Wang, Jing; Liang, Shao-lan; Ge, Guang-chun
This paper reports a corpus-based lexical study of the most frequently used medical academic vocabulary in medical research articles (RAs). A Medical Academic Word List (MAWL), a word list of the most frequently used medical academic words in medical RAs, was compiled from a corpus containing 1 093 011 running words of medical RAs from online…
The Academic Word List (AWL) is now widely used in English for academic purposes (EAP) classrooms in many countries, in a wide range of materials, in vocabulary tests, and as a major resource for researchers. In this article the author reflects on the impact of the AWL by looking at commonly asked questions about the list: What is the AWL? Is the…
Vongpumivitch, Viphavee; Huang, Ju-yu; Chang, Yu-Chia
This study is a corpus-based lexical study that aims to explore the use of words in Coxhead's (2000) Academic Word List (AWL) in journal articles in the field of applied linguistics. A 1.5 million-word corpus called the Applied Linguistics Research Articles Corpus (ALC) was created for this study. The corpus consists of 200 research articles that…
Gardner, Dee; Davies, Mark
This article presents our new Academic Vocabulary List (AVL), derived from a 120-million-word academic subcorpus of the 425-million-word Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA; Davies 2012). We first explore reasons why a new academic core list is warranted, and why such a list is still needed in English language education. We also provide…
Khani, Reza; Tazik, Khalil
Academic vocabulary, as the most challenging aspect of language learning in EAP and ESP contexts, has received much attention in the last few decades (e.g. Laufer, 1988; Sutarsyah, et al., 1994; Laufer and Nation, 1999; Coxhead, 2000; Nation, 2001a, 2001b; Wang et al., 2008; Martinez et al., 2009). The major attainments of these studies were…
The Forward Word List consists of the 66,439 ’regular’ words that occur in the Shorter Oxford. The list is grouped, first, according to the entry in...the vowel-stringcount column. Thus, the first set of words , coded A, is a collection of all regular words from the Shorter Oxford that contain an...apostrophe in the word field. These are followed by the broken (B) words , the hyphenated (H) words , and then all words having a numberical value in the
The English Word Speculum is a series of volumes illustrating the structural properties of written English words . The collection is intended to be...used as a complement to the standard dictionaries of English words , and should be of particular value to linguists and students of English. The word ...list used to generate the volumes consists of left-justified, bold-face words contained in the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, a total of 73,582 words
The English Word Speculum is a series of volumes illustrating the structural properties of written English words . The collection is intended to be...used as a complement to the standard dictionaries of English words , and should be of particular value to linguists and students of English. The word ...list used to generate the volumes consists of left-justified, bold-face words contained in the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, a total of 73,582 words
Townsend, Dianna; Kiernan, Darl
The purpose of this teaching tip is to share a new tool for identifying high-utility academic words from instructional texts. The Word and Phrase Tool, when paired with teacher knowledge about students and objectives, can help teachers promote the academic vocabulary development of their students.
Burns, Matthew K.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Parker, David C.; Hodgson, Jennifer; Klingbeil, David A.; Scholin, Sarah E.
Academic tasks that include easy responses increase the probability that less preferred and/or more challenging tasks will be performed. The current study applied the process of arranging easier stimuli within reading word lists with behavioral momentum and an interspersal technique. We hypothesized that the behavioral momentum condition, which…
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for two occupations in the word processing series. Each occupation is divided into 9 or 10 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space…
Oweini, Ahmad; Hazoury, Katia
While the English language boasts a century of research into its most frequently-used words, no such attempt has ever formally been made in the Arab world. This pioneering study presents a list of 500 commonly-used words in the Arabic language based on compilations of words gathered from a number of popular reading series in Lebanon, spanning grades K to 3. This list can serve as a powerful tool for language teachers—who face several challenges posed by the inherent nature of Arabic in terms of diglossia, orthography and morphology—and provide them with a handy list of words for their pupils. The study has its limitations in terms of scope, breadth and the nature of the technology used for counting words. Nonetheless, it makes a number of recommendations for the future, including the development of a readability formula based on this list, the expansion of the scope of this word list and improvement to increase its technical accuracy.
The English Word Speculum is a series of volumes illustrating the structural properties of written English words . The collection is intended to be...used as a complement to the standard dictionaries of English words , and should be of particular value to linguists and students of English. The word ...list used to generate the volumes consists of left-justified, bold-face words contained in the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, a total of 73,582 words
Examines the learning and use of academic English words by students who differ socioculturally. Argues that the Greco-Latin vocabulary of English offers various levels of potential difficulty for students from different class, cultural, or linguistic social factions. Infers some changes to practices in native and second language academic English…
Kincaid, J. Peter; And Others
This report describes eight word lists developed for use as part of the computer readability editing system (CRES), which was developed to serve as an author's aid in improving the ease of comprehending Navy technical manuals and training materials. The system has features which flag uncommon and misspelled words and long sentences, suggest simple…
Miller, Leonie M.; Roodenrys, Steven
Studies of the effect of word frequency in the serial recall task show that lists of high-frequency words are better recalled than lists of low-frequency words; however, when high- and low-frequency words are alternated within a list, there is no difference in the level of recall for the two types of words, and recall is intermediate between lists…
Flynn, Lindsay J.; Hosp, John L.; Hosp, Michelle K.; Robbins, Kelly P.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between word recognition errors made at a letter-sound pattern level on a word list and on a curriculum-based measurement oral reading fluency measure (CBM-ORF) for typical and struggling elementary readers. The participants were second, third, and fourth grade typical and struggling readers…
Erikson, George; And Others
Research has suggested that behavioral differences may account for the effects of caffeine on information processing. To investigate the effects of caffeine on memory for supraspan word lists, 107 college students (47 males, 60 females), divided into 12 groups by high and low impulsivity scores on the Eysenck Personality Inventory, participated in…
Lawrence, Joshua F.; Crosson, Amy C.; Paré-Blagoev, E. Juliana; Snow, Catherine E.
Classroom discussion, despite its association with good academic outcomes, is exceedingly rare in U.S. schools. The Word Generation intervention involves the provision of texts and activities to be implemented across content area class, organized around engaging and discussable dilemmas. The program was evaluated with 1,554 middle grade students…
This paper explores the use of sight word lists in the instruction of students with disabilities. A survey of 25 restaurants in a Midwestern U.S. city was conducted to examine the validity and efficacy of two widely accepted public school reading word lists. It was found that neither of the word lists contained more than 46 percent of the words…
Tomov, D. T.
A semantic analysis of the "Weekly Subject Index Stop Word List" of "Current Contents" of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) and the full-stop word and semi-stop word lists of the Permuterm Subject Index of "Science Citation Index" was conducted. Emphasizes the necessity of an improved, semantically-oriented policy in preparing lists…
Rose, Stuart J
Methods and systems for automatically generating lists of stop words for information retrieval and analysis. Generation of the stop words can include providing a corpus of documents and a plurality of keywords. From the corpus of documents, a term list of all terms is constructed and both a keyword adjacency frequency and a keyword frequency are determined. If a ratio of the keyword adjacency frequency to the keyword frequency for a particular term on the term list is less than a predetermined value, then that term is excluded from the term list. The resulting term list is truncated based on predetermined criteria to form a stop word list.
Goldinger, Stephen D.; Pisoni, David B.; Logan, John S.
In a recent study, Martin, Mullennix, Pisoni, and Summers (1989) reported that subjects’ accuracy in recalling lists of spoken words was better for words in early list positions when the words were spoken by a single talker than when they were spoken by multiple talkers. The present study was conducted to examine the nature of these effects in further detail. Accuracy of serial-ordered recall was examined for lists of words spoken by either a single talker or by multiple talkers. Half the lists contained easily recognizable words, and half contained more difficult words, according to a combined metric of word frequency, lexical neighborhood density, and neighborhood frequency. Rate of presentation was manipulated to assess the effects of both variables on rehearsal and perceptual encoding. A strong interaction was obtained between talker variability and rate of presentation. Recall of multiple-talker lists was affected much more than single-talker lists by changes in presentation rate. At slow presentation rates, words in early serial positions produced by multiple talkers were actually recalled more accurately than words produced by a single talker. No interaction was observed for word confusability and rate of presentation. The data provide support for the proposal that talker variability affects the accuracy of recall of spoken words not only by increasing the processing demands for early perceptual encoding of the words, but also by affecting the efficiency of the rehearsal process itself. PMID:1826729
Nordström, Thomas; Jacobson, Christer; Söderberg, Pernilla
This study, using a longitudinal design with a Swedish cohort of young readers, investigates if children's early word decoding ability in second grade can predict later academic performance. In an effort to estimate the unique effect of early word decoding (grade 2) with academic performance (grade 9), gender and non-verbal cognitive ability were…
Mah, Adeline Shi Hui; Yeo, Marie
Averil Coxhead is widely known for developing the Academic Word List, a list of 570 word families associated with great frequency in academic texts. This list has been particularly useful to teachers of English as a Second Language as well as independent learners in tertiary education. She has also developed a Science-based word list (Coxhead and…
This study created a medical word list (MWL) to bridge the gap between non-technical and technical vocabulary. The researcher compiled a corpus containing 155 textbooks across 31 medical subject areas from e-book databases (totaling 15 million running words) and examined the range and frequency of words outside the most frequent 3,000-word…
Keith, Jeff; Westbury, Chris; Goldman, James
Corpus-based semantic space models, which primarily rely on lexical co-occurrence statistics, have proven effective in modeling and predicting human behavior in a number of experimental paradigms that explore semantic memory representation. The most widely studied extant models, however, are strongly influenced by orthographic word frequency (e.g., Shaoul & Westbury, Behavior Research Methods, 38, 190-195, 2006). This has the implication that high-frequency closed-class words can potentially bias co-occurrence statistics. Because these closed-class words are purported to carry primarily syntactic, rather than semantic, information, the performance of corpus-based semantic space models may be improved by excluding closed-class words (using stop lists) from co-occurrence statistics, while retaining their syntactic information through other means (e.g., part-of-speech tagging and/or affixes from inflected word forms). Additionally, very little work has been done to explore the effect of employing morphological decomposition on the inflected forms of words in corpora prior to compiling co-occurrence statistics, despite (controversial) evidence that humans perform early morphological decomposition in semantic processing. In this study, we explored the impact of these factors on corpus-based semantic space models. From this study, morphological decomposition appears to significantly improve performance in word-word co-occurrence semantic space models, providing some support for the claim that sublexical information-specifically, word morphology-plays a role in lexical semantic processing. An overall decrease in performance was observed in models employing stop lists (e.g., excluding closed-class words). Furthermore, we found some evidence that weakens the claim that closed-class words supply primarily syntactic information in word-word co-occurrence semantic space models.
Riegel, Monika; Wierzba, Małgorzata; Wypych, Marek; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Grabowska, Anna; Marchewka, Artur
In the present article, we introduce the Nencki Affective Word List (NAWL), created in order to provide researchers with a database of 2,902 Polish words, including nouns, verbs, and adjectives, with ratings of emotional valence, arousal, and imageability. Measures of several objective psycholinguistic features of the words (frequency, grammatical class, and number of letters) are also controlled. The database is a Polish adaptation of the Berlin Affective Word List-Reloaded (BAWL-R; Võ et al., Behavior Research Methods 41:534-538, 2009), commonly used to investigate the affective properties of German words. Affective normative ratings were collected from 266 Polish participants (136 women and 130 men). The emotional ratings and psycholinguistic indexes provided by NAWL can be used by researchers to better control the verbal materials they apply and to adjust them to specific experimental questions or issues of interest. The NAWL is freely accessible to the scientific community for noncommercial use as supplementary material to this article.
Eubanks, Philip; Schaeffer, John D.
The phrase "academic bullshit" presents compositionists with a special dilemma. Because compositionists study, teach, and produce academic writing, they are open to the accusation that they both tolerate and perpetuate academic bullshit. We argue that confronting this problem must begin with a careful definition of "bullshit" and "academic…
Jian, Yu-Cin; Chen, Ming-Lei; Ko, Hwa-wei
This study investigated context effects of online processing of Chinese academic words during text reading. Undergraduate participants were asked to read Chinese texts that were familiar or unfamiliar (containing physics terminology) to them. Physics texts were selected first, and then we replaced the physics terminology with familiar words; other…
Townsend, Dianna; Bear, Donald; Templeton, Shane; Burton, Amy
The purpose of the current study was to determine relationships between orthographic and morphological awareness of academic words and achievement across content areas. Participants (n = 256), diverse seventh and eighth graders, took three word knowledge measures; two standardized achievement measures were used as outcomes. Orthographic awareness…
Badham, Stephen P; Whitney, Cora; Sanghera, Sumeet; Maylor, Elizabeth A
Many studies show that age deficits in memory are smaller for information supported by pre-experimental experience. Many studies also find dissociations in memory tasks between words that occur with high and low frequencies in language, but the literature is mixed regarding the extent of word frequency effects in normal ageing. We examined whether age deficits in episodic memory could be influenced by manipulations of word frequency. In Experiment 1, young and older adults studied short and long lists of high- and low-frequency words for free recall. The list length effect (the drop in proportion recalled for longer lists) was larger in young compared to older adults and for high- compared to low-frequency words. In Experiment 2, young and older adults completed item and associative recognition memory tests with high- and low-frequency words. Age deficits were greater for associative memory than for item memory, demonstrating an age-related associative deficit. High-frequency words led to better associative memory performance whilst low-frequency words resulted in better item memory performance. In neither experiment was there any evidence for age deficits to be smaller for high- relative to low-frequency words, suggesting that word frequency effects on memory operate independently from effects due to cognitive ageing.
Siddike, Md. Abul Kalam; Kiran, K.
The main objective of this study is to investigate the perceptions of academic librarians towards the marketing of library services through social networking sites (SNSs) and their understanding of using electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) as a marketing tool in academic libraries. This study follows a qualitative data-gathering approach of structured…
Coleman, R. F.; Hollien, H.
Underwater intelligibility of three standard word lists is evaluated in two experiments. Results indicate that words which are equated for difficulty in normal conditions are likewise equated under water. Phoneme distortion was examined in a multiple choice test which showed fricatives and place of production to be most affected under water. (SC)
This study was conducted to determine which method for vocabulary instruction was most beneficial: learning words through the context of literature and reading or through isolated word lists. Subjects, 45 high school students taking Freshman English, were divided into 2 groups. All students were studying Charles Dickens' novel "Great…
Rutherford, Barbara J
Two lexical decision experiments build on established patterns of laterality and hemispheric interaction to test whether the presence of low familiarity words dynamically affects the use of an orthographic or phonological strategy for high familiarity words; and, if so, whether the hemispheres are similarly flexible in adapting to the constituency change. Experiment 1 restricted word strings to the highly familiar. Experiment 2 presented the same high familiarity words, along with an equal number of low familiarity words. Targets for lexical decision were presented at fixation to approximate normal viewing behaviour, either with or without a non-lexical distractor lateralized left visual field (LVF) or right visual field (RVF). Response time and accuracy were measured. Responses were faster in Experiment 1 than Experiment 2 to high familiarity words, pseudowords (orthographically correct), and non-words (orthographically incorrect), suggesting that a different strategy was used. A main effect of distractor location in Experiment 1 was due to more accurate responses to letter strings accompanied by a RVF distractor than no distractor, revealing a cost from hemispheric interaction compared to the right hemisphere when a task is simple. Experiment 2 found an interaction between distractor location and string type in both the response time and accuracy data. Separate analyses of word strings revealed a shift to a left hemisphere advantage: Accuracy to low familiarity words and speed to high familiarity words was better when accompanied by a LVF than a RVF distractor. Critical to a dynamic effect of list constituency is that the right hemisphere slowed to the same high familiarity words that had provoked speedier responses in Experiment 1. The findings are consistent with the use of an orthographic strategy in Experiment 1 and a phonological strategy in Experiment 2, and support the idea that right hemisphere access to familiar phonology is slower than the left
Zhang, Weiwei; Gross, Julien; Hayne, Harlene
In the present study, we investigated the effect of participants' mood on true and false memories of emotional word lists in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In Experiment 1, we constructed DRM word lists in which all the studied words and corresponding critical lures reflected a specified emotional valence. In Experiment 2, we used these lists to assess mood-congruent true and false memory. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three induced-mood conditions (positive, negative, or neutral) and were presented with word lists comprised of positive, negative, or neutral words. For both true and false memory, there was a mood-congruent effect in the negative mood condition; this effect was due to a decrease in true and false recognition of the positive and neutral words. These findings are consistent with both spreading-activation and fuzzy-trace theories of DRM performance and have practical implications for our understanding of the effect of mood on memory.
Brébion, Gildas; Ohlsen, Ruth I; Pilowsky, Lyn S; David, Anthony S
Previous research has suggested that visual hallucinations in schizophrenia are associated with abnormal salience of visual mental images. Since visual imagery is used as a mnemonic strategy to learn lists of words, increased visual imagery might impede the other commonly used strategies of serial and semantic encoding. We had previously published data on the serial and semantic strategies implemented by patients when learning lists of concrete words with different levels of semantic organisation (Brébion et al., 2004). In this paper we present a re-analysis of these data, aiming at investigating the associations between learning strategies and visual hallucinations. Results show that the patients with visual hallucinations presented less serial clustering in the non-organisable list than the other patients. In the semantically organisable list with typical instances, they presented both less serial and less semantic clustering than the other patients. Thus, patients with visual hallucinations demonstrate reduced use of serial and semantic encoding in the lists made up of fairly familiar concrete words, which enable the formation of mental images. Although these results are preliminary, we propose that this different processing of the lists stems from the abnormal salience of the mental images such patients experience from the word stimuli.
ANALYSES noun APOSTROPHE noun ANALYSIS noun APOSTROPHES noun ANALYST noun APPARATUS noun " ANALYSTS noun APPARATUSES noun ANALYZE verb APPARENT...of Speech , CASED* verb CELLARS noun . CASES noun/verb CELLS noun CASH noun/verb CELSIUS adjective . CASHED* verb CEMENT noun/verb CASHES verb CEMENTED...CELESTIAL adjective CHAMBERS noun/verb CELL noun CHANCE noun/verb CELLAR noun CHANCED* verb BOLDFACE = Root Word * = Past Participle A-16
Freyd, J J; Gleaves, D H
H.L. Roediger and K.B. McDermott (1995) found that when participants studied a list of words with a common but not presented associate, participants frequently falsely reported remembering the never presented associated word as part of the list. Roediger and McDermott suggest that this finding is generalizable to the current controversy surrounding contested memories of child abuse. The present authors urge caution in making such a generalization, arguing that there are critical differences between Roediger and McDermott's findings and contested memories of abuse.
This study demonstrates an approach based on findings from phraseology which can be used to identify potentially useful phrases in a text by starting with continuous or discontinuous sequences of very frequent words. These combinations are then searched in a corpus of academic texts to find their common collocates and ascertain whether the…
Cons, Andrea M.
This study explores the following research question: How do secondary English learners (ELs) and Re-designated fluent English proficient students (RFEPs) use academic words in analytical writing in comparison to native English speakers (NESs)? It highlights previously overlooked differences in academic word use in the writing of students who are…
Hetzroni, O. E.; Shrieber, B.
This study investigated the use of a word processor for enhancing the academic outcomes of three students with writing disabilities in a junior high school. A single-subject ABAB design was used to compare academic output produced during class time with and without a computer equipped with a word processor. The number of spelling errors, the…
Rankin, Robert L.
This paper analyzes the Kansa Indian language vocabulary collected by Prince Alexander Philip Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied during his journey through the plains of North America between 1832 and 1834. Prince Maximilian's word list is likely the oldest existent vocabulary on this language. His vocabulary, published in 1843 as an appendix to his…
Eaton, Helen S., Comp.
This semantic frequency list for English, French, German, and Spanish correlates 6,474 concepts represented by individual words in an order of diminishing occurrence. Designed as a research tool, the work is segmented into seven comparative "Thousand Concepts" lists with 115 sectional subdivisions, each of which begins with the key English word…
Jones, Scott N; Greer, Ashley J; Cox, David E
The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (Morris et al., 1989) neuropsychological battery, including its 10-word list-learning task, remains in clinical and research use. The present study examined learning characteristics of this word list in a clinical series of elderly military veterans referred for neuropsychological evaluation of suspected dementia. Findings are presented establishing specific normative data by age, education, race, and diagnosis on learning outcomes including total new learning, delayed recall, and recognition memory. In addition, variables such as primacy and recency, intrusion and repetition errors, learning slope, and across-trial consistency are reported. There were no unexpected between-group findings, and the current data may be valuable as a reference when patients with similar demographic and health backgrounds are evaluated.
Flores-Lázaro, Julio César; Salgado Soruco, María Alejandra; Stepanov, Igor I
Word-list learning tasks are among the most important and frequently used tests for declarative memory evaluation. For example, the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C) and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test provide important information about different cognitive-neuropsychological processes. However, the impact of test length (i.e., number of words) and semantic organization (i.e., type of words) on children's and adolescents' memory performance remains to be clarified, especially during this developmental stage. To explore whether a medium-length non-semantically organized test can produce the typical curvilinear performance that semantically organized tests produce, reflecting executive control, we studied and compared the cognitive performance of normal children and adolescents by utilizing mathematical modeling. The model is based on the first-order system transfer function and has been successfully applied to learning curves for the CVLT-C (15 words, semantically organized paradigm). Results indicate that learning nine semantically unrelated words produces typical curvilinear (executive function) performance in children and younger adolescents and that performance could be effectively analyzed with the mathematical model. This indicates that the exponential increase (curvilinear performance) of correctly learned words does not solely depend on semantic and/or length features. This type of test controls semantic and length effects and may represent complementary tools for executive function evaluation in clinical populations in which semantic and/or length processing are affected.
Cousins, Katheryn A Q; Dar, Hayim; Wingfield, Arthur; Miller, Paul
Recall of recently heard words is affected by the clarity of presentation: Even if all words are presented with sufficient clarity for successful recognition, those that are more difficult to hear are less likely to be recalled. Such a result demonstrates that memory processing depends on more than whether a word is simply "recognized" versus "not recognized." More surprising is that, when a single item in a list of spoken words is acoustically masked, prior words that were heard with full clarity are also less likely to be recalled. To account for such a phenomenon, we developed the linking-by-active-maintenance model (LAMM). This computational model of perception and encoding predicts that these effects will be time dependent. Here we challenged our model by investigating whether and how the impact of acoustic masking on memory depends on presentation rate. We found that a slower presentation rate causes a more disruptive impact of stimulus degradation on prior, clearly heard words than does a fast rate. These results are unexpected according to prior theories of effortful listening, but we demonstrated that they can be accounted for by LAMM.
Spurgeon, Jessica; Ward, Geoff; Matthews, William J.
Participants who are presented with a short list of words for immediate free recall (IFR) show a strong tendency to initiate their recall with the 1st list item and then proceed in forward serial order. We report 2 experiments that examined whether this tendency was underpinned by a short-term memory store, of the type that is argued by some to…
Cons, Andrea Marie
This study investigated the specific ways secondary English learners (ELs) and redesignated fluent English-proficient learners (RFEPs) use academic vocabulary that assesses interpretive reading and analytical writing ability. The research examines how ELs and RFEPs, formerly ELs, differ in use and misuse of academic words. The study extends…
Mississippi State Board of Trustees of State Institutions of Higher Learning, Jackson.
This publication presents a numerical and summary listing of academic degree programs at Mississippi State institutions of higher education. Programs are listed by discipline. Program levels include: bachelor's degree, master's degree, specialist degree, sixth year degree, doctoral degree, first professional degree, associate degree, and…
Trail, Ronald L.
This volume is a compilation of comparative word lists from ten languages--seven Indo-Aryan, one Munda, and two Dravidian--plus English. Three of the languages are from Nepal (Maithili, Tharu, and Dhangar-Kudux); the rest are from India (Kotiya Oriya, Kupia, Halbi, Lamani-Banjara, Hindi, Parengi, and Kolami). The list contains approximately 1700…
Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.
The "word frequency paradox" refers to the finding that low frequency words are better recognized than high frequency words yet high frequency words are better recalled than low frequency words. Rather than comparing separate groups of low and high frequency words, we sought to quantify the functional relation between word frequency and…
Bullinaria, John A; Levy, Joseph P
In a previous article, we presented a systematic computational study of the extraction of semantic representations from the word-word co-occurrence statistics of large text corpora. The conclusion was that semantic vectors of pointwise mutual information values from very small co-occurrence windows, together with a cosine distance measure, consistently resulted in the best representations across a range of psychologically relevant semantic tasks. This article extends that study by investigating the use of three further factors--namely, the application of stop-lists, word stemming, and dimensionality reduction using singular value decomposition (SVD)--that have been used to provide improved performance elsewhere. It also introduces an additional semantic task and explores the advantages of using a much larger corpus. This leads to the discovery and analysis of improved SVD-based methods for generating semantic representations (that provide new state-of-the-art performance on a standard TOEFL task) and the identification and discussion of problems and misleading results that can arise without a full systematic study.
Townsend, Dianna; Filippini, Alexis; Collins, Penelope; Biancarosa, Gina
Despite the current theoretical momentum for the importance of academic English and the acknowledgment that academic materials increase in complexity through the grades, little empirical attention has been devoted to the role of academic English in academic achievement. This study examined the amount of variance in academic achievement explained…
Consonni, Monica; Rossi, Stefania; Cerami, Chiara; Marcone, Alessandra; Iannaccone, Sandro; Francesco Cappa, Stefano; Perani, Daniela
The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is widely used in clinical practice to evaluate verbal episodic memory. While there is evidence that RAVLT performance can be influenced by executive dysfunction, the way executive disorders affect the serial position curve (SPC) has not been yet explored. To this aim, we analysed immediate and delayed recall performances of 13 non-demented amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with a specific mild executive dysfunction (ALSci) and compared their performances to those of 48 healthy controls (HC) and 13 cognitively normal patients with ALS. Moreover, to control for the impact of a severe dysexecutive syndrome and a genuine episodic memory deficit on the SPC, we enrolled 15 patients with a diagnosis of behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and 18 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Results documented that, compared to cognitively normal subjects, ALSci patients had a selective mid-list impairment for immediate recall scores. The bvFTD group obtained low performances with a selectively increased forgetting rate for terminal items, whereas the AD group showed a disproportionately large memory loss on the primary and middle part of the SPC for immediate recall scores and were severely impaired in the delayed recall trial. These results suggested that subtle executive dysfunctions might influence the recall of mid-list items, possibly reflecting deficiency in control strategies at retrieval of word lists, whereas severer dysexecutive syndrome might also affect the recall of terminal items possibly due to attention deficit or retroactive interference.
Chen, Qi; Guang-Chun, Ge
We conducted a lexical study on the word frequency and the text coverage of the 570 word families from Coxhead's Academic Word List (AWL) in medical research articles (RAs) based on a corpus of 50 medical RAs written in English with 190425 running words. By computer analysis, we found that the text coverage of the AWL words accounted for around…
States that although Internet "gurus" advocate that users refrain from "flaming," in fact, flaming permeates the Internet. Explores the nature of flaming in its characteristics and forms as seen in academic discussion groups. Argues that flaming educates the ignorant, tames the uncouth, and promotes effective communication. (PA)
Khanna, Maya M.; Badura-Brack, Amy S.; McDermott, Timothy M.; Shepherd, Alex; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Pine, Daniel S.; Bar-Haim, Yair; Wilson, Tony W.
We examined two groups of combat veterans, one with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (n=27) and another without PTSD (n=16), using an emotional Stroop task (EST) with word lists matched across a series of lexical variables (e.g., length, frequency, neighbourhood size, etc.). Participants with PTSD exhibited a strong EST effect (longer colour-naming latencies for combat-relevant words as compared to neutral words). Veterans without PTSD produced no such effect, t <.918, p >.37. Participants with PTSD then completed eight sessions of attention training (Attention Control Training or Attention Bias Modification Training) with a dot-probe task utilizing threatening and neutral faces. After training, participants - especially those undergoing Attention Control Training - no longer produced longer colour-naming latencies for combat-related words as compared to other words, indicating normalized attention allocation processes after treatment. PMID:26309165
Using the academic writing sub-corpora of the Corpus of Contemporary American English and the British National Corpus as data and building on previous research, this study strives to identify the most frequently-used multi-word constructions (MWCs) of various types (e.g., idioms, lexical bundles, and phrasal/prepositional verbs) in general…
This study claims that Arab ESL students writing in English transfer L1 rhetorical modes of text organization into their English compositions. Fifty academic research papers were analysed in terms of the transition words and cohesive devices used, on the assumption that differences at the level of these language forms reflect differences at the…
Cervera, Teresa; Rosell, Vicente
This study evaluated the effects of the linguistic context on the recognition of words in noise in older listeners using the Spanish Sentence Lists. These sentences were developed based on the approach of the SPIN test for the English language, which contains high and low predictability (HP and LP) sentences. In addition, the relative contribution…
Langenmayr, A; Gözütok, M; Gust, J
In lists with words from languages not known to the subjects (students of the University of Essen, Germany, and in one experiment Polish teachers in North Poland), nouns were remembered more often than verbs, and the effect was not dependent on the length of the words. The effect was clearer with languages with a strong (Swahili) or medium (Hungarian, Turkish) tendency to marcation and less with languages with a tendency for weak marcation (Japanese). We interpreted this effect as influenced by syntactic phonetic symbolism, assuming there is a phonologic and prosodic difference between nouns and verbs.
Maki, Ruth H; Weigold, Arne; Arellano, Abbigail
Using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, we investigated recall of presented and nonpresented associated words by collaborating groups, nominal groups, and individuals. In Experiment 1, participants recalled individually and then recalled in collaborating groups. Nominal groups made up of individual recall produced more presented and nonpresented associated words than did collaborating groups. Collaborating groups recalled more presented words than did individuals, but not more nonpresented words. In Experiment 2, collaborating groups versus individuals was a between-subjects variable, and everyone made two recall attempts. For recall, the pattern was the same as that in Experiment 1, in that collaborating groups recalled more presented words than did individuals but about the same number of nonpresented words. In a DRM paradigm, collaborating groups were able to produce more presented words than were individuals, without increasing their false recall.
Grühn, Daniel; Smith, Jacqui; Baltes, Paul B
Some authors argue for a memory advantage of older adults for positively toned material. To investigate the contribution of selective processing to a positivity effect, the authors investigated young (n = 72, aged 18 to 31) and older (n = 72, aged 64 to 75) adults' memory for emotionally toned words using a multitrial paradigm that compares performance for heterogeneous (mixed valence) and homogeneous (single valence) lists. Regarding the age comparison, there was no evidence for an aging bias favoring positive material. Moreover, older adults' memory was less affected by emotion-based processing prioritization. Although there was no support for age-specific processing biases in memory for emotionally toned words, the findings are consistent with proposals that negative information receives processing priority in some contexts. Possible limits to the generalizability of the present findings (e.g., to nonverbal material) are discussed.
Vocabulary in a second language is an indispensable building block of all comprehension (Folse, 2006; Nation, 2006). Teachers in content area classes such as science, math, and social studies frequently teach content specific vocabulary, but are not aware of the obstacles that can occur when students do not know the basic words. Word lists such as the General Service List (GSL) were created to assist students and teachers (West, 1953). The GSL does not adequately take into account the high level of polysemy of many common English words, nor has it been updated by genre to reflect specific content domains encountered by secondary science students in today's high stakes classes such as chemistry. This study examines how many words of the first 1000 words of the GSL occurred in the secondary chemistry textbooks sampled, how often the first 1000 words of the GSL were polysemous, and specifically which multiple meanings occurred. A discussion of results includes word tables that list multiple meanings present, example phrases that illustrate the context surrounding the target words, suggestions for a GSL that is genre specific to secondary chemistry textbooks and that is ranked by meaning as well as type, and implications for both vocabulary materials and classroom instruction for ELLs in secondary chemistry classes. Findings are essential to second language (L2) researchers, materials developers, publishers, and teachers.
Chadwick, Stephen; Bruce, Nigel
A study at Hong Kong University explored the use of the word processor as a writing tool in enhancing a process approach to writing instruction and the effect it has on writing performance, student attitudes to writing and revising, and the process by which students revise their scripts. A comparative analysis was done on a control group of 13…
Birmingham, Elizabeth A.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of learning various types of words in biology on students' reading comprehension, vocabulary performance, and science content knowledge. The study involved 315 ninth grade biology students who were placed in one of four groups and spent two weeks for ten minutes per day working on independent…
National Association of Scholars, 2006
Few people outside of academic life are fully aware of the yawning gap that has opened between the cultural allegiances of American higher education and the country at large. Particularly arresting is the degree to which traditional conceptions of a unified American nationality, based on shared beliefs in liberty and individualism, have been…
Baugerud, Gunn Astrid; Howe, Mark L; Magnussen, Svein; Melinder, Annika
Maltreated (n=26) and non-maltreated (n=31) 7- to 12-year-old children were tested on the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory task using emotional and neutral word lists. True recall was significantly better for non-maltreated than maltreated children regardless of list valence. The proportion of false recall for neutral lists was comparable regardless of maltreatment status. However, maltreated children showed a significantly higher false recall rate for the emotional lists than non-maltreated children. Together, these results provide new evidence that maltreated children could be more prone to false memory illusions for negatively valenced information than their non-maltreated counterparts.
Weigold, Arne; Russell, Elizabeth J; Natera, Sara N
Collaborative inhibition is often observed for both correct and false memories. However, research examining the mechanisms by which collaborative inhibition occurs, such as retrieval disruption, reality monitoring, or group filtering, is lacking. In addition, the creation of the nominal groups (i.e., groups artificially developed by combining individuals' recall) necessary for examining collaborative inhibition do not use statistical best practices. Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, we examined percentages of correct and false memories in individuals, collaborative interactive groups, and correctly created nominal groups, as well as the processes that the collaborative interactive groups used to determine which memories to report. Results showed evidence of the collaborative inhibition effect. In addition, analyses of the collaborative interactive groups' discussions found that these groups wrote down almost all presented words but less than half of nonpresented critical words, after discussing them, with nonpresented critical words being stated to the group with lower confidence and rejected by other group members more often. Overall, our findings indicated support for the group filtering hypothesis.
Suhr, Julie; Demireva, Petya; Heffner, Kathi
A pattern of performance on a word list learning task known as a reduced primacy effect has been shown to be characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can distinguish AD from depression. Deficits in memory and hippocampal atrophy seen in AD have been associated with hypercortisolism. The present study evaluated whether the reduced primacy effect is associated with elevated salivary cortisol in a sample of 40 healthy older community-dwelling adults participating in a study of memory and stress. We found that primacy, but not recency, was associated with higher salivary cortisol levels. In addition, participants who showed a reduced primacy had higher salivary cortisol levels than those with a normal serial position curve. Results suggest that there may be value to examining both serial position curves and changes to cortisol patterns over time as potential predictors of cognitive decline in healthy older adults.
Gross, Alden L.; Rebok, George W.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Willis, Sherry L.; Brandt, Jason
Data from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) trial (N=2,802) were analyzed to examine whether word list learning predicts future everyday functioning. Using stepwise random effects modeling, measures from the modified administrations of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) and the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) were independently predictive of everyday IADL functioning, problem-solving, and psychomotor speed. Associations between memory scores and everyday functioning outcomes remained significant across follow-up intervals spanning five years. HVLT total recall score was consistently the strongest predictor of each functional outcome. Results suggest that verbal memory measures are uniquely associated with both current and future functioning and that specific verbal memory tests like the HVLT and AVLT have important clinical utility in predicting future functional ability among older adults. PMID:21069610
Sakiey, Elizabeth; Fry, Edward
This book presents the 3,000 most frequently used words in rank and alphabetical orders. The words were derived from the American Heritage word list of the approximately 87,000 most frequent words in a count of 5 million running words sampled from a variety of elementary and secondary level curriculum materials, magazines, and books. The book…
Comesaña, Montserrat; Ferré, Pilar; Romero, Joaquín; Guasch, Marc; Soares, Ana P.; García-Chico, Teófilo
Recent research has shown that cognate word processing is modulated by variables such as degree of orthographic and phonological overlap of cognate words and task requirements in such a way that the typical preferential processing observed in the literature for cognate words relative to non-cognate words can be annulled or even reversed (Comesaña…
Tam, Cynthia; Wells, David
Visual-cognitive loads influence the effectiveness of word prediction technology. Adjusting parameters of word prediction programs can lessen visual-cognitive loads. This study evaluated the benefits of WordQ word prediction software for users' performance when the prediction window was moved to a personal digital assistant (PDA) device placed at…
Judde, Sarah; Rickard, Nikki
Memory consolidation processes occur slowly over time, allowing recently formed memories to be altered soon after acquisition. Although post-learning arousal treatments have been found to modulate memory consolidation, examination of the temporal parameters of these effects in humans has been limited. In the current study, 127 participants learned a neutral word list and were exposed to either a positively or negatively arousing musical piece following delays of 0, 20 or 45min. One-week later, participants completed a long-term memory recognition test, followed by Carver and White's (1994) approach/avoidance personality scales. Retention was significantly enhanced, regardless of valence, when the emotion manipulation occurred at 20min, but not immediately or 45min, post-learning. Further, the 20min interval effect was found to be moderated by high 'drive' approach sensitivity. The selective facilitatory conditions of music identified in the current study (timing and personality) offer valuable insights for future development of more specified memory intervention strategies.
Jones, Stephanie M.; Kim, James; LaRusso, Maria; Kim, Ha Yeon; Selman, Robert; Uccelli, Paola; Barnes, Sophie; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine
Word Generation (WG) is a research-based vocabulary program for middle school students designed to teach words through language arts, math, science, and social studies classes. The program consists of weekly units that introduce 5 high-utility target words through brief passages designed to spark active examination and discussion of contemporary…
Hulme, Charles; Neath, Ian; Stuart, George; Shostak, Lisa; Surprenant, Aimee M.; Brown, Gordon D. A.
The authors report 2 experiments that compare the serial recall of pure lists of long words, pure lists of short words, and lists of long or short words containing just a single isolated word of a different length. In both experiments for pure lists, there was a substantial recall advantage for short words; the isolated words were recalled better…
Baek, Min Jae; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Sangyun
Among verbal memory tests, two that are commonly used to measure the ability of verbal memory function in cognitive impairment are story recall tests and word-list learning tests. However, research is limited regarding which test might be more sensitive in discriminating between normal cognitive aging and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the Korean population. The purpose of the current study was to compare the word-list learning test (Seoul Verbal Learning Test; SVLT) and the story recall test (Korean Story Recall Test; KSRT) to determine which test is more sensitive in discriminating between individuals with normal cognitive aging and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage of AD in Korea. A total of 53 healthy adults, 127 patients with MCI, and 72 patients with early stage of AD participated in this study. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under the curve (AUC) were evaluated to compare these two tests. The results showed that the AUC of the SVLT was significantly larger than the AUC of the KSRT in all three groups (healthy adults vs. MCI and early stage of AD; healthy adults vs. MCI; healthy adults vs. early stage of AD). However, in comparison of patients with MCI and early stage of AD, the AUC of SVLT and the AUC of KSRT were not significant. The word-list learning test is a more useful tool for examining verbal memory function for older adults in Korea than the story recall test.
Cameron, Cleo; Siddall, Gillian
This article outlines and assesses the research into resource management and ordering processes at the University of Northampton and academics' knowledge of these processes. The aim of the research was to identify ways of streamlining the service, to improve communication between academic and library staff, with the objective of an enhanced…
Modern academic libraries have a great number of information resources available online in the form of electronic catalogs, books, journals, and subject subscription databases. To determine whether users can easily retrieve the information they are seeking, academic librarians conduct usability testing of their libraries' Web sites. There has been…
Adel, Annelie; Erman, Britt
In order for discourse to be considered idiomatic, it needs to exhibit features like fluency and pragmatically appropriate language use. Advances in corpus linguistics make it possible to examine idiomaticity from the perspective of recurrent word combinations. One approach to capture such word combinations is by the automatic retrieval of lexical…
Jackson, Julie; Narvaez, Rose
It is common to see word walls displaying the vocabulary that students have learned in class. Word walls serve as visual scaffolds and are a classroom strategy used to reinforce reading and language arts instruction. Research shows a strong relationship between student word knowledge and academic achievement (Stahl and Fairbanks 1986). As a…
King, Lisabeth A., Comp.; And Others
This directory is a compilation of entries for nearly 2,500 scholarly discussion lists and 675 electronic journals, newsletters, and related titles such as newsletter-digests, available on the Internet. Instructions are provided for accessing each publication. Part 1 is an introduction to electronic scholarly publications, followed by the articles…
Miller, Donald Patrick
Acknowledging the important role of reading in the university curriculum, and the important role that vocabulary plays in successful reading comprehension, researchers have directed a great deal of effort toward identifying ways that teachers and learners of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) can maximize vocabulary development efforts. Due to…
Evrard, Christelle; Gilet, Anne-Laure; Colombel, Fabienne; Dufermont, Elodie; Corson, Yves
Why do some Alzheimer's patients produce fewer false memories than healthy older participants in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, which was especially designed for the study of false memories in a laboratory setting? Using a very simple methodology, this study examines a new explanatory factor inherent in the paradigm itself: the order of presentation of the words in the lists. A sample comprising 149 participants (36 younger, 40 middle-aged, 37 healthy older adults, and 36 Alzheimer's patients) performed a DRM task with either a classic descending forward associative strength (FAS) presentation order of the words or an ascending FAS presentation order. The results showed that this simple manipulation influenced the production of false memories in Alzheimer's patients only. Contrary to the other participants, Alzheimer's patients produced significantly more critical lures in the ascending FAS condition than in the descending FAS condition. These new data, interpreted in the light of serial position effects, invite a reconsideration of the relevance of the DRM paradigm for comparing the production of false memories in Alzheimer's patients and healthy older participants.
The program, STORY-LIST, generates alphabetized cumulative word lists by story number within a school grade. It is designed to read a group of cards until it finds a new grade/story number. Each word read is stored in an array, sorted, and an asterisk is added to each word in the array. This array is then merged with the old sorted word list and…
Frost, Jørgen; Ottem, Ernst; Hagtvet, Bente E.; Snow, Catherine E.
In the present study, 81 Norwegian students were taught the meaning of words by the Word Generation (WG) method and 51 Norwegian students were taught by an approach inspired by the Thinking Schools (TS) concept. Two sets of words were used: a set of words to be trained and a set of non-trained control words. The two teaching methods yielded no…
Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Sauvigné, Katheryn C.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Cautin, Robin L.; Latzman, Robert D.; Waldman, Irwin D.
The goal of this article is to promote clear thinking and clear writing among students and teachers of psychological science by curbing terminological misinformation and confusion. To this end, we present a provisional list of 50 commonly used terms in psychology, psychiatry, and allied fields that should be avoided, or at most used sparingly and with explicit caveats. We provide corrective information for students, instructors, and researchers regarding these terms, which we organize for expository purposes into five categories: inaccurate or misleading terms, frequently misused terms, ambiguous terms, oxymorons, and pleonasms. For each term, we (a) explain why it is problematic, (b) delineate one or more examples of its misuse, and (c) when pertinent, offer recommendations for preferable terms. By being more judicious in their use of terminology, psychologists and psychiatrists can foster clearer thinking in their students and the field at large regarding mental phenomena. PMID:26284019
Tired of assigning weekly spelling lists that students memorize for the test only to have them misspell the words in their daily writing? Then join Max Brand in his fifth-grade classroom where word learning is integrated fully into literacy workshops. Using spelling investigations, word study notebooks, reading logs, and writers' notebooks,…
IN PREPARATION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A GENERAL FREQUENCY WORD LIST IN GERMAN DESIGNED TO MEET THE NEEDS OF THE INTERMEDIATE AND ADVANCED LEVELS OF READING IN THE GERMAN CURRICULUM, A COMPUTER-BASED WORD COUNT WAS BEGUN IN AUSTRALIA'S UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE. USING MAGNETIC TAPES CONTAINING (1) A TEXT OF OVER 100,000 RUNNING WORDS, (2) 1,000 MOST…
Troia, Gary A.
This study evaluated the efficacy of the computer-assisted intervention program known as Fast ForWord Language? in a sample of migrant students in Grades 1 through 6 who were native Spanish speakers. Fast ForWord Language? combines intensive training in multiple receptive English language skills with adaptive acoustic waveform lengthening and…
One of the major goals in deaf education is to teach deaf and hard of hearing students the tools and strategies to solve mathematical word problems. A mathematical word problem curriculum was designed and implemented based on telling, reading and writing number tales in American Sign Language (ASL) and English. The learning experiences helped…
THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO EXPLORE DEVELOPMENTALLY THE FEATURES OF WORDS USED IN THE PROCESS OF ORGANIZING RELATED WORDS TOGETHER. A CONTINUOUS RECOGNITION MEMORY TASK OF 121 WORDS WAS USED IN WHICH SOME OF THE WORDS (EXPERIMENTAL WORDS) PRESENTED ONLY ONCE IN THE LIST WERE SEMANTICALLY OR PHONETICALLY RELATED TO OTHER LIST WORDS. EIGHTY THIRD-…
Hsia, Sophie; And Others
Reports data collected by supervised student investigators on learners' use of strategies in organizing words when learning English as a Second Language. Results proved that word grouping was a worthwhile study. A second study investigated word organization strategies of secondary school students given a list of 50 words. (33 references)…
Goodman, Kenneth S.; Bird, Lois Bridges
Describes and examines the word choice and frequency in six tests and raises questions about the use of word lists and controlled vocabulary in producing basal readers, judging and manipulating readability of texts, and building vocabulary. (HOD)
Bauer, Lisa M; Olheiser, Erik L; Altarriba, Jeanette; Landi, Nicole
Previous research has demonstrated that definable qualities of verbal stimuli have implications for memory. For example, the distinction between concrete and abstract words has led to the finding that concrete words have an advantage in memory tasks (i.e., the concreteness effect). However, other word types, such as words that label specific human emotions, may also affect memory processes. This study examined the effects of word type on the production of false memories by using a list-learning false memory paradigm. Participants heard lists of words that were highly associated to nonpresented concrete, abstract, or emotion words (i.e., the critical lures) and then engaged in list recall. Emotion word critical lures were falsely recalled at a significantly higher rate (with the effect carried by the positively valenced critical lures) than concrete and abstract critical lures. These findings suggest that the word type variable has implications for our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie recall and false recall.
In a study of the vocabulary proficiency of some South African ESL teacher trainees, the General Service List of English Words' validity was evaluated. It was found that mastery of this list would meet most of the vocabulary needs of the test group. Recommendations are made for practical uses of word counts. (MSE)
Sylvester, Teresa; Braun, Mario; Schmidtke, David; Jacobs, Arthur M.
While research on affective word processing in adults witnesses increasing interest, the present paper looks at another group of participants that have been neglected so far: pupils (age range: 6–12 years). Introducing a variant of the Berlin Affective Wordlist (BAWL) especially adapted for children of that age group, the “kidBAWL,” we examined to what extent pupils process affective lexical semantics similarly to adults. In three experiments using rating and valence decision tasks in both the visual and auditory modality, it was established that children show the two ubiquitous phenomena observed in adults with emotional word material: the asymmetric U-shaped function relating valence to arousal ratings, and the inversely U-shaped function relating response times to valence decision latencies. The results for both modalities show large structural similarities between pupil and adult data (taken from previous studies) indicating that in the present age range, the affective lexicon and the dynamic interplay between language and emotion is already well-developed. Differential effects show that younger children tend to choose less extreme ratings than older children and that rating latencies decrease with age. Overall, our study should help to develop more realistic models of word recognition and reading that include affective processes and offer a methodology for exploring the roots of pleasant literary experiences and ludic reading. PMID:27445930
Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Bireta, Tamra J.; Surprenant, Aimee M.
The word length effect, the finding that lists of short words are better recalled than lists of long words, has been termed one of the benchmark findings that any theory of immediate memory must account for. Indeed, the effect led directly to the development of working memory and the phonological loop, and it is viewed as the best remaining…
Walter, Donald A.
A model dealing with the function of elaboration in word encoding was evaluated using a 2-list recognition procedure that varied encoding time within the presentation list. The model predicted that elaboration, reflected in the incidence of false positives to associates of words presented in the recognition list, would increase as presentation…
Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Li, Cheng-Yi
The process of word form encoding was investigated in primed word naming and word typing with Chinese monosyllabic words. The target words shared or did not share the onset consonants with the prime words. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 100 ms or 300 ms. Typing required the participants to enter the phonetic letters of the target word,…
The current study attempted to investigate the development of Arabic academic vocabulary knowledge among middle-school Arabic native speakers, taking into account the socioeconomic status of the Arab population in Israel. For this purpose, Arabic academic word list was developed, mapping the required academic words that are needed for adequate coping with informational texts as appearing in the different content areas text-books. Six-hundred Arabic speaking middle school pupils from the different areas in Israel, representing the different Arab subgroups: general Arab community, Druze and Bedouins, have participated in the current study. Two academic vocabulary tests, including receptive and productive academic vocabulary evaluation tests, were administrated to the students across the different age groups (7th, 8th and 9th). The results pointed to no significant difference between 7th and 9th grade in academic vocabulary knowledge. In contrast, significant difference was encountered between the different Arab sub-groups where the lowest scores were noted among the Bedouin sub-group, characterized by the lowest SES. When comparing receptive and productive academic vocabulary knowledge between 7th and 9th grade, the results pointed to improvement in receptive academic knowledge towards the end of middle school but not on the productive knowledge level. In addition, within participants' comparison indicated a gap between the pupils' receptive and productive vocabulary. The results are discussed in relation to the existing scientific literature and to its implication of both research and practice in the domain of Arabic literacy development.
... product. The signal word can be ei- ther: DANGER,WARNING or CAUTION. Products with the DANGER signal word are the most toxic. Products with ... causes moderate eye or skin irritation. 2,4 DANGER means that the pesticide product is highly toxic ...
Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on…
Fritzen, James D.
A list discrimination paradigm was used to examine the effects of orienting tasks upon the later temporal discrimination of words. The orienting task involved judgments about the relatedness of the words in a list to some concept. (Editor)
Cuetos, Fernando; Glez-Nosti, Maria; Barbon, Analia; Brysbaert, Marc
Recent studies have shown that word frequency estimates obtained from films and television subtitles are better to predict performance in word recognition experiments than the traditional word frequency estimates based on books and newspapers. In this study, we present a subtitle-based word frequency list for Spanish, one of the most widely spoken…
Kress, Jacqueline E.
The book for teachers of English as a Second Language (ESL) contains 80 lists of words, expressions, constructions, ideas, and materials for use in ESL lesson planning and classroom instruction. The lists are presented in seven groups: (1) general vocabulary, consisting of 21 lists of English words used in various situations in daily life,…
"Sort Stories: Leveled Reading Supplement to Words Their Way: Word Sorts for Letter Name-Alphabet Spellers" effectiveness was tested using five English language learner (ELL) students in the fifth and sixth grade. "Sort Stories" uses the word lists and accompanying clip-art from "Words Their Way" in developmental, grade-level specific, short read…
Describes the kinds of computer equipment needed for a personal word processing system. The characteristics and capabilities of specific devices, including keyboards, printers, and disk drives, are discussed. (JL)
Toglia, M P; Hinman, P J; Dayton, B S; Catalano, J F
Picture and word recall was examined in conjunction with list organization. 60 subjects studied a list of 30 items, either words or their pictorial equivalents. The 30 words/pictures, members of five conceptual categories, each represented by six exemplars, were presented either blocked by category or in a random order. While pictures were recalled better than words and a standard blocked-random effect was observed, the interaction indicated that the recall advantage of a blocked presentation was restricted to the word lists. A similar pattern emerged for clustering. These findings are discussed in terms of limitations upon the pictorial superiority effect.
Boettcher, Sage E. P.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.
In “Hybrid Search” (Wolfe 2012) observers search through visual space for any of multiple targets held in memory. With photorealistic objects as stimuli, response times (RTs) increase linearly with the visual set size and logarithmically with memory set size even when over 100 items are committed to memory. It is well established that pictures of objects are particularly easy to memorize (Brady, Konkle, Alvarez, & Olivia, 2008). Would hybrid search performance be similar if the targets were words or phrases where word order can be important and where the processes of memorization might be different? In Experiment One, observers memorized 2, 4, 8, or 16 words in 4 different blocks. After passing a memory test, confirming memorization of the list, observers searched for these words in visual displays containing 2 to 16 words. Replicating Wolfe (2012), RTs increased linearly with the visual set size and logarithmically with the length of the word list. The word lists of Experiment One were random. In Experiment Two, words were drawn from phrases that observers reported knowing by heart (E.G. “London Bridge is falling down”). Observers were asked to provide four phrases ranging in length from 2 words to a phrase of no less than 20 words (range 21–86). Words longer than 2 characters from the phrase constituted the target list. Distractor words were matched for length and frequency. Even with these strongly ordered lists, results again replicated the curvilinear function of memory set size seen in hybrid search. One might expect serial position effects; perhaps reducing RTs for the first (primacy) and/or last (recency) members of a list (Atkinson & Shiffrin 1968; Murdock, 1962). Surprisingly we showed no reliable effects of word order. Thus, in “London Bridge is falling down”, “London” and “down” are found no faster than “falling”. PMID:25788035
Hirsh, Stephanie A.; Kemerer, Frank R.
This document was prepared to inform teachers about their academic freedom rights and to assist teachers who are confronted with a potential academic freedom issue. It provides (1) an essay which outlines the issues, (2) a list of significant decisions of the U.S. Courts of Appeals and their implications, (3) steps to follow when academic freedom…
Rumelhart, D.E.; Skokowski, P.G.; Martin, B.O.
In this project we have developed a language model based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for use in conjunction with automatic textual search or speech recognition systems. The model can be trained on large corpora of text to produce probability estimates that would improve the ability of systems to identify words in a sentence given partial contextual information. The model uses a gradient-descent learning procedure to develop a metric of similarity among terms in a corpus, based on context. Using lexical categories based on this metric, a network can then be trained to do serial word probability estimation. Such a metric can also be used to improve the performance of topic-based search by allowing retrieval of information that is related to desired topics even if no obvious set of key words unites all the retrieved items.
Smith, Sarah; Sanchez, Claudia; Betty, Sharon; Davis, Shiloh
4 Corners Vocabulary Charts (FCVCs) are explored as a multipurpose vehicle for processing academic language in a 5th-grade classroom. FCVCs typically display a vocabulary word, an illustration of the word, synonyms associated with the word, a sentence using a given vocabulary word, and a definition of the term in students' words. The use of…
Prompted by a parent's comment that indicated a desire for her elementary-age children to learn the elements and principles of design in their art class, the author set out to enrich her own understanding and appreciation of the language used in the art room. Looking at word origins helps students appreciate the significance of art and craft in…
Cantu, Virginia, Comp.; And Others
Prepared by bilingual teacher aide students, this glossary provides the Spanish translation of about 1,300 English words used in the bilingual classroom. Intended to serve as a handy reference for teachers, teacher aides, and students, the glossary can also be used in teacher training programs as a vocabulary builder for future bilingual teachers…
The Freiburg monosyllabic test has a word inventory based on the word frequency in written sources from the 19th century, the distribution of which is not even between the test lists. The median distributions of word frequency ranking in contemporary language of nine test lists deviate significantly from the overall median of all 400 monosyllables. Lists 1, 6, 9, 10, and 17 include significantly more very rarely used words; lists 2, 3, 5, and 15, include significantly more very frequently used words. Compared with the word frequency in the contemporary spoken German language, about 45 % of the test words are practically no longer used. Due to this high proportion of extremely rarely or no longer used words, the word inventory is no longer representative of the contemporary German language-neither for the written, nor for the spoken language. Highly educated persons with a large vocabulary are thereby favored. The reference values for normal-hearing persons should therefore be reevaluated.
Ehri, Linnea C.
A study examined when young children begin processing phonetic cues for reading. Subjects were kindergartners selected and classified by their ability to read preprimer and primer level words on a 40-word list--prereaders (0-1 words known), novices (1-11 words known), and veterans (11-36 words known). Subjects were given reading practice with…
Cobb, Tom; Horst, Marlise
This study reports on the design and testing of an integrated suite of vocabulary training games for Nintendo[TM] collectively designated "My Word Coach" (Ubisoft, 2008). The games' design is based on a wide range of learning research, from classic studies on recycling patterns to frequency studies of modern corpora. Its general usage…
Sullivan, Maureen; Konrad, Moira; Joseph, Laurice M.; Luu, Ken C. T.
The authors compared the effects of two sight word fluency drills (i.e., reading racetrack and list drills). They used a repeated acquisition design across 8 second-grade students identified as at risk for reading difficulties. More participants performed better when they read words on the reading racetrack than on the list; however, results were…
Broadbent, Donald E.; Broadbent, Margaret H. P.
The entire paper can be summarized by considering the presentation of a stimulus which acts by restricting the set of possible words to a defined short list and the resulting human choice that makes use of information from the stimulus to favor one of the words in the list rather than others. (Author/RK)
Au-Yeung, James; Howell, Peter; Pilgrim, Lesley
Stuttering on function words was examined in 51 children and adults who stutter. Stuttering rate was a function of age (children stuttered more on function words), position (function words in early positions in utterances were more likely to be stuttered), and on whether the function word occurred before or after the single content word.…
Mostow, Jack; Gates, Donna; Ellison, Ross; Goutam, Rahul
Vocabulary knowledge is crucial to literacy development and academic success. Previous research has shown learning the meaning of a word requires encountering it in diverse informative contexts. In this work, we try to identify "nutritious" contexts for a word--contexts that help students build a rich mental representation of the word's…
Greif, Ivo P.
To determine the usefulness of the commonly taught phonics rule, "only pronounce the first vowel in words that contain adjacent vowels" (the VV rule, with the first "v" pronounced with the long vowel sound), two new studies applied it to words with adjacent vowels in several lists and dictionaries. The first study analyzed words containing…
Glazer, Susan Mandel
In the past, some teachers treated word learning as an isolated subject--a list of words that were not connected to content or literature studies. This article describes how Candy Mulligan, a teacher at the Center for Reading and Writing at Rider University in Lawrenceville, NJ, teaches vocabulary by selecting words from the students' seventh and…
Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe
Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. We compare performance with letters and words in three experiments, to explore the extents and limits of the WSE. Using a carefully controlled list of three letter words, we show that a WSE can be revealed in vocal reaction times even to undegraded stimuli. With a novel combination of psychophysics and mathematical modeling, we further show that the typical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual processing speed: single words are simply processed faster than single letters. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously, letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and visual short term memory (VSTM) capacity. So, even if single words come easy, there is a limit to the WSE.
Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.
Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.
Discussion of the current market-orientation of higher education institutions outlines five ways they can appropriately respond to students and employers: creating a culture focusing on student learning, not teaching; accepting responsibility to teach more than course content; involving students in establishing objectives for learning; making…
DiStefano, Philip; Hagerty, Patricia
Eleven spelling series were analyzed by grade level to determine their use of high-frequency words, and students' writing samples were examined for misspellings of such words. Researchers found considerable variation among word lists in the series and suggest that student writing may be a better source of words for spelling lists. (PP)
Within the communicative approach, often the assumption has been that with the right exposure, students will simply "pick up" the vocabulary required for learning and using English, and thus there is no need to focus on or teach it. Yet, as many teachers can attest, this is frequently not the case, and there have been recent efforts to…
Crawford, Jarret T; Leynes, P Andrew; Mayhorn, Christopher B; Bink, Martin L
A list of gender-related and gender-neutral words for use in testing gender stereotyping and memory was created and evaluated. Words were rated by samples of undergraduates at universities located in the northeast, southeast, and south-central United States. A substantial list of masculine, feminine, and gender-neutral words was identified. These lists allow researchers to construct large lists of gender-associated words while being able to control for extraneous variables, such as word frequency and word length. In addition, the high reliability across the samples suggests that gender ratings are a fairly stable phenomenon. Applications for this list are discussed. The word lists presented in Tables 1-3 and the raw data analyzed in this article may be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive/.
Academic language is the linguistic glue that holds the tasks, texts, and tests of school together. If students can't use this glue well, their academic work is likely to fall apart. According to the author of this article, "academic language" is defined as the set of words and phrases that (1) describe content-area knowledge and procedures; (2)…
Brun-Mercer, Nicole; Zimmerman, Cheryl Boyd
Though research has established a relationship between vocabulary knowledge and academic success and identified features to guide the L2 word learner through academic tasks (see Nation, 2013), less is known regarding student perceptions of academic vocabulary and the conscious decision-making process of these learners while they are writing. In…
Tucker, Shirley A.; And Others
This experiment was conducted to examine word presentation routines to determine their effectiveness in spelling drills. The design included segmentation or focal unit (letter, chunk, whole word), audio (audio, no audio), and word type (List 1--pronounceable chunks, List 2--pronounced in running speech). Subjects were 48 students in Grades 3, 4,…
North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Educational Media.
Computer courseware appropriate for instruction in grades K-12 is listed in two advisory lists. Entries, selected from materials submitted by producers which received favorable reviews by educators, are arranged in the following categories: arts education, communication skills, mathematics, science, utility (a quiz generator), word processing, and…
Masterson, Julie J; Apel, Kenn
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which spelling accuracy is influenced by response modality. A spelling list consisting of 40 words that varied in linguistic complexity was administered to students in Grades 2 through 6. Each student completed three tasks: (a) a words-per-minute measure to determine keyboarding proficiency, (b) spelling a word list via handwriting, and (c) spelling a word list on a computer. Independent variables included response modality, linguistic complexity, and grade level. Dependent measures included the percent words spelled correctly. Keyboarding proficiency was included as a covariate. Modality rarely affected spelling accuracy, regardless of the linguistic complexity of the target words. These findings suggest that spelling knowledge draws on modality-free, lexical representations stored in long-term memory. Further, they suggest that computer-based instruments are a viable option for spelling assessment.
Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. of Library Services.
To meet the needs of librarians and others for information on libraries in Wisconsin, Part I, a statistical section divides institutions according to control - whether public or private - then by type of institution, and then lists institutions alphabetically. Part II, an academic library directory, lists the name of the institution, address,…
Foltz, Franz; Foltz, Frederick
The authors explore how technique via propaganda has replaced the word with images creating a mass society and limiting the ability of people to act as individuals. They begin by looking at how words affect human society and how they have changed over time. They explore how technology has altered the meaning of words in order to create a more…
Boettcher, Sage E P; Wolfe, Jeremy M
In "hybrid search" (Wolfe Psychological Science, 23(7), 698-703, 2012), observers search through visual space for any of multiple targets held in memory. With photorealistic objects as the stimuli, response times (RTs) increase linearly with the visual set size and logarithmically with the memory set size, even when over 100 items are committed to memory. It is well-established that pictures of objects are particularly easy to memorize (Brady, Konkle, Alvarez, & Oliva Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 14325-14329, 2008). Would hybrid-search performance be similar if the targets were words or phrases, in which word order can be important, so that the processes of memorization might be different? In Experiment 1, observers memorized 2, 4, 8, or 16 words in four different blocks. After passing a memory test, confirming their memorization of the list, the observers searched for these words in visual displays containing two to 16 words. Replicating Wolfe (Psychological Science, 23(7), 698-703, 2012), the RTs increased linearly with the visual set size and logarithmically with the length of the word list. The word lists of Experiment 1 were random. In Experiment 2, words were drawn from phrases that observers reported knowing by heart (e.g., "London Bridge is falling down"). Observers were asked to provide four phrases, ranging in length from two words to no less than 20 words (range 21-86). All words longer than two characters from the phrase, constituted the target list. Distractor words were matched for length and frequency. Even with these strongly ordered lists, the results again replicated the curvilinear function of memory set size seen in hybrid search. One might expect to find serial position effects, perhaps reducing the RTs for the first (primacy) and/or the last (recency) members of a list (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968; Murdock Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 482-488, 1962). Surprisingly, we showed no reliable effects of word order
Dobbs, Christina L.; Kearns, Devin
Understanding academic vocabulary is essential to student success in school. Use of academic vocabulary words in writing is considered one of the strongest measures of how well a reader understands a given word. In theory, willingness to use academic vocabulary in writing indicates the complexity of acquiring representations of the word's…
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Academic training. 62.73 Section 62.73 Foreign... Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.73 Academic training. (a) Students meeting the definition listed... responsible officer or alternate responsible officer, engage in academic training pursuant to § 62.23(f)....
Kamp, Siri-Maria; Potts, Geoffrey F; Donchin, Emanuel
We examined the factors that contribute to enhanced recall for emotionally arousing words by analyzing behavioral performance, the P300 as an index of distinctiveness, and the N400 as an index of semantic expectancy violation in a modified Von Restorff paradigm. While their EEG was recorded, participants studied three list types (1) neutral words including one emotionally arousing isolate (either positive or negative), (2) arousing, negative words including one neutral isolate, or (3) arousing, positive words including one neutral isolate. Immediately after each list, free recall was tested. Negative, but not positive, words exhibited enhanced recall when presented as isolates in lists of neutral words and elicited a larger P300 for subsequently recalled than not-recalled words. This suggests that arousing, negative words stand out and that their distinctiveness contributes to their superior recall. Positive valence had an enhancing effect on recall only when the list contained mostly other positive words. Neutral isolates placed in either positive or negative lists elicited an N400, suggesting that semantic expectations developed in emotional word lists regardless of valence. However, semantic relatedness appeared to more strongly contribute to recall for positive than negative words. Our results suggest that distinctiveness and semantic relatedness contribute to episodic encoding of arousing words, but the impact of each factor depends on both a word's valence and its context.
This paper provides a means of quickly ascertaining the relative health of smaller academic libraries by presenting a top ten list of vitality indicators. The list is based on an observational convenience sampling of thirty smaller academic libraries across the United States. The indicators making the list were those which appeared most often in…
Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia; Grenfell-Essam, Rachel
In 4 experiments, participants were presented with lists of between 1 and 15 words for tests of immediate memory. For all tasks, participants tended to initiate recall with the first word on the list for short lists. As the list length was increased, so there was a decreased tendency to start with the first list item; and, when free to do so,…
Duràn, Carolina Palma; Pillon, Agnesa
We investigated the role of lexical syntactic information such as grammatical gender and category in spoken word retrieval processes by using a blocking paradigm in picture and written word naming experiments. In Experiments 1, 3, and 4, we found that the naming of target words (nouns) from pictures or written words was faster when these target words were named within a list where only words from the same grammatical category had to be produced (homogeneous category list: all nouns) than when they had to be produced within a list comprising also words from another grammatical category (heterogeneous category list: nouns and verbs). On the other hand, we detected no significant facilitation effect when the target words had to be named within a homogeneous gender list (all masculine nouns) compared to a heterogeneous gender list (both masculine and feminine nouns). In Experiment 2, using the same blocking paradigm by manipulating the semantic category of the items, we found that naming latencies were significantly slower in the semantic category homogeneous in comparison with the semantic category heterogeneous condition. Thus semantic category homogeneity caused an interference, not a facilitation effect like grammatical category homogeneity. Finally, in Experiment 5, nouns in the heterogeneous category condition had to be named just after a verb (category-switching position) or a noun (same-category position). We found a facilitation effect of category homogeneity but no significant effect of position, which showed that the effect of category homogeneity found in Experiments 1, 3, and 4 was not due to a cost of switching between grammatical categories in the heterogeneous grammatical category list. These findings supported the hypothesis that grammatical category information impacts word retrieval processes in speech production, even when words are to be produced in isolation. They are discussed within the context of extant theories of lexical production. PMID
Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Sykorova, Eva
Theories of verbal rehearsal usually assume that whole words are being rehearsed. However, words consist of letter sequences, or syllables, or word onset-vowel-coda, amongst many other conceptualizations of word structure. A more general term is the ‘grain size’ of word units (Ziegler and Goswami, 2005). In the current study, a new method measured the quantitative percentage of correctly remembered word structure. The amount of letters in the correct letter sequence as per cent of word length was calculated, disregarding missing or added letters. A forced rehearsal was tested by repeating each memory list four times. We tested low frequency (LF) English words versus geographical (UK) town names to control for content. We also tested unfamiliar international (INT) non-words and names of international (INT) European towns to control for familiarity. An immediate versus distributed repetition was tested with a between-subject design. Participants responded with word fragments in their written recall especially when they had to remember unfamiliar words. While memory of whole words was sensitive to content, presentation distribution and individual sex and language differences, recall of word fragments was not. There was no trade-off between memory of word fragments with whole word recall during the repetition, instead also word fragments significantly increased. Moreover, while whole word responses correlated with each other during repetition, and word fragment responses correlated with each other during repetition, these two types of word recall responses were not correlated with each other. Thus there may be a lower layer consisting of free, sparse word fragments and an upper layer that consists of language-specific, orthographically and semantically constrained words. PMID:25941500
Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Sykorova, Eva
Theories of verbal rehearsal usually assume that whole words are being rehearsed. However, words consist of letter sequences, or syllables, or word onset-vowel-coda, amongst many other conceptualizations of word structure. A more general term is the 'grain size' of word units (Ziegler and Goswami, 2005). In the current study, a new method measured the quantitative percentage of correctly remembered word structure. The amount of letters in the correct letter sequence as per cent of word length was calculated, disregarding missing or added letters. A forced rehearsal was tested by repeating each memory list four times. We tested low frequency (LF) English words versus geographical (UK) town names to control for content. We also tested unfamiliar international (INT) non-words and names of international (INT) European towns to control for familiarity. An immediate versus distributed repetition was tested with a between-subject design. Participants responded with word fragments in their written recall especially when they had to remember unfamiliar words. While memory of whole words was sensitive to content, presentation distribution and individual sex and language differences, recall of word fragments was not. There was no trade-off between memory of word fragments with whole word recall during the repetition, instead also word fragments significantly increased. Moreover, while whole word responses correlated with each other during repetition, and word fragment responses correlated with each other during repetition, these two types of word recall responses were not correlated with each other. Thus there may be a lower layer consisting of free, sparse word fragments and an upper layer that consists of language-specific, orthographically and semantically constrained words.
Yaw, Jared S.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Parkhurst, John; Taylor, Cora M.; Booher, Joshua; Chambers, Karen
A multiple-baseline design across tasks (i.e., word lists) was used to evaluate the effects of a computer-based sight-word reading intervention (CBSWRI) on the sight-word reading of a sixth-grade student with Autism. Across 3 lists of primer and first-grade Dolch words, the student showed immediate increases in sight-word reading after the CBSWRI…
List of chemicals subject to reporting requirements under the Emergency Planning and Community Right- To-Know Act (EPCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act.
Marinellie, Sally A.
The ability to define a word with accuracy and precision is an important skill that has been associated with academic achievement. This study investigated the feasibility of conducting a lesson on formal word definitions to improve children's definitional production. The participants were 18 children in grade 4 (mean age: 9 years; 8 months) who…
Nguyen, Khuyen; McDaniel, Mark A.
"List composition effects" refer to the findings in which a given memory phenomenon shows discrepant patterns across different list designs (i.e., mixed or pure lists). These effects have typically been reported with verbal materials (e.g., word lists, paired associates, sentences); much less research has examined whether these effects…
Hall, William S.; And Others
The word frequency lists presented in this publication were compiled to create a database for further research into vocabulary use, especially the variation in vocabulary due to differences in situation and social group membership. Taken from the natural conversations of 40 target children (four and a half to five years old) with their families,…
THE USEFULNESS OF PHONIC RULES IN READING INSTRUCTION BEYOND THE FOURTH-GRADE LEVEL WAS INVESTIGATED TO ASCERTAIN IF THE CONCLUSIONS REACHED BY THEODORE CLYMER AND REPORTED IN THE JANUARY 1963 ISSUE OF "THE READING TEACHER" WERE VALID WHEN APPLIED TO A MORE REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE OF VOCABULARY. LISTS OF ALL POSSIBLE WORDS (FROM A SAMPLE…
States that the painted words in Jasper Johns' art act in two different capacities: concealed words partake in the artist's interrogation of visual perception; and visible painted words question classical representation. Argues that words are Johns' means of critiquing modernism. (RS)
This paper describes a small-scale study which investigates the role of blogging in professional academic practice in higher education. It draws on interviews with a sample of academics (scholars, researchers and teachers) who have blogs and on the author's own reflections on blogging to investigate the function of blogging in academic practice…
Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald
Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…
Shin, Dongkwang; Nation, Paul
This study presents a list of the highest frequency collocations of spoken English based on carefully applied criteria. In the literature, more than forty terms have been used for designating multi-word units, which are generally not well defined. To avoid this confusion, six criteria are strictly applied. The ten million word BNC spoken section…
Almela, Moisés; Sanchez, Aquilino
One of the genuine contributions of theoretical linguistics to the interdisciplinary field of applied linguistics is to elucidate the nature of "what should be taught" and "how it should be taught". Traditionally, the input supplied in vocabulary teaching has consisted either of word lists (most often) or of words-in-context…
Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia
Participants tend to initiate immediate free recall (IFR) of short lists of words with the very first word on the list. Three experiments examined whether rehearsal is necessary for this recent finding. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with lists of between 2 and 12 words for IFR at a fast, medium, or slow rate, with and without…
By Ken Michaels, Guest Writer In Shakepeare’s play “Hamlet,” Polonius inquires of the prince, “What do you read, my lord?” Not at all pleased with what he’s reading, Hamlet replies, “Words, words, words.”1 I have previously described the communication model in which a sender encodes a message and then sends it via some channel (or medium) to a receiver, who decodes the message and, ideally, understands what was sent. Surely the most common way of encoding a message is in choosing the most appropriate words for the listener or reader.
Merritt, Paul S; DeLosh, Edward L; McDaniel, Mark A
The order-encoding view of the word frequency effect proposes that low-frequency (LF) items attract more attention to the encoding of individual-item information than do high-frequency (HF) items, but at the expense of order encoding (DeLosh & McDaniel, 1996). When combined with the assumption that free recall of unrelated words is organized according to their original order of presentation, this view explains the finding that HF words are better recalled than LF words in pure lists but that, in mixed lists, recall is better for LF words. The present study confirmed that in mixed lists, order memory becomes equivalent for HF and LF words and that the predicted pattern of order memory and recall holds fo r incidental order-encoding conditions, for longerlists than those used inprevious experiments, and for lists with minimal interitem associativity. Moreover, recall from HF lists declined, but recall from LF lists improved, in related-word lists, relative to unrelated-word lists, reversing the usual pure-list free recall advantage for HF words. These results were uniquely predicted by the order-encoding account and favor this view over accessibility, interitem association, and cuing effectiveness explanations of the word frequency effect.
Keuleers, Emmanuel; Stevens, Michaël; Mandera, Paweł; Brysbaert, Marc
We use the results of a large online experiment on word knowledge in Dutch to investigate variables influencing vocabulary size in a large population and to examine the effect of word prevalence-the percentage of a population knowing a word-as a measure of word occurrence. Nearly 300,000 participants were presented with about 70 word stimuli (selected from a list of 53,000 words) in an adapted lexical decision task. We identify age, education, and multilingualism as the most important factors influencing vocabulary size. The results suggest that the accumulation of vocabulary throughout life and in multiple languages mirrors the logarithmic growth of number of types with number of tokens observed in text corpora (Herdan's law). Moreover, the vocabulary that multilinguals acquire in related languages seems to increase their first language (L1) vocabulary size and outweighs the loss caused by decreased exposure to L1. In addition, we show that corpus word frequency and prevalence are complementary measures of word occurrence covering a broad range of language experiences. Prevalence is shown to be the strongest independent predictor of word processing times in the Dutch Lexicon Project, making it an important variable for psycholinguistic research.
Plowman, Travis S.
Considers the impact of information technology on academic integrity. Highlights include machines versus man; honor codes and student cheating; copyrights for digital data; authoring versus writing; intuitive software; and an example and analysis of the use of AutoSummary in Microsoft Word 97 to create a summary of a published article. (Contains…
BYRD, C.; AND OTHERS
THE STUDENT SHOULD BE ABLE TO EXPRESS THE PURPOSE OF SYMBOLS AND USE WORDS IN SPEAKING AND WRITING A PARAGRAPH USING DIFFERENT FORMS OF WORDS OF DIFFERENT SHADES OF MEANING AND LEVELS OF DIFFICULTY. HE SHOULD BE ABLE TO ADD PREFIXES, SUFFIXES, AND OTHER AFFIXES TO A LIST OF ROOT WORDS AND UNDERSTAND WORDS AND THEIR ORIGINS. GIVEN A PARAGRAPH, THE…
Discusses how, fueled by the war on terrorism, Congress has awarded a record $1.8 billion in academic earmarks in the 2002 fiscal year. Profiles several recipient programs and includes a campus-by-campus list of projects. (EV)
Suggests that grammar is not something into which words are plugged but is rather a mechanism by which words are served and that linguistics scientists must begin to devote a major part of their attention to lexicology. (TO)
Hung, Yi-Hui; Pallier, Christophe; Dehaene, Stanislas; Lin, Yi-Chen; Chang, Acer; Tzeng, Ovid J-L; Wu, Denise H
Complex number words (e.g., "twenty two") are formed by merging together several simple number words (e.g., "twenty" and "two"). In the present study, we explored the neural correlates of this operation and investigated to what extent it engages brain areas involved processing numerical quantity and linguistic syntactic structure. Participants speaking two typologically distinct languages, French and Chinese, were required to read aloud sequences of simple number words while their cerebral activity was recorded by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Each number word could either be merged with the previous ones (e.g., 'twenty three') or not (e.g., 'three twenty'), thus forming four levels ranging from lists of number words to complex numerals. When a number word could be merged with the preceding ones, it was named faster than when it could not. Neuroimaging results showed that the number of merges correlated with activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Consistent findings across Chinese and French participants suggest that these regions serve as the neural bases for forming complex number words in different languages.
Pérez-Mata, M Nieves; Read, J Don; Diges, Margarita
Lists of thematically related words were presented to participants with or without a concurrent task. In Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, English or Spanish word lists were either low or high in concreteness (concrete vs abstract words) and were presented, respectively, auditorily or visually for study. The addition of a concurrent visual or auditory task, respectively, substantially reduced correct recall and doubled the frequency of false memory reports (nonstudied critical or theme words). Divided attention was interpreted as having reduced the opportunity for participants to monitor successfully their elicitations of critical associates. Comparisons of concrete and abstract lists revealed significantly more recalls of false memories for abstract than concrete word lists. Comparisons between two levels of attention, two levels of word concreteness, and two presentation modalities failed to support the "more is less" effect by which enhanced correct recall is accompanied by increased frequencies of false memories.
Mewhort, D. J. K.; Beal, A. Lynne
Three word-identification experiments suggest that a model derived from experiments with pseudowords can be applied successfully to word identification. The data derived from the experiments confirm the role of higher order verbal units in word identification and suggest the structural components of a verbal-mediation theory of reading. (Editor/RK)
Santa, Carol M.; And Others
Both psychologists and reading specialists have been interested in whether words are processed letter by letter or in larger units. A reaction time paradigm was used to evaluate these options with interest focused on potential units of word recognition which might be functional within single syllable words. The basic paradigm involved presenting…
Dohan, Mary Helen
Understanding words like "bionics" will open the mind to the horizons of another time when words like "railroad" evoked wonder and "to fly to the moon" was a metaphor for the impossible dream. Suggests that history teachers and English teachers should join together in using words to teach both subjects. (Editor/RK)
Gardner, Paul L.
This is a report of a project designed to identify important non-technical words used in the teaching of science at Form 3 and 4 level in the Territory of Papua and New Guinea (T.P.N.G.). After the words were identified, multiple choice items testing the comprehension of these words were written, tried out and revised. Fifteen final tests, each…
Eremina, Svetlana V.
The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.
Larry Bates argues for vocabulary instruction that emphasizes useful, high-frequency words rather than lists of rarely used terms. He suggests resources for finding frequency ratings for words and for determining appropriately challenging words for students. (Contains 3 figures and 3 notes.)
Carney, Edward; Schlauch, Robert S.
Purpose: To construct a table for upper and lower limits of the 95% critical range for changes in word recognition scores obtained with monosyllabic word lists (of lengths 10, 25, 50, and 100 words) using newly available methods. Although such a table has been available for nearly 30 years (A. R. Thornton & M. J. M. Raffin, 1978), the earlier…
Bugg, Julie M.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Scullin, Michael K.; Braver, Todd S.
Interference is reduced in mostly incongruent relative to mostly congruent lists. Classic accounts of this list-wide proportion congruence effect assume that list-level control processes strategically modulate word reading. Contemporary accounts posit that reliance on the word is modulated poststimulus onset by item-specific information (e.g.,…
Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Austin. Div. of Community and Technical Colleges.
The Community College General Academic Course Guide Manual (ACGM) is the official list of approved numbers for general academic transfer courses that may be offered by public community and technical colleges in Texas for state funding. This edition of the ACGM, effective September 1996, contains the latest information available for academic…
Fraser, Kym; Ling, Peter
University provision for academic development is well established in the USA, UK and many other countries. However, arrangements for its provision and staffing vary. In Australia, there has been a trend towards professional rather than academic staff appointments. Is this appropriate? In this paper, the domains of academic development work are…
Watkins, R V; DeThorne, L S
Knowledge of word meanings and the ability to use words are fundamental to nearly every interaction of every day. Beginning long before formal schooling, vocabulary skills underpin many aspects of communicative, social, and academic well-being. Thus, evaluation of vocabulary knowledge and use is central to any complete assessment of language proficiency. We have advanced in our use of vocabulary assessment significantly since Binet and Simon first used vocabulary tests to measure cognitive proficiency. We have a repertoire of informative tools and strategies from which vocabulary assessment protocols can be fashioned. Current assessment approaches integrate multiple sources of information. They also look beyond existing word knowledge toward word-learning potential. Integrated and dynamic approaches can provide a rich way to ascertain young children's vocabulary abilities and aptitudes.
Helms, Ronald G.
A 6-8 day secondary level social studies unit explores censorship in education through a variety of activities. Students participate in a preassessment poll measuring their opinions on academic freedom, answer a questionnaire entitled "What do you think?" concerning local school board and community powers, rank a list of possible teacher…
Smith, Rebekah E; Hunt, R Reed; Dunlap, Kathryn R
Prior work shows that false memories resulting from the study of associatively related lists are reduced for both young and older adults when the auditory presentation of study list words is accompanied by related pictures relative to when auditory word presentation is combined with visual presentation of the word. In contrast, young adults, but not older adults, show a reduction in false memories when presented with the visual word along with the auditory word relative to hearing the word only. In both cases of pictures relative to visual words and visual words relative to auditory words alone, the benefit of picture and visual words in reducing false memories has been explained in terms of monitoring for perceptual information. In our first experiment, we provide the first simultaneous comparison of all 3 study presentation modalities (auditory only, auditory plus visual word, and auditory plus picture). Young and older adults show a reduction in false memories in the auditory plus picture condition, but only young adults show a reduction in the visual word condition relative to the auditory only condition. A second experiment investigates whether older adults fail to show a reduction in false memory in the visual word condition because they do not encode perceptual information in the visual word condition. In addition, the second experiment provides evidence that the failure of older adults to show the benefits of visual word presentation is related to reduced cognitive resources. (PsycINFO Database Record
Smith, Rebekah E.; Hunt, R. Reed; Dunlap, Kathryn R.
Prior work shows that false memories resulting from the study of associatively related lists are reduced for both young and older adults when the auditory presentation of study list words is accompanied by related pictures relative to when auditory word presentation is combined with visual presentation of the word. In contrast, young adults, but not older adults, show a reduction in false memories when presented with the visual word along with the auditory word relative to hearing the word only. In both the case of pictures relative to visual words and visual words relative to auditory words alone, the benefit of picture and visual words in reducing false memories has been explained in terms of monitoring for perceptual information. In our first experiment we provide the first simultaneous comparison of all three study presentation modalities (auditory only, auditory plus visual word, and auditory plus picture). Young and older adults show a reduction in false memories in the auditory plus picture condition, but only young adults show a reduction in the visual word condition relative to the auditory only condition. A second experiment investigates whether older adults fail to show a reduction in false memory in the visual word condition because they do not encode perceptual information in the visual word condition. In addition, the second experiment provides evidence that the failure of older adults to show the benefits of visual word presentation is related to reduced cognitive resources. PMID:26213799
Lee, Yuh-shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching
This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users. The average co-occurrence rate of the list word and the critical word was calculated based on two large Chinese corpuses. List-level analyses revealed that the correlation between the American and Taiwanese participants was significant only in false recognition. More importantly, the co-occurrence rate was significantly correlated with false recall and recognition of Taiwanese participants, and not of American participants. In addition, the backward association strength based on Nelson et al. (The University of South Florida word association, rhyme and word fragment norms, 1999) was significantly correlated with false recall of American participants and not of Taiwanese participants. Results are discussed in terms of the relationship between language experiences and lexical association in creating false memory for word lists.
Marston, Doug; Deno, Stanley L.
The accuracy of predictions of future student performance on the basis of graphing data on semi-logarithmic charts and equal interval graphs was examined. All 83 low-achieving students in grades 3 to 6 read randomly-selected lists of words from the Harris-Jacobson Word List for 1 minute. The number of words read correctly and words read…
Sullivan, Jessica; Barner, David
How do we map number words to the magnitudes they represent? While much is known about the developmental trajectory of number word learning, the acquisition of the counting routine, and the academic correlates of estimation ability, previous studies have yet to describe the mechanisms that link number words to nonverbal representations of number. We investigated two mechanisms: associative mapping and structure mapping. Four dot array estimation tasks found that adults' ability to match a number word to one of two discriminably different sets declined as a function of set size and that participants' estimates of relatively large, but not small, set sizes were influenced by misleading feedback during an estimation task. We propose that subjects employ structure mappings for linking relatively large number words to set sizes, but rely chiefly on item-by-item associative mappings for smaller sets. These results indicate that both inference and association play important roles in mapping number words to approximate magnitudes.
Wang, Hua-Chen; Castles, Anne; Nickels, Lyndsey; Nation, Kate
The self-teaching hypothesis proposes that orthographic learning takes place via phonological decoding in meaningful texts, that is, in context. Context is proposed to be important in learning to read, especially when decoding is only partial. However, little research has directly explored this hypothesis. The current study looked at the effect of context on orthographic learning and examined whether there were different effects for novel words given regular and irregular pronunciations. Two experiments were conducted using regular and irregular novel words, respectively. Second-grade children were asked to learn eight novel words either in stories or in a list of words. The results revealed no significant effect of context for the regular items. However, in an orthographic decision task, there was a facilitatory effect of context on irregular novel word learning. The findings support the view that contextual information is important to orthographic learning, but only when the words to be learned contain irregular spelling-sound correspondences.
Appel, Randy; Wood, David
The correct use of frequently occurring word combinations represents an important part of language proficiency in spoken and written discourse. This study investigates the use of English-language recurrent word combinations in low-level and high-level L2 English academic essays sourced from the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) assessment.…
Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Peters, Madelon L; Woertman, Liesbeth; van der Hart, Onno; Postma, Albert
The present study aimed to determine interidentity retrieval of emotionally valenced words in dissociative identity disorder (DID). Twenty-two DID patients participated together with 25 normal controls and 25 controls instructed to simulate DID. Two wordlists A and B were constructed including neutral, positive and negative material. List A was shown to one identity, while list B was shown to another identity claiming total amnesia for the words learned by the first identity. The identity claiming amnesia was tested for intrusions from list A words into the recall of words from list B and recognition of the words learned by both identities. Test results indicated no evidence of total interidentity amnesia for emotionally valenced material in DID. It is argued that dissociative amnesia in DID may more adequately be described as a disturbance in meta-memory functioning instead of an actual retrieval inability.
Brandt, Sandy, Comp.
This directory provides a concise list of academic and special libraries in Idaho. Libraries are listed alphabetically, and include library contact name, title, telephone, fax number, and address. The directory also contains an alphabetical listing of the library contacts, which includes the name of the library where the person works and the…
Borei, Karin Begg
Provides a general overview of how electronic mailing-list-management software works, then focuses on the "human dimensions" involved in every mailing list as they relate to management of two lists, WALDEN (Women Academic Library Directors Engaged in Networking) and SWEDE-L. (Author/AEF)
Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Vaidya, C. J.; Gabrieli, J. D.
Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study.
Andrade, Vivian M; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela M; Miranda, Monica C; Oliveira, Acary S B; Oliveira, Enedina M L; Bueno, Orlando F A
We compared 25 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 24 normal controls on a test of free recall of words. Some lists contained words that were all unrelated, while in others the intermediary words were semantically related. In another set, the mid-list words were repeated across the lists, or, in addition to the repetition, were semantically associated. Immediate recall was assessed using these lists. Delayed recall was assessed using different lists (delay-unrelated and delay-related) after distractor tasks. Recency was not affected in MS patients, but the primacy effect was lower than in controls, this effect being interpreted as due to a deficiency in articulatory rehearsal. The delay interval after each list abolished recency in both groups and resulted in impaired recall in MS patients. However the patients, like the controls, benefited from semantic relations in the middle of the lists and from spaced repetition of words across the lists, in either immediate and delayed recall. The enhancing effects of word relatedness and of spaced repetition are seen as being due to automatic processes preserved in MS patients.
Containing numerous vocabulary-building activities and exercises, this guidebook is designed to help elementary students learn to manipulate language as they gain concrete experiences with words, increase their "word power," and have fun. The activities described involve dictionary games, synonyms, "saidonyms" (alternatives for…
Willing, Kathlene R.; Girard, Suzanne
Intended for young children just becoming familiar with computers, this naming book introduces and reinforces new computer vocabulary and concepts. The 20 words are presented alphabetically, along with illustrations, providing room for different activities in which children can match and name the pictures and words. The 20 vocabulary items are…
Go look it up. That is what students who have questions about words are often told. But where should they go? Depending on the question, some resources are better than others, and some are not very good at all, no matter what the question. Finding the most helpful word resource for students can be a challenge, especially now that search engines…
Dawson, Mildred A., Comp.
A series of articles with the chief emphasis on phonics as a means of analyzing words is presented. Various articles pertain to elementary, secondary, and college level instruction. The first of the five parts into which the volume is divided is comprised of a single article which gives an excellent overview of the field of word recognition. Part…
Independent lexical development initiatives empower and equip language learners with skills to boost their lexical repertoires. Language instructors can train learners to be autonomous word learners. A sample activity, namely word of the day, is presented in this article. The activity is an independent lexical learning task, which aims to develop…
Eisenbach, Brooke B.
Teachers and education leaders are aware that their words can have a significant effect on their students. Words can build them up and encourage them to work hard or tear them down and lead them to despair. The language used in teacher evaluations is no different, says teacher Brooke Eisenbach. In this article, she shares stories of colleagues…
Vernon, Evelyn I.
Because of the increasing demands that today's society places on language, there is an increasing need for vocabulary building. The opening of new fields, industries, and media and the vocabularies of specialized fields have all contributed to making increased word knowledge a necessity. New words have been coined to describe developments in new…
Many professors have been traumatized by academic bullies. Unlike bullies at school, the academic bully plays a more subtle game. Bullies may spread rumors to undermine a colleague's credibility or shut their target out of social conversations. The more aggressive of the species cuss out co-workers, even threatening to get physical. There is…
Steen, Sara J., Ed.
This book describes over 2,100 academic programs (at least one academic quarter in length) sponsored by accredited U.S. postsecondary institutions or developed for U.S. students by foreign universities and other organizations. Entries are based on a 1993 survey. While most programs listed are available to undergraduates, many programs are also…
Acee, Taylor W.; Cho, Yoonjung; Kim, Jung-In; Weinstein, Claire Ellen
The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among properties of college students' self-set academic goals and academic achievement, using multiple theoretical perspectives. Using a personal goal-based research methodology, college students enrolled in a learning-to-learn course (N = 130) were asked to list 20 of their…
De George, Richard T.
Asserts that Martin Michaelson's proposal in "Should Untenured as Well as Tenured Faculty Be Guaranteed Academic Freedom? A Few Observations," despite its good intentions, is seriously flawed and if adopted in preference to existing standards will weaken rather than strengthen academic freedom. (EV)
Criado De Val, Manuel
This feature presents the third part of a list of Spanish words that may have a second meaning which is frequently obscene, and words that are ill-sounding to speakers of Spanish. (Text is in Spanish.) (CLK)
Some days it is difficult to remember why we love being teachers. For those difficult days, high school teacher Tim Gillespie maintains a list of fifteen reasons to keep teaching. He shares his list to remind us of the "greatest pleasures and highest callings" that we can experience as English teachers, believing that we can sustain ourselves and…
Ludwig, M E
Subcontractors and vendors providing services, including the installation of purchased goods, are required to complete a TIP List. This list does not include every Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) related concern at LLNL. It is intended to highlight major concerns common to most on-site service activities.
Examines Frank Smith's analysis of the reading process with respect to comprehension, specifically, his assertion that during the reading process, comprehension of meaning precedes word identification. Discusses the implications of Smith's analysis for the teaching of reading. (JM)
Computer assisted instruction is presented as a tool for helping students learn to successfully solve word problems. Four stages of developing a curriculum for elementary school mathematics, grades three through six, are covered. (MP)
Maintains that words come from strongly felt images. Contrasts the stark language environment of the author's first school years with his vivid memories of stories and poetry in his grandparents', parents', and his own house. (SR)
Presents design features of the Renner Middle School (Plano, Texas) where the sprawling suburbs have been kept at bay while creating the atmosphere of an academic village. Photos and a floor plan are provided. (GR)
Library Journal, 1970
Building data is given for the following academic libraries: (1) Rosary College, River Forest, Illinois; (2) Abilene Christian College, Abilene, Texas; (3) University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California. (MF)
Lee, Lay Wah; Low, Hui Min
Pre-service special educators' Malay word structure knowledge was assessed through their analysis of words. A total of 69 participants analysed a vocabulary list based on a set of criteria formulated from the Malay language word structure. Results indicated that they were able to count syllables and phonemes, and identify types of affixations;…
WordSmith Tools, since its launch in 1996, has had a rather unusual history and the aim of this paper is to record some of the chief influences on its development. The paper thus presents and discusses the history of WordSmith Tools and its predecessors going back to the early 1980s when processors were much slower, memory very limited and disk…
Rushton, Vivian E; Horner, Keith
Since 1988, thirteen dental schools have provided dental undergraduate programmes within the United Kingdom (UK). In 2006, two new dental schools were created supporting dental education in the community. A further new dental school in Scotland will be accepting students in autumn 2008. In the past 25 years, extensive reorganisation of the NHS has resulted in long-term implications for the training of medical and dental academic staff. The number of academic clinicians is below the minimum viable level and external constraints, combined with a lack of suitable applicants, have led to a moratorium on academic recruitment within some Dental Schools. A detailed review of the historical and associated factors which have led to the problems presently besetting academic dentistry are discussed along with the initiatives introduced in the last 10 years to revitalise the speciality. Also, the present and future outlook for academic dentistry in other countries are discussed. Opinion is divided as to the appropriate setting for the training of undergraduate students between those who support community-based dental education and those who believe dental education should remain within research led dental establishments. External factors are moulding an unsatisfactory situation that is proving increasingly unattractive to the potential dental academic and the case for reform is obvious.
Jackowski-Bartol, Tiffany R.
This study investigated the impact of word processing on middle school students. The study involved a high, middle, and low academic ability student, each spending an average of 114 minutes on the computer per week over four months. Data collection consisted of questionnaires, interviews, observations, and students' work. Each student answered…
Using mythology as a generative matrix, this article investigates the relationship between knowledge, words, embodiment and gender as they play out in academic writing's voice and, in particular, in doctoral voice. The doctoral thesis is defensive, a performance seeking admittance into discipline scholarship. Yet in finding its scholarly voice,…
According to Beck, McKeown, and Kucan's Three Tier Model (2002), when it comes to language instruction the distinction between academic vocabulary words and content specific words has a significant bearing on the language success of English language learners (ELLs). In this article, the author describes strategies that give teachers and parents…
El Aissati, Abder; McQueen, James M.; Cutler, Anne
Across many languages from unrelated families, spoken-word recognition is subject to a constraint whereby potential word candidates must contain a vowel. This constraint minimizes competition from embedded words (e.g., in English, disfavoring "win" in "twin" because "t" cannot be a word). However, the constraint would be counter-productive in…
This study analyzes the types and frequencies of hedges and intensifiers employed in NS and NNS academic essays included in a corpus of L1 and L2 student academic texts (745 essays/220,747 words). The overarching goal of this investigation is to focus on these lexical and syntactic features of written discourse because they effectively lend…
Dingerson, Michael R.
Research on patterns in advertising academic administrative positions suggests that an applicant can often judge what a college is looking for by close scrutiny of its advertisement. The publications that carry the ad, their distribution, the ad's frequency, stated preference in academic background, and wording are clues. (MSE)
Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching
This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users.…
The present study, conducted at the Department of Audiology and Sciences, Michigan State University, consisted of determining the intelligibility of 648 Spanish stimulus-words arranged in a multiple-choice test of the two forms, A and B, each including 12 lists of approximately the same degree of difficulty. (Appendix.) This multiple-choice test…
The present study investigated sex and skill differences in color-word translation by Chinese-speaking students in university English classes. A questionnaire was administered to estimate the correlation between subjects' performance and their color-related hobbies. To conceptualize the issue better, two more groups of correlated parameter (academic achievements plus demographic factors) were introduced in this research as well. 40 English majors (20 women, 20 men), ranging in education from level one to level four, were randomly drawn from a metropolitan university and tested in the experiments as subjects. These university students were asked to provide Chinese equivalents for a list of 33 elaborated English color terms chosen from a thesaurus by mapping on the 11 color-tone categories defined by basic color theory. The results confirm the findings in relevant studies that used native speakers as subjects by observing that (1) women possessed a richer color vocabulary both in their source language and in their target language, (2) women also provided more elaborated Chinese equivalents to the color words used as stimuli, and finally, (3) women showed a superiority in accuracy in this color-lexicon matching or translating task. As a whole, the effects of skill and age were not significant. A significant correlation was found between the learners' proficiency in English and performance in translation of color words, but this relationship was rather weak and only true for the men. Color-related hobbies did not significantly correlate with the color-decoding performance of these language learners. Neither did the demographic factors. Taken together, it is sensible to state that differences reported here were affected primarily by the sex of the learn er. conditionally by language proficiency, and presumably by the cognitive and perceptual sex differences as well. These findings further indicate that the process of color codability is a complicated but unstudied issue
Houle, Amy; Krogness, Allison
Describes using a word wall, a visible display categorizing words alphabetically, enabling children in early childhood classrooms to discover new words and to practice and expand their language skills. Suggests that a word wall helps to create a secure learning environment, builds student confidence, and contributes to independent reading and…
Murphy, Joseph A.
Techniques for teaching collocation and word-association recognition as applied to the English as a second language class are suggested. Collocations are defined as phrases made of words which usually occur together, like "for the time being." Collocations and word associations are treated as synonymous. It is suggested that some words ought to be…
Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G
The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions.
Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.
The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions. PMID:25593407
Bohát, Róbert; Rödlingová, Beata; Horáková, Nina
Corpus of High School Academic Texts (COHAT), currently of 150,000+ words, aims to make academic language instruction a more data-driven and student-centered discovery learning as a special type of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL), emphasizing students' critical thinking and metacognition. Since 2013, high school English as an additional…
On a traditional view, words are the fundamental units of verbal behavior. They are independent, autonomous things that symbolically represent or refer to other independent, autonomous things, often in some other dimension. Ascertaining what those other things are constitutes determining the meaning of a word. On a behavior-analytic view, verbal behavior is ongoing, functional operant activity occasioned by antecedent factors and reinforced by its consequences, particularly consequences that are mediated by other members of the same verbal community. Functional relations rather than structure select the response unit. The behavior-analytic point of view clarifies such important contemporary issues in psychology as (a) the role of scientific theories and explanations, (b) educational practices, and (c) equivalence classes, so that there is no risk of strengthening the traditional view that words are things that symbolically represent other things. PMID:22477219
Brysbaert, Marc; Warriner, Amy Beth; Kuperman, Victor
Concreteness ratings are presented for 37,058 English words and 2,896 two-word expressions (such as zebra crossing and zoom in), obtained from over 4,000 participants by means of a norming study using Internet crowdsourcing for data collection. Although the instructions stressed that the assessment of word concreteness would be based on experiences involving all senses and motor responses, a comparison with the existing concreteness norms indicates that participants, as before, largely focused on visual and haptic experiences. The reported data set is a subset of a comprehensive list of English lemmas and contains all lemmas known by at least 85 % of the raters. It can be used in future research as a reference list of generally known English lemmas.
Barrow, Melissa A.
ELLs need to practice using the language in their speech. Teachers can ask students to restate the definition in their own words and provide opportunities for students to use academic vocabulary in discussions. Chunking (instead of teaching inch in isolation, also teach foot, centimeter, and yard) helps students develop their schema and mentally…
Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Breznitz, Zvia
The activity level of the error monitoring system for processing isolated versus contextual words in Hebrew was studied in adults with dyslexia and skilled readers while committing reading errors. Behavioural measures and event-related potentials were measured during a lexical decision task using words in a list and sentences. Error-related…
Xu, Joe; Taft, Marcus
A visual lexical decision task was used to examine the interaction between base frequency (i.e., the cumulative frequencies of morphologically related forms) and semantic transparency for a list of derived words. Linear mixed effects models revealed that high base frequency facilitates the recognition of the complex word (i.e., a "base…
Faust, Miriam; Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Harel, Itay
Previous research suggests that the left hemisphere (LH) focuses on strongly related word meanings; the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to the processing of lexical ambiguity by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including subordinate meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger,…
Redmond, Linda, Comp.
Compiled from responses to a questionnaire sent to producers and distributors of spoken-word recordings by the National Library Service (NLS) for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, this reference circular lists 53 selected sources for purchasing or renting fiction and nonfiction spoken-word recordings on disc and cassette. Subjects and types of…
de Bree, Elise; Janse, Esther; van de Zande, Anne Marie
This paper investigates stress assignment in Dutch aphasic patients in non-word repetition, as well as in real-word and non-word reading. Performance on the non-word reading task was similar for the aphasic patients and the control group, as mainly regular stress was assigned to the targets. However, there were group differences on the real-word…
This book aims to increase the level of interest and understanding of leadership within the academic context and to demonstrate the relevance of leadership for contemporary United Kingdom universities. The book considers the concept of leadership and its appropriateness and usefulness for nonprofit professional organizations such as universities,…
As colleges and universities become even more complex organizations, advancement professionals need to have the skills, experience, and academic credentials to succeed in this ever-changing environment. Advancement leaders need competencies that extend beyond fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing. The author encourages…
Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.
The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally…
Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.
This paper provides an overview of Fast ForWord, a CD-ROM and Internet-based training program for children (pre-K to grade 8) with language and reading problems that helps children rapidly build oral language comprehension and other critical skills necessary for learning to read or becoming a better reader. With the help of computers, speech…
Zirkel, Perry A.
In a lawsuit involving classroom and literary racial epithets, the Ninth Circuit Court remanded the racial-harassment claim, not the book-removal claim. The ultimate outcome awaits trial; the court's Solomonic decision needs further testing. Meanwhile, the "N" word is a no-no for teachers and students, but not necessarily for books. (MLH)
Aiken, Adel G.; Bayer, Lisa
Describes how teachers implement a spelling decoding strategy within a first-grade language arts curriculum. Considers how the investigation of one spelling-decoding instructional strategy was a coming-to-know process that led the authors to value intentional word study that was connected to but not necessarily embedded in authentic contexts. (SG)
Milner, Jim; Hodgson, Cris; Moore, Kate; Wheatley, Vicky
It is surprisingly easy to explore geometry using Word AutoShapes or an Excel spreadsheet. Most of the techniques described could be taught to Y7 in half an hour. Many of them could be used in primary schools. Shows some of the mathematical possibilities of these techniques. Detailed step-by-step worksheets to introduce pupils to these are…
Follettie, Joseph F.
A limited analysis of alternative approaches to phonemic-level word attack instruction is provided in this document. The instruction segment begins with training in letter-sound correspondences for which mastery of certain skills is assumed. Instruction ends with the decoding of novel items having a consonant-vowel-consonant construction. Contents…
demonstrate substantial gains for Chinese -English and Arabic -English translation. Keywords: word lattice translation, phrase-based and hierarchical...introduce in reordering models. Our experiments evaluating the approach demonstrate substantial gains for Chinese -English and Arabic -English translation. 15...Section 4 presents two applications of the noisier channel paradigm, demonstrating substantial performance gains in Arabic -English and Chinese -English
White, John Howell
Considers neopragmatism's use-value for art educators as they inspect the magic words, images, and practices that influence curriculum and instruction. Explains that neopragmatism offers art educators three concepts (contingency, demystification, and recontextualization) as tools to interpret educational beliefs and classroom practices. (CMK)
Carlson, Ruth Kearney
Teachers should foster in children's writing the use of words with "sparkle" and "spin"--"sparkle" implying brightness and vitality, "spin" connoting industry, patience, and painstaking work. By providing creative listening experiences with good children's or adult literature, the teacher can encourage students to broaden their imaginations and…
The old childhood ditty "sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never hurt me" has proved wiser than the avalanche of commentary provoked by the recent insults by Don Imus and the killings at Virginia Tech. Our society forbids public name-calling but allows sticks and stones. Anyone can acquire a gun, but everyone must be…
Ota, Mitsuhiko; Skarabela, Barbora
This study explores the possibility that early word segmentation is aided by infants' tendency to segment words with repeated syllables ('reduplication'). Twenty-four nine-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing one novel reduplicated word and one novel non-reduplicated word. Their central fixation times in response to these as well as new reduplicated and non-reduplicated words introduced at test showed that familiarized reduplicated words were segmented better than familiarized non-reduplicated words. These results demonstrate that infants are predisposed to segment words with repeated phonological elements, and suggest that register-specific words in infant-directed speech may have evolved in response to this learning bias.
Gottlob, Lawrence R; Golding, Jonathan M
The effects of list-method directed forgetting on recognition memory were explored. In Experiment 1 (N = 40), observers were instructed to remember words and their type-cases; in Experiment 2 (N = 80), the instruction was to remember words and their colours. Two lists of 10 words were presented; after the first list, half of the observers (forget) were instructed to forget that list, and the other half (remember) were not given the forget instruction. Recognition of items (words) as well as source (encoding list + case/colour) was measured for forget and remember observers. The forget instruction affected case/colour memory more consistently than item and list memory, a multinomial analysis indicated that source information was affected by the forget instructions. The results indicated that recognition of source information may be a more sensitive indicator of forgetting than recognition of items.
Tan, Lydia; Ward, Geoff; Paulauskaite, Laura; Markou, Maria
When participants are asked to recall a short list of words in any order that they like, they tend to initiate recall with the first list item and proceed in forward order, even when this is not a task requirement. The current research examined whether this tendency might be influenced by varying the number of items that are to be recalled. In 3…
Cortese, Michael J.; Khanna, Maya M.; White, Katherine K.; Veljkovic, Ilija; Drumm, Geoffery
Using the DRM paradigm, our experiments examined the activation and monitoring of memories in semantic and phonological networks. Participants viewed lists of words and/or pseudohomophones (e.g., "dreem"). In Experiment 1, participants verbally recalled lists of semantic associates or attempted to write them as they appeared during study. False…
Bourne, Lyle E., Jr.; And Others
A well established finding in the discrimination learning literature is that pictures are learned more rapidly than their associated verbal labels. It was hypothesized in this study that the usual superiority of pictures over words in a discrimination list containing same-instance repetitions would disappear in a discrimination list containing…
A comparison of the number and percent of students subject to academic dismissal, academic probation, progress probation, the dean's list (GPA 2.00), and the president's list (GPA 3.00) at College of the Sequoias was drawn for the years 1981, 1982, and 1983. Statistics showed the following changes: (1) the number of students dismissed due to poor…
Atlas, Ronald M.; Weller, Richard E. )
A legally binding protocol to monitor compliance with Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC) could have a substantial impact on academia. This is because of the large number of academic sites, and the complexity of activities and business relationships found in academia. Several hundred academic institutions could be required to file declarations, depending upon the specific''triggers'' adopted by the Ad Hoc Group to the BWC. Activities at academic sites that might''trigger'' a requirement for declaration include: biological defense, working with listed agents or toxins, production capacity, biopesticide research, vaccine production, high (BL3) biological containment, and aerobiology. The management structure of academic institutions will make it difficult for them to scrupulously comply with declaration requirements. A major educational program will be required to ensure academic compliance with any mandatory measures adopted to strengthen the BWC.
Pifer, Meghan J.
In the past 35-45 years, college and university faculties have changed considerably and there is no longer a single profile that fits all professors in U.S. higher education. These demographic changes within the professoriate suggest that research is needed to understand faculty work life and careers. This study explores one particular aspect of…
Definitions are given for over 300 terms commonly used in the field of higher education. Examples of terms are: A and M University, adjunct professor, degree mill, distribution requirement, early decision, elective, honors program, interlibrary loan, prestige, rolling admission, syllabus, and tutorial. Most definitions have two types of comments:…
Garten, Edward D.
Lists computer programs selected on basis of following criteria: (1) applicability or easy adaptability to academic or research library environment; (2) operative on three microcomputer brands found in academic and research libraries; (3) good or excellent reviews appearing in software magazines; (4) price ranging from $50-$350. Vendor addresses…
Stauffer, Thomas M., Comp.
The opportunity for American Council Fellows to read widely in academic administration is an integral part of the Academic Administration Internship Program. The books listed in this reference guide, while perhaps the most important in their fields, are only suggestive of a wider literature on higher education and administrative science. Some…
De Lanoy, Diana D.; Cuadra, Carlos A.
Phase I involves two questionnaire surveys aimed at identifying all academic library consortia in higher education and, within this univerise, providing a list of participating libraries and services. The major product of this phase is a "Directory of Academic Library Consortia." The descriptions of the individual tasks outlined in this Phase I…
Prince, William W., Ed.
This directory of academic library instruction programs in Virginia reflects data compiled from 82 academic libraries that responded to a questionnaire sent out in August 1977. The institution libraries are listed with addresses, the name(s) of contact person(s), and a telephone number. The survey results are organized by the format and the type…
Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 1983
A complete listing of a projectile motion program for the Apple II microcomputer is provided. A discussion of this computer simulation and a table with variables used in the program (as well as their meanings) can be found in SE 533 596. (JN)
Diccionario de palabras equivocas o malsonantes en Espana, Hispanoamerica y Filipinas: Continuacion. (Dictionary of Ambiguous or Offensive Words in Spain, Spanish America and the Philippines: Continued)
Criado de Val, Manuel
This list of obscene, ambiguous, or offensive Spanish words indicates their off-color meaning in various Spanish-speaking countries. The list comprises words beginning with letters H-M, and is intended to protect the traveller or non-native speaker from embarrassment. It is a continuation of a previous article. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)
Zamuner, Tania S.; Fais, Laurel; Werker, Janet F.
A central component of language development is word learning. One characterization of this process is that language learners discover objects and then look for word forms to associate with these objects (Mcnamara, 1984; Smith, 2000). Another possibility is that word forms themselves are also important, such that once learned, hearing a familiar…
Landauer, Thomas K.; Kireyev, Kirill; Panaccione, Charles
A new metric, Word Maturity, estimates the development by individual students of knowledge of every word in a large corpus. The metric is constructed by Latent Semantic Analysis modeling of word knowledge as a function of the reading that a simulated learner has done and is calibrated by its developing closeness in information content to that of a…
Yopp, Ruth Helen
Word Links, an effective strategy for developing students' vocabulary, is based on four principles. It provides contextual and definitional information; offers repeated exposure to words and opportunities to practice them; encourages students to think about relationships among word meanings; and involves active engagement in learning tasks. Yopp…
Brown, Rosellen, Ed.; And Others
This catalog, addressed to teachers of writing in the elementary and high schools, consists of (1) suggested assignments to stimulate creative writing, (2) descriptions of materials and assignment references that might be used with the assignments, (3) a list of books and magazines containing anthologies of writing by young people, and (4)…
Seamon, John G; Lee, Ihno A; Toner, Sarah K; Wheeler, Rachel H; Goodkind, Madeleine S; Birch, Antoine D
Do participants in the Deese, Roediger, and McDermott (DRM) procedure demonstrate false memory because they think of nonpresented critical words during study and confuse them with words that were actually presented? In two experiments, 160 participants studied eight visually presented DRM lists at a rate of 2 s or 5 s per word. Half of the participants rehearsed silently: the other half rehearsed overtly. Following study, the participants' memory for the lists was tested by recall or recognition. Typical false memory results were obtained for both memory measures. More important, two new results were observed. First, a large majority of the overt-rehearsal participants spontaneously rehearsed approximately half of the critical words during study. Second, critical-word rehearsal at study enhanced subsequent false recall, but it had no effect on false recognition or remember judgments for falsely recognized critical words. Thinking of critical words during study was unnecessary for producing false memory.
strategy was evalu ated in the context of English -to-Pashto (E2P) and Pashto-to- English (P2E), a low-resource language pair. For E2P, the training and...improves the quality of automatic word alignment, for example for resource poor language pairs, thus improving Statistical Machine Translation (SMT...example for resource poor language pairs, thus improving Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY
Upshaw, William N
This paper attempts to understand the relationship between the clinical efficacy of hypnosis and its negative perception among many medical educators, practitioners and the general public. By exploring the history of hypnosis, an attempt was made to point out several events that may have led to both the past and current misperception of hypnosis which the author believes have caused hypnosis to become "medicine's dirty word".
Schriefers, H; Friederici, A D; Rose, U
In three experiments, we investigated how associative word-word priming effects in German depend on different types of syntactic context in which the related words are embedded. The associative relation always concerned a verb as prime and a noun as target. Prime word and target word were embedded in visually presented strings of words that formed either a correct sentence, a scrambled list of words, or a sentence in which the target noun and the preceding definite article disagreed in syntactic gender. In contrast to previous studies (O'Seaghdha, 1989; Simpson, Peterson, Casteel, & Burgess, 1989), associative priming effects were not only obtained in correct sentences but also in scrambled word lists. Associative priming, however, was not obtained when the definite article and the target noun disagreed in syntactic gender. The latter finding suggests that a rather local violation of syntactic coherence reduces or eliminates word-word priming effects. The results are discussed in the context of related work on the effect of gender dis-/agreement between a syntactic context and a target noun.
Ledoux, Kerry; Camblin, C. Christine; Swaab, Tamara Y.; Gordon, Peter C.
Repetition and semantic-associative priming effects have been demonstrated for words in nonstructured contexts (i.e., word pairs or lists of words) in numerous behavioral and electrophysio-logical studies. The processing of a word has thus been shown to benefit from the prior presentation of an identical or associated word in the absence of a constraining context. An examination of such priming effects for words that are embedded within a meaningful discourse context provides information about the interaction of different levels of linguistic analysis. This article reviews behavioral and electrophysiological research that has examined the processing of repeated and associated words in sentence and discourse contexts. It provides examples of the ways in which eye tracking and event-related potentials might be used to further explore priming effects in discourse. The modulation of lexical priming effects by discourse factors suggests the interaction of information at different levels in online language comprehension. PMID:16891554
Ledoux, Kerry; Camblin, C Christine; Swaab, Tamara Y; Gordon, Peter C
Repetition and semantic-associative priming effects have been demonstrated for words in nonstructured contexts (i.e., word pairs or lists of words) in numerous behavioral and electrophysiological studies. The processing of a word has thus been shown to benefit from the prior presentation of an identical or associated word in the absence of a constraining context. An examination of such priming effects for words that are embedded within a meaningful discourse context provides information about the interaction of different levels of linguistic analysis. This article reviews behavioral and electrophysiological research that has examined the processing of repeated and associated words in sentence and discourse contexts. It provides examples of the ways in which eye tracking and event-related potentials might be used to further explore priming effects in discourse. The modulation of lexical priming effects by discourse factors suggests the interaction of information at different levels in online language comprehension.
Sanders, Howard J.
Topics and issues related to toxic wastes in academic laboratories are addressed, pointing out that colleges/universities are making efforts to dispose of hazardous wastes safely to comply with tougher federal regulations. University sites on the Environmental Protection Agency Superfund National Priorities List, costs, and use of lab packs are…
This document provides information on the Jones Center Vocational/Academic Program of the Granite School District (Utah), the purpose of which is to maintain or reintegrate students who are potential high school dropouts or dropouts into appropriate educational alternatives. Its mission statement is followed by a list of program components,…
Defines collection development and discusses several issues related to this function in the academic library: (1) the importance of a collection development policy; (2) material selection; (3) faculty-library cooperation; (4) cooperation with other library departments; (5) weeding; and (6) effects of automation. Nine references are listed. (MES)
Balass, Michal; Nelson, Jessica R.; Perfetti, Charles A.
Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., gloaming) in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonology); (2) orthography-to-phonology (no meaning); and (3) phonology-to-meaning (no orthography). Following learning, participants made meaning judgments on the learned words, familiar known words, and unpresented (unlearned) rare words while their ERPs were recorded. The behavioral results showed no significant effects of comprehension skill on meaning judgment performance. Contrastingly, the ERP results indicated comprehension skill differences in P600 amplitude; high-skilled readers showed stronger familiarity effects for learned words, whereas less-skilled readers did not distinguish between learned words, familiar words, and unlearned words. Evidence from the P600 and N400 illustrated superior learning of meaning when meaning information was coupled with orthography rather than phonology. These results suggest that the availability of word knowledge (orthography, phonology, and meaning) at learning affects subsequent word identification processes when the words are encountered in a new context. PMID:22399833
DeWitt, Iain D. J.
Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…
Xu, Fei; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.
The authors present a Bayesian framework for understanding how adults and children learn the meanings of words. The theory explains how learners can generalize meaningfully from just one or a few positive examples of a novel word's referents, by making rational inductive inferences that integrate prior knowledge about plausible word meanings with…
Parveen, H. Naseema; Rajan, Premalatha
This article explores the significance of a word and the changes it undergoes in its form when it is placed in the hierarchy of grammatical constituents thereby forming a new word termed as vocabulary. This change or transformation is the result of affixations. Transformation becomes essential as the words learnt cannot be used as such in a…
Eskenazi, Michael A; Folk, Jocelyn R
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether words are processed differently when they are fixated during silent reading than when they are skipped. According to a serial processing model of eye movement control (e.g., EZ Reader) skipped words are fully processed (Reichle, Rayner, Pollatsek, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 26(04):445-476, 2003), whereas in a parallel processing model (e.g., SWIFT) skipped words do not need to be fully processed (Engbert, Nuthmann, Richter, Kliegl, Psychological Review, 112(4):777-813, 2005). Participants read 34 sentences with target words embedded in them while their eye movements were recorded. All target words were three-letter, low-frequency, and unpredictable nouns. After the reading session, participants completed a repetition priming lexical decision task with the target words from the reading session included as the repetition prime targets, with presentation of those same words during the reading task acting as the prime. When participants skipped a word during the reading session, their reaction times on the lexical decision task were significantly longer (M = 656.42 ms) than when they fixated the word (M = 614.43 ms). This result provides evidence that skipped words are sometimes not processed to the same degree as fixated words during reading.
Balassiano, Katia; Rosentrater, Kurt A.; Marcketti, Sara B.
Academic departments regularly offer dual-listed courses in which one course has two course numbers, yet are taught in the same place, at the same time, by a single instructor, and in one department to undergraduate and graduate students. While universities discourage their use by subjecting such courses to more rigorous approval processes,…
Tarar, Jessica M.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Dickens, Rachel H.
The TOWRE-2 was developed to provide an efficient measure of two essential wordlevel reading skills, sight word reading and phonetic decoding skills. The Sight Word Efficiency (SWE) subtest assesses the number of real words that an individual can read from a vertical list within 45 s. This subtest is designed to measure the size of an individual's…
Vejdemo, Susanne; Hörberg, Thomas
The rate of lexical replacement estimates the diachronic stability of word forms on the basis of how frequently a proto-language word is replaced or retained in its daughter languages. Lexical replacement rate has been shown to be highly related to word class and word frequency. In this paper, we argue that content words and function words behave differently with respect to lexical replacement rate, and we show that semantic factors predict the lexical replacement rate of content words. For the 167 content items in the Swadesh list, data was gathered on the features of lexical replacement rate, word class, frequency, age of acquisition, synonyms, arousal, imageability and average mutual information, either from published databases or gathered from corpora and lexica. A linear regression model shows that, in addition to frequency, synonyms, senses and imageability are significantly related to the lexical replacement rate of content words–in particular the number of synonyms that a word has. The model shows no differences in lexical replacement rate between word classes, and outperforms a model with word class and word frequency predictors only. PMID:26820737
Snow, Catherine E
A major challenge to students learning science is the academic language in which science is written. Academic language is designed to be concise, precise, and authoritative. To achieve these goals, it uses sophisticated words and complex grammatical constructions that can disrupt reading comprehension and block learning. Students need help in learning academic vocabulary and how to process academic language if they are to become independent learners of science.
Ribbler, A; Rausch, R
The present study compared the performance of patients with right (RTL) and left temporal lobectomy (LTL) with normal controls on two selective reminding procedures using either unrelated or semantically-related word-lists. LTL patients were found to be impaired relative to normal controls and RTL patients on both types of lists. The LTL patients entered fewer words into long-term storage (LTS) on each trial and showed a reduced ability to consistently recall such words on subsequent trials. The impaired initial learning of words and reduced subsequent recall of such words may reflect a unitary underlying deficiency. In addition, on the unrelated word-list, the LTL patients made significantly more intrusion errors than the other subject groups. Analyses of performance pattern indicate that LTL patients were able to benefit from the semantic-relatedness of words. RTL patients were impaired relative to normal controls on only the semantically-related word-list, both in entering words into LTS and the subsequent recall. These findings indicate that further studies of the semantic organization or its utilization of both RTL and LTL patients are warranted.
In this paper, we discuss a class of methods encapsulated under the term modelling with words. The theoretical frame is mathematical fuzzy logic in broader sense, namely its constituents: formal logical theory of evaluative linguistic expressions, intermediate quantifiers, and the related concepts of linguistic description and perception-based logical deduction. We present various kinds of applications based on this theory: control of complex processes, managerial decision making, analysis, forecasting and linguistic evaluation of time series, mining linguistic associations, and also linguistic summarization and deduction based on intermediate quantifier theory.
the subject of long de- bate (see the Hanks and Kilgarriff papers for two recent contributions). These are topics in need of serious con- sideration...classic example, its unrelated senses being “river bank” and “financial institution.” WordNet does not make a distinction between homonymy and polysemy ...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 a manual sense-tagging system, and it is these we will concentrate on here. The difficulties inherent in the sense
Dautriche, Isabelle; Chemla, Emmanuel
The number of potential meanings for a new word is astronomic. To make the word-learning problem tractable, one must restrict the hypothesis space. To do so, current word learning accounts often incorporate constraints about cognition or about the mature lexicon directly in the learning device. We are concerned with the convexity constraint, which holds that concepts (privileged sets of entities that we think of as “coherent”) do not have gaps (if A and B belong to a concept, so does any entity “between” A and B). To leverage from it a linguistic constraint, learning algorithms have percolated this constraint from concepts, to word forms: some algorithms rely on the possibility that word forms are associated with convex sets of objects. Yet this does have to be the case: homophones are word forms associated with two separate words and meanings. Two sets of experiments show that when evidence suggests that a novel label is associated with a disjoint (non-convex) set of objects, either a) because there is a gap in conceptual space between the learning exemplars for a given word or b) because of the intervention of other lexical items in that gap, adults prefer to postulate homophony, where a single word form is associated with two separate words and meanings, rather than inferring that the word could have a disjunctive, discontinuous meaning. These results about homophony must be integrated to current word learning algorithms. We conclude by arguing for a weaker specialization of word learning algorithms, which too often could miss important constraints by focusing on a restricted empirical basis (e.g., non-homophonous content words). PMID:27583384
Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.
This document contains an introduction to the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC) and Specialization ITAC; and overview of the electronics field; an list acknowledging the professionals who helped develop the competency list; and the comprehensive listing of the professional or occupational competencies deemed essential for…
Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.
This document contains an introduction to the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC) and Specialization ITAC; an overview of the dental assistant occupation; a list acknowledging professionals who helped develop the competency list; and the comprehensive list of the professional or occupational competencies deemed essential for…
Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.
This document contains an introduction to the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC) and Specialization ITAC; an overview of the field of practical nursing; a list acknowledging professionals who helped develop the competency list; and the comprehensive list of the professional or occupational competencies deemed essential for…
Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.
This document contains an introduction to the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC) and Specialization ITAC; an overview of the drafting industry; a list acknowledging professionals who helped develop the competency list; and the comprehensive list of the professional or occupational competencies deemed essential for graduates…
Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.
This document contains an introduction to the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC) and Specialization ITAC; an overview of the nurse assistant occupation; a list acknowledging professionals who helped develop the competency list; and the comprehensive list of the professional or occupational competencies deemed essential for…
Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.
This document contains an introduction to the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC) and Specialization ITAC; an overview of the graphic communications field; a list acknowledging professionals who helped develop the competency list; and a comprehensive list of the professional or occupational competencies deemed essential for…
Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.
This document contains an introduction to the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC) and Specialization ITAC; an overview of the electrical trades; a list acknowledging professionals who helped develop the competency list; and the comprehensive list of professional or occupational competencies deemed essential for graduates to be…
The users manual for the word recognition computer program contains flow charts of the logical diagram, the memory map for templates, the speech analyzer card arrangement, minicomputer input/output routines, and assembly language program listings.
Boyle, Peter; Christ, Norman; Gara, Alan; Kim,; Changhoan,; Mawhinney, Robert; Ohmacht, Martin; Sugavanam, Krishnan
A list prefetch engine improves a performance of a parallel computing system. The list prefetch engine receives a current cache miss address. The list prefetch engine evaluates whether the current cache miss address is valid. If the current cache miss address is valid, the list prefetch engine compares the current cache miss address and a list address. A list address represents an address in a list. A list describes an arbitrary sequence of prior cache miss addresses. The prefetch engine prefetches data according to the list, if there is a match between the current cache miss address and the list address.
Boyle, Peter; Christ, Norman; Gara, Alan; Kim, Changhoan; Mawhinney, Robert; Ohmacht, Martin; Sugavanam, Krishnan
A list prefetch engine improves a performance of a parallel computing system. The list prefetch engine receives a current cache miss address. The list prefetch engine evaluates whether the current cache miss address is valid. If the current cache miss address is valid, the list prefetch engine compares the current cache miss address and a list address. A list address represents an address in a list. A list describes an arbitrary sequence of prior cache miss addresses. The prefetch engine prefetches data according to the list, if there is a match between the current cache miss address and the list address.
Bugg, Julie M; McDaniel, Mark A; Scullin, Michael K; Braver, Todd S
Interference is reduced in mostly incongruent relative to mostly congruent lists. Classic accounts of this list-wide proportion congruence effect assume that list-level control processes strategically modulate word reading. Contemporary accounts posit that reliance on the word is modulated poststimulus onset by item-specific information (e.g., proportion congruency of the word). To adjudicate between these accounts, we used novel designs featuring neutral trials. In two experiments, we showed that the list-wide proportion congruence effect is accompanied by a change in neutral trial color-naming performance. Because neutral words have no item-specific bias, this pattern can be attributed to list-level control. Additionally, we showed that list-level attenuation of word reading led to a cost to performance on a secondary prospective memory task but only when that task required processing of the irrelevant, neutral word. These findings indicate that the list-wide proportion congruence effect at least partially reflects list-level control and challenge purely item-specific accounts of this effect.
Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee
Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list recall experiment. Participants listened to 12-item word lists that converged on a nonpresented critical item (e.g., rain) semantically (umbrella, drench, weather, hail), phonologically (train, main, ran, wren), or dually in a hybrid list (umbrella, train, drench, main) and recalled words in no particular order. Group comparisons were made on veridical recall (i.e., words that were presented) and false recall of nonpresented critical items. Recall performance was analyzed by list type and list position to examine potential differences in the quality of memorial processes. Results The LLD group produced fewer veridical recalls than the controls. Both groups demonstrated list type and list position effects in veridical recall. False recall of the critical items was comparable in the 2 groups and varied by list type in predictable ways. Conclusion Young adults with LLD have verbal memory limitations characterized by quantitatively low levels of accurate recall. Qualitative patterns of recall are similar to those of unaffected peers. Therefore, the memory problem is characterized by limited capacity; memorial processes appear to be intact. PMID:25652445
Petersen, Alexander M.; Tenenbaum, Joel; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene
We analyze the dynamic properties of 107 words recorded in English, Spanish and Hebrew over the period 1800–2008 in order to gain insight into the coevolution of language and culture. We report language independent patterns useful as benchmarks for theoretical models of language evolution. A significantly decreasing (increasing) trend in the birth (death) rate of words indicates a recent shift in the selection laws governing word use. For new words, we observe a peak in the growth-rate fluctuations around 40 years after introduction, consistent with the typical entry time into standard dictionaries and the human generational timescale. Pronounced changes in the dynamics of language during periods of war shows that word correlations, occurring across time and between words, are largely influenced by coevolutionary social, technological, and political factors. We quantify cultural memory by analyzing the long-term correlations in the use of individual words using detrended fluctuation analysis. PMID:22423321
Petersen, Alexander M.; Tenenbaum, Joel; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene
We analyze the dynamic properties of 107 words recorded in English, Spanish and Hebrew over the period 1800-2008 in order to gain insight into the coevolution of language and culture. We report language independent patterns useful as benchmarks for theoretical models of language evolution. A significantly decreasing (increasing) trend in the birth (death) rate of words indicates a recent shift in the selection laws governing word use. For new words, we observe a peak in the growth-rate fluctuations around 40 years after introduction, consistent with the typical entry time into standard dictionaries and the human generational timescale. Pronounced changes in the dynamics of language during periods of war shows that word correlations, occurring across time and between words, are largely influenced by coevolutionary social, technological, and political factors. We quantify cultural memory by analyzing the long-term correlations in the use of individual words using detrended fluctuation analysis.
Stofer, Kathryn A.
The oft-repeated phrase "a picture is worth a thousand words" supposes that an image can replace a profusion of words to more easily express complex ideas. For scientific visualizations that represent profusions of numerical data, however, an untranslated academic visualization suffers the same pitfalls untranslated jargon does. Previous…
Lowell, Randy; Morris, Robin K
The present study investigated the effects of word length on eye movement behavior during initial processing of novel words while reading. Adult skilled readers' eye movements were monitored as they read novel or known target words in sentence frames with neutral context preceding the target word. Comparable word length effects on all single-fixation measures for novel and known words suggested that both types of words were subject to similar initial encoding strategies. The impact of the absence of an existing lexical entry emerged in multiple first-pass fixation measures in the form of interactions between word length (long and short) and word type (novel and known). Specifically, readers spent significantly more first-pass time refixating long novel targets than short novel targets; however, the first-pass time spent refixating known controls did not differ as a function of length. Implications of these findings for models of eye movement control while reading, as well as for vocabulary acquisition in reading, are discussed.
Schlauch, Robert S.; Anderson, Elizabeth S.; Micheyl, Christophe
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate improved precision of word recognition scores (WRSs) by increasing list length and analyzing phonemic errors. Method: Pure-tone thresholds (frequencies between 0.25 and 8.0 kHz) and WRSs were measured in 3 levels of speech-shaped noise (50, 52, and 54 dB HL) for 24 listeners with normal…
Stip, E; Lecours, A R; Chertkow, H; Elie, R; O'Connor, K
In cognitive science, lexical decision task is used to investigate visual word recognition and lexical access. The issue of whether or not individuals who are depressed differ in their access to affectively laden words and specifically to words that have negative affect was examined. Based on some aspects of the Resource Allocation Model (Ellis), it was postulated that patients suffering from depression take more time to recognize items from an affective-loaded list. In order to compare their behavior in a lexical decision task, patients suffering from depression and healthy controls were studied. We hoped to find an interaction between the mood state of subjects and the categories (affective or neutral) of words. Two groups of right-handed adults served as subjects in our experiment. The first group consisted of 11 patients suffering from depression (mean age: 40.2; sd: 6.8). All of this group met the DSM-III-R and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for major depressive disorder. Severity of their disease was rated using the 24-item Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale. All patients suffering from depression were without psychotropic medication. The control group was composed of 24 subjects (mean age: 32.7; sd: 7.9). A depressive word-list and a neutral word-list were built and a computer was used for the lexical-decision task. A longer reaction time to detect the non-word stimuli (F1,33 = 11.19, p < 0.01) was observed with the patients by comparison to the normal subjects. In the analysis of the word stimuli, a group by list interaction (F1,33 = 7.18, p < 0.01) was found.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8031744
Marchetto, Erika; Bonatti, Luca L
In order to acquire language, infants must extract its building blocks-words-and master the rules governing their legal combinations from speech. These two problems are not independent, however: words also have internal structure. Thus, infants must extract two kinds of information from the same speech input. They must find the actual words of their language. Furthermore, they must identify its possible words, that is, the sequences of sounds that, being morphologically well formed, could be words. Here, we show that infants' sensitivity to possible words appears to be more primitive and fundamental than their ability to find actual words. We expose 12- and 18-month-old infants to an artificial language containing a conflict between statistically coherent and structurally coherent items. We show that 18-month-olds can extract possible words when the familiarization stream contains marks of segmentation, but cannot do so when the stream is continuous. Yet, they can find actual words from a continuous stream by computing statistical relationships among syllables. By contrast, 12-month-olds can find possible words when familiarized with a segmented stream, but seem unable to extract statistically coherent items from a continuous stream that contains minimal conflicts between statistical and structural information. These results suggest that sensitivity to word structure is in place earlier than the ability to analyze distributional information. The ability to compute nontrivial statistical relationships becomes fully effective relatively late in development, when infants have already acquired a considerable amount of linguistic knowledge. Thus, mechanisms for structure extraction that do not rely on extensive sampling of the input are likely to have a much larger role in language acquisition than general-purpose statistical abilities.
Koff, Robert H.; Feldman, David H.
Word associations to 51 stimulus words selected from the Kent and Rosanoff stimulus list were obtained from 110 graduate and 75 undergraduate teacher trainees. Associations were analyzed so that comparisons between teacher-trainee associations and several adult normative collections could be made. Response homogeneity was found to increase…
Batey, Anne; Ricketts, Dick
Intended to help educators choose the most appropriate word processing products for elementary school writing instruction, this report provides extensive information on 12 word processor and 13 writing activity software products. A list of components, general descriptions, comments and evaluations are included for each product. The products…
Musti-Rao, Shobana; Lo, Ya-yu; Plati, Erin
We used a multiple baseline across word lists design nested within a multiple baseline across participants design to examine the effects of instruction delivered using an iPad® app on sight word fluency and oral reading fluency of six first graders identified as at risk for reading failure. In Study 1, three students participated in…
Lupo, James V.; Ware, Mark E.
A workshop designed to teach participants how to use microcomputers for practice management, psychological testing, word processing, peripheral interface, and data analysis was found to meet the interests and needs of both academic and practicing psychologists. (RM)
Yopp, Ruth Helen; Yopp, Hallie Kay
In this strategy, students individually select and record 10 important words on self-adhesive notes as they read a text. Then students build a group bar graph displaying their choices, write a sentence that summarizes the content, and then respond to prompts that ask them to think about words in powerful ways. Several prompts are suggested, each…
Colome, Angels; Miozzo, Michele
Whether words are or are not activated within the lexicon of the nonused language is an important question for accounts of bilingual word production. Prior studies have not led to conclusive results, either because alternative accounts could be proposed for their findings or because activation could have been artificially induced by the…
Burt, Jennifer S.
University students participated in five experiments concerning the effects of unmasked, orthographically similar, primes on visual word recognition in the lexical decision task (LDT) and naming tasks. The modal prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 350 ms. When primes were words that were orthographic neighbors of the targets, and…
Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina
This article reports a lexical-decision experiment that was conducted to investigate the impact of word stress on visual word recognition in German. Reaction-time latencies and error rates of German readers on different levels of reading proficiency (i.e., third graders and fifth graders from primary school and university students) were compared…
Wagner, Katie; Kimura, Katherine; Cheung, Pierina; Barner, David
Young children typically take between 18 months and 2 years to learn the meanings of number words. In the present study, we investigated this developmental trajectory in bilingual preschoolers to examine the relative contributions of two factors in number word learning: (1) the construction of numerical concepts, and (2) the mapping of language specific words onto these concepts. We found that children learn the meanings of small number words (i.e., one, two, and three) independently in each language, indicating that observed delays in learning these words are attributable to difficulties in mapping words to concepts. In contrast, children generally learned to accurately count larger sets (i.e., five or greater) simultaneously in their two languages, suggesting that the difficulty in learning to count is not tied to a specific language. We also replicated previous studies that found that children learn the counting procedure before they learn its logic - i.e., that for any natural number, n, the successor of n in the count list denotes the cardinality n+1. Consistent with past studies, we found that children's knowledge of successors is first acquired incrementally. In bilinguals, we found that this knowledge exhibits item-specific transfer between languages, suggesting that the logic of the positive integers may not be stored in a language-specific format. We conclude that delays in learning the meanings of small number words are mainly due to language-specific processes of mapping words to concepts, whereas the logic and procedures of counting appear to be learned in a format that is independent of a particular language and thus transfers rapidly from one language to the other in development.
This study examines how STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) inquiry-based learning through a hands-on engineering design can be beneficial in helping students acquire academic vocabulary. This research took place in a second grade dual- language classroom in a public, suburban elementary school. English language learners, students who speak Spanish at home, and native English speakers were evaluated in this study. Each day, students were presented with a general academic vocabulary focus word during an engineering design challenge. Vocabulary pre-tests and post-tests as well as observation field notes were used to evaluate the student's growth in reading and defining the focus academic vocabulary words. A quiz and KSB (knowledge and skill builder) packet were used to evaluate students' knowledge of science and math content and engineering design. The results of this study indicate that engineering design is an effective means for teaching academic vocabulary to students with varying levels of English proficiency.
Bakhtiyari, Jalal; Khatoonabadi, Seyyed Ahmad Reza; Dadgar, Hooshang; Bakhtiari, Behrooz Mahmoodi; Khosravizadeh, Parvaneh; Shaygannejad, Vahid
Background: Aphasia is a language disorder caused by left hemisphere damage. For treatment of aphasia, in some of therapeutic approaches, the right hemisphere (RH) abilities, such as, emotional perception, is used for stimulation of the language process in the left hemisphere. The aim of this study is to investigate emotional word repetition in aphasia after a stroke, in Persian language patients. Materials and Methods: Fifteen aphasic patients (eleven male and four female) between 45 and 65 (58/4 ± 7/8) years of age, participated in this cross-sectional study. A list of 20 emotional words and a list of 20 neutral words as stimuli were prepared and the patients were asked to repeat each word after five seconds; if a patient needed to repeat a word again, it was repeated for him/her again, and the total score for each subject was calculated. The paired t-test was used to test group mean differences and the significant level was 0.05. Results: The mean and standard deviation for emotional word repetitions were 6.93 ± 1.72 and for non-emotional word repetition was 7.10 ± 2.23, and the P value = 0.892, thus, no significant difference between emotional and non-emotional word repetitions was noticed. The mean and standard deviation for the positive emotional word repetitions were 3.53 ± 3.29 and for negative word repetitions were 3.40 ± 3.56, (P = 0.751), with no significant difference between positive and negative emotional word repetitions. Conclusion: Despite the main hypothesis that the right hemisphere is involved in the processing of emotions, it can be stated that both hemispheres are involved in the processing of emotional words, albeit in a different and probably complementary manner. PMID:26436078
Francis, Wendy S; Camacho, Alejandra; Lara, Carolina
Previous research with words read in context at encoding showed little if any long-term repetition priming. In Experiment 1, 96 Spanish-English bilinguals translated words in isolation or in sentence contexts at encoding. At test, they translated words or named pictures corresponding to words produced at encoding and control words not previously presented. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were generally smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Repetition priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context. A componential analysis indicated priming from comprehension in context, but only in the less fluent language. Experiment 2 was a replication of Experiment 1 with auditory presentation of the words and sentences to be translated. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were again smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context, but the componential analysis indicated no detectable priming for auditory comprehension. The results of the two experiments taken together suggest that repetition priming reflects the long-term learning that occurs with comprehension and production exposures to words in the context of natural language.
Kerschbaum, Hubert H; Hofbauer, Ildiko; Gföllner, Anna; Ebner, Birgit; Bresgen, Nikolaus; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T
During the course of serious discussion, an unexpected interruption may induce forgetting of the original topic of a conversation. Sex, age, and sex hormone levels may affect frequency and extension of forgetting. In a list-method directed forgetting paradigm, subjects have to learn two word lists. After learning list 1, subjects receive either a forget or a remember list 1 cue. When the participants had learned list 2 and completed a distraction task, they were asked to write down as many recalled items as possible, starting either with list 1 or list 2 items. In the present study, 96 naturally cycling women, 60 oral contraceptive users, 56 postmenopausal women, and 41 young men were assigned to one of these different experimental conditions. Forget-cued young subjects recall fewer list 1 items (list 1 forgetting) but more list 2 items (list 2 enhancement) compared with remember-cued subjects. However, forget-cued postmenopausal women showed reduced list 1 forgetting but enhanced list 2 retention. Remember-cued naturally cycling women recalled more list 1 items than oral contraceptive users, young men, and postmenopausal women. In forget-cued follicular women, salivary progesterone correlated positively with recalled list 2 items. Salivary 17β-estradiol did not correlate with recalled list 1 or list 2 items in either remember- or forget-cued young women. However, salivary 17β-estradiol correlated with item recall in remember-cued postmenopausal women. Our findings suggest that sex hormones do not globally modulate verbal memory or forgetting, but selectively affect cue-specific processing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S
There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations.
Dispaldro, Marco; Deevy, Patricia; Altoe, Gianmarco; Benelli, Beatrice; Leonard Purdue, Laurence B.
Background Although relationships among non-word repetition, real-word repetition and grammatical ability have been documented, it is important to study whether the specific nature of these relationships is tied to the characteristics of a given language. Aims The aim of this study is to explore the potential cross-linguistic differences (Italian and English) in the relationship among non-word repetition, real-word repetition, and grammatical ability in three- and four-year-old children with typical language development. Methods & Procedures To reach this goal, two repetition tasks (one real-word list and one non-word list for each language) were used. In Italian the grammatical categories were the third person plural inflection and the direct-object clitic pronouns, while in English they were the third person singular present tense inflection and the past tense in regular and irregular forms. Outcomes & Results A cross-linguistic comparison showed that in both Italian and English, non-word repetition was a significant predictor of grammatical ability. However, performance on real-word repetition explained children’s grammatical ability in Italian but not in English. Conclusions & Implications Abilities underlying non-word repetition performance (e.g., the processing and/or storage of phonological material) play an important role in the development of children’s grammatical abilities in both languages. Lexical ability (indexed by real-word repetition) showed a close relationship to grammatical ability in Italian but not in English. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of cross-linguistic differences, genetic research, clinical intervention and methodological issues. PMID:21899673
Schlenker, Richard M.
This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for obtaining help with AppleWorks version 2.0 word processing files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for program loading; selecting the help list; and using the help list to copy text, delete text, find parts of a document,…
Morrison, Catriona M.; Conway, Martin A.
In two experiments autobiographical memories from childhood were recalled to cue words naming common objects, locations, activities and emotions. Participants recalled their earliest specific memory associated with each word and dated their age at the time of the remembered event. A striking and specific finding emerged: age of earliest memory was…
Catania, A. Charles
As instances of behavior, words interact with environments. But they also interact with each other and with other kinds of behavior. Because of the interlocking nature of the contingencies into which words enter, their behavioral properties may become increasingly removed from nonverbal contingencies, and their relationship to those contingencies…
Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young
The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English…
Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth; Witzel, Naoko
Bowers, Davis, and Hanley (Bowers, J. S., Davis, C. J., & Hanley, D. A. (2005). "Interfering neighbours: The impact of novel word learning on the identification of visually similar words." "Cognition," 97(3), B45-B54) reported that if participants were trained to type nonwords such as "banara", subsequent semantic categorization responses to…
Slaymaker, Josephine; Eakman, Donna
A project to develop a student word processing manual was developed by using input from: (1) information specialists, employees, and educators; and (2) students using the manual. These instructional materials provide workbook assignments and reading for an individualized unit on CPT word processing to be used by 30 to 40 high school students per…
Meeker, Michael W.
Working with a word processor changes writers' behavior. They compose more easily, less anxiously, and more prolifically. The word processor makes them want to sit down and write and makes them feel good about their writing. It does this by encouraging prewriting and invention, by providing a sense of control and mastery over the actual writing…
In this article, the author talks about the auto correction mode of word processors that leads to a number of problems and describes an example in biochemistry exams that shows how word processors can lead to mistakes in databases and in papers. The author contends that, where this system is applied, spell checking should not be left to a word…
Sasao, Yosuke; Webb, Stuart
Knowledge of English affixes plays a significant role in increasing knowledge of words. However, few attempts have been made to create a valid and reliable measure of affix knowledge. The Word Part Levels Test (WPLT) was developed to measure three aspects of affix knowledge: form (recognition of written affix forms), meaning (knowledge of affix…
White, Corey N.; Kapucu, Aycan; Bruno, Davide; Rotello, Caren M.; Ratcliff, Roger
Recognition memory studies often find that emotional items are more likely than neutral items to be labeled as studied. Previous work suggests this bias is driven by increased memory strength/familiarity for emotional items. We explored strength and bias interpretations of this effect with the conjecture that emotional stimuli might seem more familiar because they share features with studied items from the same category. Categorical effects were manipulated in a recognition task by presenting lists with a small, medium, or large proportion of emotional words. The liberal memory bias for emotional words was only observed when a medium or large proportion of categorized words were presented in the lists. Similar, though weaker, effects were observed with categorized words that were not emotional (animal names). These results suggest that liberal memory bias for emotional items may be largely driven by effects of category membership. PMID:24303902
White, Corey N; Kapucu, Aycan; Bruno, Davide; Rotello, Caren M; Ratcliff, Roger
Recognition memory studies often find that emotional items are more likely than neutral items to be labelled as studied. Previous work suggests this bias is driven by increased memory strength/familiarity for emotional items. We explored strength and bias interpretations of this effect with the conjecture that emotional stimuli might seem more familiar because they share features with studied items from the same category. Categorical effects were manipulated in a recognition task by presenting lists with a small, medium or large proportion of emotional words. The liberal memory bias for emotional words was only observed when a medium or large proportion of categorised words were presented in the lists. Similar, though weaker, effects were observed with categorised words that were not emotional (animal names). These results suggest that liberal memory bias for emotional items may be largely driven by effects of category membership.
Dasgupta, Tirthankar; Sinha, Manjira; Basu, Anupam
In this paper we aim to model the organization and processing of Bangla compound words in the mental lexicon. Our objective is to determine whether the mental lexicon access a Bangla compound word as a whole or decomposes the whole word into its constituent morphemes and then recognize them accordingly. To address this issue, we adopted two different strategies. First, we conduct a cross-modal priming experiment over a number of native speakers. Analysis of reaction time (RT) and error rates indicates that in general, Bangla compound words are accessed via partial decomposition process. That is some word follows full-listing mode of representation and some words follow the decomposition route of representation. Next, based on the collected RT data we have developed a computational model that can explain the processing phenomena of the access and representation of Bangla compound words. In order to achieve this, we first explored the individual roles of head word position, morphological complexity, orthographic transparency and semantic compositionality between the constituents and the whole compound word. Accordingly, we have developed a complexity based model by combining these features together. To a large extent we have successfully explained the possible processing phenomena of most of the Bangla compound words. Our proposed model shows an accuracy of around 83 %.
bibliometric analysis can be seen in its list of projects and publications in its annual report. One study used a unique two-step co-word analysis as the...basis for bibliometric maps of neural network research. The maps portray neural networks embedded in the environment of related fields [Van Raan, 1991...the bibliometric techniques, whether co-citation, co-word, or co-nomination, the cost of computer time in the new method is negligible. Given that
LaDuke, Rebekah D
The purpose of this article was to review the most current published literature on the topics of academic dishonesty, unethical professional practices, and research that studied the correlation between these 2 areas of interest. Literature was retrieved by utilizing key words such as academic dishonesty, cheating, workplace dishonesty, and unethical behavior. Multiple research databases were used and a reference librarian in locating relevant research studies resulting in 16 research articles reviewed and 7 articles referenced within the literature review. Upon completion, it became apparent that nursing educators should be concerned that nursing students found to be academically dishonest today may have a higher incidence of displaying unethical practices as a registered nurse tomorrow. It also became clear that the nursing profession needs to conduct its own research in this field to verify findings discovered by other professions such as engineering, business, and psychology. Finally, recommendations were given on how nursing educators should handle the topic of ethics in nursing programs.
Schmalz, Xenia; Treccani, Barbara; Mulatti, Claudio
Lexical selection-both during reading aloud and speech production-involves selecting an intended word, while ignoring irrelevant lexical activation. This process has been studied by the use of interference tasks. Examples are the Stroop task, where participants ignore the written color word and name the color of the ink, picture-word interference tasks, where participants name a picture while ignoring a super-imposed written word, or word-word interference (WWI) tasks, where two words are presented and the participants need to respond to only one, based on an pre-determined visual feature (e.g., color, position). Here, we focus on the WWI task: it is theoretically impossible for existing models to explain how the cognitive system can respond to one stimulus and block the other, when they are presented by the same modality (i.e., they are both words). We describe a solution that can explain performance on the WWI task: drawing on the literature on visual attention, we propose that the system creates an object file for each perceived object, which is continuously updated with increasingly complete information about the stimulus, such as the task-relevant visual feature. Such a model can account for performance on all three tasks.
Vasylhmas, V. M.
Much of what I'm going to say can be subsumed under the title: the meaning of merging or reconnection. When I look back at the controversy which has surrounded the concept for the past thirty years and try to understand historically how it arose, I find it rather remarkable that there has been that much controversy. The word reconnection becomes in some cases almost an emotional symbol, and some people seem to object merely to the name. One can find papers where the concept is violently objected to, but if one examines what the author is doing, one finds he is doing essentially the same physics; he is only absolutely refusing to use that name and insisting that anyone who uses it is wrong. So I would like to, so to speak, demythologize that and discuss what it is we really talk about when we talk about reconnection or merging. Leaving aside the precise legal definitions, I think what we are talking about is very simple. It's a system with a complex magnetic topology, where we have a plasma flow in it of some sort: plasma flow in a complex topology. In the case of the earth, initially there may have been some argument as to whether the topology is really complex or whether all the field lines are just nicely contained in one volume—there was a big battle about that some 15 years ago—but today I think it's generally accepted that the magnetosphere is open; so we do have a complex topology, and of course we know that the solar wind is flowing.
Montelongo, José A.; Hernández, Anita C.; Herter, Roberta J.
English-Spanish cognates are words that possess identical or nearly identical spellings and meanings in both English and Spanish as a result of being derived mainly from Latin and Greek. Of major importance is the fact that many of the more than 20,000 cognates in English are academic vocabulary words, terms essential for comprehending school…
Hollich, George; Jusczyk, Peter; Brent, Michael
While infants must go beyond talker-specific information in recognizing a given word, regardless of the talker, they must also process talker-specific information in order to extract meaning from a particular sound source. Otherwise, for example, they could never recognize whether [hct] referred to a talker's pronunciation of hot, hut, or even hat. This poster suggests that not only do infants process talker-specific information, but they also make use of it both to extract invariant properties in learning a new word and in recognizing talker-specific tokens faster. Using the splitscreen preferential looking paradigm, two studies were conducted that examined how talker-specific properties and variation among talkers could facilitate word learning. Results of study 1 indicated that word learning was facilitated in the case where infants heard different talkers. Thus, talker variation is critical for the extraction of invariant properties of a word. However, the results of study 2 indicated that talker-specific properties were encoded and used to help these infants recognize and learn the referents of these words. Given this evidence, it is suggested that infants appear to be using talker-specific information to form abstract representations of the invariant properties of words.
Duyck, Wouter; Desmet, Timothy; Verbeke, Lieven P C; Brysbaert, Marc
WordGen is an easy-to-use program that uses the CELEX and Lexique lexical databases for word selection and nonword generation in Dutch, English, German, and French. Items can be generated in these four languages, specifying any combination of seven linguistic constraints: number of letters, neighborhood size, frequency, summated position-nonspecific bigram frequency, minimum position-nonspecific bigram f requency, position-specific frequency of the initial and final bigram, and orthographic relatedness. The program also has a module to calculate the respective values of these variables for items that have already been constructed, either with the program or taken from earlier studies. Stimulus queries can be entered through WordGen's graphical user interface or by means of batch files. WordGen is especially useful for (1) Dutch and German item generation, because no such stimulus-selection tool exists for these languages, (2) the generation of nonwords for all four languages, because our program has some important advantages over previous nonword generation approaches, and (3) psycholinguistic experiments on bilingualism, because the possibility of using the same tool for different languages increases the cross-linguistic comparability of the generated item lists. WordGen is free and available at http://expsy.ugent.be/wordgen.htm.
Science and Engineering Education, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education
The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2002 and August 31, 2003. Thirty-three academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during the survey time period and all responded (100% response rate). Three of the programs included in last year's report were discontinued or out-of-scope in 2003. One new program has been added to the list. This year the survey data include U.S. citizenship, gender, and race/ethnicity by degree level.
Barker, Thomas T.
Explores how word processing affects thinking and writing. Examines two myths surrounding word processors and invention in technical writing. Describes how word processing can enhance invention through collaborative writing, templates, and on-screen outlining. (MM)
Mok, Leh Woon
The word-superiority effect (WSE) describes the superior recognition of word constituents in a word, as opposed to a non-word, context. In this study, the WSE was used as a diagnostic tool to examine the modulatory effect of word semantic transparency on the degree to which Chinese bimorphemic compound words are lexically represented as unitised…
Buckingham, Hugh W; Christman, Sarah S
This article will outline and describe the aphasic disorder of recurrent perseveration and will demonstrate how it interacts with the retrieval and production of spoken words in the language of fluent aphasic patients who have sustained damage to the left (dominant) posterior temporoparietal lobe. We will concentrate on the various kinds of sublexical segmental perseverations (the so-called phonemic carryovers of Santo Pietro and Rigrodsky) that most often play a role in the generation of word blendings. We will show how perseverative blends allow the clinician to better understand the dynamics of word and syllable production in fluent aphasia by scrutinizing the "onset/rime" and "onset/superrime" constituents of monosyllabic and polysyllabic words, respectively. We will demonstrate to the speech language pathologist the importance of the trochee stress pattern and the possibility that its metrical template may constitute a structural unit that can be perseverated.
Pennington, J. R.
Describes the utilization of a word processing program by a school administrator to do teacher evaluations. The discussion includes what the administrator's needs were and the physical process of setting up the system. (MBR)
Nagata, Ryo; Kakegawa, Jun-Ichi; Sugimoto, Hiromi; Yabuta, Yukiko
This paper describes a method for recognizing romanized Japanese words in learner English. They become noise and problematic in a variety of systems and tools for language learning and teaching including text analysis, spell checking, and grammatical error detection because they are Japanese words and thus mostly unknown to such systems and tools. A problem one encounters when recognizing romanized Japanese words in learner English is that the spelling rules of romanized Japanese words are often violated. To address this problem, the described method uses a clustering algorithm reinforced by a small set of rules. Experiments show that it achieves an F-measure of 0.879 and outperforms other methods. They also show that it only requires the target text and an English word list of reasonable size.
Whittlesea, Bruce W. A.; Masson, Michael E. J.
The authors examine the repetition blindness effect--the failure to report one of the occurrences of a word presented twice in a rapid list. This phenomenon has been ascribed to inhibitory processes that prevent immediate tokenization of the 2nd occurrence of a repeated word. The authors present several kinds of evidence against that account,…
Cadavid, Sara; Beato, María Soledad
A wide array of studies have explored memory distortions with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, where participants study lists of words (e.g., "door," "glass," "pane," "shade," "ledge," etc.) that are associated to another nonpresented critical word (e.g., WINDOW). On a subsequent memory…
This study seeks to understand the relationship between K-12 online system adoption (e.g., Blackboard, Edmodo, WordPress) and school-level academic achievement ratings. Utilizing a novel approach to data collection via website data extraction and indexing of all school websites in a target state in the United States (n?=?732) and merging these…
Carey, Susan; Bartlett, Elsa
Twenty children aged 3;0 to 3;10 were studied for behavior related to the acquisition of a single new word ("chromium," which was presented as designating the color olive green). The research was conducted in three cycles: prior to exposure to "chromium," at the time of a single encounter with that word, and about a week after the first encounter.…
Santos-Galduróz, R F; Oliveira, F G; Galduróz, J C F; Bueno, O F A
The influence of aging on memory has been extensively studied, but the importance of short-term memory and recall sequence has not. The objective of the current study was to examine the recall order of words presented on lists and to determine if age affects recall sequence. Physically and psychologically healthy male subjects were divided into two groups according to age, i.e., 23 young subjects (20 to 30 years) and 50 elderly subjects (60 to 70 years) submitted to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the free word recall test. The order of word presentation significantly affected the 3rd and 4th words recalled (P < 0.01; F = 14.6). In addition, there was interaction between the presentation order and the type of list presented (P < 0.05; F = 9.7). Also, both groups recalled the last words presented from each list (words 13-15) significantly more times 3rd and 4th than words presented in all remaining positions (P < 0.01). The order of word presentation also significantly affected the 5th and 6th words recalled (P = 0.05; F = 7.5) and there was a significant interaction between the order of presentation and the type of list presented (P < 0.01; F = 20.8). The more developed the cognitive functions, resulting mainly from formal education, the greater the cognitive reserve, helping to minimize the effects of aging on the long-term memory (episodic declarative).
Bell, Jo Ann
A review of efforts to formulate basic medical journal lists and a report of a survey of subscriptions held in academic health science libraries is presented. The subscriptions held by thirty-seven libraries were analyzed to determine those held by 60-100% of the sample. A comparison of those titles subscribed to by 90-100% of the sample reveals that most of these titles appear in the lists formulated by other studies. PMID:4466506
McCutchen, Deborah; Stull, Sara; Herrera, Becky Logan; Lotas, Sasha; Evans, Sarah
This quasi-experimental study examined effects of a 12-week, teacher-delivered, morphologically focused intervention on writing outcomes for fifth-grade U.S. students. In order to help students gain control over the morphologically complex words that typify academic writing, the intervention called students' attention to the morphological…
Owolabi, Josiah; Adaramati, Tobiloba Faith
This study investigated the effects of graphic organiser and gender on students' academic achievement in algebraic word problem. Three research questions and three null hypotheses were used in guiding this study. Quasi experimental research was employed and Non-equivalent pre and post test design was used. The study involved the Senior Secondary…
This paper aims at investigating the influence of neutral gender words on translating job titles from English language into Arabic Language. This qualitative research includes 20 postgraduate students doing their M.A in Applied Linguistics at the Department of English Language and Literature at Mu'tah University for the academic year 2015/2016.…
Fernandez, Thalia; Harmony, Thalia; Mendoza, Omar; Lopez-Alanis, Paula; Marroquin, Jose Luis; Otero, Gloria; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina
Learning disabilities (LD) are one of the most frequent problems for elementary school-aged children. In this paper, event-related EEG oscillations to semantically related and unrelated pairs of words were studied in a group of 18 children with LD not otherwise specified (LD-NOS) and in 16 children with normal academic achievement. We propose that…
Chan, Teresa M.; Gottlieb, Michael; Fant, Abra L.; Messman, Anne; Robinson, Daniel W.; Cooney, Robert R.; Papanagnou, Dimitrios; Yarris, Lalena M.
Introduction Scholarship is an essential part of academic success. Junior faculty members are often unfamiliar with the grounding literature that defines educational scholarship. In this article, the authors aim to summarize five key papers which outline education scholarship in the setting of academic contributions for emerging clinician educators. Methods The authors conducted a consensus-building process to generate a list of key papers that describe the importance and significance of academic scholarship, informed by social media sources. They then used a three-round voting methodology, akin to a Delphi study, to determine the most useful papers. Results A summary of the five most important papers on the topic of academic scholarship, as determined by this mixed group of junior faculty members and faculty developers, is presented in this paper. These authors subsequently wrote a summary of these five papers and discussed their relevance to both junior faculty members and faculty developers. Conclusion Five papers on education scholarship, deemed essential by the authors’ consensus process, are presented in this paper. These papers may help provide the foundational background to help junior faculty members gain a grasp of the academic scholarly environment. This list may also inform senior faculty and faculty developers on the needs of junior educators in the nascent stages of their careers. PMID:27625714
Preuss, Michael; Switalski, Rachael
Retaining and aiding students on academic probation is a concern for all institutions of higher education. Students placed on academic probation by Rockingham Community College (RCC) have been encouraged to participate in an intervention program since the summer of 2006. When treated as an aggregate, the data regarding the program indicates that…
Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.
This reading list is designed as a companion piece to Indiana's Academic Standards in English/Language Arts and is organized on four levels: Level 1, Grades K-2; Level 2, Grades 3-5; Level 3, Grades 6-8; and Level 4, Grades 9-12. It contains titles and authors for approximately 800 works. The Level 1 Reading List contains these sections: fiction…
Donate Member Portal Search Search » Donate | Member Portal | Sign In | Join Membership Join the AAP Coming Home Member Benefits Top 5 Reasons to Join Categories & Dues Academic Partnership Program Current Academic ...
Brojde, Chandra L; Porter, Chelsea; Colunga, Eliana
Words have been shown to influence many cognitive tasks, including category learning. Most demonstrations of these effects have focused on instances in which words facilitate performance. One possibility is that words augment representations, predicting an across the-board benefit of words during category learning. We propose that words shift attention to dimensions that have been historically predictive in similar contexts. Under this account, there should be cases in which words are detrimental to performance. The results from two experiments show that words impair learning of object categories under some conditions. Experiment 1 shows that words hurt performance when learning to categorize by texture. Experiment 2 shows that words also hurt when learning to categorize by brightness, leading to selectively attending to shape when both shape and hue could be used to correctly categorize stimuli. We suggest that both the positive and negative effects of words have developmental origins in the history of word usage while learning categories. [corrected
Miller, Michael H.
Academic inbreeding, the employment for faculty positions of persons who receive their graduate training at the same academic institution, is considered detrimental to an institution's academic environment. Results of a study conducted at 54 universities revealed that almost half the faculty (48 percent) in collegiate nursing programs are drawn…
In this essay, I explore the idea that "academic" advisers are "academics" who play a major role in connecting the general education curriculum to the students' experience as well as connecting the faculty to the students' holistic experience of the curriculum. The National Academic Advising Association Concept of Academic…
Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.
In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…
Vale, Ronald D
Many years of training are required to obtain a job as an academic scientist. Is this investment of time and effort worthwhile? My answer is a resounding "yes." Academic scientists enjoy tremendous freedom in choosing their research and career path, experience unusual camaraderie in their lab, school, and international community, and can contribute to and enjoy being part of this historical era of biological discovery. In this essay, I further elaborate by listing my top ten reasons why an academic job is a desirable career for young people who are interested in the life sciences.
Many years of training are required to obtain a job as an academic scientist. Is this investment of time and effort worthwhile? My answer is a resounding “yes.” Academic scientists enjoy tremendous freedom in choosing their research and career path, experience unusual camaraderie in their lab, school, and international community, and can contribute to and enjoy being part of this historical era of biological discovery. In this essay, I further elaborate by listing my top ten reasons why an academic job is a desirable career for young people who are interested in the life sciences. PMID:20048258
Bradlow, Ann R.; Pisoni, David B.
In order to gain insight into the interplay between the talker-, listener-, and item-related factors that influence speech perception, a large multi-talker database of digitally recorded spoken words was developed, and was then submitted to intelligibility tests with multiple listeners. Ten talkers produced two lists of words at three speaking rates. One list contained lexically “easy” words (words with few phonetically similar sounding “neighbors” with which they could be confused), and the other list contained lexically “hard” (wordswords with many phonetically similar sounding “neighbors”). An analysis of the intelligibility data obtained with native speakers of English (experiment 1) showed a strong effect of lexical similarity. Easy words had higher intelligibility scores than hard words. A strong effect of speaking rate was also found whereby slow and medium rate words had higher intelligibility scores than fast rate words. Finally, a relationship was also observed between the various stimulus factors whereby the perceptual difficulties imposed by one factor, such as a hard word spoken at a fast rate, could be overcome by the advantage gained through the listener's experience and familiarity with the speech of a particular talker. In experiment 2, the investigation was extended to another listener population, namely, non-native listeners. Results showed that the ability to take advantage of surface phonetic information, such as a consistent talker across items, is a perceptual skill that transfers easily from first to second language perception. However, non-native listeners had particular difficulty with lexically hard words even when familiarity with the items was controlled, suggesting that non-native word recognition may be compromised when fine phonetic discrimination at the segmental level is required. Taken together, the results of this study provide insight into the signal-dependent and signal-independent factors that influence spoken
Braisby, N; Franks, B; Hampton, J
The essentialist approach to word meaning has been used to undermine the fundamental assumptions of the cognitive psychology of concepts. Essentialism assumes that a word refers to a natural kind category in virtue of category members possessing essential properties. In support of this thesis, Kripke and Putnam deploy various intuitions concerning word use under circumstances in which discoveries about natural kinds are made. Although some studies employing counterfactual discoveries and related transformations appear to vindicate essentialism, we argue that the intuitions have not been investigated exhaustively. In particular, we argue that discoveries concerning the essential properties of whole categories (rather than simply of particular category members) are critical to the essentialist intuitions. The studies reported here examine such discovery contexts, and demonstrate that words and concepts are not used in accordance with essentialism. The results are, however, consistent with "representational change" views of concepts, which are broadly Fregean in their motivation. We conclude that since essentialism is not vindicated by ordinary word use, it fails to undermine the cognitive psychology of concepts.
Bouwmeester, Samantha; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.
The present study aimed at testing theoretical predictions of the fuzzy-trace theory about true and false recognition. The effects of semantic relatedness and study opportunity on true and false recognition of words from Deese, Roediger, McDermott lists (J. Deese, 1959; D. R. Read, 1996; H. L. Roediger & K. B. McDermott, 1995) were evaluated…
American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.
Provided is an alphabetical list or words and phrases commonly used in the energy industry. Entries range from such general terms as biomass, fossil fuels, and wetlands to such highly specific terms as Arab oil embargo of 1973-74 and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) Process. (JN)
Bean, Sarah M; Nagler, Alisa; Buckley, Patrick J
This study aimed to determine institution-wide graduate medical education (GME) requirements in pathology (exclusive of pathology residency and fellowships) at an academic center. All documents related to residency review committee (RRC) program requirements were searched for the key words "pathology," "laboratory," "autopsy," and "morbidity." For each occurrence, it was determined whether a pathology education requirement had been identified. Requirements were categorized and tabulated. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) lists 135 nonpathology programs; 66 programs exist at Duke University Medical Center, of which 54 (82%) had pathology education requirement(s). Twelve education categories were identified. Teaching/conferences were the most common (52%). Thirty-nine percent required consultation/support. Sixteen programs were required to perform gross/microscopic examination. Trainees in medical genetics are required to have a pathology rotation. Elective rotations should be available for trainees in 6 programs. Pathology departments at academic centers face significant institution-wide pathology education requirements for clinical ACGME programs. Didactic teaching/conferences and consultation/support are common requirements. Opportunities exist for innovative teaching strategies.
Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.
Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…
Parault, Susan J.
Sound symbolism is the notion that the relation between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. This research investigates sound symbolism as a possible means of gaining semantic knowledge of…
Writing groups can use word processors or microcomputers in many different types of writing activities. Four hour-long sessions at a word processor with the help of a skilled word processing tutor have been found to be sufficient to provide a working knowledge of word processing. When two or three students enrolled in a writing class are assigned…
Papies, Esther K.
This study shows that tempting food words activate simulations of eating the food, including simulations of the taste and texture of the food, simulations of eating situations, and simulations of hedonic enjoyment. In a feature listing task, participants generated features that are typically true of four tempting foods (e.g., chips) and four neutral foods (e.g., rice). The resulting features were coded as features of eating simulations if they referred to the taste, texture, and temperature of the food (e.g., “crunchy”; “sticky”), to situations of eating the food (e.g., “movie”; “good for Wok dishes”), and to the hedonic experience when eating the food (e.g., “tasty”). Based on the grounded cognition perspective, it was predicted that tempting foods are more likely to be represented in terms of actually eating them, so that participants would list more features referring to eating simulations for tempting than for neutral foods. Confirming this hypothesis, results showed that eating simulation features constituted 53% of the features for tempting food, and 26% of the features for neutral food. Visual features, in contrast, were mentioned more often for neutral foods (45%) than for tempting foods (19%). Exploratory analyses revealed that the proportion of eating simulation features for tempting foods was positively correlated with perceived attractiveness of the foods, and negatively with participants’ dieting concerns, suggesting that eating simulations may depend on individuals’ goals with regard to eating. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for understanding the processes guiding eating behavior, and for interventions designed to reduce the consumption of attractive, unhealthy food. PMID:24298263
Itoh, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Kazuyo
Word frequency in a document has often been utilized in text searching and summarization. Similarly, identifying frequent words or phrases in a speech data set for searching and summarization would also be meaningful. However, obtaining word frequency in a speech data set is difficult, because frequent words are often special terms in the speech and cannot be recognized by a general speech recognizer. This paper proposes another approach that is effective for automatic extraction of such frequent word sections in a speech data set. The proposed method is applicable to any domain of monologue speech, because no language models or specific terms are required in advance. The extracted sections can be regarded as speech labels of some kind or a digest of the speech presentation. The frequent word sections are determined by detecting similar sections, which are sections of audio data that represent the same word or phrase. The similar sections are detected by an efficient algorithm, called Shift Continuous Dynamic Programming (Shift CDP), which realizes fast matching between arbitrary sections in the reference speech pattern and those in the input speech, and enables frame-synchronous extraction of similar sections. In experiments, the algorithm is applied to extract the repeated sections in oral presentation speeches recorded in academic conferences in Japan. The results show that Shift CDP successfully detects similar sections and identifies the frequent word sections in individual presentation speeches, without prior domain knowledge, such as language models and terms.
MacQuarrie, David L.
An echo can often be heard in career and technical education (CTE) hallways, "How am I going to fit academic skills into this program." They have a choice! They could pick up a math or English book and start selecting something to separately add in. Perhaps an academic consultant could be tapped to separately add to the task list. Another option…
Altmann, Eduardo G.; Whichard, Zakary L.; Motter, Adilson E.
The word-stock of a language is a complex dynamical system in which words can be created, evolve, and become extinct. Even more dynamic are the short-term fluctuations in word usage by individuals in a population. Building on the recent demonstration that word niche is a strong determinant of future rise or fall in word frequency, here we introduce a model that allows us to distinguish persistent from temporary increases in frequency. Our model is illustrated using a 108-word database from an online discussion group and a 1011-word collection of digitized books. The model reveals a strong relation between changes in word dissemination and changes in frequency. Aside from their implications for short-term word frequency dynamics, these observations are potentially important for language evolution as new words must survive in the short term in order to survive in the long term.
This document is a master list of acronyms and other abbreviations that are used by or could be useful to, the personnel at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Many specialized and well-known abbreviations are not included in this list.
Hotta, Hajime; Kittaka, Masanobu; Hagiwara, Masafumi
In this paper, we propose a new vectorization method for a new generation of computational intelligence including neural networks and natural language processing. In recent years, various techniques of word vectorization have been proposed, many of which rely on the preparation of dictionaries. However, these techniques don't consider the symbol grounding problem for unknown types of data, which is one of the most fundamental issues on artificial intelligence. In order to avoid the symbol-grounding problem, pattern processing based methods, such as neural networks, are often used in various studies on self-directive systems and algorithms, and the merit of neural network is not exception in the natural language processing. The proposed method is a converter from one word input to one real-valued vector, whose algorithm is inspired by neural network architecture. The merits of the method are as follows: (1) the method requires no specific knowledge of linguistics e.g. word classes or grammatical one; (2) the method is a sequence learning technique and it can learn additional knowledge. The experiment showed the efficiency of word vectorization in terms of similarity measurement.
The classic gavagai problem exemplifies the difficulty to identify the referent of a novel word uttered in a foreign language. Here, we consider the reverse problem: identifying the referential part of a label. Assuming "gavagai" indicates a rabbit in a foreign language, it may very well mean ""a" rabbit" or ""that" rabbit". How can a learner know…
Arnon, Inbal; Snider, Neal
There is mounting evidence that language users are sensitive to distributional information at many grain-sizes. Much of this research has focused on the distributional properties of words, the units they consist of (morphemes, phonemes), and the syntactic structures they appear in (verb-categorization frames, syntactic constructions). In a series…
Graf Estes, Katharine; Gluck, Stephanie Chen-Wu; Bastos, Carolina
The present experiments investigated the flexibility of statistical word segmentation. There is ample evidence that infants can use statistical cues (e.g., syllable transitional probabilities) to segment fluent speech. However, it is unclear how effectively infants track these patterns in unfamiliar phonological systems. We examined whether…
4ILLIHIMATIM I R 2 IMILLIMtk S 1a.Gswua 6a TR.2 R-TMSFE R TA 2& . L INkS .R 2a6s .I4 -AUO _fm___4 * 4 SMkIIAiN Tali 26 4_ MNUMIA ST N _ -TAN 26 S aftsuS rag...Su.va 3- 15,2 2-3371 2151 21913 01 3 I ~..-....... 0*. 2 MUS WORD LIST by PAGE WTI 6.041 1729 PAGE j 0k 4 ADD ING 3-20 4 31 2 0,1 2- Soot * 4 ^tAIsaL 2
Gibbons, Cardinal Keith
A study was made to determine the relationship of the words in each spelling series studied to the frequency of word usage as found in recognized studies of adult and child vocabularies, and other factors of interest to a textbook committee. The spelling list, for grades 2-8 inclusive, in the eight series of spellers approved for use in the Idaho…
In 2012, "U.S. News & World Report" ranked nineteen institutions on its Up-and-Coming national universities list. The universities were put on the list based on rankings from experts in higher education administration. The experts were asked to identify institutions that had implemented innovative ideas in the areas of academics,…
Guay, Frederic; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Roy, Amelie; Litalien, David
Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between…
Imbir, Kamil K
This article presents valence/pleasantness, activity/arousal, power/dominance, origin, subjective significance, and source-of-experience norms for 1,586 Polish words (primarily nouns), adapted from the Affective Norms for English Words list (1,040 words) and from my own previous research (546 words), regarding the duality-of-mind approach for emotion formation. This is a first attempt at creating affective norms for Polish words. The norms are based on ratings by a total of 1,670 college students (852 females and 818 males) from different Warsaw universities and academies, studying various disciplines in equal proportions (humanities, engineering, and social and natural sciences) using a 9-point Likert Self-Assessment Manikin scale. Each participant assessed 240 words on six different scales (40 words per scale) using a paper-and-pencil group survey procedure. These affective norms for Polish words are a valid and useful tool that will allow researchers to use standard, well-known verbal materials comparable to the materials used in other languages (English, German, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Dutch, etc.). The normative values of the Polish adaptation of affective norms are included in the online supplemental materials for this article.
Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Davis, Colin J.; Hanley, Derek A.
We assessed the impact of visual similarity on written word identification by having participants learn new words (e.g. BANARA) that were neighbours of familiar words that previously had no neighbours (e.g. BANANA). Repeated exposure to these new words made it more difficult to semantically categorize the familiar words. There was some evidence of…
Tellings, Agnes; Coppens, Karien; Gelissen, John; Schreuder, Rob
Often, the classification of words does not go beyond "difficult" (i.e., infrequent, late-learned, nonimageable, etc.) or "easy" (i.e., frequent, early-learned, imageable, etc.) words. In the present study, we used a latent cluster analysis to divide 703 Dutch words with scores for eight word properties into seven clusters of words. Each cluster…
Archer, Daniel E.; Luke, S. John; Mauger, G. Joseph; Riot, Vincent J.; Knapp, David A.
A digital list mode multichannel analyzer (MCA) built around a programmable FPGA device for onboard data analysis and on-the-fly modification of system detection/operating parameters, and capable of collecting and processing data in very small time bins (<1 millisecond) when used in histogramming mode, or in list mode as a list mode MCA.
Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.
The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…
Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.
The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…
Davis, Lennard J.
A course's reading list is the skeleton of a semester's body of thought, the inventory that a professor writes up for the departmental Web site and the schedule of courses that lists the goods. Despite the obvious utility of fixed reading lists, one should jettison them when possible. The author has been conducting an informal experiment using a…
Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.
This document, which lists the public safety core competencies that are part of the Integrated Academic and Technical Competencies (ITAC) in Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations develop a course to provide students with knowledge and skills applicable to public safety careers, including but not limited to firefighter,…
Outlined is a concept for bringing the chemical industry and the universities together in chemical research. Objectives listed are to promote mutual understanding and cooperation between academe and the chemical industry, to work toward improving the national climate for creativity and innovation, and to promote education and funding in chemical…
This bibliography identifies reports of research on correlates, causes, effects, and treatment of test anxiety. The listing was developed for a synthesis of research, performed by meta-analysis at Adrian College, Michigan in 1986-87. Guidelines for including studies were applied as follows: (1) the research concerned academic test anxiety, using…
Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.
Academic standards listed in this guide are based upon national standards as well as a discipline-based art education approach. They are presented and articulated for each grade level from kindergarten through grade 8. They are presented by course or art medium in grades 9-12 to represent the organization of most high school art courses. The guide…
Describes the Russel B. Nye popular culture collection, explores the role of academic libraries in this area, and examines the collection building process for popular culture materials. The reactions of library staff and patrons are included. Seven references are listed. (RAA)
Whittlesea, Bruce W A; Masson, Michael E J
The authors examine the repetition blindness effect--the failure to report one of the occurrences of a word presented twice in a rapid list. This phenomenon has been ascribed to inhibitory processes that prevent immediate tokenization of the 2nd occurrence of a repeated word. The authors present several kinds of evidence against that account, including observations that repetition blindness (a) does not occur when repetitions are not embedded in a list of familiar orthographic units, (b) is alleviated by precuing the subject with the identity of the word that may repeat within a rapid list, and (c) can be caused by cues presented after the list, when the opportunity for inhibition has passed. It is proposed that repetition blindness can better be understood through the principles of construction and attribution.
Buser-Molatore, Marcia, Comp.
Limited to books, this bibliography and union catalog list of the library holdings of 27 Oregon academic, public, government, and special libraries is a selection of resource materials intended to be representative of the concerns of librarians responsible for the management of special libraries and information centers. Organized by subject and…
Caplan, Jeremy B.; Boulton, Kathy L.; Gagné, Christina L.
Early verbal-memory researchers assumed participants represent memory of a pair of unrelated items with 2 independent, separately modifiable, directional associations. However, memory for pairs of unrelated words (A-B) exhibits associative symmetry: a near-perfect correlation between accuracy on forward (A??) and backward (??B) cued recall. This…
Dwyer, Edward J.
An extensive research review by M. Adams (1990) led her to the conclusion that providing instruction and reinforcement in learning common rimes is highly beneficial in fostering growth in learning to read. While substantial amounts of reading, either independent or with partners, is critical in learning words with common rimes, focused study is…
Mcginnis, Debra; Saunders, Nikola N.; Burns, Ryan J.
To examine metacomprehension during comprehension, undergraduates (n = 133) were asked to provide descriptions of how they determined the meaning of four rare words presented in short passages. Content analysis of these written descriptions revealed task-specific metacomprehension reflecting lexical, textbase, and situation model processes.…
Diamond, Marion L.
Business educators preparing students for jobs in business and industry should become aware of the problems faced by workers in a typical large office environment. Word processor operators face many of the same problems as factory assembly line workers--lack of personalization, lack of incentive, and removal from the mainstream. (JOW)
Ensuring that research results are reported accurately and effectively is an eternal challenge for scientists. The book Science Writing = Thinking in Words (David Lindsay, 2011. CSIRO Publishing) is a primer for researchers who seek to improve their impact through better written (and oral) presentat...
Seim, Sandra K.; Stoneking, Cheryl A.
In February 1980, Rush-Presbyterian-St. Lukes Medical Center in Chicago appointed a task force to study word processing/office automation and to make recommendations for acquisition, implementation, and administration. The group's working approach, findings, and conclusions are discussed. (Author/MLW)
Follettie, Joseph F.
A framework for more apt and sensitive evaluation of generalized word attack skill--the heart of oral reading skill--is presented. The paper envisions the design and development of oral reading instruction as bounded by a fully-specified evaluation scheme. (Author)
Dillon, George L.
Considers the conventions of quotation marks--or "perverted commas"--and identifies seven uses, including shudder quotes (slang or inappropriate words) and scare quotes (used for attention or emphasis). Notes that quotation marks influence meaning and that finding a personal voice entails using language without quotes. (MM)
Examines "pseudoborrowing" of some English words into the French vocabulary. Considered the prestige language of Western Europe, English is viewed as a social hallmark of higher education; thus, even a modest knowledge and use of English reinforces this attitude. However, also suggests a modification of this concept, noting a reciprocal prestige…
Describes the author's incorporation of compassion into her teaching as an English teacher. Describes herself as an interminable idealist who is driven by the idea that her English students will learn to love words for the brilliance of articulation they offer. (SG)
Levant, Ronald F.
This article addresses Ronald F. Levant's four APA presidential initiatives for 2005. "Making Psychology a Household Word" was both the general theme for his presidency as well as an initiative in its own right. The other three initiatives were "Promoting Health Care for the Whole Person," "Enhancing Diversity Within APA," and "Developing an APA…
Kirshner, H S; Webb, W G; Duncan, G W
Three patients with otherwise typical Wernicke's aphasia showed consistent superiority of visual over auditory comprehension. The precedents for and anatomical basis of a selective auditory deficit in Wernicke's aphasia are discussed, including the relationship to pure word deafness. One implication of spared visual language function may be the use of gesture in language therapy for such patients. Images PMID:7229641
In this paper, I create philosophical space for the importance of how we say things as an adjunct to attending to what is said, drawing on Stanley Cavell's discussions of moral perfectionism and passionate utterance. In the light of this, I assess claims made for the contribution drama makes to moral education. In "Cities of Words,"…
Leong, Che Kan
The research and practical questions about the internal lexicon, the associated network of internal representation basic to word meaning, boil down to whether in reading English the phonological route is obligatory or optional. Since the English writing system is morphophonemic, not phonetic, access to the internal lexicon cannot and should not…
Word cloud generating applications were originally designed to add visual attractiveness to posters, websites, slide show presentations, and the like. They can also be an effective tool in reading and writing classes in English as a second language (ESL) for all levels of English proficiency. They can reduce reading time and help to improve…
This article argues that we need to abandon the word "biodiversity", to rediscover the biology that it obscures and to rethink how to introduce this biology to young people. We cannot go back to the systematics that once made up a large part of a biology A-level course (ages 16-18), so we need to find alternative ways of introducing the…
Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.
One dimension of language proficiency considered important for reading and writing academic texts is morphological awareness--the understanding of how complex words are formed from meaningful smaller units (i.e., affixes, roots) that contribute to words' meanings and functions. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the effects of instruction on…
Rayner, Keith; Slattery, Timothy J.; Drieghe, Denis; Liversedge, Simon P.
The extent to which target words were predictable from prior context was varied: half of the target words were predictable and the other half were unpredictable. In addition, the length of the target word varied: the target words were short (4–6 letters), medium (7–9 letters), or long (10–12 letters). Length and predictability both yielded strong effects on the probability of skipping the target words and on the amount of time readers fixated the target words (when they were not skipped). However, there was no interaction in any of the measures examined for either skipping or fixation time. The results demonstrate that word predictability (due to contextual constraint) and word length have strong and independent influences on word skipping and fixation durations. Furthermore, since the long words extended beyond the word identification span, the data indicate that skipping can occur on the basis of partial information in relation to word identity. PMID:21463086
This paper reflects on the conditions under which Discourse and social psychology, Common knowledge, and the author's Arguing and thinking were written. These books, which were independently conceived, were not specifically written as contributions to 'discursive psychology', for discursive psychology did not exist at that time. Their authors were rejecting conventional approaches to doing psychological research. The paper discusses what it takes for a new academic movement, such as discursive psychology, to be successfully established in the current climate of 'academic capitalism'. Two requirements are particularly mentioned: the necessity for a label and the necessity for adherents to be recruited. Of the three books, only Discourse and social psychology was outwardly recruiting its readers to a new way of doing social psychology. Arguing and thinking, with its celebration of ancient rhetoric, was much more ambiguous in its aims. It was turning away from present usefulness towards the past. By claiming to be 'an antiquarian psychologist' the author was rejecting disciplinary thinking. The paper also considers the intellectual costs of establishing a new specialism or sub-discipline. The 'first generation' may have freedom, but success can bring about a narrowing of perspectives and the development of orthodoxies for subsequent academic generations. This applies as much to the development of experimental social psychology as to discursive psychology. These processes are particular enhanced in the present socio-economic situation of contemporary universities, which make it more difficult for young academics to become, in the words of William James, 'undisciplinables'.
The characteristics of the Japanese academic structure are examined with attention to the evolution of institutional hierarchy, the closed academic structure, and the effects of the academic structure upon academic research. The evolution of Japan's institutional hierarchy in academics has been tightly related to factors of nationalism,…
Temple, D J
The development of a world-wide list of schools of pharmacy by the former secretary of the Academic Section of the International Pharmacy Federation (F.I.P.) is described. Four print-based editions have been published since the first "preliminary" edition was made available to F.I.P. members in 1986. In February 1995, a version was launched on the World Wide Web, which has considerably facilitated the process of maintenance of the list through direct e-mail contact of academics around the world with the editor. Links are provided to all schools which have established their own home-pages on the Web. The extent to which this resource will aid international communication between pharmacy academics is yet to be fully realised.
Improving Word Similarity by Augmenting PMI with Estimates of Word Polysemy Lushan Han1, Tim Finin1,2, Paul McNamee2, Anupam Joshi1 and Yelena Yesha1...Yesha, Improving Word Similarity by Augmenting PMI with Estimates of Word Polysemy , IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, IEEE Computer...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Improving Word Similarity by Augmenting PMI with Estimates of Word Polysemy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c
Twenge, Jean M; Campbell, W Keith; Gentile, Brittany
Cultural products such as song lyrics, television shows, and books reveal cultural differences, including cultural change over time. Two studies examine changes in the use of individualistic words (Study 1) and phrases (Study 2) in the Google Books Ngram corpus of millions of books in American English. Current samples from the general population generated and rated lists of individualistic words and phrases (e.g., "unique," "personalize," "self," "all about me," "I am special," "I'm the best"). Individualistic words and phrases increased in use between 1960 and 2008, even when controlling for changes in communal words and phrases. Language in American books has become increasingly focused on the self and uniqueness in the decades since 1960.
Kinoshita, S; Wayland, S V
Patients with amnesia resulting from alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome and elderly control patients studied a list of words in two typographies (typed and handwritten) and then received a word-fragment completion test (e.g., -ys-e-y for mystery) in which the test cues also varied in typography. Unlike the elderly control patients, the amnesic patients did not show greater priming effect when the typography at test matched that at study. The amount of typography-dependent priming was positively correlated with the score on the Wechsler Memory Scale. These results suggest that the effects of typography change on repetition priming in word-fragment completion reflect explicit recollection, and that the representation that supports repetition priming effects observed with amnesic subjects in the word-fragment completion task does not code typography information.
Dukhovny, Elena; Soto, Gloria
Persons with severe speech impairments frequently communicate via non-speech means, such as speech-generating devices (SGDs). In studies of people without disabilities, use of non-speech responses has activated non-phonological modalities for short-term word storage. In the current study, short-term word storage was evaluated in 23 pre-trained adult speakers without disabilities and in four individuals who use SGDs for communication. Results indicated that participants without disabilities stored lists of words phonologically when using SGDs. Individuals who used SGDs were most successful in recall of high- frequency words, with preliminary evidence of phonological encoding for short-term storage in preparation for non-speech responses. Further research is needed to describe possible concurrent storage modalities.
Twenge, Jean M.; Campbell, W. Keith; Gentile, Brittany
Cultural products such as song lyrics, television shows, and books reveal cultural differences, including cultural change over time. Two studies examine changes in the use of individualistic words (Study 1) and phrases (Study 2) in the Google Books Ngram corpus of millions of books in American English. Current samples from the general population generated and rated lists of individualistic words and phrases (e.g., “unique,” “personalize,” “self,” “all about me,” “I am special,” “I’m the best”). Individualistic words and phrases increased in use between 1960 and 2008, even when controlling for changes in communal words and phrases. Language in American books has become increasingly focused on the self and uniqueness in the decades since 1960. PMID:22808113
Dixon, A K
Clearly, academic endeavour has to be the single most important criterion for appointment to an academic position and for subsequent promotion. It is rare for excellence either in teaching or clinical practice to offset a poor publication record. However, the pressure to publish and gain related grant income can lead to problems in the normal academic pursuits of a department or institution. These and other related issues will be explored in this editorial.
Cotoia, Anthony M.
Many concerned academic administrators are turning to marketing as the cure for shrinking enrollments. These administrators often have unrealistic expectations of what marketing techniques can achieve. Marketing cannot cover up for programs of poor quality, create customers in an over-harvested market, or overcome high attrition when students…
Sibanda, Jabulani; Baxen, Jean
The present paper derives from a PhD study investigating the nexus between Grade 4 textbook vocabulary demands and Grade 3 isiXhosa-speaking learners' knowledge of that vocabulary to enable them to read to learn in Grade 4. The paper challenges the efficacy of the four current definitions of "word" for generating high frequency words…
Barton, Christopher; Reeve, Joanne; Adams, Ann; McIntyre, Ellen
This study was undertaken to provide a snapshot of the academic primary health-care workforce in Australia and to provide some insight into research capacity in academic primary health care following changes to funding for this sector. A convenience sample of individuals self-identifying as working within academic primary health care (n=405) completed an anonymous online survey. Respondents were identified from several academic primary health-care mailing lists. The survey explored workforce demographics, clarity of career pathways, career trajectories and enablers/barriers to 'getting in' and 'getting on'. A mix of early career (41%), mid-career (25%) and senior academics (35%) responded. Early career academics tended to be female and younger than mid-career and senior academics, who tended to be male and working in 'balanced' (teaching and research) roles and listing medicine as their disciplinary background. Almost three-quarters (74%) indicated career pathways were either 'completely' or 'somewhat unclear', irrespective of gender and disciplinary backgrounds. Just over half (51%) had a permanent position. Males were more likely to have permanent positions, as were those with a medical background. Less than half (43%) reported having a mentor, and of the 57% without a mentor, more than two-thirds (69%) would like one. These results suggest a lack of clarity in career paths, uncertainty in employment and a large number of temporary (contract) or casual positions represent barriers to sustainable careers in academic primary health care, especially for women who are from non-medicine backgrounds. Professional development or a mentoring program for primary health-care academics was desired and may address some of the issues identified by survey respondents.
English, Anthony M.
This chapter describes how professional and continuing higher education units can develop and sustain successful partnerships with academic departments in order to deliver educational programs effectively to students.
Edmiston, Pierce; Lupyan, Gary
Verbal labels, such as the words "dog" and "guitar," activate conceptual knowledge more effectively than corresponding environmental sounds, such as a dog bark or a guitar strum, even though both are unambiguous cues to the categories of dogs and guitars (Lupyan & Thompson-Schill, 2012). We hypothesize that this advantage of labels emerges because word-forms, unlike other cues, do not vary in a motivated way with their referent. The sound of a guitar cannot help but inform a listener to the type of guitar making it (electric, acoustic, etc.). The word "guitar" on the other hand, can leave the type of guitar unspecified. We argue that as a result, labels gain the ability to cue a more abstract mental representation, promoting efficient processing of category members. In contrast, environmental sounds activate representations that are more tightly linked to the specific cause of the sound. Our results show that upon hearing environmental sounds such as a dog bark or guitar strum, people cannot help but activate a particular instance of a category, in a particular state, at a particular time, as measured by patterns of response times on cue-picture matching tasks (Exps. 1-2) and eye-movements in a task where the cues are task-irrelevant (Exp. 3). In comparison, labels activate concepts in a more abstract, decontextualized way-a difference that we argue can be explained by labels acting as "unmotivated cues".
Teramoto, Wataru; Nakazaki, Takuyuki; Sekiyama, Kaoru; Mori, Shuji
The present study investigated, whether word width and length affect the optimal character size for reading of horizontally scrolling Japanese words, using reading speed as a measure. In Experiment 1, three Japanese words, each consisting of four Hiragana characters, sequentially scrolled on a display screen from right to left. Participants, all Japanese native speakers, were instructed to read the words aloud as accurately as possible, irrespective of their order within the sequence. To quantitatively measure their reading performance, we used rapid serial visual presentation paradigm, where the scrolling rate was increased until the participants began to make mistakes. Thus, the highest scrolling rate at which the participants’ performance exceeded 88.9% correct rate was calculated for each character size (0.3°, 0.6°, 1.0°, and 3.0°) and scroll window size (5 or 10 character spaces). Results showed that the reading performance was highest in the range of 0.6° to 1.0°, irrespective of the scroll window size. Experiment 2 investigated whether the optimal character size observed in Experiment 1 was applicable for any word width and word length (i.e., the number of characters in a word). Results showed that reading speeds were slower for longer than shorter words and the word width of 3.6° was optimal among the word lengths tested (three, four, and six character words). Considering that character size varied depending on word width and word length in the present study, this means that the optimal character size can be changed by word width and word length in scrolling Japanese words. PMID:26909052
Reinke, Karen; Fernandes, Myra; Schwindt, Graeme; O'Craven, Kathleen; Grady, Cheryl L.
The functional specificity of the brain region known as the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) was examined using fMRI. We explored whether this area serves a general role in processing symbolic stimuli, rather than being selective for the processing of words. Brain activity was measured during a visual 1-back task to English words, meaningful symbols…
Suppes, P; Lu, Z L; Han, B
Electrical and magnetic brain waves of seven subjects under three experimental conditions were recorded for the purpose of recognizing which one of seven words was processed. The analysis consisted of averaging over trials to create prototypes and test samples, to both of which Fourier transforms were applied, followed by filtering and an inverse transformation to the time domain. The filters used were optimal predictive filters, selected for each subject and condition. Recognition rates, based on a least-squares criterion, varied widely, but all but one of 24 were significantly different from chance. The two best were above 90%. These results show that brain waves carry substantial information about the word being processed under experimental conditions of conscious awareness.
Bentley, R. Alexander; Garnett, Philip; O'Brien, Michael J.; Brock, William A.
As public and political debates often demonstrate, a substantial disjoint can exist between the findings of science and the impact it has on the public. Using climate-change science as a case example, we reconsider the role of scientists in the information-dissemination process, our hypothesis being that important keywords used in climate science follow “boom and bust” fashion cycles in public usage. Representing this public usage through extraordinary new data on word frequencies in books published up to the year 2008, we show that a classic two-parameter social-diffusion model closely fits the comings and goings of many keywords over generational or longer time scales. We suggest that the fashions of word usage contributes an empirical, possibly regular, correlate to the impact of climate science on society. PMID:23144839
Jenkins, Joseph R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; van den Broek, Paul; Espin, Christine; Deno, Stanley L.
Twenty-four students with reading difficulties (grade 4) and 85 skilled readers completed a reading comprehension test, read aloud a folktale, and read aloud a list of the folktale's words. Skilled readers read three times more correct words per minute in context and showed higher accuracy and rates on all measures. (Contains references.)…
Forrin, Noah D.; Groot, Brianna; MacLeod, Colin M.
It can be difficult to judge the effectiveness of encoding techniques in a within-subject design. Consider the "production effect"--the finding that words read aloud are better remembered than words read silently. In the absence of a baseline, a within-subject production effect in a mixed study list could reflect a benefit of reading…
Caño, Agnès; Rapp, Brenda; Costa, Albert; Juncadella, Montserrat
We describe the performance of an aphasic individual who showed a selective impairment affecting his comprehension of auditorily presented number words and not other word categories. His difficulty in number word comprehension was restricted to the auditory modality, given that with visual stimuli (written words, Arabic numerals and pictures) his comprehension of number and non-number words was intact. While there have been previous reports of selective difficulty or sparing of number words at the semantic and post-semantic levels, this is the first reported case of a pre-semantic deficit that is specific to the category of number words. This constitutes evidence that lexical semantic distinctions are respected by modality-specific neural mechanisms responsible for providing access to the meanings of words.
... (as distinct from skin and eye irritation), the word “Poison” must appear in red on a background of... word “Poison.” (2) Toxicity Category II. Any pesticide product meeting the criteria of...
The author suggests subjects and methods for including word processing competencies in office curriculums pending implementation of curriculum revisions. She discusses word processing concepts and processes, communication skills, equipment skills, and supervision skills. (MF)
Maibauer, Alisa M; Markis, Teresa A; Newell, Jessica; McLennan, Conor T
Previous work has demonstrated that talker-specific representations affect spoken word recognition relatively late during processing. However, participants in these studies were listening to unfamiliar talkers. In the present research, we used a long-term repetition-priming paradigm and a speeded-shadowing task and presented listeners with famous talkers. In Experiment 1, half the words were spoken by Barack Obama, and half by Hillary Clinton. Reaction times (RTs) to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words only when repeated by the same talker. However, in Experiment 2, using nonfamous talkers, RTs to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words both when repeated by the same talker and when repeated by a different talker. Taken together, the results demonstrate that talker-specific details can affect the perception of spoken words relatively early during processing when words are spoken by famous talkers.
Maslennikova, Yu S.; Bochkarev, V. V.; Belashova, I. A.
This paper describes the analysis and modelling of word usage frequency time series. During one of previous studies, an assumption was put forward that all word usage frequencies have uniform dynamics approaching the shape of a Gaussian function. This assumption can be checked using the frequency dictionaries of the Google Books Ngram database. This database includes 5.2 million books published between 1500 and 2008. The corpus contains over 500 billion words in American English, British English, French, German, Spanish, Russian, Hebrew, and Chinese. We clustered time series of word usage frequencies using a Kohonen neural network. The similarity between input vectors was estimated using several algorithms. As a result of the neural network training procedure, more than ten different forms of time series were found. They describe the dynamics of word usage frequencies from birth to death of individual words. Different groups of word forms were found to have different dynamics of word usage frequency variations.
Caño, Agnès; Rapp, Brenda; Costa, Albert; Juncadella, Montserrat
We describe the performance of an aphasic individual who showed a selective impairment affecting his comprehension of auditorily presented number words and not other word categories. His difficulty in number word comprehension was restricted to the auditory modality, given that with visual stimuli (written words, Arabic numerals and pictures) his comprehension of number and non-number words was intact. While there have been previous reports of selective difficulty or sparing of number words at the semantic and post-semantic levels, this is the first reported case of a pre-semantic deficit that is specific to the category of number words. This constitutes evidence that lexical semantic distinctions are respected by modality-specific neural mechanisms responsible for providing access to the meanings of words. PMID:17915265
Zhou, Hongding; Slater, Gary W.
We propose a new metric to evaluate and rank the relevance of words in a text. The method uses the density fluctuations of a word to compute an index that measures its degree of clustering. Highly significant words tend to form clusters, while common words are essentially uniformly spread in a text. If a word is not rare, the metric is stable when we move any individual occurrence of this word in the text. Furthermore, we prove that the metric always increases when words are moved to form larger clusters, or when several independent documents are merged. Using the Holy Bible as an example, we show that our approach reduces the significance of common words when compared to a recently proposed statistical metric.
Leamnson, Robert N.
Discusses a novel approach to word problems that involves linear relationships between variables. Argues that working stepwise through intermediates is the way our minds actually work and therefore this should be used in solving word problems. (JRH)
Does the spelling of a word mandatorily constrain spoken word production, or does it do so only when spelling is relevant for the production task at hand? Damian and Bowers (2003) reported spelling effects in spoken word production in English using a prompt-response word generation task. Preparation of the response words was disrupted when the responses shared initial phonemes that differed in spelling, suggesting that spelling constrains speech production mandatorily. The present experiments, conducted in Dutch, tested for spelling effects using word production tasks in which spelling was clearly relevant (oral reading in Experiment 1) or irrelevant (object naming and word generation in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively). Response preparation was disrupted by spelling inconsistency only with the word reading, suggesting that the spelling of a word constrains spoken word production in Dutch only when it is relevant for the word production task at hand.
Yan, Ming; Kliegl, Reinhold; Shu, Hua; Pan, Jinger; Zhou, Xiaolin
Preview benefits (PBs) from two words to the right of the fixated one (i.e., word N + 2) and associated parafoveal-on-foveal effects are critical for proposals of distributed lexical processing during reading. This experiment examined parafoveal processing during reading of Chinese sentences, using a boundary manipulation of N + 2-word preview with low- and high-frequency words N + 1. The main findings were (a) an identity PB for word N + 2 that was (b) primarily observed when word N + 1 was of high frequency (i.e., an interaction between frequency of word N + 1 and PB for word N + 2), and (c) a parafoveal-on-foveal frequency effect of word N + 1 for fixation durations on word N. We discuss implications for theories of serial attention shifts and parallel distributed processing of words during reading.
Birchenough, Julia M H; Davies, Robert; Connelly, Vincent
Words that have been learned early in life are responded to faster than words that have been acquired later. Subjective ratings of acquisition ages have been successfully employed to study the effect of age of acquisition (AoA). Although a large number of norms exist in many languages, fewer are available for German. Therefore, subjective AoA ratings for 3,259 German words were collected online, including 2,363 nouns and 473 verbs. These words were presented in lists of 140 words, and participants rated the age in years at which they had first learned each word. A split-half correlation testified to a high internal reliability. There were also high correlations with rated AoA values for subsets of the items that had been collected in previous studies, in both German and English. Age and gender were found to influence the ratings very weakly, in that older and male participants tended to give slightly higher age ratings. Education, multilingualism, and frequent usage of languages other than German did not exert an influence on the rating values. These new ratings will extend the currently existing norms available for language and reading research across languages and will provide researchers with a wider choice of word stimuli. The ratings are available expressed in two measurements: age in years, and AoA rated on a 7-point Likert scale.
Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Compton, Donald L.; Kearns, Devin M.
The purpose of this study was to extend the literature on decoding by bringing together two lines of research, namely person and word factors that affect decoding, using a crossed random-effects model. The sample was comprised of 196 English-speaking grade 1 students. A researcher-developed pseudoword list was used as the primary outcome measure. Because grapheme-phoneme correspondence (GPC) knowledge was treated as person and word specific, we are able to conclude that it is neither necessary nor sufficient for a student to know all GPCs in a word before accurately decoding the word. And controlling for word-specific GPC knowledge, students with lower phonemic awareness and slower rapid naming skill have lower predicted probabilities of correct decoding than counterparts with superior skills. By assessing a person-by-word interaction, we found that students with lower phonemic awareness have more difficulty applying knowledge of complex vowel graphemes compared to complex consonant graphemes when decoding unfamiliar words. Implications of the methodology and results are discussed in light of future research. PMID:21743750
Contrary to the Generativist distinction between competence and performance which asserts that speech or perception errors are due to random, nonlinguistic factors, it seems likely that errors are principled and possibly governed by some of the same constraints as language. A preliminary investigation of errors modeled after the child's ``Chain Whisper'' game (a degraded stimulus task) suggests that a significant number of recognition errors can be characterized as an improvement in syllable sonority contour towards the linguistically least-marked, voiceless-stop-plus-vowel syllable. An independent study of sonority contours showed that approximately half of the English lexicon can be uniquely identified by their contour alone. Additionally, ``sororities'' (groups of words that share a single sonority contour), surprisingly, show no correlation to familiarity or frequency in either size or membership. Together these results imply that sonority contours may be an important factor in word recognition and in defining word ``neighborhoods.'' Moreover, they suggest that linguistic markedness constraints may be more prevalent in performance-related phenomena than previously accepted.
Schulman, A I
This paper describes research whose goal is to determine the implications of verba] classificatory, judgments for recognition memory and recall. Toward this end, St were required to answer 100 queries of attribution and superordination ds a TWINGE sudden? Is SPINACH ecstatic? Is a CORKSCREW an opener? Is a DUNGEON a scholar? before being tested unexpectedly on their ability to remember either the uppercase "keywords" or the lowercase "descriptors." Lexical memory did not depend on whether a word had been part of an attributive or a superordinate query. But words from "incongruous" queries almost invariably were more poorly remembered-under conditions of free recall, cued recall, and recognition memory-than words from "congruous" queries. Congruous cues, but not incongruous ones, greatly facilitated recall, with keywords being more effective cues than descriptors. Recognition memory of keywords was uniformly superior to that of descriptors. It is argued that the large and pervasive memorial advantages of congruity arise because a congruous query, unlike an incongruous one, fosters a relational encoding of keyword and descriptor.
Whittlesea, Bruce W A; Masson, Michael E J; Hughes, Andrea D
This article examines a false memory phenomenon, the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) effect, consisting of high false alarms for a prototype word (e.g., SLEEP) following a study list consisting of its associates (NIGHT, DREAM, etc.). This false recognition is thought to occur because prototypes, although not presented within a study list, are highly activated by their semantic association with words that are in the list. The authors present an alternative explanation of the effect, based on the discrepancy-attribution hypothesis. According to that account, false (and true) familiarity results when a comparison between expectations and outcomes within a processing episode causes surprise. Experiment 1 replicates the DRM effect. Experiment 2 shows that a similar effect can occur when participants are shown lists of unrelated words and are then surprised by a recognition target. Experiments 3 and 4 show that the DRM effect itself is abolished when participants are prevented from being surprised by prototypes presented as recognition targets. It is proposed that the DRM effect is best understood through the principles of construction, evaluation, and attribution.
function (Fillskov & Boll, -V 1981). One type of test with clinical significance reflects Word Fluency ( Borkowski , Benton & Spreen, 1967; Lezak, 1983). Word...toxic chemical exposure (Anger, 1984) and closed head injury ( Borkowski et al, 1967). Word Fluency reflects mild linguistic deficits in expressive speech...0F’ References 1. Anger, K., Personal Communication, 1984. 2. Borkowski , J.G., Benton, A.L., and Spreen, 0. (1967) Word Fluency and brain damage
This paper is an exploratory inquiry into some aspects of protest for sex equality by academic women. The analysis is based on published and unpublished information on sex discrimination in academia, as well as a sample of 65 cases of academic women obtained from a pilot survey. Following introductory material, Part II emphasizes patterns of…
This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…
Luzius, Jeff; Ard, Allyson
A survey was distributed to former academic librarians to determine why they left the field and which career they pursued afterward. Results suggest that former academic librarians are unhappy with administration, image, and salary. Time spent as librarians helped individuals in their new careers.
Anderman, Eric M.; Cupp, Pamela K.; Lane, Derek
The authors examined the relations between academic cheating and impulsivity in a large sample of adolescents enrolled in high school health education classes. Results indicated that impulsivity predicts academic cheating for students who report extensive involvement in cheating. However, students who engage in extensive cheating are less likely…
Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage
This paper draws on the psychological theories of self-efficacy and the self-concept to understand students' self-confidence in academic study in higher education as measured by the Academic Behavioural Confidence scale (ABC). In doing this, expectancy-value theory and self-efficacy theory are considered and contrasted with self-concept and…
Mallon, Melissa, Ed.
Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…
Doughty, Howard A.
One of the author's enduring concerns about the concept of academic freedom is with semantics. It has seemed to him that one of the biggest difficulties with discussions of academic freedom (as with many conversations about "value-laden" terms such as "democracy," "equity," and "justice") is that people begin from different positions and with…
The current generation gap in academia is different--fundamentally shaped by the structural problems of academic employment. The job market has especially exacerbated tensions between senior and junior faculty by ratcheting up expectations and requirements at every stage of the academic career. The disparities have been mentioned often enough to…
Angervall, Petra; Gustafsson, Jan
The neo-liberal restructuring of academia justifies research concerning what constitutes academic work, what it means to be an academic researcher and how researchers manoeuvre in academia. The aim of this article is to investigate how this reshaping of higher education affects how research careers are formed and impacts on "becoming…
Whether political and/or religious academic bias exists is a question with important ramifications for the educational institutions. Those arguing for the presence of such bias contend that political conservatives and the highly religious in academia are marginalized and face discrimination. The question of academic bias tends to be cast in a…
Over the past 30 years, more and more independent schools have established academic support programs and learning centers to address their students' individual learning needs. Perhaps not surprisingly, as the number of students being evaluated has increased, even more families have requested academic accommodations and services for their children.…
This is a state-of-the-art review of word formative morphology. The paper surveys three loosely knit 'schools' of word formation: (1) the Generative school, (2) the Continental school, and (3) the Slavicist school. It points out that much work in word formation is being duplicated because of a lack of coordination and communication between the…
Callanan, Maureen A.; Akhtar, Nameera; Sussman, Lisa
Despite the common intuition that labeling may be the best way to teach a new word to a child, systematic testing is needed of the prediction that children learn words better from labeling utterances than from directive utterances. Two experiments compared toddlers' label learning in the context of hearing words used in directive versus labeling…
Cardany, Audrey Berger
Word sorts are standard practice for aiding children in acquiring skills in English language arts. When included in the general music classroom, word sorts may aid students in acquiring a working knowledge of music vocabulary. The author shares a word sort activity drawn from vocabulary in John Lithgow's children's book "Never Play…
Holmes, Virginia M.; Segui, Juan
The present study was designed to examine the processes by which grammatical gender is assigned during word production. French words varied in strength of sublexical cues, based on whether the word ending was typical for one gender rather than neutral about gender, and lexical cues, derived from the associated definite article being uninformative…
This article looks at what a word wall is and its use in the music classroom. The author outlines steps for creation of a word wall within the music classroom as well as the importance of such a resource. The author encourages the creation and consistent use of the word wall as leading to the development of stronger musicians and also independent,…
Chetail, Fabienne; Content, Alain
Syllabification of spoken words has been largely used to define syllabic properties of written words, such as the number of syllables or syllabic boundaries. By contrast, some authors proposed that the functional structure of written words stems from visuo-orthographic features rather than from the transposition of phonological structure into the…
Kan, Pui Fong
Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after…
Freeman, Emily; Heathcote, Andrew; Chalmers, Kerry; Hockley, William
We investigate the effects of word characteristics on episodic recognition memory using analyses that avoid Clark's (1973) "language-as-a-fixed-effect" fallacy. Our results demonstrate the importance of modeling word variability and show that episodic memory for words is strongly affected by item noise (Criss & Shiffrin, 2004), as measured by the…
Holmes, V. M.
Two experiments were conducted investigating the role of visual sequential memory skill in the word recognition efficiency of undergraduate university students. Word recognition was assessed in a lexical decision task using regularly and strangely spelt words, and nonwords that were either standard orthographically legal strings or items made from…
Schreuder, Robert; van Bon, Wim H. J.
The phonemic effects of word length, consonant-vowel structure, syllable structure, and meaning on word segmentation were investigated in two experiments with young children. The decentration hypothesis, which predicts that children who habitually direct their attention to word meaning would concentrate better at analyzing a spoken form without…
Murphy, Victoria A.; Dockrell, Julie; Messer, David; Farr, Hannah
Children with word finding difficulties (CwWFDs) are slower and less accurate at naming monomorphemic words than typically developing children (Dockrell, Messer & George, 2001), but their difficulty in naming morphologically complex words has not yet been investigated. One aim of this paper was to identify whether CwWFDs are similar to typically…
Miley, Frances; Read, Andrew
This article examines student responses to a technique for summarizing electronically available information based on word frequency. Students used this technique to create word clouds, using those word clouds to enhance personal and small group study. This is a qualitative study. Small focus groups were used to obtain student feedback. Feedback…
Davis, Claire; Drouin, Michelle
A one-year longitudinal study was performed to test the hypothesis that children's word-specific learning of regular words is a causal determinate in their understanding and use of simple correspondence rules in reading and spelling. Kindergarten and first-grade children were asked to read and spell real words and matched pseudowords in three…
Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne; Hagoort, Peter
Around their first birthday infants begin to talk, yet they comprehend words long before. This study investigated the event-related potentials (ERP) responses of nine-month-olds on basic level picture-word pairings. After a familiarization phase of six picture-word pairings per semantic category, comprehension for novel exemplars was tested in a…
Three words used frequently in debates about education actually cloud the issues. Those words are standardization, rigor, and reform. Standardization is often confused with standards, though they are not the same thing. Similarly, rigor is confused with relevance, and reform with renaissance. Those three words are used because they sound tough and…
Roberts, Jeannie Ellen
This program evaluation of The Instant Word Notebook was conducted by two educators who created an instructional tool to teach and assess the most frequently occurring words in written text, commonly known as Instant Words. In an effort to increase the reading scores of first and second grade students, teachers were instructed to teach Instant…
Bland, Adrienne Lynn
The Instant Word Notebook study was a program evaluation completed by two educators who saw a need for an instructional tool to teach and assess Instant Words. In order to address reading deficits of students in first and second grades, teachers were expected to teach Instant Words. Unfortunately, teachers did not have a systematic process to…
Nash, Marysia; Donaldson, Morag L.
Word learning in 16 children with specific language impairment (SU) was compared with that of chronological-age controls (CAC) and vocabulary-age controls (VAC), to examine the extent and nature of word-learning deficits in the children with SLI. The children were exposed to novel words in a story and an explicit teaching context. Five tasks…
Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B.
Many theories of early word learning begin with the uncertainty inherent to learning a word from its co-occurrence with a visual scene. However, the relevant visual scene for infant word learning is neither from the adult theorist's view nor the mature partner's view, but is rather from the learner's personal view. Here we show that when 18-month…
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Signal word. 156.64 Section 156.64... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard and Precautionary Statements § 156.64 Signal word. (a... signal word, reflecting the highest Toxicity Category (Category I is the highest toxicity category)...
... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Signal word. 156.64 Section 156.64... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard and Precautionary Statements § 156.64 Signal word. (a... signal word, reflecting the highest Toxicity Category (Category I is the highest toxicity category)...
... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Signal word. 156.64 Section 156.64... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard and Precautionary Statements § 156.64 Signal word. (a... signal word, reflecting the highest Toxicity Category (Category I is the highest toxicity category)...
... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Signal word. 156.64 Section 156.64... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard and Precautionary Statements § 156.64 Signal word. (a... signal word, reflecting the highest Toxicity Category (Category I is the highest toxicity category)...
Soja, N.; And Others
Between their second and fifth years, young children learn approximately 15 new words a day. For every word the child hears, he or she must choose the correct referent out of an infinite set of candidates. An important problem for developmental psychologists is to understand the principles that limit the child's hypotheses about word meanings. A…
Pono, Filomena P.; And Others
As contact with the American Indian people increased, Indian words, expressions, and terms filtered into the English language. On the other hand, the Indians also borrowed words from those people who came to the New World. The Jicarillas, because of their early contact with the Spanish culture and civilization, tended to borrow more words from the…
Davis, Matthew H.; Di Betta, Anna Maria; Macdonald, Mark J. E.; Gaskell, Gareth
Two experiments explored the neural mechanisms underlying the learning and consolidation of novel spoken words. In Experiment 1, participants learned two sets of novel words on successive days. A subsequent recognition test revealed high levels of familiarity for both sets. However, a lexical decision task showed that only novel words learned on…
Carroll, Lucien Serapio
This dissertation presents a phonological description and acoustic analysis of the word prosody of Ixpantepec Nieves Mixtec, which involves both a complex tone system and a default stress system. The analysis of Nieves Mixtec word prosody is complicated by a close association between morphological structure and prosodic structure, and by the interactions between word prosody and phonation type, which has both contrastive and non-contrastive roles in the phonology. I contextualize these systems within the phonology of Nieves Mixtec as a whole, within the literature on other Mixtec varieties, and within the literature on cross-linguistic prosodic typology. The literature on prosodic typology indicates that stress is necessarily defined abstractly, as structured prominence realized differently in each language. Descriptions of stress in other Mixtec varieties widely report default stress on the initial syllable of the canonical bimoraic root, though some descriptions suggest final stress or mobile stress. I first present phonological evidence---from distributional restrictions, phonological processes, and loanword adaptation---that Nieves Mixtec word prosody does involve a stress system, based on trochaic feet aligned to the root. I then present an acoustic study comparing stressed syllables to unstressed syllables, for ten potential acoustic correlates of stress. The results indicate that the acoustic correlates of stress in Nieves Mixtec include segmental duration, intensity and periodicity. Building on analyses of other Mixtec tone systems, I show that the distribution of tone and the tone processes in Nieves Mixtec support an analysis in which morae may bear H, M or L tone, where M tone is underlyingly unspecified, and each morpheme may sponsor a final +H or +L floating tone. Bimoraic roots thus host up to two linked tones and one floating tone, while monomoraic clitics host just one linked tone and one floating tone, and tonal morphemes are limited to a single
Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula
Research shows that contextual diversity (CD; the number of different contexts in which a word appears within a corpus) constitutes a better predictor of reading performance than word frequency (WF), that it mediates the access to lexical representations, and that controlling for contextual CD abolishes the effect of WF in lexical decision tasks. Despite the theoretical relevance of these findings for the study of serial memory, it is not known how CD might affect serial recall performance. We report the first independent manipulation of CD and WF in a serial recall task. Experiment 1 revealed better performance for low CD and for high WF words independently. Both effects affected omissions and item errors, but contrary to past research, word frequency also affected order errors. These results were confirmed in two more experiments comparing pure and alternating lists of low and high CD (Experiment 2) or WF (Experiment 3). The effect of CD was immune to this manipulation, while that of WF was abolished in alternating lists. Altogether the findings suggest a more difficult episodic retrieval of item information for words of high CD, and a role for both item and order information in the WF effect.
Ryalls, Brigette Oliver; Pisoni, David B.
In a series of experiments, the authors investigated the effects of talker variability on children’s word recognition. In Experiment 1, when stimuli were presented in the clear, 3- and 5-year-olds were less accurate at identifying words spoken by multiple talkers than those spoken by a single talker when the multiple-talker list was presented first. In Experiment 2, when words were presented in noise, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds again performed worse in the multiple-talker condition than in the single-talker condition, this time regardless of order; processing multiple talkers became easier with age. Experiment 3 showed that both children and adults were slower to repeat words from multiple-talker than those from single-talker lists. More important, children (but not adults) matched acoustic properties of the stimuli (specifically, duration). These results provide important new information about the development of talker normalization in speech perception and spoken word recognition. PMID:9149923