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Sample records for academic word list

  1. Establishment of a Medical Academic Word List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing; Liang, Shao-lan; Ge, Guang-chun

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a corpus-based lexical study of the most frequently used medical academic vocabulary in medical research articles (RAs). A Medical Academic Word List (MAWL), a word list of the most frequently used medical academic words in medical RAs, was compiled from a corpus containing 1 093 011 running words of medical RAs from online…

  2. Word Meaning in Academic English: Homography in the Academic Word List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ming-Tzu, Karen Wang; Nation, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The Academic Word List (Coxhead 2000) consists of 570 word families that are frequent and wide ranging in academic texts. It was created by counting the frequency, range, and evenness of spread of word forms in a specially constructed academic corpus. This study examines the words in the Academic Word List (AWL) to see if the existence of…

  3. Word-Level Stress Patterns in the Academic Word List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, John; Kandil, Magdi

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses teachers and researchers of English as a second or foreign language who are interested in speech intelligibility training and/or vocabulary acquisition. The study reports a stress-pattern analysis of the Academic Word List (AWL) as made available by Coxhead [TESOL Quarterly 34 (2000) 213]. To examine the AWL in a new way, we…

  4. The Academic Word List 10 Years on: Research and Teaching Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxhead, Averil

    2011-01-01

    The Academic Word List (AWL) is now widely used in English for academic purposes (EAP) classrooms in many countries, in a wide range of materials, in vocabulary tests, and as a major resource for researchers. In this article the author reflects on the impact of the AWL by looking at commonly asked questions about the list: What is the AWL? Is the…

  5. Frequency Analysis of the Words in the Academic Word List (AWL) and Non-AWL Content Words in Applied Linguistics Research Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vongpumivitch, Viphavee; Huang, Ju-yu; Chang, Yu-Chia

    2009-01-01

    This study is a corpus-based lexical study that aims to explore the use of words in Coxhead's (2000) Academic Word List (AWL) in journal articles in the field of applied linguistics. A 1.5 million-word corpus called the Applied Linguistics Research Articles Corpus (ALC) was created for this study. The corpus consists of 200 research articles that…

  6. A New Academic Vocabulary List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Dee; Davies, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article presents our new Academic Vocabulary List (AVL), derived from a 120-million-word academic subcorpus of the 425-million-word Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA; Davies 2012). We first explore reasons why a new academic core list is warranted, and why such a list is still needed in English language education. We also provide…

  7. Successful Learning of Academic Word List via MALL: Mobile Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemi, Minoo; Sarab, Mohammad Reza Anani; Lari, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phones as new addition to information and communication technologies have created new ways to help learners in the process of foreign language learning. Given the importance of academic vocabularies for university students, this study tried to investigate the effectiveness of SMS on Iranian university students' vocabulary learning and…

  8. Towards the Development of an Academic Word List for Applied Linguistics Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khani, Reza; Tazik, Khalil

    2013-01-01

    Academic vocabulary, as the most challenging aspect of language learning in EAP and ESP contexts, has received much attention in the last few decades (e.g. Laufer, 1988; Sutarsyah, et al., 1994; Laufer and Nation, 1999; Coxhead, 2000; Nation, 2001a, 2001b; Wang et al., 2008; Martinez et al., 2009). The major attainments of these studies were…

  9. An Academic Formulas List: New Methods in Phraseology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson-Vlach, Rita; Ellis, Nick C.

    2010-01-01

    This research creates an empirically derived, pedagogically useful list of formulaic sequences for academic speech and writing, comparable with the Academic Word List (Coxhead 2000), called the Academic Formulas List (AFL). The AFL includes formulaic sequences identified as (i) frequent recurrent patterns in corpora of written and spoken language,…

  10. Interspersal Technique and Behavioral Momentum for Reading Word Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Parker, David C.; Hodgson, Jennifer; Klingbeil, David A.; Scholin, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Academic tasks that include easy responses increase the probability that less preferred and/or more challenging tasks will be performed. The current study applied the process of arranging easier stimuli within reading word lists with behavioral momentum and an interspersal technique. We hypothesized that the behavioral momentum condition, which…

  11. Selecting Academic Vocabulary Words Worth Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Dianna; Kiernan, Darl

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this teaching tip is to share a new tool for identifying high-utility academic words from instructional texts. The Word and Phrase Tool, when paired with teacher knowledge about students and objectives, can help teachers promote the academic vocabulary development of their students.

  12. My World of Words: Building Vocabulary Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MarcoPolo Education Foundation.

    This lesson uses students' areas of interest both in and out of school to generate personalized vocabulary lists. Working in small groups, grade 3 to 5 students select their own vocabulary words and research their meanings. In a culminating activity that uses text and illustration, each student will create a "My World of Words Journal." During…

  13. Towards a sight word list in Arabic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oweini, Ahmad; Hazoury, Katia

    2010-10-01

    While the English language boasts a century of research into its most frequently-used words, no such attempt has ever formally been made in the Arab world. This pioneering study presents a list of 500 commonly-used words in the Arabic language based on compilations of words gathered from a number of popular reading series in Lebanon, spanning grades K to 3. This list can serve as a powerful tool for language teachers—who face several challenges posed by the inherent nature of Arabic in terms of diglossia, orthography and morphology—and provide them with a handy list of words for their pupils. The study has its limitations in terms of scope, breadth and the nature of the technology used for counting words. Nonetheless, it makes a number of recommendations for the future, including the development of a readability formula based on this list, the expansion of the scope of this word list and improvement to increase its technical accuracy.

  14. Lexical Choice: Towards Writing Problematic Word Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zughoul, Muhammad Raji

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative analysis of lexical choice errors made by native Arabic-speaking learners of English in written compositions indicated that first-language interference is a major variable in lexical choice. Results lend support to the development of problematic word lists to help learners adopt practical strategies for improving…

  15. Flaming: More Than a Necessary Evil for Academic Mailing Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hongjie; Hong, Yan

    Academic mailing lists are formed by scholars and professionals interested in intellectual discussion and professional exchange of ideas. Academic mailing lists focus on academic and scholarly subjects, but they are not immune from "flaming," hostile, insulting language in computer-mediated communication. Two scholarly mailing lists, ANTHRO-L and…

  16. Word Lists to Simplify Vocabulary of Technical Information. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, J. Peter; And Others

    This report describes eight word lists developed for use as part of the computer readability editing system (CRES), which was developed to serve as an author's aid in improving the ease of comprehending Navy technical manuals and training materials. The system has features which flag uncommon and misspelled words and long sentences, suggest simple…

  17. Serial Recall, Word Frequency, and Mixed Lists: The Influence of Item Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leonie M.; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the effect of word frequency in the serial recall task show that lists of high-frequency words are better recalled than lists of low-frequency words; however, when high- and low-frequency words are alternated within a list, there is no difference in the level of recall for the two types of words, and recall is intermediate between lists…

  18. Word-Processing "Efficiency"--By Means of Personalized Word-Frequency Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David

    2001-01-01

    Examines the concept of the efficiency with which text is entered into a word processor--from the perspective of effective use of keyboard shortcuts. Illustrates how the possibility for productiveness offered by shortcuts, available through the use of features such as Autotext, are often under-utilized by many word processor users, academics being…

  19. Word Recognition Error Analysis: Comparing Isolated Word List and Oral Passage Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Lindsay J.; Hosp, John L.; Hosp, Michelle K.; Robbins, Kelly P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between word recognition errors made at a letter-sound pattern level on a word list and on a curriculum-based measurement oral reading fluency measure (CBM-ORF) for typical and struggling elementary readers. The participants were second, third, and fourth grade typical and struggling readers…

  20. Get the Word Out with List Servers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author details the use of electronic mail server in their school. In their school district of about 7,300 students in suburban Philadelphia (Abington SD), electronic mail list servers are now being used, along with other methods of communication, to disseminate information quickly and widely. They began by manually maintaining…

  1. The Effects of Caffeine on Memory for Word Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erikson, George; And Others

    Research has suggested that behavioral differences may account for the effects of caffeine on information processing. To investigate the effects of caffeine on memory for supraspan word lists, 107 college students (47 males, 60 females), divided into 12 groups by high and low impulsivity scores on the Eysenck Personality Inventory, participated in…

  2. General Academic or Domain-Specific Vocabulary?: The Impact of Word Selection in High School Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmingham, Elizabeth A.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of learning various types of words in biology on students' reading comprehension, vocabulary performance, and science content knowledge. The study involved 315 ninth grade biology students who were placed in one of four groups and spent two weeks for ten minutes per day working on independent vocabulary packets in which they practiced a set of 15 words. Group one's list was a combination of domain-specific and general academic words, group two's list was a set of general academic words, and group three's list was a set of domain-specific words. The fourth group, the control group, did no formal vocabulary work but instead completed lessons involving the ecology content. In this quasi-experiment, the independent variable was the instructional group assignment, and the dependent variables were the students' performances on the reading comprehension, vocabulary (broken into various categories), and content assessments. Descriptive statistics for the majority of the vocabulary items and for the comprehension and content post-test measures revealed that the third group had the highest overall achievement. Throughout the two weeks of treatment, the third group worked only with domain-specific words related to ecology. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) found the differences to be statistically significant. The individual dependent variables were analyzed and found two question types on the vocabulary test, the domainspecific and general academic, to be significant in the test of between-subjects effects. Further, instructional group assignment did not have an effect on reading comprehension and content Descriptive statistics for the majority of the vocabulary items and for the comprehension and content post-test measures revealed that the third group had the highest overall achievement. Throughout the two weeks of treatment, the third group worked only with domain-specific words related to ecology. A

  3. Word Generation Randomized Trial: Discussion Mediates the Impact of Program Treatment on Academic Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Joshua F.; Crosson, Amy C.; Paré-Blagoev, E. Juliana; Snow, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Classroom discussion, despite its association with good academic outcomes, is exceedingly rare in U.S. schools. The Word Generation intervention involves the provision of texts and activities to be implemented across content area class, organized around engaging and discussable dilemmas. The program was evaluated with 1,554 middle grade students…

  4. [An alternative word-list for the Free and cued selective reminding test (FCSRT): list presentation and reliability study].

    PubMed

    Stoykova, Ralitsa; Matharan, Fanny; Raoux, Nadine; Amieva, Hélène

    2013-09-01

    The Free and cued selective reminding test (FCSRT) is one of the most effective neuropsychological test used to assess verbal memory in elderly people with memory problems. There are currently two lists of words: the initial French version (list A) and an alternative one (list B). However, diagnosing early Alzheimer's disease in memory clinics often requires more than two evaluations, particularly in patients with very mild cognitive symptoms and patients with young onset disease. Usually, memory tests can be affected by practice effect, so several expositions of the same list of words could limit its clinical utility. The aim of our study was to create and validate a second alternative version (list C). The study sample was composed of 222 healthy volunteers aged from 17 to 84 years with a mean age of 44.6 years of whom 57% were females and 71% had a higher education. Within a two-month interval, each subject performed the test with one word-list and then the second one. The order of lists presentation was counterbalanced. Our findings indicate that the new alternative list (list C) is equivalent to the initial list of word (list A) for all the recall and recognition subscores, except the number of intrusive errors. This new list of words should be helpful to minimise potential practice effect and better assess memory decline in situations where the FCSRT has to be repeated across follow-up. PMID:24026134

  5. Automatic generation of stop word lists for information retrieval and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Stuart J

    2013-01-08

    Methods and systems for automatically generating lists of stop words for information retrieval and analysis. Generation of the stop words can include providing a corpus of documents and a plurality of keywords. From the corpus of documents, a term list of all terms is constructed and both a keyword adjacency frequency and a keyword frequency are determined. If a ratio of the keyword adjacency frequency to the keyword frequency for a particular term on the term list is less than a predetermined value, then that term is excluded from the term list. The resulting term list is truncated based on predetermined criteria to form a stop word list.

  6. German Basic Course. Cumulative Word List: Lessons 1-92. German-English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This glossary contains all the words and idioms in the nine volumes of the elementary and intermediate phases of a basic course in German. In each entry the German word is listed first followed by the English word and the number of the lesson in which the word first appeared. (AMH)

  7. German Basic Course. Cumulative Word List: Lessons 1-92. English-German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This glossary contains all the words and idioms in the nine volumes of the elementary and intermediate phases of a basic course in German. In each entry the English word is listed first followed by the German word and the number of the lesson in which the word first appeared. (AMH)

  8. Do Beginners Learn to Read Function Words Better in Sentences or in Lists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehri, Linnea C.; Wilce, Lee S.

    First grade students practiced reading ten unfamiliar function words; half studied the words embedded in printed sentences and half studied the words in unstructured lists and then listened to sentences comprised of the words. Posttest measures revealed that those who studied the sentences learned more about the syntactic/semantic identities of…

  9. On the Nature of Talker Variability Effects on Recall of Spoken Word Lists

    PubMed Central

    Goldinger, Stephen D.; Pisoni, David B.; Logan, John S.

    2012-01-01

    In a recent study, Martin, Mullennix, Pisoni, and Summers (1989) reported that subjects’ accuracy in recalling lists of spoken words was better for words in early list positions when the words were spoken by a single talker than when they were spoken by multiple talkers. The present study was conducted to examine the nature of these effects in further detail. Accuracy of serial-ordered recall was examined for lists of words spoken by either a single talker or by multiple talkers. Half the lists contained easily recognizable words, and half contained more difficult words, according to a combined metric of word frequency, lexical neighborhood density, and neighborhood frequency. Rate of presentation was manipulated to assess the effects of both variables on rehearsal and perceptual encoding. A strong interaction was obtained between talker variability and rate of presentation. Recall of multiple-talker lists was affected much more than single-talker lists by changes in presentation rate. At slow presentation rates, words in early serial positions produced by multiple talkers were actually recalled more accurately than words produced by a single talker. No interaction was observed for word confusability and rate of presentation. The data provide support for the proposal that talker variability affects the accuracy of recall of spoken words not only by increasing the processing demands for early perceptual encoding of the words, but also by affecting the efficiency of the rehearsal process itself. PMID:1826729

  10. Comparing frequency of word occurrences in abstracts and texts using two stop word lists.

    PubMed Central

    Su, K.; Ries, J. E.; Peterson, G. M.; Cullinan Sievert, M. E.; Patrick, T. B.; Moxley, D. E.; Ries, L. D.

    2001-01-01

    Retrieval tests have assumed that the abstract is a true surrogate of the entire text. However, the frequency of terms in abstracts has never been compared to that of the articles they represent. Even though many sources are now available in full-text, many still rely on the abstract for retrieval. 1,138 articles with their abstracts were downloaded from Journal of the American Medical Association, New England Journal of Medicine, the British Medical Journal, and the Lancet. Based on two stop word lists, one long and one short, content bearing words were extracted from the articles and their abstracts and the frequency of each word was counted in both sources. Each article and its abstract were tested using a chi-squared test to determine if the words in the abstract occurred as frequently as would be expected. 96% to 98% of the abstracts tested were not significantly different than random samples of the articles they represented. In these four journals, the abstracts are lexical, as well as intellectual, surrogates for the articles they represent. PMID:11825272

  11. California State Spelling Championship Word Lists [and Spelling Bee Planning Information].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonoma County Superintendent of Schools, Santa Rosa, CA.

    This two-part document contains a spelling word list compiled by the Sonoma County Superintendent of Schools (California) for use in the California State Elementary Spelling Championship competition, along with information for planning and conducting spelling bees. The spelling word list (also intended for use in the regional competitions) is a…

  12. English Vocabulary Learning with Word Lists, Word Cards and Computers: Implications from Cognitive Psychology Research for Optimal Spaced Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakata, Tatsuya

    2008-01-01

    The spacing effect is known to be one of the most robust phenomena in experimental psychology, and many attempts have been made to realize effective spaced learning for L2 vocabulary learning. This study compares vocabulary learning with word lists, word cards, and computers in order to identify which material leads to the most superior spaced…

  13. Parametric effects of word frequency effect in memory for mixed frequency lists

    PubMed Central

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The word frequency paradox refers to the finding that low frequency words are better recognized than high frequency words yet high frequency words are better recalled than low frequency words. Rather than comparing separate groups of low and high frequency words, we sought to quantify the functional relation between word frequency and memory performance across the broad range of frequencies typically used in episodic memory experiments. Here we report that both low frequency and high frequency words are better recalled than mid-frequency words. In contrast, we only observe a low frequency advantage when participants were given a subsequent item recognition test. The U-shaped relation between word frequency and recall probability may help to explain inconsistent results in studies using mixed lists with separate groups of high and low frequency words. PMID:23834055

  14. Bridging the Vocabulary Gap for EFL Medical Undergraduates: The Establishment of a Medical Word List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Wenhua

    2013-01-01

    This study created a medical word list (MWL) to bridge the gap between non-technical and technical vocabulary. The researcher compiled a corpus containing 155 textbooks across 31 medical subject areas from e-book databases (totaling 15 million running words) and examined the range and frequency of words outside the most frequent 3,000-word…

  15. Early Word Decoding Ability as a Longitudinal Predictor of Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordström, Thomas; Jacobson, Christer; Söderberg, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    This study, using a longitudinal design with a Swedish cohort of young readers, investigates if children's early word decoding ability in second grade can predict later academic performance. In an effort to estimate the unique effect of early word decoding (grade 2) with academic performance (grade 9), gender and non-verbal cognitive ability were…

  16. The Wide and Wild World of Words: Interview with Averil Coxhead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mah, Adeline Shi Hui; Yeo, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Averil Coxhead is widely known for developing the Academic Word List, a list of 570 word families associated with great frequency in academic texts. This list has been particularly useful to teachers of English as a Second Language as well as independent learners in tertiary education. She has also developed a Science-based word list (Coxhead and…

  17. Serial recall, word frequency, and mixed lists: the influence of item arrangement.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leonie M; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-11-01

    Studies of the effect of word frequency in the serial recall task show that lists of high-frequency words are better recalled than lists of low-frequency words; however, when high- and low-frequency words are alternated within a list, there is no difference in the level of recall for the two types of words, and recall is intermediate between lists of pure frequency. This pattern has been argued to arise from the development of a network of activated long-term representations of list items that support the redintegration of all list items in a nondirectional and nonspecific way. More recently, it has been proposed that the frequency effect might be a product of the coarticulation of items at word boundaries and their influence on rehearsal rather than a consequence of memory representations. The current work examines recall performance in mixed lists of an equal number of high- and low-frequency items arranged in contiguous segments (i.e., HHHLLL and LLLHHH), under quiet and articulatory suppression conditions, to test whether the effect is (a) nondirectional and (b) dependent on articulatory processes. These experiments demonstrate that neither explanation is satisfactory, although the results suggest that the effect is mnemonic. A language-based approach to short-term memory is favored with emphasis on the role of speech production processes at output. PMID:22582964

  18. Teaching Vocabulary: Within the Context of Literature and Reading or through Isolated Word Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetis, Anna

    This study was conducted to determine which method for vocabulary instruction was most beneficial: learning words through the context of literature and reading or through isolated word lists. Subjects, 45 high school students taking Freshman English, were divided into 2 groups. All students were studying Charles Dickens' novel "Great…

  19. When Words Collide: Facilitation and Interference in the Report of Repeated Words From Rapidly Presented Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Michael E. J.

    2004-01-01

    Inhibited encoding is the basis of some accounts of repetition blindness--impaired report of the second occurrence of a repeated word in a rapidly presented word sequence. The author presents evidence for the claim that repetition effects arise from constructive processes of perception and memory that occur to some extent after the word sequence…

  20. Word Detectives: Morphological Instruction That Supports Academic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Perkins, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This study describes an intervention that uses morphology to support word learning within comprehension instruction of content-specific texts. The intervention is detailed such that the morphological understandings used to support word choice and word learning activities are clear and can be replicated by researchers and educators. Six main…

  1. Context Effects in Processing of Chinese Academic Words: An Eye-Tracking Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Yu-Cin; Chen, Ming-Lei; Ko, Hwa-wei

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated context effects of online processing of Chinese academic words during text reading. Undergraduate participants were asked to read Chinese texts that were familiar or unfamiliar (containing physics terminology) to them. Physics texts were selected first, and then we replaced the physics terminology with familiar words; other…

  2. Marketing of Academic Library Services through Social Networking Sites: Implications of Electronic Word-of-Mouth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddike, Md. Abul Kalam; Kiran, K.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the perceptions of academic librarians towards the marketing of library services through social networking sites (SNSs) and their understanding of using electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) as a marketing tool in academic libraries. This study follows a qualitative data-gathering approach of structured…

  3. A Kind Word for Bullshit: The Problem of Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eubanks, Philip; Schaeffer, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The phrase "academic bullshit" presents compositionists with a special dilemma. Because compositionists study, teach, and produce academic writing, they are open to the accusation that they both tolerate and perpetuate academic bullshit. We argue that confronting this problem must begin with a careful definition of "bullshit" and "academic…

  4. Words as Tools: Learning Academic Vocabulary as Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, William; Townsend, Dianna

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the importance of academic vocabulary, and more generally, of academic language proficiency, for students' success in school. There is also a growing body of research on the nature of the demands that academic language places on readers and writers, and on interventions to help students meet these demands. In this…

  5. Notes on the Kansa Word List of Maximilian, Prince of Wied.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Kansa Indian language vocabulary collected by Prince Alexander Philip Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied during his journey through the plains of North America between 1832 and 1834. Prince Maximilian's word list is likely the oldest existent vocabulary on this language. His vocabulary, published in 1843 as an appendix to his…

  6. Chinese-Cantonese: List of Basic Chinese-Cantonese Military Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    A list of 565 Chinese-Cantonese words commonly used in the discussion of military subjects is presented as part of the Defense Language Institute Program. It is designed to be used as a guide in future revisions of military lessons and as an aid for instructors in the classroom discussion of these terms. Contents are translations from English to…

  7. Teaching Children to Fluently Decode Nonsense Words in Lists: Generalized Effects to Oral Reading Fluency of Connected Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werder, Candace Susan

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the generalized effects of training children to fluently blend nonsense words containing target vowel teams on their reading of untrained real words in lists and passages. Eight second-grade students participated. Nonsense words containing each of 3 target vowel teams ("aw," "oi," and "au")…

  8. Enhancement of 4-year-old children's memory span for phonologically similar and dissimilar word lists.

    PubMed

    Cowan, N; Saults, J S; Winterowd, C; Sherk, M

    1991-02-01

    Previous research suggests that preschool children are deficient in rehearsal and that stimulus list repetitions can improve their recall, presumably by substituting for the products of rehearsal. However, the previous research included interitem or postlist retention intervals of several seconds or more. We examined the utility of list repetitions with reference to an ordinary span task in which spoken words were presented 1 s apart for immediate recall. Lists with phonologically similar versus dissimilar items were included, to determine if the overall pattern of recall could be made more similar to what is ordinarily obtained in older children. Cumulative repetition was found to cause a moderate increase in both memory span and the phonological similarity effect. Other types of list repetition provided more insight into types of stimulus redundancy that were helpful (e.g., repeated serial order information) or not helpful (e.g., forced articulatory coding) to children attempting to recall spoken lists. The underlying mnemonic processes are discussed. PMID:2010726

  9. Influence of cognitive abilities and age on word recall performance across trials and list segments.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Lacy E; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2011-01-01

    The influence of cognitive abilities and age on multitrial word recall performance was examined for different list segments (i.e., first, middle, and last) and across trials by having 2497 participants ages 18-98 complete a multitrial word list test along with reference cognitive ability tests. As expected, higher episodic memory ability was associated with better recall on all list segments but with a smaller influence for the last items on the early trials. Performance improved across trials, but there were no relations of the fluid intelligence construct that might be postulated to be associated with effective strategy implementation with any of the recall measures. Advanced age was associated with lower levels of performance, but very few of the age relations were significant after the variation in the reference cognitive abilities was controlled for. PMID:21977691

  10. Basic Emotions in the Nencki Affective Word List (NAWL BE): New Method of Classifying Emotional Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Wierzba, Małgorzata; Riegel, Monika; Wypych, Marek; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Turnau, Paweł; Grabowska, Anna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    The Nencki Affective Word List (NAWL) has recently been introduced as a standardized database of Polish words suitable for studying various aspects of language and emotions. Though the NAWL was originally based on the most commonly used dimensional approach, it is not the only way of studying emotions. Another framework is based on discrete emotional categories. Since the two perspectives are recognized as complementary, the aim of the present study was to supplement the NAWL database by the addition of categories corresponding to basic emotions. Thus, 2902 Polish words from the NAWL were presented to 265 subjects, who were instructed to rate them according to the intensity of each of the five basic emotions: happiness, anger, sadness, fear and disgust. The general characteristics of the present word database, as well as the relationships between the studied variables are shown to be consistent with typical patterns found in previous studies using similar databases for different languages. Here we present the Basic Emotions in the Nencki Affective Word List (NAWL BE) as a database of verbal material suitable for highly controlled experimental research. To make the NAWL more convenient to use, we introduce a comprehensive method of classifying stimuli to basic emotion categories. We discuss the advantages of our method in comparison to other methods of classification. Additionally, we provide an interactive online tool (http://exp.lobi.nencki.gov.pl/nawl-analysis) to help researchers browse and interactively generate classes of stimuli to meet their specific requirements. PMID:26148193

  11. Word Processing as an Assistive Technology Tool for Enhancing Academic Outcomes of Students with Writing Disabilities in the General Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzroni, O. E.; Shrieber, B.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the use of a word processor for enhancing the academic outcomes of three students with writing disabilities in a junior high school. A single-subject ABAB design was used to compare academic output produced during class time with and without a computer equipped with a word processor. The number of spelling errors, the…

  12. The Use of Academic Words in the Analytical Writing of Secondary English Learners and Native English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cons, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the following research question: How do secondary English learners (ELs) and Re-designated fluent English proficient students (RFEPs) use academic words in analytical writing in comparison to native English speakers (NESs)? It highlights previously overlooked differences in academic word use in the writing of students who are…

  13. Visual distraction during word-list retrieval does not consistently disrupt memory

    PubMed Central

    Rae, Pamela J. L.; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Glenberg et al. (1998) reported that episodic memory is impaired by visual distraction and argued that this effect is consistent with a trade-off between internal and external attentional focus. However, their demonstration that visual distraction impairs memory for lists used 15 consecutive word-lists, with analysis only of mid-list items, and has never been replicated. Experiment 1 (N = 37) replicated their methodology and found the same pattern of impairment for mid-list recall, but found no evidence of impairment for other items on the lists. Experiment 2 (N = 64) explored whether this pattern arises because the mid-list items are poorly encoded (by manipulating presentation rate) or because of interference. Experiment 3 (N = 36) also looked at the role of interference whilst controlling for potential item effects. Neither study replicated the pattern seen in Experiment 1, despite reliable effects of presentation rate (Experiment 2) and interference (Experiments 2 and 3). Experiment 2 found no effect of distraction for mid-list items, but distraction did increase both correct and incorrect recall of all items suggestive of a shift in willingness to report. Experiment 3 found no effects of distraction whatsoever. Thus, there is no clear evidence that distraction consistently impairs retrieval of items from lists and therefore no consistent evidence to support the embodied cognition account used to explain the original finding. PMID:24795688

  14. Flaming: More than a Necessary Evil for Academic Mailing Lists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hongjie

    1996-01-01

    States that although Internet "gurus" advocate that users refrain from "flaming," in fact, flaming permeates the Internet. Explores the nature of flaming in its characteristics and forms as seen in academic discussion groups. Argues that flaming educates the ignorant, tames the uncouth, and promotes effective communication. (PA)

  15. Investigating Academic Phraseology through Combinations of Very Frequent Words: A Methodological Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Benet

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates an approach based on findings from phraseology which can be used to identify potentially useful phrases in a text by starting with continuous or discontinuous sequences of very frequent words. These combinations are then searched in a corpus of academic texts to find their common collocates and ascertain whether the…

  16. Enhancing Academic Performance and Social and Emotional Competence with the RULER Feeling Words Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackett, Marc A.; Rivers, Susan E.; Reyes, Maria R.; Salovey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design was used to test the impact of a 30-week, theoretically-based social and emotional learning (SEL) curriculum, The RULER Feeling Words Curriculum ("RULER"), on the academic performance and social and emotional competence of 5th and 6th grade students (N = 273) in fifteen classrooms in three schools.…

  17. Acoustic Masking Disrupts Time-Dependent Mechanisms of Memory Encoding in Word-List Recall

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Katheryn A.Q.; Dar, Jonathan; Wingfield, Arthur; Miller, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Recall of recently heard words is affected by the clarity of presentation: even if all words are presented with sufficient clarity for successful recognition, those that are more difficult to hear are less likely to be recalled. Such a result demonstrates that memory processing depends on more than whether a word is simply “recognized” versus “not-recognized”. More surprising is that when a single item in a list of spoken words is acoustically masked, prior words that were heard with full clarity are also less likely to be recalled. To account for such a phenomenon, we developed the Linking by Active Maintenance Model (LAMM). This computational model of perception and encoding predicts that these effects are time dependent. Here we challenge our model by investigating whether and how the impact of acoustic masking on memory depends on presentation rate. We find that a slower presentation rate causes a more disruptive impact of stimulus degradation on prior, clearly heard words than does a fast rate. These results are unexpected according to prior theories of effortful listening, but we demonstrate that they can be accounted for by LAMM. PMID:24838269

  18. Why Do Participants Initiate Free Recall of Short Lists of Words with the First List Item? Toward a General Episodic Memory Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spurgeon, Jessica; Ward, Geoff; Matthews, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Participants who are presented with a short list of words for immediate free recall (IFR) show a strong tendency to initiate their recall with the 1st list item and then proceed in forward serial order. We report 2 experiments that examined whether this tendency was underpinned by a short-term memory store, of the type that is argued by some to…

  19. When Small Words Foretell Academic Success: The Case of College Admissions Essays

    PubMed Central

    Pennebaker, James W.; Chung, Cindy K.; Frazee, Joey; Lavergne, Gary M.; Beaver, David I.

    2014-01-01

    The smallest and most commonly used words in English are pronouns, articles, and other function words. Almost invisible to the reader or writer, function words can reveal ways people think and approach topics. A computerized text analysis of over 50,000 college admissions essays from more than 25,000 entering students found a coherent dimension of language use based on eight standard function word categories. The dimension, which reflected the degree students used categorical versus dynamic language, was analyzed to track college grades over students' four years of college. Higher grades were associated with greater article and preposition use, indicating categorical language (i.e., references to complexly organized objects and concepts). Lower grades were associated with greater use of auxiliary verbs, pronouns, adverbs, conjunctions, and negations, indicating more dynamic language (i.e., personal narratives). The links between the categorical-dynamic index (CDI) and academic performance hint at the cognitive styles rewarded by higher education institutions. PMID:25551217

  20. Directory of Electronic Journals, Newsletters and Academic Discussion Lists. 4th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lisabeth A.; And Others

    This directory offers a listing of academically created and oriented serials on the Internet. Part I contains articles and bibliographies about electronic publishing: "The Places of Books in the Age of Electronic Reproduction" (Geoffrey Nunberg); "Why Are Electronic Publications Difficult To Classify? The Orthogonality of Print and Digital Media"…

  1. Directory of Electronic Journals, Newsletters and Academic Discussion Lists. 6th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogge, Dru, Ed.

    The Association of Research Libraries (ARL) has published this directory of over 3,000 academic and professional discussion lists and 1,688 electronic journals, newsletters, and newsletter-digests. This tool is designed for assisting individuals in locating Internet resources as well as assisting librarians in building electronic collections. The…

  2. Academic Vocabulary in Agriculture Research Articles: A Corpus-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Iliana A.; Beck, Silvia C.; Panza, Carolina B.

    2009-01-01

    Recent critical views on the usefulness of a general academic vocabulary have heightened the relevance of developing discipline specific academic wordlists to meet the needs of non-native English writers who must read and publish articles in English. Using Coxhead's (2000) Academic Word List, we set out to identify the academic words in a corpus…

  3. Parametric Effects of Word Frequency in Memory for Mixed Frequency Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The "word frequency paradox" refers to the finding that low frequency words are better recognized than high frequency words yet high frequency words are better recalled than low frequency words. Rather than comparing separate groups of low and high frequency words, we sought to quantify the functional relation between word frequency and…

  4. BRBN-T validation: adaptation of the Selective Reminding Test and Word List Generation.

    PubMed

    Neves, Mariana Rigueiro; Passos, Ana Margarida; Ferreira, Aristides; Sousa, Cláudia; Sá, Andreia; Sá, Maria José

    2015-10-01

    Objective This study aims to present the Selective Reminding Test(SRT) and Word List Generation (WLG) adaptation to the Portuguese population, within the validation of the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRBN-T)for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients.Method 66 healthy participants (54.5% female) recruited from the community volunteered to participate in this study.Results A combination of procedures from Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (ITR) were applied to item analysis and selection. For each SRT list, 12 words were selected and 3 letters were chosen for WLG to constitute the final versions of these tests for the Portuguese population.Conclusion The combination of CTT and ITR maximized the decision making process in the adaptation of the SRT and WLG to a different culture and language (Portuguese). The relevance of this study lies on the production of reliable standardized neuropsychological tests, so that they can be used to facilitate a more rigorous monitoring of the evolution of MS, as well as any therapeutic effects and cognitive rehabilitation. PMID:26465404

  5. The Use and Misuse of Academic Words in Writing: Analyzing the Writing of Secondary English Learners and Redesignated Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cons, Andrea Marie

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the specific ways secondary English learners (ELs) and redesignated fluent English-proficient learners (RFEPs) use academic vocabulary that assesses interpretive reading and analytical writing ability. The research examines how ELs and RFEPs, formerly ELs, differ in use and misuse of academic words. The study extends…

  6. Extracting semantic representations from word co-occurrence statistics: stop-lists, stemming, and SVD.

    PubMed

    Bullinaria, John A; Levy, Joseph P

    2012-09-01

    In a previous article, we presented a systematic computational study of the extraction of semantic representations from the word-word co-occurrence statistics of large text corpora. The conclusion was that semantic vectors of pointwise mutual information values from very small co-occurrence windows, together with a cosine distance measure, consistently resulted in the best representations across a range of psychologically relevant semantic tasks. This article extends that study by investigating the use of three further factors--namely, the application of stop-lists, word stemming, and dimensionality reduction using singular value decomposition (SVD)--that have been used to provide improved performance elsewhere. It also introduces an additional semantic task and explores the advantages of using a much larger corpus. This leads to the discovery and analysis of improved SVD-based methods for generating semantic representations (that provide new state-of-the-art performance on a standard TOEFL task) and the identification and discussion of problems and misleading results that can arise without a full systematic study. PMID:22258891

  7. A Corpus-Based Lexical Study on Frequency and Distribution of Coxhead's Awl Word Families in Medical Research Articles (RAs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Qi; Guang-Chun, Ge

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a lexical study on the word frequency and the text coverage of the 570 word families from Coxhead's Academic Word List (AWL) in medical research articles (RAs) based on a corpus of 50 medical RAs written in English with 190425 running words. By computer analysis, we found that the text coverage of the AWL words accounted for around…

  8. The Effects of Linguistic Context on Word Recognition in Noise by Elderly Listeners Using Spanish Sentence Lists (SSL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervera, Teresa; Rosell, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the linguistic context on the recognition of words in noise in older listeners using the Spanish Sentence Lists. These sentences were developed based on the approach of the SPIN test for the English language, which contains high and low predictability (HP and LP) sentences. In addition, the relative contribution…

  9. Evidence for the Importance of Academic Word Knowledge for the Academic Achievement of Diverse Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Dianna; Filippini, Alexis; Collins, Penelope; Biancarosa, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Despite the current theoretical momentum for the importance of academic English and the acknowledgment that academic materials increase in complexity through the grades, little empirical attention has been devoted to the role of academic English in academic achievement. This study examined the amount of variance in academic achievement explained…

  10. The Effects of Linguistic Context on Word Recognition in Noise by Elderly Listeners Using Spanish Sentence Lists (SSL).

    PubMed

    Cervera, Teresa; Rosell, Vicente

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the linguistic context on the recognition of words in noise in older listeners using the Spanish Sentence Lists. These sentences were developed based on the approach of the SPIN test for the English language, which contains high and low predictability (HP and LP) sentences. In addition, the relative contribution of peripheral hearing sensitivity, measured by pure-tone hearing thresholds (PTA), to the performance on both types of sentences was assessed in a regression analysis. The results showed that older listeners obtained benefits on word recognition from the linguistic context. PTA contributed significantly to explaining the variance in performance on both HP and LP sentences. PMID:25274285

  11. The Most Frequently-Used Multi-Word Constructions in Academic Written English: A Multi-Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dilin

    2012-01-01

    Using the academic writing sub-corpora of the Corpus of Contemporary American English and the British National Corpus as data and building on previous research, this study strives to identify the most frequently-used multi-word constructions (MWCs) of various types (e.g., idioms, lexical bundles, and phrasal/prepositional verbs) in general…

  12. Word processing as an assistive technology tool for enhancing academic outcomes of students with writing disabilities in the general classroom.

    PubMed

    Hetzroni, Orit E; Shrieber, Betty

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the use of a word processor for enhancing the academic outcomes of three students with writing disabilities in a junior high school. A single-subject ABAB design was used to compare academic output produced during class time with and without a computer equipped with a word processor. The number of spelling errors, the number of reading errors, and the number of words used per text were counted, and the overall structure and organization of text were examined across all in-class materials. The data demonstrated a clear difference between handwritten and computer phases. In traditional paper-and-pencil phases, students produced outcomes that had more spelling mistakes, more reading errors, and lower overall quality of organization and structure in comparison with the phases in which a computer equipped with a word processor was used. The results did not indicate any noticeable difference in the number of words per text. Implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:15493236

  13. Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Muses on the power of words and how they shape people's lives. Relates stories from the author's life illustrating this, and relates the author's (a writer of novels for children and young adults) struggles and rewards as she works with words. (SR)

  14. What I need to start my job: a wish list (positioning yourself for success in an academic or nonacademic environment).

    PubMed

    Wright, Raymond D; Collinge, Cory A

    2014-09-01

    Beginning practice as an orthopaedic traumatologist is an important event, when the groundwork is set up for the next few years of hard work. Plans must be made, resources allocated, staff hired, etc. to optimally support the newly practicing surgeon. Academic and nonacademic practice settings are possible, where the facets of practice (i.e., clinic, operating room, floor work, education, and research) may be quite different. The goal of this article is to discuss these differences between relatively academic and nonacademic practices, ultimately to allow the young orthopaedic traumatologist to form a "wish list" with which to start planning the logistics of his or her career. PMID:25147999

  15. The problem of polysemy in the first thousand words of the General Service List: A corpus study of secondary chemistry texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmons, Karina

    Vocabulary in a second language is an indispensable building block of all comprehension (Folse, 2006; Nation, 2006). Teachers in content area classes such as science, math, and social studies frequently teach content specific vocabulary, but are not aware of the obstacles that can occur when students do not know the basic words. Word lists such as the General Service List (GSL) were created to assist students and teachers (West, 1953). The GSL does not adequately take into account the high level of polysemy of many common English words, nor has it been updated by genre to reflect specific content domains encountered by secondary science students in today's high stakes classes such as chemistry. This study examines how many words of the first 1000 words of the GSL occurred in the secondary chemistry textbooks sampled, how often the first 1000 words of the GSL were polysemous, and specifically which multiple meanings occurred. A discussion of results includes word tables that list multiple meanings present, example phrases that illustrate the context surrounding the target words, suggestions for a GSL that is genre specific to secondary chemistry textbooks and that is ranked by meaning as well as type, and implications for both vocabulary materials and classroom instruction for ELLs in secondary chemistry classes. Findings are essential to second language (L2) researchers, materials developers, publishers, and teachers.

  16. Words Fail Us: How Academics View Language and Ideas in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Language can provide an entree into an academic discipline, but can also serve as a barrier to exclude newcomers. How does this apply to academic developers trying to promote teaching and learning on their campuses? Using an online survey, academics at two institutions in the UK and USA were asked to describe their typical and ideal reading in…

  17. Maltreated and non-maltreated children's true and false memories of neutral and emotional word lists in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott task.

    PubMed

    Baugerud, Gunn Astrid; Howe, Mark L; Magnussen, Svein; Melinder, Annika

    2016-03-01

    Maltreated (n=26) and non-maltreated (n=31) 7- to 12-year-old children were tested on the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory task using emotional and neutral word lists. True recall was significantly better for non-maltreated than maltreated children regardless of list valence. The proportion of false recall for neutral lists was comparable regardless of maltreatment status. However, maltreated children showed a significantly higher false recall rate for the emotional lists than non-maltreated children. Together, these results provide new evidence that maltreated children could be more prone to false memory illusions for negatively valenced information than their non-maltreated counterparts. PMID:26637948

  18. Which Words Shall They Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Cheryl L.; Feinburg, Phil

    To devise a list of functional sight vocabulary words, a search was made of numerous curriculum guides and books, school district curricula, and several commercial materials purporting to teach such words. This search provided 16 word lists with a total of 466 different words and symbols. The word lists ranged from as few as five words to as many…

  19. Developing a Standardized List of Questions for the Usability Testing of an Academic Library Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letnikova, Galina

    2008-01-01

    Modern academic libraries have a great number of information resources available online in the form of electronic catalogs, books, journals, and subject subscription databases. To determine whether users can easily retrieve the information they are seeking, academic librarians conduct usability testing of their libraries' Web sites. There has been…

  20. "Words that Hold Us up": Teacher Talk and Academic Language in Five Upper Elementary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst-Slavit, Gisela; Mason, Michele R.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the oral academic language used by English as a second language prepared teachers during content area instruction in five upper elementary classrooms in the United States. Using ethnographic and sociolinguistic perspectives the authors examine the oral, academic language exposure students received from their teachers during…

  1. Investigating the Viability of a Collocation List for Students of English for Academic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrant, Philip

    2009-01-01

    A number of researchers are currently attempting to create listings of important collocations for students of EAP. However, so far these attempts have (1) failed to include positionally-variable collocations, and (2) not taken sufficient account of variation across disciplines. The present paper describes the creation of one listing of…

  2. Content listings for consistency of policies and procedures in an academic department.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, G C

    1989-06-01

    Communicating expectations is central to effective management. In a large academic department spread over several sites, written guidelines are often necessary to limit misinterpretation of these expectations. Three "operation manuals" for residents, faculty, and support staff were developed to supply these guidelines. They have evolved into an effective means of communicating departmental policy and standards for performance. The table of contents are provided as a guide for those developing new academic departments. PMID:2729693

  3. Beware the Range in RANGE, and the Academic in AWL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Steve; Hancioglu, Nilgun; Eldridge, John

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a recent example of published research on the vocabulary profile of a financial corpus based on the Academic Word List (AWL) to illustrate not only the erroneous output from vocabulary profiling tools but also the pitfalls of using the AWL as a filter for academic lexis. Recent research has cautioned against eschewing high…

  4. The Effect of Learners' Field Independence, Cognitive Strategy Instruction, and Inherent Word-List Organization on Free-Recall Memory and Strategy Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Bernard M.; Keene, Delane

    1993-01-01

    Free-recall memory performance of and spontaneous strategy use by 227 field-dependent and field-independent undergraduates were investigated by means of memorized word lists that were high or low in inherent organization and when cognitive strategy instruction was provided or withheld. Results are consistent with current views of field-dependence…

  5. What's in a Word? Using Content Vocabulary to "Generate" Growth in General Academic Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanigan, Kevin; Templeton, Shane; Hayes, Latisha

    2012-01-01

    The role of vocabulary knowledge in supporting students' comprehension and understanding of their content-area reading is critical. This article explores how content-area teachers can help students become aware of, understand, and apply generative knowledge about English words to grow and develop their vocabularies. Generative vocabulary…

  6. Campus Word Processing: Seven Design Principles for a New Academic Writing Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuman, Myron

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the impact of word processing on the teaching of college composition at the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa. Describes seven design principles developed by writing teachers at the university in outlining a solution to the problem of how students can really work together collaboratively over a computer network. (RS)

  7. Facilitative Effect of Cognate Words Vanishes When Reducing the Orthographic Overlap: The Role of Stimuli List Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Ferré, Pilar; Romero, Joaquín; Guasch, Marc; Soares, Ana P.; García-Chico, Teófilo

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that cognate word processing is modulated by variables such as degree of orthographic and phonological overlap of cognate words and task requirements in such a way that the typical preferential processing observed in the literature for cognate words relative to non-cognate words can be annulled or even reversed (Comesaña…

  8. Evaluating the Benefits of Displaying Word Prediction Lists on a Personal Digital Assistant at the Keyboard Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Cynthia; Wells, David

    2009-01-01

    Visual-cognitive loads influence the effectiveness of word prediction technology. Adjusting parameters of word prediction programs can lessen visual-cognitive loads. This study evaluated the benefits of WordQ word prediction software for users' performance when the prediction window was moved to a personal digital assistant (PDA) device placed at…

  9. Directory of Electronic Journals, Newsletters and Academic Discussion Lists. 5th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lisabeth A., Comp.; And Others

    This directory is a compilation of entries for nearly 2,500 scholarly discussion lists and 675 electronic journals, newsletters, and related titles such as newsletter-digests, available on the Internet. Instructions are provided for accessing each publication. Part 1 is an introduction to electronic scholarly publications, followed by the articles…

  10. The effect of post-learning presentation of music on long-term word-list retention.

    PubMed

    Judde, Sarah; Rickard, Nikki

    2010-07-01

    Memory consolidation processes occur slowly over time, allowing recently formed memories to be altered soon after acquisition. Although post-learning arousal treatments have been found to modulate memory consolidation, examination of the temporal parameters of these effects in humans has been limited. In the current study, 127 participants learned a neutral word list and were exposed to either a positively or negatively arousing musical piece following delays of 0, 20 or 45min. One-week later, participants completed a long-term memory recognition test, followed by Carver and White's (1994) approach/avoidance personality scales. Retention was significantly enhanced, regardless of valence, when the emotion manipulation occurred at 20min, but not immediately or 45min, post-learning. Further, the 20min interval effect was found to be moderated by high 'drive' approach sensitivity. The selective facilitatory conditions of music identified in the current study (timing and personality) offer valuable insights for future development of more specified memory intervention strategies. PMID:20307678

  11. Story-List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lanaii

    The program, STORY-LIST, generates alphabetized cumulative word lists by story number within a school grade. It is designed to read a group of cards until it finds a new grade/story number. Each word read is stored in an array, sorted, and an asterisk is added to each word in the array. This array is then merged with the old sorted word list and…

  12. Ahead of others in the authorship order: names with middle initials appear earlier in author lists of academic articles in psychology

    PubMed Central

    Igou, Eric R.; van Tilburg, Wijnand A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Middle name initials are often used by people in contexts where intellectual performance matters. Given this association, middle initials in people’s names indicate intellectual capacity and performance (Van Tilburg and Igou, 2014). In the current research, we examined whether middle initials are associated with a typical academic indicator of intellectual performance: authorship order of journal articles. In psychology, authorship early in the author list of an article should correspond with greater contribution to this intellectual endeavor compared to authorship appearing later in the author list. Given that middle initials indicate intellectual capacity and performance, we investigated whether there would be a positive relationship between middle initials in author names and early (vs. late) appearance of names in author lists of academic journal articles in psychology. In two studies, we examined the relationship between amount of authors’ middle initials and authorship order. Study 1 used a sample of 678 articles from social psychology journals published in the years 2006 and 2007. Study 2 used a sample of 696 articles from journals of multiple sub-disciplines in psychology published in the years from 1970 to 2013. Middle initials in author names were overrepresented early (vs. late) in author lists. We discuss implications of our findings for academic decisions on authorship orders, potential avenues of further investigation, and applications. PMID:25954226

  13. Experimental Effects of Word Generation on Vocabulary, Academic Language, and Perspective Taking in High Poverty Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephanie M.; Kim, James; LaRusso, Maria; Kim, Ha Yeon; Selman, Robert; Uccelli, Paola; Barnes, Sophie; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Word Generation (WG) is a research-based vocabulary program for middle school students designed to teach words through language arts, math, science, and social studies classes. The program consists of weekly units that introduce 5 high-utility target words through brief passages designed to spark active examination and discussion of contemporary…

  14. Transfer of Word Meanings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Nancy E.; And Others

    Two studies investigated the degree to which the content of initial learning of a word facilitated transfer of the word meaning to other representations that were near or far, relative to the originally learned form of the word. Subjects in the first study were 40 undergraduate students, who were tested on a list of 13 uncommon words. Results…

  15. The Challenge of Constructing a Reliable Word List: An Exploratory Corpus-Based Analysis of Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Donald Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Acknowledging the important role of reading in the university curriculum, and the important role that vocabulary plays in successful reading comprehension, researchers have directed a great deal of effort toward identifying ways that teachers and learners of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) can maximize vocabulary development efforts. Due to…

  16. The Long-Term Impact of Words Work! A Five-Year Academic Comparison of Words Work! and Non-Words Work! Ramsey Action Programs Head Start Children in the St. Paul Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Paul Foundation, St. Paul, MN.

    The Words Work! early literacy initiative, in Ramsey Action Program (RAP) Head Start centers, was initiated to prepare children to be successful third-grade readers and mathematicians. These reports reflect the standardized test results collected in years 1 and 2 for the first cohort of Words Work! children from four RAP Head Start centers who…

  17. Population normative data for the CERAD Word List and Victoria Stroop Test in younger- and middle-aged adults: Cross-sectional analyses from the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Hankee, Lisa D.; Preis, Sarah R.; Piers, Ryan J.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Devine, Sherral A.; Liu, Yulin; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Au, Rhoda

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide baseline normative data on tests of verbal memory and executive function for non-demented young to middle age adults. Methods The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Word List task (CERAD-WL) and Victoria Stroop Test (VST) were administered to 3362 Framingham Heart Study (FHS) volunteer participants aged 24-78 years. Analyses of the effects of age, sex and education were conducted. Normative data on traditional measures and error responses are reported for each test. Results Traditional measures were significantly associated with both age and education in this younger-aged cohort. Error responses also evidenced significant age and education effects. Conclusion These data provide a normative comparison for assessment of verbal memory and executive functioning capabilities in young adults and may be utilized as a tool for preclinical studies of disease in younger aged adults. PMID:27410241

  18. Yup'ik Eskimo Word Chooser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Steven A.; Jacobson, Anna W.

    This word list is designed for students of Yup'ik Eskimo to assist them in choosing the appropriate word when there are several Yup'ik words that correspond to a single English word. This alphabetical list contains 77 English words that might cause confusion, and includes simple examples of usage to clarify the meanings of the various…

  19. Interactive Word Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Narvaez, Rose

    2013-01-01

    It is common to see word walls displaying the vocabulary that students have learned in class. Word walls serve as visual scaffolds and are a classroom strategy used to reinforce reading and language arts instruction. Research shows a strong relationship between student word knowledge and academic achievement (Stahl and Fairbanks 1986). As a…

  20. Words, Words, Words: English, Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Barbara

    The Quinmester course on words gives the student the opportunity to increase his proficiency by investigating word origins, word histories, morphology, and phonology. The course includes the following: dictionary skills and familiarity with the "Oxford,""Webster's Third," and "American Heritage" dictionaries; word derivations from other languages;…

  1. The Reliability and Validity of the Word-Association Test as a Measure of Academic Achievement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, William N.

    A simply constructed, psychometrically sound testing procedure which enables the instructor to assess higher cognitive process with respect to the material in questions, and which is amenable to machine scoring, is described. It involves the application of the word association technique long used in psychoanalysis to the classroom setting. The…

  2. Fifty psychological and psychiatric terms to avoid: a list of inaccurate, misleading, misused, ambiguous, and logically confused words and phrases.

    PubMed

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Sauvigné, Katheryn C; Lynn, Steven Jay; Cautin, Robin L; Latzman, Robert D; Waldman, Irwin D

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this article is to promote clear thinking and clear writing among students and teachers of psychological science by curbing terminological misinformation and confusion. To this end, we present a provisional list of 50 commonly used terms in psychology, psychiatry, and allied fields that should be avoided, or at most used sparingly and with explicit caveats. We provide corrective information for students, instructors, and researchers regarding these terms, which we organize for expository purposes into five categories: inaccurate or misleading terms, frequently misused terms, ambiguous terms, oxymorons, and pleonasms. For each term, we (a) explain why it is problematic, (b) delineate one or more examples of its misuse, and (c) when pertinent, offer recommendations for preferable terms. By being more judicious in their use of terminology, psychologists and psychiatrists can foster clearer thinking in their students and the field at large regarding mental phenomena. PMID:26284019

  3. Fifty psychological and psychiatric terms to avoid: a list of inaccurate, misleading, misused, ambiguous, and logically confused words and phrases

    PubMed Central

    Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Sauvigné, Katheryn C.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Cautin, Robin L.; Latzman, Robert D.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this article is to promote clear thinking and clear writing among students and teachers of psychological science by curbing terminological misinformation and confusion. To this end, we present a provisional list of 50 commonly used terms in psychology, psychiatry, and allied fields that should be avoided, or at most used sparingly and with explicit caveats. We provide corrective information for students, instructors, and researchers regarding these terms, which we organize for expository purposes into five categories: inaccurate or misleading terms, frequently misused terms, ambiguous terms, oxymorons, and pleonasms. For each term, we (a) explain why it is problematic, (b) delineate one or more examples of its misuse, and (c) when pertinent, offer recommendations for preferable terms. By being more judicious in their use of terminology, psychologists and psychiatrists can foster clearer thinking in their students and the field at large regarding mental phenomena. PMID:26284019

  4. Word frequency affects hypermnesia.

    PubMed

    Macie, K M; Larsen, J D

    1996-12-01

    Hypermnesia, the tendency of participants to recall more items from a list they have studied when they are asked to recall the list several times on a free-recall test, is enhanced by factors that lead to better performance on free-recall tests. This study tested the hypothesis that words which appear with high frequency in the English language would produce hypermnesia but that low frequency words would not. The activity the 57 participants were required to do between repeated recall tests was also manipulated but had no effect on the number of words recalled. High frequency words resulted in hypermnesia but low frequency words did not. PMID:9009796

  5. The ESL Teacher's Book of Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Jacqueline E.

    The book for teachers of English as a Second Language (ESL) contains 80 lists of words, expressions, constructions, ideas, and materials for use in ESL lesson planning and classroom instruction. The lists are presented in seven groups: (1) general vocabulary, consisting of 21 lists of English words used in various situations in daily life,…

  6. Migrant Students with Limited English Proficiency: Can Fast ForWord Language? Make a Difference in Their Language Skills and Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troia, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the computer-assisted intervention program known as Fast ForWord Language? in a sample of migrant students in Grades 1 through 6 who were native Spanish speakers. Fast ForWord Language? combines intensive training in multiple receptive English language skills with adaptive acoustic waveform lengthening and…

  7. The Berlin Affective Word List for Children (kidBAWL): Exploring Processing of Affective Lexical Semantics in the Visual and Auditory Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Sylvester, Teresa; Braun, Mario; Schmidtke, David; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2016-01-01

    While research on affective word processing in adults witnesses increasing interest, the present paper looks at another group of participants that have been neglected so far: pupils (age range: 6–12 years). Introducing a variant of the Berlin Affective Wordlist (BAWL) especially adapted for children of that age group, the “kidBAWL,” we examined to what extent pupils process affective lexical semantics similarly to adults. In three experiments using rating and valence decision tasks in both the visual and auditory modality, it was established that children show the two ubiquitous phenomena observed in adults with emotional word material: the asymmetric U-shaped function relating valence to arousal ratings, and the inversely U-shaped function relating response times to valence decision latencies. The results for both modalities show large structural similarities between pupil and adult data (taken from previous studies) indicating that in the present age range, the affective lexicon and the dynamic interplay between language and emotion is already well-developed. Differential effects show that younger children tend to choose less extreme ratings than older children and that rating latencies decrease with age. Overall, our study should help to develop more realistic models of word recognition and reading that include affective processes and offer a methodology for exploring the roots of pleasant literary experiences and ludic reading. PMID:27445930

  8. The Berlin Affective Word List for Children (kidBAWL): Exploring Processing of Affective Lexical Semantics in the Visual and Auditory Modalities.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Teresa; Braun, Mario; Schmidtke, David; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2016-01-01

    While research on affective word processing in adults witnesses increasing interest, the present paper looks at another group of participants that have been neglected so far: pupils (age range: 6-12 years). Introducing a variant of the Berlin Affective Wordlist (BAWL) especially adapted for children of that age group, the "kidBAWL," we examined to what extent pupils process affective lexical semantics similarly to adults. In three experiments using rating and valence decision tasks in both the visual and auditory modality, it was established that children show the two ubiquitous phenomena observed in adults with emotional word material: the asymmetric U-shaped function relating valence to arousal ratings, and the inversely U-shaped function relating response times to valence decision latencies. The results for both modalities show large structural similarities between pupil and adult data (taken from previous studies) indicating that in the present age range, the affective lexicon and the dynamic interplay between language and emotion is already well-developed. Differential effects show that younger children tend to choose less extreme ratings than older children and that rating latencies decrease with age. Overall, our study should help to develop more realistic models of word recognition and reading that include affective processes and offer a methodology for exploring the roots of pleasant literary experiences and ludic reading. PMID:27445930

  9. Another Discussion about Academic Corruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Changgeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on others to…

  10. The Effect of Culturally Indigenous Word Lists on Recall and Clustering by Lower-class Blacks and Middle-class Whites: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Charles B.; And Others

    Recall lists were presented to 40 black lower class and 40 white middle class children in this experiment. The purpose of the study was to examine a possible explanation of the relatively poor performance of black and lower class children on tasks requiring abstract learning abilities. It was reasoned that the threshold for the production of…

  11. Resources for Academic Advising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Virginia N.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of resources available to assist college faculty in academic advising tasks are listed, including books, professional journals, annotated bibliographies, reports, monographs, conferences, and organizations. Some items are annotated. Addresses are provided for organizations. (MSE)

  12. Information Analysis of Three-Word Verbal Discrimination Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvornick, Eugene Steven

    Naval Postgraduate School students participated in a verbal discrimination experiment using three-word items of different frequency ratios. Half of the three-word items were composed of similar words and half, dissimilar words. Based on information theory, the words were grouped into two lists, both of equal lengths and approximately equal…

  13. Using Precision Teaching to Enhance the Word Reading Skills and Academic Self-Concept of Secondary School Students: A Role for Professional Educational Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Will; Norwich, Brahm

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an investigation into the outcomes of a school-based initiative to improve the word reading skills of a group of secondary school students (n = 77). The project involved the delivery of an enhanced precision teaching (PT) programme across two cohorts of students by teaching assistants (TAs) in each school who themselves…

  14. Academic Freedom: Crisis and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Stephanie A.; Kemerer, Frank R.

    This document was prepared to inform teachers about their academic freedom rights and to assist teachers who are confronted with a potential academic freedom issue. It provides (1) an essay which outlines the issues, (2) a list of significant decisions of the U.S. Courts of Appeals and their implications, (3) steps to follow when academic freedom…

  15. Advisory List of Computer Courseware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Educational Media.

    Computer courseware appropriate for instruction in grades K-12 is listed in two advisory lists. Entries, selected from materials submitted by producers which received favorable reviews by educators, are arranged in the following categories: arts education, communication skills, mathematics, science, utility (a quiz generator), word processing, and…

  16. How To Teach 1000 Vocabulary Words Using the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaworski, JoAnn; Ibrahim, Nabil

    2001-01-01

    Describes a vocabulary project in which developmental college students created and distributed word lists to the class, and provided and administered quizzes for their word lists. Finds that students who participated in the 1000-word project scored significantly higher on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test than students who studied vocabulary using…

  17. When Does Length Cause the Word Length Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Bireta, Tamra J.; Surprenant, Aimee M.

    2011-01-01

    The word length effect, the finding that lists of short words are better recalled than lists of long words, has been termed one of the benchmark findings that any theory of immediate memory must account for. Indeed, the effect led directly to the development of working memory and the phonological loop, and it is viewed as the best remaining…

  18. Academic Vocabulary and the CCSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The College and Career Ready Standards of the CCSS articulate a range of expectations regarding what students should be able to do with regards to academic vocabulary: (1) Interpret technical, connotative, and figurative meanings of words and phrases; (2) Analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone; (3) Determine or clarify the meaning…

  19. SUBTLEX-ESP: Spanish Word Frequencies Based on Film Subtitles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuetos, Fernando; Glez-Nosti, Maria; Barbon, Analia; Brysbaert, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that word frequency estimates obtained from films and television subtitles are better to predict performance in word recognition experiments than the traditional word frequency estimates based on books and newspapers. In this study, we present a subtitle-based word frequency list for Spanish, one of the most widely spoken…

  20. Study of Sort Stories: Leveled Reading Supplement to Words Their Way: Word Sorts for Letter Name-Alphabet Spellers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zugel, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    "Sort Stories: Leveled Reading Supplement to Words Their Way: Word Sorts for Letter Name-Alphabet Spellers" effectiveness was tested using five English language learner (ELL) students in the fifth and sixth grade. "Sort Stories" uses the word lists and accompanying clip-art from "Words Their Way" in developmental, grade-level specific, short read…

  1. Inhibition from Part-List Cues and Rate of Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roediger, Henry L.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The results of two experiments were generally in substantial agreement with the idea that part-list cues or context words exert their damaging effect by competing with target words at retrieval. (Editor)

  2. Signal Words

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, and they describe the acute (short-term) toxicity ... red letters on the front panel of the product label. 2,4 Acute Oral LD 50 Inhalation LC ...

  3. Effects of Delayed Performance on a Word Association Task Upon Ongoing Short Term Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurner, Ronald D.; Mauldin, Michael A.

    1974-01-01

    In a short-term free-recall paradigm, Ss presented a list of numbers followed by a list of words were cued after presentation to (a) recall numbers only, (b) recall numbers then words, (c) recall words then numbers, or (d) recall numbers, then perform a word association task. (Editor)

  4. The Third Language of Academic English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwiers, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    Academic language is the linguistic glue that holds the tasks, texts, and tests of school together. If students can't use this glue well, their academic work is likely to fall apart. According to the author of this article, "academic language" is defined as the set of words and phrases that (1) describe content-area knowledge and procedures; (2)…

  5. The blocked-random effect in pictures and words.

    PubMed

    Toglia, M P; Hinman, P J; Dayton, B S; Catalano, J F

    1997-06-01

    Picture and word recall was examined in conjunction with list organization. 60 subjects studied a list of 30 items, either words or their pictorial equivalents. The 30 words/pictures, members of five conceptual categories, each represented by six exemplars, were presented either blocked by category or in a random order. While pictures were recalled better than words and a standard blocked-random effect was observed, the interaction indicated that the recall advantage of a blocked presentation was restricted to the word lists. A similar pattern emerged for clustering. These findings are discussed in terms of limitations upon the pictorial superiority effect. PMID:9172212

  6. Word form Encoding in Chinese Word Naming and Word Typing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Li, Cheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The process of word form encoding was investigated in primed word naming and word typing with Chinese monosyllabic words. The target words shared or did not share the onset consonants with the prime words. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 100 ms or 300 ms. Typing required the participants to enter the phonetic letters of the target word,…

  7. Searching for the right word: Hybrid visual and memory search for words

    PubMed Central

    Boettcher, Sage E. P.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    In “Hybrid Search” (Wolfe 2012) observers search through visual space for any of multiple targets held in memory. With photorealistic objects as stimuli, response times (RTs) increase linearly with the visual set size and logarithmically with memory set size even when over 100 items are committed to memory. It is well established that pictures of objects are particularly easy to memorize (Brady, Konkle, Alvarez, & Olivia, 2008). Would hybrid search performance be similar if the targets were words or phrases where word order can be important and where the processes of memorization might be different? In Experiment One, observers memorized 2, 4, 8, or 16 words in 4 different blocks. After passing a memory test, confirming memorization of the list, observers searched for these words in visual displays containing 2 to 16 words. Replicating Wolfe (2012), RTs increased linearly with the visual set size and logarithmically with the length of the word list. The word lists of Experiment One were random. In Experiment Two, words were drawn from phrases that observers reported knowing by heart (E.G. “London Bridge is falling down”). Observers were asked to provide four phrases ranging in length from 2 words to a phrase of no less than 20 words (range 21–86). Words longer than 2 characters from the phrase constituted the target list. Distractor words were matched for length and frequency. Even with these strongly ordered lists, results again replicated the curvilinear function of memory set size seen in hybrid search. One might expect serial position effects; perhaps reducing RTs for the first (primacy) and/or last (recency) members of a list (Atkinson & Shiffrin 1968; Murdock, 1962). Surprisingly we showed no reliable effects of word order. Thus, in “London Bridge is falling down”, “London” and “down” are found no faster than “falling”. PMID:25788035

  8. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Effects of List Length and Output Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia; Grenfell-Essam, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    In 4 experiments, participants were presented with lists of between 1 and 15 words for tests of immediate memory. For all tasks, participants tended to initiate recall with the first word on the list for short lists. As the list length was increased, so there was a decreased tendency to start with the first list item; and, when free to do so,…

  9. "Playing with Words": Effects of an Anagram Solving Game-Like Application for Primary Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panagiotakopoulos, Chris T.; Sarris, Menelaos E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the basic characteristics of a game-like application entitled "Playing with Words-PwW". PwW is a single-user application where a word must be guessed given an anagram of that word. Anagrams are presented from a predefined word list and users can repeatedly try to guess the word, from which the anagram is…

  10. Movement in Word Reading and Spelling: How Spelling Contributes to Reading. Technical Report No. 408.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehri, Linnea C.

    A study examined when young children begin processing phonetic cues for reading. Subjects were kindergartners selected and classified by their ability to read preprimer and primer level words on a 40-word list--prereaders (0-1 words known), novices (1-11 words known), and veterans (11-36 words known). Subjects were given reading practice with…

  11. The Picture Complexity Effect: Another List Composition Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Khuyen; McDaniel, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    "List composition effects" refer to the findings in which a given memory phenomenon shows discrepant patterns across different list designs (i.e., mixed or pure lists). These effects have typically been reported with verbal materials (e.g., word lists, paired associates, sentences); much less research has examined whether these effects…

  12. Graphic Novel Collections in Academic ARL Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Cassie

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which ARL academic libraries collect graphic novels. Using a core list of 176 titles developed from winners of major comics industry awards and a library-focused "best of" list, the holdings of 111 ARL academic libraries were searched using the libraries' online catalogs. Results suggest that most of the…

  13. Automatic Identification of Nutritious Contexts for Learning Vocabulary Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostow, Jack; Gates, Donna; Ellison, Ross; Goutam, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is crucial to literacy development and academic success. Previous research has shown learning the meaning of a word requires encountering it in diverse informative contexts. In this work, we try to identify "nutritious" contexts for a word--contexts that help students build a rich mental representation of the word's…

  14. 22 CFR 62.73 - Academic training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Academic training. 62.73 Section 62.73 Foreign... Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.73 Academic training. (a) Students meeting the definition listed in § 62.4(a)(1)(ii) and (iii) may, if approved by the academic dean or advisor and approved by...

  15. 22 CFR 62.73 - Academic training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Academic training. 62.73 Section 62.73 Foreign... Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.73 Academic training. (a) Students meeting the definition listed in § 62.4(a)(1)(ii) and (iii) may, if approved by the academic dean or advisor and approved by...

  16. Customize Your Word Processor Keyboard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, H. Bradford

    1983-01-01

    Use of a translator and an interrupt handler to generate Escape (ESC) sequences without losing characters is discussed. The system (focusing on use of WordStar with a Zenith/Heath Z-19/H-19) allows assignment to single keys entire sequences of editor instructions and small routines. Program listings are included. (JN)

  17. The Role of Rehearsal on the Output Order of Immediate Free Recall of Short and Long Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    Participants tend to initiate immediate free recall (IFR) of short lists of words with the very first word on the list. Three experiments examined whether rehearsal is necessary for this recent finding. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with lists of between 2 and 12 words for IFR at a fast, medium, or slow rate, with and without…

  18. A Comparison of Two Sight Word Reading Fluency Drill Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Maureen; Konrad, Moira; Joseph, Laurice M.; Luu, Ken C. T.

    2013-01-01

    The authors compared the effects of two sight word fluency drills (i.e., reading racetrack and list drills). They used a repeated acquisition design across 8 second-grade students identified as at risk for reading difficulties. More participants performed better when they read words on the reading racetrack than on the list; however, results were…

  19. Exchange lists: revised 1986.

    PubMed

    Franz, M J; Barr, P; Holler, H; Powers, M A; Wheeler, M L; Wylie-Rosett, J

    1987-01-01

    A committee composed of members of The American Dietetic Association and the American Diabetes Association has revised Exchange List for Meal Planning. Changes were made, as deemed necessary, on the basis of nutritional recommendations for persons with diabetes as understood in 1986. Major changes include rewriting the text to make it more useful in the education of persons with diabetes; changing the order of the exchange lists to emphasize a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber diet, as well as to better reflect the order of foods in menu planning; adding symbols to foods high in fiber and sodium; changing nutritive values for the starch/bread and fruit lists; adding lists of combination foods, free foods, and foods recommended only for occasional use; developing a data base; and initiating a plan for field testing and evaluation. The committee also developed a simplified meal planning tool, Healthy Food Choices, to be used for initial or "survival" level education. In poster format, foods are grouped by calories into six food groups. Approximate portion sizes of commonly used foods are listed. Blank lines are provided for the nutrition counselor to write in a suggested menu or meal plan for the client. Because the booklet does not use the word "diabetes" specifically, it is appropriate as a general teaching tool. PMID:3794130

  20. [Use of Freiburg monosyllabic test words in the contemporary German language : Currentness of the test words].

    PubMed

    Steffens, T

    2016-08-01

    The Freiburg monosyllabic test has a word inventory based on the word frequency in written sources from the 19th century, the distribution of which is not even between the test lists. The median distributions of word frequency ranking in contemporary language of nine test lists deviate significantly from the overall median of all 400 monosyllables. Lists 1, 6, 9, 10, and 17 include significantly more very rarely used words; lists 2, 3, 5, and 15, include significantly more very frequently used words. Compared with the word frequency in the contemporary spoken German language, about 45 % of the test words are practically no longer used. Due to this high proportion of extremely rarely or no longer used words, the word inventory is no longer representative of the contemporary German language-neither for the written, nor for the spoken language. Highly educated persons with a large vocabulary are thereby favored. The reference values for normal-hearing persons should therefore be reevaluated. PMID:27286726

  1. Word Up: Using Spoken Word and Hip Hop Subject Matter in Pre-College Writing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirc, Geoffrey; Sutton, Terri

    2009-01-01

    In June 2008, the Department of English at the University of Minnesota partnered with the Minnesota Spoken Word Association to inaugurate an outreach literacy program for local high-school students and teachers. The four-day institute, named "In Da Tradition," used spoken word and hip hop to teach academic and creative writing to core-city…

  2. Sight Word Recognition among Young Children At-Risk: Picture-Supported vs. Word-Only

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Stoner, Julia B.; Parette, Howard P.

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-experimental design was used to investigate the impact of Picture Communication Symbols (PCS) on sight word recognition by young children identified as "at risk" for academic and social-behavior difficulties. Ten pre-primer and 10 primer Dolch words were presented to 23 students in the intervention group and 8 students in the control group…

  3. A World of Words. Issues in Literacy & Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Susan Mandel

    2005-01-01

    In the past, some teachers treated word learning as an isolated subject--a list of words that were not connected to content or literature studies. This article describes how Candy Mulligan, a teacher at the Center for Reading and Writing at Rider University in Lawrenceville, NJ, teaches vocabulary by selecting words from the students' seventh and…

  4. Preschool Children Master the Logic of Number Word Meanings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Jennifer S.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2006-01-01

    Although children take over a year to learn the meanings of the first three number words, they eventually master the logic of counting and the meanings of all the words in their count list. Here, we ask whether children's knowledge applies to number words beyond those they have mastered: Does a child who can only count to 20 infer that number…

  5. Effective Ways to Promote Word Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Harry B.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching vocabulary often began as a poorly organized, extensive list of new terms presented to students each week. Students recorded a selected list of words and sought their meanings. With time devoted to study and review of the new terms, students were considered prepared for a test on mastery by the final class session of the week. The…

  6. Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, Peter

    1982-01-01

    Describes the kinds of computer equipment needed for a personal word processing system. The characteristics and capabilities of specific devices, including keyboards, printers, and disk drives, are discussed. (JL)

  7. Academic Vocabulary and Middle School English Learners: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Dianna; Collins, Penny

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this experimental intervention study was to determine if evidence-based instructional strategies for general vocabulary words are effective with middle school English learner (EL) students and academic vocabulary words. Participants showed significantly more growth in their knowledge of academic vocabulary during the treatment…

  8. Don't words come easy? A psychophysical exploration of word superiority

    PubMed Central

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. We compare performance with letters and words in three experiments, to explore the extents and limits of the WSE. Using a carefully controlled list of three letter words, we show that a WSE can be revealed in vocal reaction times even to undegraded stimuli. With a novel combination of psychophysics and mathematical modeling, we further show that the typical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual processing speed: single words are simply processed faster than single letters. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously, letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and visual short term memory (VSTM) capacity. So, even if single words come easy, there is a limit to the WSE. PMID:24027510

  9. Don't words come easy? A psychophysical exploration of word superiority.

    PubMed

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. We compare performance with letters and words in three experiments, to explore the extents and limits of the WSE. Using a carefully controlled list of three letter words, we show that a WSE can be revealed in vocal reaction times even to undegraded stimuli. With a novel combination of psychophysics and mathematical modeling, we further show that the typical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual processing speed: single words are simply processed faster than single letters. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously, letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and visual short term memory (VSTM) capacity. So, even if single words come easy, there is a limit to the WSE. PMID:24027510

  10. Phonological Inconsistency in Word Naming: Determinants of the Interference Effect between Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Erica; Sandra, Dominiek; Martensen, Heike; Dijkstra, Ton

    2009-01-01

    Dutch-English participants named words and nonwords with a between-language phonologically inconsistent rime, e.g., GREED and PREED, and control words with a language-typical rime, e.g., GROAN, in a monolingual stimulus list or in a mixed list containing Dutch words. Inconsistent items had longer latencies and more errors than typical items in the…

  11. TIP list

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, M E

    2006-06-22

    Subcontractors and vendors providing services, including the installation of purchased goods, are required to complete a TIP List. This list does not include every Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) related concern at LLNL. It is intended to highlight major concerns common to most on-site service activities.

  12. Software List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computers in Chemical Education Newsletter, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Lists and briefly describes computer programs recently added to those currently available from Project SERAPHIM. Program name, subject, hardware, author, supplier, and current cost are provided in separate listings for Apple, Atari, Pet, VIC-20, TRS-80, and IBM-PC. (JN)

  13. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  14. Revealing List-Level Control in the Stroop Task by Uncovering Its Benefits and a Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugg, Julie M.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Scullin, Michael K.; Braver, Todd S.

    2011-01-01

    Interference is reduced in mostly incongruent relative to mostly congruent lists. Classic accounts of this list-wide proportion congruence effect assume that list-level control processes strategically modulate word reading. Contemporary accounts posit that reliance on the word is modulated poststimulus onset by item-specific information (e.g.,…

  15. Word prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Rumelhart, D.E.; Skokowski, P.G.; Martin, B.O.

    1995-05-01

    In this project we have developed a language model based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for use in conjunction with automatic textual search or speech recognition systems. The model can be trained on large corpora of text to produce probability estimates that would improve the ability of systems to identify words in a sentence given partial contextual information. The model uses a gradient-descent learning procedure to develop a metric of similarity among terms in a corpus, based on context. Using lexical categories based on this metric, a network can then be trained to do serial word probability estimation. Such a metric can also be used to improve the performance of topic-based search by allowing retrieval of information that is related to desired topics even if no obvious set of key words unites all the retrieved items.

  16. Academic Integrity and Informational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Travis S.

    2000-01-01

    Considers the impact of information technology on academic integrity. Highlights include machines versus man; honor codes and student cheating; copyrights for digital data; authoring versus writing; intuitive software; and an example and analysis of the use of AutoSummary in Microsoft Word 97 to create a summary of a published article. (Contains…

  17. Listing people.

    PubMed

    Delbourgo, James

    2012-12-01

    Historians and commentators have long discussed tensions between specialist and lay expertise in the making of scientific knowledge. Such accounts have often described quarrels over the distribution of expertise in nineteenth-century "popular" and imperial sciences. The "crowdsourcing" of science on a global scale, however, arguably began in the early modern era. This essay examines the lists of specimen suppliers, the artifacts of a worldwide collecting campaign, published by the London apothecary James Petiver at the turn of the eighteenth century. Listing suppliers helped Petiver advertise his status as a global specimen broker in the Republic of Letters. However, publicly listing his sources drew criticism over the social character of his collecting project, while lists became synonymous with the debasement of learning in polemics over natural history. PMID:23488241

  18. Age differences in hypermnesia: word gain versus word loss.

    PubMed

    Finkel, D; Fox, P W; McGue, M

    1995-01-01

    A hypermnesic task was administered to 82 younger adults (ages 27-39), 63 middle-aged adults (ages 40-59), and 119 older adults (ages 60-87). Previous research suggests that relational encoding prevents loss of items and item-specific encoding promotes item gains in a hypermnesic task (Klein et al., 1989) and that there are age differences in relational but not item-specific encoding (Luszcz et al., 1990). This information provided the basis for three predictions: (a) There are age differences in hypermnesia, (b) there are age differences in word losses in a hypermnesic task, and (c) there are no age differences in word gains in a hypermnesic task. In order to manipulate type of encoding, a list of words with high association strength (to evoke relational encoding) and words with low association strength (to evoke item-specific encoding) was constructed. The results of this investigation provide support for the encoding manipulation and for all three predictions. In addition, the nature of the age differences in word loss observed suggests that although older adults may be capable of relational encoding, this form of encoding is not as effective at preventing word loss for them as it is for younger adults. PMID:7744169

  19. Measurement of Academic Self-Concept in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, William M.; And Others

    Academic self-concept has been viewed by numerous investigators as an important facet of general self-concept. The Academic Self-Concept Scale (ASCS) was developed as a measure of academic self-concept in college students. The initial item pool consisted of 59 items worded to conform to a four-pont Likert-type response format. On the basis of…

  20. Academic Lexis and Disciplinary Practice: Corpus Evidence for Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Ken; Tse, Polly

    2009-01-01

    The presence of unfamiliar words and expressions in academic texts is a serious obstacle to students reading in a second language. EAP has responded to this challenge by taking the view that there is a common core of academic vocabulary which is frequent across an academic register. This paper briefly considers this view by examining the range,…

  1. Sarbalap! Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantu, Virginia, Comp.; And Others

    Prepared by bilingual teacher aide students, this glossary provides the Spanish translation of about 1,300 English words used in the bilingual classroom. Intended to serve as a handy reference for teachers, teacher aides, and students, the glossary can also be used in teacher training programs as a vocabulary builder for future bilingual teachers…

  2. Magical Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauch-Nelson, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Prompted by a parent's comment that indicated a desire for her elementary-age children to learn the elements and principles of design in their art class, the author set out to enrich her own understanding and appreciation of the language used in the art room. Looking at word origins helps students appreciate the significance of art and craft in…

  3. Extending Research on a Computer-Based Sight-Word Reading Intervention to a Student with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaw, Jared S.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Parkhurst, John; Taylor, Cora M.; Booher, Joshua; Chambers, Karen

    2011-01-01

    A multiple-baseline design across tasks (i.e., word lists) was used to evaluate the effects of a computer-based sight-word reading intervention (CBSWRI) on the sight-word reading of a sixth-grade student with Autism. Across 3 lists of primer and first-grade Dolch words, the student showed immediate increases in sight-word reading after the CBSWRI…

  4. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  5. Does "Word Coach" Coach Words?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Tom; Horst, Marlise

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the design and testing of an integrated suite of vocabulary training games for Nintendo[TM] collectively designated "My Word Coach" (Ubisoft, 2008). The games' design is based on a wide range of learning research, from classic studies on recycling patterns to frequency studies of modern corpora. Its general usage and learning…

  6. Word-gustatory synesthesia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gendle, Mathew H

    2007-01-01

    A case study of a rare form of synesthesia is presented, where specific words act as the inducer, and gustatory sensations function as the concurrent. The female participant (TD) was twice presented with a list of 806 English words and 222 grammatically correct non-words (with 3 months between presentations). For each presentation, TD was asked to provide: a subjective description of the gustatory experience (if any) associated with each stimulus; a rating (from 0 to 10) of the intensity of the gustatory experience; and an indication (yes/no) if the experience was aversive. TD's responses across the two presentations were quantified, and comparisons are provided. In addition, TD's ability to create and recall novel word-taste associations was compared to that demonstrated by a sample of ten age-matched non-synesthete females. TD's synesthetic experiences were found to be highly consistent, more common in English words than non-words, and rarely aversive. Although TD was superior to control participants in remembering novel word-taste associations, her reported experiences cannot be wholly explained by either an exceptional non-synesthetic learning of taste-word associations over time, or a clear response to phonemes, rather than whole words. These conclusions are compared to the five other published reports of word-gustatory synesthesia, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:17564196

  7. Another Record Year for Academic Pork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how, fueled by the war on terrorism, Congress has awarded a record $1.8 billion in academic earmarks in the 2002 fiscal year. Profiles several recipient programs and includes a campus-by-campus list of projects. (EV)

  8. Mojibake - The rehearsal of word fragments in verbal recall.

    PubMed

    Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Sykorova, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Theories of verbal rehearsal usually assume that whole words are being rehearsed. However, words consist of letter sequences, or syllables, or word onset-vowel-coda, amongst many other conceptualizations of word structure. A more general term is the 'grain size' of word units (Ziegler and Goswami, 2005). In the current study, a new method measured the quantitative percentage of correctly remembered word structure. The amount of letters in the correct letter sequence as per cent of word length was calculated, disregarding missing or added letters. A forced rehearsal was tested by repeating each memory list four times. We tested low frequency (LF) English words versus geographical (UK) town names to control for content. We also tested unfamiliar international (INT) non-words and names of international (INT) European towns to control for familiarity. An immediate versus distributed repetition was tested with a between-subject design. Participants responded with word fragments in their written recall especially when they had to remember unfamiliar words. While memory of whole words was sensitive to content, presentation distribution and individual sex and language differences, recall of word fragments was not. There was no trade-off between memory of word fragments with whole word recall during the repetition, instead also word fragments significantly increased. Moreover, while whole word responses correlated with each other during repetition, and word fragment responses correlated with each other during repetition, these two types of word recall responses were not correlated with each other. Thus there may be a lower layer consisting of free, sparse word fragments and an upper layer that consists of language-specific, orthographically and semantically constrained words. PMID:25941500

  9. Mojibake – The rehearsal of word fragments in verbal recall

    PubMed Central

    Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Sykorova, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Theories of verbal rehearsal usually assume that whole words are being rehearsed. However, words consist of letter sequences, or syllables, or word onset-vowel-coda, amongst many other conceptualizations of word structure. A more general term is the ‘grain size’ of word units (Ziegler and Goswami, 2005). In the current study, a new method measured the quantitative percentage of correctly remembered word structure. The amount of letters in the correct letter sequence as per cent of word length was calculated, disregarding missing or added letters. A forced rehearsal was tested by repeating each memory list four times. We tested low frequency (LF) English words versus geographical (UK) town names to control for content. We also tested unfamiliar international (INT) non-words and names of international (INT) European towns to control for familiarity. An immediate versus distributed repetition was tested with a between-subject design. Participants responded with word fragments in their written recall especially when they had to remember unfamiliar words. While memory of whole words was sensitive to content, presentation distribution and individual sex and language differences, recall of word fragments was not. There was no trade-off between memory of word fragments with whole word recall during the repetition, instead also word fragments significantly increased. Moreover, while whole word responses correlated with each other during repetition, and word fragment responses correlated with each other during repetition, these two types of word recall responses were not correlated with each other. Thus there may be a lower layer consisting of free, sparse word fragments and an upper layer that consists of language-specific, orthographically and semantically constrained words. PMID:25941500

  10. Promiscuous words

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Promiscuity is frequently used to describe animal mating behaviour, and especially to describe multiple mating by females. Yet this use of the term is incorrect, perhaps reflecting an erroneous adoption of common language to pique reader interest. We evaluated the patterns of use and misuse of the word ‘promiscuity’ in a representative journal of animal behaviour. This survey highlights how inappropriately the term is used, and how it can conceal critical features of animal mating strategies with intriguing evolutionary significance. Further analysis of the scientific impact of papers identified by the term promiscuous or polyandrous revealed that the former were cited less frequently. We argue that using promiscuity to describe animal mating strategies is anthropomorphic, inaccurate, and potentially misleading. Consistent with other biological disciplines, the word promiscuity should be used to describe indiscriminate mating behaviour only, and that polygyny and polyandry should be used to describe male and female mating frequency respectively. PMID:24209457

  11. How Academic Is Academic Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kym; Ling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    University provision for academic development is well established in the USA, UK and many other countries. However, arrangements for its provision and staffing vary. In Australia, there has been a trend towards professional rather than academic staff appointments. Is this appropriate? In this paper, the domains of academic development work are…

  12. The Role of Grammatical Category Information in Spoken Word Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Duràn, Carolina Palma; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of lexical syntactic information such as grammatical gender and category in spoken word retrieval processes by using a blocking paradigm in picture and written word naming experiments. In Experiments 1, 3, and 4, we found that the naming of target words (nouns) from pictures or written words was faster when these target words were named within a list where only words from the same grammatical category had to be produced (homogeneous category list: all nouns) than when they had to be produced within a list comprising also words from another grammatical category (heterogeneous category list: nouns and verbs). On the other hand, we detected no significant facilitation effect when the target words had to be named within a homogeneous gender list (all masculine nouns) compared to a heterogeneous gender list (both masculine and feminine nouns). In Experiment 2, using the same blocking paradigm by manipulating the semantic category of the items, we found that naming latencies were significantly slower in the semantic category homogeneous in comparison with the semantic category heterogeneous condition. Thus semantic category homogeneity caused an interference, not a facilitation effect like grammatical category homogeneity. Finally, in Experiment 5, nouns in the heterogeneous category condition had to be named just after a verb (category-switching position) or a noun (same-category position). We found a facilitation effect of category homogeneity but no significant effect of position, which showed that the effect of category homogeneity found in Experiments 1, 3, and 4 was not due to a cost of switching between grammatical categories in the heterogeneous grammatical category list. These findings supported the hypothesis that grammatical category information impacts word retrieval processes in speech production, even when words are to be produced in isolation. They are discussed within the context of extant theories of lexical production. PMID

  13. Input and Output Variables in the Recall of Categorized and Uncategorized Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Robert E.; Young, Robert K.

    1973-01-01

    A list of 25 nouns containing five sets of five words beginning with a different initial letter was presented for five learning trials. Categorized lists were recalled better than uncategorized; free recall was better than cued. (Author/KM)

  14. Improving Children's Formal Word Definitions: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinellie, Sally A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to define a word with accuracy and precision is an important skill that has been associated with academic achievement. This study investigated the feasibility of conducting a lesson on formal word definitions to improve children's definitional production. The participants were 18 children in grade 4 (mean age: 9 years; 8 months) who…

  15. Academic Research: Corporate Support Has Its Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    A Twentieth Century Fund task force indicates that industry funding of academic research is not harmful to academic values if guidelines are followed. Some of the recommendations made by the task force are listed. One recommendation is that title to patents resulting from joint projects should be held by the university. (JN)

  16. Correction: Frequently-Used Words in TV Captions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensema, Carl; Rovins, Michele

    1998-01-01

    The 250 most frequently used words in television captions are listed in order of frequency. This table is a correction to the table printed in the article "Instant Reading Incentives: TV Captions," in the September 1997 issue. (DB)

  17. Building Academic Vocabulary: Teacher's Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Pickering, Debra J.

    2005-01-01

    This manual is intended to assist teachers in implementing a comprehensive approach to teaching academic vocabulary at the classroom, school, and district levels. Using the manual's list of 7,923 terms, school and district teams can choose the most important vocabulary terms they want to teach to all students. All vocabulary terms are extracted…

  18. Work Enrichment for Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Charles; Untawale, Mercedes

    1983-01-01

    Explores important quality of work life strategy--job redesign--and discusses job enlargement and job enrichment. A case study of academic library personnel demonstrates how introduction of automated systems at University of California, Berkeley led to restructuring and enrichment of jobs. References and list of selected resources are appended.…

  19. Word, Words, Words: Ellul and the Mediocritization of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Franz; Foltz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    The authors explore how technique via propaganda has replaced the word with images creating a mass society and limiting the ability of people to act as individuals. They begin by looking at how words affect human society and how they have changed over time. They explore how technology has altered the meaning of words in order to create a more…

  20. THE POWER OF WORDS WITH EMPHASIS ON THE CIVIL RIGHTS CRISIS--UNIT FOR TEAM ONE, CROTON SCHOOL. SUMMER 1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BYRD, C.; AND OTHERS

    THE STUDENT SHOULD BE ABLE TO EXPRESS THE PURPOSE OF SYMBOLS AND USE WORDS IN SPEAKING AND WRITING A PARAGRAPH USING DIFFERENT FORMS OF WORDS OF DIFFERENT SHADES OF MEANING AND LEVELS OF DIFFICULTY. HE SHOULD BE ABLE TO ADD PREFIXES, SUFFIXES, AND OTHER AFFIXES TO A LIST OF ROOT WORDS AND UNDERSTAND WORDS AND THEIR ORIGINS. GIVEN A PARAGRAPH, THE…

  1. Words as "Lexical Units" in Learning/Teaching Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almela, Moisés; Sanchez, Aquilino

    2007-01-01

    One of the genuine contributions of theoretical linguistics to the interdisciplinary field of applied linguistics is to elucidate the nature of "what should be taught" and "how it should be taught". Traditionally, the input supplied in vocabulary teaching has consisted either of word lists (most often) or of words-in-context…

  2. Hemispheric Differences in Bilingual Word and Language Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, William T.; And Others

    The linguistic role of the right hemisphere in bilingual language processing was examined. Ten right-handed Spanish-English bilinguals were tachistoscopically presented with mixed lists of Spanish and English words to either the right or left visual field and asked to identify the language and the word presented. Five of the subjects identified…

  3. When to Self-Correct Spelling Words: A Systematic Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alber, Sheila R.; Walshe, Suzanne E.

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have consistently demonstrated self-correction to be more effective than "traditional" approaches to spelling instruction. This investigation examined the comparative effects of self-correction after attempting each word and self-correction after attempting a list of 10 words by six fifth-graders with learning disabilities or…

  4. Developmental Differences in Frequency Judgments of Words and Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghatala, Elizabeth S.; Levin, Joel R.

    Children in kindergarten, third grade, and fifth grade were presented a list of either pictures or words (with items presented varying numbers of times on the study trail). In both picture and word conditions, half of the subjects estimated how many times each item had been presented (absolute judgments) and the other half judged which of two…

  5. Beyond Single Words: The Most Frequent Collocations in Spoken English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Dongkwang; Nation, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a list of the highest frequency collocations of spoken English based on carefully applied criteria. In the literature, more than forty terms have been used for designating multi-word units, which are generally not well defined. To avoid this confusion, six criteria are strictly applied. The ten million word BNC spoken section…

  6. Academic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago City Colleges, IL.

    This statement outlines the academic policies of the City Colleges of Chicago. Part I outlines the Institution's academic standards, covering: (1) student class attendance; (2) the grading system; (3) mid-term grades; (4) the use of non-grade designations; i.e., administrative initiated withdrawal, auditor, no-show withdrawal, incomplete, and…

  7. Academic Bullies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2008-01-01

    Many professors have been traumatized by academic bullies. Unlike bullies at school, the academic bully plays a more subtle game. Bullies may spread rumors to undermine a colleague's credibility or shut their target out of social conversations. The more aggressive of the species cuss out co-workers, even threatening to get physical. There is…

  8. Academic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The academy is defined by a fundamentally uncertain pursuit of certainty. The question of whether academic work is a sufficient form of engagement on its own is inseparable from the contradiction inherent to this pursuit. Like any properly academic question, it lends itself to a forum: a response is nearly obligatory for any professor in the…

  9. Academic Duty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Donald

    This book by a former university president examines the state of the research university faculty, focusing on teaching and how success at teaching can be evaluated; ethical problems in reviewing the work of others, research and how it is supported; outside commitments; and research misconduct. Chapters include: "Academic Freedom, Academic Duty,"…

  10. Word recognition using ideal word patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Sheila X.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1994-03-01

    The word shape analysis approach to text recognition is motivated by discoveries in psychological studies of the human reading process. It attempts to describe and compare the shape of the word as a whole object without trying to segment and recognize the individual characters, so it bypasses the errors committed in character segmentation and classification. However, the large number of classes and large variation and distortion expected in all patterns belonging to the same class make it difficult for conventional, accurate, pattern recognition approaches. A word shape analysis approach using ideal word patterns to overcome the difficulty and improve recognition performance is described in this paper. A special word pattern which characterizes a word class is extracted from different sample patterns of the word class and stored in memory. Recognition of a new word pattern is achieved by comparing it with the special pattern of each word class called ideal word pattern. The process of generating the ideal word pattern of each word class is proposed. The algorithm was tested on a set of machine printed gray scale word images which included a wide range of print types and qualities.

  11. The Spacing of Lists in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roediger, Henry L., III; Crowder, Robert G.

    1975-01-01

    Spaced presentations of 12- and 15-word lists were better recalled when no task or an easy task intervened between presentations. Results indicate a lack of generality in Bjork and Allen's 1970 findings and a need for a two-factor theory of the spacing effect, and are evidence for a spacing effect. (CHK)

  12. Kazakh (Qazaq-) Grammatical Sketch with Affix List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krippes, Karl A.

    Facts on the grammar of Kazakh, spoken in Kazakhstan, are presented. They are intended as a guide, not an instructional text. Information is presented in the form of notes and word lists on the following topics: orthography (the Cyrillic alphabet, spelling reform, stylistic and dialectal alternations, common misspellings, and homographs);…

  13. Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De George, Richard T.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that Martin Michaelson's proposal in "Should Untenured as Well as Tenured Faculty Be Guaranteed Academic Freedom? A Few Observations," despite its good intentions, is seriously flawed and if adopted in preference to existing standards will weaken rather than strengthen academic freedom. (EV)

  14. Applied Academic & Workplace Skills for Collision Repair & Refinish Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation, Herndon, VA.

    This task list of workplace skills for collision repair and refinish technicians resulted from grant from the U.S. Department of Education to the National Automotive Technician Education Foundation (NATEF) of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence. The skills list is integrated with academic skills. This document lists the…

  15. Academic and Special Libraries in Idaho. 1996/97 Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Sandy, Comp.

    This directory provides a concise list of academic and special libraries in Idaho. Libraries are listed alphabetically, and include library contact name, title, telephone, fax number, and address. The directory also contains an alphabetical listing of the library contacts, which includes the name of the library where the person works and the…

  16. Relationships among Properties of College Students' Self-Set Academic Goals and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acee, Taylor W.; Cho, Yoonjung; Kim, Jung-In; Weinstein, Claire Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among properties of college students' self-set academic goals and academic achievement, using multiple theoretical perspectives. Using a personal goal-based research methodology, college students enrolled in a learning-to-learn course (N = 130) were asked to list 20 of their…

  17. Responsible Vocabulary Word Selection: Turning the Tide of 50-Cent Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Larry Bates argues for vocabulary instruction that emphasizes useful, high-frequency words rather than lists of rarely used terms. He suggests resources for finding frequency ratings for words and for determining appropriately challenging words for students. (Contains 3 figures and 3 notes.)

  18. EHME: a new word database for research in Basque language.

    PubMed

    Acha, Joana; Laka, Itziar; Landa, Josu; Salaburu, Pello

    2014-01-01

    This article presents EHME, the frequency dictionary of Basque structure, an online program that enables researchers in psycholinguistics to extract word and nonword stimuli, based on a broad range of statistics concerning the properties of Basque words. The database consists of 22.7 million tokens, and properties available include morphological structure frequency and word-similarity measures, apart from classical indexes: word frequency, orthographic structure, orthographic similarity, bigram and biphone frequency, and syllable-based measures. Measures are indexed at the lemma, morpheme and word level. We include reliability and validation analysis. The application is freely available, and enables the user to extract words based on concrete statistical criteria 1 , as well as to obtain statistical characteristics from a list of words PMID:26054360

  19. All words are not created equal: Expectations about word length guide infant statistical learning

    PubMed Central

    Lew-Williams, Casey; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2011-01-01

    Infants have been described as ‘statistical learners’ capable of extracting structure (such as words) from patterned input (such as language). Here, we investigated whether prior knowledge influences how infants track transitional probabilities in word segmentation tasks. Are infants biased by prior experience when engaging in sequential statistical learning? In a laboratory simulation of learning across time, we exposed 9- and 10-month-old infants to a list of either bisyllabic or trisyllabic nonsense words, followed by a pause-free speech stream composed of a different set of bisyllabic or trisyllabic nonsense words. Listening times revealed successful segmentation of words from fluent speech only when words were uniformly bisyllabic or trisyllabic throughout both phases of the experiment. Hearing trisyllabic words during the pre-exposure phase derailed infants’ abilities to segment speech into bisyllabic words, and vice versa. We conclude that prior knowledge about word length equips infants with perceptual expectations that facilitate efficient processing of subsequent language input. PMID:22088408

  20. Academic Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Presents design features of the Renner Middle School (Plano, Texas) where the sprawling suburbs have been kept at bay while creating the atmosphere of an academic village. Photos and a floor plan are provided. (GR)

  1. Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Building data is given for the following academic libraries: (1) Rosary College, River Forest, Illinois; (2) Abilene Christian College, Abilene, Texas; (3) University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California. (MF)

  2. Building English Language Learners' Academic Vocabulary: Strategies and Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibold, Claire

    2011-01-01

    According to Beck, McKeown, and Kucan's Three Tier Model (2002), when it comes to language instruction the distinction between academic vocabulary words and content specific words has a significant bearing on the language success of English language learners (ELLs). In this article, the author describes strategies that give teachers and parents…

  3. Words, Kids, and Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillet, Jean Wallace; Kita, M. Jane

    The word sort is a technique which capitalizes upon a child's natural feature analysis abilities. In a word sort the learner physically arranges words printed on small cards into groups. This technique can be used in many ways to help children draw conclusions about how words are related. There are two types of sorts: in "closed sorts" the…

  4. Jasper Johns' Painted Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinger, Esther

    1989-01-01

    States that the painted words in Jasper Johns' art act in two different capacities: concealed words partake in the artist's interrogation of visual perception; and visible painted words question classical representation. Argues that words are Johns' means of critiquing modernism. (RS)

  5. Unstressed Words in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hualde, Jose Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the prosodic nature of unstressed function words in Spanish. I defend the hypothesis that these words, like all other words in the language, have a syllable that is lexically designated as stressed. I suggest that the essential property of these words is that they are subject to a rule of prosodic merger with following…

  6. List based prefetch

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Peter; Christ, Norman; Gara, Alan; Kim, Changhoan; Mawhinney, Robert; Ohmacht, Martin; Sugavanam, Krishnan

    2014-08-12

    A list prefetch engine improves a performance of a parallel computing system. The list prefetch engine receives a current cache miss address. The list prefetch engine evaluates whether the current cache miss address is valid. If the current cache miss address is valid, the list prefetch engine compares the current cache miss address and a list address. A list address represents an address in a list. A list describes an arbitrary sequence of prior cache miss addresses. The prefetch engine prefetches data according to the list, if there is a match between the current cache miss address and the list address.

  7. List based prefetch

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Peter; Christ, Norman; Gara, Alan; Kim; ,Changhoan; Mawhinney, Robert; Ohmacht, Martin; Sugavanam, Krishnan

    2012-08-28

    A list prefetch engine improves a performance of a parallel computing system. The list prefetch engine receives a current cache miss address. The list prefetch engine evaluates whether the current cache miss address is valid. If the current cache miss address is valid, the list prefetch engine compares the current cache miss address and a list address. A list address represents an address in a list. A list describes an arbitrary sequence of prior cache miss addresses. The prefetch engine prefetches data according to the list, if there is a match between the current cache miss address and the list address.

  8. Directed forgetting in the list method affects recognition memory for source.

    PubMed

    Gottlob, Lawrence R; Golding, Jonathan M

    2007-11-01

    The effects of list-method directed forgetting on recognition memory were explored. In Experiment 1 (N = 40), observers were instructed to remember words and their type-cases; in Experiment 2 (N = 80), the instruction was to remember words and their colours. Two lists of 10 words were presented; after the first list, half of the observers (forget) were instructed to forget that list, and the other half (remember) were not given the forget instruction. Recognition of items (words) as well as source (encoding list + case/colour) was measured for forget and remember observers. The forget instruction affected case/colour memory more consistently than item and list memory, a multinomial analysis indicated that source information was affected by the forget instructions. The results indicated that recognition of source information may be a more sensitive indicator of forgetting than recognition of items. PMID:17853219

  9. Student Perceptions of Dual-Listed Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balassiano, Katia; Rosentrater, Kurt A.; Marcketti, Sara B.

    2014-01-01

    Academic departments regularly offer dual-listed courses in which one course has two course numbers, yet are taught in the same place, at the same time, by a single instructor, and in one department to undergraduate and graduate students. While universities discourage their use by subjecting such courses to more rigorous approval processes,…

  10. Why Do Pictures, but Not Visual Words, Reduce Older Adults’ False Memories?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Hunt, R. Reed; Dunlap, Kathryn R.

    2015-01-01

    Prior work shows that false memories resulting from the study of associatively related lists are reduced for both young and older adults when the auditory presentation of study list words is accompanied by related pictures relative to when auditory word presentation is combined with visual presentation of the word. In contrast, young adults, but not older adults, show a reduction in false memories when presented with the visual word along with the auditory word relative to hearing the word only. In both the case of pictures relative to visual words and visual words relative to auditory words alone, the benefit of picture and visual words in reducing false memories has been explained in terms of monitoring for perceptual information. In our first experiment we provide the first simultaneous comparison of all three study presentation modalities (auditory only, auditory plus visual word, and auditory plus picture). Young and older adults show a reduction in false memories in the auditory plus picture condition, but only young adults show a reduction in the visual word condition relative to the auditory only condition. A second experiment investigates whether older adults fail to show a reduction in false memory in the visual word condition because they do not encode perceptual information in the visual word condition. In addition, the second experiment provides evidence that the failure of older adults to show the benefits of visual word presentation is related to reduced cognitive resources. PMID:26213799

  11. Why do pictures, but not visual words, reduce older adults' false memories?

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebekah E; Hunt, R Reed; Dunlap, Kathryn R

    2015-09-01

    Prior work shows that false memories resulting from the study of associatively related lists are reduced for both young and older adults when the auditory presentation of study list words is accompanied by related pictures relative to when auditory word presentation is combined with visual presentation of the word. In contrast, young adults, but not older adults, show a reduction in false memories when presented with the visual word along with the auditory word relative to hearing the word only. In both cases of pictures relative to visual words and visual words relative to auditory words alone, the benefit of picture and visual words in reducing false memories has been explained in terms of monitoring for perceptual information. In our first experiment, we provide the first simultaneous comparison of all 3 study presentation modalities (auditory only, auditory plus visual word, and auditory plus picture). Young and older adults show a reduction in false memories in the auditory plus picture condition, but only young adults show a reduction in the visual word condition relative to the auditory only condition. A second experiment investigates whether older adults fail to show a reduction in false memory in the visual word condition because they do not encode perceptual information in the visual word condition. In addition, the second experiment provides evidence that the failure of older adults to show the benefits of visual word presentation is related to reduced cognitive resources. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26213799

  12. Recurrent Word Combinations in EAP Test-Taker Writing: Differences between High- and Low-Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Randy; Wood, David

    2016-01-01

    The correct use of frequently occurring word combinations represents an important part of language proficiency in spoken and written discourse. This study investigates the use of English-language recurrent word combinations in low-level and high-level L2 English academic essays sourced from the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) assessment.…

  13. Hedging, Inflating, and Persuading in L2 Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkel, Eli

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes the types and frequencies of hedges and intensifiers employed in NS and NNS academic essays included in a corpus of L1 and L2 student academic texts (745 essays/220,747 words). The overarching goal of this investigation is to focus on these lexical and syntactic features of written discourse because they effectively lend…

  14. Lessons in Hiring Practices for Aspiring Academic Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingerson, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    Research on patterns in advertising academic administrative positions suggests that an applicant can often judge what a college is looking for by close scrutiny of its advertisement. The publications that carry the ad, their distribution, the ad's frequency, stated preference in academic background, and wording are clues. (MSE)

  15. In the Media: Expanding Students' Experience with Academic Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Margaret G.; Crosson, Amy C.; Artz, Nancy J.; Sandora, Cheryl; Beck, Isabel L.

    2013-01-01

    How can we supplement the limited time available for vocabulary instruction while motivating students to attend to the words they are learning? As a part of an academic word vocabulary intervention, we challenged sixth-grade students to find their words in the world around them. This activity, In the Media, garnered responses from 51 of the 61…

  16. Normative data for Italian Deese/Roediger-McDermott lists.

    PubMed

    Iacullo, Vittorio Maria; Marucci, Francesco Saverio

    2016-03-01

    The present study provides norms for Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists that were used to create false memories in native speakers of Italian. The word lists reported in this article are based on the DRM lists that have been used extensively to examine illusory memories in English speakers (Deese in Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 17-22, 1959; Roediger & McDermott in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 21, 803-814, 1995). We translated the 24 critical lures from 24 English DRM lists and created semantically associated Italian word lists that were then normed with native Italian speakers. Overall, the participants recalled 63% of the list items and 22% of the critical lures with the word lists developed. In addition, 56% of the list items and 82% of the critical lures were recognized by the participants. The present study provides a set of Italian lists that can be used by researchers interested in evaluating false memories in Italian-speaking participants. PMID:25788416

  17. Corpus of High School Academic Texts (COHAT): Data-Driven, Computer Assisted Discovery in Learning Academic English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohát, Róbert; Rödlingová, Beata; Horáková, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Corpus of High School Academic Texts (COHAT), currently of 150,000+ words, aims to make academic language instruction a more data-driven and student-centered discovery learning as a special type of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL), emphasizing students' critical thinking and metacognition. Since 2013, high school English as an additional…

  18. Even Math Requires Learning Academic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    ELLs need to practice using the language in their speech. Teachers can ask students to restate the definition in their own words and provide opportunities for students to use academic vocabulary in discussions. Chunking (instead of teaching inch in isolation, also teach foot, centimeter, and yard) helps students develop their schema and mentally…

  19. How are number words mapped to approximate magnitudes?

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jessica; Barner, David

    2013-01-01

    How do we map number words to the magnitudes they represent? While much is known about the developmental trajectory of number word learning, the acquisition of the counting routine, and the academic correlates of estimation ability, previous studies have yet to describe the mechanisms that link number words to nonverbal representations of number. We investigated two mechanisms: associative mapping and structure mapping. Four dot array estimation tasks found that adults' ability to match a number word to one of two discriminably different sets declined as a function of set size and that participants' estimates of relatively large, but not small, set sizes were influenced by misleading feedback during an estimation task. We propose that subjects employ structure mappings for linking relatively large number words to set sizes, but rely chiefly on item-by-item associative mappings for smaller sets. These results indicate that both inference and association play important roles in mapping number words to approximate magnitudes. PMID:22963174

  20. Retroactive interference in short-term memory and the word-length effect.

    PubMed

    Campoy, Guillermo

    2011-09-01

    Two experiments investigated the possibility that the word-length effect in short-term memory (STM) is a consequence of long words generating a greater level of retroactive interference than shorter words. In Experiment 1, six-word lists were auditorily presented under articulatory suppression for immediate serial reconstruction of only the first three words. These three words were always drawn from a single set of middle-length words, whereas the last three positions were occupied by either short or long interfering words. The results showed worse memory performance when the to-be-remembered words were followed by long words. In Experiment 2, a recent-probes task was used, in which recent negative probes matched a target word in trial n-2. The results showed lower levels of proactive interference when trial n-1 involved long words instead of short words, suggesting that long words displaced previous STM content to a greater extent. By two different experimental approaches, therefore, this study shows that long words produce more retroactive interference than short words, supporting an interference-based account for the word-length effect. PMID:21703589

  1. When does length cause the word length effect?

    PubMed

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Bireta, Tamra J; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-03-01

    The word length effect, the finding that lists of short words are better recalled than lists of long words, has been termed one of the benchmark findings that any theory of immediate memory must account for. Indeed, the effect led directly to the development of working memory and the phonological loop, and it is viewed as the best remaining evidence for time-based decay. However, previous studies investigating this effect have confounded length with orthographic neighborhood size. In the present study, Experiments 1A and 1B revealed typical effects of length when short and long words were equated on all relevant dimensions previously identified in the literature except for neighborhood size. In Experiment 2, consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words with a large orthographic neighborhood were better recalled than were CVC words with a small orthographic neighborhood. In Experiments 3 and 4, using two different sets of stimuli, we showed that when short (1-syllable) and long (3-syllable) items were equated for neighborhood size, the word length effect disappeared. Experiment 5 replicated this with spoken recall. We suggest that the word length effect may be better explained by the differences in linguistic and lexical properties of short and long words rather than by length per se. These results add to the growing literature showing problems for theories of memory that include decay offset by rehearsal as a central feature. PMID:21171805

  2. Local strategic control of information in visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Kang, H; Simpson, G B

    2001-06-01

    In the present studies, we examined strategic flexibility in the use of lexical and sublexical information in Korean word recognition. Korean readers show a large frequency effect for words printed in the alphabetic Hangul script only if these words are embedded in a list consisting largely of logographic (Hanza) words. In the first experiment, high- and low- frequency Hangul words were preceded by Hangul or Hanza words. Frequency effects were eliminated when a Hangul target word was preceded by two Hangul words, even when the overall proportion of Hanza words in the list was large. In the second experiment, one group saw each stimulus preceded by a cue indicating which script would be seen on that trial. Frequency effects for Hangul targets were absent under this condition, but were present when subjects were not so cued. These results indicate that Korean readers are able to control their use of lexical and sublexical information over a small number of stimuli or even trial by trial. PMID:11504013

  3. A Few Words about Words | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ken Michaels, Guest Writer In Shakepeare’s play “Hamlet,” Polonius inquires of the prince, “What do you read, my lord?” Not at all pleased with what he’s reading, Hamlet replies, “Words, words, words.”1 I have previously described the communication model in which a sender encodes a message and then sends it via some channel (or medium) to a receiver, who decodes the message and, ideally, understands what was sent. Surely the most common way of encoding a message is in choosing the most appropriate words for the listener or reader.

  4. Retrieval dynamics in recognition and list discrimination: further evidence of separate processes of familiarity and recall.

    PubMed

    Hintzman, D L; Caulton, D A; Levitin, D J

    1998-05-01

    Two experiments tested the hypothesis that the time course of retrieval from memory is different for familiarity and recall. The response-signal method was used to compare memory retrieval dynamics in yes-no recognition memory, as a measure of familiarity, with those of list discrimination, as a measure of contextual recall. Responses were always made with regard to membership in two previous study lists. In Experiment 1 an exclusion task requiring positive responses to words from one list and negative responses to new words and words from the nontarget list was used. In Experiment 2, recognition and list discrimination were separate tasks. Retrieval curves from both experiments were consistent, showing that the minimal retrieval time for recognition was about 100 msec faster than that for list discrimination. Repetition affected asymptotic performance but had no reliable effects on retrieval dynamics in either the recognition or the list-discrimination task. PMID:9610117

  5. Individual Differences in Contextual Storage: Evidence from the List-Strength Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahakyan, Lili; Abushanab, Branden; Smith, James R.; Gray, Kendra J.

    2014-01-01

    Strengthening some items in a list of words impairs free recall of the remaining items in the list--a phenomenon known as the list-strength effect (LSE; e.g., Tulving & Hastie, 1972). Research indicates that whether the LSE is observed depends on the nature of the strengthening manipulation, and the effect is attributed to the enhancement of…

  6. The effect of word length in short-term memory: Is rehearsal necessary?

    PubMed

    Campoy, Guillermo

    2008-05-01

    Three experiments investigated the effect of word length on a serial recognition task when rehearsal was prevented by a high presentation rate with no delay between study and test lists. Results showed that lists of short four-phoneme words were better recognized than lists of long six-phoneme words. Moreover, this effect was equivalent to that observed in conditions in which there was a delay between lists, thereby making rehearsal possible in the interval. These findings imply that rehearsal does not play a central role in the origin of the word length effect. An alternative explanation based on differences in the degree of retroactive interference generated by long and short words is proposed. PMID:17853214

  7. Academic Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William R.

    The internal politics of colleges and the influence of a current emphasis on efficiency on the traditional independence of the academician are analyzed. It is suggested that the academician does not work in the same differentiated, and therefore interdependent, way as someone in industry or a bureaucracy. Academic activity is segmented, which…

  8. Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Brian G.

    The strength of academic freedom has always depended upon historical circumstances. In the United States, higher education began with institutions founded and controlled by religious sects. The notion of who gets educated and to what ends expanded as American democracy expanded. By the 1980's, legitimate calls for equality became a general…

  9. Academic Prophecies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Robert M.; Polishook, Irwin H.

    1985-01-01

    Academic prophecies are characterized by their innocence, detachment from the realities of politics and economics, and deference to a limited cohort of administrative representatives. Careless forecasting of the untested future contributes to public misunderstanding of higher education's role in society. (MLW)

  10. Academic Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Burton R.

    With fragmentation the dominant trend in academic settings around the world, the larger wholes of profession, enterprise, and system are less held together by integrative ideology. Strong ideological bonding is characteristic of the parts, primarily the disciplines. The larger aggregations are made whole mainly by formal superstructure, many…

  11. Academic Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally negative practice.…

  12. Academic Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Linda

    2013-01-01

    As colleges and universities become even more complex organizations, advancement professionals need to have the skills, experience, and academic credentials to succeed in this ever-changing environment. Advancement leaders need competencies that extend beyond fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing. The author encourages…

  13. List Memory in Young Adults With Language Learning Disability

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list recall experiment. Participants listened to 12-item word lists that converged on a nonpresented critical item (e.g., rain) semantically (umbrella, drench, weather, hail), phonologically (train, main, ran, wren), or dually in a hybrid list (umbrella, train, drench, main) and recalled words in no particular order. Group comparisons were made on veridical recall (i.e., words that were presented) and false recall of nonpresented critical items. Recall performance was analyzed by list type and list position to examine potential differences in the quality of memorial processes. Results The LLD group produced fewer veridical recalls than the controls. Both groups demonstrated list type and list position effects in veridical recall. False recall of the critical items was comparable in the 2 groups and varied by list type in predictable ways. Conclusion Young adults with LLD have verbal memory limitations characterized by quantitatively low levels of accurate recall. Qualitative patterns of recall are similar to those of unaffected peers. Therefore, the memory problem is characterized by limited capacity; memorial processes appear to be intact. PMID:25652445

  14. The production effect in long-list recall: In no particular order?

    PubMed

    Lambert, Angela M; Bodner, Glen E; Taikh, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    The production effect reflects a memory advantage for words read aloud versus silently. We investigated how production influences free recall of a single long list of words. In each of 4 experiments, a production effect occurred in a mixed-list group but not across pure-list groups. When compared to the pure-list groups, the mixed-list effects typically reflected a cost to silent words rather than a benefit to aloud words. This cost persisted when participants had to perform a generation or imagery task for the silent items, ruling out a lazy reading explanation. This recall pattern challenges both distinctiveness and strength accounts, but is consistent with an item-order account. By this account, the aloud words in a mixed list disrupt the encoding of item-order information for the silent words, thus impairing silent word recall. However, item-order measures and a forced-choice order test did not provide much evidence that recall was guided by retrieval of item-order information. We discuss our pattern of results in light of another recent study of the effects of production on long-list recall. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27244358

  15. Diccionario de palabras equivocas o malsonantes en Espana, Hispanoamerica y Filipinas (Dictionary of Problematic or Ill-Sounding Words in Spain, Latin America and the Philippines)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criado De Val, Manuel

    1976-01-01

    This feature presents the third part of a list of Spanish words that may have a second meaning which is frequently obscene, and words that are ill-sounding to speakers of Spanish. (Text is in Spanish.) (CLK)

  16. Scientific Word Processors Proliferate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Analytical Chemistry, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Briefly describes most of the currently available scientific word processing software packages. Unless noted, these products (including Molecular Presentation Graphics, ProofWriter, Spellbinder Scientific, Volkswriter Scientific, and WordMARC) run on the IBM PC family of microcomputers. (JN)

  17. Understanding Medical Words

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Medical Words Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Medicine that teaches you about many of the words related to your health care Do you have ...

  18. Revealing List-Level Control in the Stroop Task by Uncovering Its Benefits and a Cost

    PubMed Central

    Bugg, Julie M.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Scullin, Michael K.; Braver, Todd S.

    2012-01-01

    Interference is reduced in mostly incongruent relative to mostly congruent lists. Classic accounts of this list-wide proportion congruence effect assume that list-level control processes strategically modulate word reading. Contemporary accounts posit that reliance on the word is modulated poststimulus onset by item-specific information (e.g., proportion congruency of the word). To adjudicate between these accounts, we used novel designs featuring neutral trials. In two experiments, we showed that the list-wide proportion congruence effect is accompanied by a change in neutral trial color-naming performance. Because neutral words have no item-specific bias, this pattern can be attributed to list-level control. Additionally, we showed that list-level attenuation of word reading led to a cost to performance on a secondary prospective memory task but only when that task required processing of the irrelevant, neutral word. These findings indicate that the list-wide proportion congruence effect at least partially reflects list-level control and challenge purely item-specific accounts of this effect. PMID:21767049

  19. Semantic relations and repetition of items enhance the free recall of words by multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Vivian M; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela M; Miranda, Monica C; Oliveira, Acary S B; Oliveira, Enedina M L; Bueno, Orlando F A

    2003-12-01

    We compared 25 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 24 normal controls on a test of free recall of words. Some lists contained words that were all unrelated, while in others the intermediary words were semantically related. In another set, the mid-list words were repeated across the lists, or, in addition to the repetition, were semantically associated. Immediate recall was assessed using these lists. Delayed recall was assessed using different lists (delay-unrelated and delay-related) after distractor tasks. Recency was not affected in MS patients, but the primacy effect was lower than in controls, this effect being interpreted as due to a deficiency in articulatory rehearsal. The delay interval after each list abolished recency in both groups and resulted in impaired recall in MS patients. However the patients, like the controls, benefited from semantic relations in the middle of the lists and from spaced repetition of words across the lists, in either immediate and delayed recall. The enhancing effects of word relatedness and of spaced repetition are seen as being due to automatic processes preserved in MS patients. PMID:14566581

  20. In a Word, History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohan, Mary Helen

    1977-01-01

    Understanding words like "bionics" will open the mind to the horizons of another time when words like "railroad" evoked wonder and "to fly to the moon" was a metaphor for the impossible dream. Suggests that history teachers and English teachers should join together in using words to teach both subjects. (Editor/RK)

  1. New word needed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, Marcia

    I wish to report and protest the theft of a word. The numerical modelers have stolen the word “data” from the experimentalists and are using it for purposes for which it was never intended. They should give it back and go find or invent their own word.

  2. Do handwritten words magnify lexical effects in visual word recognition?

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Gil-López, Cristina; Beléndez, Victoria; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    An examination of how the word recognition system is able to process handwritten words is fundamental to formulate a comprehensive model of visual word recognition. Previous research has revealed that the magnitude of lexical effects (e.g., the word-frequency effect) is greater with handwritten words than with printed words. In the present lexical decision experiments, we examined whether the quality of handwritten words moderates the recruitment of top-down feedback, as reflected in word-frequency effects. Results showed a reading cost for difficult-to-read and easy-to-read handwritten words relative to printed words. But the critical finding was that difficult-to-read handwritten words, but not easy-to-read handwritten words, showed a greater word-frequency effect than printed words. Therefore, the inherent physical variability of handwritten words does not necessarily boost the magnitude of lexical effects. PMID:26340587

  3. Neural pattern similarity underlies the mnemonic advantages for living words.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiaoqian; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui

    2016-06-01

    It has been consistently shown that words representing living things are better remembered than words representing nonliving things, yet the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated. The present study used both univariate and multivariate pattern analyses to examine the hypotheses that living words are better remembered because (1) they draw more attention and/or (2) they share more overlapping semantic features. Subjects were asked to study a list of living and nonliving words during a semantic judgment task. An unexpected recognition test was administered 30 min later. We found that subjects recognized significantly more living words than nonliving words. Results supported the overlapping semantic feature hypothesis by showing that (a) semantic ratings showed greater semantic similarity for living words than for nonliving words, (b) there was also significantly greater neural global pattern similarity (nGPS) for living words than for nonliving words in the posterior portion of left parahippocampus (LpPHG), (c) the nGPS in the LpPHG reflected the rated semantic similarity, and also mediated the memory differences between two semantic categories, and (d) greater univariate activation was found for living words than for nonliving words in the left hippocampus (LHIP), which mediated the better memory performance for living words and might reflect greater semantic context binding. In contrast, although living words were processed faster and elicited a stronger activity in the dorsal attention network, these differences did not mediate the animacy effect in memory. Taken together, our results provide strong support to the overlapping semantic features hypothesis, and emphasize the important role of semantic organization in episodic memory encoding. PMID:27093349

  4. Academe and the Threat of Biological Terrorism

    SciTech Connect

    Atlas, Ronald M.; Weller, Richard E. )

    1999-04-03

    A legally binding protocol to monitor compliance with Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC) could have a substantial impact on academia. This is because of the large number of academic sites, and the complexity of activities and business relationships found in academia. Several hundred academic institutions could be required to file declarations, depending upon the specific''triggers'' adopted by the Ad Hoc Group to the BWC. Activities at academic sites that might''trigger'' a requirement for declaration include: biological defense, working with listed agents or toxins, production capacity, biopesticide research, vaccine production, high (BL3) biological containment, and aerobiology. The management structure of academic institutions will make it difficult for them to scrupulously comply with declaration requirements. A major educational program will be required to ensure academic compliance with any mandatory measures adopted to strengthen the BWC.

  5. Analysis of Malay Word Structure by Pre-Service Special Education Teachers: Foundation-Level Knowledge for Remedial Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lay Wah; Low, Hui Min

    2014-01-01

    Pre-service special educators' Malay word structure knowledge was assessed through their analysis of words. A total of 69 participants analysed a vocabulary list based on a set of criteria formulated from the Malay language word structure. Results indicated that they were able to count syllables and phonemes, and identify types of…

  6. A Reference Guide to Important Books for Academic Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauffer, Thomas M., Comp.

    The opportunity for American Council Fellows to read widely in academic administration is an integral part of the Academic Administration Internship Program. The books listed in this reference guide, while perhaps the most important in their fields, are only suggestive of a wider literature on higher education and administrative science. Some…

  7. Motivational Themes and Academic Success of At-Risk Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wambach, Cathrine A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study of motivational factors influencing 19 first-year students who made the dean's list their first quarter in college, despite a poor academic performance in high school. Applies Weiner's attributional theory of motivation. Most students attributed their prior academic performance to a lack of motivation/effort. (DMM)

  8. Directory of Academic Library Instruction Programs in Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, William W., Ed.

    This directory of academic library instruction programs in Virginia reflects data compiled from 82 academic libraries that responded to a questionnaire sent out in August 1977. The institution libraries are listed with addresses, the name(s) of contact person(s), and a telephone number. The survey results are organized by the format and the type…

  9. The Relationships among Cognitive Correlates and Irregular Word, Non-Word, and Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; University, Mu'tah; Urso, Annmarie; Mather, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explored four hypotheses: (a) the relationships among rapid automatized naming (RAN) and processing speed (PS) to irregular word, non-word, and word reading; (b) the predictive power of various RAN and PS measures, (c) the cognitive correlates that best predicted irregular word, non-word, and word reading, and (d) reading performance of…

  10. A Comparison of Academic Status Statistics, Fall 1981 to Fall 1983. Report 83-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Marietta

    A comparison of the number and percent of students subject to academic dismissal, academic probation, progress probation, the dean's list (GPA 2.00), and the president's list (GPA 3.00) at College of the Sequoias was drawn for the years 1981, 1982, and 1983. Statistics showed the following changes: (1) the number of students dismissed due to poor…

  11. Vocabulary plus Technology: An After-Reading Approach to Develop Deep Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolsey, Thomas DeVere; Smetana, Linda; Grisham, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    Students who can use a term conversantly in academic environments know how to use it precisely in their writing and in their interactions with others; they can be said to deeply know, not just the word term in alphabetic or spoken forms, but the connections to ideas the term embodies. When students are intrigued by words and ideas, they want to…

  12. Using Concordancing and Word Processing to Improve EFL Graduate Students' Written English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshaar, Awatif Abu; AbuSeileek, Ali Farhan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of using concordances and word processors on EFL graduates' performance in academic writing. To achieve this aim, the subjects were asked to use linguistics corpora and word processors to correct their grammatical and spelling mistakes in their written papers in a course that lasted for sixteen weeks. The…

  13. The I-Word: Semantics and Substance in Library and Information Studies Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Fleet, Connie; Wallace, Danny P.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the introduction of the word "information" into the field of library science. Highlights include ALA (American Library Association) accreditation; the inclusion of the word "information" in names of institutions, academic units, and degree programs; and the question of whether programs really prepare graduates for careers in libraries.…

  14. Academic Year Abroad. 1988-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Edrice Marguerite, Ed.

    This directory of study-abroad programs provides information on over 1,500 postsecondary study programs that take place in countries other than the United States during the academic year. An introductory section describes the organization of the listings (which provide program sponsor and name, location, dates, subjects, credit, eligibility,…

  15. School-College Faculty Collaboratives: Academic Alliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudiani, Claire

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the Academic Alliances project and the collaboratives of faculty members who teach foreign languages and literature in universities, colleges, and schools in the United States which were a result of that project. Looks at what happens at meetings and how some groups are funded. Lists participating collaborative groups. (SED)

  16. Academic Alliances: School/College Faculty Collaboratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Debra

    1985-01-01

    Reports on the activities and accomplishments of school and college faculty groups that are part of the national network of Academic Alliances. Includes information on the Rockefeller Fellowship Program, a listing of eight new member groups, information on four new statewide networks, and a synopsis of meetings and events of some groups. (SED)

  17. Jones Center Vocational/Academic Program (JCVA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydalch, Jeff

    This document provides information on the Jones Center Vocational/Academic Program of the Granite School District (Utah), the purpose of which is to maintain or reintegrate students who are potential high school dropouts or dropouts into appropriate educational alternatives. Its mission statement is followed by a list of program components,…

  18. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words.

    PubMed

    Stone, M; Ladd, S L; Vaidya, C J; Gabrieli, J D

    1998-06-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study. PMID:9690028

  19. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Vaidya, C. J.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study.

  20. Original Knowledge, Gender and the Word's Mythology: Voicing the Doctorate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Using mythology as a generative matrix, this article investigates the relationship between knowledge, words, embodiment and gender as they play out in academic writing's voice and, in particular, in doctoral voice. The doctoral thesis is defensive, a performance seeking admittance into discipline scholarship. Yet in finding its scholarly voice,…

  1. Beyond Word Meaning: Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Exceptional Language Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spies, Tracy G.; Dema, Alexandra A.

    2014-01-01

    A well-developed academic vocabulary is foundational for understanding academic texts used in elementary and secondary classrooms. In-depth word knowledge is critical to understanding the abstract concepts and complex language structures of text. Students with learning disabilities and English language learners both characteristically have limited…

  2. Acronym master list

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This document is a master list of acronyms and other abbreviations that are used by or could be useful to, the personnel at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Many specialized and well-known abbreviations are not included in this list.

  3. Recalling taboo and nontaboo words.

    PubMed

    Jay, Timothy; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; King, Krista

    2008-01-01

    People remember emotional and taboo words better than neutral words. It is well known that words that are processed at a deep (i.e., semantic) level are recalled better than words processed at a shallow (i.e., purely visual) level. To determine how depth of processing influences recall of emotional and taboo words, a levels of processing paradigm was used. Whether this effect holds for emotional and taboo words has not been previously investigated. Two experiments demonstrated that taboo and emotional words benefit less from deep processing than do neutral words. This is consistent with the proposal that memories for taboo and emotional words are a function of the arousal level they evoke, even under shallow encoding conditions. Recall was higher for taboo words, even when taboo words were cued to be recalled after neutral and emotional words. The superiority of taboo word recall is consistent with cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging research. PMID:18437803

  4. The Effect of the Length of To-Be-Remembered Lists and Intervening Lists on Free Recall: A Reexamination Using Overt Rehearsal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2004-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated the effects of to-be-remembered (TBR) and intervening list length on free recall to determine whether selective rehearsal could explain the previous finding that recall was affected only by TBR list length. In Experiments 1 (covert rehearsal) and 2 (overt rehearsal), participants saw 5- and 20-word lists…

  5. List mode multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Daniel E.; Luke, S. John; Mauger, G. Joseph; Riot, Vincent J.; Knapp, David A.

    2007-08-07

    A digital list mode multichannel analyzer (MCA) built around a programmable FPGA device for onboard data analysis and on-the-fly modification of system detection/operating parameters, and capable of collecting and processing data in very small time bins (<1 millisecond) when used in histogramming mode, or in list mode as a list mode MCA.

  6. Against Reading Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lennard J.

    2012-01-01

    A course's reading list is the skeleton of a semester's body of thought, the inventory that a professor writes up for the departmental Web site and the schedule of courses that lists the goods. Despite the obvious utility of fixed reading lists, one should jettison them when possible. The author has been conducting an informal experiment using a…

  7. Acquisitions List No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  8. Acquisitions List No. 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  9. 75 FR 82370 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Listing Determinations for Five Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... 6, 2010 (75 FR 61872; 75 FR 61904) must be received by February 3, 2011. ADDRESSES: You may submit... rules (75 FR 61872; 75 FR 61904) to list the Gulf of Maine DPS of Atlantic sturgeon as threatened and... accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. The proposed rule,...

  10. Elementary Students' Acquisition of Academic Vocabulary Through Engineering Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugelmass, Rachel

    This study examines how STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) inquiry-based learning through a hands-on engineering design can be beneficial in helping students acquire academic vocabulary. This research took place in a second grade dual- language classroom in a public, suburban elementary school. English language learners, students who speak Spanish at home, and native English speakers were evaluated in this study. Each day, students were presented with a general academic vocabulary focus word during an engineering design challenge. Vocabulary pre-tests and post-tests as well as observation field notes were used to evaluate the student's growth in reading and defining the focus academic vocabulary words. A quiz and KSB (knowledge and skill builder) packet were used to evaluate students' knowledge of science and math content and engineering design. The results of this study indicate that engineering design is an effective means for teaching academic vocabulary to students with varying levels of English proficiency.

  11. An Information Analysis of 2-, 3-, and 4-Word Verbal Discrimination Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arima, James K.; Gray, Francis D.

    Information theory was used to qualify the difficulty of verbal discrimination (VD) learning tasks and to measure VD performance. Words for VD items were selected with high background frequency and equal a priori probabilities of being selected as a first response. Three VD lists containing only 2-, 3-, or 4-word items were created and equated for…

  12. Error Detection Mechanism for Words and Sentences: A Comparison between Readers with Dyslexia and Skilled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-01-01

    The activity level of the error monitoring system for processing isolated versus contextual words in Hebrew was studied in adults with dyslexia and skilled readers while committing reading errors. Behavioural measures and event-related potentials were measured during a lexical decision task using words in a list and sentences. Error-related…

  13. Effects of Cognate Status on Word Comprehension in Second Language Learners: An ERP Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midgley, Katherine J.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    ERPs were used to explore the different patterns of processing of cognate and noncognate words in the first (L1) and second (L2) language of a population of second language learners. L1 English students of French were presented with blocked lists of L1 and L2 words, and ERPs to cognates and noncognates were compared within each language block. For…

  14. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Semantic Processing: Evidence from False Memories for Ambiguous Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Harel, Itay

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the left hemisphere (LH) focuses on strongly related word meanings; the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to the processing of lexical ambiguity by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including subordinate meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger,…

  15. Frequency and Imagery in Word Recognition: Further Evidence for an Attribute Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Peter E.

    1978-01-01

    What processes underlie recognition memory? An explanation of word recognition should be compatible with a general explanation of the functioning of the memory system. The research discussed in this paper lends support to a model of recognition performance based on the marking and storage of lists of features or attributes that define a word's…

  16. The Effects of Semantic Transparency and Base Frequency on the Recognition of English Complex Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Joe; Taft, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    A visual lexical decision task was used to examine the interaction between base frequency (i.e., the cumulative frequencies of morphologically related forms) and semantic transparency for a list of derived words. Linear mixed effects models revealed that high base frequency facilitates the recognition of the complex word (i.e., a "base…

  17. Development and Validation of a Persian Version of Dichotic Emotional Word Test

    PubMed Central

    Davudzade, Atefe; Shaibanizadeh, Abdolreza; Jafari, Zahra; Fahimnia, Farzin; Haghani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Emotional words in comparison with neutral words have different hemispheric specialization. It is assumed that the right hemisphere has a role in processing every kind of emotional word. The objective of the present study was the development of a Persian version of the dichotic emotional word test and evaluate its validation among adult Persian speakers. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 60 adults, with the age ranging from 18-30 years for both genders, who had no history of neurological disorders with normal hearing. The developed test included eight main lists; each had several dichotic emotional/ neutral pairs of words. Participants were asked to recall as many words in each list as they could after they listened to them. A content validity index was used to analyze the validity of the test. Results: The mean content validity index score was 0.94. The findings showed that in the left ear, emotional words were remembered more than neutral ones (P=0.007). While in the right ear, neutral words were remembered more (P=0.009). There were no significant differences in male and female scores. Conclusion: Dichotic emotional word test has a high content validity. The ability to remember emotional words better in the left ear supports the dominant role of the right hemisphere in emotional word perception. PMID:27280097

  18. Lip-reading the BKB sentence lists: corrections for list and practice effects.

    PubMed

    Foster, J R; Summerfield, A Q; Marshall, D H; Palmer, L; Ball, V; Rosen, S

    1993-08-01

    Two groups of 21 adult subjects with normal hearing viewed the video recordings of the Bamford-Kowal-Bench standard sentence lists issued by the EPI Group in 1986. Each subject viewed all of the 21 lists and attempted to write down the words contained in each sentence. One group lip-read the lists with no sound (the LR:alone condition). The other group also heard a sequence of acoustic pulses which were synchronized to the moments when the talker's vocal folds closed (the LR&Lx condition). Performance was assessed both by loose (KW(L)) and by tight (KW(T)) keyword scoring methods. Both scoring methods produced the same pattern of results: performance was better in the LR&Lx condition; performance in both conditions improved linearly with the logarithm of the list presentation order number; subjects who produced higher overall scores also improved more with experience of the lists. The data were described well by a logistic regression model which provided a formula which can be used to compensate for practice effects and for differences in difficulty between lists. Two simpler, but less accurate, methods for compensating for variation in inter-list difficulty are also described. A figure is provided which can be used to assess the significance of the difference between a pair of scores obtained from a single subject in any pair of presentation conditions. PMID:8312846

  19. The Last Word

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Go look it up. That is what students who have questions about words are often told. But where should they go? Depending on the question, some resources are better than others, and some are not very good at all, no matter what the question. Finding the most helpful word resource for students can be a challenge, especially now that search engines…

  20. The Power of Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article describes "The Power of Words," a free, online curriculum that explores common labels for ethnic groups, women and sexual minorities. From an activity exploring the roots of slang for immigrants to a lesson on recent attempts by marginalized groups to reclaim pejorative words, the curriculum's 10 lesson plans support content standards…

  1. Chippy's Computer Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willing, Kathlene R.; Girard, Suzanne

    Intended for young children just becoming familiar with computers, this naming book introduces and reinforces new computer vocabulary and concepts. The 20 words are presented alphabetically, along with illustrations, providing room for different activities in which children can match and name the pictures and words. The 20 vocabulary items are…

  2. Words That Encourage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenbach, Brooke B.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and education leaders are aware that their words can have a significant effect on their students. Words can build them up and encourage them to work hard or tear them down and lead them to despair. The language used in teacher evaluations is no different, says teacher Brooke Eisenbach. In this article, she shares stories of colleagues…

  3. "Word Power" (Vocabulary Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Roxy

    Containing numerous vocabulary-building activities and exercises, this guidebook is designed to help elementary students learn to manipulate language as they gain concrete experiences with words, increase their "word power," and have fun. The activities described involve dictionary games, synonyms, "saidonyms" (alternatives for the overused word…

  4. Academic Productivity as Perceived by Malaysian Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Aminuddin; Tymms, Peter; Ismail, Habsah

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the perspectives of Malaysian academics in relation to academic productivity and some factors affecting it. A large scale online questionnaire was used to gather information from six public universities. The most productive role in the eyes of the academics was found to be teaching, with research and…

  5. Dental Assistant. FasTrak Specialization Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC). Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document contains an introduction to the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC) and Specialization ITAC; an overview of the dental assistant occupation; a list acknowledging professionals who helped develop the competency list; and the comprehensive list of the professional or occupational competencies deemed essential for…

  6. Drafting. FasTrak Specialization Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC). Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document contains an introduction to the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC) and Specialization ITAC; an overview of the drafting industry; a list acknowledging professionals who helped develop the competency list; and the comprehensive list of the professional or occupational competencies deemed essential for graduates…

  7. Graphic Communications. FasTrak Specialization Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC). Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document contains an introduction to the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC) and Specialization ITAC; an overview of the graphic communications field; a list acknowledging professionals who helped develop the competency list; and a comprehensive list of the professional or occupational competencies deemed essential for…

  8. Nurse Assistant. FasTrak Specialization Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC). Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document contains an introduction to the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC) and Specialization ITAC; an overview of the nurse assistant occupation; a list acknowledging professionals who helped develop the competency list; and the comprehensive list of the professional or occupational competencies deemed essential for…

  9. Practical Nursing. FasTrak Specialization Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC). Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document contains an introduction to the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC) and Specialization ITAC; an overview of the field of practical nursing; a list acknowledging professionals who helped develop the competency list; and the comprehensive list of the professional or occupational competencies deemed essential for…

  10. Electronics. FasTrak Specialization Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC). Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document contains an introduction to the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC) and Specialization ITAC; and overview of the electronics field; an list acknowledging the professionals who helped develop the competency list; and the comprehensive listing of the professional or occupational competencies deemed essential for…

  11. Visual Communications Art. FasTrak Specialization Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC). Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document contains an introduction to the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC) and Specialization ITAC; an overview of the visual communications art profession; a list acknowledging professionals who helped develop the competency list; and the comprehensive list of the professional or occupational competencies deemed…

  12. Indiana Reading List. [Levels 1, 2, 3, and 4].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This reading list is designed as a companion piece to Indiana's Academic Standards in English/Language Arts and is organized on four levels: Level 1, Grades K-2; Level 2, Grades 3-5; Level 3, Grades 6-8; and Level 4, Grades 9-12. It contains titles and authors for approximately 800 works. The Level 1 Reading List contains these sections: fiction…

  13. Social Class and Memory for Categorised and Uncategorised Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetherick, N. E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Word lists were given to 176 Scottish children, ages 15, 11, 8, and 6. Analysis of variance on recall scores indicated that Jensen's findings of greater recall by middle class children may be only a transitory phenomenon, not evidence of permanent middle class superiority in Level II ability. (Editor/SJL)

  14. Experimental Study on the Intelligibility of Grave, Bisyllabic Spanish Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosi, Oscar

    1969-01-01

    The present study, conducted at the Department of Audiology and Sciences, Michigan State University, consisted of determining the intelligibility of 648 Spanish stimulus-words arranged in a multiple-choice test of the two forms, A and B, each including 12 lists of approximately the same degree of difficulty. (Appendix.) This multiple-choice test…

  15. Strategic Spelling: Moving Beyond Word Memorization in the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheatley, Jonathan P.

    2005-01-01

    No word-list memorization here! Instead, in this book educators will discover classroom-tested, research-based strategies for teaching spelling in a way that reflects how middle school students actually learn -- by using spelling strategies and recognizing language patterns. This publication presents a wealth of strategies, activities, and ideas…

  16. Lexical Association and False Memory for Words in Two Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users. The…

  17. Developmental Differences in Frequency Judgments of Words and Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghatala, Elizabeth; Levin, Joel R.

    1973-01-01

    Subjects in three age groups judged absolute and relative frequencies of pictures and words presented in lists. There was relatively greater improvement with age in judgment of pictorial stimuli. Study results lend support to the frequency theory of discrimination learning. (DP)

  18. Semantic Factors Predict the Rate of Lexical Replacement of Content Words.

    PubMed

    Vejdemo, Susanne; Hörberg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The rate of lexical replacement estimates the diachronic stability of word forms on the basis of how frequently a proto-language word is replaced or retained in its daughter languages. Lexical replacement rate has been shown to be highly related to word class and word frequency. In this paper, we argue that content words and function words behave differently with respect to lexical replacement rate, and we show that semantic factors predict the lexical replacement rate of content words. For the 167 content items in the Swadesh list, data was gathered on the features of lexical replacement rate, word class, frequency, age of acquisition, synonyms, arousal, imageability and average mutual information, either from published databases or gathered from corpora and lexica. A linear regression model shows that, in addition to frequency, synonyms, senses and imageability are significantly related to the lexical replacement rate of content words-in particular the number of synonyms that a word has. The model shows no differences in lexical replacement rate between word classes, and outperforms a model with word class and word frequency predictors only. PMID:26820737

  19. Diccionario de palabras equivocas o malsonantes en Espana, Hispanoamerica y Filipinas: Continuacion. (Dictionary of Ambiguous or Offensive Words in Spain, Spanish America and the Philippines: Continued)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criado de Val, Manuel

    1976-01-01

    This list of obscene, ambiguous, or offensive Spanish words indicates their off-color meaning in various Spanish-speaking countries. The list comprises words beginning with letters H-M, and is intended to protect the traveller or non-native speaker from embarrassment. It is a continuation of a previous article. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  20. Academic detailing.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations. PMID:21209521

  1. Concreteness ratings for 40 thousand generally known English word lemmas.

    PubMed

    Brysbaert, Marc; Warriner, Amy Beth; Kuperman, Victor

    2014-09-01

    Concreteness ratings are presented for 37,058 English words and 2,896 two-word expressions (such as zebra crossing and zoom in), obtained from over 4,000 participants by means of a norming study using Internet crowdsourcing for data collection. Although the instructions stressed that the assessment of word concreteness would be based on experiences involving all senses and motor responses, a comparison with the existing concreteness norms indicates that participants, as before, largely focused on visual and haptic experiences. The reported data set is a subset of a comprehensive list of English lemmas and contains all lemmas known by at least 85 % of the raters. It can be used in future research as a reference list of generally known English lemmas. PMID:24142837

  2. Academic dishonesty today, unethical practices tomorrow?

    PubMed

    LaDuke, Rebekah D

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the most current published literature on the topics of academic dishonesty, unethical professional practices, and research that studied the correlation between these 2 areas of interest. Literature was retrieved by utilizing key words such as academic dishonesty, cheating, workplace dishonesty, and unethical behavior. Multiple research databases were used and a reference librarian in locating relevant research studies resulting in 16 research articles reviewed and 7 articles referenced within the literature review. Upon completion, it became apparent that nursing educators should be concerned that nursing students found to be academically dishonest today may have a higher incidence of displaying unethical practices as a registered nurse tomorrow. It also became clear that the nursing profession needs to conduct its own research in this field to verify findings discovered by other professions such as engineering, business, and psychology. Finally, recommendations were given on how nursing educators should handle the topic of ethics in nursing programs. PMID:24267935

  3. Word centre is misperceived.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M H

    2000-01-01

    Normal readers were asked to mark the middle of visually presented words. They made systematic errors toward the left, indicating an overestimation of the length of the beginning of a word. The number of characters determines the size of this error. The bias extended to pseudowords, letter strings, and symbols, but not to blocks, dashes, and lines. Finally, the bias was sensitive to typographical errors but not to colour cuing. These findings suggest that special cognitive operations determine the perceived spatial extent of words. Implications for our understanding of perceptual and cognitive processes in reading are discussed. PMID:10889943

  4. Test Review: Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R. K., and Rashotte, C. A. (2012), "Test of Word Reading Efficiency-Second Edition" (TOWRE-2). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarar, Jessica M.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Dickens, Rachel H.

    2015-01-01

    The TOWRE-2 was developed to provide an efficient measure of two essential wordlevel reading skills, sight word reading and phonetic decoding skills. The Sight Word Efficiency (SWE) subtest assesses the number of real words that an individual can read from a vertical list within 45 s. This subtest is designed to measure the size of an individual's…

  5. The Activation and Monitoring of Memories Produced by Words and Pseudohomophones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortese, Michael J.; Khanna, Maya M.; White, Katherine K.; Veljkovic, Ilija; Drumm, Geoffery

    2008-01-01

    Using the DRM paradigm, our experiments examined the activation and monitoring of memories in semantic and phonological networks. Participants viewed lists of words and/or pseudohomophones (e.g., "dreem"). In Experiment 1, participants verbally recalled lists of semantic associates or attempted to write them as they appeared during study. False…

  6. Picture-Word Differences in Discrimination Learning: II. Effects of Conceptual Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, Lyle E., Jr.; And Others

    A well established finding in the discrimination learning literature is that pictures are learned more rapidly than their associated verbal labels. It was hypothesized in this study that the usual superiority of pictures over words in a discrimination list containing same-instance repetitions would disappear in a discrimination list containing…

  7. Finding Words in a Language that Allows Words without Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Aissati, Abder; McQueen, James M.; Cutler, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Across many languages from unrelated families, spoken-word recognition is subject to a constraint whereby potential word candidates must contain a vowel. This constraint minimizes competition from embedded words (e.g., in English, disfavoring "win" in "twin" because "t" cannot be a word). However, the constraint would be counter-productive in…

  8. Word Superiority and Word Shape Effects in Beginning Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feitelson, Dina; Razel, Micha

    1984-01-01

    Examines the notion that words are sometimes perceived with greater ease than letters and that word shape sometimes plays a role in the perception of words. The data collected from 40 Israeli kindergarteners revealed that beginning readers found it easier to identify single letters than whole words, thus refuting the above notion. (Author/AS)

  9. Emotional Valence, Arousal, and Threat Ratings of 160 Chinese Words among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Mak, Christine W. Y.; Yeung, Dannii; Duan, Wenjie; Tang, Sandy; Yeung, June C.; Ching, Rita

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide ratings of valence/pleasantness, arousal/excitement, and threat/potential harm for 160 Chinese words. The emotional valence classification (positive, negative, or neutral) of all of the words corresponded to that of the equivalent English language words. More than 90% of the participants, junior high school students aged between 12 and 17 years, understood the words. The participants were from both mainland China and Hong Kong, thus the words can be applied to adolescents familiar with either simplified (e.g. in mainland China) or traditional Chinese (e.g. in Hong Kong) with a junior secondary school education or higher. We also established eight words with negative valence, high threat, and high arousal ratings to facilitate future research, especially on attentional and memory biases among individuals prone to anxiety. Thus, the new emotional word list provides a useful source of information for affective research in the Chinese language. PMID:26226604

  10. Reading Words in Discourse: The Modulation of Lexical Priming Effects by Message-Level Context

    PubMed Central

    Ledoux, Kerry; Camblin, C. Christine; Swaab, Tamara Y.; Gordon, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    Repetition and semantic-associative priming effects have been demonstrated for words in nonstructured contexts (i.e., word pairs or lists of words) in numerous behavioral and electrophysio-logical studies. The processing of a word has thus been shown to benefit from the prior presentation of an identical or associated word in the absence of a constraining context. An examination of such priming effects for words that are embedded within a meaningful discourse context provides information about the interaction of different levels of linguistic analysis. This article reviews behavioral and electrophysiological research that has examined the processing of repeated and associated words in sentence and discourse contexts. It provides examples of the ways in which eye tracking and event-related potentials might be used to further explore priming effects in discourse. The modulation of lexical priming effects by discourse factors suggests the interaction of information at different levels in online language comprehension. PMID:16891554

  11. Emotional Valence, Arousal, and Threat Ratings of 160 Chinese Words among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ho, Samuel M Y; Mak, Christine W Y; Yeung, Dannii; Duan, Wenjie; Tang, Sandy; Yeung, June C; Ching, Rita

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide ratings of valence/pleasantness, arousal/excitement, and threat/potential harm for 160 Chinese words. The emotional valence classification (positive, negative, or neutral) of all of the words corresponded to that of the equivalent English language words. More than 90% of the participants, junior high school students aged between 12 and 17 years, understood the words. The participants were from both mainland China and Hong Kong, thus the words can be applied to adolescents familiar with either simplified (e.g. in mainland China) or traditional Chinese (e.g. in Hong Kong) with a junior secondary school education or higher. We also established eight words with negative valence, high threat, and high arousal ratings to facilitate future research, especially on attentional and memory biases among individuals prone to anxiety. Thus, the new emotional word list provides a useful source of information for affective research in the Chinese language. PMID:26226604

  12. Lexicon-based word recognition without word segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.K.; Chen, C.H.

    1994-12-31

    We present a word recognition approach that does not rely on explicit word segmentation. It treats the character recognition output as a continuous string of characters instead of first dividing it into words before word-level contextual knowledge is applied. This technique is useful in degraded document images, in which isolation of individual words by purely image- or character-based means is difficult or unreliable. We use a hypothesis generation and verification approach, in which word identities and their positions are hypothesized based on {open_quotes}seed features{close_quotes} (character substrings) extracted from the output of the character recognizer. Verification of the hypotheses consists of comparing the characters in the hypothesized word with candidate characters near the position of the seed feature in the text, and selecting the set of consecutive word hypotheses that are the most mutually consistent. Hence, word segmentation and word recognition are effectively performed in parallel.

  13. Solving Word Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karrison, Joan; Carroll, Margaret Kelly

    1991-01-01

    Students with language and learning disabilities may have difficulty solving mathematics word problems. Use of a sequential checklist, identifying clues and keywords, and illustrating a problem can all help the student identify and implement the correct computational process. (DB)

  14. Words, feelings, and bilingualism

    PubMed Central

    Marian, Viorica; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    Cross-linguistic differences in emotionality of autobiographical memories were examined by eliciting memories of immigration from bilingual speakers. Forty-seven Russian-English bilinguals were asked to recount their immigration experiences in either Russian or English. Bilinguals used more emotion words when describing their immigration experiences in the second language (English) than in the first language (Russian). Bilinguals' immigration narratives contained more negative emotion words than positive emotion words. In addition, language preference (but not language proficiency) influenced results, with emotional expression amplified when speaking in the preferred language. These findings carry implications for organization of the bilingual lexicon and the special status of emotion words within it. We suggest that bilinguals' expression of emotion may vary across languages and that the linguistic and affective systems are interconnected in the bilingual cognitive architecture. PMID:19966924

  15. Developing WordSmith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Mike

    2008-01-01

    WordSmith Tools, since its launch in 1996, has had a rather unusual history and the aim of this paper is to record some of the chief influences on its development. The paper thus presents and discusses the history of WordSmith Tools and its predecessors going back to the early 1980s when processors were much slower, memory very limited and disk…

  16. Decorporation: Officially a word

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    2000-05-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition.

  17. Decorporation: officially a word.

    PubMed

    Fisher, D R

    2000-05-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition. PMID:10772031

  18. Decorporation: Officially a word

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R. )

    1999-12-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition.

  19. Word Production Deficits in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvel, Cherie L.; Schwartz, Barbara L.; Isaacs, Keren L.

    2004-01-01

    Fronto-cerebellar circuitry is implicated in word production. Data suggest that the cerebellum is involved in word "search," whereas the prefrontal cortex underlies the "selection" of words from among competing alternatives. We explored the role of search and selection processes in word production deficits in schizophrenia patients. In Experiment…

  20. Words that heal.

    PubMed

    Spurio, Maria Grazia

    2015-09-01

    The value of words in the healing process runs constant to the path of therapeutic treatment, the net of exchanges and relationships between brain chemistry and the right words in order to heal is subtle and intricate. Psychotherapy, a treatment with words, is shown to be a treatment that directly affects the brain and that is able to change it stably, even in its anatomical structure and function. According to Kandel (1999), a leading living scientist and Nobel Prize winner for medicine and physiology, American neurologist and psychiatrist, psychotherapy is a real cure, a biological treatment, as it produces behavioral changes through new words and new experiences. The article offers a brief overview of the use of the fantasy of argument, since the time of the classical rethoric of the sophists up to the new rethoric, to illustrate how the structure of the speech, and the dialectic ability of opposing different thoughts, closely resembles the way of thinking. Consequently the choice of words can be considered an instrument of great impact that is inserted in the stream of thoughts that determines the attitude of a person, and therefore, his/her actions. This happens whenever you communicate voluntarily, and not simply when interacting. The right choice of words remains a turning point in all of our relationships, not only in therapeutic situations, but in every other social relationship in life, family or friends. PMID:26417732

  1. Semantic Factors Predict the Rate of Lexical Replacement of Content Words

    PubMed Central

    Vejdemo, Susanne; Hörberg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The rate of lexical replacement estimates the diachronic stability of word forms on the basis of how frequently a proto-language word is replaced or retained in its daughter languages. Lexical replacement rate has been shown to be highly related to word class and word frequency. In this paper, we argue that content words and function words behave differently with respect to lexical replacement rate, and we show that semantic factors predict the lexical replacement rate of content words. For the 167 content items in the Swadesh list, data was gathered on the features of lexical replacement rate, word class, frequency, age of acquisition, synonyms, arousal, imageability and average mutual information, either from published databases or gathered from corpora and lexica. A linear regression model shows that, in addition to frequency, synonyms, senses and imageability are significantly related to the lexical replacement rate of content words–in particular the number of synonyms that a word has. The model shows no differences in lexical replacement rate between word classes, and outperforms a model with word class and word frequency predictors only. PMID:26820737

  2. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions. PMID:25593407

  3. "Such a Dirty Word": Networks and Networking in Academic Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifer, Meghan J.

    2010-01-01

    In the past 35-45 years, college and university faculties have changed considerably and there is no longer a single profile that fits all professors in U.S. higher education. These demographic changes within the professoriate suggest that research is needed to understand faculty work life and careers. This study explores one particular aspect of…

  4. The word without the tachistoscope.

    PubMed

    Prinzmetal, W; Silvers, B

    1994-03-01

    In experiments with an unlimited viewing time, we were able to isolate specific stimulus factors that lead to the word-superiority effect. We discovered that advantages of words over nonwords, and words over single letters, are caused by different factors. The word-nonword effect was found in a variety of circumstances, such as with small type, low contrast, or a simultaneously present mask. The advantage of words over single letters occurs only when the stimuli are embedded in a mask making it difficult to find a single letter. In addition, we obtained a word-detection effect without a brief exposure: Subjects were more accurate detecting the presence of words than nonwords. However, this effect only occurred when subjects were required to discriminate letters from nonletters. Thus, the word-superiority (word-nonword difference) and word-detection effects both involve letter discrimination and can be explained by similar mechanisms. PMID:8036111

  5. Online System Adoption and K-12 Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmons, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the relationship between K-12 online system adoption (e.g., Blackboard, Edmodo, WordPress) and school-level academic achievement ratings. Utilizing a novel approach to data collection via website data extraction and indexing of all school websites in a target state in the United States (n?=?732) and merging these…

  6. Course Resource Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Robert G.

    The Mountain-Plains Course Resource List is presented by job title for 26 curriculum areas. For each area the printed materials, audiovisual aids, and equipment needed for the course are listed. The 26 curriculum areas are: mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution,…

  7. Associative list processing unit

    DOEpatents

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

    2013-01-29

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

  8. NSSDC Data Listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Data available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) are listed. The spacecraft, principal investigator, the experiment, and time span of the data are given. A listing is also included of ground-based data, models, computer routines and composite spacecraft data that are available from NSSDC.

  9. Context effects and false memory for alcohol words in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zack, Martin; Sharpley, Justin; Dent, Clyde W; Stacy, Alan W

    2009-03-01

    This study assessed incidental recognition of Alcohol and Neutral words in adolescents who encoded the words under distraction. Participants were 171 (87 male) 10th grade students, ages 14-16 (M=15.1) years. Testing was conducted by telephone: Participants listened to a list containing Alcohol and Neutral (Experimental--Group E, n=92) or only Neutral (Control--Group C, n=79) words, while counting backwards from 200 by two's. Recognition was tested immediately thereafter. Group C exhibited higher false recognition of Neutral than Alcohol items, whereas Group E displayed equivalent false rates for both word types. The reported number of alcohol TV ads seen in the past week predicted higher false recognition of Neutral words in Group C and of Alcohol words in Group E. False memory for Alcohol words in Group E was greater in males and high anxiety sensitive participants. These context-dependent biases may contribute to exaggerations in perceived drinking norms previously found to predict alcohol misuse in young drinkers. PMID:19081200

  10. Nuclear Engineering Academic Programs Survey, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Science and Engineering Education, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2004-03-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2002 and August 31, 2003. Thirty-three academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during the survey time period and all responded (100% response rate). Three of the programs included in last year's report were discontinued or out-of-scope in 2003. One new program has been added to the list. This year the survey data include U.S. citizenship, gender, and race/ethnicity by degree level.

  11. Morphing into Adolescents: Active Word Learning for English-Language Learners and Their Classmates in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2010-01-01

    Many students arrive at middle school without the academic language skills they need to read sophisticated texts with comprehension. In particular, English language learners and students from low-income backgrounds attending underresourced, urban middle schools lack opportunities to learn the thousands of academic words they need to succeed. To…

  12. Queries on the Linguist List: A Move-Structure Analysis of a Computer-Mediated Genre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtanen, Tuija; Maricic, Ibolya

    Computer mediated communication (CMC) is a widely used communicative tool within various professional and social groups. The focus of the present article is on the Linguist List (LL), which can be described as an edited person-to-group international academic mailing list, and with a particular speech act: a request for information (RFI). Because…

  13. CULP (California Union List of Periodicals) 1980 User Survey Results. PN-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Karl M., Jr.

    This survey of California libraries was conducted to gather information on the use of the California Union List of Periodicals (CULP), a microfiche finding list for serials held in all kinds of libraries statewide, exept for those held by major academic institutions. Returned by 391 of 696 libraries in October 1980, the survey questionnaire was…

  14. Design and performance of a large vocabulary discrete word recognition system. Volume 2: Appendixes. [flow charts and users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The users manual for the word recognition computer program contains flow charts of the logical diagram, the memory map for templates, the speech analyzer card arrangement, minicomputer input/output routines, and assembly language program listings.

  15. Academic Delay of Gratification and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2011-01-01

    The ability to delay gratification is the cornerstone of all academic achievement and education. It is by delaying gratification that learners can pursue long-term academic and career goals. In general, "delay of gratification" refers to an individual's ability to forgo immediate rewards for the sake of more valuable ones later (Mischel, 1996).…

  16. Photovoltaics: Contract lists, fiscal year 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    US DOE's Photovoltaics Program has helped photovoltaic technologies evolve from materials and concepts in laboratories to competitive products rolling off automated assembly lines. The program is working to expand industrial capacity while continuing basic and applied technology R and D. This document is a tabulation of photovoltaics R and D that were begun, continued, or completed during this period. National laboratories or industrial, academic, and nonprofit research institutions perform the R and D activities. The document is organized first by directing organization, then by project title and individual task. Each listing provides the name of contractor, period of performance, funding, objectives, accomplishments, and FY 1993 milestones. An index of contractors is included.

  17. Photovoltaics: Contract lists, fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    US DOE's Photovoltaics Program has helped photovoltaic technologies evolve from materials and concepts in laboratories to competitive products rolling off automated assembly lines. The program is working to expand industrial capacity while continuing basic and applied technology R and D. This document is a tabulation of photovoltaics R and D that were begun, continued, or completed during this period. National laboratories or industrial, academic, and nonprofit research institutions perform the RR and D activities. The document is organized first by directing organization, then by project title and individual task. Each listing provides the name of contractor, period of performance, funding, objectives, accoplishments, and FY 1993 milestones. An index of contractors is included. (DLC)

  18. Mesopotamian Star Lists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Wayne

    Sumerian and Akkadian names of stars and constellations occur in cuneiform texts for over 2,000 years, from the third millennium BC down to the death of cuneiform in the early first millennium AD, but no fully comprehensive list was ever compiled in antiquity. Lists of stars and constellations are available in both the lexical tradition and astronomical-astrological tradition of the cuneiform scribes. The longest list in the former is that in the series Urra = hubullu, in the latter, those in Mul-Apin.

  19. NSSDC data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The first part of this listing, Satellite Data, is in an abbreviated form compared to the data catalogs published by NSSDC. It is organized by NSSDC spacecraft common name. The launch date and NSSDC ID are printed for each spacecraft. The experiments are listed alphabetically by the principal investigator's or team leader's last name following the spacecraft name. The experiment name and NSSDC ID are printed for each experiment. The data sets are listed by NSSDC ID following the experiment name. The data set name, data form code, quantity of data, and the time span of the data as verified by NSSDC are printed for each data set.

  20. Wind energy contract list, fiscal year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The federal Wind Energy Program performs applied research in the sciences of wind turbine dynamics and the development of advanced components and systems. These efforts have resulted in major advances in the development and commercialization of wind technology as an alternative energy source. In the past, a summary was prepared each year to provide an overview of the government-funded activities within the federal Wind Energy Program. Tasks conducted in-house by participating national laboratories or under contract by industrial, academic, and other research institutes were highlighted. This year's document is more concise than the summaries of previous years. The FY 1990 contract overview comprises a lists of all subcontracts begun, ongoing, or completed during FY 1990 (October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990). Under each managing laboratory, projects are listed alphabetically by project area.

  1. Learning to See Words

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Skilled reading requires recognizing written words rapidly; functional neuroimaging research has clarified how the written word initiates a series of responses in visual cortex. These responses are communicated to circuits in ventral occipitotemporal (VOT) cortex that learn to identify words rapidly. Structural neuroimaging has further clarified aspects of the white matter pathways that communicate reading signals between VOT and language systems. We review this circuitry, its development, and its deficiencies in poor readers. This review emphasizes data that measure the cortical responses and white matter pathways in individual subjects rather than group differences. Such methods have the potential to clarify why a child has difficulty learning to read and to offer guidance about the interventions that may be useful for that child. PMID:21801018

  2. Words are not things

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J.

    2000-01-01

    On a traditional view, words are the fundamental units of verbal behavior. They are independent, autonomous things that symbolically represent or refer to other independent, autonomous things, often in some other dimension. Ascertaining what those other things are constitutes determining the meaning of a word. On a behavior-analytic view, verbal behavior is ongoing, functional operant activity occasioned by antecedent factors and reinforced by its consequences, particularly consequences that are mediated by other members of the same verbal community. Functional relations rather than structure select the response unit. The behavior-analytic point of view clarifies such important contemporary issues in psychology as (a) the role of scientific theories and explanations, (b) educational practices, and (c) equivalence classes, so that there is no risk of strengthening the traditional view that words are things that symbolically represent other things. PMID:22477219

  3. Academic Inbreeding in Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael H.

    1977-01-01

    Academic inbreeding, the employment for faculty positions of persons who receive their graduate training at the same academic institution, is considered detrimental to an institution's academic environment. Results of a study conducted at 54 universities revealed that almost half the faculty (48 percent) in collegiate nursing programs are drawn…

  4. What Is Academic Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…

  5. The Academic Adviser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I explore the idea that "academic" advisers are "academics" who play a major role in connecting the general education curriculum to the students' experience as well as connecting the faculty to the students' holistic experience of the curriculum. The National Academic Advising Association Concept of Academic…

  6. Academic Primer Series: Five Key Papers Fostering Educational Scholarship in Junior Academic Faculty

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Teresa M.; Gottlieb, Michael; Fant, Abra L.; Messman, Anne; Robinson, Daniel W.; Cooney, Robert R.; Papanagnou, Dimitrios; Yarris, Lalena M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Scholarship is an essential part of academic success. Junior faculty members are often unfamiliar with the grounding literature that defines educational scholarship. In this article, the authors aim to summarize five key papers which outline education scholarship in the setting of academic contributions for emerging clinician educators. Methods The authors conducted a consensus-building process to generate a list of key papers that describe the importance and significance of academic scholarship, informed by social media sources. They then used a three-round voting methodology, akin to a Delphi study, to determine the most useful papers. Results A summary of the five most important papers on the topic of academic scholarship, as determined by this mixed group of junior faculty members and faculty developers, is presented in this paper. These authors subsequently wrote a summary of these five papers and discussed their relevance to both junior faculty members and faculty developers. Conclusion Five papers on education scholarship, deemed essential by the authors’ consensus process, are presented in this paper. These papers may help provide the foundational background to help junior faculty members gain a grasp of the academic scholarly environment. This list may also inform senior faculty and faculty developers on the needs of junior educators in the nascent stages of their careers. PMID:27625714

  7. Getting on the List

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices About Organ Allocation Getting on the List Financing a Transplant Waiting for your Transplant About the ... Types Being a Living Donor About the Operation Financing Living Donation Home / Before The Transplant / Getting On ...

  8. An Energy Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VocEd, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Selected energy resource information, from both federal and private sources, is listed under funding, general information and assistance, recycling, solar, transportation, utilities, and wind power. Books, pamphlets, films, journals, newsletters, and other materials are included. (MF)

  9. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  10. Associative list processing unit

    DOEpatents

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D

    2014-04-01

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full.

  11. NSSDC data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to identify, in a highly summarized way, data available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). Most data are maintained as offline data sets gathered from individual instruments carried on spacecraft; these comprise the Satellite Data Listing. Descriptive names, time spans, data form, and quality of these data sets are identified in the listing, which is sorted alphabetically, first by spacecraft name and then by the principal investigator's or team leader's last name. Several data sets not associated with individual spaceflight instruments are identified in separate listings following the Satellite Data Listing. These include composite spacecraft data sets, ground based data, models, and computer routines. NSSDC also offers data via special services and systems in a number of areas, including the Astronomical Data Center, Coordinated Data Analysis Workshops, NASA Climate Data System, Pilot Land Data System, and Crustal Dynamics Data Information System.

  12. The D-Prime Directive: Assessing Costs and Benefits in Recognition by Dissociating Mixed-List False Alarm Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrin, Noah D.; Groot, Brianna; MacLeod, Colin M.

    2016-01-01

    It can be difficult to judge the effectiveness of encoding techniques in a within-subject design. Consider the "production effect"--the finding that words read aloud are better remembered than words read silently. In the absence of a baseline, a within-subject production effect in a mixed study list could reflect a benefit of reading…

  13. The Academic Health Sciences Library and Serial Selection

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jo Ann

    1974-01-01

    A review of efforts to formulate basic medical journal lists and a report of a survey of subscriptions held in academic health science libraries is presented. The subscriptions held by thirty-seven libraries were analyzed to determine those held by 60-100% of the sample. A comparison of those titles subscribed to by 90-100% of the sample reveals that most of these titles appear in the lists formulated by other studies. PMID:4466506

  14. Using an iPad® App to Improve Sight Word Reading Fluency for At-Risk First Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musti-Rao, Shobana; Lo, Ya-yu; Plati, Erin

    2015-01-01

    We used a multiple baseline across word lists design nested within a multiple baseline across participants design to examine the effects of instruction delivered using an iPad® app on sight word fluency and oral reading fluency of six first graders identified as at risk for reading failure. In Study 1, three students participated in…

  15. Product Descriptions; Word Processors and Writing Activities for the Elementary Grades. A MicroSIFT Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batey, Anne; Ricketts, Dick

    Intended to help educators choose the most appropriate word processing products for elementary school writing instruction, this report provides extensive information on 12 word processor and 13 writing activity software products. A list of components, general descriptions, comments and evaluations are included for each product. The products…

  16. Word Links: A Strategy for Developing Word Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, Ruth Helen

    2007-01-01

    Word Links, an effective strategy for developing students' vocabulary, is based on four principles. It provides contextual and definitional information; offers repeated exposure to words and opportunities to practice them; encourages students to think about relationships among word meanings; and involves active engagement in learning tasks. Yopp…

  17. Infants Track Word Forms in Early Word-Object Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamuner, Tania S.; Fais, Laurel; Werker, Janet F.

    2014-01-01

    A central component of language development is word learning. One characterization of this process is that language learners discover objects and then look for word forms to associate with these objects (Mcnamara, 1984; Smith, 2000). Another possibility is that word forms themselves are also important, such that once learned, hearing a familiar…

  18. Comparative difficulty and the strategic regulation of accuracy: the impact of test-list context on monitoring and meta-metacognition.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Michelle M; Prike, Toby

    2015-05-01

    A growing body of research has shown that context manipulations can have little or no impact on accuracy performance, yet still significantly influence metacognitive performance. For example, participants in a test-list context paradigm study one list of words with a medium levels-of-processing task and a second word list with either a shallow or deep task: Recognition for medium words does not differ across conditions, however medium words are significantly more likely to be labeled as "remembered" (vs. merely familiar) if they had been studied with a shallow word list (Bodner & Lindsay, 2003). The goal of the current studies was to extend the test-list context paradigm to strategic regulation (report/withhold recognition test), and broaden it to incorporate different types of stimuli (i.e., face stimuli in place of a medium word list). The paradigm also was modified to include separate answer (studied/new) confidence and decision (report/withhold) confidence ratings at test. Results showed that context did not impact recognition accuracy for faces across the context conditions, however participants were more likely to report (i.e., volunteer) their face responses if they had studied the shallow word list. The results also demonstrated a difference between answer confidence and decision confidence, and the pattern of this difference depended on whether responses were reported or withheld (Experiment 1). Overall, the data are presented as support for the functional account of memory, which views memory states as inferential and attributional rather than static categories. PMID:25805667

  19. What are the pathology education requirements for all nonpathology ACGME-accredited programs in an academic center?

    PubMed

    Bean, Sarah M; Nagler, Alisa; Buckley, Patrick J

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to determine institution-wide graduate medical education (GME) requirements in pathology (exclusive of pathology residency and fellowships) at an academic center. All documents related to residency review committee (RRC) program requirements were searched for the key words "pathology," "laboratory," "autopsy," and "morbidity." For each occurrence, it was determined whether a pathology education requirement had been identified. Requirements were categorized and tabulated. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) lists 135 nonpathology programs; 66 programs exist at Duke University Medical Center, of which 54 (82%) had pathology education requirement(s). Twelve education categories were identified. Teaching/conferences were the most common (52%). Thirty-nine percent required consultation/support. Sixteen programs were required to perform gross/microscopic examination. Trainees in medical genetics are required to have a pathology rotation. Elective rotations should be available for trainees in 6 programs. Pathology departments at academic centers face significant institution-wide pathology education requirements for clinical ACGME programs. Didactic teaching/conferences and consultation/support are common requirements. Opportunities exist for innovative teaching strategies. PMID:22912348

  20. It's a Wonderful Life: A Career as an Academic Scientist

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Many years of training are required to obtain a job as an academic scientist. Is this investment of time and effort worthwhile? My answer is a resounding “yes.” Academic scientists enjoy tremendous freedom in choosing their research and career path, experience unusual camaraderie in their lab, school, and international community, and can contribute to and enjoy being part of this historical era of biological discovery. In this essay, I further elaborate by listing my top ten reasons why an academic job is a desirable career for young people who are interested in the life sciences. PMID:20048258

  1. Sparkling and Spinning Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Ruth Kearney

    1964-01-01

    Teachers should foster in children's writing the use of words with "sparkle" and "spin"--"sparkle" implying brightness and vitality, "spin" connoting industry, patience, and painstaking work. By providing creative listening experiences with good children's or adult literature, the teacher can encourage students to broaden their imaginations and…

  2. Offensive Words, Lethal Weapons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Russell

    2007-01-01

    The old childhood ditty "sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never hurt me" has proved wiser than the avalanche of commentary provoked by the recent insults by Don Imus and the killings at Virginia Tech. Our society forbids public name-calling but allows sticks and stones. Anyone can acquire a gun, but everyone must be careful…

  3. Have Words, Will Understand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Shifting the focus from words to concepts--does it work? The author shares his findings from such a project with three primary schools in the UK. Many children aged 7-10 find mastering the language of science difficult and do not make the progress that they could. Encountering complex terminology in the science language causes students to become…

  4. Word Problem Wizardry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack

    1991-01-01

    Presents suggestions for teaching math word problems to elementary students. The strategies take into consideration differences between reading in math and reading in other areas. A problem-prediction game and four self-checking activities are included along with a magic password challenge. (SM)

  5. Word Attack Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    A limited analysis of alternative approaches to phonemic-level word attack instruction is provided in this document. The instruction segment begins with training in letter-sound correspondences for which mastery of certain skills is assumed. Instruction ends with the decoding of novel items having a consonant-vowel-consonant construction. Contents…

  6. Four-Letter Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Robert G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a computer program (for Apple II) that tests knowledge of four-letter words. The program, which includes four games and a dictionary, can be used in one of two modes (inquiry or game) by students at any level depending on version of dictionary selected. Dictionary operations and classroom applications are discussed. (JN)

  7. From Visuals to Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewig, John Warren

    This speech indicates how teachers can use visual materials in classrooms to promote writing by children in primary school. Five classroom tested motivating experiences discussed are: (1) adding words to wordless picture books, (2) writing about artist's paintings, (3) writing story lines from films, (4) comparing variant editions of the same…

  8. They Love Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Adel G.; Bayer, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Describes how teachers implement a spelling decoding strategy within a first-grade language arts curriculum. Considers how the investigation of one spelling-decoding instructional strategy was a coming-to-know process that led the authors to value intentional word study that was connected to but not necessarily embedded in authentic contexts. (SG)

  9. Lost for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Britain remains well and truly in the slow lane when it comes to learning languages--despite the repeated commitment of politicians to reversing this historical trend. But, as the author proves, even the least able linguist can learn the few words of a foreign language which can make all the difference when traveling abroad. In its recent briefing…

  10. Working on Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSciver, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Every assessment is a literacy test. It matters not whether the content is science, social studies, or mathematics; if students are not able to make sense of the words, their ability to decipher the meaning of the assessment questions is suspect. Comprehending the language of a task becomes even more important as educators strive to move the…

  11. Stuck for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callinan, Carol; Sharp, John

    2011-01-01

    What are children trying to tell when they can't find the words that they need? Children's gestures are valuable in informing teaching practice and how one goes about assessing children's work in science. These children's gestures may have more meaning attached to it than is at first apparent. Use such gesturing to learn what children know and can…

  12. Developing Word Analysis Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Arthur W.

    The importance of word analysis skills to reading ability is discussed, and methodologies for teaching such skills are examined. It is stated that a child cannot become proficient in reading if he does not master the skill of associating printed letter symbols with the sounds they represent. Instructional procedures which augment the alphabet with…

  13. Comparison of emotional and non-emotional word repetitions in patients with aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiyari, Jalal; Khatoonabadi, Seyyed Ahmad Reza; Dadgar, Hooshang; Bakhtiari, Behrooz Mahmoodi; Khosravizadeh, Parvaneh; Shaygannejad, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aphasia is a language disorder caused by left hemisphere damage. For treatment of aphasia, in some of therapeutic approaches, the right hemisphere (RH) abilities, such as, emotional perception, is used for stimulation of the language process in the left hemisphere. The aim of this study is to investigate emotional word repetition in aphasia after a stroke, in Persian language patients. Materials and Methods: Fifteen aphasic patients (eleven male and four female) between 45 and 65 (58/4 ± 7/8) years of age, participated in this cross-sectional study. A list of 20 emotional words and a list of 20 neutral words as stimuli were prepared and the patients were asked to repeat each word after five seconds; if a patient needed to repeat a word again, it was repeated for him/her again, and the total score for each subject was calculated. The paired t-test was used to test group mean differences and the significant level was 0.05. Results: The mean and standard deviation for emotional word repetitions were 6.93 ± 1.72 and for non-emotional word repetition was 7.10 ± 2.23, and the P value = 0.892, thus, no significant difference between emotional and non-emotional word repetitions was noticed. The mean and standard deviation for the positive emotional word repetitions were 3.53 ± 3.29 and for negative word repetitions were 3.40 ± 3.56, (P = 0.751), with no significant difference between positive and negative emotional word repetitions. Conclusion: Despite the main hypothesis that the right hemisphere is involved in the processing of emotions, it can be stated that both hemispheres are involved in the processing of emotional words, albeit in a different and probably complementary manner. PMID:26436078

  14. The list strength effect: a contextual competition account.

    PubMed

    Diana, Rachel A; Reder, Lynne M

    2005-10-01

    Research on the list strength effect (LSE) has shown that learning some words on a list more strongly than others impairs memory for the weakly learned words when tested with a recall task. Norman (2002) demonstrated that the LSE also occurs within the recollection process of a recognition test. In this study, a mechanistic dual-process account of the LSE was tested that simultaneously makes predictions concerning additional sources of context in interference effects. In two experiments, we attempted to replicate Norman's (2002) findings and provide the basis for our modeling efforts. We found evidence for a recollection LSE in raw measures of responding, with memory performance also benefiting from reinstatement of perceptual characteristics at test. However, large differences in the hits between the lists were accompanied by small differences in false alarms, such that when d' is calculated, differences between the lists are not significant. We propose an account of the LSE whereby the actual effect of competition between items on the list is small, although present, and difficult to distinguish from large effects of bias due to the strength manipulations. We argue that our findings provide support for a mechanistic explanation of LSE that is based on competition of source activation and changes in the thresholds for responses. PMID:16532860

  15. Word learning: An ERP investigation of word experience effects on recognition and word processing

    PubMed Central

    Balass, Michal; Nelson, Jessica R.; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., gloaming) in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonology); (2) orthography-to-phonology (no meaning); and (3) phonology-to-meaning (no orthography). Following learning, participants made meaning judgments on the learned words, familiar known words, and unpresented (unlearned) rare words while their ERPs were recorded. The behavioral results showed no significant effects of comprehension skill on meaning judgment performance. Contrastingly, the ERP results indicated comprehension skill differences in P600 amplitude; high-skilled readers showed stronger familiarity effects for learned words, whereas less-skilled readers did not distinguish between learned words, familiar words, and unlearned words. Evidence from the P600 and N400 illustrated superior learning of meaning when meaning information was coupled with orthography rather than phonology. These results suggest that the availability of word knowledge (orthography, phonology, and meaning) at learning affects subsequent word identification processes when the words are encountered in a new context. PMID:22399833

  16. Electrophysiological correlates of morphological processing in Chinese compound word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yingchun; Hu, Weiping; Fang, Zhuo; Zhang, John X.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the electrophysiological correlates of morphological processing in Chinese compound word reading using a delayed repetition priming paradigm. Participants were asked to passively view lists of two-character compound words containing prime-target pairs separated by a few items. In a Whole Word repetition condition, the prime and target were the same real words (e.g., , manager-manager). In a Constituent repetition condition, the prime and target were swapped in terms of their constituent position (e.g., , the former is a pseudo-word and the later means nurse). Two ERP components including N200 and N400 showed repetition effects. The N200 showed a negative shift upon repetition in the Whole Word condition but this effect was delayed for the Constituent condition. The N400 showed comparable amplitude reduction across the two priming conditions. The results reveal different aspects of morphological processing with an early stage associated with N200 and a late stage with N400. There was also a possibility that the N200 effect reflect general cognitive processing, i.e., the detection of low-probability stimuli. PMID:24068994

  17. Effects of Academic Language Instruction on Relational and Syntactic Aspects of Morphological Awareness for Sixth Graders from Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2012-01-01

    One dimension of language proficiency considered important for reading and writing academic texts is morphological awareness--the understanding of how complex words are formed from meaningful smaller units (i.e., affixes, roots) that contribute to words' meanings and functions. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the effects of instruction on…

  18. Academic Self-Concept, Autonomous Academic Motivation, and Academic Achievement: Mediating and Additive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guay, Frederic; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Roy, Amelie; Litalien, David

    2010-01-01

    Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between…

  19. Storing and Retrieving Word Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, F. J.; Devine, K.

    1985-01-01

    Zipfian laws for frequency distributions of word pairs and longer phrases are derived from text sample analysis. From crossing of Zipfian curves, it is deduced that number of multi-word phrases that occur frequently in text is surprisingly small, of same order of magnitude as number of individual word-types. (8 references) (EJS)

  20. Word Learning as Bayesian Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a Bayesian framework for understanding how adults and children learn the meanings of words. The theory explains how learners can generalize meaningfully from just one or a few positive examples of a novel word's referents, by making rational inductive inferences that integrate prior knowledge about plausible word meanings with…

  1. Jail Participants Actively Study Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Donita Massengill; Berg, Margaret A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of a word study literacy approach on the spelling ability and self-efficacy of adults in a county jail. Forty-four inmates participated in the word study intervention that provided them with hands-on learning. The word study intervention was conducted in four separate sessions (September,…

  2. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  3. NSSDC data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Richard; King, Joseph H.

    1990-01-01

    In a highly summarized way, data available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) is identified. Most data are offline data sets (on magnetic tape or as film/print products of various sizes) from individual instruments carried on spacecraft; these compose the Satellite Data Listing. Descriptive names, time spans, data form, and quantity of these data sets are identified in the listing, which is sorted alphabetically-first by spacecraft name and then by the principal investigator's or team leader's last name. Several data sets held at NSSDC, not associated with individual spaceflight instruments, are identified in separate listings following the Satellite Data Listing. These data sets make up the Supplementary Data Listings and include composite spacecraft data sets, ground-based data, models, and computer routines. The identifiers used in the Supplementary Data Listings were created by NSSDC and are explained in the pages preceding the listings. Data set form codes are listed. NSSDC offers primarily archival, retrieval, replication, and dissemination services associated with the data sets discussed in the two major listings identified above. NSSDC also provides documentation which enables the data recipient to use the data received. NSSDC is working toward expanding presently limited capabilities for data subsetting and for promotion of data files to online residence for user downloading. NSSDC data holdings span the range of scientific disciplines in which NASA is involved, and include astrophysics, lunar and planetary science, solar physics, space plasma physics, and Earth science. In addition to the functions mentioned above, NSSDC offers data via special services and systems in a number of areas, including Astronomical Data Center (ADC), Coordinated Data Analysis Workshops (CDAWs), NASA Climate Data System (NCDS), Pilot Land Data System (PLDS), and Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS). Furthermore, NSSDC has a no-password account on its

  4. Word Frequency Effects for LEET Lettering in Word Recognition.

    PubMed

    Grabbe, Jeremy W

    2016-01-01

    Letter substitution has been shown to have a cost to word recognition performance, such as increased reaction time. The use of orthographically similar numbers or symbols as a substitute for letters is known as LEET. Perea, Duñabeitia, and Carreiras (2008) showed that word recognition was not affected when LEET substitutions were used as primes. This study examined whether the effects of LEET prime substitutions would remain constant across word frequency. The apparent lack of substitution costs may have been an effect of word-level processing such as holistic bias for high-frequency words. Evidence that LEET does not have an appreciable cost to performance across word frequency suggests that such orthographic substitutions are processed much like normally lettered words, which supported Perea et al.'s findings. It was suggested that LEET substitutions offset substitution costs because of orthography (because of more complete processing of nonsubstituted letters) rather than lexical effects (i.e., holistic bias). PMID:27029105

  5. Intentional forgetting of emotional words after trauma: a study with victims of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Blix, Ines; Brennen, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Following exposure to a trauma, people tend to experience intrusive thoughts and memories about the event. In order to investigate whether intrusive memories in the aftermath of trauma might be accounted for by an impaired ability to intentionally forget disturbing material, the present study used a modified Directed Forgetting task to examine intentional forgetting and intrusive recall of words in sexual assault victims and controls. By including words related to the trauma in addition to neutral, positive, and threat-related stimuli it was possible to test for trauma-specific effects. No difference between the Trauma and the Control group was found for correct recall of to-be-forgotten (F) words or to-be-remembered (R) words. However, when recalling words from R-list, the Trauma group mistakenly recalled significantly more trauma-specific words from F-list. "Intrusive" recall of F-trauma words when asked to recall R-words was related to symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder reported on the Impact of Event Scale and the Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale. The results are discussed in term of a source-monitoring account. PMID:21994497

  6. Academics in CTE Programs: Fully Preparing Students for Their Next Step

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacQuarrie, David L.

    2008-01-01

    An echo can often be heard in career and technical education (CTE) hallways, "How am I going to fit academic skills into this program." They have a choice! They could pick up a math or English book and start selecting something to separately add in. Perhaps an academic consultant could be tapped to separately add to the task list. Another option…

  7. Computational Models of the Representation of Bangla Compound Words in the Mental Lexicon.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Tirthankar; Sinha, Manjira; Basu, Anupam

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we aim to model the organization and processing of Bangla compound words in the mental lexicon. Our objective is to determine whether the mental lexicon access a Bangla compound word as a whole or decomposes the whole word into its constituent morphemes and then recognize them accordingly. To address this issue, we adopted two different strategies. First, we conduct a cross-modal priming experiment over a number of native speakers. Analysis of reaction time (RT) and error rates indicates that in general, Bangla compound words are accessed via partial decomposition process. That is some word follows full-listing mode of representation and some words follow the decomposition route of representation. Next, based on the collected RT data we have developed a computational model that can explain the processing phenomena of the access and representation of Bangla compound words. In order to achieve this, we first explored the individual roles of head word position, morphological complexity, orthographic transparency and semantic compositionality between the constituents and the whole compound word. Accordingly, we have developed a complexity based model by combining these features together. To a large extent we have successfully explained the possible processing phenomena of most of the Bangla compound words. Our proposed model shows an accuracy of around 83 %. PMID:25998189

  8. The Word from Moses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    In an interview, Yolanda T. Moses, president of the City University of New York's City College, discusses a variety of issues concerning black higher education and her institution, including the challenges facing the college, the university's image, academic standards and admissions requirements, financial support, affirmative action, her personal…

  9. Superfund list adds Pantex

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-13

    While Congress crafts Superfund reauthorization to see that more money is spent on cleanups instead of legal fees, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency added 24 federal facilities to the National Priorities List of the worst pollution problems. Three Department of Energy sites were added on May 31, despite objections from state and other officials about how sites were selected. The Pantex nuclear weapon plant in Amarillo, Texas, was included despite protests by state officials, while environmentalists claim that {open_quotes}political gamesmanship{close_quotes} kept a Portsmouth, Ohio, uranium enrichment plant off the list. Other DOE sites listed were the Paducah (Kentucky) Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Laboratory for Energy Related Health Research in Davis, California.

  10. A cross-linguistic study of real-word and non-word repetition as predictors of grammatical competence in children with typical language development

    PubMed Central

    Dispaldro, Marco; Deevy, Patricia; Altoe, Gianmarco; Benelli, Beatrice; Leonard Purdue, Laurence B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although relationships among non-word repetition, real-word repetition and grammatical ability have been documented, it is important to study whether the specific nature of these relationships is tied to the characteristics of a given language. Aims The aim of this study is to explore the potential cross-linguistic differences (Italian and English) in the relationship among non-word repetition, real-word repetition, and grammatical ability in three- and four-year-old children with typical language development. Methods & Procedures To reach this goal, two repetition tasks (one real-word list and one non-word list for each language) were used. In Italian the grammatical categories were the third person plural inflection and the direct-object clitic pronouns, while in English they were the third person singular present tense inflection and the past tense in regular and irregular forms. Outcomes & Results A cross-linguistic comparison showed that in both Italian and English, non-word repetition was a significant predictor of grammatical ability. However, performance on real-word repetition explained children’s grammatical ability in Italian but not in English. Conclusions & Implications Abilities underlying non-word repetition performance (e.g., the processing and/or storage of phonological material) play an important role in the development of children’s grammatical abilities in both languages. Lexical ability (indexed by real-word repetition) showed a close relationship to grammatical ability in Italian but not in English. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of cross-linguistic differences, genetic research, clinical intervention and methodological issues. PMID:21899673

  11. Examining Differences in the Levels of False Memories in Children and Adults Using Child-Normed Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Jeffrey S.; Rhodes, Matthew G.

    2008-01-01

    Several previous studies have demonstrated that children, when compared with adults, exhibit both lower levels of veridical memory and fewer intrusions when given semantically associated lists. However, researchers have drawn these conclusions using semantically associated word lists that were normed with adults, which may not lead to the same…

  12. Learning word meanings by instruction

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, K.

    1996-12-31

    We develop techniques for learning the meanings of unknown words in context. Working within a compositional semantics framework, we write down equations in which a sentence`s meaning is some combination function of the meaning of its words. When one of the words is unknown, we ask for a paraphrase of the sentence. We then compute the meaning of the unknown word by inverting parts of the semantic combination function. This technique can be used to learn word-concept mappings, decomposed meanings, and mappings between syntactic and semantic roles. It works for all parts of speech.

  13. A Demonstration of Improved Precision of Word Recognition Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlauch, Robert S.; Anderson, Elizabeth S.; Micheyl, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate improved precision of word recognition scores (WRSs) by increasing list length and analyzing phonemic errors. Method: Pure-tone thresholds (frequencies between 0.25 and 8.0 kHz) and WRSs were measured in 3 levels of speech-shaped noise (50, 52, and 54 dB HL) for 24 listeners with normal…

  14. Building Academic Vocabulary in After-School Settings: Games for Growth with Middle School English-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Dianna

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent English-language learners (ELLs) encounter increasingly difficult academic language as they progress through school. This article describes the design of an after-school intervention, Language Workshop, created to help middle school ELLs build their knowledge of academic vocabulary words. Evidence-based principles of vocabulary…

  15. Reactions of religious fundamentalists to taboo images and words.

    PubMed

    Bates, Larry W; Hudiburg, Richard A; Lauderdale, Elizabeth P; Castillo, Joseph R

    2013-08-01

    Some view religious fundamentalism as inclusive of fear of the world as a dangerous place. Fundamentalists are known to have extensive taboo lists, but research concerning their reactions to taboo stimuli is sparse. If fear is a basic component of fundamentalism, then reactions to taboo stimuli should be somewhat similar to common fear reactions, including subjective appraisal of discomfort, psychophysiological arousal, cognitive interference, and behavioral avoidance. The current research addressed some of these questions with three studies to examine subjective discomfort to religiously-taboo and religiously-neutral words and photographs (N = 160), physiological arousal to these same photographs (N = 129), and attentional bias on a modified Stroop test of these same words (N = 182). Although subjective appraisals of discomfort to taboo words and photographs among fundamentalists were confirmed, this research did not find that physiological responses or cognitive interference to taboo stimuli were elevated in those scoring high in religious fundamentalism. PMID:24340802

  16. Undisciplined beginnings, academic success, and discursive psychology.

    PubMed

    Billig, Michael

    2012-09-01

    This paper reflects on the conditions under which Discourse and social psychology, Common knowledge, and the author's Arguing and thinking were written. These books, which were independently conceived, were not specifically written as contributions to 'discursive psychology', for discursive psychology did not exist at that time. Their authors were rejecting conventional approaches to doing psychological research. The paper discusses what it takes for a new academic movement, such as discursive psychology, to be successfully established in the current climate of 'academic capitalism'. Two requirements are particularly mentioned: the necessity for a label and the necessity for adherents to be recruited. Of the three books, only Discourse and social psychology was outwardly recruiting its readers to a new way of doing social psychology. Arguing and thinking, with its celebration of ancient rhetoric, was much more ambiguous in its aims. It was turning away from present usefulness towards the past. By claiming to be 'an antiquarian psychologist' the author was rejecting disciplinary thinking. The paper also considers the intellectual costs of establishing a new specialism or sub-discipline. The 'first generation' may have freedom, but success can bring about a narrowing of perspectives and the development of orthodoxies for subsequent academic generations. This applies as much to the development of experimental social psychology as to discursive psychology. These processes are particular enhanced in the present socio-economic situation of contemporary universities, which make it more difficult for young academics to become, in the words of William James, 'undisciplinables'. PMID:22283746

  17. Memory bias for negative emotional words in recognition memory is driven by effects of category membership

    PubMed Central

    White, Corey N.; Kapucu, Aycan; Bruno, Davide; Rotello, Caren M.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Recognition memory studies often find that emotional items are more likely than neutral items to be labeled as studied. Previous work suggests this bias is driven by increased memory strength/familiarity for emotional items. We explored strength and bias interpretations of this effect with the conjecture that emotional stimuli might seem more familiar because they share features with studied items from the same category. Categorical effects were manipulated in a recognition task by presenting lists with a small, medium, or large proportion of emotional words. The liberal memory bias for emotional words was only observed when a medium or large proportion of categorized words were presented in the lists. Similar, though weaker, effects were observed with categorized words that were not emotional (animal names). These results suggest that liberal memory bias for emotional items may be largely driven by effects of category membership. PMID:24303902

  18. Why is number word learning hard? Evidence from bilingual learners.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Katie; Kimura, Katherine; Cheung, Pierina; Barner, David

    2015-12-01

    Young children typically take between 18 months and 2 years to learn the meanings of number words. In the present study, we investigated this developmental trajectory in bilingual preschoolers to examine the relative contributions of two factors in number word learning: (1) the construction of numerical concepts, and (2) the mapping of language specific words onto these concepts. We found that children learn the meanings of small number words (i.e., one, two, and three) independently in each language, indicating that observed delays in learning these words are attributable to difficulties in mapping words to concepts. In contrast, children generally learned to accurately count larger sets (i.e., five or greater) simultaneously in their two languages, suggesting that the difficulty in learning to count is not tied to a specific language. We also replicated previous studies that found that children learn the counting procedure before they learn its logic - i.e., that for any natural number, n, the successor of n in the count list denotes the cardinality n+1. Consistent with past studies, we found that children's knowledge of successors is first acquired incrementally. In bilinguals, we found that this knowledge exhibits item-specific transfer between languages, suggesting that the logic of the positive integers may not be stored in a language-specific format. We conclude that delays in learning the meanings of small number words are mainly due to language-specific processes of mapping words to concepts, whereas the logic and procedures of counting appear to be learned in a format that is independent of a particular language and thus transfers rapidly from one language to the other in development. PMID:26413888

  19. Recipes: beyond the words.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores recipes and food writing from the perspective of linguistics—or, more specifically, pragmatics. It looks briefly at the discourse of recipes, at how they work and what kinds of linguistic structures are typically involved. The main theme of the paper, however, is that the best food writing is as much about the images and feelings the writer wants to conjure in the mind of the reader as it is about the words it contains, or the way that discourse is set out. In order to shed any real light on recipe writing, then, we need to explain how they manage to convey moods, impressions, emotions, and feelings. We need to go beyond the words. The paper features examples from, among others, the work of Elizabeth David and Edouard de Pomaine, serving to illustrate the theoretical points made. PMID:21591315

  20. Indiana's Academic Standards: 12th Grade English/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This booklet of academic standards spells out what students should know and be able to do in Grade 12 English/Language Arts. The booklet gives examples to help students understand what is required to meet the standards and provides parents with a list of 10 things they can do to help their child get a good education. It outlines the following…

  1. Indiana's Academic Standards: 10th Grade English/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This booklet of academic standards spells out what students should know and be able to do in Grade 10 English/Language Arts. The booklet gives examples to help students understand what is required to meet the standards and provides a list of 10 things parents can do to help their child get a good education. It outlines the following seven…

  2. Indiana's Academic Standards: 9th Grade English/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This booklet of academic standards spells out what students should be able to do in Grade 9 English/Language Arts. The booklet gives examples to help students understand what is required to meet the standards and comes accompanied with a list of 10 things parents can do to help their child get a good education. It outlines the following seven…

  3. Indiana's Academic Standards: 11th Grade English/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This booklet of academic standards spells out what students should know and be able to do in Grade 11 English/Language Arts. The booklet gives examples to help students understand what is required to meet the standards and provides a list of 10 things parents can do to help their child get a good education. It outlines the following seven…

  4. Public Safety Core. Integrated Academic and Technical Competencies (ITAC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document, which lists the public safety core competencies that are part of the Integrated Academic and Technical Competencies (ITAC) in Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations develop a course to provide students with knowledge and skills applicable to public safety careers, including but not limited to firefighter,…

  5. Science: Industry/Academic Cooperation: A Step Forward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heylin, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Outlined is a concept for bringing the chemical industry and the universities together in chemical research. Objectives listed are to promote mutual understanding and cooperation between academe and the chemical industry, to work toward improving the national climate for creativity and innovation, and to promote education and funding in chemical…

  6. A Bibliography of Research on Academic Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembree, Ray

    This bibliography identifies reports of research on correlates, causes, effects, and treatment of test anxiety. The listing was developed for a synthesis of research, performed by meta-analysis at Adrian College, Michigan in 1986-87. Guidelines for including studies were applied as follows: (1) the research concerned academic test anxiety, using…

  7. The Academic Structure in Japan: Institutional Hierarchy and Academic Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arimoto, Akira

    The characteristics of the Japanese academic structure are examined with attention to the evolution of institutional hierarchy, the closed academic structure, and the effects of the academic structure upon academic research. The evolution of Japan's institutional hierarchy in academics has been tightly related to factors of nationalism,…

  8. What Homophones Say about Words.

    PubMed

    Dautriche, Isabelle; Chemla, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    The number of potential meanings for a new word is astronomic. To make the word-learning problem tractable, one must restrict the hypothesis space. To do so, current word learning accounts often incorporate constraints about cognition or about the mature lexicon directly in the learning device. We are concerned with the convexity constraint, which holds that concepts (privileged sets of entities that we think of as "coherent") do not have gaps (if A and B belong to a concept, so does any entity "between" A and B). To leverage from it a linguistic constraint, learning algorithms have percolated this constraint from concepts, to word forms: some algorithms rely on the possibility that word forms are associated with convex sets of objects. Yet this does have to be the case: homophones are word forms associated with two separate words and meanings. Two sets of experiments show that when evidence suggests that a novel label is associated with a disjoint (non-convex) set of objects, either a) because there is a gap in conceptual space between the learning exemplars for a given word or b) because of the intervention of other lexical items in that gap, adults prefer to postulate homophony, where a single word form is associated with two separate words and meanings, rather than inferring that the word could have a disjunctive, discontinuous meaning. These results about homophony must be integrated to current word learning algorithms. We conclude by arguing for a weaker specialization of word learning algorithms, which too often could miss important constraints by focusing on a restricted empirical basis (e.g., non-homophonous content words). PMID:27583384

  9. Going the Distance in Academic Libraries: Identifying Trends and Innovation in Distance Learning Resources and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, "U.S. News & World Report" ranked nineteen institutions on its Up-and-Coming national universities list. The universities were put on the list based on rankings from experts in higher education administration. The experts were asked to identify institutions that had implemented innovative ideas in the areas of academics,…

  10. Partnerships with Academic Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes how professional and continuing higher education units can develop and sustain successful partnerships with academic departments in order to deliver educational programs effectively to students.

  11. Ethics and academic integrity.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2015-01-01

    Academics from across the globe must navigate ever-increasing demands for research, practice, and educational productivity. With the increased demands, nurse faculty must choose value priorities and actions that reflect academic integrity. What does it mean to choose actions that reflect personal integrity in the academic arena? This article begins an important nursing philosophical and theoretical discussion that members and future members of the discipline of nursing must reflect upon and grapple with as they consider what it potentially means to act with straight thinking and integrity in academics. PMID:25520458

  12. NSSDC data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Richard; King, Joseph H.

    1993-01-01

    This document identifies, in a highly summarized way, all the data held at the NSSDC. These data cover astrophysics and astronomy, solar and space physics, planetary and lunar, and Earth science disciplines. They are primarily, but not exclusively, from past and ongoing NASA spaceflight missions. We first identify all the data electronically available through NSSDC's principal online (magnetic disk-based) and nearline (robotics jukebox-based) systems, and then those data available on CDROM's. Finally, we identify all NSSDC-held data, the majority of which are still offline on magnetic tape, film, etc., but including the electronically accessible and CD-ROM resident data of earlier sections. These comprehensive identifications are in the form of two listings, one for the majority of NSSDC-held data sets resulting from individual instruments flown on individual spacecraft, and the other listing for the remainder of NSSDC-held data sets which do not adhere to this spacecraft/experiment/dataset hierarchy. The latter listing is presented in two parts, one for the numerous source catalogs of the NSSDC-operated Astronomical Data Center, and the other for the remainder. Access paths to all these data, and to further information about each, are also given in the related sections of this Data Listing. Note that this document is a companion to the electronically accessible information files (in particular, the NASA Master Directory) at NSSDC which also identify NSSDC-resident (and other) data.

  13. Lists of committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-03-01

    Lists of the members of the International Programme Advisory Committee of the 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research using Small Fusion Devices(RUSFD), the International Advisory Committee of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) and the Local Organizing Committee of the Joint RUSFD, LAWPP Meeting can be found in the PDF.

  14. Getting on the List

    MedlinePlus

    ... length of time because there are not enough donor organs for all who need them. The National Waiting ... transplant candidate, you are registered on the national organ transplant waiting list. A living donor may also be identified and evaluated for living ...

  15. Water Conservation Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  16. RARE DISEASES LIST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rare disease list includes rare diseases and conditions for which information requests have been made to the Office of Rare Diseases. A rare disease is defined as a disease or condition for which there are fewer than 200,000 affected persons alive in the United States. The Of...

  17. List 47: currants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This summary presents the descriptions of two newly released black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) for the List of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars. These black currant cultivars were just released and now hold US plant patents. The cultivars are 'Ben Chaska' and 'Ben Como'. These black currants have quality f...

  18. A Storyteller's Book List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shalhoub, Marylou A.

    1991-01-01

    Five elementary teachers share their favorite books for storytelling, offering strategies to help children bring them to life. The article presents techniques for acquainting students with different stories and includes an annotated list of books recommended for expanding a storytelling library (myths, fairy tales, folktales, contemporary stories,…

  19. Words That Wound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Every day, 160,000 children stay home from school because they are afraid of being bullied. Bullying is an unacknowledged crime of violence; adults are unaware of the problem's prevalence. The best anti-bullying programs are comprehensive and involve everyone in the school and community. A sidebar lists resources. (MLH)

  20. Using Word Identification Fluency to Monitor First-Grade Reading Development.

    PubMed

    Zumeta, Rebecca O; Compton, Donald L; Fuchs, Lynn S

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of sampling breadth on technical features of word identification fluency (WIF), a tool for screening and monitoring the reading development of first graders. From a potential pool of 704 first-grade students, the authors measured both a representative sample (n = 284) and 2 other subgroups: those with low reading achievement (n = 202) and those with high/average achievement (n = 213). Data were collected weekly on broadly and narrowly sampled WIF lists for 15 weeks and on criterion measures in the fall and spring. Broad lists were developed by sampling words from 500 high-frequency words, whereas narrow lists were created by sampling from the 133 words from Dolch preprimer, primer, and first-grade word lists. Overall, predictive validity for performance level, predictive validity for growth, and commonality analysis showed narrow sampling was better for screening the representative group and the high/average subgroup. Broad sampling was superior for screening the low-achieving subgroup and for progress monitoring across groups. PMID:22736804

  1. Statistical Laws Governing Fluctuations in Word Use from Word Birth to Word Death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Tenenbaum, Joel; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-03-01

    We analyze the dynamic properties of 107 words recorded in English, Spanish and Hebrew over the period 1800-2008 in order to gain insight into the coevolution of language and culture. We report language independent patterns useful as benchmarks for theoretical models of language evolution. A significantly decreasing (increasing) trend in the birth (death) rate of words indicates a recent shift in the selection laws governing word use. For new words, we observe a peak in the growth-rate fluctuations around 40 years after introduction, consistent with the typical entry time into standard dictionaries and the human generational timescale. Pronounced changes in the dynamics of language during periods of war shows that word correlations, occurring across time and between words, are largely influenced by coevolutionary social, technological, and political factors. We quantify cultural memory by analyzing the long-term correlations in the use of individual words using detrended fluctuation analysis.

  2. Statistical Laws Governing Fluctuations in Word Use from Word Birth to Word Death

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Tenenbaum, Joel; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the dynamic properties of 107 words recorded in English, Spanish and Hebrew over the period 1800–2008 in order to gain insight into the coevolution of language and culture. We report language independent patterns useful as benchmarks for theoretical models of language evolution. A significantly decreasing (increasing) trend in the birth (death) rate of words indicates a recent shift in the selection laws governing word use. For new words, we observe a peak in the growth-rate fluctuations around 40 years after introduction, consistent with the typical entry time into standard dictionaries and the human generational timescale. Pronounced changes in the dynamics of language during periods of war shows that word correlations, occurring across time and between words, are largely influenced by coevolutionary social, technological, and political factors. We quantify cultural memory by analyzing the long-term correlations in the use of individual words using detrended fluctuation analysis. PMID:22423321

  3. From word superiority to word inferiority: visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia.

    PubMed

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene; Starrfelt, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Visual processing and naming of individual letters and short words were investigated in four patients with pure alexia. To test processing at different levels, the same stimuli were studied across a naming task and a visual perception task. The normal word superiority effect was eliminated in both tasks for all patients, and this pattern was more pronounced in the more severely affected patients. The relationship between performance with single letters and words was, however, not straightforward: One patient performed within the normal range on the letter perception task, while being severely impaired in letter naming and word processing, and performance with letters and words was dissociated in all four patients, with word reading being more severely impaired than letter recognition. This suggests that the word reading deficit in pure alexia may not be reduced to an impairment in single letter perception. PMID:24801564

  4. From switch-words to stitch-words.

    PubMed

    Litowitz, Bonnie

    2014-02-01

    During the course of treatment with some patients a word or phrase reappears that functions to connect layers of fantasies and to identify a history of conflicts and defenses. These stitch-words are compared to the switch-words proposed by Freud as points of condensation in dreams, as well as to other forms of idiolectic evidence (e.g. metaphors) that inform therapeutic listening. Stitch-words expand on Freud's concept by taking into account syntactic aspects of language that function to hold together layers of unconscious fantasies. A description of the grammatical type of words (syncategorematic) best suited to function as stitch-words is presented and illustrated by their use in two clinical examples ('normal', 'fair'). The therapeutic value of listening to, as well as through, the surface of patients' language is discussed. PMID:24628221

  5. Word length effects on novel words: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Lowell, Randy; Morris, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of word length on eye movement behavior during initial processing of novel words while reading. Adult skilled readers' eye movements were monitored as they read novel or known target words in sentence frames with neutral context preceding the target word. Comparable word length effects on all single-fixation measures for novel and known words suggested that both types of words were subject to similar initial encoding strategies. The impact of the absence of an existing lexical entry emerged in multiple first-pass fixation measures in the form of interactions between word length (long and short) and word type (novel and known). Specifically, readers spent significantly more first-pass time refixating long novel targets than short novel targets; however, the first-pass time spent refixating known controls did not differ as a function of length. Implications of these findings for models of eye movement control while reading, as well as for vocabulary acquisition in reading, are discussed. PMID:24092359

  6. California Redefines Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trow, Martin A.

    2003-01-01

    In the spring of 2003, University of California President Richard Atkinson forwarded to the U.C. Academic Senate a proposed revision of the existing regulation bearing on how university teachers should treat contentious and disputed issues, both political and academic, in their classrooms. The existing regulation on this matter, APM-010, had been…

  7. Understanding Academic Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on the psychological theories of self-efficacy and the self-concept to understand students' self-confidence in academic study in higher education as measured by the Academic Behavioural Confidence scale (ABC). In doing this, expectancy-value theory and self-efficacy theory are considered and contrasted with self-concept and…

  8. The Academic Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chickering, Arthur W.

    This report shows the results of a questionnaire on academic experiences, administered to students at four different colleges. Included in the term "academic experiences" are such factors as mental activities in class and in studying for class, the role of the teacher, motivation for studying, feelings about courses, and patterns of work. Two main…

  9. Marketing Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  10. Patterns of Academic Procrastination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Victor; Mensink, David; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Uses the Academic Procrastination Questionnaire to measure procrastination and six possible patterns underlying it among undergraduate students. Finds that the most common patterns for clients involved Evaluation Anxiety or being Discouraged/Depressed, or Dependent. Supports individualized assessment and solutions for academic procrastination. (SC)

  11. The Academic Dean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Lee H.

    1981-01-01

    The role of the academic dean, role conflicts, and the occupational experiences and performance of deans are considered. Role conflict for academic deans is related to clashing constituencies, role ambiguity, lack of correspondence between organization requirements and the personalities of incumbent deans, changing organizational needs over time,…

  12. The Academic Generation Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronzek, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The current generation gap in academia is different--fundamentally shaped by the structural problems of academic employment. The job market has especially exacerbated tensions between senior and junior faculty by ratcheting up expectations and requirements at every stage of the academic career. The disparities have been mentioned often enough to…

  13. Academic Libraries in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deale, H. Vail

    1973-01-01

    Iranian librarianship is in the embryonic stages of development, especially with respect to modern and functional academic libraries. In three major areas--personnel, resources, and physical facilities--the academic libraries are deficient compared with Western standards. (16 references) (Author)

  14. Understanding Academic Misconduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Julia M. Christensen; McCabe, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    Research suggests that the majority of U.S. undergraduate students have engaged in some form of misconduct while completing their academic work, despite knowing that such behaviour is ethically or morally wrong. U.S.-based studies have also identified myriad personal and institutional factors associated with academic misconduct. Implicit in some…

  15. Academic Freedom Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the author's enduring concerns about the concept of academic freedom is with semantics. It has seemed to him that one of the biggest difficulties with discussions of academic freedom (as with many conversations about "value-laden" terms such as "democracy," "equity," and "justice") is that people begin from different positions and with…

  16. Gender and Academic Integrity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendershott, Anne; Drinan, Patrick F.; Cross, Megan

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the academic integrity climate of a mid-sized, comprehensive, private university. Seeks to assess gender differences in motivations surrounding cheating behaviors among 532 undergraduate students. Findings indicate that while both males and females are reluctant to report instances of academic dishonesty that they witness, there…

  17. Academic and Vocational Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villeneuve, Phyllis, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This manual describes pilot projects designed to explore and support academic vocational integration. In conjunction with the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, FACTC (Faculty Association of Community and Technical Colleges) sponsored an array of pilot projects during the fall of 1995. Vocational and academic faculty from…

  18. Academic Freedom and Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a personal history of the author's own relationships with the concept of academic freedom. The article is subdivided into 3 prehistories, 7 incidents, 3 disjunctions, and 3 myths. The author discusses the complications of politics, culture, and academic freedom in one career.

  19. Academic Researchers Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergom, Inger; Waltman, Jean; August, Louise; Hollenshead, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Non-tenure-track (NTT) research faculty are perhaps the most under-recognized group of academic professionals on the campuses today, despite their increasingly important role within the expanding academic research enterprise. The American Association for the Advancement of Science reports that the amount of federal spending on R&D has more than…

  20. Reconceptualizing Academic Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vantine, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, more and more independent schools have established academic support programs and learning centers to address their students' individual learning needs. Perhaps not surprisingly, as the number of students being evaluated has increased, even more families have requested academic accommodations and services for their children.…

  1. Arbitration in Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Questions and issues critical to an understanding of arbitration in higher education are discussed. Aspects of the academic arbitration model are defined. The following four topics are examined: (1) the procedural similarities and differences between academic arbitration and the industrial model; (2) the possible inherent conflict between academic…

  2. Thinking Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis

    2016-01-01

    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  3. Recalibrating Academic Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yancey, George

    2012-01-01

    Whether political and/or religious academic bias exists is a question with important ramifications for the educational institutions. Those arguing for the presence of such bias contend that political conservatives and the highly religious in academia are marginalized and face discrimination. The question of academic bias tends to be cast in a…

  4. Context affects L1 but not L2 during bilingual word recognition: an MEG study.

    PubMed

    Pellikka, Janne; Helenius, Päivi; Mäkelä, Jyrki P; Lehtonen, Minna

    2015-03-01

    How do bilinguals manage the activation levels of the two languages and prevent interference from the irrelevant language? Using magnetoencephalography, we studied the effect of context on the activation levels of languages by manipulating the composition of word lists (the probability of the languages) presented auditorily to late Finnish-English bilinguals. We first determined the upper limit time-window for semantic access, and then focused on the preceding responses during which the actual word recognition processes were assumedly ongoing. Between 300 and 500 ms in the temporal cortices (in the N400 m response) we found an asymmetric language switching effect: the responses to L1 Finnish words were affected by the presentation context unlike the responses to L2 English words. This finding suggests that the stronger language is suppressed in an L2 context, supporting models that allow auditory word recognition to be affected by contextual factors and the language system to be subject to inhibitory influence. PMID:25656318

  5. Age of acquisition's effect on memory for semantically associated word pairs.

    PubMed

    Gullick, Margaret M; Juhasz, Barbara J

    2008-08-01

    This experiment investigated the effects of age of acquisition (AoA) in memory for associated word pairs in a cued recall task. Participants studied a list of frequency-controlled early- and late-acquired words in semantically related pairs and then were asked to recall the second word of the pair when cued with the first. Reaction time effects were found, showing that a late-acquired cue for an early-acquired target word was responded to significantly faster than other combinations. Additionally, late-acquired target words resulted in significantly more accurate responses. As significant differences were found even when frequency was controlled, the effects must therefore stem from the manipulations ofAoA. Given this evidence, the implications for AoA's effects on the organization of semantic memory are explored. PMID:18609409

  6. A Method for Recognizing Noisy Romanized Japanese Words in Learner English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Ryo; Kakegawa, Jun-Ichi; Sugimoto, Hiromi; Yabuta, Yukiko

    This paper describes a method for recognizing romanized Japanese words in learner English. They become noise and problematic in a variety of systems and tools for language learning and teaching including text analysis, spell checking, and grammatical error detection because they are Japanese words and thus mostly unknown to such systems and tools. A problem one encounters when recognizing romanized Japanese words in learner English is that the spelling rules of romanized Japanese words are often violated. To address this problem, the described method uses a clustering algorithm reinforced by a small set of rules. Experiments show that it achieves an F-measure of 0.879 and outperforms other methods. They also show that it only requires the target text and an English word list of reasonable size.

  7. Effects of Graphic Organiser on Students' Achievement in Algebraic Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owolabi, Josiah; Adaramati, Tobiloba Faith

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of graphic organiser and gender on students' academic achievement in algebraic word problem. Three research questions and three null hypotheses were used in guiding this study. Quasi experimental research was employed and Non-equivalent pre and post test design was used. The study involved the Senior Secondary…

  8. Putting Words to Work: Effects of Morphological Instruction on Children's Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutchen, Deborah; Stull, Sara; Herrera, Becky Logan; Lotas, Sasha; Evans, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined effects of a 12-week, teacher-delivered, morphologically focused intervention on writing outcomes for fifth-grade U.S. students. In order to help students gain control over the morphologically complex words that typify academic writing, the intervention called students' attention to the morphological…

  9. The Influence of Neutral Gender Words on Translating Job Titles from English Language into Arabic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubaideen, Taghreed

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the influence of neutral gender words on translating job titles from English language into Arabic Language. This qualitative research includes 20 postgraduate students doing their M.A in Applied Linguistics at the Department of English Language and Literature at Mu'tah University for the academic year 2015/2016.…

  10. Event-Related EEG Oscillations to Semantically Unrelated Words in Normal and Learning Disabled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Thalia; Harmony, Thalia; Mendoza, Omar; Lopez-Alanis, Paula; Marroquin, Jose Luis; Otero, Gloria; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2012-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LD) are one of the most frequent problems for elementary school-aged children. In this paper, event-related EEG oscillations to semantically related and unrelated pairs of words were studied in a group of 18 children with LD not otherwise specified (LD-NOS) and in 16 children with normal academic achievement. We propose that…

  11. Lists as Research Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Wille, Staffan; Charmantier, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    The Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) is famous for having turned botany into a systematic discipline, through his classification systems – most notably the sexual system – and his nomenclature. Throughout his life, Linnaeus experimented with various paper technologies designed to display information synoptically. The list took pride of place among these and is also the common element of more complex representations he produced, such as genera descriptions or his “natural system.” Taking our clues from the anthropology of writing, we want to demonstrate that lists can be considered as genuine research technologies. They possess a potential to generate research problems of their own but also pose limitations to inquiries that can only be overcome by the use of new media. PMID:23488242

  12. NSSDC Data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A convenient reference to space science and supportive data available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) is provided. Satellite data are organized by NSSDC spacecraft common name. The launch date and NSSDC ID are given. Experiments are listed alphabetically by the principal investigator or team leader. The experiment name and NSSDC ID, data set ID, data set name, data form code, quantity of data, and the time span of the data as verified by NSSDC are shown. Ground-based data, models, computer routines, and composite spacecraft data that are available from NSSDC are listed alphabetically by discipline, source, data type, data content, and data set. The data set name, data form code, quantity of data, and the time span covered where appropriate are included.

  13. Survival Words and Phrases for Professionals Who Work with Students Who Are Bilingual and Severely/Multiply Handicapped, and with Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Rosanne K.; Correa, Vivian I.

    1989-01-01

    The paper offers a rationale for bilingual special education, provides suggestions for developing bilingual lessons for severely/multiply handicapped students, and includes a list of Spanish words and phrases used most frequently by students and their parents. (JDD)

  14. The Ethical Academic: Academics as Public Intellectuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, American sociologist Robert Neelly Bellah (Bellah, et al., 1986: 303) critiqued the growing isolation of intellectuals within universities and called for a return to "social science as public philosophy." Little seems to have changed. My thirty-seven year experience at the University of Alberta suggests that academics see…

  15. Reengineering Academic Medical Centers: Reengineering Academic Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korn, David

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of academic medical centers (AMCs) looks at: change due to heavy federal funding in recent decades; adverse consequences, including deemphasis on education in favor of research and clinical service delivery, and discrepancies between AMC internal and external labor markets; and challenges to medical education in research, education, and…

  16. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  17. Word learning under infinite uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Richard A; Smith, Andrew D M; Smith, Kenny

    2016-06-01

    Language learners must learn the meanings of many thousands of words, despite those words occurring in complex environments in which infinitely many meanings might be inferred by the learner as a word's true meaning. This problem of infinite referential uncertainty is often attributed to Willard Van Orman Quine. We provide a mathematical formalisation of an ideal cross-situational learner attempting to learn under infinite referential uncertainty, and identify conditions under which word learning is possible. As Quine's intuitions suggest, learning under infinite uncertainty is in fact possible, provided that learners have some means of ranking candidate word meanings in terms of their plausibility; furthermore, our analysis shows that this ranking could in fact be exceedingly weak, implying that constraints which allow learners to infer the plausibility of candidate word meanings could themselves be weak. This approach lifts the burden of explanation from 'smart' word learning constraints in learners, and suggests a programme of research into weak, unreliable, probabilistic constraints on the inference of word meaning in real word learners. PMID:26927884

  18. The effect of selective attention and a stimulus prefix on the output order of immediate free recall of short and long lists.

    PubMed

    Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Ward, Geoff

    2015-03-01

    Participants tend to initiate immediate free recall (IFR) of short lists of words with the first word in the list (Serial Position 1 [SP1]) and then proceed in forward serial order. Two potential explanations for this finding were examined: that the first items have increased selective attention (Experiment 1A and 1B) and enhanced temporal distinctiveness (Experiment 2) relative to subsequent list items. In Experiments 1A and 1B, participants were presented with lists of colored words for IFR. The experimental group was told that some trials would contain a red word and that when this occurred, they should output this word first in recall before recalling as many other words as they could. This instruction was designed to shift attention away from SP1 and toward the red item. The control group participants received identical stimuli but were unaware of the importance of the colored words and had no output order constraints. The overall recall of SP1 was not greatly affected in either experiment. In Experiment 2, participants were presented with lists containing between 2 and 12 words. Half of the trials contained a triple word stimulus prefix. For short lists in IFR, the overall recall of SP1 and the tendency to initiate recall with SP1 were reduced but far from eliminated by the stimulus prefix. We argue that our findings may be explained within a grouping interpretation in which the tendency to initiate recall with the first to-be-remembered item may reflect participants' tendency to output the first word in a highly salient participant-determined group. PMID:25730637

  19. Recognition of spoken words by native and non-native listeners: Talker-, listener-, and item-related factors

    PubMed Central

    Bradlow, Ann R.; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the interplay between the talker-, listener-, and item-related factors that influence speech perception, a large multi-talker database of digitally recorded spoken words was developed, and was then submitted to intelligibility tests with multiple listeners. Ten talkers produced two lists of words at three speaking rates. One list contained lexically “easy” words (words with few phonetically similar sounding “neighbors” with which they could be confused), and the other list contained lexically “hard” (wordswords with many phonetically similar sounding “neighbors”). An analysis of the intelligibility data obtained with native speakers of English (experiment 1) showed a strong effect of lexical similarity. Easy words had higher intelligibility scores than hard words. A strong effect of speaking rate was also found whereby slow and medium rate words had higher intelligibility scores than fast rate words. Finally, a relationship was also observed between the various stimulus factors whereby the perceptual difficulties imposed by one factor, such as a hard word spoken at a fast rate, could be overcome by the advantage gained through the listener's experience and familiarity with the speech of a particular talker. In experiment 2, the investigation was extended to another listener population, namely, non-native listeners. Results showed that the ability to take advantage of surface phonetic information, such as a consistent talker across items, is a perceptual skill that transfers easily from first to second language perception. However, non-native listeners had particular difficulty with lexically hard words even when familiarity with the items was controlled, suggesting that non-native word recognition may be compromised when fine phonetic discrimination at the segmental level is required. Taken together, the results of this study provide insight into the signal-dependent and signal-independent factors that influence spoken

  20. Identifiable Orthographically Similar Word Primes Interfere in Visual Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    University students participated in five experiments concerning the effects of unmasked, orthographically similar, primes on visual word recognition in the lexical decision task (LDT) and naming tasks. The modal prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 350 ms. When primes were words that were orthographic neighbors of the targets, and…

  1. Word Stress in German Single-Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a lexical-decision experiment that was conducted to investigate the impact of word stress on visual word recognition in German. Reaction-time latencies and error rates of German readers on different levels of reading proficiency (i.e., third graders and fifth graders from primary school and university students) were compared…

  2. Ten Important Words Plus: A Strategy for Building Word Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, Ruth Helen; Yopp, Hallie Kay

    2007-01-01

    In this strategy, students individually select and record 10 important words on self-adhesive notes as they read a text. Then students build a group bar graph displaying their choices, write a sentence that summarizes the content, and then respond to prompts that ask them to think about words in powerful ways. Several prompts are suggested, each…

  3. Continuous Re-Exposure to Environmental Sound Cues During Sleep Does Not Improve Memory for Semantically Unrelated Word Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Kelly C.; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Two recent studies illustrated that cues present during encoding can enhance recall if re-presented during sleep. This suggests an academic strategy. Such effects have only been demonstrated with spatial learning and cue presentation was isolated to slow wave sleep (SWS). The goal of this study was to examine whether sounds enhance sleep-dependent consolidation of a semantic task if the sounds are re-presented continuously during sleep. Participants encoded a list of word pairs in the evening and recall was probed following an interval with overnight sleep. Participants encoded the pairs with the sound of “the ocean” from a sound machine. The first group slept with this sound; the second group slept with a different sound (“rain”); and the third group slept with no sound. Sleeping with sound had no impact on subsequent recall. Although a null result, this work provides an important test of the implications of context effects on sleep-dependent memory consolidation. PMID:26435767

  4. Photovoltaics: Contract lists, fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    US DOE`s Photovoltaics Program has helped photovoltaic technologies evolve from materials and concepts in laboratories to competitive products rolling off automated assembly lines. The program is working to expand industrial capacity while continuing basic and applied technology R and D. This document is a tabulation of photovoltaics R and D that were begun, continued, or completed during this period. National laboratories or industrial, academic, and nonprofit research institutions perform the RR and D activities. The document is organized first by directing organization, then by project title and individual task. Each listing provides the name of contractor, period of performance, funding, objectives, accoplishments, and FY 1993 milestones. An index of contractors is included. (DLC)

  5. An Academic Curriculum Will Close the Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa

    2012-01-01

    America's unyielding academic achievement gap has been a national priority for a long time; yet, some schools have succeeded with academically disadvantaged youth. Usually, these institutions embrace a culture of success and follow an academic curriculum that is grounded in core knowledge and scholastic vocabulary. Academically disadvantaged…

  6. Academic Capitalism and Academic Culture: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Pilar; Berger, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    This case study investigated the impact of academic capitalism on academic culture by examining the perspectives of faculty members in an American academic department with significant industrial funding. The results of this study indicate that faculty members believe that the broad integrity of the academic culture remains unaffected in this…

  7. Academics and practitioners: nurses as intellectuals.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Colin A

    2002-06-01

    Academics and practitioners: nurses as intellectuals In the author's experience, nurse educators working in universities generally accept that they are 'academics', but dismiss suggestions that they are 'intellectuals' because they see it as a pretentious description referring to a small number of academics and aesthetes who inhabit a conceptual world beyond the imaginative capacity of most other people. This paper suggests that the concept of the 'intellectual', if not the word itself, be admitted into nursing discourse through the adoption of a non-élitist Gramscian understanding, similar to the more recently formulated conception of the reflective practitioner. According to the Italian Marxist scholar Antonio Gramsci, intellectuals are those people who develop ways in which to construct the conditions of their own existence, a possibility he believed was open to all. It is suggested that, from a Gramscian perspective, all nurses are intellectuals to varying degrees, and nurse educators should not only be nurturing their own intellectualism but also the potential for intellectualism as it exists within each individual. The ways in which this project are related to Habermasian critical theory are also briefly outlined. PMID:12071908

  8. Word-Superiority Effect as a Function of Semantic Transparency of Chinese Bimorphemic Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Leh Woon

    2009-01-01

    The word-superiority effect (WSE) describes the superior recognition of word constituents in a word, as opposed to a non-word, context. In this study, the WSE was used as a diagnostic tool to examine the modulatory effect of word semantic transparency on the degree to which Chinese bimorphemic compound words are lexically represented as unitised…

  9. Repetition of Words and Non-Words in Typically Developing Children: The Role of Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundström, Simon; Samuelsson, Christina; Lyxell, Björn

    2014-01-01

    In this study, segmental and prosodic aspects of word repetition and non-word repetition in typically developing children aged four to six years were investigated. Focus was on developmental differences, and on how tonal word accent and word length affect segment production accuracy. Prosodically controlled words and non-words were repeated by 44…

  10. Effects of Word and Morpheme Familiarity on Reading of Derived Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Joanne F.; Katz, Lauren A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine factors that influence students' reading of derived words. Recent research suggests that the lexical quality of a derived word depends on the familiarity of the word, its morphemic constituents (i.e., base word and affixes), and the frequency with which the base word appears in other words (i.e., members of…

  11. Is Banara Really a Word?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth; Witzel, Naoko

    2009-01-01

    Bowers, Davis, and Hanley (Bowers, J. S., Davis, C. J., & Hanley, D. A. (2005). "Interfering neighbours: The impact of novel word learning on the identification of visually similar words." "Cognition," 97(3), B45-B54) reported that if participants were trained to type nonwords such as "banara", subsequent semantic categorization responses to…

  12. Bilingual Reading of Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English…

  13. Never Trust Your Word Processor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linke, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the auto correction mode of word processors that leads to a number of problems and describes an example in biochemistry exams that shows how word processors can lead to mistakes in databases and in papers. The author contends that, where this system is applied, spell checking should not be left to a word…

  14. Children's Word-Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Terry Kit-Fong

    1985-01-01

    Two studies were performed to determine the process used by young children to figure out the meaning of a new word. It was hypothesized that the children would use one of two strategies: (1) ignore the word and wait for more information, or learn only what is unambiguous about it, or (2) make a reasonable but uncertain guess, quickly setting up…

  15. Word Knowledge Influences on Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Mary E.; And Others

    Two studies examined the relationship between word knowledge and reading comprehension. Subjects were college undergraduates with high and low verbal abilities as indicated by a standardized verbal aptitude test. The first study involved a multiple choice vocabulary test from which words that both groups defined correctly were selected. The…

  16. Antecedents and Consequences of Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catania, A. Charles

    2006-01-01

    As instances of behavior, words interact with environments. But they also interact with each other and with other kinds of behavior. Because of the interlocking nature of the contingencies into which words enter, their behavioral properties may become increasingly removed from nonverbal contingencies, and their relationship to those contingencies…

  17. First Words and First Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Catriona M.; Conway, Martin A.

    2010-01-01

    In two experiments autobiographical memories from childhood were recalled to cue words naming common objects, locations, activities and emotions. Participants recalled their earliest specific memory associated with each word and dated their age at the time of the remembered event. A striking and specific finding emerged: age of earliest memory was…

  18. Identification list of binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov,, O.; Karchevsky,, A.; Kaygorodov, P.; Kovaleva, D.

    The Identification List of Binaries (ILB) is a star catalogue constructed to facilitate cross-referencing between different catalogues of binary stars. As of 2015, it comprises designations for approximately 120,000 double/multiple systems. ILB contains star coordinates and cross-references to the Bayer/Flemsteed, DM (BD/CD/CPD), HD, HIP, ADS, WDS, CCDM, TDSC, GCVS, SBC9, IGR (and some other X-ray catalogues), PSR designations, as well as identifications in the recently developed BSDB system. ILB eventually became a part of the BDB stellar database.

  19. Safety words inventory and literacy screener: standardization and validation.

    PubMed

    Glascoe, Frances Page

    2002-01-01

    When evaluating a school-aged patient, particularly for such issues as attention deficit disorder, or learning disabilities, health-care providers are encouraged to appraise children's school performance. Although some clinicians seek teachers' comments, recent research suggests that teachers' appraisals have limited value. As a consequence, health-care providers need brief methods, functional for busy primary care clinics, for detecting school problems. Because well-visits also include other services such as anticipatory guidance and safety and injury counseling, it would be helpful for detection tools to facilitate delivery of more than one aspect of well-child care. This study was undertaken to develop a brief method for evaluating school performance for elementary-age children and test its accuracy in identifying children with reading and other academic problems. By using common safety signs as the test stimuli, such a tool should also serve as a springboard to injury prevention counseling. Data were drawn from the standardization and validation data of an individually administered wide-range diagnostic achievement test using a geographically diverse, nationally representative sample of 934 children between 5 and 13 years of age. Children were administered the Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills-Revised (CIBS-R), which includes among its 10 subtests a 57-item measure of safety word recognition. Data were collected from previously administered measures of academics and intelligence. Forty-one children were administered the measure twice to assess inter-rater reliability. Logistic regression analyses were deployed using children's performance on the nine other subtests of the CIBS-R as the grouping variable, and as predictors, recognition of 57 safety words/phrases. Of these, 22 safety signs (e.g., "Keep out," "No Trespassing," "Danger") were significant predictors of overall academic performance. An additional seven safety words were added due to their

  20. Academics explore humidity's benefits.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Dave

    2008-11-01

    The effects of humidification on hospital superbugs are being explored by some of the UK's top academics, in what Dave Mortimer, national sales manager for Vapac Humidity Control, explains are the UK's first such studies. PMID:19044148

  1. Women in Academic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Thibault, George E

    2016-08-01

    More than a decade ago, women achieved parity with men in the number of matriculants to medical school, nearly one-third of the faculty of medical schools were women, and there were some women deans and department chairs. These trends were promising, but today there are still significant differences in pay, academic rank, and leadership positions for women compared with men in academic medicine. Though there has been progress in many areas, the progress is too slow to achieve previously recommended goals, such as 50% women department chairs by 2025 and 50% women deans by 2030.The author points to the findings presented in the articles from the Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers in this issue, as well as research being published elsewhere, as an evidence base for the ongoing discussion of gender equity in academic medicine. More attention to culture and the working environment will be needed to achieve true parity for women in academic medical careers. PMID:27306968

  2. Academic Bankruptcy by Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Arthur D.

    1986-01-01

    The advantages and requirements for offering a second chance to students who have failed, by forgiving a poor academic record, are discussed and supported by findings from a survey of institutions and the results of several experimental programs. (MSE)

  3. Perspectives on academic dishonesty.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, M J; Lowenstein, A J

    1990-01-01

    Academic dishonest behaviors, such as lying, cheating, and plagiarism, are destructive and must be recognized and addressed early in the development of professional nurses. Faculty must be concerned with the relationship between student integrity in the classroom and clinical or professional behaviors. The authors discuss student motivation and attitudes toward unethical practices, faculty responses, and responsibilities when these incidents arise, and strategies for preventing academic dishonesty. PMID:2216065

  4. Testing a word is not a test of word learning.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Emma L; Horst, Jessica S

    2013-10-01

    Although vocabulary acquisition requires children learn names for multiple things, many investigations of word learning mechanisms teach children the name for only one of the objects presented. This is problematic because it is unclear whether children's performance reflects recall of the correct name-object association or simply selection of the only object that was singled out by being the only object named. Children introduced to one novel name may perform at ceiling as they are not required to discriminate on the basis of the name per se, and appear to rapidly learn words following minimal exposure to a single word. We introduced children to four novel objects. For half the children, only one of the objects was named and for the other children, all four objects were named. Only children introduced to one word reliably selected the target object at test. This demonstration highlights the over-simplicity of one-word learning paradigms and the need for a shift in word learning paradigms where more than one word is taught to ensure children disambiguate objects on the basis of their names rather than their degree of salience. PMID:23928497

  5. The Rewards of Academic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies of academic leadership confirm what many academic leaders know from personal experience: academic leadership is a complex and demanding role with significant stress and high burnout and turnover rates (Brown, 2002; Brown and Moshavi, 2002). In the light of these issues, an exploration of the nature of academic leadership and its…

  6. Academic Freedom and Organisational Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes prominent current arguments on academic freedom's endangerment by managerialism and discusses their limitations. Defines a new vision of academic freedom informed by thinking on globalization. Presents findings from interviews with Australian faculty about academic freedom and discusses ways to ensure that academic freedom endures in…

  7. The Scholarship of Academic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggins, Heather, Ed.; Macdonald, Ranald, Ed.

    The selections in this book address the concept and nature of academic development and examine research into and within the field. Following an introduction, "Developing a Scholarship of Academic Development: Setting the Context," by Ranald Macdonald, the chapters of part 1, "Conceptualizing Academic Development," are: (2) "Academic Development: A…

  8. Academic Writing and Tacit Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elton, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    The genre of academic writing is discipline dependent, so that neither specialists in academic writing nor practising academics in a discipline can, independently of each other, provide students with the necessary help to develop the ability to write in their academic disciplines. Furthermore, the rules are largely tacit, i.e. they are not…

  9. NSSDC data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Richard; King, Joseph H.

    1994-01-01

    This document identifies, in a highly summarized way, all the data held at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). These data cover astrophysics and astronomy, solar and space physics, planetary and lunar, and Earth science disciplines. They are primarily but not exclusively from past and on-going NASA spaceflight missions. We first identify all the data electronically available through NSSDC's principal on-line (magnetic disk-based) and near-line (robotics jukebox-based) systems and then those data available on CD-ROM's. Finally, we identify all NSSDC-held data, the majority of which are still off line on magnetic tape, film, etc., but include the electronically accessible and CD-ROM-resident data of earlier sections. These comprehensive identifications are in the form of two listings, one for the majority of NSSDC-held data sets resulting from individual instruments flown on individual spacecraft and the other for the remainder of NSSDC-held data sets that do not adhere to this spacecraft/experiment/data set hierarchy. The latter listing is presented in two parts, one for the numerous source catalogs of the NSSDC-operated Astronomical Data Center and the other for the remainder.

  10. Listing Occupational Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Straif, Kurt; Latreille, Benoit; Lakhani, Ramzan; Campbell, Sally; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Boffetta, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The occupational environment has been a most fruitful one for investigating the etiology of human cancer. Many recognized human carcinogens are occupational carcinogens. There is a large volume of epidemiologic and experimental data concerning cancer risks in different work environments. It is important to synthesize this information for both scientific and public health purposes. Various organizations and individuals have published lists of occupational carcinogens. However, such lists have been limited by unclear criteria for which recognized carcinogens should be considered occupational carcinogens, and by inconsistent and incomplete information on the occupations and industries in which the carcinogenic substances may be found and on their target sites of cancer. Based largely on the evaluations published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and augmented with additional information, the present article represents an attempt to summarize, in tabular form, current knowledge on occupational carcinogens, the occupations and industries in which they are found, and their target organs. We have considered 28 agents as definite occupational carcinogens, 27 agents as probable occupational carcinogens, and 113 agents as possible occupational carcinogens. These tables should be useful for regulatory or preventive purposes and for scientific purposes in research priority setting and in understanding carcinogenesis. PMID:15531427

  11. Spelling Instruction through Etymology--A Method of Developing Spelling Lists for Older Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheon, Greg; Campbell, Marilyn; Stewart, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an approach to developing word lists centred on etymological roots would improve the spelling performance of older primary school students. Participants were 46 students in the last year of primary school in south-east Queensland (31 girls and 15 boys) across three classes, with two classes…

  12. Is There a Core General Vocabulary? Introducing the "New General Service List"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brezina, Vaclav; Gablasova, Dana

    2015-01-01

    The current study presents a "New General Service List (new-GSL)", which is a result of robust comparison of four language corpora ("LOB," "BNC," "BE06," and "EnTenTen12") of the total size of over 12 billion running words. The four corpora were selected to represent a variety of corpus sizes and…

  13. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Discourse Processing: Evidence from False Memories for Lists and Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Faust, Miriam; Moeller, Edna

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to discourse and text processing by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including more distantly related meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger, H. L., III, & McDermott, K. B. (1995). "Creating false memories:…

  14. First Things First: Similar List Length and Output Order Effects for Verbal and Nonverbal Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortis, Cathleen; Dent, Kevin; Kennett, Steffan; Ward, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    When participants are presented with a short list of unrelated words and they are instructed that they may recall in any order, they nevertheless show a very strong tendency to recall in forward serial order. Thus, if asked to recall "in any orde"r: "hat, mouse, tea, stairs," participants often respond "hat, mouse, tea,…

  15. Converging Evidence for Control of Color-Word Stroop Interference at the Item Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugg, Julie M.; Hutchison, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that cognitive control is implemented at the list and context levels in the color-word Stroop task. At first blush, the finding that Stroop interference is reduced for mostly incongruent items as compared with mostly congruent items (i.e., the item-specific proportion congruence [ISPC] effect) appears to provide evidence…

  16. 40 CFR 370.66 - How are key words in this part defined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are key words in this part defined? 370.66 Section 370.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... substance listed in Appendices A and B of 40 CFR part 355. Facility means all buildings,...

  17. JPKWIC - General key word in context and subject index report generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jirka, R.; Kabashima, N.; Kelly, D.; Plesset, M.

    1968-01-01

    JPKWIC computer program is a general key word in context and subject index report generator specifically developed to help nonprogrammers and nontechnical personnel to use the computer to access files, libraries and mass documentation. This program is designed to produce a KWIC index, a subject index, an edit report, a summary report, and an exclusion list.

  18. A REPLICATIVE INVESTIGATION OF THE BUCKINGHAM-DOLCH FREE-ASSOCIATION WORD STUDY. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JACOBS, HUGH DONALD

    PUBLISHED CHILDREN'S VOCABULARY LISTS BASED ON ACTUAL USAGE ARE ALL DRAWN FROM RESEARCH DONE PRIOR TO 1930. THE PRESENT STUDY REPLICATED THE 1926 BUCKINGHAM-DOLCH STUDY TO DETERMINE ANY VOCABULARY CHANGES. THE 2 HYPOTHESES TESTED WERE (1) THERE IS NO SIGNIFICANT VOCABULARY SHIFT, AND (2) COMMON WORDS DID NOT DIFFER IN GRADE-PLACEMENT (THE EARLIEST…

  19. The Language of Energy: A Glossary of Words and Phrases Used in the Energy Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.

    Provided is an alphabetical list or words and phrases commonly used in the energy industry. Entries range from such general terms as biomass, fossil fuels, and wetlands to such highly specific terms as Arab oil embargo of 1973-74 and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) Process. (JN)

  20. Latent Variable Modeling of Cognitive Processes in True and False Recognition of Words: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouwmeester, Samantha; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at testing theoretical predictions of the fuzzy-trace theory about true and false recognition. The effects of semantic relatedness and study opportunity on true and false recognition of words from Deese, Roediger, McDermott lists (J. Deese, 1959; D. R. Read, 1996; H. L. Roediger & K. B. McDermott, 1995) were evaluated in 7-…