of the CIS and the EU2004 member states, AT physicians holding an academic position at least equivalent to an associate professor and performing the three classical tasks in academic medicine (teaching, research and patient care) were interviewed about their use of and familiarity with the Internet and 9 online literature services, including journals and bibliographical databases such as PubMed (Medline), The Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Library staff members were interviewed about the availability of these online literature services at their libraries. About 750 physicians and 40 library staff members were invited for participation. Eventually 124 AT physicians and 22 library staff members participated. Internet was everywhere available, but used daily by more AT physicians in the EU2004 (71% versus 48% in the CIS, P = .005). AT physicians in the EU2004 accessed a higher percentage of all articles online (74% versus 43% in the CIS, P<.001). PubMed (P<.001), The Cochrane Library (P<.001) and Web of Science (P<.003) were used more frequently in the EU2004. In the EU2004 more AT physicians were familiar with Open Access journals (89% versus 51% in the CIS, P<.001). Conclusions/Significance AT physicians in the CIS use online medical literature less than in the EU2004. It is recommended that the awareness of freely available online literature services such as Open Access journals is enhanced among AT physicians and library staff members, especially in the CIS. PMID

  17. Pharmaceutical interventions in medications prescribed for administration via enteral tubes in a teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Carolina Justus Buhrer; Plodek, Caroline Koga; Soares, Franciny Kossemba; de Andrade, Rayza Assis; Teleginski, Fernanda; da Rocha, Maria Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to analyze the impact of guidelines regarding errors in medications prescribed for administration through enteral tubes. Method: quantitative study, in three phases, undertaken in internal medicine, neurology and an intensive care unit in a general teaching hospital. In Phase 1, the following was undertaken: a protocol for dilution and unit-dose repackaging and administration for 294 medications via enteral tubes; a decision flowchart; operational-standard procedures for dilution and unit-dose repackaging of oral pharmaceutical forms and for administration of medications through enteral tubes. In phase 2, errors in 872 medications prescribed through enteral tubes, in 293 prescriptions for patients receiving inpatient treatment between March and June, were investigated. This was followed by training of the teams in relation to the guidelines established. In Phase 3, pharmaceutical errors and interventions in 945 medications prescribed through enteral tubes, in 292 prescriptions of patients receiving inpatient treatment between August and September, were investigated prospectively. The data collected, in a structured questionnaire, were compiled in the Microsoft Office Excel(r) program, and frequencies were calculated. Results: 786 errors were observed, 63.9% (502) in Phase 2, and 36.1% (284) in Phase 3. In Phase 3, a reduction was ascertained in the frequency of prescription of medications delivered via enteral tubes, medications which were contraindicated, and those for which information was not available. Conclusion: guidelines and pharmaceutical interventions were determined in the prevention of errors involving medications delivered through enteral tubes. PMID:27276019

  18. The management of ultrasound equipment at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, M

    2013-01-01

    Management of ultrasound equipment at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust is described. The organisation and input of various stakeholders and their involvement with ultrasound equipment management and scientific ultrasound is discussed. Two important stakeholders are the Medical Equipment Management Group and the Radiation Safety Steering Committee. The Medical Equipment Management Group has a specific sub-group, the Ultrasound sub-group, and its role is to coordinate the purchase, replacement and quality assurance of ultrasound equipment in the Trust. The Radiation Safety Steering Committee has a non-ionising radiation representative and the role of this committee is to provide corporate assurance that any health and safety issues arising from the use of radiation to either patients, members of the public or staff within the Trust are being effectively managed. The Ultrasound sub-group of the Medical Equipment Management Group has successfully brought together management of all ultrasound equipment within the Trust and is in the process of fulfilling the quality assurance and training milestones set out by the Medical Equipment Management Group. Advice from the Radiation Safety Steering Committee has helped to increase awareness of ultrasound safety and good scanning practice, especially in the case of neonatal ultrasound imaging, within the Trust. In addition, the RSSC has given advice on clinical pathways for patients undergoing ionising radiation imaging while being treated by extra-corporeal shockwave lithotripsy. PMID:27433195

  19. Pharmacovigilance Knowledge among Patients at a Teaching Hospital in Lalitpur District, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Nisha; Rathore, Devendra S; Shankar, P Ravi; Gyawali, Sudesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Consumer’s knowledge and perception towards adverse drug reactions (ADR) can play an important role in ensuring a healthy lifestyle and proper use of medicines. Aims: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and perception towards pharma covigilance in general and consumer pharmacovigilance in particular among out patients in a teaching hospital of Nepal. Settings and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study using qualitative and quantitative methods was carried out from 1st May to 3 June 2013. Methods: Every fifth patient visiting the outpatient pharmacy was interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Gender, age, educational qualification, profession and ethnicity were noted. Twenty-three patients were interviewed. Results: There were 10 males and 13 females. The age of the respondents ranged from 11 to 50 years with a mean age of 27.8 (SD = 5.61) years. Seven (30.43%) respondents were students studying in different levels. Thirteen (56.52%) participants were from the Newar community. Majority of the patients (86.95%) knew ADRs may be caused by the medicines they consume and 18 (78.26%) were of the opinion that ADRs should be reported to doctors and other health care professionals including pharmacists. Conclusion: Knowledge and perception were low in certain areas. There is a need for educational interventions for improving the awareness of patients and general public for ensuring medicine safety and promoting rational use of medicines. PMID:24783073

  20. Screening for Imported Diseases in an Immigrant Population: Experience from a Teaching Hospital in Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Bocanegra, Cristina; Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Pahissa, Albert; Molina, Israel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the screening for imported diseases among an immigrant population. This retrospective observational study was of all adult immigrants attended at the Tropical Medicine Unit of the Vall d'Hebron Teaching Hospital from September of 2007 to March of 2010. The screening strategy was adjusted by symptoms, country of origin, and length of residence in Europe. Overall, 927 patients were included. The median age was 34.5 years, and 42.1% of patients were male. A diagnosis was made in 419 (45.2%) patients. The most frequent diagnoses were Chagas disease, anemia, latent tuberculosis infection, intestinal parasitosis, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. After screening, more diseases were identified in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa (new diagnoses in 56.6% of patients) than patients from other geographic areas. The geographic origin and length of residence in a developed country determine the prevalence of diseases; hence, screening protocols must be based on this information. PMID:25331805

  1. Population Structure of Candida albicans from Three Teaching Hospitals in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adjapong, Gloria; Hale, Marie; Garrill, Ashley

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies on Candida species in a clinical setting in Ghana have shown a prevalence of Candida albicans. Despite this, very little is known about the various strain types and their population genetic structure. In this study three microsatellite loci, CAI, CAIII and CAVI, were used to investigate the population genetic structure of C. albicans from clinical isolates in Ghana. In all, 240 clinically unrelated C. albicans isolates were recovered from patients reporting at three teaching hospitals. All the isolates were heterozygous for at least one of the three loci, except for one isolate, which was homozygous for all three loci. Sixty-seven unique alleles and 240 different genotypes were generated by the three polymorphic microsatellite loci, resulting in a very high discriminatory potential of approximately 0.98. There was no significant difference in allele frequencies from the small number of anatomical sites sampled, regardless of the host conditions although high genotypic diversities were observed among the isolates. There was evidence for clonal reproduction, including over-expression of observed heterozygotes across the populations. The populations deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and pair-wise genotypic linkage disequilibria comparisons across the three loci were significant, also suggesting a clonal population. The overall Wright FIS for the three loci was negative, and the overall FST value was not significantly different from zero for the three loci analyzed, indicating a clonal and homogeneous population across the three sampling locations from Ghana. PMID:26483431

  2. Role-Reversal Exercise with Deaf Strong Hospital to Teach Communication Competency and Cultural Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Parkhill, Amy L.; Schlehofer, Deirdre A.; Starr, Matthew J.; Barnett, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Objective To implement a role-reversal exercise to increase first-year pharmacy students' awareness of communication barriers in the health care setting, especially for deaf and hard-of-hearing patients. Design Volunteers from the local deaf community conducted Deaf Strong Hospital, a role-reversal exercise in which students were the “patients.” Students navigated through a reception area, encounter with a physician, and having a prescription filled at a pharmacy without receiving or using any spoken language. Assessment A debriefing session was held in which small groups of students had the opportunity to ask questions of a panel of deaf and hard-of-hearing volunteers. On a survey administered to assess students' learning, 97% agreed or strongly agreed that the experience would likely impact their attitudes and behavior in future interactions with patients who did not speak English. Conclusions The role-reversal exercise was an effective method of teaching students that the delivery of health care is dependent on adequate communication between health care providers and the patient. PMID:21655407

  3. Kerosene poisoning in childhood: a 6-year prospective study at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Fagbule, D O; Joiner, K T

    1992-01-01

    In a 6-year prospective study of kerosene poisoning in children admitted to the Department of Paediatrics, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), between January 1982 and December 1987, 109 cases were seen. They were aged 6 months to 9 years, with a male: female ratio of 1.8:1. Majority (79.8%) were below 2 years. Many households (52.3%) stored the agent in familiar beverage or household containers placed on kitchen or bedroom floors, within easy reach of infants and toddlers. Seventy-six (69.7%) cases had home remedies, palm oil being the most common accounting for 55.3%. More than half of the cases (56.9%) presented within 12 hours of the accident due to persistent cough and dyspnoea. Respiratory complications viz pneumonia, pleural effusion and pulmonary oedema were the most common, evident in 67.3% of those who had chest radiographs. Approximately, three quarters (74.3%) of patients with radiologic abnormalities had palm oil alone or in combination with milk as home remedies. Severity of poisoning was influenced by the type of home remedy and the interval between accident and admission (P less than 0.05; P less than 0.01 respectively). Presence of radiological or CNS abnormality or both was associated with a higher morbidity. The only death in the study had complications referable to both systems. Ways of minimizing the risk of kerosene poisoning and its attendant morbidity are discussed. PMID:1390371

  4. Drug utilization study in ophthalmology outpatients at a tertiary care teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Pradeep R; Moghe, Vijay V; Deshmukh, Yeshwant A

    2013-12-22

    In view of the advancement in drug development and availability of new ocular therapeutics in the discipline of ophthalmology, we attempted to study the drug utilization and describe the prescribing practices of ophthalmologists in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Method. A prospective, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted on patients attending Outpatient Department of Ophthalmology for curative complaints. Prescriptions of 600 patients treated were analyzed by the WHO prescribing indicators and additional indices. Results. Analysis showed that the average number of drugs per prescription was 1.49. Percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name was 2.35%. Percentage of encounters with antibiotics was 44.83%. Percentage of drugs prescribed from National Essential drug list (NEDL)/National Formulary of India (NFI) was 19.48%. Patient's knowledge of correct dosage was 93.83%. Antimicrobial agents were the most commonly prescribed drugs followed by antiallergy drugs and ocular lubricants. Fluoroquinolones accounted for 60% of the total antimicrobial drugs, of which gatifloxacin was the most frequently prescribed fluoroquinolone. Conclusion. The study indicated an awareness of polypharmacy, but showed ample scope for improvement in encouraging the ophthalmologists to prescribe by generic name and selection of essential drugs from NEDL/NFI. PMID:24455298

  5. Prevalence of ESBLs-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from different wards in a Chinese teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhilong; Niu, Hui; Chen, Guangyu; Li, Mingcheng; Li, Ming; Zhou, Yuqing

    2015-01-01

    This study was to explore the molecular dissemination of P. aeruginosa producing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBLs) recovered from the different wards in a teaching hospital, Jilin. Among 240 isolates, 91 strains were isolated from burn wards and 149 strains from surgical wards. A total of 210 strains (87.5%) produced ESBLs, 30 strains (12.5%) didn’t produce ESBLs. All ESBLs isolates showed identical antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. The genotypic prevalence of ESBLs for bla SHV-12, bla TEM-24, bla CTX-M-1, bla CTX-M-2, bla CTX-M-3, bla PER and bla VEB genes was 17.6%, 20.5%, 14.3%, 9.6%, 12.9%, 13.8% and 11.4% respectively. All P. aeruginosa strains producing ESBLs had three to six plasmids and contained class 1 integrons, which transferred resistance to E. coli C 600 by conjuation. The data indicated a high prevalence of ESBL among P. aeruginosa isolates in this region and their enzyme types were diverse. PMID:26770582

  6. Potential Drug-drug Interactions in Post-CCU of a Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Haji Aghajani, Mohammad; Sistanizad, Mohammad; Abbasinazari, Mohammad; Abiar Ghamsari, Mahdieh; Ayazkhoo, Ladan; Safi, Olia; Kazemi, Katayoon; Kouchek, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) can lead to increased toxicity or reduction in therapeutic efficacy. This study was designed to assess the incidence of potential drug interactions (PDI) and rank their clinical value in post coronary care unit (Post-CCU) of a teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran. In this prospective study, three pharmacists with supervision of a clinical pharmacist actively gathered necessary information for detection of DDIs. Data were tabulated according to the combinations of drugs in treatment chart. Verification of potential drug interactions was carried out using the online Lexi-Interact™ 2011. A total of 203 patients (113 males and 90 females) were enrolled in the study. The mean age of patients was 61 ± 12.55 years (range = 26-93). A total of 90 drugs were prescribed to 203 patients and most prescribed drugs were atorvastatin, clopidogrel and metoprolol. Mean of drugs was 11.22 per patient. A total of 3166 potential drug interactions have been identified by Lexi- Interact™, 149 (4.71%) and 55 (1.73%) of which were categorized as D and X, respectively. The most serious interactions were clopidogrel+omeprazole and metoprolol+salbutamol. Drug interactions leading to serious adverse effects are to be cautiously watched for when multiple drugs are used simultaneously. In settings with multiple drug use attendance of a pharmacist or clinical pharmacist, taking the responsibility for monitoring drug interactions and notifying the physician about potential problems could decrease the harm in patient and increase the patient safety. PMID:24250596

  7. Factors associated with knowledge of the nursing staff at a teaching hospital on blood transfusion 1

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Jordânia Lumênia; Barichello, Elizabeth; Mattia, Ana Lúcia De; Barbosa, Maria Helena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to determine whether there is an association between knowledge of the nursing professionals about blood transfusion and the variables related to the professional aspects. Method: this is an observational, cross-sectional and quantitative study, carried out at a large general teaching hospital. The sample consisted of 209 nursing professionals, obtained by simple random sampling. For data collection, a checklist was used. In the univariate analysis, descriptive statistics and central trend and dispersion measures were used. In the bivariate analysis, Student's t-Test, analysis of variance and Pearson's correlation were used. To determine the predictors, multiple linear regression was applied. The Institutional Review Board (Opinion number 2434) approved the study. Results: the overall average knowledge score was 52.66%; in the Pre-transfusion Step, it corresponded to 53.38%; in the Transfusion Step 51.25% and, in the Post-transfusion Step, 62.68%. The factors related to knowledge were professional category and received training and/or guidance to accomplish the transfusion process (p<0.01). Conclusion: this study showed the influence of training and guidance on the knowledge and provided a diagnosis to identify the professionals' difficulties regarding the transfusion process. PMID:26444160

  8. Pattern of Frequent But Nontargeted Pharmacologic Thromboprophylaxis for Hospitalized Patients With Cancer at Academic Medical Centers: A Prospective, Cross-Sectional, Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Zwicker, Jeffrey I.; Rojan, Adam; Campigotto, Federico; Rehman, Nadia; Funches, Renee; Connolly, Gregory; Webster, Jonathan; Aggarwal, Anita; Mobarek, Dalia; Faselis, Charles; Neuberg, Donna; Rickles, Frederick R.; Wun, Ted; Streiff, Michael B.; Khorana, Alok A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hospitalized patients with cancer are considered to be at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Despite strong recommendations in numerous clinical practice guidelines, retrospective studies have shown that pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis is underutilized in hospitalized patients with cancer. Patients and Methods We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study of hospitalized patients with cancer at five academic hospitals to determine prescription rates of thromboprophylaxis and factors influencing its use during hospitalization. Results A total of 775 patients with cancer were enrolled across five academic medical centers. Two hundred forty-seven patients (31.9%) had relative contraindications to pharmacologic prophylaxis. Accounting for contraindications to anticoagulation, the overall rate of pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis was 74.2% (95% CI, 70.4% to 78.0%; 392 of 528 patients). Among the patients with cancer without contraindications for anticoagulation, individuals hospitalized with nonhematologic malignancies were significantly more likely to receive pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis than those with hematologic malignancies (odds ratio [OR], 2.34; 95% CI, 1.43 to 3.82; P = .007). Patients with cancer admitted for cancer therapy were significantly less likely to receive pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis than those admitted for other reasons (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.61; P < .001). Sixty-three percent of patients with cancer classified as low risk, as determined by the Padua Scoring System, received anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis. Among the 136 patients who did not receive anticoagulation, 58.8% were considered to be high risk by the Padua Scoring System. Conclusion We conclude that pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis is frequently administered to hospitalized patients with cancer but that nearly one third of patients are considered to have relative contraindications for prophylactic anticoagulation. Pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis in

  9. MiPLAN: a learner-centered model for bedside teaching in today's academic medical centers.

    PubMed

    Stickrath, Chad; Aagaard, Eva; Anderson, Mel

    2013-03-01

    Clinician educators and medical trainees face intense pressure to complete numerous patient care and teaching activities in a limited amount of time. To address the need for effective and efficient teaching methods for use in the inpatient setting, the authors used constructivist learning theory, the principles of adult learning, and their expertise as clinician educators to develop the MiPLAN model for bedside teaching. This three-part model is designed to enable clinical teachers to simultaneously provide care to patients while assessing learners, determining high-yield teaching topics, and providing feedback to learners.The "M" refers to a preparatory meeting between teacher and learners before engaging in patient care or educational activities. During this meeting, team members should become acquainted and the teacher should set goals and clarify expectations. The "i" refers to five behaviors for the teacher to adopt during learners' bedside presentations: introduction, in the moment, inspection, interruptions, and independent thought. "PLAN" is an algorithm to establish priorities for teaching subsequent to a learner's presentation: patient care, learners' questions, attending's agenda, and next steps.The authors suggest that the MiPLAN model can help clinical teachers gain more confidence in their ability to teach at the bedside and increase the frequency and quality of bedside teaching. They propose further research to assess the generalizability of this model to other institutions, settings, and specialties and to evaluate educational and patient outcomes. PMID:23348088

  10. Inspiring Exemplary Teaching and Learning: Perspectives on Teaching Academically Talented College Students--A Companion Piece to "Teaching and Learning in Honors." National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Larry, Ed.; Zubizarreta, John, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This monograph is a companion piece to "Teaching and Learning in Honors." The authors in this monograph are dedicated to exploring the sometimes magical, sometimes ordinary, sometimes rewarding, sometimes challenging connections between good teaching and deep, lasting learning. Questions regarding students' learning, pedagogical…

  11. Frequency of medication errors in an emergency department of a large teaching hospital in southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Vazin, Afsaneh; Zamani, Zahra; Hatam, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted with the purpose of determining the frequency of medication errors (MEs) occurring in tertiary care emergency department (ED) of a large academic hospital in Iran. The incidence of MEs was determined through the disguised direct observation method conducted by a trained observer. A total of 1,031 medication doses administered to 202 patients admitted to the tertiary care ED were observed over a course of 54 6-hour shifts. Following collection of the data and analysis of the errors with the assistance of a clinical pharmacist, frequency of errors in the different stages was reported and analyzed in SPSS-21 software. For the 202 patients and the 1,031 medication doses evaluated in the present study, 707 (68.5%) MEs were recorded in total. In other words, 3.5 errors per patient and almost 0.69 errors per medication are reported to have occurred, with the highest frequency of errors pertaining to cardiovascular (27.2%) and antimicrobial (23.6%) medications. The highest rate of errors occurred during the administration phase of the medication use process with a share of 37.6%, followed by errors of prescription and transcription with a share of 21.1% and 10% of errors, respectively. Omission (7.6%) and wrong time error (4.4%) were the most frequent administration errors. The less-experienced nurses (P=0.04), higher patient-to-nurse ratio (P=0.017), and the morning shifts (P=0.035) were positively related to administration errors. Administration errors marked the highest share of MEs occurring in the different medication use processes. Increasing the number of nurses and employing the more experienced of them in EDs can help reduce nursing errors. Addressing the shortcomings with further research should result in reduction of MEs in EDs. PMID:25525391

  12. Frequency of medication errors in an emergency department of a large teaching hospital in southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Vazin, Afsaneh; Zamani, Zahra; Hatam, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted with the purpose of determining the frequency of medication errors (MEs) occurring in tertiary care emergency department (ED) of a large academic hospital in Iran. The incidence of MEs was determined through the disguised direct observation method conducted by a trained observer. A total of 1,031 medication doses administered to 202 patients admitted to the tertiary care ED were observed over a course of 54 6-hour shifts. Following collection of the data and analysis of the errors with the assistance of a clinical pharmacist, frequency of errors in the different stages was reported and analyzed in SPSS-21 software. For the 202 patients and the 1,031 medication doses evaluated in the present study, 707 (68.5%) MEs were recorded in total. In other words, 3.5 errors per patient and almost 0.69 errors per medication are reported to have occurred, with the highest frequency of errors pertaining to cardiovascular (27.2%) and antimicrobial (23.6%) medications. The highest rate of errors occurred during the administration phase of the medication use process with a share of 37.6%, followed by errors of prescription and transcription with a share of 21.1% and 10% of errors, respectively. Omission (7.6%) and wrong time error (4.4%) were the most frequent administration errors. The less-experienced nurses (P=0.04), higher patient-to-nurse ratio (P=0.017), and the morning shifts (P=0.035) were positively related to administration errors. Administration errors marked the highest share of MEs occurring in the different medication use processes. Increasing the number of nurses and employing the more experienced of them in EDs can help reduce nursing errors. Addressing the shortcomings with further research should result in reduction of MEs in EDs. PMID:25525391

  13. Impact of waste management training intervention on knowledge, attitude and practices of teaching hospital workers in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ramesh; Somrongthong, Ratana; Ahmed, Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the sustainability and effectiveness of training as an intervention to improve the knowledge, attitude and practices of hospital workers on health care waste management. Method: We conducted this quasi-experimental study in two tertiary care teaching hospitals in Rawalpindi in October 2013. Training, practical demonstrations and reminders on standard waste management were given to 138 hospital workers in one hospital and compared with 137 workers from the control hospital. We collected data 18 months after intervention through a structured questionnaire to assess the impact of the intervention. We used paired t-test to compare the scores on knowledge, attitude and practices at baseline and first follow up and final impact assessment. Chi square test was used to compare group variables between intervention and control groups. Results: After 18 months since intervention the mean scores on knowledge attitude and practices differed statistically significantly since baseline and intervention group had statistically significantly better knowledge positive attitudes and good health care waste management practices (p < 0.001). Health care and sanitary workers in intervention group scored statistically significantly higher (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Trainings of health and sanitary workers on health care waste management guidelines were sustainable among the intervention group after 18 months which shows the positive impact of our intervention. It is recommended that the trainings as intervention be included in the overall policies of the public and private sector hospitals in Pakistan and other similar settings. PMID:27375718

  14. What has happened to programmes in quality assurance by physicians in large teaching hospitals in Australia and New Zealand?

    PubMed

    Richmond, D E

    1990-06-01

    Hospital Quality Assurance (QA) programmes by divisions and departments of medicine have developed since the late 1970s. The Continuing Education Unit of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians played a facilitatory role in this development, especially in the first five to six years. A survey of 38 major teaching hospitals in Australia and New Zealand early in 1989 revealed that of the 35 responding all had introduced a formal QA programme in internal medicine between 1976 and 1988. The 'Austin Hospital Method' of review seminars was the most popular format when QA programmes were introduced and 26 hospitals still maintain such a format - at least as a component of their programmes. Most programmes have been subject to modification to suit local needs. There have been no serious problems in maintaining confidentiality of information derived from QA exercises. Despite a formidable array of constraining forces, the majority of continuing QA programmes appeared to be stable. Seventeen hospitals reported that the organising group was recognised as an official committee of their hospital's administration. Although eight programmes have been discontinued in the last four years, nearly as many new ones have been introduced. PMID:2372280

  15. Impact of Expert Teaching Quality on Novice Academic Performance in the Jigsaw Cooperative Learning Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Roland; Hänze, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the impact of expert students' instructional quality on the academic performance of novice students in 12th-grade physics classes organized in an expert model of cooperative learning ('jigsaw classroom'). The instructional quality of 129 expert students was measured by a newly developed rating system. As expected, when aggregating across all four subtopics taught, regression analysis revealed that academic performance of novice students increases with the quality of expert students' instruction. The difficulty of subtopics, however, moderates this effect: higher instructional quality of more difficult subtopics did not lead to better academic performance of novice students. We interpret this finding in the light of Cognitive Load Theory. Demanding tasks cause high intrinsic cognitive load and hindered the novice students' learning.

  16. The experience of implementing the board of trustees’ policy in teaching hospitals in Iran: an example of health system decentralization

    PubMed Central

    Doshmangir, Leila; Rashidian, Arash; Ravaghi, Hamid; Takian, Amirhossein; Jafari, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2004, the health system in Iran initiated an organizational reform aiming to increase the autonomy of teaching hospitals and make them more decentralized. The policy led to the formation of a board of trustees in each hospital and significant modifications in hospitals’ financing. Since the reform aimed to improve its predecessor policy (implementation of hospital autonomy began in 1995), it expected to increase user satisfaction, as well as enhance effectiveness and efficiency of healthcare services in targeted hospitals. However, such expectations were never realized. In this research, we explored the perceptions and views of expert stakeholders as to why the board of trustees’ policy did not achieve its perceived objectives. Methods: We conducted 47 semi-structured face-to-face interviews and two focus group discussions (involving 8 and 10 participants, respectively) with experts at high, middle, and low levels of Iran’s health system, using purposive and snowball sampling. We also collected a comprehensive set of relevant documents. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically, following a mixed inductive-deductive approach. Results: Three main themes emerged from the analysis. The implementation approach (including the processes, views about the policy and the links between the policy components), using research evidence about the policy (local and global), and policy context (health system structure, health insurers capacity, hospitals’ organization and capacity and actors’ interrelationships) affected the policy outcomes. Overall, the implementation of hospital decentralization policies in Iran did not seem to achieve their intended targets as a result of assumed failure to take full consideration of the above factors in policy implementation into account. Conclusion: The implementation of the board of trustees’ policy did not achieve its desired goals in teaching hospitals in Iran. Similar decentralization

  17. Medicare. Concerns with Physicians at Teaching Hospitals (PATH) Audits. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Health, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    This report evaluates the Department of Health and Human Services PATH (Physicians at Teaching Hospitals) initiative involving audits of Medicare billing processes and procedures. The PATH audits resulted from concerns that medical records did not adequately document the direct involvement of teaching physicians in services provided by resident…

  18. Surveillance of infection status of drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an Indian teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Debasmita; Rath, Shakti; Sahu, Mahesh C.; Pattnaik, Lolly; Debata, Nagen K.; Padhy, Rabindra N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To access nosocomial and community accounts of multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated by surveillance in a teaching hospital, over a period of 30 months. Methods Clinical samples from nosocomial sources, i.e., wards and cabins, intensive care unit (ICU) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) sources, as well as community or outpatient department (OPD) sources of a hospital were used for isolating strains of S. aureus resistant to methicillin/oxacillin and vancomycin, over a period, November 2009-April 2012. Results Of a total of 1 507 S. aureus isolates, 485 strains from community and 1 022 isolates were from nosocomial sources; Out of 485 (100%) OPD S. aureus isolates, 390 (80.41%) were MRSA strains. Similarly, from wards and cabins of 564 (100%) isolates, 461 (81.73%) strains were MRSA; whereas of 458 (100%) isolates obtained from ICU and NICU, 363 (79.25%) strains were MRSA. It was ascertained with χ2-tests of independence that MRSA strains were equally distributed in “community” or “wards and cabins” or “ICU and NICU” sources, alike rest other drug-resistant S. aureus strains. Antibiotic sensitivity patterns of isolated strains with 16 antibiotics were ascertained. Out of 390 (100%) MRSA strains isolated from OPD, 80 (20.51%) were vancomycin resistant (VRSA) and 173 (44.35%) strains were moderately sensitive to vancomycin or called, vancomycin intermediate strains (VISA). Similarly, from nosocomial sources, out of 461 (100%) MRSA isolates obtained from wards and cabins, 110 (23.86%) strains were VRSA and 208 (45.11%) were VISA strains, whereas out of 363 MRSA isolates obtained from ICU and NICU, 61 (16.8%) VRSA strains and 164 (45.17%) VISA strains were found. A progressive increase of percent values of drug resistance to 16 antibiotics used for antibiotic profiling revealed its subtle infection dynamics. Conclusions This study revealed the appalling state of occurrence of MRSA and VRSA in a

  19. Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in Ghanaian Women: The Korle Bu Teaching Hospital Experience.

    PubMed

    Der, Edmund M; Gyasi, Richard K; Tettey, Yao; Edusei, Lawrence; Bayor, Marcel T; Jiagge, Evelyn; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Merajver, Sofia D; Newman, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancers that have negative or extremely low expression of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and non-amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)/neu are termed triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The majority of TNBC tumors belong to the biologically aggressive basal subtype, and they cannot be managed with targeted endocrine or anti-HER2/neu agents. In western, high resource environments, risk factors for TNBC include younger age at diagnosis and hereditary susceptibility. Women of African ancestry in the United States and in continental Africa have higher frequencies of TNBC, prompting speculation that this risk may have an inherited basis and may at least partially explain breast cancer survival disparities related to racial/ethnic identity. Efforts to document and confirm the breast cancer burden of continental Africa have been hampered by the limited availability of registry and immunohistochemistry resources. Our goal was to evaluate the breast cancers diagnosed in one of the largest health care facilities in western Africa, and to compare the frequencies as well as risk factors for TNBC versus non-TNBC in this large referral tertiary hospital. The Korle Bu Teaching Hospital is affiliated with the University of Ghana and is located in Accra, the capital of Ghana. We conducted an institutional, Department of Pathology-based review of the breast cancer cases seen at this facility for the 2010 calendar year, and for which histopathologic specimens were available. The overall study population of 223 breast cancer cases had a median age of 52.4 years, and most had palpable tumors larger than 5 cm in diameter. More than half were TNBC (130; 58.3%). We observed similar age-specific frequencies, distribution of stage at diagnosis and tumor grade among cases of TNBC compared to cases of non-TNBC. Ghanaian breast cancer patients tend to have an advanced stage distribution and relatively younger age at diagnosis compared to

  20. [Evolution of neonatal mortality at the Blida University Teaching Hospital (Algeria) between 1999 and 2006].

    PubMed

    Bezzaoucha, A; El Kebboub, A; Aliche, A

    2010-02-01

    Within the framework of the active information system set up by the department of epidemiology on hospital mortality at the Blida (Algeria) University Teaching Hospital (CHU), a study was carried out to assess the importance and evolution of neonatal mortality recorded at the CHU in the last eight years (1999-2006) as well as the causes of neonatal death. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) was used to encode the nature of the causal disease. Using the software EpiInfo™ in its sixth version performed data entry, monitoring and analysis. On the whole, 2,167 neonatal deaths were recorded at the CHU during the study period, representing a proportional mortality of 25.4%. Early neonatal mortality (0-6 days) accounted for 83.4% of all neonatal mortality. Nearly two thirds of early neonatal deaths occurred in the first three days of life. The monthly evolution of the number of early neonatal deaths revealed a significant rising trend during the study period (P < 0.05) without identification of seasonal effect. The sex ratio was practically the same for early and late neonatal mortality, respectively 1.4 and 1.5. Prematurity accounted for 42.1% of the deaths in early neonatal deaths, followed by respiratory distress syndrome and infection, respectively 17.0 and 14.4%. Infections, with a relative frequency of 36.2%, represented the most common cause for the late neonatal mortality. The rate of early neonatal mortality during the study period, when this one took for denominator the number of newborns admitted in neonatology to express the mortality of service, was 15.6%. Throughout the study period, the rate of early neonatal mortality, without counting the deaths among transferred newborms, could be estimated at 19.2 per 1,000 live births, while the overall neonatal mortality rate could be estimated at 22.3 per 1,000 live births. No significant temporal tendency was pointed out. The CHU of Blida is not characterized by a lower risk of neonatal mortality

  1. Academic Development through the Contextualization of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: Reflections Drawn from the Recent History of Trinidad and Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Whilst the case for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) has been made, there has been little discussion on how such scholarship might lead academic development at the local level. Through analyzing the recent history of Trinidad and Tobago this paper proposes that the conceptualization of SoTL should embrace the nuances of its…

  2. Effect of Direct Teaching Method on the Academic Achievement of High and Low Achievers in the Subject of English at the Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Ishtiaq; Hamdani, Syed Nisar Hussain; Quraishi, Uzma; Zeeshan, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    The major objective of the study was to determine the role of the direct teaching method in the academic achievement of students in English at the secondary level. To achieve the said objective, the Solomon Four-Design pre-test/post-test equivalent group design was considered to be the most useful design for this study. The pre-test was used to…

  3. The Effects of Using Problem-Based Learning in Science and Technology Teaching upon Students' Academic Achievement and Levels of Structuring Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inel, Didem; Balim, Ali Gunay

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the problem-based learning method used in science and technology teaching upon elementary school students' construction levels for the concepts concerning the "Systems in Our Body" unit in the science and technology course and their academic achievement. To this end, during the four-week…

  4. Living up to Our Students' Expectations--Using Student Voice to Influence the Way Academics Think about Their Undergraduates' Learning and Their Own Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, C. Yvette; Goodwin, Lorna J.; Cameron, Andrea J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the student learning experience is essential if Higher Education Institutions (HEI) are to provide an education for the 21st century. This study investigated students' perspectives on their learning experiences and offered undergraduates a chance to influence the way academics think about learning and teaching. Participants were…

  5. The Impact of Montessori Teaching on Academic Achievement of Elementary School Students in a Central Texas School District: A Causal-Comparative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Minerva Mungia

    2013-01-01

    Providing a meaningful and experiential learning environment for all students has long created a concern for alternate ways to teach students who are reportedly demonstrating non-mastery on state standardized assessments. As the benchmark for showing successful academic achievement increases, so does the need for discovering effective ways for…

  6. The Administrator as Superhero: A Commentary on Balkin and Mello's "Facilitating and Creating Synergies between Teaching and Research: The Role of the Academic Administrator"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewicki, Roy J.

    2012-01-01

    As a way to achieve better alignment of the ongoing teaching-research activity gap in business schools, David Balkin and Jeff Mello suggest that schools need to hire academic administrators with significantly developed management skills. The author responds to this recommendation with two concerns. First, many of the causes of the…

  7. A Study of Home Environment, Academic Achievement and Teaching Aptitude on Training Success of Pre-Service Elementary Teachers of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rani, Sunita; Siddiqui, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The primary intend of the study was to explore the relationship of Arts, Science and Commerce stream and training success and the influence of Home Environment, Academic Achievement and Teaching Aptitude on training success of ETE trainees. The study analyzed the numerical data from a survey of 380 teacher trainees of three DIETs of Delhi, India.…

  8. Testing Two Path Models to Explore Relationships between Students' Experiences of the Teaching-Learning Environment, Approaches to Learning and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia; Milienos, Fotios S.

    2015-01-01

    The study explores the relationships between students' experiences of the teaching-learning environment and their approaches to learning, and the effects of these variables on academic achievement. Two three-stage models were tested with structural equation modelling techniques. The "Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for…

  9. The Relationships between Self-Regulated Learning Skills, Causal Attributions and Academic Success of Trainee Teachers Preparing to Teach Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leana-Tascilar, Marilena Z.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the self-regulated learning skills and causal attributions of trainee teachers preparing to teach gifted pupils, and also to study the predictive relationships between these skills and attributions, on one hand, and academic success, on the other hand. The research was conducted on 123 students attending…

  10. Forum on the Future of Academic Medicine: Final Session--Implications of the Information Revolution for Academic Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iglehart, John

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes two speeches. William W. Stead offers three scenarios illustrating typical future interactions of consumers with a medical system based on informatics and information technology and then considers implications for academic medicine. Valerie Florance discusses a program that is exploring ways medical schools and teaching hospitals can…

  11. Indications and Risk Factors for Complications of Lower Third Molar Surgery in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Osunde, OD; Saheeb, BD; Bassey, GO

    2014-01-01

    Background: The surgical extraction of impacted third molars is a common oral surgical procedure, and it is often associated with complications such as sensory nerve damage, dry socket, pain, swelling, trismus, infection and hemorrhage. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the surgical indications and risk factors for complications of third molar surgery at a Nigerian teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients referred to the Oral Surgery Clinic of our institution for surgical extraction of their impacted mandibular third molars from January 2008 to December 2010 were retrospectively examined. Information on patients’ demography, types of impaction, operative parameters and complications were obtained and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 13), Chicago, IL, USA. A P < 0.0.5 was considered significant. Results: A total of 330 impacted teeth were extracted from 250 patients. Male comprises (104/250 [41.6%]) and female (146/250 [58.4%]). The mesioangular (176/330 [53.4%]) and distoangular (73/330 [22.1%]) impactions were the commonest types. Recurrent pericoronitis (154/330 [46.7%]) was the most common indication for extraction. The complications were delayed healing (19/330 [5.8%]), alveolar, osteitis (9/330 [2.7%]) and injury to alveolar nerve (2/330 [0.6%]). Cigarette smoking (P < 0.001), Oral contraceptives use (P = 0.01), age of the patient (P = 0.03) and the surgeon's experience (P = 0.04) were found to be significantly associated with the development of alveolar osteitis; nerves injuries were significantly associated with the raising of a lingual flap (P < 0.001) and the technique of surgery (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: The age of the patient, cigarette smoking and oral contraceptive use at the time of surgery are some of the factors affecting outcome in third molar surgery. PMID:25506490

  12. Proton Beam Radiotherapy for Uveal Melanomas at Nice Teaching Hospital: 16 Years' Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Caujolle, Jean-Pierre; Mammar, Hamid; Chamorey, Emmanuel Phar; Pinon, Fabien; Herault, Joel; Gastaud, Pierre

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To present the results of uveal melanomas treated at Nice Teaching Hospital. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study included 886 consecutive patients referred to our clinic for the treatment of uveal melanomas by proton beam radiotherapy from June 1991 to December 2007. Survival rates were determined by using Kaplan-Meier estimates, and prognostic factors were evaluated using the log-rank test or Cox model. Results: The number (percent total) of subjects staged according to the TNM classification system (6th edition) of malignant tumors included 39 stage T1 (4.4%), 420 stage T2 (47.40%), 409 stage T3 (46.16%), and 18 stage T4 (2.03%) patients. The median follow-up was 63.7 months. The Kaplan-Meier overall survival rate at 5 years according to the sixth edition TNM classification was 92% for T1, 89% for T2, 67% for T3, and 62% for T4; and at 10 years, 86% for T1, 78% for T2, 43% for T3, and 41% for T4. Five factors were found to be associated with an increased death rate: advanced age, tumor thickness, largest tumor basal diameter, tumor volume, and tumor volume-to-eyeball volume ratio. The metastasis-free survival rates were 88.3 % at 5 years and 76.4 % at 10 years. The local control rates were 93.9% at 5 years and 92.1% at 10 years. The ocular conservation rates were 91.1% at 5 years and 87.3% at 10 years. Conclusions: We report the results of a large series of patients treated for uveal melanomas with a very long follow-up. Despite the large tumor volume treated, our results were similar to previously published findings relating to proton beam therapy.

  13. Impacts of Computerized Physician Documentation in a Teaching Hospital: Perceptions of Faculty and Resident Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Embi, Peter J.; Yackel, Thomas R.; Logan, Judith R.; Bowen, Judith L.; Cooney, Thomas G.; Gorman, Paul N.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Computerized physician documentation (CPD) has been implemented throughout the nation's Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs) and is likely to increasingly replace handwritten documentation in other institutions. The use of this technology may affect educational and clinical activities, yet little has been reported in this regard. The authors conducted a qualitative study to determine the perceived impacts of CPD among faculty and housestaff in a VAMC. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted using semistructured interviews with faculty (n = 10) and a group interview with residents (n = 10) at a VAMC teaching hospital. Measurements: Content analysis of field notes and taped transcripts were done by two independent reviewers using a grounded theory approach. Findings were validated using member checking and peer debriefing. Results: Four major themes were identified: (1) improved availability of documentation; (2) changes in work processes and communication; (3) alterations in document structure and content; and (4) mistakes, concerns, and decreased confidence in the data. With a few exceptions, subjects felt documentation was more available, with benefits for education and patient care. Other impacts of CPD were largely seen as detrimental to aspects of clinical practice and education, including documentation quality, workflow, professional communication, and patient care. Conclusion: CPD is perceived to have substantial positive and negative impacts on clinical and educational activities and environments. Care should be taken when designing, implementing, and using such systems to avoid or minimize any harmful impacts. More research is needed to assess the extent of the impacts identified and to determine the best strategies to effectively deal with them. PMID:15064287

  14. Factors influencing heartworm, flea, and tick preventative use in patients presenting to a veterinary teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Maureen C.; Nolan, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of modern heartworm, flea, and tick preventatives has provided a safe and effective means of controlling companion animal endoparasites, but achieving good owner compliance remains an ongoing challenge for the veterinary profession. Based on a sample of patients from the veterinary teaching hospital at the University of Pennsylvania, this study retrospectively examined factors associated with preventative use and areas of potential weakness in client communication. Between 1999 and 2006, records of 5,276 canine and 1,226 feline patients were searched for signalment, survey results for heartworm, flea, and tick preventative use, date of visit, presenting complaint, vaccination history, and owner zip code. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate techniques. Overall, only 13 - 23 % of patients were questioned about heartworm, flea, or tick preventative use during routine medical history taking. Patients with a prior history of parasites, younger patients, or those presenting with signs of cardiac disease were no more likely to be questioned about preventative use than healthy animals. Patients presenting to a specialty service were also less likely to be questioned. Approximately 74 - 79% of dogs and 12 – 38 % of cats in the sample were on preventative products at any given time. There was a distinct seasonality to preventative use corresponding to the heartworm transmission season from June through November in the northeastern United States. Only 50% of patients seen for a yearly physical examination in winter were reported to be using preventative products when surveyed later in the year, compared to the roughly 85% on patients in heartworm preventatives when they received their routine physical exam in spring. Month of presentation and neuter status were the only signalment factors significantly (P<0.05) associated with preventative use in the multivariate analysis. Findings from this study emphasize target areas for increasing owner

  15. Adherence to preventive medications in asthmatic children at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Md Redzuan, Adyani; Lee, Meng Soon; Mohamed Shah, Noraida

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Asthma affects an estimated 300 million people worldwide. Poor adherence to prescribed preventive medications, especially among children with asthma, leads to increased mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this study was to assess the adherence and persistence levels of asthmatic children at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC), a tertiary care teaching hospital, and to determine the factors that influence adherence to prescribed preventive medications. Patients and methods Participants were asthmatic patients aged 18 years and younger with at least one prescription for a preventive medication refilled between January and December 2011. Refill records from the pharmacy dispensing database were used to determine the medication possession ratio (MPR) and continuous measure of gaps (CMG), measures of adherence and persistence levels, respectively. Results The sample consisted of 218 children with asthma from the General and Respiratory pediatric clinics at UKMMC. The overall adherence level was 38% (n=83; MPR ≥80%), and the persistence level was 27.5% (n=60; CMG ≤20%). We found a significant association between the adherence and persistence levels (r=0.483, P<0.01). The presence of comorbidities significantly predicted the adherence (odds ratio [OR] =16.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.76–33.84, P<0.01) and persistence level (OR =2.63, 95% CI: 0.13–52.79, P<0.01). Other factors, including age, sex, ethnicity, duration of asthma diagnosis, and number of prescribed preventive medications did not significantly affect adherence or persistence (P>0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, the adherence level among children with asthma at UKMMC was low. The presence of comorbidities was found to influence adherence towards preventive medications in asthmatic children. PMID:24600208

  16. Drug utilization in pediatric neurology outpatient department: A prospective study at a tertiary care teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Krutika M.; Malhotra, Supriya D.; Patel, Kamlesh P.; Patel, Varsha J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neurological disorders are a significant cause of morbidity, mortality and adversely affect quality of life among pediatric patients. In India, more than 30% population is under 20 years of age, many of whom present late during the course of illness. Several drugs prescribed to pediatric population suffering from neurological disorders may be off label or unlicensed. Aims and Objectives: To study drug use pattern, identify off-label/unlicensed drug use and to check potential for drug-drug interactions in patients attending outpatient department of pediatric neurology at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methodology: Prescriptions of patients attending pediatric neurology outpatient department were collected prospectively for 8 weeks. They were analyzed for prescribing pattern, WHO core prescribing indicators, off-label/unlicensed drug use and potential for drug-drug interactions. Result: A total of 140 prescriptions were collected, male female ratio being 2:1. Epilepsy was the most common diagnosis (73.57%) followed by breath holding spells, migraine and developmental disorders. Partial seizure was the most common type of epilepsy (52.42%). Average number of drugs prescribed per patient was 1.56. Most commonly prescribed drug was sodium valproate (25.11%) followed by phenytoin (11.41%). About 16% of the prescriptions contained newer antiepileptic drugs. More than 60% of the drugs were prescribed from WHO essential drug list. In 8.57% of cases drugs were prescribed in off-label/unlicensed manner. Twenty-six percent prescriptions showed potential for drug interactions. Conclusion: Epilepsy is the most common neurological disease among children and adolescents. Sodium valproate is the most commonly prescribed drug. A few prescriptions contained off-label/unlicensed drugs. PMID:25278669

  17. Worldwide Lineages of Clinical Pneumococci in a Japanese Teaching Hospital Identified by DiversiLab System.

    PubMed

    Kashiwaya, Kiyoshi; Saga, Tomoo; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Sakata, Ryuji; Iwata, Morihiro; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Chang, Bin; Ohnishi, Makoto; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network (PMEN) clones are representatives of worldwide-spreading pathogens. DiversiLab system, a repetitive PCR system, has been proposed as a less labor-and time-intensive genotyping platform alternative to conventional methods. However, the utility and analysis parameters of DiversiLab for identifying worldwide lineages was not established. To evaluate and optimize the performance of DiversiLab for identifying worldwide pneumococcal lineages, we examined 245 consecutive isolates of clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae from all age-group patients at a teaching hospital in Japan. The capsular swelling reaction of all isolates yielded 24 different serotypes. Intensive visual observation (VO) of DiversiLab band pattern difference divided all isolates into 73 clusters. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of representative 73 isolates from each VO cluster yielded 51 different STs. Among them, PMEN-related lineages accounted for 63% (46/73). Although the serotype of PMEN-related isolates was identical to that of the original PMEN clone in 70% (32/46), CC156-related PMEN lineages, namely Greece(6B)-22 and Colombia(23F)-26, harbored various capsular types discordant to the original PMEN clones. Regarding automated analysis, genotyping by extended Jaccard (XJ) with a 75% similarity index cutoff (SIC) showed the highest correlation with serotyping (adjusted Rand's coefficient, 0.528). Elevating the SIC for XJ to 85% increased the discriminatory power sufficient for distinguishing two major PMEN-related isolates of Taiwan(19F)-14 and Netherlands(3)-31. These results demonstrated a potential utility of DiversiLab for identifying worldwide lineage of pneumococcus. An optimized parameters of automated analysis should be useful especially for comparison for reference strains by "identification" function of DiversiLab. PMID:27107736

  18. A Functional Curriculum for Teaching Students with Disabilities. Volume III: Functional Academics. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valletutti, Peter J.; And Others

    This third of three manuals providing a curriculum for students with disabilities focuses on the development of functional academic skills. An introductory chapter provides an overview of the curriculum and offers guidelines for developing instructional plans for the following three units of study. Unit 1 is on the development of functional…

  19. Making Disciplinary Writing and Thinking Practices an Integral Part of Academic Content Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Kerry; Tse, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Educators and researchers are increasingly calling for the processes of writing and knowledge construction to be an integral part of disciplinary learning. This article contributes to the literature by presenting an empirical analysis of a programme that was designed to expose students to the complexities of academic practices in conjunction with…

  20. Academic Faculty in University Research Centers: Neither Capitalism's Slaves nor Teaching Fugitives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozeman, Barry; Boardman, Craig

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses university-industry interactions for both educational and industrial outcomes. The results suggest that while academic faculty who are affiliated with centers are more involved with industry than non-affiliated faculty, affiliates are also more involved with and supportive of students at the undergraduate, graduate, and…

  1. Using Genre Pedagogy to Teach Adolescent English Learners to Write Academic Persuasive Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Kathleen Ann

    2015-01-01

    The new "Common Core State Standards" (CCSS) (NGACBP & CCSSO, 2010) require teachers to prepare all learners, including adolescent English learners (ELs), to develop academic literacy practices. This article describes an instructional intervention in an urban public high school using the genre-based "Reading to Learn" (Rose…

  2. A Review of the Literature on Teaching Academic English to English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCerbo, Patricia A.; Anstrom, Kristina A.; Baker, Lottie L.; Rivera, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    Academic English (AE) refers to the language used in school to help students acquire and use knowledge. This article reviews current literature to determine what is known about the nature of AE within the context of K-12 schooling. It describes how AE is conceptualized in the education research literature, how these conceptualizations are realized…

  3. Teaching the Whole Student: Perceived Academic Control in College Art Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Randall; Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena T.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2010-01-01

    While college art instructors strive to respond to the current generation of students, educational psychologists stress the importance of teachers' focusing on students' cognitive-affective makeup in addition to conveying course content. Attribution theory--and more specifically, student perceptions of control over academic outcomes--can serve to…

  4. Using Blogs and New Media in Academic Practice: Potential Roles in Research, Teaching, Learning, and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Douglas A.; Jacob, Casey J.; Chapman, Benjamin J.

    2012-01-01

    Compiling a referenced article for publication in a peer-reviewed journal is traditionally the most respected means of contributing to a body of knowledge. However, we argue that publication of evidence-based information via new media--especially blogging--can also be a valid form of academic scholarship. Blogs allow for rapid sharing of research…

  5. Improving Teaching and Learning in Community Colleges: Guidelines for Academic Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorne, Elizabeth M.; Smith, Albert B.

    This report presents findings of a 1991 survey of chief academic officers (CAO's) of community, technical, and junior colleges to measure the level of commitment to instructional effectiveness and illuminate those areas which deserve attention. The study replicated a 1987 survey of CAO's at four-year institutions and utilized the five areas of…

  6. A Reflective Conversation with Terry Friedrichs on Teaching Academics to Gifted Students with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrichs, Terence Paul; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    In this reflective interview with Terry Friedrichs--a hands-on academic-learning specialist and researcher with gifted students with Asperger Syndrome--he defines these pupils, describes their "straightforward" and confusing traits, and recounts his initial and later instructional experiences with them over several decades. The piece…

  7. "Cultivating Ways of Thinking": The Developmental Teaching Perspective in Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Craig M.

    2016-01-01

    Although academic advising is recognized as an important piece in college student retention, the complexity of the activity and its pedagogical potential continues to be overlooked by institutional stakeholders and advisors themselves. Many outside the field do not fully recognize its purpose and potential, but increasingly advising is seen as a…

  8. Impact of Expert Teaching Quality on Novice Academic Performance in the Jigsaw Cooperative Learning Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Roland; Hänze, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the impact of expert students' instructional quality on the academic performance of novice students in 12th-grade physics classes organized in an expert model of cooperative learning ("jigsaw classroom"). The instructional quality of 129 expert students was measured by a newly developed rating system. As expected, when…

  9. Teaching Email Requests in the Academic Context: A Focus on the Role of Corrective Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thi Thuy Minh; Do, Thi Thanh Ha; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Pham, Thi Thanh Thuy

    2015-01-01

    As email requests from students to professors have become increasingly common in academic settings, research has also shown second-language (L2) students' unfamiliarity with email etiquette in L2 has adversely affected their communication with their professors. The present study examines whether giving corrective feedback on students' performance…

  10. Preschool Teaching Students' Prediction of Decision Making Strategies and Academic Achievement on Learning Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acat, M. Bahaddin; Dereli, Esra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify problems and motivation sources and strategies of decision-making of the students' attending preschool education teacher department, was to determine the relationship between learning motivation and strategies of decision-making, academic achievement of students, was to determine whether strategies of…

  11. E-Learning Trends and Hypes in Academic Teaching. Methodology and Findings of a Trend Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Helge; Heise, Linda; Heinz, Matthias; Moebius, Kathrin; Koehler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    What comes next in the field of academic e-learning? Which e-learning trends will dominate the discourse at universities? Answering such questions is the basis for the adaptation of service strategies and IT-infrastructures within institutions of Higher Education. The present paper therefore introduces methodology and findings of a trend study in…

  12. An Academic Club Service Learning Project as a Demonstration of Experiential Teaching Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonczek, James L.; Snyder, Lori Unruh; Ellis, Larry R.

    2007-01-01

    We describe our pedagogical approaches and experiences with an academic club service learning project (one semester, 20 club participants, including both graduate students and lower and upper-level undergraduates). Our service learning project responds to the recent demand for more community service-based club projects within the College of…

  13. Tying Academics to Co-Curriculars Can Teach At-Riskers Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozik, Peter L.; Cowles, Richard C.; Sweet, Dale J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the new academic eligibility policy for at-risk students of Cato-Meridian, a small rural school district in New York State. The traditional eligibility policy that was in place at Cato-Meridian and surrounding school districts required student athletes to pass all but two of their courses. If they failed two…

  14. External Tutors and Academic Departments: Supporting Distance Learners on a Teaching Certificate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigley, Stephen; Kell, Clare

    2007-01-01

    Offering tutor support to adult learners at the local level has been regarded as a positive recruitment feature of a postgraduate certificate in medical education delivered by distance learning. This paper reports on the efforts of the academic department in question to compare the expectations and perceptions of tutoring practice of key…

  15. Free to Teach, Free to Learn: Understanding and Maintaining Academic Freedom in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildavsky, Rachel; O'Connor, Erin

    2013-01-01

    This guide for trustees reports on the dangerous decline of academic freedom and intellectual diversity on college campuses. The foreword, by Benno Schmidt, chairman of the CUNY Board of Trustees and former president of Yale, comes at a time when duly-invited graduation speakers are made unwelcome, campus speech codes threaten the free exchange of…

  16. Standing Up for Good Teaching: The Business Communication Academic as Activist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentz, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author considers a topic that is not talked about much: the working conditions of business communication teachers. In 1990, a special issue of "Business Communication Quarterly" focused on stress in this field, and it identified unstable academic appointments and the lack of departmental support as two main causes. In the…

  17. Is an urban legend true in the teaching hospital that "you will get hurt if you go to hospital at the beginning of the fiscal year"?

    PubMed

    Inoue, Satoki; Abe, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Yu; Kawaguchi, Masahiko

    2015-02-01

    An urban legend that "you will get hurt if you go to hospital at the beginning of the fiscal year" is in circulation, because people in general suppose that inexperienced newcomers start to work at clinical practice during that time period. We tried to determine whether this urban legend was true or not by using data from our operation management system. We retrospectively conducted a study to investigate whether the number of cannulation failures, which was used as an index of patient disadvantages at clinical practice, could be affected by the volume of residents in clinical participation. The number of insertion trials per case was not prominent in the first month of the fiscal year. However, the number of insertion trials per case increased in proportion to the average number of residents per day. It seems that there was no evidence to support the urban legend that "you will get hurt if you go to hospital at the beginning of the fiscal year." However, our results suggest that rather than an urban legend, we are now confronting the fact that patients may suffer from medical disadvantages in the teaching hospitals. PMID:24981561

  18. Prescribing practice and evaluation of appropriateness of enteral nutrition in a university teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiu-Ping; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Quan

    2013-01-01

    Background A retrospective utilization study was performed to evaluate utilization patterns for enteral nutrition in a university teaching hospital. Methods Enteral nutrition was divided into three types according to the nitrogen source, ie, total protein type [Nutrison Fibre®, Fresubin Energy Fibre®, Fresubin®, Supportan® (a special immunonutrition for cancer patients or patients with increased demands for omega-3 fatty acids), Fresubin Diabetes® (a diabetes-specific formula), Ensure®]; short peptide type (Peptison®); and amino acid type (Vivonex®). A pharmacoeconomic analysis was done based on defined daily dose methodology. Results Among hospitalized patients taking enteral nutrition, 34.8% received enteral nutrition alone, 30% concomitantly received parenteral nutrition, and 35.2% received enteral nutrition after parenteral nutrition. Combined use of the different formulas was observed in almost all hospitalized patients receiving enteral nutrition. In total, 61.5% of patients received triple therapy with Nutrison Fibre, Fresubin Diabetes, and Supportan. Number of defined daily doses (total dose consumed/defined daily dose, also called DDDs) of formulas in descending order were as follows: Nutrison Fibre, Fresubin Energy Fibre, Fresubin Diabetes > Supportan > Peptison, Ensure > Vivonex, Fresubin. The ratio of the cumulative DDDs for the three types of enteral nutrition was 35:2.8:1 (total protein type to short peptide type to amino acid type). Off-label use of Fresubin Diabetes was also observed, with most of this formula being prescribed for patients with stress hyperglycemia. Only 2.1% of cancer patients received Supportan. There were 35 cases of near misses in dispensing look-alike or sound-alike enteral nutrition formulas, and one adverse drug reaction in an elderly malnourished patient who did not receive vitamin K1-enriched enteral nutrition during treatment with cefoperazone. After 4 months of the trial intervention, off-label use of Fresubin

  19. The Future of Medical Schools and Teaching Hospitals in the Era of Managed Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardes, Herbert

    1997-01-01

    Academic medical centers, threatened by erosion of infrastructure, declining academic workforce, marketplace forces diminishing quality and access, and shrinking funds, must not rely on managed care, the pharmaceutical industry, or foundations to provide necessary support. They must communicate the dangers they face and persuade government to…

  20. Experience of newly constructed echocardiography-database with video clips and color still images at the Echocardiography Lab of Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, B; Dhungel, S

    2008-09-01

    Reporting system after performing echocardiography is very poor in almost all hospitals of Nepal. Special but simple attempt effort has been introduced to transfer analog video images and color still images of echocardiographic investigation into a desk top computer using a locally available imported video capture system, Snazzi Movie Studio S4. Analog video signals are converted into MPEG2 and still color snaps are converted into JPEG format. Window media player can be used later on to review the video clips. All together 1059 patients including pediatric, adults and geriatric patients underwent echocardiographic evaluation at the Echo-lab of Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital during 10th January 2007 to 9th May 2008. Age ranged from 2 months to 98 years. Mean+SD was 52.4 +/- 18.5 years. Male/female ratio was 0.8:1. More than half of the patients (64.3%) came from Kathmandu. Brahman/Chhetri (478, 45.1%), Tamang, Sherpa etc 278 (26.3%) and Newar (226, 21.3%) were the main echo-users. Elderly age group (>60 yr) comprised of more than one third of the patients (42.0%) followed by the age group of 45-59 yr (27.7%). No abnormality was detected in 133 (12.6%) patients. Valvular heart disease was noticed in more than half of patients (60.7%), followed by diastolic dysfunction (393, 14.0%) and left ventricular hypertrophy (210, 7.5%). This database is not very expensive but demand minimal extra time and energy. It will be a valuable tool to increase diagnostic accuracy and a great resource for academic purpose aiding in the improvement of cardiac care in Nepal. PMID:19253863

  1. The effect of new emergency program on patient length of stay in a teaching hospital emergency department of Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Talleshi, Z.; Hosseininejad, S. M.; Khatir, Goli; Bozorghi, F.; Gorji, A. M. Heidari; Gorji, M. A. Heidari

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Ideally, the period of patients admitting in the Emergency Department (ED) should not exceed 6 hours. Prolonged of the patients admitting time affects the ED overcrowding, quality of patient care and patient satisfaction. To evaluate the efficacy of new programs and suggest new strategies to reduce the overcrowding in a typical overcrowded ED of general teaching hospital in Tehran city. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive case study, charts of patients held over 24 hours, in Imam Hossein Hospital affiliated to the Shaheed Beheshti Medical University, were reviewed from April 21rd on August 23rd, 2008. Results: Of 15,477 patients, 151 (1%) have been held in the ED over 24 hours. Reasons for this long-stay included:lack of available bed in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) (125 patients), lack of available bed in related wards (18 patients), poor final decision — making by physician (eight patient) Conclusion: Long-term stay of patients in ED of teaching hospital is a major problem. The most frequent cause is a limitation of inpatient beds. The long stay time had not been affected by paraclinic procedures, multispecialities involvement or the lack of obvious diagnosis. The following solution is proposed: (1) creation of a holding unit, (2) active inter-facility transfer and (3) governing admittance of patients who need ICU care to related wards. PMID:24791047

  2. Perceived versus Observed Patient Safety Measures in a Critical Care Unit from a Teaching Hospital in Southern Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro, Jorge Hernan; Romero, Adriana Fernanda; Tejada, Paola Andrea; Olaya, Sandra Ximena; Rubiano, Andres Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Patient safety is an important topic. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the perceived versus observed patient safety measures (PSM) in critically ill patients in a teaching hospital in Latin America. Materials and Methods. The level of perceived patient safety was evaluated with the patient safety hospital survey. Three months later, a qualitative study was conducted, including video recording of procedures, graded according to adherence to PSM. Levels of adherence were scored during patient mobilization (PM), placement of central catheters (PCC), other invasive procedures (OIP), infection control (IC), and endotracheal intubation (ETI). Results. The perceived adherence of PSM in the prestudy survey was considered fair by 89.1% of the ICU staff. After the survey, 829 ICU procedures were video-recorded. Mean observed adherence for fair patient safety measures was 20.8%. Perceived adherence was higher than the real patient safety protocol measures observed in the videos. Conclusion. Perception of PSM was higher than observed in the management of critically ill patients in a teaching hospital in southern Colombia. PMID:26989508

  3. Teaching the Business of Instructional Technology: A Collaborative Corporate/Academic Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapp, Karl M.; Phillips, Timothy L.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a program developed at Bloomsburg University (Pennsylvania) to prepare graduate students to be technologically savvy and to teach them the business aspects of instructional technology and electronic learning. Discusses partnerships with instructional technology professionals; collaborative student projects; a request for proposal…

  4. Vocabulary Theatre: A Peer-Teaching Approach for Academic Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Elizabeth; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods counterbalanced study compared the gain score means of two different approaches to vocabulary acquisition--Vocabulary Theater (VT) and Teacher Directed Instruction (TDI) for 8th grade students from three schools in New York. The purpose of the study was to explore the effects of a peer teaching approach on students' vocabulary…

  5. Preparing Writing Teachers to Teach the Vocabulary and Grammar of Academic Prose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxhead, Averil; Byrd, Pat

    2007-01-01

    Over the years, substantial shifts in theory, belief, and practice have occurred in the teaching of language, specifically vocabulary, grammar, or their combination in lexicogrammatical features of a language as part of the writing class or curriculum (Paltridge, 2004; Reid, 1993, 2006). Much of the instruction in L2 writing for adult learners who…

  6. A Handbook for Teaching & Learning in Higher Education: Enhancing Academic Practice. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Heather; Ketteridge, Steve; Marshall, Stephanie

    This handbook, aimed primarily at the inexperienced teacher in higher education, but useful also for the more experienced faculty member, provides practical advice on teaching, learning, and assessment that incorporates recent research findings. Following a "User's Guide" (Heather Fry, Steve Ketteridge, and Stephanie Marshall), the chapters of…

  7. The Challenges for New Academics in Adopting Student-Centred Approaches to Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The current article provides a perspective on the day-to-day challenges that a group of new teachers experienced as they adopted more student-centred approaches to teaching. Three semi-structured interviews were conducted over two years with 11 new teachers from a range of higher education institutions and subject disciplines. The analysis used…

  8. "Academic Freedom" or "Bottom Line": Public College Healthcare Professionals Teaching in a Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Kelly; Muzzin, Linda

    2014-01-01

    College faculty teaching in the health professions work within a unionized, neoliberal system designed to produce competent graduates trained to work in the health care hierarchy. The workers trained include community care assistants, two levels of nurses (practical nurses and baccalaureate nurses, the latter in collaboration with university…

  9. Teaching Test-Taking Strategies to Improve the Academic Achievement of Students with Mild Mental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretlow, Allison G.; Lo, Ya-yu; White, Richard B.; Jordan, LuAnn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of teaching a test-taking strategy to 4 fourth- and fifth-grade students with mild mental disabilities on reading and math achievement. The intervention consisted of a direct and explicit instructional method using a mnemonic strategy. The participants' acquisition and application of the test-taking strategy on…

  10. Changing Perspectives: Teaching and Learning Centres' Strategic Contributions to Academic Development in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Dale; Palmer, Stuart; Challis, Di

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of Australian teaching and learning centres to identify factors that contribute to their effective strategic leadership. These centres remain in a state of flux, with seemingly endless reconfiguration. The drivers for such change appear to lie in decision makers' search for their centres to add more strategic value…

  11. Leading Learning and Teaching: An Exploration of "Loca"' Leadership in Academic Departments in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale longitudinal study of "local" leadership roles at two UK universities. The research explored perceptions of the leadership provided by a specific group of staff who held roles for enhancing learning and teaching. Based on ethnographic design principles, the study was based at one UK higher education…

  12. Teaching and Learning with Technology: IT as a Value-Added Component of Academic Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Martin E.

    2010-01-01

    Effective assessment of teaching and learning with technology requires a capacity to map learning outcomes. Student attitudes of the use of IT are measured in a structural equation model derived from an instrument based on the principles of undergraduate practice of Chickering and Ehrmann (1996). Institutional and background data are included. By…

  13. Effects of Prevent-Teach-Reinforce on Academic Engagement and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJager, Brett W.; Filter, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of prevent-teach-reinforce (P-T-R), a functional behavioral assessment-based intervention for students with behavior problems, using an A-B-A-B design with follow-up. Participants included three students in kindergarten, fourth grade, and fifth grade in a rural Midwestern school district. P-T-R interventions…

  14. Effects of Multi-Tier Academic and Behavior Instruction on Difficult-to-Teach Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob; Wang, Chuang; White, Richard; Cooke, Nancy; Marr, Mary Beth; Algozzine, Kate; Helf, Shawnna S.; Duran, Grace Zamora

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the effects of 3-tiered comprehensive reading and behavior interventions on K-3 student outcomes in 7 urban elementary schools with a high prevalence of students considered difficult to teach. Specific features of each level of the implementation are described including screening and tier placement procedures, scheduling and…

  15. A Comparison of Chinese and Australian University Academics' Valence for Teaching and Cross-Disciplinary Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Edward Feng; McCormick, John; Barnett, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Corporate reforms have taken place in Australian and Chinese higher education systems to increase efficiency and productivity, and to accommodate the emergence of global markets by exposing universities to market competition. The competing demands of teaching and research arguably have emerged as an important issue for both Australian and Chinese…

  16. Reading and Writing Together: A Critical Component of English for Academic Purposes Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabe, William; Zhang, Cui

    2013-01-01

    "As Kroll (1993), among others, has pointed out, reading has traditionally been seen as a skill to be taught separately from writing, as well as something students are somehow expected to already know about when they reach the writing course, Teaching reading in a writing course may seem like an odd idea, if not an entirely unnecessary one. It may…

  17. Academic Productivity as Perceived by Malaysian Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Aminuddin; Tymms, Peter; Ismail, Habsah

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the perspectives of Malaysian academics in relation to academic productivity and some factors affecting it. A large scale online questionnaire was used to gather information from six public universities. The most productive role in the eyes of the academics was found to be teaching, with research and…

  18. Teaching Cost-Conscious Medicine: Impact of a Simple Educational Intervention on Appropriate Abdominal Imaging at a Community-Based Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Covington, Matthew F.; Agan, Donna L.; Liu, Yang; Johnson, John O.; Shaw, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rising costs pose a major threat to US health care. Residency programs are being asked to teach residents how to provide cost-conscious medical care. Methods An educational intervention incorporating the American College of Radiology appropriateness criteria with lectures on cost-consciousness and on the actual hospital charges for abdominal imaging was implemented for residents at Scripps Mercy Hospital in San Diego, CA. We hypothesized that residents would order fewer abdominal imaging examinations for patients with complaints of abdominal pain after the intervention. We analyzed the type and number of abdominal imaging studies completed for patients admitted to the inpatient teaching service with primary abdominal complaints for 18 months before (738 patients) and 12 months following the intervention (632 patients). Results There was a significant reduction in mean abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans per patient (1.7–1.4 studies per patient, P < .001) and total abdominal radiology studies per patient (3.1–2.7 studies per patient, P  =  .02) following the intervention. The avoidance of charges solely due to the reduction in abdominal CT scans following the intervention was $129 per patient or $81,528 in total. Conclusions A simple educational intervention appeared to change the radiologic test-ordering behavior of internal medicine residents. Widespread adoption of similar interventions by residency programs could result in significant savings for the health care system. PMID:24404274

  19. Balancing Bologna: opportunities for university teaching that integrates academic and practical learning outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Lorenz; Pflug, Verena; Brandenburg, Christiane; Guggenberger, Thomas; Mentler, Axel; Wurzinger, Maria

    2014-05-01

    In the course of the Bologna Process, the quality of university teaching has become more prominent in the discourse on higher education. More attention is now paid to didactics and methods and learner-oriented modes of teaching are introduced. The application of knowledge, practical skills and in consequence the employability of university graduates have become requirements for university teaching. Yet, the lecture-style approach still dominates European universities, although empirical evidence confirms that student-centred, interdisciplinary and experiential learning is more effective. Referring to the learning taxonomy introduced by Bloom, we argue that standard approaches rarely move beyond the learning level of comprehension and fail to reach the levels of application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Considering the rapid changes and multiple challenges society faces today, responsible practitioners and scientists who can improve the current management of natural resources are urgently needed. Universities are expected to equip their graduates with the necessary skills to reflect and evaluate their actions when addressing 'real world' problems in order to improve impact and relevance of their work. Higher education thus faces the challenge of providing multi-level learning opportunities for students with diverse practical and theoretical learning needs. In this study, we reflect on three cases of university teaching attempting to bridge theory and practice and based on the principles of systemic, problem based learning. The described courses focus on organic farming, rural development and landscape planning and take place in Uganda, Nicaragua and Italy. We show that being part of a real-world community of stakeholders requires hands-on learning and the reflection and evaluation of actions. This prepares students in a more effective and realistic way for their future roles as responsible decision makers in complex social, economic and ecological systems. We

  20. Burns functional disabilities among burn survivors: a study in Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Agbenorku, Pius

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine the types of functional disabilities in adult and paediatric burns survivors, with specific emphasis on potential risk and socio-economic factors of burn disabilities present in Ghana. Patients and Methods: The descriptive study was carried out in Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana from May 2011 to April 2012. Burn survivors who came for follow-up visits after been discharged home and had functional disability were the participants of the study. They were physically examined and interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire after their informed consent/or that of their parents (in the cases of paediatrics burns survivors) was sought. Results: A total of 70 participants consented for the study. Their ages ranged from 8/12 – 78 years, with a mean age of 12±1.7 years. Majority (60.0%, N=42) of the participants had third degree burns. The nature of disabilities of participants were mostly scar contractures (42.9%, N=30) of which 36.7% (N=11) had impeded arm elevation; 23.3% (N=7) could not fold the palm or move the digits. From the multiple regression analysis risk factors for burn victim to have disability were paediatric age (OR=11.1, P=0.043), third degree of burn (OR=6.2, P=0.001) and anatomical part affected (OR=18.3, P=0.031). Socio-economic factors that affected burn disability victims were nuclear family compensation (OR=4.2, P=0.021), community mockery/stigmatization (OR=0.1, P=0.052) and caretakers time and finance (OR=5.2, P=0.033). Conclusion: The commonest functional disabilities recorded were scar contractions of the axilla region which had impeded the ability of the patients to lift the arm. Risk factors for burns disability included childhood age, third degree of burn incurred and anatomical part affected. Social factors influencing the lives of burn survivors with disability were good family and negative community interactions. Significant economical factors recorded were caretakers’ time and financial constrains. PMID