Steen, Sara J., Ed.
This guide provides descriptions of 2,491 study-abroad programs that take place during the academic year (usually September through June), and that are at least one academic quarter in length (usually 8 to 10 weeks). Introductory sections provide information on the Institute of International Education (IIE), IIE publications, the use of the guide,…
Steen, Sara J., Ed.
This book describes over 2,100 academic programs (at least one academic quarter in length) sponsored by accredited U.S. postsecondary institutions or developed for U.S. students by foreign universities and other organizations. Entries are based on a 1993 survey. While most programs listed are available to undergraduates, many programs are also…
Howard, E. Marguerite, Ed.
A guide to planning academic year study abroad by the Institute of International Education (IEE) is presented. It offers relevant items of information on over 1,800 postsecondary study programs in other countries during the academic year. Suggestions on planning for study abroad are included (researching the options, educational choices, travel…
Bossaert, Goele; Doumen, Sarah; Buyse, Evelien; Verschueren, Karine
The transition from kindergarten to first grade has been described as a critical period for children's academic development. Furthermore, research indicates that peer status is connected with academic adjustment, yet the underlying processes remain unclear. By means of a two-year longitudinal study during kindergarten and first grade (N = 153), we…
Steen, Sara J., Ed.; Battle, Ed, Ed.
This directory provides information on 1,800 postsecondary study programs that take place in countries other than the United States during the academic year, ranging in length from 1 week to 1 year. An introductory section describes the organization of the listings, which provide program sponsor and name, location, dates, fields of study offered,…
Voltas, Núria; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Aparicio, Estefania; Arija, Victoria; Canals, Josefa
This three-phase prospective study investigated psychosocial factors predicting or associated with academic achievement. An initial sample of 1,514 school-age children was assessed with screening tools for emotional problems (Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders; Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version; Children's Depression Inventory). The following year, 562 subjects (risk group/without risk group) were re-assessed and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was assessed. Two years later, 242 subjects were followed, and their parents informed about their academic achievement. Results showed that early depression (phase 1 B = -.130, p = .001; phase 1 + phase 2 B = -.187, p < .001), persistent anxiety symptoms (phase 1 + phase 2 B = -1.721, p = .018), and ADHD were predictors of lower academic achievement (phase 1 + phase 2 B = -3.415, p = .005). However, some anxiety symptoms can improve academic achievement (Social phobia B = .216, p = .018; Generalized anxiety B = .313, p < .001). Socio-economic status (SES) was positively related to academic achievement. We can conclude that in the transition period to adolescence, school-health professionals and teachers need to consider the emotional issues of students to avoid unwanted academic outcomes.
Smith, Rachel A.
Residential learning communities often focus on easing first-year students' transitions to college by emphasizing the creation of peer social and academic relationships. However, this relational process is most often examined through analyzing individual student characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes. This study used network analysis to…
Rezazadeh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mansoor
The construct of anxiety plays a major role in one's life. One of these anxieties is test anxiety or apprehension over academic evaluation. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between gender, academic achievement, years of study and levels of test anxiety. This investigation is a descriptive analytic study and was done…
Asim, Muhammad; Chambers, Cheryl; González, Ramón-Osvaldo; Morote, Elsa-Sofia; Walter, Richard J.
This study measures the influence of an ethics course on the academic integrity of second-year college students enrolled in an aviation program in the United States and their beliefs about following Federal Aviation Regulations standards. Academic integrity is defined by three variables: beliefs about not cheating, beliefs about exhibiting moral…
Samuels, William Ellery; Tournaki, Nelly; Blackman, Sheldon; Zilinski, Christopher
Executive functioning (EF) is a strong predictor of children's and adolescents' academic performance. Although research indicates that EF can increase during childhood and adolescence, few studies have tracked the effect of EF on academic performance throughout the middle school grades. EF was measured at the end of Grades 6-9 through 21 teachers'…
An innovative icebreaker initiative--"classroom karaoke"--was deployed at the beginning of a first-year undergraduate course in youth studies at an Australian university. The study used karaoke as a social and academic transition strategy to enhance students' first-year experience at university. Students responded positively to this…
Qualter, Pamela; Gardner, Kathryn J.; Pope, Debbie J.; Hutchinson, Jane M.; Whiteley, Helen E.
This study examines the long-term effects of ability- and trait EI on academic performance for British adolescents. The sample comprised 413 students from three secondary schools in the North-West of England. Students completed tests of ability EI, trait EI, personality, and cognitive ability in Year 7 (mean age = 11 years 2 months). Performance…
Haywood, Jerry L.
The goal of this study was to examine the experience of African American males who did not achieve academic success in their first year of college at a predominately White institution (PWI) in Southwestern Georgia. This study used a qualitative case study design to investigate the experience held by this target group. The qualitative case study…
Yang, Ya-Ting C.; Wu, Wan-Chi I.
The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of Digital storytelling (DST) on the academic achievement, critical thinking, and learning motivation of senior high school students learning English as a foreign language. The one-year study adopted a pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design involving 110 10th grade students in two English…
Hunter, Russell; Sheldon, M. Stephen
As the fourth in a series of reports on a longitudinal study of over 7,000 students who entered 15 California community colleges in Fall 1978, this eight-chapter report profiles the students as of Spring 1980 in terms of: (1) demography, academic progress, and employment status; and (2) their distribution among 18 "prototypes," defined…
Smith, Rachel Anne
A key component in the success of students' first-year experience is their successful academic and social integration into the college environment (Tinto, 1993). Researchers have specified integration in terms of student behaviors and perceptions (Berger & Milem, 1999; Hurtado & Carter, 1997) and also studied it in terms of engagement (Kuh, 2009)…
... good cause, an academic year of 26 through 29 weeks of instructional time for educational programs... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Academic year. 668.3 Section 668.3 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS General § 668.3 Academic year. (a)...
Popiolek, Gene; Fine, Ricka; Eilman, Valerie
This study extends and makes unique methodological contributions to research on the impact of learning communities (LCs) on community college students. Much of the previous research was short-term, lacked adequate comparison groups, and focused on four-year college students. This four-year study controlled for instructor-related variables by…
Zuaso Silva, J L; Soto Gorrin, N; Nordet Cardona, P; Suárez Cabrera, M; Fandiño Cossio, N
One hundred and seventy four children from the "República de Checoslovaquia" National School of the Centro Habana-Norte municipality were investigated during the 1976-1977 academic course months. The method of mail interview of parents was used. Every month the history of oropharyngeal infection and antibiotic administration was obtained, and bacteriology of pharyngeal exudates was performed. Antistreptolysin or AELO titers were determined at three-month intervals. Cardiovascular physical examinations were made and electrocardiograms obtained during the last month. 19,22% of exudates were positive for hemolytic streptococci. 46,56% of streptococcal strains isolated corresponded to the group A. Hemolytic streptococci isolation ranged between 10,4% in October, 1976 and 36,1% in April, 1977. The monthly distribution of the different serological groups of isolated hemolytic streptococci disclosed statistically significant differences. 78,26% of the 667 AELO reactions corresponded to titers of 200 or more Todd units. Average titers in the four stages of the serological study are between 382,42 and 463,92 Todd units. Significative differences between the results of bacteriology and serology and the physical state of oropharynx or the history of clinical manifestations were not evidenced. Manifestations of carditis or rheumatic fever were not found.
Kaliyadan, Feroze; Thalamkandathil, Nazer; Parupalli, Srinivas Rao; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hamad
Introduction: All medical schools in Saudi Arabia have English as the primary official medium of instruction. Most of the high school education, however, is delivered in Arabic and hence the transition to an English based learning environment tends to be difficult for some students. Our study aims to correlate English language proficiency with academic performance among medical students in their preparatory year. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. Test scores of 103 preparatory year students (54 female and 49 male) were analyzed after the students completed an English language course and medical introductory course in their preparatory year. The total score obtained in the English course assessment was compared to each component of the medical content assessment. Results: A significantly positive correlation (Spearman's Rho, at 0.01 levels) was seen between the scores of the English exam and the written exam (P <0.001) and the oral exam (P = −0.003) parts respectively of the medical examination. Significant correlation with the English exam score was not obtained for the other components of the medical assessment, namely; student assignments, presentations and portfolios. Conclusion: English language proficiency is an important factor in determining academic proficiency of medical students in our college at the preparatory year level. PMID:26629471
The aim was to study effects of an extension of physical education and motor training on motor skills, attention and cognition during a period of three years. The study has two intervention groups (n = 152) that have physical activity and motor training one lesson every school day and one control group (n = 99) that has the school's ordinary…
Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Gooch, Debbie; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew
Background: The youngest children in an academic year are reported to be educationally disadvantaged and overrepresented in referrals to clinical services. In this study we investigate for the first time whether these disadvantages are indicative of a mismatch between language competence at school entry and the academic demands of the classroom.…
Nyberg, Kenneth L.; McMillin, J. Daniel; O'Neill-Rood, Nora; Florence, Jane M.
Investigated the impact of efforts to prepare average high school students for college admission, examining ethnic differences in academic retracking. A longitudinal evaluation of a school reform effort at four California high schools indicates that specific efforts to retrack general/vocational students into college-preparatory tracks offer…
Brown, Corrie C; Harvey, Stephen B; Stiles, Dori
Over a period of 10 years, first-year students from 11 consecutive veterinary classes conducted a self-assessment using a natural abilities survey. The present study analyzes the data compiled from students' self-assessment results. As a group, veterinary students are exceptional problem solvers, either through inductive or deductive reasoning, and have strong spatial relations capacities. Veterinary students have a range of learning styles with design memory being the primary vehicle for information delivery and tonal memory being the least frequently used style overall. Information gained on each student's natural abilities can be used to guide effective career decision making and enhance prospects for long-term career satisfaction.
Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2010
This Academic Year Report 2009-10 provides a snapshot of funding, facilities, staffing, and enrollments in community and technical colleges in the past academic year. The report also describes key measures of student outcomes and addresses the most frequently asked questions related to expenditures, personnel and students. Additional demographic…
Strom, Ida Frugard; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete
Objectives: This study investigated academic achievement among adolescents exposed to violence, sexual abuse and bullying. Moreover, we sought to determine the individual and contextual influence of the adolescents' school environment in terms of bullying, classmate relationships and teacher support on academic achievement. Finally, we wished to…
Background Tolerance of ambiguity, or the extent to which ambiguous situations are perceived as desirable, is an important component of the attitudes and behaviors of medical students. However, few studies have compared this trait across the years of medical school. General practitioners are considered to have a higher ambiguity tolerance than specialists. We compared ambiguity tolerance between general practitioners and medical students. Methods We designed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the ambiguity tolerance of 622 medical students in the first to sixth academic years. We compared this with the ambiguity tolerance of 30 general practitioners. We used the inventory for measuring ambiguity tolerance (IMA) developed by Reis (1997), which includes three measures of ambiguity tolerance: openness to new experiences, social conflicts, and perception of insoluble problems. Results We obtained a total of 564 complete data sets (return rate 90.1%) from medical students and 29 questionnaires (return rate 96.7%) from general practitioners. In relation to the reference groups defined by Reis (1997), medical students had poor ambiguity tolerance on all three scales. No differences were found between those in the first and the sixth academic years, although we did observe gender-specific differences in ambiguity tolerance. We found no differences in ambiguity tolerance between general practitioners and medical students. Conclusions The ambiguity tolerance of the students that we assessed was below average, and appeared to be stable throughout the course of their studies. In contrast to our expectations, the general practitioners did not have a higher level of ambiguity tolerance than the students did. PMID:24405525
Discusses how, fueled by the war on terrorism, Congress has awarded a record $1.8 billion in academic earmarks in the 2002 fiscal year. Profiles several recipient programs and includes a campus-by-campus list of projects. (EV)
Barber Applewhite, Stephanie
First-year seminars, high-impact practices, and academic self-efficacy have been identified as relevant to the successful transition process from high school to college. This study investigated the interconnections between freshman academic self-efficacy, high-impact practices, zone of proximal development and first-year seminars. This research contributed to the understandings of the significance of high-impact practices in the development of academic self-efficacy in freshman students. As colleges strive to improve retention from the freshman to sophomore years, it is useful to identify the relevance of high-impact practices within a first-year seminar on academic self-efficacy. A two-group, quasi-experimental study using a pre/post survey was conducted at a regional comprehensive university in east Texas in which 800 students were given a pre and post survey to measure academic self-efficacy. After matching for fidelity, eleven sections were identified for the control group (104 participants) and eleven sections (91 participants) were selected for the experiment group. The findings revealed that the overall gain in the mean of both groups from the pre to post survey was statistically significant. While the students in the high-impact sections reported a higher post mean on the College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale than those who did not receive high-impact instruction, the gain was not statistically significant.
Macro International, Inc., Calverton, MD.
As part of a 5-year evaluation of the Direct Loan and the Federal Family Education Loan programs, 19 institutions of higher education participating in the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program were visited to examine the diversity of approaches used by schools in planning for and implementing the Direct Loan program. The schools included…
Amicucci, Ann N.
In this qualitative research study, the author investigated first-year college students' non-academic digital literacy practices, the audiences for these practices, and students' preferences for enacting these practices in the first-year college writing classroom. Methods of data collection included surveying 177 students, conducting…
The purpose of this study was to explore the first-year academic experiences and achievement of Chinese international undergraduate students in American higher education. To do so, I tracked a cohort of Chinese international undergraduates through their first-year at a public research university in the United States. Both qualitative and…
34Political Revivalism and the Nuclear Age: the Worlds of the Committee on the Present Danger and the Physicians for Social Responsibility ." James...the Physicians for Social Responsibility ," at the Annual Meeting of the Society for the Social-Scientific Study of Religion. Professor Linenthal also
Winkler, Karen J.
Historians have extended the study of religion into the 20th century, and in social sciences many scholars are reassessing their theories about the secularization of American society. Recent trends in scholarship have also facilitated the rediscovery of the Bible and other religious texts. (MLW)
Walker, Verne W.
Academic advising administrators, academic advising professional organization leaders, and academic advising scholars have not had access to information about how academic advising is organized in their states. The purposes of this study were (a) to describe the organization of academic advising in Ohio's two-year public colleges; (b) to explore…
Reynolds, Amy L.; Weigand, Matthew J.
This study examined the relationships among academic and psychological attitudes and academic achievement of first-year students. The College Resilience Scale, the Academic Motivation Scale, the College Self-Efficacy Inventory, and the University Environment Scale were administered to 164 first-year undergraduate students enrolled at a large RU/VH…
Long, Calvin T.
The academic training needs of two-year college mathematics faculty are discussed in this paper and appropriate courses of study are proposed. After introductory comments on the diversity of two-year college students' needs for mathematics education, an undergraduate course of study appropriate for two-year college math faculty is proposed. This…
This study has been conducted to show that there is a recent trend in engineering colleges in India that students who are considered to be highly intelligent show poor academic performance during their 1st year. This article is proposed to examine the role of motivation factors such as teaching methods and learning material in the academic…
Hagler, LaTesha R.
As the number of historically underrepresented populations transfer from community college to university to pursue baccalaureate degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), little research exists about the challenges and successes Latino students experience as they transition from 2-year colleges to 4-year universities. Thus, institutions of higher education have limited insight to inform their policies, practices, and strategic planning in developing effective sources of support, services, and programs for underrepresented students in STEM disciplines. This qualitative research study explored the academic and social experiences of 14 Latino engineering community college transfer students at one university. Specifically, this study examined the lived experiences of minority community college transfer students' transition into and persistence at a 4-year institution. The conceptual framework applied to this study was Schlossberg's Transition Theory, which analyzed the participant's social and academic experiences that led to their successful transition from community college to university. Three themes emerged from the narrative data analysis: (a) Academic Experiences, (b) Social Experiences, and (c) Sources of Support. The findings indicate that engineering community college transfer students experience many challenges in their transition into and persistence at 4-year institutions. Some of the challenges include lack of academic preparedness, environmental challenges, lack of time management skills and faculty serving the role as institutional agents.
Shakiba, Mehrdad; Ghadir, Malihe; Nafei, Zahra; Akhavan Karbasi, Sedighe; Lotfi, Mohammad Hassan; Shajari, Ahmad
Vitamin D is an essential hormone for growth and development of bones in children. There is a lot of evidence for deficiency of this vitamin in Middle East females. This study conduct to find a way to combat deficiency in girls during rapid growth phase of puberty in academic year. One hundred and two Middle School girls who had not consumed any vitamins supplement have been participated in this randomized clinical trial. They allocated randomly in two case groups who received 50,000 or 100,000 IU vitamin D3 in October and three months later in January or in control group who received vitamin E. At the end of winter blood samples for 25-hydroxyvitamin D were checked. The mean of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were 5.5±1.5 ng/ml, 15.2±6 ng/ml, 23.0±6.8 ng/ml in control, 50,000 and 100,000 IU vitamin D groups respectively (P<0.05). Neither dosage of vitamin D could raise 25-hydroxyvitamin D above 20 ng/ml in all cases. However, none of the students in 100,000 IU of vitamin D3 had severe deficiency in winter. Headache, dizziness, and weakness were the most common complain after vitamin D consumption, but no difference between groups detected (P>0.05). Urine calcium/creatinin ratio was equal in case and control groups (P>0.05). 100,000 IU of vitamin D3 every three months (equal to 800 IU/day) can raise 25-hydroxyvitamin D above 12 ng/ml in all cases but for area with high prevalence of sever deficiency, dosage more than 100,000 IU every three months or shorter interval recommended to achieve optimal level.
Sabia, Joseph J.
Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examines the relationship between school-year employment and academic performance of young adolescents under age 16. Ordinary least squares estimates show a significant positive relationship between modest hours of school-year employment and grade point average.…
Rabatin, Joseph S; Lipkin, Mack; Rubin, Alan S; Schachter, Allison; Nathan, Michael; Kalet, Adina
We describe a specific mentoring approach in an academic general internal medicine setting by audiotaping and transcribing all mentoring sessions in the year. In advance, the mentor recorded his model. During the year, the mentee kept a process journal. Qualitative analysis revealed development of an intimate relationship based on empathy, trust, and honesty. The mentor's model was explicitly intended to develop independence, initiative, improved thinking, skills, and self-reflection. The mentor's methods included extensive and varied use of questioning, active listening, standard setting, and frequent feedback. During the mentoring, the mentee evolved as a teacher, enhanced the creativity in his teaching, and matured as a person. Specific accomplishments included a national workshop on professional writing, an innovative approach to inpatient attending, a new teaching skills curriculum for a residency program, and this study. A mentoring model stressing safety, intimacy, honesty, setting of high standards, praxis, and detailed planning and feedback was associated with mentee excitement, personal and professional growth and development, concrete accomplishments, and a commitment to teaching. PMID:15109327
Marpaung, M. G.; Sareharto, T. P.; Purwanti, A.; Hermawati, D.
Academic performance becomes an important determinant of individual quality. it is determined by the function of affective, cognitive, psychomotor, and intelligence. Brain gym can improve learning processes and integrate all areas that related to the learning process. To prove the effect of brain gym towards academic performance of children aged 10-12 years. This study was a quasy experiment study with one group pre and post test design. Samples (n=18 male=7 and female=11) were taken from five and six grader and conducted in Tembalang and Pedalangan Elementary School, Semarang. Pretest were administered, followed by brain gym, and post test administered in the end of study. The measurement of Intelligence Quotient pre and post test using Culture Fair Intelligence Test Scale 2. Among the 18 subjects (male=7 and female=11) the average of academic performance and IQ score after brain gym showed improvement. The Improvement of IQ score with Culture Fair Test Scale 2 was analyzed by Dependent T test showed significant results (p=0,000). The improvement of Bahasa score was analyzed by Wilcoxon test showed significant results (p=0,001), an unsignificant result were shown in Mathematics p=0,079 and natural sciences p=0,306. Brain gym can increase academic performance of children aged 10-12 years old.
Koch, Jane; Salamonson, Yenna; Rolley, John X; Davidson, Patricia M
The growth of accelerated graduate entry nursing programs has challenged traditional approaches to teaching and learning. To date, limited research has been undertaken in the role of learning preferences, language proficiency and academic performance in accelerated programs. Sixty-two first year accelerated graduate entry nursing students, in a single cohort at a university in the western region of Sydney, Australia, were surveyed to assess their learning preference using the Visual, Aural, Read/write and Kinaesthetic (VARK) learning preference questionnaire, together with sociodemographic data, English language acculturation and perceived academic control. Six months following course commencement, the participant's grade point average (GPA) was studied as a measurement of academic performance. A 93% response rate was achieved. The majority of students (62%) reported preference for multiple approaches to learning with the kinaesthetic sensory mode a significant (p=0.009) predictor of academic performance. Students who spoke only English at home had higher mean scores across two of the four categories of VARK sensory modalities, visual and kinaesthetic compared to those who spoke non-English. Further research is warranted to investigate the reasons why the kinaesthetic sensory mode is a predictor of academic performance and to what extent the VARK mean scores of the four learning preference(s) change with improved English language proficiency.
Schellenberg, James; Halteman, John
Results covering a period of two years (including three academic years) fail to give any evidence that elementary school children who are bussed do any better academically than those who remain in inner-city schools. (Author/AM)
Mendoza, Pilar; Berger, Joseph B.
This case study investigated the impact of academic capitalism on academic culture by examining the perspectives of faculty members in an American academic department with significant industrial funding. The results of this study indicate that faculty members believe that the broad integrity of the academic culture remains unaffected in this…
Birch, Elisa; Williams, Andrew
This paper examines the impact of supplementary web-based materials on students' academic performance in a first-year economics unit at university. In particular, the paper considers the impact of students' usage of the unit's webpage, voluntary on-line discussion board, voluntary on-line quizzes and voluntary on-line homework questions on their…
Ward, Peter J; Walker, James J
The purpose of this investigation was to quantitatively and qualitatively identify the study methods and learning strategies that veterinary students used to study anatomy during their first year of professional school and to correlate these with their academic achievement and long-term recall of information. It was surmised that active study methods would be more beneficial than passive method, but this hypothesis was not supported. The activity or passivity of each study method was secondary to the way in which the students processed the learning. No single study method was associated with academic success or long-term recall; instead, successful students used a multitude of study methods while the struggling students relied on a single method alone, although these methods varied from student to student. Students and their study methods were profiled using the qualitative technique known as phenomenographic analysis to find those who studied in a deep or surface way. The deep-processing students, who commonly used multiple study methods, not only succeeded in the class but also had better recall. Students who relied on a memorization-heavy surface approach to learning had limited recall and tended to perform poorly in the class. These results strongly suggest that by encouraging students to integrate their studying by using multiple methods educators can improve both student grades and recall of complex topics.
Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Fan, Xitao; Chiu, Yu-Jen; You, Wenyi
This paper reports the results of a quasi-experimental study on the contribution of the Responsive Classroom ("RC") Approach to elementary school children's reading and math performance over one-, two-, and three-year periods. All children enrolled in six schools (3 intervention and 3 control schools in a single district) were the participants in…
Soares, Ana Paula; Guisande, Adelina M; Almeida, Leandro S; Páramo, Fernanda M
This paper analyses the role of academic preparation and learning strategies in the prediction of first-year Portuguese college students' academic achievement, considering students' sex and academic field attended. A sample of 445 first-year college students (68.5% female) from the University of Minho (25.8% enrolled in economics, 35.3% in science/technology, and 38.9% in humanities degrees) participated in the study. Students answered a questionnaire on learning strategies in the classroom at the end of the first semester, which consisted of 44 items organized in five dimensions: comprehensive approach, surface approach, personal competency perceptions, intrinsic motivation, and organization of study activities. Academic achievement (grade point average at the end of first year) and academic preparation (students' higher education access mark) were obtained through the academic records of the university. Results showed that academic preparation was the strongest predictor of first-year academic achievement, and only marginal additional variance was explained by learning strategies as assessed by the self-reported questionnaire. There were sex and academic field differences, but these variables do not seem strong enough to affect the results, although the different percentages of variance captured by each model and the different weights associated to higher education access mark, stimulate the use of these and/or other personal and contextual variables when analysing the phenomenon.
Howe, Richard D.
This document provides comparative salary trend data for full-time faculty in 27 academic disciplines/major fields for the baseline year 1994-95 and the trend year 1997-98 for 262 public and 387 private institutions. For each discipline/major field surveyed, the report provides a Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) definition, data…
McConahay, Mary; Ferrett, Robert T.
Performance on the Mid-Primary Screening Battery (MPS) at the time of school-entry was found to be related to a student's eventual level of academic success in high school. Other related variables identified in a multiple regression analysis include the years of education of the father, the sex of the student, the years participating in the…
James, Cindy L.; Graham, Sarah
A substantial number of university students are placed on academic probation each year, many of whom never succeed in academia. Hence, it is critical to identify who these students are, why they end up on academic probation, and most importantly how best to intervene. To determine this, an empirical study of students on academic probation for the…
de Wolf, Virginia A.
The predictive validity of the equation used for determining entrance into the University of Washington's freshman class during the 1978-79 academic year is examined. The sample was comprised of all freshmen entering the university directly from high school in autumn quarter 1974 who had been tested through the Washington Pre-College Test Battery…
Schlinsog, Jimmie A.
This study explored the relationship between engagement in educationally purposeful activities during the first year of college and academic achievement, persistence, and graduation. The study focused on the impacts of engagement on student outcomes related to academic achievement, persistence, and graduation at a comprehensive university located…
Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steven B.; Casillas, Alex; Oh, In-Sue
We studied the effects of academic performance, motivation, and social connectedness on third-year retention, transfer, and dropout behavior. To accommodate the three outcome categories and nesting of data within institutions, we fit a hierarchical multinomial logistic regression path model with first-year academic performance as a mediating…
Howard, Edrice, Ed.
A guide to over 1,140 study-abroad programs offered during the academic year and sponsored or co-sponsored by recognized U.S. colleges and universities is presented. Programs may focus on academic subjects and may include language study, independent study, or internships. An introductory section covers several topics, including language…
Individual differences in temperament can be a risk or a protective factor for a child, especially for children at-risk who possess single or multiple risk factors that may interfere with their educational success and affect their healthy development and their life-long outcomes. This research study examined the concurrent and longitudinal…
Madigan, Kathleen; Cross, Richard W.; Smolkowski, Keith; Strycker, Lisa A.
This study evaluated the long-term impact of schoolwide positive behavioural interventions and supports (PBIS) on student academic achievement. In this quasi-experimental study, academic achievement data were collected over 9 years. The 21 elementary, middle, and high schools that achieved moderate to high fidelity to the Save & Civil Schools'…
Tremblay, Paul F.; Graham, Kathryn; Wells, Samantha; Harris, Roma; Pulford, Roseanne; Roberts, Sharon E.
Objective: The authors investigated the alcohol consumption trajectories among first-year university students. Participants: A sample of 415 students attending a large university in Southwestern Ontario, Canada, was recruited. Methods: Students completed a baseline questionnaire and 26 weekly brief Internet surveys assessing alcohol consumption…
Chapman, J W; Lambourne, R; Silva, P A
The influence of cognitive, achievement, and family background variables on academic self-concept was examined for 435 students participating in a major longitudinal study in New Zealand. Family background variables included mother's marital status at the birth of the child, family socio-economic status at the time the child was born, and family environment when the child was 7 years and 9 years of age. These factors were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. In addition, the general emotional status of mothers when their child was 3 years and 5 years old was not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. Mother's intelligence when the child was 3 years, and mother's expectations for school performance when the child started school at age 5 were not significantly related to academic self-concept. Similarly, cognitive and intellectual functioning at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9 years were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 7 and 9 years. Rather, academic self-concept at age 11 appeared to be influenced primarily by reading achievement and academic self-concept at age 9, and academic self-concept at age 9 was influenced primarily by reading achievement at age 7. It was concluded that academic self-concept is mainly a product of school achievement, and that any influence home background factors may have are likely to occur by means of their effect on school achievement.
Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Maulana, Ridwan; den Brok, Perry
The present study explored the developmental changes of teacher-student interpersonal relationships as well as that of academic motivation among first-grade secondary school students. In addition, the link between teacher-student interpersonal behaviour and academic motivation across the school year was investigated. The data were collected 5…
Balfour, Denise Shata
One way students become engaged in their undergraduate experience is through place of residence. Factors associated with high academic performance suggest high levels of engagement in campus life. This study investigated the relationship between living arrangement and the academic performance of first-year, full-time undergraduate students. The…
Byrne, Marann; Flood, Barbara; Griffin, Julie
This study measured the levels of academic self-efficacy of first-year accounting students. It also investigated whether there were any gender differences and the extent to which efficacy levels explained variation in academic performance. Overall the analysis revealed that many students lacked the confidence to participate fully in the academic…
... entrance are: (a) Chemistry (inorganic or general). 1 academic year including appropriate laboratory. (b) Organic chemistry. 1 academic year including laboratory. (c) Mathematics. 1 academic year. (d) Physics....
... entrance are: (a) Chemistry (inorganic or general). 1 academic year including appropriate laboratory. (b) Organic chemistry. 1 academic year including laboratory. (c) Mathematics. 1 academic year. (d) Physics....
... entrance are: (a) Chemistry (inorganic or general). 1 academic year including appropriate laboratory. (b) Organic chemistry. 1 academic year including laboratory. (c) Mathematics. 1 academic year. (d) Physics....
Rosander, Pia; Bäckström, Martin
The aim of the present study was to explore the ability of personality to predict academic performance in a longitudinal study of a Swedish upper secondary school sample. Academic performance was assessed throughout a three-year period via final grades from the compulsory school and upper secondary school. The Big Five personality factors (Costa & McCrae, ) - particularly Conscientiousness and Neuroticism - were found to predict overall academic performance, after controlling for general intelligence. Results suggest that Conscientiousness, as measured at the age of 16, can explain change in academic performance at the age of 19. The effect of Neuroticism on Conscientiousness indicates that, as regarding getting good grades, it is better to be a bit neurotic than to be stable. The study extends previous work by assessing the relationship between the Big Five and academic performance over a three-year period. The results offer educators avenues for improving educational achievement.
Capps, Joan P.
During the 1983-84 academic year, a mathematics laboratory was established at Somerset County College to provide tutorial and testing services for high-risk students. This report describes and evaluates the first-year activities of the lab and proposes plans for increasing and evaluating the services and use of the lab during 1984-85. First, the…
Apkarian, Jacob; Mulligan, Kerry; Rotondi, Matthew B.; Brint, Steven
This study compares the explanatory power of two models of academic governance: dual and managerial control. The research is based on characterizations by chief academic officers of the primary decision-makers involved in 13 types of recurrent academic decisions. We examine change between responses to surveys fielded to US four-year colleges and…
Marshall, Steve; Zhou, Mingming; Gervan, Ted; Wiebe, Sunita
In this article, we analyze a broad range of factors that affect the sense of belonging of undergraduate students taking a first-year academic literacy course (ALC) at a multicultural, multilingual university in Vancouver, Canada. Students who fail to meet the university's language and literacy requirements are required to pass ALC before they can…
Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.; Horne, Melissa M.; Wallis, Aaron L.; Rings, Jeffrey A.; Vaughan, Angela L.
In the present study, we conducted a quantitative evaluation of a novel First Year Seminar (FYS) program with a coordinated curriculum implemented at a public, four-year university to assess its potential role in undergraduate student persistence decisions and academic success. Participants were 2,188 first-year students, 342 of whom completed the…
Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena
Given that engagement and integration in university/college are considered key to successful academic achievement, the identifying features of social anxiety, including fear of negative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new or all social situations, may be particularly disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts that are integral to university/college life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct effects of social anxiety on academic achievement, as well as investigate an indirect mechanism through which social anxiety might impact on academic achievement, namely, the formation of new social ties in university. The participants were 942 (71.7 % female; M = 19 years at Time 1) students enrolled in a mid-sized university in Southern Ontario, Canada. Students completed annual assessments of social anxiety, social ties, and academic achievement for three consecutive years. The results from an autoregressive cross-lag path analysis indicated that social anxiety had a significant and negative direct relationship with academic achievement. Moreover, the negative indirect effect of social anxiety on academic achievement through social ties was significant, as was the opposing direction of effects (i.e., the indirect effect of academic achievement on social anxiety through social ties). These findings highlight the critical role that social ties appear to play in successful academic outcomes and in alleviating the effects of social anxiety during university/college.
Mercer, Sterett H; Nellis, Leah M; Martínez, Rebecca S; Kirk, Megan
Academic self-efficacy and perceived teacher support in relation to academic skill growth across one academic year were examined in the study. Participants included 193 5th-grade students. Teachers collected curriculum-based measures (CBM) of reading and math on three occasions as part of routine academic benchmarks, and researchers collected student-reported measures of academic self-efficacy and perceived teacher support in the spring of the same academic year. Results indicated that academic self-efficacy was positively related to fall reading and math CBM scores and that perceived teacher support was unrelated to fall scores or growth across the academic year. Academic self-efficacy and perceived teacher support interacted in relation to math CBM growth such that low levels of perceived teacher support were related to greater growth, particularly for students with high academic self-efficacy. Follow-up analyses indicated that students with the lowest fall CBM scores and smallest growth rates reported higher levels of perceived teacher support, suggesting that teachers support the students most in need.
The purpose of this study was to investigate Turkish and American undergraduate students' academic motivation and academic self-concept scores regarding the years that they spent in university. The analysis was based on 566 (284 Turkish, 282 American) undergraduate students where, Academic Motivation Scale and Academic Self-Concept Scale were used as measuring instruments. The results showed that there was a statistical significant effect of nationality and number of years spent in university on undergraduate students' intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and self-concept scores. Turkish students had higher intrinsic scores whereas American students had higher extrinsic scores and more positive academic-self concept compared to Turkish partners. Regarding grade level, senior students from both cultures had higher intrinsic motivation and academic self-concept scores compared to other grade levels. In terms of extrinsic motivation, there is steady decline in American students' scores as grade level increases. On the other hand, Turkish undergraduates' extrinsic scores decrease in the second year but increase in the third and fourth year of university education. Results were discussed by taking into consideration the social and cultural differences between two nations.
Battise, Dawn M.; Neville, Michael W.
Objective. To examine whether pharmacy students characterized as low performers at the conclusion of their first semester remained low performers throughout their academic career. Methods. Bottom quartile performance on first semester grade point average (GPA) was compared to licensing examination success, cumulative grade point average at the end of the didactic education and whether the student graduated on time, using cross tabulation analysis. Relative risk ratios and confidence intervals were calculated. Results. Students in the bottom quartile for GPA at the end of their first semester in pharmacy school were approximately six times more likely not to graduate on time, not to pass the North American Pharmacist Licensure Exam on their first attempt and to remain in the bottom quartile for GPA at the end of their didactic education. Conclusion. This study suggests that pharmacy students who score in the bottom quartile for GPA at the end of their first semester are more likely to underperform academically unless they take corrective action. PMID:27756926
Ng, Chi-hung Clarence
Academic self-schemas are important cognitive frames capable of guiding students' learning engagement. Using a cohort of Year 10 Australian students, this longitudinal study examined the self-congruence engagement hypothesis which maintains that there is a close relationship among academic self-schemas, achievement goals, learning approaches,…
Petersen, Il-haam; Louw, Johann; Dumont, Kitty; Malope, Nomxolisi
This study presents data that extend an earlier analysis of predictors of academic performance from one to three years. None of the adjustment and other psychosocial variables (help-seeking, academic motivation, self-esteem, perceived stress and perceived academic overload) could predict success at university at the end of three years of study.…
Curtis, Elana; Wikaire, Erena; Jiang, Yannan; McMillan, Louise; Loto, Robert; Fonua, Sonia; Herbert, Rowan; Hori, Melissa; Ko, Teri; Newport, Rochelle; Salter, David; Wiles, Janine; Airini; Reid, Papaarangi
Bridging/foundation programmes are often provided by tertiary institutions to increase equity in access and academic performance of students from under-served communities. Little empirical evidence exists to measure the effectiveness of these bridging/foundation programmes on undergraduate academic outcomes. This research identifies the predictive…
Van Soom, Carolien; Donche, Vincent
The low success rate of first-year college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) programs has spurred many academic achievement studies in which explanatory factors are studied. In this study, we investigated from a person-oriented perspective whether different motivational and academic self-concept profiles could be discerned between male and female first-year college students in STEM and whether differences in early academic achievement were associated with these student groups. Data on autonomous motivation, academic self-concept, and early academic achievement of 1,400 first-year STEM college students were collected. Cluster analyses were used to distinguish motivational profiles based on the relative levels of autonomous motivation and academic self-concept for male and female students. Differences in early academic achievement of the various profiles were studied by means of ANCOVA. Four different motivational profiles were discerned based on the dimensions of autonomous motivation (A) and academic self-concept (S): students scoring high and respectively low on both dimensions (HA-HS or LA-LS), and students scoring high on one dimension and low on the other (HA-LS or LA-HS). Also gender differences were found in this study: male students with high levels of academic self-concept and autonomous motivation had higher academic achievement compared to male students with low levels on both motivational dimensions. For female students, motivational profiles were not associated with academic achievement. The findings partially confirm the internal and external validity of the motivational theories underpinning this study and extend the present insights on identifying subgroup(s) of at risk students in contemporary STEM programs at university level. PMID:25390942
Van Soom, Carolien; Donche, Vincent
The low success rate of first-year college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) programs has spurred many academic achievement studies in which explanatory factors are studied. In this study, we investigated from a person-oriented perspective whether different motivational and academic self-concept profiles could be discerned between male and female first-year college students in STEM and whether differences in early academic achievement were associated with these student groups. Data on autonomous motivation, academic self-concept, and early academic achievement of 1,400 first-year STEM college students were collected. Cluster analyses were used to distinguish motivational profiles based on the relative levels of autonomous motivation and academic self-concept for male and female students. Differences in early academic achievement of the various profiles were studied by means of ANCOVA. Four different motivational profiles were discerned based on the dimensions of autonomous motivation (A) and academic self-concept (S): students scoring high and respectively low on both dimensions (HA-HS or LA-LS), and students scoring high on one dimension and low on the other (HA-LS or LA-HS). Also gender differences were found in this study: male students with high levels of academic self-concept and autonomous motivation had higher academic achievement compared to male students with low levels on both motivational dimensions. For female students, motivational profiles were not associated with academic achievement. The findings partially confirm the internal and external validity of the motivational theories underpinning this study and extend the present insights on identifying subgroup(s) of at risk students in contemporary STEM programs at university level.
Soria, Krista M.; Fransen, Jan; Nackerud, Shane
The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether there are relationships between first-year college students' use of academic libraries and four academic outcomes: academic engagement, engagement in scholarly activities, academic skills development, and grade point average. The results of regression analyses suggest students' use of books…
Salla, Julie; Michel, Grégory; Pingault, Jean Baptiste; Lacourse, Eric; Paquin, Stéphane; Galéra, Cédric; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E; Côté, Sylvana M
Few prospective studies spanning early childhood to early adolescence have examined separately the contribution of inattention and hyperactivity to academic achievement. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the developmental trajectories of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms during early and middle childhood are independently associated with academic achievement at age 12 years. The independent associations between inattention and hyperactivity trajectories during early and middle childhood and academic performance at age 12 years were examined in a population-based longitudinal birth cohort (n = 2120). In adjusted analyses, high early childhood inattention trajectories were associated with teacher-rated academic performance in reading, writing and mathematics and with government exam score in writing. High and moderate inattention trajectories during middle childhood predicted lower performance on both teacher-rated academic performance and government exam scores in reading, writing, and mathematics. Hyperactivity was not a consistent predictor of educational outcomes. Childhood inattention symptoms rather than hyperactivity carry risk of poor educational outcomes at age 12 years. Children with high levels of inattention can be identified during the preschool years. Prevention programs supporting the development of attentional capacities and executive functions could help reduce the negative consequences of inattention.
Young, Shakebra L.
This quantitative, cross-sectional, correlation research study explored the relationships between self-efficacy, social support, and academic achievement among single mothers aged 18 and older attending Mississippi public two-year institutions. A total of 82 single mothers provided data for this study by completing the following research…
Avalos-Louie, Mirella I.
In this 2-semester qualitative case study, the researcher/mentor intended to develop an understanding of how the process of mentorship unfolded for four academically at-risk first-year college students. The "College Student Inventory" (CSI) was administered at the onset of the study, followed by student interviews, class observations,…
Cherrstrom, Catherine A.; Robbins, Stacey E.; Bixby, John
Academic publications provide insights into a discipline's history, knowledge base, and research norms, and thus analyzing publication activity provides learning about the field of study. To learn more about the field of adult and continuing education, this study used content analysis to examine 10 years of "Adult Learning" from 2006…
Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabea, Yasuyoshi
Objective: Intrinsic academic motivation is one of the most important psychological concepts in education, and it is related to academic outcomes in medical students. This study examined the relationships between academic and family conditions and intrinsic academic motivation. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: The study group consisted of…
In 2012, the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE), representing the Tri-Council of Nursing, namely, AONE, the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, the American Nurses Association, and the National League for Nursing, was selected by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation as the national program office for the Academic Progression in Nursing (APIN) initiative. This article discusses the impact APIN has had in the 9 states that received APIN grants, essential elements for successful APIN projects, and highlights of the last year of the grant in moving closer to the 80/20 goal from the Institute of Medicine.
de Koning, Bjorn B.; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Smeets, Guus; van der Molen, Henk T.
This study investigated the simultaneous impact of demographic, personality, intelligence, and (prior) study performance factors on students' academic achievement in a three-year academic problem-based psychology program. Information regarding students' gender, age, nationality, pre-university education, high school grades, Big Five personality…
Clark, Cynthia M; Nguyen, Danh T; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina
Academic incivility can increase student stress, jeopardize learning, damage relationships, and negatively impact the academic environment. This 3-year longitudinal study measured a cohort of prelicensure nursing students' progressive perceptions of stress, coping, student-student and faculty-student relationships, and levels of academic civility. While civility scores remained mild to moderately high overall, there was a slightly declining trend over the 3-year period. Perceived stressors and coping strategies and ways to improve academic civility are identified and discussed.
Tarride, J-E; Moulin, DE; Lynch, M; Clark, AJ; Stitt, L; Gordon, A; Morley-Forster, PK; Nathan, H; Smyth, C; Toth, C; Ware, MA
BACKGROUND: The management of chronic pain, including neuropathic pain (NeP), is a major public health issue. However, there is a paucity of data evaluating pain management strategies in real-life settings. OBJECTIVE: To inform policy makers about the economic value of managing chronic NeP in academic centres by conducting a subeconomic assessment of a Canadian multicentre cohort study aimed at determining the long-term outcomes of the management of chronic NeP in academic pain centres. Specific questions regarding the economic value of this type of program were answered by a subset of patients to provide further information to policy makers. METHODS: Baseline demographic information and several pain-related measurements were collected at baseline, three, six and 12 months in the main study. A resource use questionnaire aimed at determining NeP-related costs and the EuroQoL-5 Dimension were collected in the subset study from consenting patients. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare outcomes over time and according to responder status. RESULTS: A total of 298 patients were evaluated in the present economic evaluation. The mean (± SD) age of the participants was 53.7±14.0 years, and 56% were female. At intake, the mean duration of NeP was >5 years. Statistically significant improvements in all pain and health-related quality of life outcomes were observed between the baseline and one-year visits. Use decreased over time for many health care resources (eg, visits to the emergency room decreased by one-half), which resulted in overall cost savings. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that increased access to academic pain centres should be facilitated in Canada. PMID:26474381
Hesser, Al; Lewis, Lloyd
A study explored predictors of African-American and other nontraditional medical students' first-year academic performance at the Medical College of Georgia. Variables included undergraduate grades and grades in a summer prematriculation program (SPP) featuring biochemistry, anatomy, and immunology courses. SPP grades were found useful in…
Pike, Gary R.; Kuh, George D.; Massa-McKinley, Ryan C.
This study examined the relationships among first-year students' employment, engagement, and academic achievement using data from the 2004 National Survey of Student Engagement. A statistically significant negative relationship was found between working more than 20 hours per week and grades, even after controlling for students' characteristics…
Harper, Shaun R.; Newman, Christopher B.
Background: Much has been written about Black undergraduate men's out-of-class engagement and social experiences, identity development, participation in intercollegiate athletics, and college enrollment and completion rates. Too little is known about their academic readiness and first-year college adjustment. Purpose: The purpose of this study was…
Ryan, Mary Gene
Faculty at a two-year community/technical college undertook a project in the spring 2010 semester to incorporate more intensive and intrusive academic advising into the Freshman Seminar (COL 105) course. A study was undertaken in which 14 sections of COL 105 were divided into an experimental group (taught by specially-trained instructors who…
The present study aimed to examine distance learners' goal profiles and their contrasting patterns of learning and achievements at three different points during an academic year, i.e. in the beginning of the course in relation to learners' general orientations to learning, at the middle of the course in relation to learners' completion of an…
Swanson, Nicole M.; Vaughan, Angela L.; Wilkinson, Brett D.
Research has revealed a gender gap where male students have higher rates of academic difficulties and lower college enrollment and graduation rates compared with females. This study measured the relationship of male student (including first-generation and minority students) participation in a first-year seminar and their first-term grade point…
Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris
Background: An intervention was designed that combined physical activity with learning activities. It was based upon evidence for positive effects of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on academic achievement. The aim of this study was to describe the program implementation and effects on academic achievement after 1?year. Methods:…
Madden, Deirdre; Brueckman, Judith; Littlejohn, Kevin V.
This study compared the participation in various types of activities during the elementary school years of academically successful and unsuccessful youth. The academically successful group consisted of 63 college students from lower level general communication classes. The two unsuccessful comparison groups consisted of 53 youth, ages 13 to 16…
Summers, J. Gregory, Ed.
This report presents summary statistics from a study that focused on student athletes in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) who receive initial athletically related financial aid in their freshman or sophomore years. The study is a result of the efforts of NCAA's Special Committee on Academic Research to investigate…
Lee, Dong Hun; Kang, Sunwoo; Yum, Sichang
The purpose of the study is to explore the patterns of personal and academic stressors reported by Korean college students. The survey items included types of stress factors in academic and personal stressors and demographic variables (i.e., gender and school year). The participants were asked to provide the academic and personal stressors as the…
Ryan, Gerard D.
This study explored factors that influenced persistence in expatriate academic assignments in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Specifically, the problem that was addressed was an investigation of the reasons why some expatriate academics declared their intent to leave an academic position within one year of arrival while others choose to extend…
McCunney, R J
The academic community has long served the private sector in a consultant capacity in engineering and in the sciences. With respect to occupational medicine, physicians, when working for industry, have generally practiced in a health care setting. Within the past 10 years, however, the business sector has placed more attention on the health implications of its operations as a result of regulations, liability, and rising health care costs. These issues, which go beyond traditional clinical responsibilities, have furthered the need for businesses to receive strategic medical advice to effectively operate and to maintain a competitive edge. One particular business sector, the chemical industry, has been challenged seriously because of legitimate as well as perceived health risks associated with the production and use of its products. This paper describes the professional experiences over a 10-year period (1983 to 1993) of an occupational physician working as a consultant to an international chemical company. Services have related to epidemiology, health policy, toxicology, plant oversight as well as serving as a health advisor on matters involving the relation between business and health. An academic affiliation with an occupational medicine residency program has facilitated access to related occupational health professionals to assist in problem solving and research. Opportunities for consulting in occupational medicine will depend upon the nature of the organization as well as the personal and professional characteristics of the physician. Requests for these types of services, however, are likely to expand in the near future, primarily as a result of wider awareness of the implications of work on health, increased litigation, and government regulations.
Whyte, Douglas G; Madigan, Veronica; Drinkwater, Eric J
The expanding scope of practice of paramedics and nurses demands they possess a sophisticated knowledge of bioscience to enable them to think critically and make rational clinical decisions. It is well documented that nursing students struggle with bioscience but there are no studies examining the performance of paramedic students in this crucial subject. In this study, we compared the academic performance of first year nursing, paramedic and nursing/paramedic double degree students in a bioscience subject. Regression analyses were used to identify predictors of academic success. Data revealed a low success rate in bioscience for all three degree programs (63.2, 58.8, and 67.6% respectively) and a strong correlation between academic success in bioscience and non-bioscience subjects (r(2)=0.49). The best predictors of overall academic success were the University Admission Index score and mature entry into the course. Previous study of biology was associated with an increased bioscience and overall GPA but not with non-bioscience grades. Discriminant analysis was used to develop a model that could predict overall academic success with an accuracy of 78.5%. These criteria may be useful during the admission process and for the early identification of students at risk of failure.
Lee, Joon Ki; Kang, Hyunggu; Choi, Hyuk Joong
Objective The aim of this study was to assess the success rate of the GlideScope video laryngoscope (GVL) and direct laryngoscope (DL) over ten years in two academic emergency departments. Methods We used adult intubation data using DL and GVL collected from airway management registries at two academic emergency departments. We analyzed changes in first-pass success (FPS) rate by device and operator training level. We conducted a multivariate logistic regression analysis to predict the FPS according to time period. Results Over the study period (2006 to 2010, season I; 2013-2015, season II) the DL usage rate dropped from 91.6% to 45.0% while the GVL usage rate increased from 8.4% to 55.4%. The FPS rate using DL also declined from 90.8% in 2007 to 75.5% in 2015. On the other hand, the FPS rate using GVL increased from 87.8% to 95.2%. With DL, all operators’ FPS rate declined by approximately 10% in season II compared to season I. The FPS rate with GVL was significantly higher in the providers of postgraduate year over 3 years (P=0.043). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed an adjusted odds ratio for GVL FPS of 0.799 during season I (P=0.274). However, the adjusted odds ratio for GVL FPS was 3.744 during season II (P<0.001). Conclusion We found that the FPS rates of GVL have slightly increased but DL’s FPS rate has significantly decreased during the last ten years. PMID:28168228
Md Rahim, Nasrudin; Meon, Hasni
Study skills play an important role in influencing academic performance of university students. These skills, which can be modified, can be used as an indicator on how a student would perform academically in his course of study. The purpose of the study is to determine the study skills profile among Universiti Selangor's (Unisel) students and to find the relationships of these skills with student's academic performance. A sample of seventy-eight (78) foundation studies and diploma students of Unisel were selected to participate in this study. Using Study Skills Inventory instrument, eight skills were measured. They are note taking; test taking; textbook study; concentration and memory; time management; analytical thinking and problem solving; nutrition; and vocabulary. Meanwhile, student's academic performance was measured through their current Grade Point Average (GPA). The result showed that vocabulary skill scored the highest mean with 3.01/4.00, followed by test taking (2.88), analytical thinking and problem solving (2.80), note taking (2.79), textbook study (2.58), concentration and memory (2.54), time management (2.25) and nutrition (2.21). Correlation analysis showed that test taking (r=0.286, p=0.011), note taking (r=0.224, p=0.048), and analytical thinking and problem solving (r=0.362, p=0.001) skills were positively correlated with GPA achievement.
Walsh, Jennifer L; Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P
This longitudinal study describes women's media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heaviest. In general, media use was negatively associated with academic outcomes after controlling for prior academics and demographics. Exceptions were newspaper reading and music listening, which were positively associated with academic outcomes. There were significant indirect effects of magazine reading and social networking on GPA via academic behaviors, confidence, and problems. Results show that female college students are heavy users of new media, and that some forms of media use may adversely impact academic performance.
Walsh, Jennifer L.; Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.
This longitudinal study describes women’s media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heaviest. In general, media use was negatively associated with academic outcomes after controlling for prior academics and demographics. Exceptions were newspaper reading and music listening, which were positively associated with academic outcomes. There were significant indirect effects of magazine reading and social networking on GPA via academic behaviors, confidence, and problems. Results show that female college students are heavy users of new media, and that some forms of media use may adversely impact academic performance. PMID:24505554
Joseph, Gilbert W.; Kucera, Stephen D.
The first academic sabbatical was introduced at Harvard in 1880. In recent years, commercial enterprises have also identified workplace benefit programs as "sabbaticals." Benshoff and Spruill (2002), whose own study investigated the success of sabbaticals for counseling professors, also indicate an increased interest in the sabbatical's potential…
Langevin, Elizabeth L.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between undergraduate student happiness and academic performance (GPA), controlling for age, gender, and race/ethnicity for third and fourth year business students at University of Phoenix, Little Rock Campus. The eight-item Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) was used to measure the…
Walters, Lisa M.; Seyedian, Mojtaba
Almost half of full-time, first-time undergraduate students fail to finish their course of study within four years. To increase retention and graduation rates, a greater emphasis on academic advising is in order. The positive influence of an effective advising program on student success is well documented in the literature; however, there has not…
The LMD System Experience as a Struggle between the Educational Development and Reform: An Analytical Study of the Endeavour of the Academic Year 2004/2005 in Bejaia University with Suggested Solutions
Background: In this article, we are going to present some details about the educational reform at the level of higher education (i.e. University level) taking the case of the University of Abderrahmane Mira, Bejaia. After a year of its application, we aim at mapping out the problems we have met during the last academic year and trying to find out…
Howe, Richard D.
This document provides comparative salary trend data for full-time faculty in 26 academic disciplines/major fields for the baseline year 1994-95 and the trend year 1997-98 for 262 public and 387 private institutions. For each discipline/major field surveyed, the report provides a Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) definition, data…
Stryker, Richard E.
If education is intrinsically about learning to cope with change, encouraging personal growth and self-knowledge, and expanding horizons to encompass the wider world, study abroad ought to be part of the undergraduate experience of every student. Financial aid and academic standards belong at the core of institutional efforts to expand overseas…
Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.
In fall 1981, a study was conducted in Hawaii's community colleges to determine the course-taking patterns of different groups of student majors (e.g., the proportion of the liberal arts major's academic load that is taken in the humanities, natural sciences, etc.), and the client-serving patterns of different subject disciplines (e.g., the…
Amend, Edward W.
The current study of death and dying is an example of constant change and development in academic disciplines. While the discussion of death in time of crisis is hard, if not impossible, youthful undergraduates find this topic to be of considerable interest. For them, a course can be organized effectively as a small and intimate seminar, which…
Normyle, Mari K.
While more students are going to college than ever before, greater gains are being made by females than males; a higher percentage of women enroll directly in college from high school and actually graduate from college four years later. This is a tribute to the advances that have been made in the last thirty years that support female success in…
Graham, Andrew T.
This small-scale case study focused on academic managers to explore the ways in which they control the workload of academic staff and the extent to which they use the workload model in performance management of academic staff. The links that exist between the workload and performance management were explored to confirm or refute the conceptual…
Blecic, Deborah D.
Objective: To study the circulation of monographs during the first three years of shelf life at an academic health sciences library. Method: A record was kept of monographs added to the circulating collection from mid-1994 to mid-1995. After three years, each monograph was located and the number of times it circulated during the first, second, and third year of shelf life determined by counting checkout stamps on the circulation slip. Results: Of the 1,958 monographs studied, 1,674 had complete data for the first three years of shelf life. Of those 1,674 titles, 81.48% circulated at least once. A total of 7,659 circulations were recorded; 38.69% occurred in the first year of shelf life, 32.37% in the second year, and 28.95% in the third year. The data did not fit the well-known 80/20 rule. Instead, approximately 38% of monographs accounted for 80% of circulation. A small percentage, 2.21%, of monographs accounted for a substantial percentage of circulation, 21.84%. Conclusions: A large percentage of the monographs circulated and use did not decline sharply with age within the first three years of shelf life, indicating a high demand for monographs at this academic health sciences library. These results, combined with the findings of earlier studies, suggested two possibilities. First, academic health sciences libraries might exhibit use of a higher percentage of monograph acquisitions than other types of libraries; or, second, a low monograph-to-user ratio might result in a higher percentage of monographs being used. Perhaps both factors contributed to the results found in this study. Further investigation would be needed to determine the extent to which library type and monograph-to-user ratio influenced monograph use. PMID:10783969
Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steven B.
We hypothesized that college major persistence would be predicted by first-year academic performance and an interest-major composite score that is derived from a student's entering major and two work task scores. Using a large data set representing 25 four-year institutions and nearly 50,000 students, we randomly split the sample into an…
González, C.; Velilla, C.; Sánchez-Girón, V.
In the 2010/12 academic year the College of Agricultural Engineering of the Technical University of Madrid implemented three new degrees all of them adapted to the European Space for Higher Education. These degrees are namely: Graduate in Agricultural Engineering and Science, Graduate in Food Engineering and Graduate in Agro-Environmental Engineering. A total of 382 new incoming students were finally registered and a survey study was carried out with these students about their academic achievement with the aim of finding the level of dependence among the following variables: the final mark in their secondary studies, the option followed in the secondary studies (Art, Science and Technology, and Humanities and Social Sciences), the mark obtained in the entering examination to the university and in which of the two opportunities per year this examination takes place the latter mark was obtained. Similarly, another group of 77 students were evaluated independently to the former group. These students were those entering the College in the previous academic year (2009/10) and decided to change their curricula to the new ones. Subsequently, using the tools of spatial analysis of geographic information systems, we analyzed the possible relationship between the success or failure at school and the socioeconomic profile of new students in a grade. For this purpose every student was referenced assigning UTM coordinates to their postal addresses. Furthermore, all students' secondary schools were geographically coded considering their typology (public, private, and private subsidized) and fares. Each student was represented by its average geometric point in order to be correlated to their respective record. Following this procedure a map of the performance of each student could be drawn. This map can be used as a reference system, as it includes variables as the distance from the student home to the College, that can be used as a tool to calculate the probability of success or
Kinnunen, Jaana M; Lindfors, Pirjo; Rimpelä, Arja; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Rathmann, Katharina; Perelman, Julian; Federico, Bruno; Richter, Matthias; Kunst, Anton E; Lorant, Vincent
It is well established that poor academic performance is related to smoking, but the association between academic well-being and smoking is less known. We measured academic well-being by school burnout and schoolwork engagement and studied their associations with smoking among 14- to 17-year-old schoolchildren in Belgium, Germany, Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, and Portugal. A classroom survey (2013 SILNE survey, N = 11,015) was conducted using the Short School Burnout Inventory and the Schoolwork Engagement Inventory. Logistic regression, generalized linear mixed models, and ANOVA were used. Low schoolwork engagement and high school burnout increased the odds for daily smoking in all countries. Academic performance was correlated with school burnout and schoolwork engagement, and adjusting for it slightly decreased the odds for smoking. Adjusting for socioeconomic factors and school level had little effect. Although high school burnout and low schoolwork engagement correlate with low academic performance, they are mutually independent risk factors for smoking.
Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2013
This "Academic Year Report 2012-13" provides a snapshot of funding, facilities, staffing, and enrollments in community and technical colleges in Washington state for the past academic year. The report also describes key measures of student outcomes and addresses the most frequently asked questions related to expenditures, personnel and…
Keng, Shao-Hsun; Lo, Ya-Fen
Taiwan is one of the few countries in which bachelor degrees can be earned by attending either 4-year academic colleges or vocational colleges. This paper offers new evidence on whether returns to B.A. degrees are significantly different between academic and vocational 4-year colleges using the 1998-1999 Taiwanese College Graduate Survey. The…
Roberts, Joanne E.; And Others
Examined the association between otitis media with effusion (OME) during the first 3 years of life and cognitive, academic performance, and behavior outcomes at 12 years of age. Results indicated that OME during early childhood was not related to intellectual performance, academic achievement, behavior, and attention. Suggests that generalizations…
Forrester, G. C.; Hamaura, R.
Information is provided on the academic performance and program selections of students transferring from community colleges in British Columbia (BC) to the three BC universities during the 1985-86 academic year, with reference to information from preceding years. Data for college transfer students are compared to data for direct-entry students…
Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2006
The Academic Year Report 2005-06 provides a snapshot of funding, facilities, staffing, and enrollments in community and technical colleges in the past academic year. The report also describes key measures of student outcomes and addresses the most frequently asked questions related to expenditures, personnel and students. Additional demographic…
Wang, Changhua; Owens, Thomas R.
This paper describes fourth-year outcomes (1993-94) of the Boeing Company-funded Applied Academics Project. Since the 1990-91 school year, the company has provided funds to improve and expand applied academics in 60 Washington high schools. Data were collected from pre- and post-surveys of students enrolled in the project's Applied Mathematics…
Seabi, Joseph; Payne, Jarrod
Purpose: Academic achievement of first year university students in the international arena, as well as in South Africa, has been a point of concern for all stakeholders because of high failure and dropout rates. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of identity processing styles on academic achievement in first year university…
Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014
The "Academic Year Report 2013-14" provides a snapshot of funding, facilities, staffing, and enrollments in Washington's community and technical colleges for the past academic year. The report also describes key measures of student outcomes and addresses the most frequently asked questions related to expenditures, personnel, and…
Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Fleming, James S.; Gottfried, Allen W.
Examines two aspects of continuity, stability of individual differences and means, in a study from the middle elementary through high school years. Two hypotheses were supported: academic intrinsic motivation is a stable construct through these years, and with advancement in age, academic intrinsic motivation becomes increasingly stable. (Contains…
Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R.; Ku, Po-Wen; Wang, Ching-Hui
Backround: This study examined the association among childhood obesity, weight status change, and subsequent academic performance at 6-year follow-up. Methods: First-grade students from one elementary school district in Taichung City, Taiwan were followed for 6 years (N = 409). Academic performance was extracted from the school records at the end…
McEwan, Lynn; Goldenberg, Dolly
A study of 41 graduate nursing students found they had high achievement motivation and academic ability. Trait anxiety was the only valid predictor of academic success. Academic ability and inherent anxiety had greater potential for predicting students who would succeed. (Author/SK)
Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.
This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity…
Enlund, Emmi; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This study investigated the interindividual stability and mean-level changes in parents' causal attributions for their children's academic performance across a 9-year period from the first year in primary school (Grade 1, age 7) to the end of lower secondary school (Grade 9, age 16). In all, 212 children participated in the study. The results…
Ferguson, Lauren M.
This study investigated college students' self-reported academically dishonest behaviors at two-year colleges in the state of Ohio. More specifically, this study investigated two-year students' self-reported perceptions of acts of plagiarism and whether particular characteristics were related to students who chose to plagiarize. This study…
Beam, Eric Adam
This study is a mixed-methods case study of Antelope Valley High School (AVHS). AVHS was one of the first six schools in California to receive academic sanctions since the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. It was also the first high school to receive a State Trustee who was embedded at the school every day for two school years. AVHS…
Powers, Keith L.
In academic courses, assessment is used to evaluate the effect of teaching on student learning. Academic advising has been viewed as a form of teaching (Crookston, 1972); therefore, it is necessary to assess the effect of academic advising on student learning. The best practices of assessment of academic achievement involve the following three…
Alaki, Sumer M; Yamany, Ibrahim A; Shinawi, Lana A; Hassan, Mona H A; Tekian, Ara
Prior research has shown that students' previous grade point average (GPA) is the best predictor for future academic success. However, it can only partly predict the variability in dental school performance. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of multiple mini-interviews (MMI) as an admission criterion by comparing them with the academic performance of dental students over a two-year period. All incoming undergraduate dental students at the King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry (KAUFD) during academic year 2013-14 were invited to participate in MMI. Students rotated through six objective structured clinical exam (OSCE)-like stations for 30 minutes total and were interviewed by two trained faculty interviewers at each station. The stations were focused on noncognitive skills thought to be essential to academic performance at KAUFD. The academic performance of these students was then followed for two years and linked to their MMI scores. A total of 146 students (71 males and 75 females) participated in an interview (response rate=92.9%). Most students scored in the acceptable range at each MMI station. Students' total MMI score, ambitions, and motives were significant predictors of GPA during the two years of follow-up (p<0.038 and p<0.001, respectively). In this study, MMI was found to be able to predict future academic performance of undergraduate dental students.
The demands of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) increase each year, requiring all students to be proficient in mathematics by 2014. The county in this project study will not meet requirements of NCLB by 2014 if current trends continue. The guiding research question for this project study investigated the most effective way to meet the needs of all…
Chedester, Cheryl G. Moore
Using an equal-group stratified sample of 42 Kentucky public P-12 school districts, the researcher conducted a quantitative correlational analysis to examine the relationship between per pupil expenditures in reading and mathematics proficiency. Repeated measures t tests analyzed the differences of the mean scores for the study variables of…
Bender, Thomas, Ed.; Schorske, Carl E., Ed.
The 14 essays in this collection reflect on how the major academic disciplines of economics, English, philosophy, and political science have changed in the decades since World War II. Following an introductory essay by the editors, essay titles are: (1) "Politics, Intellect, and the American University, 1945-1995" (Thomas Bender); (2) "How Did…
Review of academic library planning developments highlights modular design concept prevalent in 1960s. Problem areas (irregular shapes, interior or exterior courts, monumentality, too much or too little glass) and the use atria, designer lighting, monumental effects, and unusual shapes to relieve perceived monotony are discussed. Five sources are…
Strahn-Koller, Brooke Lindsey
The purpose of this study was to explore whether traditional and nontraditional students who transferred from 2-year to 4-year institutions experienced differences in transfer shock, academic integration, and social integration. A substantial body of knowledge comparing transfer students to native students on transfer shock exists, while only a…
Murray, Lynne; Arteche, Adriane; Fearon, Pasco; Halligan, Sarah; Croudace, Tim; Cooper, Peter
Background: Postnatal depression (PND) is associated with poor cognitive functioning in infancy and the early school years; long-term effects on academic outcome are not known. Method: Children of postnatally depressed (N = 50) and non-depressed mothers (N = 39), studied from infancy, were followed up at 16 years. We examined the effects on…
Davidovitch, Nitza; Casakin, Hernan
The present research investigates academic social climate in architectural studies as perceived by students. It studies the importance that the various measures of academic social climate have in the studio and in architectural classes. It also investigates the relation between the personal background of students and their sense of academic social…
Burke, Dolores Lewis
Internal and external organizational influences on faculty mobility were studied during the 1985-1986 academic year. The investigation, which was designed as a replication of a 1958 study of the academic marketplace by Caplow and Reece, involved interviews with department heads, colleagues of departed faculty members, and new appointees at six…
Ray, Larry A.
This study examined the academic performance of Tech Prep students (referred to as participants) in comparison to non-Tech Prep students (referred to as non-participants) entering a two-year community college from sixteen different high schools in Stark County, Ohio. This study provided a quantitative analysis of students' academic experiences to…
Objective: Previous studies have shown that academic achievement has a significant effect on juvenile delinquency, with the reverse reported as well. This study, therefore, examined the reciprocal causal relationships between academic achievement and juvenile delinquency. Methods: The participants were 3449 Korean adolescents (mean age 13.2 years,…
Anderton, Ryan S.; Evans, Tess; Chivers, Paola T.
Students commencing tertiary education enter through a number of traditional and alternative academic pathways. As a result, tertiary institutions encounter a broad range of students, varying in demographic, previous education, characteristics and academic achievement. In recent years, the relatively constant increase in tertiary applications in…
Van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning
Internalizing and externalizing problems are associated with poor academic performance, both concurrently and longitudinally. Important questions are whether problems precede academic performance or vice versa, whether both internalizing and externalizing are associated with academic problems when simultaneously tested, and whether associations and their direction depend on the informant providing information. These questions were addressed in a sample of 816 children who were assessed four times. The children were 6-10 years at baseline and 14-18 years at the last assessment. Parent-reported internalizing and externalizing problems and teacher-reported academic performance were tested in cross-lagged models to examine bidirectional paths between these constructs. These models were compared with cross-lagged models testing paths between teacher-reported internalizing and externalizing problems and parent-reported academic performance. Both final models revealed similar pathways from mostly externalizing problems to academic performance. No paths emerged from internalizing problems to academic performance. Moreover, paths from academic performance to internalizing and externalizing problems were only found when teachers reported on children's problems and not for parent-reported problems. Additional model tests revealed that paths were observed in both childhood and adolescence. Externalizing problems place children at increased risk of poor academic performance and should therefore be the target for interventions.
Graham, Lori; West, Courtney
Objectives To investigate if and to what extent the Learning and Study Strategy Inventory (LASSI) and the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) yield academic performance predictors; To examine if LASSI findings are consistent with previous research. Methods Medical school students completed the LASSI and SDLRS before their first and second years (n = 168). Correlational and regression analyses were used to determine the predictive value of the LASSI and the SDLRS. Paired t-tests were used to test if the two measurement points differed. Bivariate correlations and R2s were compared with five other relevant studies. Results The SDLRS was moderately correlated with all LASSI subscales in both measures (r(152) =.255, p=.001) to (r(152) =.592, p =.000). The first SDLRS, nor the first LASSI, were predictive of academic performance. The second LASSI measure was a significant predictor of academic performance (R2(138) = 0.188, p = .003). Six prior LASSI studies yielded a range of R2s from 10-49%. Conclusions The SDLRS is moderately correlated with all LASSI subscales. However, the predictive value of the SDLRS and LASSI differ. The SDLRS does not appear to be directly related to academic performance, but LASSI subscales: Concentration, Motivation, Time Management, and Test Strategies tend to be correlated. The explained LASSI variance ranges from 10% to 49%, indicating a small to substantial effect. Utilizing the LASSI to provide medical school students with information about their strengths and weaknesses and implementing targeted support in specific study strategies may yield positive academic performance outcomes. PMID:27718497
Cuadra, Carlos A.; And Others
Phase II involves a case-study analysis of 15 selected consortia to help determine the usefulness and effectiveness of academic library consortia. The two major products resulting from the project are the "Directory of Academic Library Consortia" and the "Guidelines for the Development of Academic Library Consortia." The Phase II report presents…
Grunschel, Carola; Patrzek, Justine; Fries, Stefan
In the present study, we broadly investigated reasons and consequences of academic procrastination. Additionally, we explored whether students seeking help from student counselling services to overcome academic procrastination (counselling group) report more serious reasons and consequences of academic procrastination than students who…
Rochon, Paula A; Davidoff, Frank; Levinson, Wendy
Over the past 25 years, the number of women graduating from medical schools in the United States and Canada has increased dramatically to the point where roughly equal numbers of men and women are graduating each year. Despite this growth, women continue to face challenges in moving into academic leadership positions. In this Commentary, the authors share lessons learned from their own careers relevant to women's careers in academic medicine, including aspects of leadership, recruitment, editorship, promotion, and work-life balance. They provide brief synopses of current literature on the personal and social forces that affect women's participation in academic leadership roles. They are persuaded that a deeper understanding of these realities can help create an environment in academic medicine that is generally more supportive of women's participation, and that specifically encourages women in medicine to take on academic leadership positions.
Brunborg, Geir Scott; Pallesen, Stale; Diseth, Age; Larsen, Svein
It has been claimed that perceived academic control (AC) in combination with preoccupation with failure (PWF) produces a strong motivation for success, and the interaction (AC x PWF) has been shown to predict academic achievement. In a prospective study, 442 first year psychology students completed a questionnaire about their background, study…
Anderson, Betty Marie; And Others
The Academic Skills Center at Black Hills State University provides a peer assistance program comprising both individual tutoring in classes offered in each academic division and credit classes in study skills. The goal of the Center is to respond effectively and quickly to individual educational needs of students and faculty through a…
Holt, Laura J.
Although numerous studies have documented an association between parent attachment and college student adjustment, less is known about the mechanisms that underlie this relation. Accordingly, this short-term longitudinal study examined first-year college students' attitudes about academic help-seeking as one possible mechanism. As predicted,…
Roegge, Chris A.; Ferej, Ahmed
A pilot study (first phase of a 2-year study) was conducted to identify individual teachers who had begun integrating academic and vocational education before the development of state or national integration initiatives such as tech prep. The teachers were identified through a procedure involving nominations of exemplary vocational education…
Bobo, William V.; Nevin, Remington; Greene, Elizabeth; Lacy, Timothy J.
Objective: Few studies have directly compared the effects of third-year clerkship rotation type on measures of academic performance, student attitudes about psychiatry and psychiatric patients, and level of interest in psychiatry as a career. The goal of this study was to assess the extent to which rotation type influenced these outcome variables…
Lange, Cheryl M; Lane-Outlaw, Susan; Lange, William E; Sherwood, Dyan L
This study examines reading and mathematics academic growth of deaf and hard-of-hearing students instructed through an American Sign Language (ASL)/English bilingual model. The study participants were exposed to the model for a minimum of 4 years. The study participants' academic growth rates were measured using the Northwest Evaluation Association's Measure of Academic Progress assessment and compared with a national-normed group of grade-level peers that consisted primarily of hearing students. The study also compared academic growth for participants by various characteristics such as gender, parents' hearing status, and secondary disability status and examined the academic outcomes for students after a minimum of 4 years of instruction in an ASL/English bilingual model. The findings support the efficacy of the ASL/English bilingual model.
Carberry, Adam Robert
Service is increasingly being viewed as an integral part of education nationwide. Service-based courses and programs are growing in popularity as opportunities for students to learn and experience their discipline. Widespread adoption of learning-through-service (LTS) in engineering is stymied by a lack of a body of rigorous research supporting the effectiveness of these experiences. In this study, I examine learning-through-service through a nationwide survey of engineering undergraduate and graduate students participating in a variety of LTS experiences. Students (N = 322) participating in some form of service -- service-learning courses or extra-curricular service programs -- from eighty-seven different institutions across the United States completed a survey measuring demographic information (institution, gender, academic year, age, major, and grade point average), self-perceived sources of learning (service and traditional coursework), engineering epistemological beliefs, personality traits, and self-concepts (self-efficacy, motivation, expectancy, and anxiety) toward engineering design. Responses to the survey were used to characterize engineering LTS students and identify differences in these variables in terms of gender and academic year. The overall findings were that LTS students perceived their service experience to be a beneficial source for learning professional skills and, to a lesser degree, technical skills, held moderately sophisticated engineering epistemological beliefs, and were generally outgoing, compassionate, and adventurous. Self-perceived sources of learning, epistemological beliefs, and personality traits were shown to be poor predictors of student engineering achievement. Self-efficacy, motivation, and outcome expectancy toward engineering design were generally high for all LTS students; most possessed rather low anxiety levels toward engineering design. These trends were generally consistent between genders and across the five academic
Carr, Bruce Henry
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships of social cognitive factors and their influence on the academic performance of first-year engineering students. The nine social cognitive variables identified were under the groupings of personal support, occupational self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, vocational interests, coping, encouragement, discouragement, outcome expectations, and perceived stress. The primary student participants in this study were first-year engineering students from underrepresented groups which include African American, Hispanic American students and women. With this in mind, the researcher sought to examine the interactive influence of race/ethnicity and gender based on the aforementioned social cognitive factors. Differences in academic performance (university GPA of first-year undergraduate engineering students) were analyzed by ethnicity and gender. There was a main effect for ethnicity only. Gender was found not to be significant. Hispanics were not found to be significantly different in their GPAs than Whites but Blacks were found to have lower GPAs than Whites. Also, Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between and among the nine identified social cognitive variables. The data from the analysis uncovered ten significant correlations which were as follows: occupational self-efficacy and academic self-efficacy, occupational self-efficacy and vocational interest, occupational self-efficacy and perceived stress, academic self-efficacy and encouragement, academic self-efficacy and outcome expectations, academic self-efficacy and perceived stress, vocational interest and outcome expectations, discouragement and encouragement, coping and perceived stress, outcome expectations and perceived stress. Next, a Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to examine the relationship between academic performance (college GPA) of first-year undergraduate engineering students and the nine identified
Weller, Nancy F; Kelder, Steven H; Cooper, Sharon P; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Tortolero, Susan R
This study describes the effects of different weekly work intensity levels on adolescent functioning in a sample of 3,083 high school students in rural South Texas, where economically disadvantaged and Hispanic youth are heavily represented. Anonymous surveys were conducted in 10th- and 12th-grade students' classrooms in 1995. The following effects were associated with long hours of weekly employment during the school year: (1) decreased performance/engagement in school and satisfaction with amount of leisure time, and (2) increased health risk behaviors and psychological stress. The effects of school-year work on academic factors and health behaviors differed by grade, but not by race/ethnicity, parent education, or race/ethnicity and parent education considered together. It was concluded that parents and professionals should continue to monitor the number of weekly hours that students work during the school year.
Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Pakarinen, Eija; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This longitudinal study investigated the associations among children's externalizing problems, task-avoidant behavior, and academic performance in early school years. The participants were 586 children (43% girls, 57% boys). Data pertaining to externalizing problems (teacher ratings) and task-avoidant behaviors (mother and teacher ratings) were…
Aagard, Tammy Lindsay
With the implementation of the Hathaway scholarship in the state of Wyoming, questions arose regarding the effectiveness of a prescribed set of high school courses (the Success Curriculum) in preparing students for success in college. This research sought to determine the perceptions of academic preparation of students who earned the Hathaway…
Stork, Matthew J; Graham, Jeffrey D; Bray, Steven R; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A
Thirty students (mean age = 18 ± 0.5 years) completed self-report (Self-Control Scale) and objective (isometric handgrip squeeze performance) measures of self-control, provided their exercise and academic (study/schoolwork) plans for the next month, and then logged these behaviors over the subsequent 4-week period. Trait self-control predicted exercise and academic behavior. Handgrip squeeze performance predicted academic behavior and adherence to academic plans. Further, regression analysis revealed that trait self-control and handgrip performance explained significant variance in academic behavior. These findings provide a new understanding of how different self-control measures can be used to predict first-year students' participation in, and adherence to, exercise and academic behaviors concurrently.
Watson, Joshua C.; Watson, April A.
In this study, the authors examined the role that emotional intelligence plays in moderating the relationship between academic stress and coping self-efficacy among a sample of 125 Hispanic 1st-year college students enrolled at a medium-size, southern Hispanic-serving institution. Results of a 2-stage hierarchical multiple regression analysis…
Tolley, Patricia Ann Separ
The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the effects of a residential learning community and enrollment in an introductory engineering course to engineering students' perceptions of the freshman year experience, academic performance, and persistence. The sample included students enrolled in a large, urban, public, research university…
Wang, Xueli; Kennedy-Phillips, Lance
Research has long suggested that an optimal level of involvement in academic and social activities positively affects student development and outcomes. However, many second-year students experience the "sophomore slump." For this study, guided by both prior literature and theoretical perspectives, a survey instrument was developed to…
Keating, Mike; O'Siochru, Cathal; Watt, Sal
This article describes a C-SAP-funded project evaluating the introduction of a new tutorial programme for first year Sociology students, which sought to integrate a "skills framework" to enable students to develop a range of academic skills alongside their study of the subject. The pegagogical and institutional background to the decision…
Howell, Cheryl A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate second-year college student wellness behaviors and their relationship to academic achievement. The ten constructs of wellness within Hettler's model of wellness are physical fitness, nutrition, self-care and safety, environmental wellness, social awareness, emotional awareness and sexuality, emotional…
In Wisconsin, increased academic performance has been a general assumption supporting the institutionalization and public funding of early childhood instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between attendance in public four-year-old kindergarten and elementary level reading performance. This study…
Molepo, Lephodisa S.; Maunganidze, Levison; Mudhovozi, Pilot; Sodi, Tholene
We investigated teacher ratings of the impact of parental divorce on academic achievement of children between 6 and 12 years old up to 12 months after their parents divorced. A purposive sample of 120 children attending four different primary schools in a small South African town took part in the study. One third (n = 40) of the children had…
Wang, Hanrong; Tang, Yingqi; Knight, Carley
This study analyzes job advertisements to identify the contemporary development of academic reference librarianship in the United States. Results show that more job openings, higher educational backgrounds, more duties & responsibilities, and variety of titles were assigned to academic reference librarian positions from 1966 through 2009.…
Wach, F-Sophie; Karbach, Julia; Ruffing, Stephanie; Brünken, Roland; Spinath, Frank M
Although there is consensus about the importance of students' satisfaction with their academic studies as one facet of academic success, little is known about the determinants of this significant outcome variable. Past research rarely investigated the predictive power of multiple predictors simultaneously. Hence, we examined how demographic variables, personality, cognitive and achievement-related variables (intelligence, academic achievement), as well as various motivational constructs were associated with three different dimensions of satisfaction (satisfaction with study content, satisfaction with the conditions of the academic program, satisfaction with the ability to cope with academic stress) assessed approximately 2 years apart. Analyzing data of a sample of university students (N = 620; M age = 20.77; SD age = 3.22) using structural equation modeling, our results underline the significance of personality and motivational variables: Neuroticism predicted satisfaction with academic studies, but its relevance varied between outcome dimensions. Regarding the predictive validity of motivational variables, the initial motivation for enrolling in a particular major was correlated with two dimensions of subsequent satisfaction with academic studies. In contrast, the predictive value of cognitive and achievement-related variables was relatively low, with academic achievement only related to satisfaction with the conditions of the academic program after controlling for the prior satisfaction level.
Wach, F.-Sophie; Karbach, Julia; Ruffing, Stephanie; Brünken, Roland; Spinath, Frank M.
Although there is consensus about the importance of students' satisfaction with their academic studies as one facet of academic success, little is known about the determinants of this significant outcome variable. Past research rarely investigated the predictive power of multiple predictors simultaneously. Hence, we examined how demographic variables, personality, cognitive and achievement-related variables (intelligence, academic achievement), as well as various motivational constructs were associated with three different dimensions of satisfaction (satisfaction with study content, satisfaction with the conditions of the academic program, satisfaction with the ability to cope with academic stress) assessed approximately 2 years apart. Analyzing data of a sample of university students (N = 620; Mage = 20.77; SDage = 3.22) using structural equation modeling, our results underline the significance of personality and motivational variables: Neuroticism predicted satisfaction with academic studies, but its relevance varied between outcome dimensions. Regarding the predictive validity of motivational variables, the initial motivation for enrolling in a particular major was correlated with two dimensions of subsequent satisfaction with academic studies. In contrast, the predictive value of cognitive and achievement-related variables was relatively low, with academic achievement only related to satisfaction with the conditions of the academic program after controlling for the prior satisfaction level. PMID:26909049
Wernersbach, Brenna M.; Crowley, Susan L.; Bates, Scott C.; Rosenthal, Carol
Although study skills courses improve student retention, the impact of study skills courses on students' academic self-efficacy has not been investigated. The present study examined pre- and posttest levels of academic self-efficacy in college students enrolled in a study skills course (n = 126) compared to students enrolled in a general education…
Scheele, Anna F.; Leseman, Paul P. M.; Mayo, Aziza Y.; Elbers, Ed
This study examined the relations between the home language and literacy environment and emergent skill to use academic language in a sample of 58 3-year-old Dutch children, focusing on production and comprehension in 3 genres: personal narrative, impersonal narrative, and instruction in play. Regarding production, children used academic language…
Fulton, John B.; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Walz, Nicolay C.; Wade, Shari L.
Objective To examine cognitive predictors of academic achievement in young children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and orthopedic injury (OI) shortly after injury and 1 year post-injury. Methods Participants included 3 to 6 year old children, 63 with TBI (46 with moderate TBI and 17 with severe TBI) and a comparison group of 80 children with OI. Academic achievement was assessed approximately 1 month and 12 months post injury, using three subtests from the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement-Third Edition and the School Readiness Composite from the Bracken Basic Concepts Scale-Revised. General intellectual functioning, memory, and executive functions were measured at the initial assessment using standardized tests. Results Hierarchical linear regression was used to predict academic achievement at the initial and 1-year follow-up assessments. Memory and executive functions were significant predictors of academic achievement at both assessments, after controlling for group membership and demographic variables. Executive function remained a significant predictor of some outcomes after taking general intellectual functioning into account. Predictive relationships did not vary across the TBI and OI groups. Similar results were obtained when regression analyses were completed with only TBI participants using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score as a predictor, although memory and executive functioning were somewhat less robust in predicting academic achievement than before. Conclusions Both memory and executive function predict academic achievement following TBI in preschool children, although some of the associations may be accounted for by general intellectual functioning. PMID:22563873
Einbinder, J S; Scully, K W; Pates, R D; Schubart, J R; Reynolds, R E
The clinical data repository (CDR) is a frequently updated relational data warehouse that provides users with direct access to detailed, flexible, and rapid retrospective views of clinical, administrative, and financial patient data for the University of Virginia Health System. This article presents a case study of the CDR, detailing its five-year history and focusing on the unique role of data warehousing in an academic medical center. Specifically, the CDR must support multiple missions, including research and education, in addition to administration and management. Users include not only analysts and administrators but clinicians, researchers, and students.
Long, Richard A.
Though Dubois tried to begin a series of scientific studies on the Negro problem in America more than 70 years ago, only recently have attempts been made to present a true history of the Black man in institutions of higher learning. Until that time, the experience of the Black man was defined in Euro-American terms, or in most cases was completely…
Vedi, Neeraj; Gandotra, Achleshwar
Introduction Health field per se requires mental, physical and psychological steadiness and wellbeing. In modern times decline in psychological and physical health has been observed in student after admission in health education program. Factors like perfectionism, self-esteem, personal and professional consequence have affected their academic score directly or indirectly. Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) instrument measures optimism in relation to self-esteem of individual. A better score will show more confidence level of the student. Aim To find an association of LOT-R with the academic score of health professional students and assess gender variation. Materials and Methods A total of 350 students enrolled for academic year 2015-16 in health professional program of medicine, dental and physiotherapy institutes of Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University were considered. Non-randomized and purposive study was done by providing LOT-R questionnaire to students. Average academic score of Anatomy and Physiology course was used for analysis excluding the biochemistry due to non-availability of tangible data at the time of study. Data was collected, analysed statistically using independent t-test, ANOVA with post-hoc and correlation analysis. Result Statistical significant for one-way ANOVA was assessed for academic score between the group of health professional students. While no statistical correlation of significance was observed for LOT-R score with that of academic score. As per gender distribution there was no statistical significant observation for LOT-R score within the groups. Conclusion The present study highlighted the need of student’s counseling for their approach towards health education; as their career. Psychological self-reliance and optimism improves the academic score. A study needs to be compared with the socio-economic status of the student to have a better understanding of the LOT-R. PMID:27891334
Barrigas, Carlos; Fragoso, Isabel
Obesity has been linked to several physiological and psycho-social diseases, decreases in cognitive function, poor levels of scholastic achievement, low socioeconomic status and delayed onset of maturity. This study investigates the association between obesity and both academic performance and reasoning ability in 394 male and 398 females students between the ages of 6 and 12 from Lisbon, Portugal. It also assesses how this relationship may be influenced by chronological age, maturity and socioeconomic status. The results suggest that: 1) reasoning ability is independent of socioeconomic status and level of maturity; 2) no differences in reasoning ability exist between groups of different BMI; 3) academic performance is moderated by chronological age in boys, and by maturity in both genders; 4) obesity is not associated with academic performance. It is concluded that reasoning ability and academic performance are not associated with obesity, and that inter-individual differences in academic performance in boys may be explained by differences in their level of maturity.
Umbach, Paul; Harrell, Sally
This report presents information on the academic achievement of students who transferred from Tidewater Community College (TCC) (Virginia) to four-year institutions. Based on student data from 1994-1996, and the results of a transfer survey of students entering four-year institutions in 1995-1996, statistics are provided that include: (1) between…
Shapley, Kelly; Pieper, Amy; Vicknair, Keven; Sheehan, Daniel; Weiher, Gregory R.; Hughes, Christina; Howard, Joseph
In October 1999, the Texas Education Agency (TEA) received a GEAR UP state grant. TEA's project, Texans Getting Academically Prepared (TGAP), was originally a five-year grant. However, additional federal funding extended the project for a sixth year. TGAP begins at the middle-school level to prepare low-income and minority students for higher…
Balik, C; Sharon, D; Kelishek, S; Tabak, N
Nursing Student cheating is a cause for concern. Research to examine the attitudes of nursing students to academic cheating and what this may predict for their professional practice after graduation was conducted. A convenience sample of 228 students found a strong tendency to see academic dishonesty as normative. The most compelling factor in the decision to plagiarize or not is the 'survival instinct'. This does not necessarily mean that the student perceives copying as ethical. Correlations were found between personal characteristics and attitude towards cheating. It is recommended: (a) To raise awareness of the frequency of academic dishonesty and its implications for professional malpractice. (b) To institute a policy promoting academic integrity by ensuring all involved, including the students become partners in rule enforcement. (c) To establish a policy of penalties sufficiently strong to deter all, students and staff, from dishonest practices.
Sacristán-Díaz, Macarena; Garrido-Vega, Pedro; Alfalla-Luque, Rafaela; González-Zamora, María-del-Mar
Whether the use of more active teaching-learning methods has a positive impact on academic performance remains unanswered. This article seeks to contribute to the issue by conducting a study of an Operations Management course with almost 1000 students per year over three consecutive academic years. The study compares three scenarios with differing…
Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2010
Over 55 years ago, the Western states formed the Western Regional Education Compact and agreed to share higher education resources in the West through the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE). Through WICHE's three student exchange programs, nearly 26,000 residents of 15 Western states are enrolled at reduced levels of…
Rainey, Katharine; Sheehan, Daniel; Maloney, Catherine
This report presents findings from the Year 3 evaluation of Texas' state-level Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs, or GEAR UP, grant. GEAR UP grant requirements include an evaluation component designed to assess program effectiveness and to measure progress toward project goals. To this end, the evaluation considers…
Maloney, Catherine; Lopez, Omar
Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs, or GEAR UP, is a federally-funded system of grants that focuses on preparing low-income students to enter and succeed in postsecondary educational programs. GEAR UP grants extend across 6 school years and require that funded districts begin providing grant services to students no…
Chung, Joanne; Schriber, Roberta A; Robins, Richard W
In the present research, we examined academic self-enhancement in students (N = 264) followed longitudinally through 4 years of college. We used social comparison (i.e., better-than-average ratings) and self-insight (i.e., criterion-based) approaches to assess the degree to which students self-enhanced in their self-perceptions of academic ability, with SAT scores, high school grade point average (GPA), and college GPA used as criterion measures. We also examined ethnic variability in academic self-enhancement. We found that academic self-enhancement (a) increased or decreased over the 4 years of college, depending on its operationalization, (b) tended to be adaptive according to social comparison indices, and (c) demonstrated a trajectory that differed by ethnicity, but ethnicity did not moderate the effect of academic self-enhancement on outcomes. We discuss the implications of the findings for debates about the adaptive value of self-enhancement, the magnitude of cultural differences, and how best to conceptualize and operationalize the construct.
Ahmed, Jashim Uddin; Chowdhury, Md. Humayun Kabir; Rahman, Sheehan; Talukder, A. K. M. Mominul Haque
This study examines the factors contributing to academic probation in university settings and highlights the problems that students encounter in higher education institutions in Bangladesh. The study focused on students facing academic probation on two private universities in Bangladesh and analyzed students' response with respect to nine…
This study examined the influence of motivation on academic achievement. The theoretical rationale for the study is grounded in bridging two influential yet isolated literatures of motivation: goal setting theory and achievement goal theory. Although it is clear that academic performance should be influenced by assigned learning goals,…
Balkis, Murat; Duru, Erdinc; Bulus, Mustafa
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between academic rational/irrational beliefs, academic procrastination, and time preferences to study for exams and academic achievement by using the structural equation model. The sample consisted of 281 undergraduate students who filled in questionnaires at the 7-week-long summer course.…
Salamonson, Yenna; Ramjan, Lucie M; van den Nieuwenhuizen, Simon; Metcalfe, Lauren; Chang, Sungwon; Everett, Bronwyn
This paper examines the relationship between nursing students' sense of coherence, self-regulated learning and academic performance in bioscience. While there is increasing recognition of a need to foster students' self-regulated learning, little is known about the relationship of psychological strengths, particularly sense of coherence and academic performance. Using a prospective, correlational design, 563 first year nursing students completed the three dimensions of sense of coherence scale - comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness, and five components of self-regulated learning strategy - elaboration, organisation, rehearsal, self-efficacy and task value. Cluster analysis was used to group respondents into three clusters, based on their sense of coherence subscale scores. Although there were no sociodemographic differences in sense of coherence subscale scores, those with higher sense of coherence were more likely to adopt self-regulated learning strategies. Furthermore, academic grades collected at the end of semester revealed that higher sense of coherence was consistently related to achieving higher academic grades across all four units of study. Students with higher sense of coherence were more self-regulated in their learning approach. More importantly, the study suggests that sense of coherence may be an explanatory factor for students' successful adaptation and transition in higher education, as indicated by the positive relationship of sense of coherence to academic performance.
Angelini, Diane J; O'Brien, Barbara; Singer, Janet; Coustan, Donald R
This review describes a collaborative educational practice model partnering midwifery and obstetrics within a department of obstetrics and gynecology. For more than 20 years, the authors' model has demonstrated sustainability and influence on medical education. The focus is on resident education in obstetrics, using midwifery faculty as teachers in the obstetric and obstetric triage settings. This noncompetitive and integrated educational practice model has achieved sustainability and success using midwives in a collaborative approach to medical education. The continuing collaboration and innovation within medical and resident education are important elements for the future of collaborative practice.
Patrzek, Justine; Sattler, Sebastian; van Veen, Floris; Grunschel, Carola; Fries, Stefan
In prior studies, academic procrastination has been discussed as an influencing factor of academic misconduct. However, empirical studies were conducted solely cross-sectionally and investigated only a few forms of academic misconduct. This large scale web-based study examined the responses of between 1359 and 2207 participants from different…
In the early 1990s, numerous academic libraries adopted the web as a communication tool with users. The literature on academic library websites includes research on both design and navigation. Early studies typically focused on design characteristics, since websites initially merely provided information on the services and collections available in…
Miller, Michelle A.
With the introduction of the Post-9/11 GI Bill, there is an influx of active-duty military and student veterans enrolling in postsecondary and graduate-level education. The role of an academic advisor increases significantly with this influx of enrollment. The purpose of this study was to determine how a graduate-level academic advisor perceives…
The processes by which unprepared freshmen are able to develop their academic literacy are overlooked by those in the academy. The author will describe a case study of the development of a student's academic literacy in the 1st 3 semesters of college. The information for this project was obtained through interviews with the student and her…
There is a relative absence of research that specifically uses Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) data to investigate the relationship between birthdate of kindergartners and later academic success in third grade. This quantitative study investigated school start age and academic success on the 3rd grade Reading TAKS in a sample of…
A dean at a private school of nursing implemented a leadership development program for early- to mid-career nursing faculty consisting of one 4-hour evening session per academic quarter for 7 quarters. Eight faculty members who had expressed interest in assuming a leadership role or been recommended by their supervisors as having strong leadership potential were invited to join. Program topics included leadership pathways, legal issues, budgeting and governance, diversity, the political arena, human resources, and student issues. Interviews with participants revealed 6 themes: the support a peer cohort provided, a desire for real-life application, a lack of previous exposure to related content or experiences, new perceptions of themselves as academic nurse leaders, the value of the program as preparation for academic nursing leadership roles, and broad program applicability.
Press cuttings, official publications, and press releases are reviewed in this annual survey of British higher education. This article is complemented by an analytical study by Charles Carter in the same journal. (Editor/LBH)
Buss, Daryl D
The faculty at member schools and colleges of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) are critical for continued progress in veterinary medicine. The success of those faculty members over the past 50 years has positioned veterinary medicine to engage an ever-widening array of opportunities, responsibilities, and societal needs. Yet the array of skills and accomplishments of faculty in academic veterinary medicine are not always visible to the public, or even within our profession. The quality and the wide range of their scholarship are reflected, in part, through the according of national and international awards and honors from organizations relevant to their particular areas of expertise. The goal of this study was to illustrate the breadth of expertise and the quality of the faculty at 34 schools/colleges of veterinary medicine by examining the diversity of organizations that have recognized excellence in faculty achievements through a variety of awards.
Butler, John C.
The evolution of the Internet is increasing at an ever-increasing rate. The rate of incorporation of Internet-based resources into university courses, however, does not seem to be keeping pace. In large part this seems to be a function of the mindset of university faculty rather than a technological shortcoming. For the past few years faculty have used the Internet to learn how their colleagues are adopting this new medium into their courses. Password-protected course pages will restrict that learning process if university administration and publishers exercise ownership of the intellectual property produced by faculty. A team approach is needed with instructors providing the content and graphic designers, programmers, and cognitive experts adding their skills to produce the final product. This team should be involved from conception through assessment of the results. Focusing on the development of an entire course may not be a wise investment of time and money for a faculty member. It may make more sense to focus on the development of small segments, units or modules or analytical tools that can be incorporated into a variety of courses at other institutions. If such units can be evaluated as good practices, and if an efficient distribution mechanism can be devised, the benefits should increase exponentially as new resources are contributed.
Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul
The present study was conducted to analyze whether in-class friends influence each other's grades, and whether adolescents tend to select friends that are similar to them in terms of academic achievement. During 1 academic year, 542 eighth-grade students (M age = 13.3 years) reported on 3 different occasions on their in-class friendship networks.…
A study summarized the activities of two advisory bodies--the Program Advisory Committees (PACs) and Trade Advisory Boards (TABs)--at Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST). Minutes from all meetings were collected, reviewed, and analyzed according to the main areas of concern for the advisory committees:…
Fraser, Kym; Ryan, Yoni
Although it can be argued that directors of central academic development units (ADUs) are critical to the implementation of university teaching and learning strategies, it would appear there is a high director turnover rate. While research in the USA, the UK, and Australia illustrates that ADUs are frequently closed or restructured, that research…
Ehrenberg, Ronald G.
This paper focuses on three academic labor market issues that researchers at Cornell University are addressing currently: (1) the declining salaries of faculty employed at public colleges and universities relative to the salaries of their counterparts at private higher education institutions; (2) the growing dispersion of average faculty salaries…
National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2009
Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 40th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2008-09. Data highlights of this survey include: (1) In the 2008-2009 academic year, the states…
National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2010
Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 41th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2009-10. Data highlights include: (1) In the 2009-2010 academic year, the states awarded about…
National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2004
Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 34th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2002-03. Data highlights include: (1) In the 2002-03 academic year, the states awarded about…
National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2006
Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 37th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2005-06. Data highlights of the survey include: (1) In the 2005-2006 academic year, the states…
National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2007
Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 38th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2006-07. Data highlights of this survey include: (1) In the 2006-2007 academic year, the states…
National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2005
Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 35th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2003-04. Data highlights include: (1) In the 2003-2004 academic year, the states awarded about…
National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2005
Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 36th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2004-05. Data highlights of this survey include: (1) In the 2004-2005 academic year, the states…
Witt, Claudia M; Holmberg, Christine
In Western countries, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is more and more provided by practitioners and family doctors. To base this reality of health care provision on an evidence-base, academic medicine needs to be included in the development. In the study we aimed to gain information on a structured approach to include CAM in academic health centers. We conducted a semistructured interview study with leading experts of integrative medicine to analyze strategies of existing academic institutions of integrative medicine. The study sample consisted of a purposive sample of ten leaders that have successfully integrated CAM into medical schools in the USA, Great Britain, and Germany and the Director of the National Center for Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Analysis was based on content analysis. The prerequisite to foster change in academic medicine was a strong educational and professional background in academic medicine and research methodologies. With such a skill set, the interviewees identified a series of strategies to align themselves with colleagues from conventional medicine, such as creating common goals, networking, and establishing well-functioning research teams. In addition, there must be a vision of what should be needed to be at the center of all efforts in order to implement successful change.
Leung, Jessica; Marin, Mona; Leino, Victor; Even, Susan; Bialek, Stephanie R.
Objective: To obtain information on varicella prematriculation requirements in US colleges for undergraduate students during the 2014-2015 academic year. Participants: Health care professionals and member schools of the American College Health Association (ACHA). Methods: An electronic survey was sent to ACHA members regarding school…
Warga, Richard G.
This annual booklet furnishes information on the costs of attending U.S. colleges and universities. Data on some Canadian and a number of community colleges are also included. The expenses reported cover a 2-term academic year. Each entry is divided into sections on: tuition and fees, resident budgets, commuting budgets, and out of state charges.…
Casey, Alice; Layte, Richard; Lyons, Sean; Silles, Mary
A recent rise in home computer ownership has seen a growing number of children using computers and accessing the internet from a younger age. This paper examines the link between children's home computing and their academic performance in the areas of reading and mathematics. Data from the nine-year-old cohort of the Growing Up in Ireland survey…
This paper reports findings on the changes in students' understandings of the concept of matter during an academic year, for students from grade 3 through high school chemistry. The instrument for measuring students' understandings of matter consists of three forms: one for grades 3-6, one for grades 7-9, and one for grades 10-12. The three forms…
2012, the National Year of Reading (NYR), was celebrated in libraries, schools and community centres throughout Australia. At the University of Adelaide, we celebrated our academic culture of literary teaching and research with a range of programmes and initiatives based in the humanities faculty. The Barr Smith Library played an integral part in…
Mitchell, Brenda O.
A correlational explanatory research design examined the relationship between peer mentoring, academic success and social engagement of first year college students participating in a peer mentoring program at a research one university in the southeastern United States. One hundred thirty-eight participants from the peer mentoring program responded…
Guerrero, Michael D.
This article examines the primary assumption underlying the recent passage of propositions aimed at meeting the need of English language learners (ELLs). The assumption is that English language learners normally need only one year of intensive structured English immersion to learn English well enough to be academically successful in an all-English…
Downs, C. T.
First year students' academic performance in three Life Science courses (Botany, Zoology and Bioscience) was compared. Pass rates, as well as the means and distributions of final marks were analysed. Of the three components (coursework, practical and theory examinations) contributing to the final mark of each course, students performed best in the…
Burns, Sharon L.
Students' conceptualizations of academic writing are often based on their cultural and social expectations of what it means to be a student or an instructor in the academy. These expectations are as varied as any target population and continue to grow as multi-cultural heritages continue to expand. First-year student writers' performances are…
Gottlieb, Rosemary J; Rogers, Janet L
Students enrolled in a selected admissions program, in which there are a limited number of student positions available, were assessed for academic self-concept using the Dimensions of Self-Concept upon entry into the program. This study was performed to explore whether academic self-concept scores could predict successful completion of an academic program and the impact of self-concept scores on academic achievement and professional leadership.
The purpose of this study is to compare the academic performance of male and female students in high school elective science courses. The data for this study were drawn from the grade books of six teachers of elective science courses and consists of the grades earned by the males and females during one academic year. The number of students…
National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2013
This report provides data regarding state-funded expenditures for student financial aid and illustrates the extent of efforts made by the states to assist postsecondary students. Information in this report is based on academic year 2012-13 data from the 44th Annual NASSGAP survey. Highlights include: (1) In the 2012-13 academic year, the states…
Miller, Lauren Kemner
First-year retention rates have seen minimal gains as high numbers of first-year students are leaving college due to insufficient academic skills and inability to adjust to the academic and social life of college. Programs that provide strategies to improve the transition from high school to college and that help develop skills to facilitate…
Information is presented on out-of-state institutions operating in Maryland during the 1982-1983 academic year, courses and programs, enrollments by institution, and the locations of the courses. Institutional changes since the preceding academic year and the current status of approved institutions are also identified. Sixteen out-of-state…
Perrone, Kristin M.; Tschopp, Molly K.; Snyder, Erin R.; Boo, Jenelle N.; Hyatt, Claudine
The purpose of this study was to examine career expectations and outcomes for individuals who were identified as academically talented high school students. Data for this study were collected at two different time periods: 10 years and 20 years after participants' high school graduation. A decade after graduation from high school, participants…
This study is considered to be significant in objectively analyzing the negative-positive effects of the program during the process of learning, teacher's acquaintance to the new program in a closer way and acquiring a positive perspective of the program. This study has been conducted in order to discover the effects of 2005-2006 academic year…
Donaldson, Paul; McKinney, Lyle; Lee, Mimi; Pino, Diana
For this study, we analyzed the relationship between intrusive academic advising and community college student success. Utilizing a qualitative, single-case study design, we conducted interviews with 12 students who participated in an intrusive advising program at a large, urban community college in Texas. Analysis of the interview data revealed…
Schmitt, Carl M.
This manual describes the methods, procedures, techniques, and activities that were used to produce the Academic Library Survey of 2002 (ALS:2002). This manual is designed to provide guidance and documentation for users of the ALS data. Included in the manual are the following: an overview of the study and its predecessor studies; an account of…
Câmara-Costa, H; Pulgar, S; Cusin, F; Dellatolas, G
The persistence of academic difficulties from childhood through adulthood has led researchers to focus on the identification of the early factors influencing children's subsequent achievement in order to improve the efficient screening of children who might be at risk of school failure. The foundations of academic achievement can be accurately traced back to the preschool years prior to children's entry in formal schooling and are largely influenced by environmental determinants. Importantly, some environmental conditions act as early risk factors undermining children's later academic achievement due to the well-established relation between underachievement and exposure to moderate to high levels of environmental risk. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the longitudinal effects of environment-level factors (sociodemographic and family characteristics) and early risk exposure at kindergarten on children's subsequent academic achievement at the end of middle school (grade 9). The sample of analysis comprised 654 kindergarteners aged 5-6 years (2001-2002 school year) followed through the end of middle school when they were aged 14-15 years (2010-2011 school year). At kindergarten, assessment included questionnaire-based measures of sociodemographic and family background characteristics. These included an original set of information pertaining to family background including parental nationality, education level, history of reading difficulties, type of early childcare, family situation, family size, and language-based bedtime routines, as well as individual-level factors such as children's first language, medical history, language delay, birth weight, age of walking onset, and gestation period. At grade 9, outcome measures were composed of children's results in the national evaluations performed at the end of middle school ("Diplôme National du Brevet"), or history of repetition for a second year of the same class. The results indicated that all family
Cortés, J.-C.; Colmenar, J.-M.; Hidalgo, J.-I.; Sánchez-Sánchez, A.; Santonja, F.-J.; Villanueva, R.-J.
Academic performance is a concern of paramount importance in Spain, where around of 30 % of the students in the last two courses in high school, before to access to the labor market or to the university, do not achieve the minimum knowledge required according to the Spanish educational law in force. In order to analyze this problem, we propose a random network model to study the dynamics of the academic performance in Spain. Our approach is based on the idea that both, good and bad study habits, are a mixture of personal decisions and influence of classmates. Moreover, in order to consider the uncertainty in the estimation of model parameters, we perform a lot of simulations taking as the model parameters the ones that best fit data returned by the Differential Evolution algorithm. This technique permits to forecast model trends in the next few years using confidence intervals.
Rodgers, Megan; Grays, Makayla P.; Fulcher, Keston H.; Jurich, Daniel P.
Starting with the premise that better assessment leads to more informed decisions about student learning, we investigated the factors that lead to assessment improvement. We used "meta-assessment" (i.e., evaluating the assessment process) to identify academic programs in which the assessment process had improved over a two-year period.…
Chick, Nancy L.; Nisselson, Rachel; Claiborne, Lily; Edmonds, Jeff; Yant, Anna Catesby; Hearn, Andrea Bradley
The authors discuss a scholarship of teaching and learning project conducted in three first-year writing seminars of different disciplines. The goal was to introduce students to academic inquiry, which they define as the process of critically analyzing class materials, engaging with the larger body of knowledge on a topic, using evidence to…
Greenberg, Ruth B; Ziegler, Craig H; Borges, Nicole J; Elam, Carol L; Stratton, Terry D; Woods, Sheila
Little is known about how medical students view academic medicine. This multi-institutional study explored student perceptions of this career path. During 2009-2010, third- and fourth-year students at three United States medical schools completed a 30-item online survey. In total, 239 students completed the questionnaire (37 % response rate). Significant predictors of students' desires for academic medical careers included interest in teaching (γ = 0.74), research (γ = 0.53), interprofessional practice (γ = 0.34), administration (γ = 0.27), and community service opportunities (γ = 0.16). A positive correlation existed between accumulated debt and interest in academic medicine (γ = 0.20). Student descriptions of the least and most appealing aspects of academic medicine were classified into five categories: professional, research, personal, teaching and mentoring, and patients/patient care. Students are more likely to be interested in a career in academic medicine if they have participated in research or were influenced by a mentor. Factors that may also influence a medical student's decision to pursue a career in academic medicine include age and debt accumulated prior to medical school. Professional aspects of academic medicine (cutting edge environment, resources) and the opportunity to teach were the most appealing aspects.
Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Chiu, Yu-Jen I.
This exploratory study examined the contribution of the "RC" Approach over a two-year period. The "RC" Approach integrates social and academic learning in order to produce classroom environments that are conducive to learning by integrating social and academic learning. Two questions are addressed. First, how does teachers' use of "RC" practices…
Slanger, William D.; Berg, Emily A.; Fisk, Paul S.; Hanson, Mark G.
Ten years of College Student Inventory (CSI) data from one Midwestern public land-grant university were used to study the role of motivational factors in predicting academic success and college student retention. Academic success was defined as cumulative grade point average (GPA), cumulative course load capacity (i.e., the number of credits…
Muola, J. M.
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between academic achievement motivation and home environment among standard eight pupils. The study was carried out on 235 standard eight Kenyan pupils from six urban and rural primary schools randomly selected from Machakos district. Their age ranged between 13 and 17 years. Two…
Castillo, Victor Anthony
With the study rise of the Hispanic population in the United States over the last 25-years there has been a languished progression of this populations' educational attainment. The purpose of this qualitative study was to tap into the "black-box" of ten academically successful Latino students from San Antonio by capturing the life history…
The focus of the qualitative study was to explore college student sexual health choices from a 4-year undergraduate institution. The study could be used for future research into why the numbers of sexual risk choices including sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) remain among college campuses, and how they affect academic success. Through…
Günter, Tugçe; Alpat, Sibel Kilinç
This study investigates the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) on students' academic achievements in studying "Electrochemistry" within a course on Analytical Chemistry. The research was of a pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design and it was conducted with second year students in the Chemistry Teaching Program at…
Marchant, Teresa; Wallace, Michelle
Quantitative methods and secondary data informed by critical realism and a feminist standpoint provide a contemporary snapshot of academic gender ratios in Australian universities, along with historical data, for the entire population of interest. The study is set in the context of the well-researched, worldwide gendered nature of higher education…
Bhagat, Vidya; Haque, Mainul; Simbak, Nordin Bin; Jaalam, Kamarudin
Personality dimension negative emotionality is known to be associated with academic achievement. The present study focuses on the influence of negative emotionality (neuroticism) on the medical students' academic achievements. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the negative emotionality scores among the first year Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and India, further to find out the association between negative emotionality and their academic achievements. The current study sample includes 60 first year Malaysian medical students from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia, and USM-KLE IMP, Belgaum, India. They were selected by convenient sampling technique. The Medico-Psychological questionnaire was used to find out the negative emotionality scores among the students and these scores were compared with academic scores. The data were analyzed using SPSS- 20. Thus, the study result goes with the prediction that there is a significant correlation between academic achievement and negative emotionality. We concluded that negative emotionality has a negative impact on medical student's academic achievement regardless of the fact whether they study in their own country or overseas.
Bhagat, Vidya; Haque, Mainul; Simbak, Nordin Bin; Jaalam, Kamarudin
Personality dimension negative emotionality is known to be associated with academic achievement. The present study focuses on the influence of negative emotionality (neuroticism) on the medical students’ academic achievements. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the negative emotionality scores among the first year Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and India, further to find out the association between negative emotionality and their academic achievements. The current study sample includes 60 first year Malaysian medical students from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia, and USM-KLE IMP, Belgaum, India. They were selected by convenient sampling technique. The Medico-Psychological questionnaire was used to find out the negative emotionality scores among the students and these scores were compared with academic scores. The data were analyzed using SPSS- 20. Thus, the study result goes with the prediction that there is a significant correlation between academic achievement and negative emotionality. We concluded that negative emotionality has a negative impact on medical student’s academic achievement regardless of the fact whether they study in their own country or overseas. PMID:27354836
Lindsay-Brown, Sandra J.
This study examined the impact that a year-round school calendar and a traditional school calendar may have on student achievement at selected elementary schools in North Central South Carolina. Specifically it investigated mean differences in academic achievement between elementary students at two year-round schools versus two traditional…
Smith, Curt L.
The purpose of the study was to investigate to what extent do demographic characteristics, high school experience, aspirations and achievement, college experience-academic integration, college experience-social integration, financial aid, and price influence the first-year persistence of African-American students attending 4-year public colleges.…
Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.; Renaud, Robert D.; Hladkyj, Steve
Previous research has found perceived academic control (PAC) to be a better predictor of first-year college students' grades than self-esteem; however, it is uncertain which construct is more important for students' well-being. The current study compared PAC and self-esteem on first-year college students' emotions, perceived stress, and…
Strayhorn, Terrell L.
The purpose of the study was to estimate the relationship between academic achievement in college, as defined by first-year grade point average (GPA), and self-authorship among African American first-year students at an HBCU (N = 140), using hierarchical linear regression techniques. A single research question guided this investigation: What is…
Hodgson, D.; Steadman, J.
This progress report reviews the University of Wyoming`s approach to implementing the DOE Traineeship Program, and briefly describes the research performed by the DOE/EPSCoR Trainees during the academic year, 1992--1993. These brief descriptions of individual research projects demonstrate the wide scope of energy-related research that the DOE-EPSCoR Traineeships have initiated in Wyoming. The availability of this funding has encouraged many talented students to continue their education in fields of interest to DOE. These additional bright, energetic graduate students have improved the educational atmosphere for everyone. The visibility of the DOE program has sharpened the focus of the science and engineering departments on the energy-related research of importance to Wyoming and DOE. The impact of the DOE Traineeships in Wyoming has been substantial and very positive. It has not only increased the number of students studying in energy-related disciplines, but has also increased the quality of their graduate research. The program has also increased the visibility of DOE in Wyoming and has helped focus attention on the energy and environmental graduate education which is so essential to the University and the State.
Ueno, Satoru; Shibata, Kazunari; Morita, Satoshi; Kimura, Goichi; Asai, Ayumi; Kitai, Reizaburo; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Shin'ichi; Ishii, Takako; Nakatani, Yoshikazu; Masashi, Yamaguchi; et al.
We will introduce contents of international collaboration and academic exchange of the CHAIN project in recent three years (ISWI period). After April of 2010, we have not obtained any enough budget for new instruments. Therefore, we have not been able to install new Flare Monitoring Telescopes (FMT) in new countries, such as Algeria. On the other hand, however, we have continued international academic exchange through scientific and educational collaboration with mainly Peru, such as data-analysis training, holding scientific workshops etc. Additionally, in this year, King Saudi University of Saudi Arabia and CRAAG of Algeria have planned to build a new FMT in their university by their own budget. Therefore, we have started some collaboration in the field of technical advices of instruments and scientific themes etc. Moreover, Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) also offered us participation in the CHAIN-project. We would like to continue to consider the possibility of academic collaboration with such new positive developing nations, too.
Drysdale, Maureen T. B.; Ross, Jonathan L.; Schultz, Robert A.
Investigated the effects of cognitive learning style on first-year academic performance in 19 university courses. Students completed the Gregorc Style Delineator. Academic performance based on learning style was significant in 11 courses. Science and math courses appear best suited to sequential thinkers. Random learners excel in fine arts…
This article describes the situation of academic study programs in gerontology and geriatrics in Austria. University formation in these areas is at the very beginning. Due to the lack of institutionalization of gerontology and geriatrics at the university level, the study programs were developed by non-university institutions. The studies are mostly at the post-gradual level and are practice-oriented.
Welch, Sally R.
Academic transcripts are becoming increasingly important in home study environments because they are gaining wider use as "sales tools" by home study program graduates seeking acceptance of their home study work by employers and registrars. Well-designed transcripts have become an excellent alumni service and subtle marketing device that all…
Creasy, Lydia A.
This study examined the correlations between gifted students' self-image, academic achievement, and number of years enrolled in the gifted programming. In addition, the study examined the relationships between gifted students' educational placement, race, and gender with self-image. Study participants were gifted students in third through eighth…
Ami, Schattner; Meital, Adi; Ella, Kitroser; Abraham, Klepfish
Abstract Few case series provide a current, comprehensive, and detailed description of splenic infarction (SI), an uncommon condition. Retrospective chart review complemented by imaging evaluation and patient follow-up. All adult patients with a confirmed diagnosis of acute SI discharged over 10 years from a single academic center were studied. A systematic literature review was done to compile a complete list of SI etiologies. SI was found in 32 patients, 0.016% of admissions. Ages ranged from 18 to 86 (median 64) years. Cardiogenic emboli were the predominant etiology (20/32, 62.5%) and atrial fibrillation was frequent. Other patients had autoimmune disease (12.5%), associated infection (12.5%), or hematological malignancy (6%). Nine of the patients (28%) had been previously healthy or with no recognized morbidity predisposing to SI. In 5 of 9 hitherto silent antiphospholipid syndrome or mitral valve disease had been identified. Two remained cryptogenic. Most patients presented with abdominal pain (84%), often felt in the left upper quadrant or epigastrium. Associated symptoms, leukocytosis or increased serum lactate dehydrogenase occurred inconsistently (∼25% each). Chest X-ray showed suggestive Lt. supra-diaphragmatic findings in 22%. Thus, the typical predisposing factors and/or clinical presentation should suggest SI to the clinician and be followed by early imaging by computed tomography (CT), highly useful also in atypical presentations. Complications were rare and patients were discharged after 6.5 days (median) on anticoagulant treatment. The systematic literature review revealed an extensive list of conditions underlying SI. In some, SI may be the first and presenting manifestation. SI is a rare event but should be considered in predisposed patients or those with any combination of suggestive clinical features, especially abdominal pain CT evaluation is diagnostic and the outcome is good. PMID:26356690
This study examined academic library usage and outcomes. The objective of the study was to understand how academic libraries help students learn and assist faculty with teaching and research. From March to May 2005, nine Colorado institutions administered two online questionnaires--one to undergraduate students and another to faculty members who…
Aim: The foremost aim of the study was to investigate and analyze the relationship of General Mental Ability, Interest and home environment with Academic Achievement. Methods: The participants were 110 students drawn from three Kendrya Vidyalayas of Delhi. Their ages ranged between 13 and 14 with a mean age of 13.6 years. Two validated instruments…
Morris-Paxton, Angela A.; Van Lingen, Johanna M.; Elkonin, Diane
Objective: The aim of this study was to measure possible impacts of a salutogenic lifestyle education programme on wellness and academic outcomes in a group of socioeconomically disadvantaged students in the first year of higher education. Setting: University in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Methods: A mixed-methods approach was…
Xue, Mo; Chao, Xia; Kuntz, Aaron M.
Socialization as a theoretical concept has been increasingly applied to higher education over the past several decades. However, little research examines international visiting scholars' overseas academic socialization experiences. Rooted in socialization theory, this one-year qualitative study explores 15 Chinese visiting scholars' lived…
Mascia, Maria Lidia; Agus, Mirian; Zanetti, Maria Assunta; Pessa, Eliano; Penna, Maria Pietronilla
This study analyzes the possible influences of some individual variables related with the attendance of specific online laboratory activities on the academic retention and achievement of a group of freshmen attending the first year of the Bachelor of Education. Online platforms allowed students both to use a supporting network and autonomously…
Ayaz, Mehmet Fatih; Sekerci, Hanifi
In this research, a meta-analysis study was conducted in order to determine the effects of constructivist learning approach on students' academic achievement. Master's thesis, doctoral dissertation and articles in national and international databases, which are realized between the years of 2003-2014, appropriate to the problem and which can be…
Smith, Dorothy V.; Mulhall, Pamela J.; Gunstone, Richard F.; Hart, Christina E.
This article presents a case study of four academic scientists. These academics teach in the first year of a Bachelor of Science degree at a large research-focused Australian university that has demanded and supported a greater focus on undergraduate learning. Taken as a whole, the accounts of science that the first-year academics in this case…
Koltay, Zsuzsa; Parmer, Coleen
This case study of the Kossuth Lajos Tudomanyeyetem, an academic library in Debrecen (Hungary), conducted in May 1992, describes its functioning and needs. Information gathered through a series of interviews, tours, library reports, and a review of relevant literature forms the basis for the case study. An overview of the library in its historical…
Three new studies of college freshmen suggest that even the most promising among them can run into academic difficulties as a long-term consequence of experiences like attending a violence-plagued high school or being raised by parents who never went to college. Two of the studies call into question a large body of research on the educational…
This study utilises an integrated conceptual model of academic performance which captures a series of psychological factors: cognitive style; self-theories such as self-esteem and self-efficacy; achievement goals such as mastery, performance, performance avoidance and work avoidance; study-processing strategies such as deep and surface learning;…
The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore rural high school graduates', teachers', and administrators' perceptions of student voice on academic success. This study was designed to examine the following three questions: What were the common beliefs regarding opportunities for input, or student voice, on the educational…
The U.S. colleges and universities offering non-sectarian educational programs in Jewish Studies rely on the support of their academic libraries for research materials and library services. For college libraries which use Library of Congress Classification scheme, it is a common practice to integrate "studies" resources into their…
Kelso, P. R.; Brown, L. M.
Based upon constructivist principles and the recognition that many students are motivated by hands-on activities and field experiences, we designed a new undergraduate curriculum at Lake Superior State University. One of our major goals was to develop stand-alone field projects in most of the academic year courses. Examples of courses impacted include structural geology, geophysics, and geotectonics, Students learn geophysical concepts in the context of near surface field-based geophysical studies while students in structural geology learn about structural processes through outcrop study of fractures, folds and faults. In geotectonics students learn about collisional and rifting processes through on-site field studies of specific geologic provinces. Another goal was to integrate data and samples collected by students in our sophomore level introductory field course along with stand-alone field projects in our clastic systems and sequence stratigraphy courses. Our emphasis on active learning helps students develop a meaningful geoscience knowledge base and complex reasoning skills in authentic contexts. We simulate the activities of practicing geoscientists by engaging students in all aspects of a project, for example: field-oriented project planning and design; acquiring, analyzing, and interpreting data; incorporating supplemental material and background data; and preparing oral and written project reports. We find through anecdotal evidence including student comments and personal observation that the projects stimulate interest, provide motivation for learning new concepts, integrate skill and concept acquisition vertically through the curriculum, apply concepts from multiple geoscience subdisiplines, and develop soft skills such as team work, problem solving, critical thinking and communication skills. Through this projected-centered Lake Superior State University geology curriculum students practice our motto of "learn geology by doing geology."
Millberg, Lena German; Berg, Linda; Brämberg, Elisabeth Björk; Nordström, Gun; Ohlén, Joakim
The aim was to explore the major concerns of specialist nurses pertaining to academic learning during their education and initial professional career. Specialist nursing education changed in tandem with the European educational reform in 2007. At the same time, greater demands were made on the healthcare services to provide evidence-based and safe patient-care. These changes have influenced specialist nursing programmes and consequently the profession. Grounded Theory guided the study. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire with open-ended questions distributed at the end of specialist nursing programmes in 2009 and 2010. Five universities were included. Further, individual, pair and group interviews were used to collect data from 12 specialist nurses, 5-14 months after graduation. A major concern for specialist nurses was that academic learning should be "meaningful" for their professional future. The specialist nurses' "meaningful academic learning process" was characterised by an ambivalence of partly believing in and partly being hesitant about the significance of academic learning and partly receiving but also lacking support. Specialist nurses were influenced by factors in two areas: curriculum and healthcare context. They felt that the outcome of contribution to professional confidence was critical in making academic learning meaningful.
Upcraft, M. Lee, Ed.; Kramer, Gary L., Ed.
This monograph is designed to provide a blueprint to educators on how to improve academic advising for first-year college students. Seventeen chapters are: (1) "First-Year Students: The Year 2000" (Wesley Habley); (2) "Insights from Theory: Understanding First-Year Student Development" (M. Lee Upcraft); (3) "Creating…
Cesarini, Lisa McHugh
The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of various enrollment management functions at a subset of four-year public institutions. Specifically, this study compared perceptions of academic administrators with enrollment managers as they related to the availability, need, and effectiveness of certain enrollment management functions. In…
Kangas, Jon; Ma, Tony
A study was conducted at Evergreen Valley College (EVC) and San Jose City College (SJCC) to determine persistence rates over 4 academic years for students with no previous college experience who entered arithmetic (Math 310), beginning algebra (Math 12), and intermediate algebra (Math 13) courses in fall 1988. The study sought to determine…
Kangas, Jon; Ma, Tony
In fall 1992, a study was conducted at Evergreen Valley College (EVC) and San Jose City College (SJCC), in California, to measure the persistence rate of fall 1988 developmental English students (ENGL 330 at EVC; ENGL 335 at SJCC) through transfer level English (1A) over 4 academic years. Results of the study included the following: (1) of the 152…
Neel, Cari Gillen-O'; Fuligni, Andrew
This longitudinal study examined how school belonging changes over the years of high school, and how it is associated with academic achievement and motivation. Students from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds participated (N = 572; age span = 13.94-19.15 years). In ninth grade, girls' school belonging was higher than boys'. Over the course of high school, however, girls' school belonging declined, whereas boys' remained stable. Within-person longitudinal analyses indicated that years in which students had higher school belonging were also years in which they felt that school was more enjoyable and more useful, above and beyond their actual level of achievement. Results highlight the importance of belonging for maintaining students' academic engagement during the teenage years.
Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini
This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic…
Suggests a way to overcome the difficulty of teaching effective reading skills to students with diverse interests. The approach is based on four specifications: (1) each student studies a text on a topic in his own specialty; (2) reading practice images students' academic contexts; (3) classes are learner centered; and (4) students are evaluated…
Jones, Katrina E.
The goal of this research is to examine how implementing a new pedagogical structure, Academic Choice, informs my understanding of my students as learners and individuals. Using a self-study methodology over the course of eight working sessions in my Kindergarten classroom, I collected multiple forms of qualitative data, including student work…
Toye, George; Sheppard, Sheri; Chen, Helen L.
The Academic Pathway Study (APS) research program within National Science Foundation (NSF) Center for Advancement of Engineering Education (CAEE) ran from 2003-2010. It amassed a collection of longitudinal as well as cross-sectional data sets, of varying research method types and formats, from four different primary cohorts that included over…
Angus, Emma; Stuart, David; Thelwall, Mike
Many web 2.0 sites are extremely popular and contain vast amounts of content, but how much of this content is useful in academia? This exploratory paper investigates the potential use of the popular web 2.0 image site Flickr as an academic image resource. The study identified images tagged with any one of 12 subject names derived from recognized…
Gothberg, Helen M.; Riggs, Donald E.
This study was undertaken to generate and analyze survey data for evaluating time management practices among directors of large academic libraries. Questionnaires were mailed to 194 library directors and the 159 survey respondents (82%) provided information about their experience and other characteristics; how they allocate their time; to what…
A case study is reported of a mature-aged Aboriginal woman who acquired the academic literacy necessary for participation in university education. It suggests the possibility that members of marginalized minority groups can acquire the literacy practices of the dominant society without becoming complicit in them. (Contains 19 references.) (LB)
This exploratory study linked academic and personal development within a group counseling intervention. A pre-test post-test research design compared social skills, learning behaviors, and achievement with a convenience sample and control group of students from three elementary schools. For the treatment group, grade point average in Language Arts…
Murray, Neil; Nallaya, Shashi
As the number of students entering higher education continues to increase, many English-medium universities have been looking carefully at how to more effectively ensure that those for whom English is not a first language have the opportunity to develop the academic literacies they require to successfully engage with and complete their studies as…
Jurich, Sonia; Estes, Steve
This document contains information about the methodology and findings of a study that identified 20 programs across the United States that have been successful in raising student's academic achievement. Part 1 contains the following items: (1) an explanation of the process and criteria used to select the 20 examples of excellence drawn from the 96…
Dowd, Steven B.
Focusing on the role of the community college in promoting academic integrity, this paper provides a review of the literature and a case study describing the development of a relevant college-wide policy. First, a general overview of the role of colleges in promoting values is presented. Next, the literature review on cheating and plagiarism in…
Madden, Derek Scott; Grayson, Diane J.; Madden, Erinn H.; Milewski, Antoni V.; Snyder, Cathy Ann
Teachers may use apprenticeships and collaboration as instructional strategies that help students to make authentic scientific discoveries as they work as amateur researchers in academic field studies. This concept was examined with 643 students, ages 14-72, who became proficient at field research through cognitive apprenticeships with the…
Hamidifar, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Mansoureh
This study explores effective academic leadership as well as hindrances within Iran's private higher educational institutions. The author employed a qualitative approach that utilized purposive sampling to collect and analyze data. Findings were categorized into three classes comprising the (i) setting of direction, (ii) organizational and (iii)…
Allemand, Kristina R.
Educators are concerned that academic dishonesty is increasing among students, particularly in higher education. There is not a single definition of academic dishonesty accepted by all stakeholders in the field of education. Most studies of academic dishonesty do not include both student and faculty perceptions of academic dishonesty. An in-depth…
In Europe, academic mobility has a long tradition which began with the birth of the European universities in the middle ages. Recently, European policies were strongly oriented towards the promotion of student and academic mobility and the creation of research networks and projects within Europe. Nevertheless, academic labour markets in Europe…
Macale, Loreana; Ghezzi, Valerio; Rocco, Gennaro; Fida, Roberta; Vellone, Ercole; Alvaro, Rosaria
Considering the ethical issues related to nursing and that Ethics is an integral part of the nursing education in the degree course, one would suppose that academic dishonesty might be less frequent in nursing students than in students of other disciplines. However, several studies show that this trend of deceitful behaviour seems to be similar among the university nursing students and those of other disciplines. The aim of this study is to investigate the phenomenon of academic dishonesty in the classroom from a longitudinal perspective within a cohort of Italian nursing students. A non-experimental longitudinal design was used. All nursing students were recruited from the Nursing Science Bachelor Degree Program of a big Italian university in the centre of Italy and participants were part of an ongoing longitudinal research project which started in 2011 on nursing students' wellbeing. The results show that students get accustomed to taking academically deceitful actions. They come to consider their behaviours acceptable and normal, thereby stabilizing them, which increases the probability of stabilizing subsequent deceitful behaviours. The stability through time of academic cheating behaviours committed during higher education, within the study's timeframe, provides important perspectives into the establishment of rigorous standards of ethical and moral behaviours by the students.
Coleman, Angela Alvarado
National statistics continue to show substantial disparities in the postsecondary enrollment and completion rates between more and less advantaged groups. Despite gains made on the part of low-income, first generation, and minority students in the areas of access, persistence, and academic achievement, gaps still exist (Avery & Kane, 2004;…
Vazquez, J. L.; Serrano, A.; Caniego, J.
Due to the introduction of new degrees on the College of Agricultural Engineering of the Technical University of Madrid adapted to the European Space for Higher Education (Bologna), we have made a comparative study of academic achievement obtained by the students during their first year at the Centre according to different curricula. We used data from 2 curricula leading to the degree in Agricultural Engineering, Curriculumn 74 (6 years and annual structure) and Curriculum 96 modified in 2006 (5 years with quarterly structure) and the new curriculum in grades (4 years semi-structured). It has been used as a data source, the qualifications of new students during the last three years prior to the extinction of the curriculum.The study shows that current rates of academic success or failure and dropout during the first year of college are very similar to those happening 12 years ago, when it was assumed that the preparation of students from high school was much higher than today. Keywords: Academic performance, curricula, Bologna.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory are sponsoring a National General Aviation Design Competition for students at U.S. aeronautical and engineering universities for the 1999-2000 academic year. The competition challenges individuals and teams of undergraduates and/ or graduate students, working with faculty advisors, to address design challenges for general aviation aircraft. Now in its sixth year, the competition seeks to increase the involvement of the academic community in the revitalization of the U.S. general aviation industry while providing real-world design and development experiences for students. It allows university students to participate in a major national effort to rebuild the U.S. general aviation sector while raising student awareness of the value of general aviation for business and personal use , and its economic relevance. Faculty and student participants have indicated that the open-ended design challenges offered by the competition have provided the basis for quality educational experiences.
Entwistle, N. J.; Wilson, J. D.
A questionnaire measuring four student personality types--stable introvert, unstable introvert, stable extrovert and unstable extrovert--along with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (Form A) were give to 72 graduate students at Aberdeen University and the results showed recognizable interaction between study methods, motivation and personality…
Kidwell, Clara Sue
When American Indian/Native American studies (AI/NAS) programs began to emerge in the halls of academia during the late 1960s and early 1970s, some who served as faculty and staff questioned whether they would be one-generation phenomena. Would the programs survive, would they continue to draw students, and could they make an impact on…
Field guides are common in libraries but are generally not considered scholarly. This study examines citations to fifty field guides to determine how they were used in scholarly publications, finding that field guides are frequently cited as a source of data on the ranges, habits, and descriptions of plants and animals.
Chaudhry, Abdus Sattar; Ashoor, Saleh
A study at the King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (Saudi Arabia) revealed that the overall materials availability performance rose from 63.8% to 76% when library staff provided assistance. The major reasons for nonavailability of items were related to circulation policy, ownership, and user skills. (Author/AEF)
Wang, Xueli; Chan, Hsun-yu; Phelps, L. Allen; Washbon, Janet I.
Objective: Despite the fairly substantial body of literature devoted to understanding whether dual enrollment programs are related to academic success in college, less is known regarding how dual enrollment transmits its potentially positive influence, especially among two-year college students. In this study, we fill this gap by delving into the…
Marsh, Herbert W.
Given that the Big-Fish-Little-Pond-Effect, the negative effect of school-average achievement on academic self-concept, is one of the most robust findings in educational psychology (Marsh, Seaton et al., 2007), this research extends the theoretical model, based on social comparison theory, to study relative year in school effects (e.g., being 1…
Zee, Marjolein; Koomen, Helma M. Y.
This study integrates 40 years of teacher self-efficacy (TSE) research to explore the consequences of TSE for the quality of classroom processes, students' academic adjustment, and teachers' psychological well-being. Via a criteria-based review approach, 165 eligible articles were included for analysis. Results suggest that TSE shows positive…
Kangas, Jon; Ma, Tony
In fall 1992, a study was conducted at Evergreen Valley College (EVC) and San Jose City College (SJCC), in California, to measure the persistence rate over 4 academic years of students with no previous college experience who entered into a fundamentals of reading course (English 321) and an introduction to college reading course (English 322) in…
Giannopulu, I.; Escolano, S.; Cusin, F.; Citeau, H.; Dellatolas, G.
Background: The behavioural and academic performance of young children with teachers' reported hyperactivity, conduct problems or inattention is under debate. Aim: This study investigates the associations between teachers' reported behavioural difficulties and academic and cognitive performances in two large samples of preschool and school…
Hysing, Mari; Harvey, Allison G; Linton, Steven J; Askeland, Kristin G; Sivertsen, Børge
The aim of the current study was to assess the association between sleep duration and sleep patterns and academic performance in 16-19 year-old adolescents using registry-based academic grades. A large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, the youth@hordaland-survey, surveyed 7798 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53.5% girls). The survey was linked with objective outcome data on school performance. Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep deficit and bedtime differences between weekday and weekend. School performance [grade point average (GPA)] was obtained from official administrative registries. Most sleep parameters were associated with increased risk for poor school performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic information, short sleep duration and sleep deficit were the sleep measures with the highest odds of poor GPA (lowest quartile). Weekday bedtime was associated significantly with GPA, with adolescents going to bed between 22:00 and 23:00 hours having the best GPA. Also, delayed sleep schedule during weekends was associated with poor academic performance. The associations were somewhat reduced after additional adjustment for non-attendance at school, but remained significant in the fully adjusted models. In conclusion, the demonstrated relationship between sleep problems and poor academic performance suggests that careful assessment of sleep is warranted when adolescents are underperforming at school. Future studies are needed on the association between impaired sleep in adolescence and later functioning in adulthood.
Purdie, John R., II; Rosser, Vicki J.
Institutional data were used to examine the grades and retention of first-year students in 2 types of living learning communities--Academic Theme Floors (ATFs) and Freshman Interest Groups (FIGs)--and a First-Year Experience (FYE) course. Multiple regression revealed students in FIGs earned nominally higher GPAs (standardized [beta] = 0.02, p less…
Sivier, Kenneth R.; Lembeck, Michael F.
The participation of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the NASA/USRA Universities Advanced Engineering Design Program (Space) is reviewed for the 1987 to 88 academic year. The University's design project was the Manned Marsplane and Delivery System. In the spring of 1988 semester, 107 students were enrolled in the Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering Departments' undergraduate Aerospace Vehicle Design course. These students were divided into an aircraft section (responsible for the Marsplane design), and a spacecraft section (responsible for the Delivery System Design). The design results are presented in Final Design Reports, copies of which are attached. In addition, five students presented a summary of the design results at the Program's Summer Conference.
Ellis, Keyana Chamere
The Virginia Tech Summer Academy (VTSA) Program, developed by through a collaborative partnership between faculty, administrators and staff concerned by attrition among first year students, was introduced in summer 2012 as a campus initiative to assist first-year college students transition and acclimate to the academic and social systems of the…
Bray, Ira, Ed.
Each year the State Library sends annual report forms to California's academic, public, special, state agency, and county law libraries. Statistical data from those reports are tabulated in this publication, with directory listings published in the companion volume, California Library Directory. For this fiscal year four hundred and thirty seven…
Bray, Ira, Ed.
Each year the State Library sends annual report forms to California's public, academic, special, state agency, and county law libraries. Statistical data from those reports are tabulated in this publication, with directory listings published in the companion volume, "California Library Directory." For this fiscal year, 389 libraries of…
Bray, Ira, Ed.
Each year the State Library sends annual report forms to California's academic, public, special, state agency, and county law libraries. Statistical data from those reports are tabulated in this publication, with directory listings published in the companion volume, California Library Directory. For this fiscal year four hundred and eight…
Nadasen, Denise; List, Alexandra
Students' re-enrollment in the subsequent semester after their first semester at a four-year institution is a strong predictor of retention and graduation. This is especially true for students who transfer from a community college to a four-year institution because of the many external or non-academic factors influencing a student's decision to…
Howe, Richard D.
This document provides comparative salary trend data for full-time faculty at 212 public and 337 private colleges and universities, based on two surveys, one for the baseline year 1992-93 and the other for the "trend" year 1995-96. For each of 26 disciplines, a summary review provides a definition of the discipline; information on average salaries…
Howe, Richard D.
This document provides comparative salary trend data for full-time faculty at 307 public institutions and 490 private colleges and universities based on two surveys, one for the baseline year 1993-94 and the other for the trend year 1996-97. For each of the 27 disciplines, a summary includes a definition of the discipline; information on average…
Howe, Richard D.
This document provides comparative salary trend data for full-time faculty at 307 public institutions and 490 private colleges and universities based on two surveys, one for the baseline year 1993-94 and the other for the trend year 1996-97. For each of the 26 disciplines, a summary includes a definition of the discipline; information on average…
Howe, Richard D.
This document provides comparative salary trend data for full-time faculty at 212 public and 337 private colleges and universities, based on two surveys, one for the baseline year 1992-93 and the other for the "trend" year 1995-96. For each of the 25 disciplines, a summary review provides a definition of the discipline; information on average…
Van Dijk, Martin L; De Groot, Renate H; Savelberg, Hans H; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A
The main goal of this study was to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and academic achievement in adolescents. Students in Grades 7 and 9 (N = 255) were included. Overall, we found no significant dose-response association between physical activity and academic achievement. However, in Grade 7 total physical activity volume (Total PA) was negatively associated with academic achievement, while moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was negatively associated with both academic achievement and mathematics performance. In contrast, in Grade 9 both Total PA and MVPA were positively associated with mathematics performance. In addition, the overall association between MVPA and academic achievement followed an inverted U-shaped curve. Finally, Total PA was positively associated with executive functioning, while executive functioning in turn mediated the associations between Total PA and both academic achievement and mathematics performance. These results indicate that the association between physical activity and academic achievement in adolescents is complex and might be affected by academic year, physical activity volume and intensity, and school grade.
Donnelly, Joseph E; Hillman, Charles H; Greene, Jerry L; Hansen, David M; Gibson, Cheryl A; Sullivan, Debra K; Poggio, John; Mayo, Matthew S; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Herrmann, Stephen D; Honas, Jeffery J; Scudder, Mark R; Betts, Jessica L; Henley, Katherine; Hunt, Suzanne L; Washburn, Richard A
We compared changes in academic achievement across 3years between children in elementary schools receiving the Academic Achievement and Physical Activity Across the Curriculum intervention (A+PAAC), in which classroom teachers were trained to deliver academic lessons using moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to a non-intervention control. Elementary schools in eastern Kansas (n=17) were cluster randomized to A+PAAC (N=9, target ≥100min/week) or control (N=8). Academic achievement (math, reading, spelling) was assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition (WIAT-III) in a sample of children (A+PAAC=316, Control=268) in grades 2 and 3 at baseline (Fall 2011) and repeated each spring across 3years. On average 55min/week of A+PACC lessons were delivered each week across the intervention. Baseline WIAT-III scores (math, reading, spelling) were significantly higher in students in A+PAAC compared with control schools and improved in both groups across 3years. However, linear mixed modeling, accounting for baseline between group differences in WIAT-III scores, ethnicity, family income, and cardiovascular fitness, found no significant impact of A+PAAC on any of the academic achievement outcomes as determined by non-significant group by time interactions. A+PAAC neither diminished or improved academic achievement across 3-years in elementary school children compared with controls. Our target of 100min/week of active lessons was not achieved; however, students attending A+PAAC schools received an additional 55min/week of MVPA which may be associated with both physical and mental health benefits, without a reduction in time devoted to academic instruction.
Bolland, Mark J; Dalbeth, Nicola; Gamble, Greg; Sadler, Lynn
Objectives To assess the amount, relevance, content, and suppressibility of academic electronic spam invitations to attend conferences or submit manuscripts. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Email accounts of participating academics. Participants Five intrepid academics and a great many publishers, editors, and conference organisers. Intervention Unsubscribing from sender’s distribution lists. Main outcome measures Number of spam invitations received before, immediately after, and one year after unsubscribing from senders’ distribution lists. The proportion of duplicate invitations was also assessed and the relevance of each invitation graded to the recipient’s research interests. A qualitative assessment of the content of spam invitations was conducted. Results At baseline, recipients received an average of 312 spam invitations each month. Unsubscribing reduced the frequency of the invitations by 39% after one month but by only 19% after one year. Overall, 16% of spam invitations were duplicates and 83% had little or no relevance to the recipients’ research interests. Spam invitations were characterised by inventive language, flattery, and exuberance, and they were sometimes baffling and amusing. Conclusions Academic spam is common, repetitive, often irrelevant, and difficult to avoid or prevent. PMID:27974354
Ali, Madiha; Asim, Hamna; Edhi, Ahmed Iqbal; Hashmi, Muhammad Daniya; Khan, Muhammad Shahjahan; Naz, Farah; Qaiser, Kanza Noor; Qureshi, Sidra Masud; Zahid, Mohammad Faizan; Jehan, Imtiaz
Introduction Stress among medical students induced by academic pressures is on the rise among the student population in Pakistan and other parts of the world. Our study examined the relationship between two different systems employed to assess academic performance and the levels of stress among students at two different medical schools in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A sample consisting of 387 medical students enrolled in pre-clinical years was taken from two universities, one employing the semester examination system with grade point average (GPA) scores (a tiered system) and the other employing an annual examination system with only pass/fail grading. A pre-designed, self-administered questionnaire was distributed. Test anxiety levels were assessed by The Westside Test Anxiety Scale (WTAS). Overall stress was evaluated using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Results There were 82 males and 301 females while four did not respond to the gender question. The mean age of the entire cohort was 19.7±1.0 years. A total of 98 participants were from the pass/fail assessment system while 289 were from the GPA system. There was a higher proportion of females in the GPA system (85% vs. 59%; p<0.01). Students in the pass/fail assessment system had a lower score on the WTAS (2.4±0.8 vs. 2.8±0.7; p=0.01) and the PSS (17.0±6.7 vs. 20.3±6.8; p<0.01), indicating lower levels of test anxiety and overall stress than in students enrolled in the GPA assessment system. More students in the pass/fail system were satisfied with their performance than those in the GPA system. Conclusion Based on the present study, we suggest governing bodies to revise and employ a uniform assessment system for all the medical colleges to improve student academic performance and at the same time reduce stress levels. Our results indicate that the pass/fail assessment system accomplishes these objectives.
Ali, Madiha; Asim, Hamna; Edhi, Ahmed Iqbal; Hashmi, Muhammad Daniyal; Khan, Muhammad Shahjahan; Naz, Farah; Qaiser, Kanza Noor; Qureshi, Sidra Masud; Zahid, Mohammad Faizan; Jehan, Imtiaz
Introduction Stress among medical students induced by academic pressures is on the rise among the student population in Pakistan and other parts of the world. Our study examined the relationship between two different systems employed to assess academic performance and the levels of stress among students at two different medical schools in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A sample consisting of 387 medical students enrolled in pre-clinical years was taken from two universities, one employing the semester examination system with grade point average (GPA) scores (a tiered system) and the other employing an annual examination system with only pass/fail grading. A pre-designed, self-administered questionnaire was distributed. Test anxiety levels were assessed by The Westside Test Anxiety Scale (WTAS). Overall stress was evaluated using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Results There were 82 males and 301 females while four did not respond to the gender question. The mean age of the entire cohort was 19.7±1.0 years. A total of 98 participants were from the pass/fail assessment system while 289 were from the GPA system. There was a higher proportion of females in the GPA system (85% vs. 59%; p<0.01). Students in the pass/fail assessment system had a lower score on the WTAS (2.4±0.8 vs. 2.8±0.7; p=0.01) and the PSS (17.0±6.7 vs. 20.3±6.8; p<0.01), indicating lower levels of test anxiety and overall stress than in students enrolled in the GPA assessment system. More students in the pass/fail system were satisfied with their performance than those in the GPA system. Conclusion Based on the present study, we suggest governing bodies to revise and employ a uniform assessment system for all the medical colleges to improve student academic performance and at the same time reduce stress levels. Our results indicate that the pass/fail assessment system accomplishes these objectives. PMID:26112353
Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Martinez-Gomez, David; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; del Campo-Vecino, Juan; Fernández-Santos, Jorge; Castro-Piñero, Jose; Marcos, Ascensión; Veiga, Oscar L
Inflammation influences cognitive development in infants and older adults, however, how inflammation may affect academic development during childhood and adolescence remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to examine the association between inflammatory biomarkers and academic performance in children and adolescents. A total of 494 youth (238 girls) aged 10.6 ± 3.4 years participated in the study. Four inflammatory biomarkers were selected: C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and white blood cell (WBC) count. An inflammatory index was created using the above mentioned biomarkers. Academic performance was assessed through schools records. Results showed that three of the four inflammatory biomarkers (CRP, IL-6 and WBC) and the inflammatory index were negatively associated with all academic indicators (β values ranging from -0.094 to -0.217, all P<0.05) independent of confounders including body fat percentage. Indeed, youth in the highest tertile of the inflammatory index had significantly lower scores in all academic indicators compared with youth in the middle tertile (scores ranging from -0.578 to -0.344) and in the lowest tertile (scores ranging from -0.678 to -0.381). In conclusion, inflammation may impair academic performance independently of body fat levels in youth. Our results are of importance because the consequences of childhood and adolescence inflammation tend to continue into adulthood. Lifestyle interventions in youth may be promising in reducing levels of inflammation beyond the reduction in body fat in order to achieve cognitive benefits.
With the significant rise in China's economic strength, more students and scholars have returned to China recently. But there is limited literature examining academics with foreign degrees and their research productivity. Using the data of the Changing Academic Profession in Asia (APA) survey, which was exercised in 2012, this study expands the…
In this paper, we focus on a rare scholarly theme of highly productive academics, statistically confirming their pivotal role in knowledge production across 11 systems studied. The upper 10% of highly productive academics in 11 European countries studied (N = 17,211) provide on average almost half of all academic knowledge production. In contrast…
Williams, Jermaine F.
This quantitative study examined the impact of Advanced Placement (AP) and Dual Enrollment (DE) on early college academic performance by analyzing and comparing first year and sophomore year persistence rates and grade point averages (GPAs) of four student cohorts who began their education at a large urban research I university in fall 2007. These…
Dante, Angelo; Fabris, Stefano; Palese, Alvisa
Empirical studies and conceptual frameworks presented in the extant literature offer a static imagining of academic failure. Time-to-event analysis, which captures the dynamism of individual factors, as when they determine the failure to properly tailor timely strategies, impose longitudinal studies which are still lacking within the field. The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate the time which elapses from a nursing student's admission to a Bachelor of Nursing program to their academic failure and to estimate the predictive power of individual variables on academic failure. Enrolled students (n = 170) in two Italian nursing degree programs during academic year 2008-2009, received at the beginning of each years a questionnaire which evaluated individual variables. Academic failure rate was 37.2 %. Time-to-event analysis has shown that academic failure occurred after an average of 664.52 days of course attendance ((95 %)CI = 623.2-705.8). Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated a high likelihood of failure among males (χ(2) 7.790, p 0.005) and among those who had obtained a final average grade in their secondary education ≤73/100 (χ(2)11.676, p 0.001). Cox regression analysis confirmed an increased likelihood of failure over time among males as compared to females (HR 1.931, (95 %)CI = 1.017-3.670), and among students living more than a 30 min commute from their place of study (HR 1.898, (95 %)CI = 1.015-3.547). The effect of these two factors on academic failure has been seen to manifest primarily toward the end of students' second academic year; students at risk might be supported by the appropriate university staff prior to this period.
Madden, Derek Scott; Grayson, Diane J.; Madden, Erinn H.; Milewski, Antoni V.; Snyder, Cathy Ann
Teachers may use apprenticeships and collaboration as instructional strategies that help students to make authentic scientific discoveries as they work as amateur researchers in academic field studies. This concept was examined with 643 students, ages 14-72, who became proficient at field research through cognitive apprenticeships with the Smithsonian Institute, School for Field Studies and Earthwatch. Control student teams worked from single research goals and sets of methods, while experimental teams varied goals, methods, and collaborative activities in Kenya, Costa Rica, Panama, and Ecuador. Results from studies indicate that students who conducted local pilot studies, collaborative symposia, and ongoing, long-term fieldwork generated significantly more data than did control groups. Research reports of the experimental groups were ranked highest by experts, and contributed the most data to international science journals. Data and anecdotal information in this report indicate that structured collaboration in local long-term studies using apprenticeships may increase the potential for students' academic field studies contribution of new information to science.
Russo Martin, Elaine
Objectives: The objective of this study is to apply J. Richard Hackman's framework on team effectiveness to academic medical library settings. Methods: The study uses a qualitative, multiple case study design, employing interviews and focus groups to examine team effectiveness in three academic medical libraries. Another site was selected as a pilot to validate the research design, field procedures, and methods to be used with the cases. In all, three interviews and twelve focus groups, with approximately seventy-five participants, were conducted at the case study libraries. Findings: Hackman identified five conditions leading to team effectiveness and three outcomes dimensions that defined effectiveness. The participants in this study identified additional characteristics of effectiveness that focused on enhanced communication, leadership personality and behavior, and relationship building. The study also revealed an additional outcome dimension related to the evolution of teams. Conclusions: Introducing teams into an organization is not a trivial matter. Hackman's model of effectiveness has implications for designing successful library teams. PMID:16888659
Li, Yuh-Shiow; Yu, Wen-Pin; Liu, Chin-Fang; Shieh, Sue-Heui; Yang, Bao-Huan
Abstract Background: Learning style is a major consideration in planning for effective and efficient instruction and learning. Learning style has been shown to influence academic performance in the previous research. Little is known about Taiwanese students' learning styles, particularly in the field of nursing education. Aim: This purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between learning styles and academic performance among nursing students in a five-year associate degree of nursing (ADN) program and a two-year bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) program in Taiwan. Methods/Design: This study employed a descriptive and exploratory design. The Chinese version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Form M was an instrument. Data such as grade point average (GPA) were obtained from the Office of Academic Affairs and the Registrar computerized records. Descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance ANOVA) and chi-square statistical analysis were used to explore the relationship between academic performance and learning style in Taiwanese nursing students. Results/Findings: The study sample included 285 nursing students: 96 students in a two-year BSN program, and 189 students in a five-year ADN program. Two common learning styles were found: introversion, sensing, thinking, and judging (ISTJ); and introversion, sensing, feeling, and judging (ISFJ). A sensing-judging pair was identified in 43.3% of the participants. Academic performance was significantly related to learning style (p < 0.05, d.f. = 15). Conclusion: The results of this study can help educators devise classroom and clinical instructional strategies that respond to individual needs in order to maximize academic performance and enhance student success. A large sample is recommended for further research. Understanding the learning style preferences of students can enhance learning for those who are under performing in their academic studies, thereby enhancing nursing education.
Packer, Rebecca A; Lambrechts, Nicolaas E; Bentley, R Timothy
Veterinary neurology is an expanding specialty field. At the time of this writing, 13 out of 33 (40%) US and Canadian veterinary colleges, and many more veterinary colleges outside of North America, had no active clinical neurology service. New academic programs will likely be established to fill this need, often starting with a single neurologist. Establishing a neurology service with one founding faculty member can be accomplished by developing the program in phases and creating a support network that optimizes faculty strengths and interests. Such an approach allows for the gradual expansion of services and staffing in a manageable way to ultimately provide a full-service program. A description of this development process at Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine is presented as a case study and model for the establishment of other neurology or specialty services.
Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Dompier, Thomas P; Corlette, Jill; Klossner, David A; Gilchrist, Julie
Sports-related injuries can have a substantial impact on the long-term health of student-athletes. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) monitors injuries among college student-athletes at member schools. In academic year 2013-14, a total of 1,113 member schools fielded 19,334 teams with 478,869 participating student-athletes in NCAA championship sports (i.e., sports with NCAA championship competition) (1). External researchers and CDC used information reported to the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP) by a sample of championship sports programs to summarize the estimated national cumulative and annual average numbers of injuries during the 5 academic years from 2009-10 through 2013-14. Analyses were restricted to injuries reported among student-athletes in 25 NCAA championship sports. During this period, 1,053,370 injuries were estimated to have occurred during an estimated 176.7 million athlete-exposures to potential injury (i.e., one athlete's participation in one competition or one practice). Injury incidence varied widely by sport. Among all sports, men's football accounted for the largest average annual estimated number of injuries (47,199) and the highest competition injury rate (39.9 per 1,000 athlete-exposures). Men's wrestling experienced the highest overall injury rate (13.1 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.2 per 1,000). Among women's sports, gymnastics had the highest overall injury rate (10.4 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.0 per 1,000), although soccer had the highest competition injury rate (17.2 per 1,000). More injuries were estimated to have occurred from practice than from competition for all sports, with the exception of men's ice hockey and baseball. However, injuries incurred during competition were somewhat more severe (e.g., requiring ≥7 days to return to full participation) than those acquired during practice. Multiple strategies are employed by NCAA and others to reduce the number of injuries in
Brown, Gavin T. L.; Marshall, Jennifer C.
Successful academic writing requires strong command of the rhetorical moves that orient the reader to the theme and substantive material of an academic essay. Effective control of the introduction leads to better overall writing. The goal of this study was to devise and evaluate a pedagogy for teaching the writing of academic essay introductions.…
Piland, William E.; Villanueva, Xavier
Describes a study of faculty opinions concerning academic standards in the community college classroom, comparing faculty responses based on personal characteristics, academic senate experience, and employment factors. Although faculty generally agreed on the importance of academic standards, there were differences based on senate membership,…
Despite the contribution to economic and social impact on the institutions in the United States, international students' academic adaptation has been always challenging. The study investigated international graduate students' academic adaptation scales via a survey questionnaire and explored how international students are academically adapted in…
Long, Cheri Gentry
This qualitative collective case study explored single fathers' experiences in rearing academically successful children. Academic success was defined as the completion of high school or college, entering college, or attending college. A purposeful maximal sampling of five bounded systems of single fathers and their academically successful children…
Buhler, Amy G.; Ferree, Nita; Cataldo, Tara T.; Tennant, Michele R.
Very little literature exists on the nature of external reporting lines and funding structures of academic special libraries. This study focuses on academic health sciences libraries. The authors analyze information gathered from statistics published by the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) from 1977 through 2007; an…
Collie, Alex; Zardo, Pauline; McKenzie, Donna Margaret; Ellis, Niki
This study explores the views and experiences of knowledge translation of 14 Australian public health academics. Capacity to engage in knowledge translation is influenced by factors within the academic context and the interaction of the academic and policy environments. Early and mid-career researchers reported a different set of experiences and…
This research examines the issue of transnational academic mobility of academic staff, those choosing to migrate to higher education institutions in different countries as part of their career development, and performs a comparative study between the characteristics of academics examining Australia as a possible migratory destination with those…
Deng, Liping; Yuen, Allan H. K.
The success of academic blogs depends on the participation and engagement of students. Taking an exploratory approach, this study aims to develop a better understanding of the perceptions of student teachers towards academic blogging, and the factors that motivate them to write academic blogs voluntarily. Drawing on data gathered from…
Chanock, Kate; Horton, Craig; Reedman, Mark; Stephenson, Bret
This article discusses a Design for Learning project in the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, where academic and personal support for students was interwoven in their first semester. Staff of the Academic Language and Learning Unit (ALLU) worked with discipline staff to develop their students' capabilities across a range of disciplines,…
The Academic Word List (AWL) is now widely used in English for academic purposes (EAP) classrooms in many countries, in a wide range of materials, in vocabulary tests, and as a major resource for researchers. In this article the author reflects on the impact of the AWL by looking at commonly asked questions about the list: What is the AWL? Is the…
Iowa Department of Education, 2016
The pathways for academic career and employment program (PACE) is established to provide funding to community colleges for the development of projects that will lead to gainful, quality, in-state employment for members of target populations by providing them with both effective academic and employment training to ensure gain. This is the second…
National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2011
This report provides data regarding state-funded expenditures for student financial aid and illustrates the extent of efforts made by the states to assist postsecondary students. Information in this report is based on academic year 2010-11 data from the 42nd Annual National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) survey.…
Ko, Edmond I.; Chau, Ying
An academic and professional development course has been introduced to help first-year chemical engineering students to deal proactively with the transition from secondary school to university and to develop professional skills. The course uses the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a personality model to facilitate skills development and many…
Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.
The authors aimed to examine the possible association between (a) accurately reading emotion in facial expressions and (b) social and academic competence among elementary school-aged children. Participants were 840 7-year-old children who completed a test of the ability to read emotion in facial expressions. Teachers rated children's social and…
Gibson, Barbara A.; Bruno, Barbara C.
Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) programs have been shown to be effective mechanisms to recruit undergraduate students into the sciences and also to retain them, especially as related to underrepresented students. Academic-year REU programs have numerous benefits, including participation in longer-term research projects that allow…
Ting, Siu-Man Raymond
SAT scores and noncognitive factors (acquired knowledge in a field, community service, positive self-concept, and preference for long-term goals) were found to be related to academic performance and persistence among 1st-year NCAA Division I student athletes (N = 109). Implications for college counselors and future research directions are…
Clavier, Cheri Whitehead
With the increase of students applying to pharmacy programs, it is imperative that admissions committees choose appropriate measures to analyze student readiness. The purpose of this research was to identify significant factors that predict the academic performance, defined as grade point average (GPA) at the end of the first professional year, of…
Israel Planning and Grants Committee, Jerusalem.
The academic year 1980-1981 annual report of the Planning and Grants Committee (PGC) of the Council for Higher Education in Israel is presented. The PGC is an independent body operating between the Israeli government and the national institutions on the one hand, and the institutions of higher education, on the other, in matters relating to…
Lopez, Carlos; Jones, Stephanie J.
There are a limited number of individuals who possess the skills to fulfill the workforce demand in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) in the United States. Therefore, community colleges and 4-year institutions must be able to identify academic and social factors that impact students' participation in the areas of STEM. These…
The Role Biomedical Science Laboratories Can Play In Improving Science Knowledge and Promoting First-Year Nursing Academic Success The need for additional nursing and health care professionals is expected to increase dramatically over the next 20 years. With this in mind, students must have strong biomedical science knowledge to be competent in their field. Some studies have shown that participation in bioscience laboratories can enhance science knowledge. If this is true, an analysis of the role bioscience labs have in first-year nursing academic success is apposite. In response, this study sought to determine whether concurrent enrollment in anatomy and microbiology lecture and lab courses improved final lecture course grades. The investigation was expanded to include a comparison of first-year nursing GPA and prerequisite bioscience concurrent lecture/lab enrollment. Additionally, research has indicated that learning is affected by student perception of the course, instructor, content, and environment. To gain an insight regarding students' perspectives of laboratory courses, almost 100 students completed a 20-statement perception survey to understand how lab participation affects learning. Data analyses involved comparing anatomy and microbiology final lecture course grades between students who concurrently enrolled in the lecture and lab courses and students who completed the lecture course alone. Independent t test analyses revealed that there was no significant difference between the groups for anatomy, t(285) = .11, p = .912, but for microbiology, the lab course provided a significant educational benefit, t(256) = 4.47, p = .000. However, when concurrent prerequisite bioscience lecture/lab enrollment was compared to non-concurrent enrollment for first-year nursing GPA using independent t test analyses, no significant difference was found for South Dakota State University, t(37) = -1.57, p = .125, or for the University of South Dakota, t(38) = -0.46, p
Kumar, Amit; Puranik, Manjunath P; Sowmya, K R
Since the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in achieving academic excellence requires further research, the aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess EI and its associated factors and to determine any association between EI and academic performance among final-year dental students in Bengaluru, India. In 2015, 208 dental students from six dental colleges in Bengaluru were invited to participate in the study. Their demographic and lifestyle data were collected, and EI was assessed with the 30-item Emotional Quotient Self-Assessment Checklist developed by Sterrett. Academic performance was assessed using grades obtained in the final-year undergraduate examination. The response rate was 96% (N=200). Overall, 54.5% of the participants had high EI scores (≥120), although only 51 (25.5%) had a high EI score in all the domains (≥20). EI was significantly greater in females than males. Gender, sleep, meeting friends, physical exercise, recreational activities, and academic performance were significantly associated with EI and accounted for 42% variance in hierarchical regression analysis. EI was also positively associated with academic performance. Gender and healthy lifestyle habits were positively associated with EI, which in turn influenced these students' academic performance. These findings suggest a possible need for attention to developing dental students' EI.
Raymond, John R; Layde, Peter M
An ombuds is an individual who informally helps people or groups (visitors) resolve disputes and/or interpersonal conflicts as an alternative to formal dispute resolution mechanisms within an organization. Ombuds are nearly ubiquitous in many governmental, business, and educational settings but only recently have gained visibility at medical schools. Medical schools in the United States are increasingly establishing ombuds offices as part of comprehensive conflict management systems to address concerns of faculty, staff, students, and others. As of 2015, more than 35 medical schools in the United States have active ombuds Web pages. Despite the growing number of medical schools with ombuds offices, the literature on medical school ombuds offices is scant. In this article, the authors review the first three years of experience of the ombuds office at the Medical College of Wisconsin, a freestanding medical and graduate school with a large physician practice. The article is written from the perspective of the inaugural ombuds and the president who initiated the office. The authors discuss the rationale for, costs of, potential advantages of, and initial reactions of faculty, staff, and administration to having an ombuds office in an academic medical center. Important questions relevant to medical schools that are considering an ombuds office are discussed. The authors conclude that an ombuds office can be a useful complement to traditional approaches for conflict management, regulatory compliance, and identification of systemic issues.
Layde, Peter M.
An ombuds is an individual who informally helps people or groups (visitors) resolve disputes and/or interpersonal conflicts as an alternative to formal dispute resolution mechanisms within an organization. Ombuds are nearly ubiquitous in many governmental, business, and educational settings but only recently have gained visibility at medical schools. Medical schools in the United States are increasingly establishing ombuds offices as part of comprehensive conflict management systems to address concerns of faculty, staff, students, and others. As of 2015, more than 35 medical schools in the United States have active ombuds Web pages. Despite the growing number of medical schools with ombuds offices, the literature on medical school ombuds offices is scant. In this article, the authors review the first three years of experience of the ombuds office at the Medical College of Wisconsin, a freestanding medical and graduate school with a large physician practice. The article is written from the perspective of the inaugural ombuds and the president who initiated the office. The authors discuss the rationale for, costs of, potential advantages of, and initial reactions of faculty, staff, and administration to having an ombuds office in an academic medical center. Important questions relevant to medical schools that are considering an ombuds office are discussed. The authors conclude that an ombuds office can be a useful complement to traditional approaches for conflict management, regulatory compliance, and identification of systemic issues. PMID:26675192
Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini
This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic motivation scale for HAP based on self-determination theory was administered in class during the first 3 wk of each semester. Students with higher grade point averages, who studied for longer hours and reported to be more motivated to succeed, did better academically in these classes. There was a significant relationship between students' scores on the adapted academic motivation scale and performance. Students were more extrinsically motivated to succeed in HAP courses than intrinsically motivated to succeed, and the analyses revealed that the most significant predictor of final grade was within the extrinsic scale (introjected and external types). Students' motivations remained stable throughout the course sequence. The data showed a significant relationship between HAP students' expected grade and their final grade in class. Finally, 65.5% of students overestimated their final grade, with 29% of students overestimating by two to four letter grades.
Brook, Judith S; Stimmel, Matthew A; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W
In this prospective longitudinal study, the authors investigated the association between marijuana use over a period of 13 years and subsequent health problems at age 27. A community sample of 749 participants from upstate New York was interviewed at mean ages of 14, 16, 22, and 27 years. Marijuana use over time was significantly associated with increased health problems by the late twenties, including respiratory problems, general malaise, neurocognitive problems, and lower academic achievement and functioning. Effective prevention and intervention programs should consider the wide range of adverse physiological and psychosocial outcomes associated with marijuana use over time.
This paper describes a small-scale study which investigates the role of blogging in professional academic practice in higher education. It draws on interviews with a sample of academics (scholars, researchers and teachers) who have blogs and on the author's own reflections on blogging to investigate the function of blogging in academic practice…
Duan, Hongxia; Yuan, Yiran; Yang, Can; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui
It is well known that preparing for and taking high-stakes exams has a significant influence on the emotional and physiological wellbeing of exam-takers, but few studies have investigated the resulting cognitive changes. The current study examined the effect of examination-induced academic stress on anticipation in information processing. Anticipation was indexed using the contingent negative variation (CNV). Electroencephalograms (EEG) were collected from 42 participants using the classic S1-S2 paradigm. These participants were preparing for the Chinese National Postgraduate Entrance Exam (NPEE). EEGs were also collected from 21 age-matched, non-exam comparison participants. The levels of perceived stress and state anxiety were higher and both the initial CNV (iCNV) and the late CNV (lCNV) were more negative in the exam group than in the non-exam group. These results suggest that participants under academic stress experienced greater anticipation of upcoming events. More important, for the non-exam group, state anxiety was positively related to both the iCNV and lCNV amplitude, and this correlation existed when trait anxiety was controlled; however, there was no such relationship in the exam group. These results suggested that the cortical anticipatory activity in the high-stressed exam group reached the maximum ceiling, leaving little room for transient increases in state anxiety.
Brown, William T.; Jones, James M.
This study investigated the relationship between the Future Temporal Orientation (FTO) and academic performance of African American high school students. We hypothesized that the relationship between FTO and academic performance would be mediated by students' perceptions of the usefulness of an education and their valuing of academic work and that…
Bronx Community Coll., NY.
As part of an on-going study, all 1,818 graduates and 6,847 non-graduates who left Bronx Community College (BCC) in 1975-76 were surveyed by mail, with a return of 1,681 responses representing 52.4% of graduate and 20% of the non-graduate sample. Findings included the following: (1) 63% of graduates and 48% of non-graduates responding continued…
This study selects postgraduate students in the first grade as the participants, based on their needs analysis, classroom presentations and performance of assignments completion, through the methodology of case study, the results show that students at the university level even the graduate levels still struggle with academic English. Thus, this…
Bilge, Filiz; Tuzgol Dost, Meliha; Cetin, Bayram
This study examines high school students' levels of burnout and school engagement with respect to academic success, study habits, and self-efficacy beliefs. The data were gathered during the 2011-2012 school year from 633 students attending six high schools located in Ankara, Turkey. The analyses were conducted on responses from 605 students. The…
Shapley, Kelly; Vicknair, Keven; Sheehan, Daniel; Pieper, Amy; Jepson, Dana; Sturges, Keith; Bush, Joan; Vandiver, Sherrie
The Texas Study of Students at Risk (TxSSAR) is a comprehensive evaluation examining the effectiveness of three state-level programs with the common goal of helping students at risk of failure to achieve academically. The study comprises investigations of the Optional Extended Year Program (OEYP), the Texas After School Initiative (TASI), and the…
Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong
Middle-level academic managers play a central role in university management; however, their roles are not always clear and straightforward. Although this research subject has been comprehensively investigated in the last 40 years, most studies are western-biased. This study examines the roles of Heads of Department in a newly established…
Wintre, Maxine Gallander; Dilouya, Barry; Pancer, S. Mark; Pratt, Michael W.; Birnie-Lefcovitch, Shelly; Polivy, Janet; Adams, Gerald
The present study investigates the characteristics which differentiate between first-year university students who maintain their high school averages (Maintainers: n = 165) and those whose averages decrease at least one letter grade (Decliners: n = 435). The 600 students entered first year at one of six Canadian Universities, which varied in size…
Montuno, Eli; Davidson, Alex; Iwasaki, Karen; Jones, Susan; Martin, Jay; Brooks, Dina; Gibson, Barbara E.
ABSTRACT Purpose: To examine academically dishonest behaviours based on physical therapy (PT) students' current practices and educators' prior behaviours as PT students. Method: A Web-based questionnaire was sent to 174 students and 250 educators from the PT programme at the University of Toronto. The questionnaire gathered data on demographics as well as on the prevalence of, seriousness of, and contributing factors to academic dishonesty (AD). Results: In all, 52.4% of educators and 44.3% of students responded to the questionnaire over a 6-week data-collection period. Scenarios rated the most serious were the least frequently performed by educators and students. The impact of generation on attitudes and prevalence of AD was not significant. The factors most commonly reported as contributing to AD were school-related pressure, disagreement with evaluation methods, and the perception that “everyone else does it.” Conclusion: This study parallels the findings of similar research conducted in other health care programmes: AD does occur within the PT curriculum. AD was more prevalent in situations associated with helping peers than in those associated with personal gain. The consistency in behaviours reported across generations suggests that some forms of cheating are accepted as the social norm and may be a function of the environment. PMID:23729959
Pop, Eleonora Ioana; Negru-Subtirica, Oana; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Opre, Adrian; Meeus, Wim
The present three-wave longitudinal study provides empirical evidence for the mechanisms of the bright and dark sides of identity development in the academic context. First, we investigated the patterns of stability and change in educational identity and academic achievement among adolescents. Second, we examined the reciprocal associations between identity processes (i.e., commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment) and academic achievement. The main results of the study highlighted that academic achievement predicts the manner in which adolescents deal with their identity issues in the academic context. Thus, high academic achievement leads to high levels of commitment (identity synthesis), while low academic achievement leads to high levels of reconsideration of commitment (identity confusion). This unidirectional pattern of effects applied equally to adolescent boys and girls, early-to-middle and middle-to-late adolescents, and to adolescents attending theoretical and vocational schools. Practical implications are discussed.
Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J; Bell, Elizabeth R; Domínguez, Ximena
Employing a developmental and ecological model, the study identified initial levels and rates of change in academic skills for subgroups of preschool children exhibiting problem behavior within routine classroom situations. Six distinct latent profile types of emotional and behavioral adjustment were identified for a cohort of low-income children early in the preschool year (N=4417). Profile types provided a descriptive picture of patterns of classroom externalizing, internalizing, and situational adjustment problems common to subgroups of children early in the preschool year. The largest profile type included children who exhibited low problem behavior and were characterized as well-adjusted to the preschool classroom early in the year. The other profile types were characterized by distinct combinations of elevated internalizing, externalizing, and situational problem behavior. Multinomial logistic regression identified younger children and boys at increased risk for classification in problem types, relative to the well-adjusted type. Latent growth models indicated that children classified within the extremely socially and academically disengaged profile type, started and ended the year with the lowest academic skills, relative to all other types. Implications for future research, policy, and practice are discussed.
Peltzer, Karl; Malaka, Dorothy W; Phaswana, Nancy
The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships among sociodemographic variables, family background, religiosity, course of study, academic performance, and substance use. The sample included 799 first-year students in the age range of 16 to 49 years (M age 20.1 yr., SD = 3.2) chosen at random from the University of the North in South Africa. A Model Core Questionnaire from the WHO on Substance use was administered. Analysis indicated that women smoked tobacco or cannabis and drank less than men, while women took more stimulants and other opiate type drugs than men. Low scores on religiosity was a predictor for past-month tobacco use alcohol use, binge drinking, cannabis use, and having a drinking or drug problem now. Being a member of a Protestant denominational church or a Roman Catholic was a predictor for past-month tobacco and alcohol use. A family history of drinking or drug problems and being a social science or humanities student were predictive for a current alcohol or drug problem. Economic status, education of parents. living arrangement. and rural-urban differences were not associated with substance use. Findings have implications for prevention programmes.
Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; Suhre, Cor J. M.
Although many studies have revealed the importance of study skills for students' first-year performance and college retention, the extent of the impact of study skills preparation on students' academic achievement is less clear. This paper explores the impact of pre-university study skills preparation on students' first-year study experiences,…
Sheldon, M. Stephen; Hunter, Russell
During 1977-78 Pierce College undertook a study to (1) examine major reasons for attrition; (2) determine reasons for student attendance at Pierce; (3) determine the long-range effects of academic residence at Pierce for its students; and (4) experimentally determine the effects on retention of special treatment, through a "caring ombudsman." Each…
Maryland State Board for Higher Education, Annapolis.
Action taken by the State of Maryland to regulate out-of-state higher education institutions and the status of such institutions for the academic year 1979-80 are examined. Twenty-three institutions previously approved to operate in Maryland received the revised regulations and an initial application to operate during the academic year 1979-80.…
Sabatini, John, Comp.
Information is presented on out-of-state institutions operating in Maryland during the 1982-1983 academic year, courses and programs, enrollments by institution, and the locations of the courses. Institutional changes since the preceding academic year and the current status of approved institutions are also identified. Fifteen out-of-state…
Sabatini, John A., Jr.
Information is presented on out-of-state institutions operating in Maryland during the 1984-1985 academic year, as well as courses and programs, enrollments by institution, and the locations of the courses. Institutional changes since the preceding academic year and the current status of approved institutions are also identified. Thirteen…
Faculty status, tenure, and professional identity have been long-lasting issues for academic librarians for nearly forty years, yet there is little agreement on the benefits of faculty status. This paper examines faculty status and tenure for academic librarians and presents the results of a survey inquiry into professional identity, current and…
Zavala, Blanca Arciga
For more than ten years, academics of public universities in Mexico have endured modernization programs that promote individual productivity and operate as a mechanism of selection and assessment. The implementation of the programs has exposed a tension between the values implicit in the programs and the values of the academic teachers. There is a…
Cooley, John L; Fite, Paula J; Pederson, Casey A
The current 3-wave study examined bidirectional associations between peer victimization and functions of aggression across informants over a 1-year period in middle childhood, with attention to potential gender differences. Participants included 198 children (51% girls) in the third and fourth grades and their homeroom teachers. Peer victimization was assessed using both child- and teacher-reports, and teachers provided ratings of reactive and proactive aggression. Cross-classified multilevel cross-lagged models indicated that child-reports, but not teacher-reports, of peer victimization predicted higher levels of reactive aggression within and across academic years. Further, reactive aggression predicted subsequent increases in child- and teacher-reports of peer victimization across each wave of data. Several gender differences, particularly in the crossed paths between proactive aggression and peer victimization, also emerged. Whereas peer victimization was found to partially account for the stability of reactive aggression over time, reactive aggression did not account for the stability of peer victimization. Taken together with previous research, the current findings suggest that child-reports of peer victimization may help identify youth who are risk for exhibiting increased reactive aggression over time. Further, they highlight the need to target reactively aggressive behavior for the prevention of peer victimization in middle childhood.
Marsh, Herbert W; O'Mara, Alison
In their influential review, Baumeister, Campbell, Krueger, and Vohs (2003) concluded that self-esteem--the global component of self-concept--has no effect on subsequent academic performance. In contrast, Marsh and Craven's (2006) review of reciprocal effects models from an explicitly multidimensional perspective demonstrated that academic self-concept and achievement are both a cause and an effect of each other. Ironically, both reviews cited classic Youth in Transition studies in support of their respective claims. In definitive tests of these counter claims, the authors reanalyze these data-including self-esteem (emphasized by Baumeister et al.), academic self-concept (emphasized by Marsh & Craven), and postsecondary educational attainment-using stronger statistical methods based on five waves of data (grade 10 through 5 years after graduation; N=2,213). Integrating apparently discrepant findings under a common theoretical framework based on a multidimensional perspective, academic self-concept had consistent reciprocal effects with both achievement and educational attainment, whereas self-esteem had almost none.
Putwain, Dave; Sander, Paul; Larkin, Derek
Background: Academic self-efficacy, when operationalized as mastery over domain-specific knowledge, has been found to be a predictor of academic achievement and emotions. Although academic emotions are also a predictor of academic achievement, there is limited evidence for reciprocal relations with academic achievement. Aims: To examine whether…
Research on the faculty impact on students' academic achievement has been disproportionately confined to the context of countries with developed higher education systems. Few studies have been undertaken in the developing world like Cambodia. This study employed hierarchical linear modeling to examine the relationships between faculty behaviors…
Schmitt, Carl M.; O'Shae, Patricia; Vaden, Kaleen; Williams, Jeffrey W.
This manual describes the methods, procedures, techniques, and activities that were used to produce the Academic Library Survey of 2004 (ALS:2004). This manual is designed to provide guidance and documentation for users of the ALS data. Included in the manual are the following: (1) an overview of the study and its predecessor studies; (2) an…
Schmitt, Carl M.; O'Shae, Patricia; Vaden, Kaleen; Williams, Jeffrey W.
This manual describes the methods, procedures, techniques, and activities that were used to produce the Academic Library Survey of 2004 (ALS:2004). This manual is designed to provide guidance and documentation for users of the ALS data. Included in the manual are the following: an overview of the study and its predecessor studies; an account of…
Schmitt, Carl M.; O'Shae, Patricia; Vaden, Kaleen
This manual describes the methods, procedures, techniques, and activities that were used to produce the Academic Library Survey of 2004 (ALS:2004). This manual is designed to provide guidance and documentation for users of the ALS data. Included in the manual are the following: (1) an overview of the study and its predecessor studies; (2) an…
Jin, Suk-Un; Moon, Sidney M.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether academically talented adolescents attending a residential science high school in Korea had different levels of psychological well-being or school life satisfaction than their high-ability peers in regular high schools. The participating high-ability students (n=299) were in their second year of high…
McCarthy, Lucille Parkinson
To discover how one student learned to produce writing in different academic contexts, a study documented a Loyola College (Maryland) student's experiences with writing for a poetry class and a biology class during his sophomore year. The subject was interviewed several times, observed, and his voice taped during "writing aloud" sessions…
Rathbun, Gail A.; Leatherman, Jane; Jensen, Rebecca
This study aimed to assess the impact of an entire academic teacher development programme at a Midwestern masters comprehensive university in the United States over a period of five years by examining changes in teaching and student outcomes of nine randomly selected programme participants. Researchers analysed syllabi, course evaluations, grade…
Tomlinson, Carol Ann; Gould, Holly; Schroth, Stephen; Jarvis, Jane
The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented at the University of Virginia conducted a 4-year qualitative case study in three very different school sites to explore how teachers contribute to the academic success of high potential, low economic students of color. Typically, the ethnicity, race, and/or economic status of these…
Leidenfrost, Birgit; Strassnig, Barbara; Schabmann, Alfred; Spiel, Christiane; Carbon, Claus-Christian
The purpose of our study was to explore peer mentoring styles and examine their contribution to academic success among mentees. Data were collected as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a peer mentoring program. The sample consisted of 49 mentors (advanced students) who supported 376 mentees (first year students) in small groups. Indicators for…
De Lanoy, Diana D.; Cuadra, Carlos A.
Phase I involves two questionnaire surveys aimed at identifying all academic library consortia in higher education and, within this univerise, providing a list of participating libraries and services. The major product of this phase is a "Directory of Academic Library Consortia." The descriptions of the individual tasks outlined in this Phase I…
Winberg, C.; Adams, A.; Esbach, J.; Groenewald, W.; Lakay, D.; Muzondo, I.; Randall, K.; Seane, G.; Siyepu, S.; Veeran, P.
Universities of Technology (UTs) offer career-focused education in a wide variety of disciplines and fields. Traditionally, UTs recruited academic staff with relevant workplace experience, rather than academic qualifications. The result of this strategy was, while many lecturers possessed professional qualifications in their field, they did not…
Coohey, Carol; Renner, Lynette M.; Hua, Lei; Zhang, Ying J.; Whitney, Stephen D.
Purpose: Although researchers have concluded that child maltreatment has a negative effect on children's learning and academic achievement, not all children are negatively affected by maltreatment, and some children seem to succeed academically despite being maltreated. Drawing on risk and resilience theory, we examined a broad range of potential…
Entrekin, L.V.; Everett, J.E.
Examines the midlife career/crisis transition period of academic staff surveyed in four Australian Universities. Supports a generalized career stage model and a specific career stage model of academic staff, who are shown to be particularly susceptible to the midlife crisis/transition phenomenon. (Author/JAC)
Leki, Ilona, Ed.
This edited volume explores the international role of written English in the academic context and clearly demonstrates how writing is integrated in all aspects of academic communication in English. The 12 programs described in this book differ in context but share basic assumptions about how best to teach second language (L2) writing. In addition…
Bailey, Andrew W.; Kang, Hyoung-Kil
Wilderness orientation programs (WOPs) are becoming a popular method of encouraging college student retention and success. Previous studies have identified outcomes and correlates of participation in these programs, but a cohesive model of impact is lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of WOPs on first-year student success…
Inaba, Kenji; Hauch, Adam; Branco, Bernardino C; Cohn, Stephen; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Recinos, Gustavo; Barmparas, Galinos; Demetriades, Demetrios
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of in-house attending surgeon supervision on the rate of preventable deaths (PD) and complications (PC) at the beginning of the academic year. All trauma patients admitted to the Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center over an 8-year period ending in December 2009 were reviewed. Morbidity and mortality reports were used to extract all PD/PC. Patients admitted in the first 2 months (July/August) of the academic year were compared with those admitted at the end of the year (May/June) for two distinct time periods: 2002 to 2006 (before in-house attending surgeon supervision) and 2007 to 2009 (after 24-hour/day in-house attending surgeon supervision). During 2002 to 2006, patients admitted at the beginning of the year had significantly higher rates of PC (1.1% for July/August vs 0.6% for May/June; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 3.2; P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in mortality (6.5% for July/August vs 4.6% for May/June; adjusted OR, 1.1; 95% CI,0.8 to 1.5; P = 0.179). During 2007 to 2009, after institution of 24-hour/day in-house attending surgeon supervision of fellows and housestaff, there was no significant difference in the rates of PC (0.7% for July/August vs 0.6% for May/June; OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8 to 1.3; P = 0.870) or PD (4.6% for July/August vs 3.7% for May/June; OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.9 to 1.7; P = 0.250) seen at the beginning of the academic year. At an academic Level I trauma center, the institution of 24-hour/day in-house attending surgeon supervision significantly reduced the spike of preventable complications previously seen at the beginning of the academic year.
Dundas, Ingrid; Thorsheim, Torbjørn; Hjeltnes, Aslak; Binder, Per Einar
ABSTRACT Mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) for academic evaluation anxiety and self-confidence in 70 help-seeking bachelor’s and master’s students was examined. A repeated measures analysis of covariance on the 46 students who completed pretreatment and posttreatment measures (median age = 24 years, 83% women) showed that evaluation anxiety and self-confidence improved. A growth curve analysis with all 70 original participants showed reductions in both cognitive and emotional components of evaluation anxiety, and that reduction continued postintervention. Although more research is needed, this study indicates that MBSR may reduce evaluation anxiety. PMID:27227169
Dundas, Ingrid; Thorsheim, Torbjørn; Hjeltnes, Aslak; Binder, Per Einar
Mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) for academic evaluation anxiety and self-confidence in 70 help-seeking bachelor's and master's students was examined. A repeated measures analysis of covariance on the 46 students who completed pretreatment and posttreatment measures (median age = 24 years, 83% women) showed that evaluation anxiety and self-confidence improved. A growth curve analysis with all 70 original participants showed reductions in both cognitive and emotional components of evaluation anxiety, and that reduction continued postintervention. Although more research is needed, this study indicates that MBSR may reduce evaluation anxiety.
Vaughan, Ellen L; Kratz, Lisa; d'Argent, Julie
This study investigated the relationship between academic factors and past-year alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in an adolescent sample of Latinos. Secondary data analysis was conducted using a subsample of Latino adolescents (N=2,593) from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. School connectedness and parental involvement in school were protective across all substances. Fighting in school increased the risk for use of all substances, and failing grades increased the risk for alcohol and marijuana use. Implications for prevention include the development of prevention programs that aim to increase students' connection to school and increase parental involvement.
Choy, Susan P.; Berkner, Lutz; Lee, John; Topper, Amelia
The "Higher Education Reconciliation Act of 2005" created two new grant programs for undergraduates: the Academic Competitiveness Grant (ACG) program and National Science and Mathematics Access to Retain Talent (National SMART) Grant program. The ACG program is intended to encourage students to take challenging courses in high school and thus…
Medrano, Leonardo Adrian; Liporace, Mercedes Fernandez; Perez, Edgardo
Introduction: Computerized tests have become one of the most widely used and efficient educational assessment methods. Increasing efforts to generate computerized assessment systems to identify students at risk for drop out have been recently noted. An important variable influencing student retention is academic satisfaction. Accordingly, the…
Lawrence, Jill; Loch, Birgit; Galligan, Linda
This paper documents the relationships between pedagogy and e-assessment in two nursing courses offered at the University of Southern Queensland, Australia. The courses are designed to build the academic, numeracy and technological attributes student nurses need if they are to succeed at the university and in the nursing profession. The paper…
Hildebrandt, Eugenie; Baisch, Mary Jo; Lundeen, Sally P.; Bell-Calvin, Jean; Kelber, Sheryl
Client visits to an academic community nursing center (n=25,495) were coded and analyzed. Results show expansion of nursing practice and services, strong case management, and management of illness care. The usefulness of computerized clinical documentation system and of the Lundeen conceptional model of community nursing care was demonstrated.…
Crumley, Kristie; Demarest, Kate
Carroll Community College connects students to their peers and to educators who share similar academic, personal, and career interests. Students get involved in hands-on experiences inside and outside of the classroom. The results include higher retention, reduced student anonymity, and an institutional commitment to student success.
Coulson, Andrew J.
Long-term trends in academic performance and spending are valuable tools for evaluating past education policies and informing current ones. But such data have been scarce at the state level, where the most important education policy decisions are made. State spending data exist reaching back to the 1960s, but the figures have been scattered across…
The Self Determination Theory has identified various types of motivation along a continuum from weakest to strongest. Yet, until recently, no reliable method existed to measure accurately the strength of motivation along this continuum. Vallerand et al. (1992) developed the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) to measure the validity of the Self…
While many US colleges and universities offer specialized writing courses for multilingual students entering as freshmen, including international students, there is typically little instructional support for the academic English needs of international transfer students. This article describes the development and implementation of a writing course…
Hobbs, Ruby L., Comp.
This report on the effectiveness of Shelby State Community College's (SSCC) Academic and Developmental Services (A/D) Program consists primarily of statistical tables that describe three cohorts of full- and part-time students; i.e., those currently enrolled students who entered the college in fall 1985, 1986, or 1987. Data are presented on basic…
Iowa Department of Education, 2014
Community colleges across Iowa are working with business and industry through sector boards to develop training programs for jobs that have applicant shortages. The state Pathways for Academic Career and Employment (PACE) program enables community colleges to offer in-demand training, making education affordable for low income or unemployed…
Crance Gutmann, Gina-Lyn
Research on first-year students' expectations about college has explored areas of academic and social expectations, but not first-year college students' expectations about judicial conduct and consequence. The purpose of this study was to empirically explore two questions: what are first year students' expectations about campus conduct and…
Usang, Bassey; Basil, Akuegwu; Lucy, Udida; Udey, Franca U.
This study examined academic staff research productivity in Universities in South-South zone of Nigeria. Ex post facto design was adopted for this study. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide this study. The sample size comprised of 480 academic staff drawn from a population of 3120. Data collection was carried out using a…
Sarwar, Muhammad; Bashir, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Naemullah; Khan, Muhammad Saeed
The study orientation of low and high academic achievers was compared, measured through a self-developed study orientation scale (SOS) primarily based on 47 items comparing study habits and attitude. Students' marks obtained in the 10th grade Examination determined the measure of academic performance. The analysis revealed that the high achievers…
Furry, Allyson N.; Sy, Susan R.
Previous research has examined the relationship between parental expectations and student academic performance. However, less attention has been given to the role of different parental pressures in students' achievement during their first semester of college. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of perceived parental expectations…
Kezar, Adrianna; Gehrke, Sean
This study broadens our understanding of conditions that shape faculty composition in higher education. We surveyed academic deans to evaluate their views on the professoriate, values, pressures, and practices pertaining to the use of non-tenure-track faculty (NTTF). We utilized [ordinary-least-squares] OLS regression to test a model for…
Chi, Olivia L.; Dow, Aaron W.
This study focuses on how matching, a method of preprocessing data prior to estimation and analysis, can be used to reduce imbalance between treatment and control group in regression discontinuity design. To examine the effects of academic probation on student outcomes, researchers replicate and expand upon research conducted by Lindo, Sanders,…
Flores, Belinda Bustos; Clark, Ellen Riojas; Guerra, Norma S.; Casebeer, Cindy M.; Sanchez, Serafin V.; Mayall, Hayley J.
This study contends that multiple psychosocial factors mediate students' pursuit of the teaching profession, including beliefs, ethnic identity, acculturation, efficacy, and motivation. Despite the myriad literature addressing teacher characteristics, less is known about how these factors influence the academic or personal development of teacher…
Liguori, Gary; Lonbaken, Barb
Objectives: This study attempted to identify relationships between alcohol consumption and first-to-second-year student retention among college students. Methods: 820 students in general education courses completed an online wellness assessment at four separate time points, including questions related to alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed…
Some students at University of Florida can take classes only during the spring and summer semesters for as long as they are enrolled. Each year they will get a four-month break--the fall semester--when they can take online courses, study abroad, or do internships. Some may opt to work. Despite their schedules, the students are full-fledged…
Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; McClintic-Gilbert, Megan S.; Hayenga, Amynta O.
The present study was designed to investigate the nature, timing, and correlates of motivational change among a large sample (N = 1051) of third- through eighth-grade students. Analyses of within-year changes in students' motivational orientations revealed that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations decreased from fall to spring, with declines…
Cecil, Nancy Lee
Compares teacher expectations for Black children who speak Black Dialect with Black children who speak Standard English. Concludes that teachers expect significantly greater overall academic achievement, reading success, and intelligence from children who speak Standard English. (MM)
Hywel, R.; Tee, B. T.; Arifin, M. Y.; Tan, C. F.; Gan, C. K.; Chong, CT
Building energy audit examines the ways actual energy consumption is currently used in the facility, in the case of a completed and occupied building and identifies some alternatives to reduce current energy usage. Implementation of energy audit are practically used to analyze energy consumption pattern, monitoring on how the energy used varies with time in the building, how the system element interrelate, and study the effect of external environment towards building. In this case study, a preliminary energy audit is focusing on Air-Conditioning & Mechanical Ventilation (ACMV) system which reportedly consumed 40% of the total energy consumption in typical building. It is also the main system that provides comfortable and healthy environment for the occupants. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the current ACMV system performance, energy optimization and identifying the energy waste on UTeM's academic building. To attain this, the preliminary data is collected and then analyzed. Based on the data, economic analysis will be determined before cost-saving methods are being proposed.
Maciejewski, Wes; Merchant, Sandra
Students approach learning in different ways, depending on the experienced learning situation. A deep approach is geared toward long-term retention and conceptual change while a surface approach focuses on quickly acquiring knowledge for immediate use. These approaches ultimately affect the students' academic outcomes. This study takes a cross-sectional look at the approaches to learning used by students from courses across all four years of undergraduate mathematics and analyses how these relate to the students' grades. We find that deep learning correlates with grade in the first year and not in the upper years. Surficial learning has no correlation with grades in the first year and a strong negative correlation with grades in the upper years. Using Bloom's taxonomy, we argue that the nature of the tasks given to students is fundamentally different in lower and upper year courses. We find that first-year courses emphasize tasks that require only low-level cognitive processes. Upper year courses require higher level processes but, surprisingly, have a simultaneous greater emphasis on recall and understanding. These observations explain the differences in correlations between approaches to learning and course grades. We conclude with some concerns about the disconnect between first year and upper year mathematics courses and the effect this may have on students.
DeFreitas, Stacie Craft
First-year African American and European American college students were surveyed to examine ethnic differences in how their social cognitive beliefs (self-efficacy and outcome expectations) influenced their academic achievement. It was hypothesized that outcome expectations may better explain academic achievement for African Americans due to the…
Yang, Ji Woong; Yon, Kyu Jin; Kim, Jung K.
This longitudinal study examined the effects of a mandatory counseling program for students placed on academic probation at a university in South Korea. The study compared longitudinal changes over three semesters in the grade point average (GPA) of students who were on academic probation. Two groups, 46 students with mandatory counseling and 49…
Stepanek, Libor; Hradilova, Alena
This paper presents a case study of a course on academic writing for postgraduate studies within a collaborative and interactive information and communication technologies (ICT) based language-learning setting. It describes the structure of an academic writing course for PhD students, focusing on three ICT-enhanced course activities: collaborative…
This three article mixed methods dissertation is titled "Three Studies on the Leadership Behaviors of Academic Deans in Higher Education." Each article is based on a sample of 51 academic deans from a three state region in the Southeastern United States. In the first study, the results of the statistical analyses reinforce the gender…
The aim of this study was to discover and better understand through a case study, the phenomenon of academic staff integration in a post-merger Chinese university. The analysis was undertaken by using a cultural framework derived from relevant literature. The results indicate that adjustments to academic values and beliefs, "the cultural…
Ukpong, D. E.; George, I. N.
This study investigated the length of study time behaviour and academic achievement of Social Studies Education students in the University of Uyo. The purpose was to determine the difference in the academic achievement of the long study time behaviour students and their short study time behaviour counterparts in Social Studies Education. The study…
Murphy, J. Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia; Dunn, Erin C.; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W.; Jellinek, Michael
The world’s largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life, SFL], has been operating at a national scale in Chile for fifteen years. SFL’s activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL’s data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students’ academic outcomes. PMID:24771270
Murphy, J Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa E; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia M; Dunn, Erin C; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W; Jellinek, Michael S
The world's largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life (SFL)], has been operating on a national scale in Chile for 15 years. SFL's activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL's data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students' academic outcomes.
Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Huynh, Virginia W.; Fuligni, Andrew J.
This longitudinal study examined how nightly variations in adolescents' study and sleep time are associated with academic problems on the following day. Participants ("N" = 535, 9th grade M[subscript age] = 14.88) completed daily diaries every day for 14 days in 9th, 10th, and 12th grades. Results suggest that regardless of how much a…
American Sports Inst., Mill Valley, CA.
Promoting Achievement in School through Sports (PASS) is an academic high school curriculum developed by the American Sports Institute. It is a daily, year-long, credit-bearing, physical education elective for students who love sports but are not performing up to their academic potential. PASS is based on the concept that the principles and skills…
Boyraz, Güler; Granda, Rebecca; Baker, Camille N; Tidwell, Lacey Lorehn; Waits, J Brandon
Entering college with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology has been linked to poor academic performance and increased risk for dropping out of college; however, little is known regarding the mechanisms by which PTSD symptoms have deleterious effects on college outcomes. Drawing from a self-regulated learning (SRL) perspective, which suggests that students' learning behaviors and outcomes can be influenced by contextual and developmental factors, we hypothesized that students who enter college with high PTSD symptomatology may experience difficulties in effort regulation, which in turn, may have deleterious effects on their academic performance and college persistence. These hypothesized relationships, as well as the potential gender differences in these relationships were examined using a longitudinal study design and a multigroup structural equation modeling approach. Of the 928 1st-year students who participated in the study, 484 (52.2%) students who reported lifetime exposure to traumatic events constituted the final sample of the study. The prevalence of PTSD among the trauma-exposed participants was 12.4%. After controlling for participation in on-campus activities and American College Testing (ACT) assessment scores, the relationship between PTSD symptomatology in the 1st semester of college and 2nd-year enrollment was mediated by effort regulation and 1st-year cumulative grade-point average (GPA). Specifically, participants who started college with higher levels of PTSD symptomatology also reported lower levels of effort regulation, which in turn, had a significant indirect effect on 2nd-year enrollment through 1st-year GPA. Results also indicated that the paths in the hypothesized model were not significantly different for men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record
Baars, Maria A E; Nije Bijvank, Marije; Tonnaer, Geertje H; Jolles, Jelle
Recent studies in late adolescents (age 17+) show that brain development may proceed till around the 25th year of age. This implies that study performance in higher education could be dependent upon the stage of brain maturation and neuropsychological development. Individual differences in development of neuropsychological skills may thus have a substantial influence on the outcome of the educational process. This hypothesis was evaluated in a large survey of 1760 first-year students at a University of Applied Sciences, of which 1332 are included in the current analyses. This was because of their fit within the age range we pre-set (17-20 years' old at start of studies). Student characteristics and three behavioral ratings of executive functioning (EF) were evaluated with regard to their influence on academic performance. Self-report measures were used: self-reported attention, planning, and self-control and self-monitoring. Results showed that students with better self-reported EF at the start of the first year of their studies obtained more study credits at the end of that year than students with a lower EF self-rating. The correlation between self-control and self-monitoring on the one hand, and study progress on the other, appeared to differ for male and female students and to be influenced by the level of prior education. The results of this large-scale study could have practical relevance. The profound individual differences between students may at least partly be a consequence of their stage of development as an adolescent. Students who show lower levels of attention control, planning, and self-control/self-monitoring can be expected to have a problem in study planning and study progress monitoring and hence study progress. The findings imply that interventions directed at the training of these (executive) functions should be developed and used in higher education in order to improve academic achievement, learning attitude, and motivation.
Background New graduates report intense stress during the transition from school to their first work settings. Managing this transition is important to reduce turnover rates. This study compared the effects of an externship program and a corporate-academic cooperation program on enhancing junior college students’ nursing competence and retention rates in the first 3 months and 1 year of initial employment. Methods This two-phase study adopted a pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design. All participants were graduating students drawn from a 5-year junior nursing college in Taiwan. There were 19 and 24 students who participated in the phase I externship program and phase II corporate-academic cooperation program, respectively. The nursing competence of the students had to be evaluated by mentors within 48 hours of practicum training and after practicum training. The retention rate was also surveyed at 3 months and 1 year after beginning employment. Results Students who participated in the corporate-academic cooperation program achieved a statistically significant improvement in nursing competence and retention rates relative to those who participated in the externship program (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusions The corporate-academic cooperation program facilitates the transition of junior college nursing students into independent staff nurses, enhances their nursing competence, and boosts retention rates. PMID:23945287
Maulana, Ridwan; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Stroet, Kim; Bosker, Roel
Research consistently shows that the learning environment plays an important role for early adolescents' learning and outcomes and suggests that good teacher-student relationships can serve as a protective factor for maintaining young adolescents' interest and active engagement in learning. However, less is known about the dynamic nature of teacher-student relationships and how they link with academic motivation development. Furthermore, little is known about the nature and the effects of teacher-student relationships in a cross-national context. The present study investigated changes in two components of teacher-student relationships (teachers' involvement vs. rejection) and examined links with students' academic motivation during the first grade of secondary school. Ten Dutch and ten Indonesian teachers (65 % female) from 24 classes were videoed 12 times across the school year, and four videos for each class were selected randomly and coded on teachers' involvement versus rejection. A total of 713 students (52 % girls) completed four-wave measures of their academic motivation after each video observation. Multilevel growth curve modeling revealed that the teacher's involvement changed in a curvilinear way and decreased across the first year of secondary education, while changes in the teacher's rejection did not follow a linear time function. Academic motivation changed in an undesirable way: controlled motivation increased, while autonomous motivation decreased over time. Teachers' involvement had a unique contribution in preventing high levels of controlled motivation in both countries. Findings suggest that teacher-student relationships (teachers' involvement) play an essential role in early adolescents' motivation regardless of the nations and should be a priority for schools.
Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile
This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…
Hytönen, Kaisa; Palonen, Tuire; Lehtinen, Erno; Hakkarainen, Kai
In order to address the requirements of future education in different fields of academic professional activity, a model called Academic Apprenticeship Education was initiated in Finland in 2009. The aim of this article is to analyse the development of expert networks in the context of a 1-year Academic Apprenticeship Education model in the field…
Artenstein, Andrew W; Friderici, Jennifer; Holers, Adam; Lewis, Deirdre; Fitzgerald, Jan; Visintainer, Paul
Background. Delayed recognition of spinal epidural abscess (SEA) contributes to poor outcomes from this highly morbid and potentially lethal infection. We performed a case-control study in a regional, high-volume, tertiary care, academic medical center over the years 2005-2015 to assess the potential changing epidemiology, clinical and laboratory manifestations, and course of this disorder and to identify factors that might lead to early identification of SEA. Methods. Diagnostic billing codes consistent with SEA were used to identify inpatient admissions for abstraction. Subjects were categorized as cases or controls based on the results of spinal imaging studies. Characteristics were compared using Fisher's exact or Kruskal-Wallis tests. All P values were 2-sided with a critical threshold of <.05. Results. We identified 162 cases and 88 controls during the study period. The incidence of SEA increased from 2.5 to 8.0 per 10 000 admissions, a 3.3-fold change from 2005 to 2015 (P < .001 for the linear trend). Compared with controls, cases were significantly more likely to have experienced at least 1 previous healthcare visit or received antimicrobials within 30 days of admission; to have comorbidities of injection drug use, alcohol abuse, or obesity; and to manifest fever or rigors. Cases were also more likely to harbor coinfection at a noncontiguous site. When available, inflammatory markers were noted to be markedly elevated in cases. Focal neurologic deficits were seen with similar frequencies in both groups. Conclusions. Based on our analysis, it appears that selected factors noted at the time of clinical presentation may facilitate early recognition of SEA.
Artenstein, Andrew W.; Friderici, Jennifer; Holers, Adam; Lewis, Deirdre; Fitzgerald, Jan; Visintainer, Paul
Background. Delayed recognition of spinal epidural abscess (SEA) contributes to poor outcomes from this highly morbid and potentially lethal infection. We performed a case-control study in a regional, high-volume, tertiary care, academic medical center over the years 2005–2015 to assess the potential changing epidemiology, clinical and laboratory manifestations, and course of this disorder and to identify factors that might lead to early identification of SEA. Methods. Diagnostic billing codes consistent with SEA were used to identify inpatient admissions for abstraction. Subjects were categorized as cases or controls based on the results of spinal imaging studies. Characteristics were compared using Fisher's exact or Kruskal-Wallis tests. All P values were 2-sided with a critical threshold of <.05. Results. We identified 162 cases and 88 controls during the study period. The incidence of SEA increased from 2.5 to 8.0 per 10 000 admissions, a 3.3-fold change from 2005 to 2015 (P < .001 for the linear trend). Compared with controls, cases were significantly more likely to have experienced at least 1 previous healthcare visit or received antimicrobials within 30 days of admission; to have comorbidities of injection drug use, alcohol abuse, or obesity; and to manifest fever or rigors. Cases were also more likely to harbor coinfection at a noncontiguous site. When available, inflammatory markers were noted to be markedly elevated in cases. Focal neurologic deficits were seen with similar frequencies in both groups. Conclusions. Based on our analysis, it appears that selected factors noted at the time of clinical presentation may facilitate early recognition of SEA. PMID:28018923
Udoukpong, Bassey E.; Emah, Ime E.; Umoren, Shirley E.
The research examined the differences in the academic performance in Business Studies of a sampled secondary school junior students in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. A sample of 290 (138 male and 152 female) Junior Secondary Three (9th grade) students was surveyed. The students' variables' being examined vis-à-vis academic performance in Business…
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental involvement in academic success as determined by grade point average and Michigan high school students' perception of parent involvement with school, participation in homework, recognition of academic success, knowledge of school policies, and support of participation in…
Williams, James D.
This case study involved 3 middle school students in an assessment of the influence of self-reflection on general academic performance. It was hypothesized that increased self-reflection would have a positive influence on academic performance as measured by grades on tests, writing assignments, and homework. The participants were ages 13.4, 13.5,…
Moore, Elizabeth A.; Harris, Felicity; Laurens, Kristin R.; Green, Melissa J.; Brinkman, Sally; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Carr, Vaughan J.
Poor academic performance during childhood predicts later adverse outcomes, and could be targeted for improvement if detected early. This study used population-based record linkage to examine the association between early life risk factors and academic achievement at two different stages of development using two different cohorts: a kindergarten…
Goldwyn, A. J.; Verhosek, Edward
This study, supported by Library Service and Construction Act Title III funds, was intended to investigate (1) the volume of library traffic between and among all Ohio campuses; (2) the kinds of libraries patronized by Ohio academic personnel; (3) the characteristics of those non-academic libraries which were patronized (or at least of those parts…
Kibirige, Harry M.; DePalo, Lisa
Discussion of information available on the Internet focuses on two pilot studies that investigated how academic users perceive search engines and subject-oriented databases as sources of topical information. Highlights include information seeking behavior of academic users; undergraduate users; graduate users; faculty; and implications for…
Copenheaver, Carolyn A.; Nelson, Katie L.; Goldbeck, Kryrille
Constructing academic genealogies involves the practice of creating family trees based on doctoral advisors, that is, the advisor-graduate student relationship replaces the father-son relationship. Forestry academic genealogies document the historical development of forestry and quantify the contributions of other disciplines. In this study, the…
Swecker, Hadyn K.; Fifolt, Matthew; Searby, Linda
For this quantitative study, we used a multiple logistic regression technique to investigate the relationship between the number of meetings with an academic advisor and retention of first-generation students, as represented by enrollment status and academic standing at a large, public research institution in the Southeast. Consistent with…
Philbrick, Jodi Lynn
The purpose of this study was to identify the professional and personal competencies that entry-level academic health sciences librarians should possess from the perspectives of academic health sciences library directors, library and information sciences (LIS) educators who specialize in educating health sciences librarians, and individuals who…
The workload of academics in Australia is increasing. Among the potential ramifications of this are work-related stress and burnout. Unions have negotiated workload models in employment agreements as a means of distributing workload in a fair and transparent manner. This qualitative pilot study aimed to explore how academics perceive their current…
Davidovitch, Nitza; Soen, Dan; Sinuani-Stern, Zila
This case study is the first to track the method used by an Israeli institution of higher education to assess and reward faculty members using a set of performance measures ("Excellence criteria"). The study profiles faculty members who received financial rewards for excellence during 2005-2007, based on the previous year's activities,…
Thiele, Tamara; Pope, Daniel; Singleton, A; Stanistreet, D
Objectives This study examines associations between medical students’ background characteristics (postcode-based measures of disadvantage, high school attended, sociodemographic characteristics), and academic achievement at a Russell Group University. Design Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting Applicants accepted at the University of Liverpool medical school between 2004 and 2006, finalising their studies between 2010 and 2011. Participants 571 students (with an English home postcode) registered on the full-time Medicine and Surgery programme, who successfully completed their medical degree. Main outcome measures Final average at year 4 of the medical programme (represented as a percentage). Results Entry grades were positively associated with final attainment (p<0.001). Students from high-performing schools entered university with higher qualifications than students from low-performing schools (p<0.001), though these differences did not persist at university. Comprehensive school students entered university with higher grades than independent school students (p<0.01), and attained higher averages at university, though differences were not significant after controlling for multiple effects. Associations between school type and achievement differed between sexes. Females attained higher averages than males at university. Significant academic differences were observed between ethnic groups at entry level and university. Neither of the postcode-based measures of disadvantage predicted significant differences in attainment at school or university. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that educational attainment at school is a good, albeit imperfect, predictor of academic attainment at medical school. Most attainment differences observed between students either decreased or disappeared during university. Unlike previous studies, independent school students did not enter university with the highest grades, but achieved the lowest attainment at university
Andrietti, Vincenzo; Velasco, Carlos
The authors analyze matched administrative survey data on economics students enrolled in two econometrics courses offered in consecutive terms at a major public university in Spain to assess the impact of lecture attendance and study time on academic performance. Using proxy variables in a cross-sectional regression setting, they find a positive…
Hoeks, Henry J.
This handbook defines, discusses, and provides guidelines for academic and pedagogical concerns of the study of religions in public secondary schools. Although it was designed particularly for use by Michigan educators, especially secondary pre-service and in-service religion teachers, the book can be adapted readily to other locales and levels.…
This study explored the academic experiences of two groups of first-year students in university, one in the arts and one in the science, who participated in a residential-based learning community program. Using qualitative and critical analysis of in-depth student interviews conducted over a fall and winter semester, I constructed their world as implied from their stories and narratives. From this vantage point, I investigated how students as novice learners negotiated their role as learners; the belief systems they brought with them to minimize academic risk; their coping strategies in a 12 week semestered system; and the tacit theories they acquired within their day-to-day educational experiences. A number of themes emerged from the research: students intentionally minimizing faculty contact until they developed 'worthiness'; learning as 'teacher pleasing'; disciplinary learning differences between the arts and sciences students; and a grade orientation that influenced what and how students learned. Within the broader political, ideological, and cultural framework of the university, I identified student patterns of accommodation, resistance, silence and submission in negotiating their roles as learners. By critiquing the academic side of university life as students experienced it and lived it as a community of learners, I exposed the tensions, contradictions, and paradoxes that emerged. I revealed the points of disjuncture that came from competing discourses within the university for these students: the discourse of community, the discourse of collective harmony, and the discourse of the market place.
Hughes, Jan N; Dyer, Nicole; Luo, Wen; Kwok, Oi-Man
Participants were 664 relatively low achieving children who were recruited into a longitudinal study when in first grade. Measures of peer academic reputation (PAR), peer acceptance, teacher-rated academic engagement and achievement, and reading and math achievement were obtained in Year 2, when the majority of students were in second grade, and 1 year later. Measures of academic self concept were obtained in Year 1 and in Year 3. As young as second grade, children's perceptions of classmates' academic competence are distinct from their perceptions of peers' other social and behavioral characteristics. SEM analyses found that Year 2 PAR predicted Year 3 teacher-rated academic engagement and reading (but not math) achievement test scores, above the effects of prior scores on these outcomes and other covariates. Furthermore, the effect of PAR on academic engagement and achievement was partially mediated by the effect of PAR on children's academic self concept. Implications of these findings for educational practice and future research are discussed.
McLean, Michelle; Shaban, Sami; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah
Increasingly, it is being recognised in higher and medical education that learners should be adequately prepared for the unpredictable nature of professional practice. Several generic or transferable skills or capabilities (e.g., communication, information handling) that will enable graduates to function in an ever-changing professional world have been identified. Using a validated inventory comprising six categories of transferable skills, three cohorts of incoming male and female medical students at a Gulf university documented their level of practice and confidence for 31 skills. The exercise was repeated a year later. New medical students identified computer and organisational skills and the ability to manage their learning as strengths, but scores for technical and numeracy, information handling and presentation and communication skills suggested that learners generally required guidance. A year later, despite considerable self-reported information handling and communication skills development, learners generally did not consider themselves self-sufficient. A significant gender difference emerged, with incoming males reporting less experience and confidence in many skills. This gap was reduced but did not disappear over the first academic year. An audit such as this may be useful for identifying individual skills levels as well as providing insight into shortcomings in the academic programme in terms of opportunities for transferable skills development.
Googe, Heather Smith
The purpose of my study was to evaluate the relationship between classroom process quality and child language and academic outcomes from the beginning of the pre-kindergarten year to the beginning of the kindergarten year for one cohort of children participating in a state-funded pre-kindergarten program in South Carolina. Data for my study were…
Hoffman, Emily P.
Reviews two elasticity of demand papers in this "Economics of Education Review" issue. Refutes C.F. Chang and H.P. Tuckman's interpretation of college faculty substitution trends, attributing changes in rank distribution to academic hiring and promotion patterns. Affirms G.A. Chressanthis' class standing results and recommendation of a…
Ahmed, Mustafa H.; Suleiman, Raid Jameel
Purpose: Due to the current financial and managerial difficulties that are encountered by libraries in public universities in Jordan and the geographical diffusion of these academic institutions, the idea of establishing a consortium was proposed by the Council of Higher Education to combine these libraries. This article reviews the reality of…
Allison, Dee Ann; Sartori, Eva
Presents a model of the interaction of external, work related, and internal factors that may influence the decision of academic library professionals to leave the library. The results of a survey that examined factors related to a decision to leave a library are reported, and further research is suggested. (CLB)
The increase in international trade and the information technology boom led us to begin to face the previously unthinkable of academic shortage towards vocational education. The main objective of this paper is to present the problem and find ways to solve it. The main finding included lack of investment from society and high degree involvement of…
Northwest Evaluation Association, 2015
For more than a decade, Pewaukee School District Superintendent JoAnn Sternke has watched her district get better and better at its mission: opening the door to each student's future. The Wisconsin district began using Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) computer adaptive interim assessments from Northwest Evaluation Association™ (NWEA™) in 2004…
Ocholla, Dennis N.
Analyzes information-seeking behavior by university academics at Moi University (Kenya). Results established that faculty depend on the library and on colleagues for information in spite of a lack of awareness of information services and nonuse of current awareness services. A copy of the questionnaire used is appended. (Author/LRW)
Karjala, Dennis S.
The income tax options available to college faculty who work abroad while maintaining ties to a U.S. academic institution are outlined, and the role of planning in optimizing those choices is explained. Issues addressed include definition of taxable income, record-keeping, distinction between exclusions and deductions, and fellowships. (MSE)
Cahn, Steven M., Ed.
This book presents 14 essays from American philosophers who critically investigate the moral issues generated by academic life. Topics addressed include free speech on campus, justifications for tenure, faculty appointment and evaluation procedures, the differing demands of research and teaching, sexual harassment, parietal rules,…
Melton, Rebecca Mindigo
Research indicates that students underachieve in college settings, in spite of intellect and other abilities. This research tested the likelihood of self-efficacy for learning, conscientiousness, impulsivity, procrastination and temporal discounting to predict academic achievement in an online competency-based university. Undergraduate students (N…
This article examines the appropriation of academic biliteracy by three French-speaking students at an English-medium university in the Canadian province of Quebec. Drawing on Hornberger's continua model of biliteracy, Bourdieu's critical social theory, and philosophical hermeneutics, the author conceptualizes individual biliterate development as…
Wilson, Linda Louise
The study examined whether select non-cognitive variables such as, (Sedlacek, 1989, 1991, 1993, 2004; Tracey & Sedlacek 1984, 1985, 1987, 1989) impacted the academic achievement, retention and graduation rates of culturally diverse academic scholarship students at a predominantly white higher education institutions. The subjects of the study…
Dornhecker, Marianela; Blake, Jamilia; Benden, Mark; Zhao, Hongwei; Wendel, Monica
Background Schools have been suggested as a viable avenue to combat childhood obesity. School administrators are sometimes faced with the conflicting demands of improving the health of their students and maintaining academic performance. Dynamic furniture such as stand-biased desks may be one way to address both academic and health demands placed on schools to prevent childhood obesity. Method Classrooms with stand-biased desks were compared to classrooms using traditional seated desks in 2nd,3rd, and 4th grades. The academic engagement of 282 participants was observed in the fall and spring during one academic year. The engagement of the treatment classrooms was compared to the engagement of the control classrooms. Results Both groups showed general increases in their academic engagement over time. Stand-biased desks do not seem to result in adverse effects on academic engagement when used in elementary classrooms. Conclusion The data suggests promising results for the use of stand-biased desks in elementary school classrooms. The results suggest that stand-biased desks can be introduced in the classroom to combat childhood obesity through increasing energy expenditure without affecting academic engagement. PMID:26997917
Bergey, Bradley W; Deacon, S Hélène; Parrila, Rauno K
University students who report a history of reading difficulties have been demonstrated to have poorer word reading and reading comprehension skills than their peers; yet, without a diagnosed learning disability, these students do not have access to the same support services, potentially placing them at academic risk. This study provides a comprehensive investigation of first-year academic achievement for students with a history of reading difficulties (n = 244) compared to students with no such history (n = 603). We also examine reported use of metacognitive reading and study strategies and their relations with GPA. Results indicate that students with a history of reading difficulties earn lower GPA and successfully complete fewer credits compared to students with no history of reading difficulty. These patterns varied somewhat by faculty of study. Students with a history of reading difficulties also reported lower scores across multiple metacognitive reading and study strategy scales, yet these scores were not associated with their academic performance. Together, these results demonstrate the importance of identifying students with a history of reading difficulties and that commonly used study strategy inventories have limited value in predicting their academic success.
Gottfried, A E; Fleming, J S; Gottfried, A W
The short- and long-term, and direct and indirect, relations between cognitively stimulating home environment and academic intrinsic motivation were investigated in a longitudinal study from childhood through early adolescence. Structural equations modeling was used to test the hypothesis that home environment positively predicts academic intrinsic motivation over this period. It was also hypothesized that home environmental processes would positively predict motivation controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). When children were age 8, home environment (comprising both direct observations and parent report) and SES were measured. Academic intrinsic motivation was assessed at ages 9, 10, and 13. Results supported the hypotheses. Home environment had statistically positive and significant, direct and indirect paths to academic intrinsic motivation from childhood through early adolescence, indicating both short- and long-term effects across these ages. Moreover, home environment was significant above and beyond SES. The findings revealed that children whose homes had a greater emphasis on learning opportunities and activities were more academically intrinsically motivated.
Elliott, Diane Cardenas
This study was designed to investigate the influence of self-efficacy on the college persistence of students. More specifically, this study explored how pre-entry and second semester academic and social self efficacies affect the academic integration, social integration, and institutional retention of college students. In addition, this study…
Bursik, Krisanne; Gefter, Julia
This research examined perceptions of sexual harassment in academic contexts using data sets collected in 1990 (Time 1) and 2000 (Time 2). We assessed the influence of two individual variables--gender and gender role--and one contextual variable--power of the harasser--on perceptions of harassment. When the harasser was a higher-power individual, participants perceived more vignettes as examples of sexual harassment, viewed female targets more positively, and evaluated male harassers more negatively. Contrary to prediction, participants viewed male harassers less negatively at Time 2 than at Time 1. Despite increased media attention and educational interventions, comparisons to the earlier findings highlight remarkable stability in perceptions of harassment over time.
Siahi, Evans Atsiaya; Maiyo, Julius K.
The studies on the correlation of academic achievement have paved way for control and manipulation of related variables for quality results in schools. In spite of the facts that schools impart uniform classroom instructions to all students, wide range of difference is observed in their academic achievement. The study sought to determine the…
The Department of Petroleum Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin is one of more than 20 such departments in the United States and more than 40 worldwide. The department has more than 20 faculty members and, as of the fall of 1990, 146 undergraduate and 156 graduate students. During the 1990--91 academic year, undergraduate enrollment is up slightly from the several downturns that began in 1986; graduate enrollment continues to increase, significantly in the number of Ph.D. candidates enrolled. The 1990--91 academic year was one of consolidation of gains. A remote teaching program in the Midland-Odessa area was initiated. During 1991, the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (CPGE) continued its large, diversified research activities related to oil, gas and geopressured/geothermal energy production, energy and mineral resources analysis, and added new research projects in other areas such as groundwater remediation. Many of these research projects included interdisciplinary efforts involving faculty, research scientists and graduate students in chemistry, mathematics, geology, geophysics, engineering mechanics, chemical engineering, microbiology and other disciplines. Several projects were undertaken in cooperation with either the Bureau of Economic Geology or the Institute for Geophysics at The University of Texas at Austin. Collaborative research projects with scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rice University, and Sandia National Laboratory were also initiated. About 43 companies from seven countries around the world continued to provide the largest portion of research funding to CPGE.
The Department of Petroleum Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin is one of more than 20 such departments in the United States and more than 40 worldwide. The department has more than 20 faculty members and, as of the fall of 1990, 146 undergraduate and 156 graduate students. During the 1990--91 academic year, undergraduate enrollment is up slightly from the several downturns that began in 1986; graduate enrollment continues to increase, significantly in the number of Ph.D. candidates enrolled. The 1990--91 academic year was one of consolidation of gains. A remote teaching program in the Midland-Odessa area was initiated. During 1991, the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (CPGE) continued its large, diversified research activities related to oil, gas and geopressured/geothermal energy production, energy and mineral resources analysis, and added new research projects in other areas such as groundwater remediation. Many of these research projects included interdisciplinary efforts involving faculty, research scientists and graduate students in chemistry, mathematics, geology, geophysics, engineering mechanics, chemical engineering, microbiology and other disciplines. Several projects were undertaken in cooperation with either the Bureau of Economic Geology or the Institute for Geophysics at The University of Texas at Austin. Collaborative research projects with scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rice University, and Sandia National Laboratory were also initiated. About 43 companies from seven countries around the world continued to provide the largest portion of research funding to CPGE.
Ricks, Rhonda A.
The student populations in colleges and universities in the United States have become more diverse in the students that they serve. It has been argued that disaggregation of student data would allow researchers to test the saliency of student development models. However, there is only a small body of research available on first-year Black male…
Heaven, Patrick C L; Ciarrochi, Joseph
This article assesses whether perceived parental style influenced the extent to which adolescents became increasingly conscientious and whether changes in conscientiousness influenced academic grades 1 year later. Parental styles, conscientiousness, verbal, and numerical ability at Time 1 were measured. One year later conscientiousness was again assessed, and 1 year after that end-of-year exam results were obtained. More than 784 students (mean age=12.3 years, SD=0.49) participated in the 1st year. The data of 563 students were matched across the 3 years. Conscientiousness tended to decrease from Time 1 to Time 2. Structural equation modeling showed that adolescents with more authoritative parents experienced less of a decrease in conscientiousness at Time 2 than did students with less authoritative parents and the same baseline level of conscientiousness at Time 1. Additionally, the decrease in conscientiousness at Time 2 predicted worse grades at Time 3, even after controlling for baseline levels of academic achievement.
College student persistence and dropout have been studied for decades, but little inquiry has focused on community college or private two-year college students. Although about half of first-time postsecondary students enroll in a two-year college, researchers understand little about why only approximately a quarter of these degree-seekers complete…
Wagner, Jeffrey P.
Overall, pretest-posttest results for achievement, behavior, and engagement for at-risk boys not eligible (n = 13) and eligible (n = 9) for participation in the free or reduced price lunch program who completed a school-year long academic support study center program were not statistically different over time and end of school year for cumulative…
This report is published every other year in an effort to evaluate Tidewater Community College's (TCC) (Virginia) effectiveness in preparing students for transfer. It provides an analysis of TCC students who transferred to a four-year institution in Virginia beginning in fall 1999 or fall 2000. Students must have completed 12 or more credits at…
This report provides an analysis of Tidewater Community College (TCC) (Virginia) students who transferred to a four-year institution in Virginia beginning in fall 1996 or 1997. The following topics are discussed: overview of the transfer process; acceptance and enrollment rates for each of the four-year institutions; performance of TCC graduates…
Roksa, Josipa; Calcagno, Juan Carlos
Background/Context: Transfer from community colleges to four-year institutions remains a contentious issue in higher education, with proponents showing that students do indeed transfer to four-year institutions and opponents arguing that starting in community colleges hinders baccalaureate degree attainment. One particularly salient issue in this…
Penn-Edwards, Sorrel; Donnison, Sharn
The need for a redefinition of first year experience in higher education is advocated with the aid of two models, which, although focused on a sample of Australian pre-service teaching students, is proposed as generalisable across the first year. Introduction to the mores of higher education is generally supported by teaching institutions during…
Lifton, Donald; Cohen, Alan; Schlesinger, Warren
Academic departments have expanded the typical persistence agenda of First-Year Seminars to use them specifically as tools for in-major retention. This article reports the empirical results of a four-year longitudinal study assessing the successful efforts to improve the persistence-to-graduation-within-major of business students. The pedagogy can…
Standards for Academic and Professional Instruction in Foundations of Education, Educational Studies, and Educational Policy Studies Third Edition, 2012, Draft Presented to the Educational Community by the American Educational Studies Association's Committee on Academic Standards and Accreditation
Tutwiler, Sandra Winn; deMarrais, Kathleen; Gabbard, David; Hyde, Andrea; Konkol, Pamela; Li, Huey-li; Medina, Yolanda; Rayle, Joseph; Swain, Amy
This third edition of the "Standards for Academic and Professional Instruction in Foundations of Education, Educational Studies, and Educational Policy Studies" is presented to the educational community by the American Educational Studies Association's Committee on Academic Standards and Accreditation. The Standards were first developed and…
Schoenfelder, Erin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wolchik, Sharlene; Sandler, Irwin N.
Experiencing the death of a parent during childhood is associated with a variety of difficulties, including lower academic achievement, that have implications for functioning in childhood and adulthood. This study examines effects of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a preventive intervention for parentally-bereaved youth and their caregivers, on grade point averages (GPA), educational expectations and job aspirations of youths 6 years after the intervention. A total of 244 bereaved youths ages 8-16 and their caregivers were randomized to either the FBP or a comparison group that received books about bereavement. Assessments occurred at pretest, post-test, and 11-month and 6-year follow-ups. Direct program effects on educational outcomes and job aspirations 6 years later were non-significant, although the program improved educational expectations for children with fewer behavior problems at program entry, and GPA for younger children. Mediational pathways for program effects on educational outcomes were also tested. Program-induced improvements in effective parenting at 11-month follow-up were associated with higher GPAs at 6-year follow-up for youth who were younger or for whom more time had passed since the loss. Program-induced improvements in parenting and teacher-rated youth mental health problems at the 6-year follow-up mediated program effects on youths’ educational expectations for those with fewer behavior problems at program entry. The implications of these findings for understanding processes related to academic and educational outcomes following the death of a parent and for prevention efforts to help bereaved and other high-risk children succeed in school are discussed. PMID:25052624
Schoenfelder, Erin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wolchik, Sharlene; Sandler, Irwin N
Experiencing the death of a parent during childhood is associated with a variety of difficulties, including lower academic achievement, that have implications for functioning in childhood and adulthood. This study examines effects of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a preventive intervention for parentally-bereaved youth and their caregivers, on grade point averages (GPA), educational expectations and job aspirations of youths 6 years after the intervention. A total of 244 bereaved youths ages 8-16 and their caregivers were randomized to either the FBP or a comparison group that received books about bereavement. Assessments occurred at pretest, post-test, and 11-month and 6-year follow-ups. Direct program effects on educational outcomes and job aspirations 6 years later were non-significant, although the program improved educational expectations for children with fewer behavior problems at program entry, and GPA for younger children. Mediational pathways for program effects on educational outcomes were also tested. Program-induced improvements in effective parenting at 11-month follow-up were associated with higher GPAs at 6-year follow-up for youth who were younger or for whom more time had passed since the loss. Program-induced improvements in parenting and teacher-rated youth mental health problems at the 6-year follow-up mediated program effects on youths' educational expectations for those with fewer behavior problems at program entry. The implications of these findings for understanding processes related to academic and educational outcomes following the death of a parent and for prevention efforts to help bereaved and other high-risk children succeed in school are discussed.
Hoong, Leong Yew; Phyllis, Joseph; Ling, Lee Hui; Wei, Felicia Tan Yi; Hassan, Herma Ayuni Binte; Yih, Tay Hui
This article describes a lesson study on the area of a parallelogram for year 7 students. In Singapore, students in secondary schools are streamed into ability bands. Normal (Academic) is the label for the middle band. The teachers were convinced that Lesson Study provided a valuable platform for professional development. The authors followed the…
Evans, Nancy J.
This qualitative case study, framed by a constructivist perspective, addresses a deficit in the literature and the knowledge base of a first year experience (FYE) academic program at a large, urban university regarding freshmen perceptions of meaningfulness in their courses. Existing studies identify concepts related to meaningfulness, but do not…
Homer, Gina M.
This qualitative research study focuses on retention of first-year learners by exploring three variables: academic support, social support, and coping strategies. The research method is grounded theory founded by Glaser, B. and Strauss, A. (1967). The philosophical assumptions of the study are Constructivist and Advocacy/Participatory knowledge…
Reisinger, Kelsy B.; Rutledge, Patricia C.; Conklin, Sarah M.
The role of beliefs about academic integrity in college students' decisions to use nonmedical prescription drugs (NMPDs) in academic settings was examined. In Spring 2012 the authors obtained survey data from 645 participants at a small, undergraduate, private liberal arts institution in the Northeastern United States. A broadcast e-mail message…
The Meyerhoff Scholarship Program, which celebrated its 20(th) year in 2008, is considered a successful intervention program for increasing the number of underrepresented minorities who earn PhDs or MD/PhDs and pursue research careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This article examines the relationship between participation in one specific component of the Meyerhoff Scholarship Program-on-campus, academic year research-and the pursuit of a STEM PhD by thirteen cohorts of program participants. The results indicate that participation in on-campus, academic year research is associated with a substantial increase in the probability of pursuing a STEM PhD. They further suggest that the structure and intensity of the on-campus, academic year research experience matter.