Lohman, David F.; Gambrell, James L.
Language-reduced (nonverbal) ability tests are the primary talent identification tools for ELL children. The appropriate use of such tests with low-SES and minority children is more nuanced. Whenever language-reduced tests are used for talent identification, nonverbal tests that measure more than figural reasoning abilities should be employed. For…
WOMACK, MARGARET; AND OTHERS
A PROGRAM PROVIDING TALENTED CHILDREN WITH THE OPPORTUNITY TO COMPLETE THE FOURTH, FIFTH, AND SIXTH GRADES IN 2 YEARS IS GIVEN. ENRICHMENT GROUPS ARE PROVIDED FOR CHILDREN WHO WILL NOT BENEFIT FROM ACCELERATION. THE PURPOSES OF THE PROGRAM ARE TO DEVELOP BASIC SKILLS, HABITS OF EFFECTIVE THINKING, CITIZENSHIP, LEADERSHIP, SELF-KNOWLEDGE,…
Karnes, Merle B.; And Others
This teaching guide suggests practical ideas for encouraging mathematics talent in preschool children. It is part of a series of similar guides developed by the RAPYHT Project (Retrieval and Acceleration of Promising Young Handicapped and Talented) for educating gifted/talented handicapped children and gifted children with no handicaps. A list of…
Gavin, M. Katherine; Firmender, Janine M.; Casa, Tutita M.
What is math talent? Ten different educators will most likely provide 10 different answers. Researchers state that one reason mathematical talent is difficult to describe involves the different ways children manifest math talent. Children can display math talent in three different ways: (a) those who reason abstractly and have an "algebraic…
Rushneck, Amy S.
Talent Development Centers are just one of many tools every family, teacher, and gifted advocate should have in their tool box. To understand the importance of Talent Development Centers, it is essential to also understand the Academic Talent Search Program. Talent Search participants who obtain scores comparable to college-bound high school…
This article aims to describe how schools should structure the development of academic talent at all levels of the K-12 educational system. Adopting as its theoretical framework the "Differentiating Model of Giftedness and Talent," the author proposes (a) a formal definition of academic talent development (ATD) inspired by the principles…
Lohman, David F.
The cultural and socioeconomic diversity of the U.S. school population is now and long has been underrepresented in programs for academically advanced students (see, e.g., Donovan & Cross, 2002; Marland, 1972). In the past decade, however, educators have offered several proposals for increasing the diversity of programs for the gifted and talented…
Makel, Matthew C.; Wai, Jonathan; Putallaz, Martha; Malone, Patrick S.
Despite growing concern about the need to develop talent across the globe, relatively little empirical research has examined how students develop their academic talents. Toward this end, the current study explored how academically talented students from the United States and India spend their time both in and out of school. Indian students…
Garn, Alex C.; Matthews, Michael S.; Jolly, Jennifer L.
Parents play a key role in developing their children's academic motivation, and parents of children with gifts and talents also may face additional parenting challenges that are less commonly faced by parents of average-ability learners whose needs are more readily met in the school setting. School psychologists may be charged with addressing…
Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.
Time perspective is a useful psychological construct associated with educational outcomes (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004) and may prove fruitful for research focusing on academically talented adolescents. Thus, the relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement was examined among 722 academically talented middle and…
George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.
The transcript of a radio program on gifted and talented children includes interviews with psychoanalysts, educators, and federal officials (including B. Bettelheim, J. Renzulli, B. Boston, and D. Sisk), as well as with parents and five gifted children. Topics considered include identification, separation of gifted students, teaching approaches,…
Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi; Campbell, James Reed
The main goal of this paper is to investigate cross-cultural factors that predict academic ability among mathematically gifted Olympians in Finland and the United States. The following two research problems are formulated: (1) What factors contribute to or impede the development of the Olympians' mathematic talent? and (2) Do the Olympians fulfill…
HARTSHORN, WILLIAM C.; AND OTHERS
BY THE IMPLEMENTATION OF WHATEVER RECOMMENDED PRACTICES ARE FOUND TO BE APPROPRIATE FOR A PARTICULAR SCHOOL, IT IS BELIEVED THAT GREATER MEANING CAN BE GIVEN TO THE TEACHING OF MUSIC NOT ONLY FOR THE ACADEMICALLY TALENTED STUDENT, BUT FOR ALL STUDENTS, THUS ENRICHING THE ENTIRE SCHOOL PROGRAM. THE PURPOSE OF THE MUSIC PROGRAM FOR THE ACADEMICALLY…
Parker, Wayne D.
Birth-order position was studied among 828 academically talented sixth-grade students. When compared to census data, the sample was disproportionately composed of first-born students. However, this effect was largely explained by the covariate of family size, with small families over represented among the gifted. Other findings indicated no…
Adelson, Jill L.
The topic of perfectionism is bound to surface when discussing the social and emotional development of gifted children and adolescents. The author has observed gifted and talented fourth graders who have exhibited perfectionism in a myriad of unhealthy ways. She was able to document and categorize the manifestations of perfectionism. In this…
Stephens, Kristen Renee
The present study was designed to examine the relationship between the criterion variables of science-related attitudes and the predictor variables of gender, self-concept, ethnic origin, mother's occupation, father's occupation, socioeconomic status, and achievement in academically talented students. One hundred and sixty-seven students in grades 11 and 12 from a residential math and science high school in Alabama were administered the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA; Fraser, 1981), the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (Piers & Harris, 1969), and a general information questionnaire. Multiple linear regression consisting of canonical correlation, semi-partial correlation, and Manova were used to test the hypotheses of this study. Results indicate that students had favorable attitudes towards science. Significant interactions were found between gender and achievement for the Adoption of Scientific Attitude subtest with high achieving females having more favorable attitudes on this variable followed by low achieving males. Additionally, significant interactions were found between self-concept and achievement and between mother's occupation and father's occupation on the Attitude Toward Normality of Scientists subtest. High achievers with high self-concept obtained the highest scores while low achievers with low self-concept obtained the lowest scores on the Attitude Toward Normality of Scientist subtest. Subjects with fathers and mothers in science occupations obtained the highest scores on the Attitude Toward Normality of Scientist subtest while subjects with a father in a nonscience occupation and a mother in a science occupation obtained the lowest scores. The lowest scores were found in Leisure Interest in Science regardless of gender, self-concept, ethnic origin, mother's occupation, father's occupation, socioeconomic status, or achievement.
Schroth, Stephen T.; Helfer, Jason A.
Experts have developed varying, and sometimes conflicting, conceptions of academic talent and giftedness. Classroom and school composition often are tied to these conceptions of academic talent and giftedness, and magnet and charter schools select certain students who best "ft" their particular conception of giftedness. Educators' perceptions and…
The research base on cooperative learning was examined for its applicability to academically talented students. Common types of cooperative learning are described with highlights of the model characteristics as they apply to academically talented students. The models include: Teams-Games-Tournament (TGT); Student Teams Achievement Divisions…
Perrone, Kristin M.; Perrone, Philip A.; Ksiazak, Tracy M.; Wright, Stephen L.; Jackson, Z. Vance
Definitions of giftedness and self-perceptions of abilities were examined among adults who have been participating in a longitudinal study of academically talented students since their high-school graduation in 1988. For the present study, participants answered open-ended questions and completed scales measuring adult giftedness and adult…
Stewart, Krista J.
This conference paper describes trends in federal policy for education of the academically talented in mathematics, science, and technology. Education legislation considered by the 100th Congress has stressed the themes of creating "equity" and "access." The greatest emphasis has been put on education of the gifted and talented. Proposed…
Hellerman, Susan B., Ed.
This document consists of the five consecutive issues of the journal "Imagine..." published during volume year 3. Typical journal articles cover teaching academically talented secondary students in the following focus areas: (1) learning anywhere and everywhere; (2) accessing distance learning; (3) developing talent in the arts; (4) considering…
Reviewed are centering techniques to help gifted and talented students stimulate and further develop the ability to incubate, or to pay attention to the imagery continuously going on in the brain's right hemisphere. (CL)
Wilgosh, Lorraine; And Others
This conference panel presentation includes five papers on the implications of inclusive education for gifted and talented children. "The Case for Ability Grouping of Gifted Students" (Carolyn Yewchuk) summarizes research results showing that greatest gains were found in programs that grouped high ability children together and provided a…
Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R.
There is a paucity of research focusing on the needs of gifted children and their families, in particular, there is a lack of empirically supported parenting strategies to help parents in parenting their gifted child. This article provides an overview of the literature on difficulties experienced by parents of gifted and talented children,…
Poston, Dudley L., Jr.; Falbo, Toni
Using data from a 1987 survey of 1,460 schoolchildren, their parents and teachers, in urban and rural areas of Changchun, China, examines academic and personality outcomes in only children. Finds results similar to Western surveys: only children are more likely to be academically talented. Reveals, however, Chinese rural only children do not score…
The Johns Hopkins University Center for Talented Youth (CTY) is celebrating 25 years of working with gifted children both in the USA and from throughout the world. Beginning in 1979, its mission has been to identify students of exceptional academic promise and to offer them distinctive and challenging educational opportunities. More than one…
Hellerman, Susan B., Ed.
This document consists of the five consecutive issues of the journal "Imagine..." published during volume year 2. Typical journal articles cover teaching academically talented secondary students in the following focus areas: (1) mathematical problem solving; (2) the humanities; (3) academic summer programs; (4) science and technology; and (5)…
This paper reports findings from a study of Finnish academic Olympians of different ages who participated in Olympiad Studies in mathematics, physics, or chemistry during the years 1965-1997. The study focused special interest on the influences of home and school in contributing to the development of academic talent. The results of the Finnish…
Levy, Jacob J.; Plucker, Jonathan A.
This paper introduces a model of multicultural competence targeted at school counselors who work or may work with gifted and talented children. The model is designed as an extension of the Multicultural Counseling Competence framework (Sue, D. W., 2001). The present model outlines three competencies believed to be important to efficacious…
Marshall, Stephanie Pace; McGee, Glenn W.; McLaren, Eric; Veal, Catherine C.
This article describes the work of the Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy[R] (IMSA). Three "case stories" of students from IMSA illuminate some of the: (1) challenges and opportunities inherent in igniting science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) talent in urban youth and ensuring their success; (2) principles for designing…
Hartman, Melissa E., Ed.
These five issues of a magazine designed for highly gifted and talented secondary students address marine science, anthropology and archaeology, making the most of summer, medicine and health sciences, and the World Wide Web. Featured articles include: (1) "The Ocean's Call: How My Love for the Ocean Grew into a Career" (Jessica Schulman Farrar);…
Jarvin, Linda; Subotnik, Rena F.
First we describe one particular model of talent development (Jarvin and Subotnik in The handbook of secondary gifted education. Prufrock Press, Waco, 2006) and situate it in perspective to other models developed in North America and Europe. We then discuss the implications of this view of giftedness on education and review related resources and…
This study utilized the flow theory of intrinsic motivation to evaluate the subjective experience of 78 academically talented high school sophomores participating in an 8-day summer research apprenticeship program in materials and nuclear science. The program involved morning lectures on such topics as physics of electromagnetic radiation, energy…
Hartman, Melissa E., Ed.
Designed to encourage gifted students to develop their talents, the first issue in the volume focuses on academic competitions and includes articles on: "The Joys of Competition"; "Why Bother with Math Contests?" (Sam Vandervelde); "Science Competitions"; Humanities Competitions"; "Designing in Metal" (Cody Chance); and "Discovering My Chinese…
Siegle, Del; Wilson, Hope E.; Little, Catherine A.
Despite extensive research supporting its use, including the 2004 publication of "A Nation Deceived," acceleration is an underutilized strategy for meeting the academic needs of gifted and talented students. Parents' and educators' attitudes and beliefs about acceleration influence the extent to which it is implemented in schools. This study…
Young, Adena Elizabeth
The purpose of this dissertation was to examine metacognition among academically talented middle and high school mathematics students from both educational psychology and mathematics education perspectives. A synthesis of the literatures and three studies employing quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodologies were used to address three…
Hellerman, Susan B., Ed.
This document consists of the five consecutive issues of the journal "Imagine..." published during volume year 4. Typical journal articles cover teaching academically talented secondary students in the following focus areas: (1) planning ahead for college; (2) history and archaeology; (3) physics and astronomy; (4) the global society; and (5)…
LUCITO, LEONARD J.; OWENSBY, NONA E.
THE GOALS OF THE CONFERENCE WERE TO AROUSE THE INTEREST OF COMMUNITIES IN TENNESSEE AND THE MID-SOUTH IN THE ACADEMICALLY TALENTED, TO INFORM BOTH PROFESSIONAL AND LAY PEOPLE ABOUT CURRENT THEORY AND PRACTICES IN THIS AREA OF EDUCATION, TO SUGGEST SPECIFIC PILOT PROJECTS FOR LAY GROUPS SUBJECT TO THE APPROVAL OF THEIR BOARDS OF EDUCATION, AND TO…
Hartman, Melissa E., Ed.
This document consists of the five consecutive issues of the journal "Imagine..." published during volume year 5. Typical journal articles cover teaching academically talented secondary students in the following focus areas: (1) biological science and medicine; (2) literature, language, and linguistics; (3) public service and politics; (4)…
In addition to providing useful skills, education may also yield valuable information about one's tastes and talents. This paper exploits an exogenous difference in the timing of academic specialization within the British system of higher education to test whether education provides such information. I develop a model in which individuals, by…
Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.
In this study, the authors examined the reliability, structural validity, and concurrent validity of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) scores in a group of 815 academically talented adolescents. Reliability estimates of the purported factors' scores were in the low to moderate range. Exploratory factor analysis supported a five-factor…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Part 691 Academic Competitiveness Grant (ACG) and National Science and Mathematics Access To Retain Talent Grant (National Smart Grant) Programs CFR Correction In Title 34 of the Code of...
This pamphlet examines the limitations of traditional identification strategies as they are applied to children from minority and nontraditional cultural backgrounds, and then suggests more effective alternatives. Conventional group tests are criticized for not providing a sufficient basis for addressing students' needs with regard to enrichment.…
White, Alan J.
The Connecticut Program for Handicapped/Talented Children was designed to devise an assessment procedure for documenting developed or potential talent in handicapped children and to provide program services for handicapped children with high creative potential. Multi-arts experiences in the areas of visual arts, music, and theatre-movement have…
SCIENCE FOR THE ACADEMICALLY TALENTED STUDENT IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOL, REPORT OF A CONFERENCE SPONSORED JOINTLY BY THE NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION PROJECT ON THE ACADEMICALLY TALENTED STUDENT AND THE NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION.
DONALDSON, ROBERT R.
RESULTS OF A JOINT NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION-NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION CONFERENCE ON SCIENCE FOR ACADEMICALLY TALENTED STUDENTS ARE REPORTED. MAJOR TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE TALENTED STUDENT, (2) GUIDELINES FOR THE SELECTION OF COURSE CONTENT, (3) TEACHING METHODS, AND (4) DESIRABLE QUALITIES AND…
Thomas, Terry A.
Academic Talent Search (ATS) provided advanced instruction in a 6-week summer school for talented middle school students on the campus of California State University, Sacramento. A survey was conducted to examine the long-term impact of the ATS program on students over a period of 7 years. Data were collected pertaining to high school and college…
Universities UK, 2007
This policy briefing aims to raise awareness and understanding among policy-makers and UK higher institutions of the international dimensions of academic staff recruitment and the factors that may influence it. This briefing summarises recent research and considers its implications for institutions and for national policies. Annex A contains:…
Kaenzig, Lisa M.
The importance of science in our society continues to increase, as the needs of the global culture and the problems of the world's growing populations affect resources internationally (DeLisi, 2008; Fischman, 2007; Park, 2008). The need for qualified and experienced scientists to solve complex problems is important to the future of the United States. Models of success for women in STEM disciplines are important to improve the recruitment and retention of women in academic science. This study serves as an examination of the facilitators and barriers---including external factors and internal characteristics---on the talent development process of successful women academic scientists. Since there are few studies relating specifically to the career experiences of successful women in academic science careers (Ceci & Williams, 2007; Wasserman, 2000; Xie & Shauman, 2003), a literature review was conducted that examined the (1) the gifted literature on women, including the eminence literature; (2) the higher education literature on women faculty and academic science, and (3) the literature related to the internal characteristics and external factors that influence the talent development process. The final section of the literature review includes a literature map (Creswell, 2009) outlining the major studies cited in this chapter. The conclusion, based on a critical analysis of the literature review, outlines the need for this study. The current study utilizes the framework of Gagne's differentiated talent development model for gifted individuals (Gagne, 1985, 1991) to examine the themes cited in multiple studies that influence the talent development process. Through a mixed-design methodology (Creswell, 2009) that incorporates quantitative and qualitative analysis using a survey and follow-up interviews with selected participants, this study seeks to explore the effects of internal characteristics, external influences, significant events, and experiences on the success of
Kaenzig, Lisa M.
The importance of science in our society continues to increase, as the needs of the global culture and the problems of the world's growing populations affect resources internationally (DeLisi, 2008; Fischman, 2007; Park, 2008). The need for qualified and experienced scientists to solve complex problems is important to the future of the United States. Models of success for women in STEM disciplines are important to improve the recruitment and retention of women in academic science. This study serves as an examination of the facilitators and barriers---including external factors and internal characteristics---on the talent development process of successful women academic scientists. Since there are few studies relating specifically to the career experiences of successful women in academic science careers (Ceci & Williams, 2007; Wasserman, 2000; Xie & Shauman, 2003), a literature review was conducted that examined the (1) the gifted literature on women, including the eminence literature; (2) the higher education literature on women faculty and academic science, and (3) the literature related to the internal characteristics and external factors that influence the talent development process. The final section of the literature review includes a literature map (Creswell, 2009) outlining the major studies cited in this chapter. The conclusion, based on a critical analysis of the literature review, outlines the need for this study. The current study utilizes the framework of Gagne's differentiated talent development model for gifted individuals (Gagne, 1985, 1991) to examine the themes cited in multiple studies that influence the talent development process. Through a mixed-design methodology (Creswell, 2009) that incorporates quantitative and qualitative analysis using a survey and follow-up interviews with selected participants, this study seeks to explore the effects of internal characteristics, external influences, significant events, and experiences on the success of
Karnes, Frances A.; Riley, Tracy L.
This article discusses the need for competitions and contests in schools to develop and enhance talents in academics, fine and performing arts, leadership, and service learning. An academic contest school assessment checklist is included. Information on several national contests for children and youth is presented. (CR)
A study of 1,283 academically talented junior high students found that males had higher scores on three of the four subtests of the Spatial Test Battery of the Institute for the Academic Advancement of Youth. Females scored higher on the visual memory test and spent more time on the tests. (Author/CR)
Eriksson, Gillian I.
Described is a K-12 integrative arts program of the Schmerenbeck Educational Centre, Johannesburg, South Africa, designed to help gifted and talented children develop an understanding of the nature of creative thinking as expressed through different art forms. The report discusses how the program defines talent; how gifted students are identified…
Steele, Jennifer L.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.
This study capitalizes on a natural experiment that occurred in California between 2000 and 2002. In those years, the state offered a competitively allocated $20,000 incentive called the Governor's Teaching Fellowship (GTF) aimed at attracting academically talented, novice teachers to low-performing schools and retaining them in those schools for…
Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Lee, Seon-Young
Based on survey responses from 187 parents of students who attended the Saturday Enrichment Program (SEP) at the Center for Talent Development (CTD) of Northwestern University, this study showed that overall, parents perceived favorable effects of the program on their children's talent development, especially academic talent development. As a…
Wu, Echo H.
This paper explores the influence of parenting beliefs and practices on children's talent development through a specific perspective of several Chinese American families with gifted children. In-depth interviews were employed to collect data from the parents, and research questions focused on the daily practice of parenting and parents' beliefs…
Online Submission, 2004
The journey for children who are gifted and talented can be exciting and challenging. There are so many twists and turns, detours, and confusing signs that many parents feel they need some sort of road map to guide their children on this journey. Because each child is different, there is no one road map to follow. What this handbook can offer…
Spencer, Melody, Ed.; Hersh, Leonard R., Ed.
Designed to challenge the special abilities of musically talented and gifted elementary level students, this Gateways music curriculum guide presents enrichment programs that enhance, rather than supplant, the regular music program. Part 1 describes this program's philosophy, which is based upon Joseph Renzulli's Enrichment Triad Model which…
Kiewra, Kenneth A.
In his work, psychologist Benjamin Bloom concluded that almost all people can learn anything if provided with the right conditions, and that when a child commits to a talent area, parents must commit as well. Author Ken Kiewra studied real-world prodigies in various domains and shares his perspective on the conditions necessary for success and on…
In this article, the author shares his experience teaching production technology to special education students at Hialeah Middle School in Miami-Dade County, Florida. He has had many students who clearly had talent in graphics and design that went unrealized because of their physical disabilities. He has seen students with an enormous amount of…
Ford, Donna Y.; Harris, J. John, III
This article examines barriers to recognition of and assistance for gifted and talented Black students. Rationales for reexamining current theories and definitions are discussed and arguments made for broadening theories of giftedness to better include Black students. Suggestions are made for change and a list of considerations for educators…
Palak, Zofia; Kirenko, Janusz; Gindrich, Piotr; Kazanowski, Zdzislaw; Pielecki, Andrzej
The paper is devoted to the review of our research with respect to the Polish special education student teachers' readiness to work with gifted and talented children. The research covered not only special education students but also their peers who represented other pedagogical specialisations. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the level of…
Motivation in mathematics and science appears to be more important to STEM occupational choice than ability. Using the expectancy value model, parents may be able to recognize potential barriers to children's selection of a STEM occupation and take actions to help facilitate talent development. These are especially important for parents of…
Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA. National Clearinghouse for the Gifted and Talented.
The annotated directory lists approximately 46 national and state resources, and organizations as of June, 1973 which serve gifted and talented children and youth. The listings include region or state covered, name of person or office to contact, name of organization or office, telephone number, and in some cases a short description of function…
The monograph presents a model for identifying gifted/talented children which is based on a multidimensional concept of intelligence, designed to include the less accepted school population in its initial search, and tied to a staff development program for teachers who must be part of the screening process. Rationale for the Multi-Dimensional…
Utilizing data on approximately 16,000 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort and a rich set of mediating factors on 16 immigrant groups, this paper examined the associations between children's immigrant generation status and their academic performance. The changes in academic achievements during kindergarten and…
Australian Commonwealth Schools Commission, Canberra.
The document contains proceedings from a seminar on the education of gifted and talented children in Australia. The keynote address, "Expectations for Educating the Gifted and Talented" delivered by R. Strom, is divided into five main sections: school expectations (goal setting and motivation, scope of learning, mental health and stress); teacher…
A study done in 2006 found that two-thirds of gifted children reported having been bullied. All children are affected adversely by bullying but gifted children differ from other children in significant ways. Many are intense, sensitive and stressed by their own and others' high expectations and their ability, interests and behavior may make them…
Bradley, Andrew P.
This paper explores human resource management practices in the university sector with a specific focus on talent pools and talent management more generally. The paper defines talent management in the context of the university sector and then explores its interdependence with organisational strategy, the metrics used to measure academic performance…
Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer
Reports a cross-sectional investigation of the link between community violence exposure and academic difficulties for 237 urban elementary school children. Analyses indicated that community violence exposure was associated with poor academic performance. These relations appear to be mediated by symptoms of depression and disruptive behavior.…
In this account I explore and clarify my responsibility as I explain how I have come to my current understanding of talent creation, and why I feel it is so important to develop an inclusive approach to talent creation which provides opportunities for all the children to develop talents through their time at school, and to have them recognised and…
Wittberg, Richard A.; Northrup, Karen L.; Cottrel, Lesley
Background: Childhood obesity is a major public health threat. Increased fitness may have a positive influence on cognitive performance in both adults and children. Purpose: To examine which aspects of children's fitness assessment are associated with their performance on four different academic areas. Methods: FITNESSGRAM measures aerobic…
This article explored the effects of the labeling that has become commonplace in schools. Theories such as labeling theory, control theory, the Pygmalion effect, and stigma theory provide evidence of the power labeling has to negatively and positively affect children's beliefs about themselves as well as the perceptions others have of them.…
Cho, Seokhee; Campbell, James Reed
Differential influences of various family processes for students of science talent and students in general education from Grades 4 to 12 and Science Olympians in Korea were examined by administering Korean Inventory of Parental Influence. Korean Science Olympians were additionally interviewed about their family and school experiences. Family…
Krause, Claire S.
The report describes Creative Resources Enriching Student Talents (C.R.E.S.T.), a Title IVC project designed to encourage individual creative growth in gifted/talented children by stimulating them to solve problems within the areas of academics and the creative arts; the program is used in elementary schools in Lebanon, a rural Connecticut…
Arancibia, Violeta; Lissi, Maria Rosa; Narea, Marigen
The study explores the consequences, for participating schools, of the implementation of a system for the identification and selection of academically talented students, in the context of an extracurricular enrichment program operating at Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile. The participants were 73 students, 50 teachers, and seven members of…
Sheffield, Caroline C.
Appropriate education for academically talented students incorporates the use of complex thinking skills, and encourages the development of interpersonal and leadership skills. One potential tool to achieve these goals is the use of instructional technology. Siegle (2004a, 2005) suggests that it is particularly appropriate to utilize technology…
Face to Face with Giftedness. First Yearbook of the World Council for Gifted and Talented Children. Developed from Selected Presentations at the World Conference on Gifted and Talented Children (4th, Montreal, Canada, August 1981).
Shore, Bruce M., Ed.; And Others
Thirty-two author-contributed chapters were selected from 369 papers presented at the 1981 World Conference on Gifted and Talented Children. Authors included psychologists, educators, geneticists, researchers, and sociologists. Papers address five topics (sample subtopics in parentheses): social contexts (parent and family role, gifted adults at…
Kinard, E. Milling
Comparison of maltreated (N=195) and non-maltreated (N=179) children found the maltreated children had significantly lower academic achievement scores but did not differ on perceived academic competence. Maltreated children were more likely to overestimate their level of competence, particularly for reading and arithmetic. Also, children with low…
My enquiry, which formed the subject of my Master's module on gifts and talents in education in 2008, was part of my journey as a classroom teacher during a pressured year when the Office for Standards in Education (UK) gave our school "notice to improve." I specifically write "our school" as this is what the children called it…
Three activity booklets are presented for implementing Project EAGLE, an enrichment program for gifted and talented kindergarten children. The first activity booklet contains a poem by J. D. Evans titled "In Search of the Xanthus," which describes the search for an imaginary beast that leaves an "X" on the spot where it used to be. The second…
Six thematic activity booklets are presented for implementing Project EAGLE, an enrichment program for gifted and talented primary-level children. "Animals 3" introduces endangered animals and locates their home areas on maps or globes, using nine learning activities involving science and creative writing. "Magnets" discusses what magnets are and…
Five activity booklets are presented for implementing Project EAGLE, an enrichment program for gifted and talented primary-level children. The first booklet, "Sound," contains four activity pages to accompany teaching of the concept that sound is transmitted through air to the ear. The "Groups 1" booklet provides nine enrichment activities…
Confronted with the processes of massification, commercialisation, internationalisation and reduced funding, universities also face an ageing academic workforce, with implications of a shrinking pool from which to recruit managerial and research leaders. A feminist analysis suggests that the policy problematic has been wrongly conceptualised as…
Carroll, Karen Lee
Art education is an interdisciplinary field in the sense that it requires a mix of studio practice with theory and academic-style learning. Teachers teach philosophy and theory drawn from psychology, social sciences, history, and the humanities. Helping students be successful readers, writers, speakers, and test-takers are goals shared with those…
Despite much evidence that links mothers' educational attainment to children's academic outcomes, studies have not established whether increases in mothers' education will improve their children's academic achievement. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on children between the ages of 6 and 12, this study examined whether…
Epping, Amanda S.; Myrvik, Matthew P.; Newby, Robert F.; Panepinto, Julie A.; Brandow, Amanda M.; Scott, J. Paul
Background: Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) demonstrate deficits in cognitive and academic functioning. This study compared the academic attainment of children with SCD relative to national, state, and local school district rates for African American students. Methods: A retrospective chart review of children with SCD was completed and…
Drake, Jennifer E.; Winner, Ellen
A local processing bias in the block design task and in drawing strategy has been used to account for realistic drawing skill in individuals with autism. We investigated whether the same kind of local processing bias is seen in typically developing children with unusual skill in realistic graphic representation. Forty-three 5–11-year-olds who drew a still life completed a version of the block design task in both standard and segmented form, were tested for their memory for the block design items, and were given the Kaufmann Brief Intelligence Test-II. Children were classified as gifted, moderately gifted or typical on the basis of the level of realism in their drawings. Similar to autistic individuals, the gifted group showed a local processing bias in the block design task. But unlike autistic individuals, the gifted group showed a global advantage in the visual memory task and did not use a local drawing strategy; in addition, their graphic realism skill was related to verbal IQ. Differences in the extent of local processing bias in autistic and typically developing children with drawing talent are discussed. PMID:19528030
Yurk Quadlin, Natasha
Sociologists have extensively documented the ways that parent resources predict children's achievement. However, less is known about whether and how children's academic performance shapes parental investment behaviors. I use data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and longitudinal fixed effects models to examine how changes in teacher assessments are related to changes in the conferral of various parent resources. Overall, I find that the relationship between achievement and investment varies based on the directionality in children's achievement and the type of resource at hand. Children whose performance improves receive a broad range of enrichment resources, while declines in performance are met with corrective educational resources. Results are largely consistent whether language or math assessments are used to predict investment, and also among children whose achievement does not change over time. I discuss these patterns, along with implications for the use of parent resources in education and family research. PMID:26004488
Wehby, George L.; Barron, Sheila; Romitti, Paul A.; Ansley, Timothy N.; Speltz, Matthew L.
Objective To compare academic achievement in children with oral-facial clefts (OFC) with their unaffected siblings. Methods 256 children with OFC were identified from the Iowa Registry for Congenital and Inherited Disorders, and 387 unaffected siblings were identified from birth certificates. These data were linked to Iowa Testing Programs achievement data. We compared academic achievement in children with OFC with their unaffected siblings using linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. In post hoc analyses, we explored modifiers of siblings’ academic performance. Results Achievement scores were similar between children with OFC and their siblings. Children with cleft palate only were significantly more likely to use special education than their unaffected siblings. Siblings’ academic achievement was inversely related to distance in birth order and age from the affected child. Conclusion Children with OFC and their siblings received similar achievement scores. Younger siblings, in particular, may share a vulnerability to poor academic outcomes. PMID:24993102
Bashir, Anthony S.; Scavuzzo, Annebelle
This article addresses the academic difficulties of children with language disorders (including dyslexia) and suggests that their persistent academic vulnerability results from the lifelong need to acquire language, to learn with language, and to apply language knowledge for academic learning and social development. The need for continuing…
Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Haugen, Rg; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Liew, Jeffrey; Kupfer, Anne
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to test the premise that children's effortful control (EC) is prospectively related to their academic achievement and to specify mechanisms through which EC is related to academic success. We used data from 214 children (M age at Time 1 [T1] = 73 months) to test whether social functioning (e.g.,…
Graziano, Paulo A.; Reavis, Rachael D.; Keane, Susan P.; Calkins, Susan D.
This study investigated the role of emotion regulation in children's early academic success using a sample of 325 kindergarteners. A mediational analysis addressed the potential mechanisms through which emotion regulation relates to children's early academic success. Results indicated that emotion regulation was positively associated with teacher…
Graziano, Paulo A.; Reavis, Rachael D.; Keane, Susan P.; Calkins, Susan D.
This study investigated the role of children's emotion regulation skills and academic success in kindergarten, using a sample of 325 five-year-old children. A mediational analysis addressed the potential mechanisms through which emotion regulation relates to children's early academic success. Results indicated that emotion regulation was positively associated with teacher reports of children's academic success and productivity in the classroom and standardized early literacy and math achievement scores. Contrary to predictions, child behavior problems and the quality of the student teacher relationship did not mediate these relations. However, emotion regulation and the quality of the student-teacher relationship uniquely predicted academic outcomes even after accounting for IQ. Findings are discussed in terms of how emotion regulation skills facilitate children's development of a positive student-teacher relationship and cognitive processing and independent learning behavior, both of which are important for academic motivation and success. PMID:21179384
Miller, Richard C.
This digest offers guidance in identifying and nurturing mathematical talent in children. Mathematical talent is defined and the characteristics of mathematically talented students are listed. Some mathematically talented students do not achieve well in school mathematics due to a mismatch between the student and the mathematics program. Ways that…
Karnes, Merle B.; And Others
This teaching guide suggests practical ideas for encouraging intellectual talent in preschool children. It is part of a series of similar guides, developed by the RAPYHT Project (Retrieval and Acceleration of Promising Young Handicapped and Talented) for educating young gifted/talented handicapped children and gifted children with no handicaps.…
Wagmiller, Robert L., Jr.; Gershoff, Elizabeth; Veliz, Philip; Clements, Margaret
Promoting marriage, especially among low-income single mothers with children, is increasingly viewed as a promising public policy strategy for improving developmental outcomes for disadvantaged children. Previous research suggests, however, that children's academic achievement either does not improve or declines when single mothers marry. In this…
Chen, Shuang; Adams, Jennifer; Qu, Zhiyong; Wang, Xiaohua; Chen, Li
In the context of China's increasing rural-urban migration, few studies have investigated how parental migration affects children's experience in school. The high cost of schooling, taken together with the institutional barriers in destination cities, have compelled many rural parents in China to migrate without their children, leaving them in the care of their spouses, grandparents, relatives or other caregivers. Still other parents migrate with their children, many of whom then attend urban migrant schools in their destination city. Understanding the academic engagement of children of migrant workers is particularly salient because the poor qualities of migrant schools, a lack of parental support, and exposure to competing alternatives to schooling may render both migrant children in the cities and left-behind children in the rural villages vulnerable to disengagement, and ultimately school dropout. Using data collected in 2008 in the urban Haidian and Changping districts of Beijing and rural Henan and Shaanxi provinces, the authors of this paper investigate the association between parental migration status and two measures of academic engagement, academic aspirations and the odds of liking school, by comparing migrant children attending migrant schools and left-behind children with their rural counterparts who do not have migrant parents. The authors' findings show that migrant children attending migrant schools have lower academic engagement compared to rural children of non-migrant parents. The correlation between academic engagement and parental migration status can be accounted for in part by the support children receive from family and teachers. The association between certain measures of family and school support and academic engagement also varies by parental migration status: for example, high teacher turnover rates significantly reduce migrant children's odds of liking schools, but do not affect children of non-migrant parents.
Camporesi, Silvia; McNamee, Mike J
In this paper we discuss the ethics of genetics-based talent identification programs in sports. We discuss the validity and reliability of the tests and the claims made by direct to consumer companies, before presenting a range of ethical issues concerning child-parent/guardian relations raised by these tests, which we frame in terms of parental/guardian duties, children's rights, and best interests. We argue that greater ethical emphasis needs to be put on the parental decision on the wellbeing on the child going forward, not on ex post justifications on the basis of good and bad consequences. Best interests decisions made by a third party seem to comprise both subjective and objective elements, but only a holistic approach can do justice to these questions by addressing the wellbeing of the child in a temporal manner and taking into account the child's perspective on its wellbeing. Such decisions must address wider questions of what a good (sports)parent ought do to help the child flourish and how to balance the future-adult focus necessary to nurture talent with the wellbeing of the child in the present. We conclude that current genetic tests for "talent" do not predict aptitude or success to any significant degree and are therefore only marginally pertinent for talent identification. Claims that go beyond current science are culpable and attempt to exploit widespread but naïve perceptions of the efficacy of genetics information to predict athletic futures. Sports physicians and health care professionals involved in sport medicine should therefore discourage the use of these tests. PMID:26757798
DeRosier, Melissa E.; Lloyd, Stacey W.
This study tested whether social adjustment added to the prediction of academic outcomes above and beyond prior academic functioning. Researchers collected school records and peer-, teacher-, and self-report measures for 1,255 third-grade children in the fall and spring of the school year. Measures of social adjustment included social acceptance…
Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Evans, Mary Ann; Edison, Shannon; St. Pierre, Jeff; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.
We examined receptive language and academic abilities in children with selective mutism (SM; n = 30; M age = 8.8 years), anxiety disorders (n = 46; M age = 9.3 years), and community controls (n = 27; M age = 7.8 years). Receptive language and academic abilities were assessed using standardized tests completed in the laboratory. We found a…
This manual is intended to guide the development of a primary grade gifted and talented program called Project EAGLE. The program focuses on lateral enrichment, higher level cognitive domain skills, creative thinking, self-directed learning, self-awareness and acceptance, and interpersonal relationships. Students complete assignments in…
Dupuis, Diane L.
A talented child's motivation and artistic gift can suffer when the environment at home and at school are inadequately supportive. It's crucial, therefore, for parents and teachers to understand that any child's involvement in the arts can enhance overall success in academics and in later life. It's just as important to learn about the many ways…
Link, Barbara R.
The study investigated reading attitudes and interests of 30 fourth through ninth grade gifted and talented students. The data were gathered through the use of a questionnaire, which included statements with Likert type scale responses, multiple-choice, and short answers. Methods used to analyze the data were individual item analysis, analysis of…
Jacobs, Walter R., Jr.
Study of North Carolina's program for the exceptionally talented indicated a growth in enrollment which, however, remained at less than 1.5% of the public school population. Of the enrollers, 51% were in special language arts classes and 11% in self-contained classes; grade levels 9 through 12 had the highest enrollment. IQ scores ranged from 98…
Levine, Judith A.; Pollack, Harold; Comfort, Maureen E.
This paper investigates the effects of early motherhood on academic and behavioral outcomes for children born to early child bearers using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Prebirth individual and family background factors of teen mothers accounted for early motherhood's strong negative correlation with children's test scores…
Marchand, Gwen; Skinner, Ellen A.
Models of self-regulated learning and of children's coping both consider help-seeking an adaptive response to academic problems, yet students do not always seek help when it is needed, and help-seeking generally declines across early adolescence. A study of 765 children in elementary and middle school (Grades 3-6) during fall and spring of the…
Carter, John L.; Russell, Harold
The study focused on effects of electromyographic (EMG) muscle relaxation training on academic abilities of four learning disabled boys (8 to 13 years old). Ss learned to voluntarily control and decrease forearm muscular tension; and this apparently resulted in an increase in cognitive efficiency, at least as it relates to basic academic areas of…
English for the Academically Talented Student in the Secondary School. 1969 Revision of the Report of the Committee on English Programs for High School Students of Superior Ability of the National Council of Teachers of English.
Elliott, Virginia A., Ed.; Josephs, Lois S., Ed.
Introducing the essays in this publication, Virginia A. Elliott and Lois S. Josephs review the problems of teaching English to the academically talented student. Essays are by (1) Michael F. Shugrue, who surveys, from 1958 through 1968, the achievements of conferences, Curriculum Study Centers, and the Dartmouth Seminar; (2) John Simmons, who…
The Effectiveness of Training Program Based on the Six Hats Model in Developing Creative Thinking Skills and Academic Achievements in the Arabic Language Course for Gifted and Talented Jordanian Students
Ziadat, Ayed H.; Al Ziyadat, Mohammad T.
The main purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a training program based on the six hats model in developing creative thinking skills and academic achievements in the Arabic language for gifted and talented Jordanian students. The study sample consisted of 59 gifted male and female students of the 7th grade from King Abdullah…
Student Assistance General Provisions; Federal Pell Grant Program; Academic Competitiveness Grant Program; and National Science and Mathematics Access to Retain Talent Grant Program. Final Rule. Federal Register, Part IV, Department of Education, 34 CFR Parts 668, 690, and 691
National Archives and Records Administration, 2006
The Secretary is adopting as final, with changes, interim final regulations in: 34 CFR part 691 for the Academic Competitiveness Grant (ACG) and National Science and Mathematics Access to Retain Talent Grant (National SMART Grant) programs; 34 CFR part 668 (Student Assistance General Provisions); and 34 CFR part 690 (Federal Pell Grant Program).…
Rubin, David H.; And Others
Studied the effect of homelessness on cognitive and academic functioning of children 6 to 11 years old in comparison to a control group of housed children in the same classroom. Found no differences in cognitive functioning between homeless and housed children, but did find that homeless children performed significantly more poorly than housed…
Mulholland, D J; Watt, N F; Philpott, A; Sarlin, N
Parental divorce can be conceptualized as a stressful event for all children, but one must recognize that reactions to divorce can vary widely among children. This investigation was based on two basic ideas: 1) children of divorce as a group would show deficits in academic performance compared to children from intact families, even several years after their parents' separation, and 2) because factors that promote psychological resilience and vulnerability, we expected to find normal heterogeneity within the divorce sample. Among 96 middle-school adolescents from a suburban school district near Denver, children of divorce showed significant performance deficits in academic achievement, as reflected in grade-point average and scholastic motivation in middle school, but not in nationally normed tests of scholastic aptitude and other less direct measures of behavioral conformity. An analysis of GPA over time revealed strikingly disparate patterns of achievement between divorce and control groups. Corresponding patterns of scholastic aptitude scores, absence from school and comportment revealed no systematic differences over time. These results suggest strongly that parental divorce can be a critical event in the academic development of children. Large differences in academic achievement between our divorce group as a whole and the controls cannot be attributed, at least at the time of sampling, to differences in social class or intellectual ability. Despite a similar family background, i.e., marital dissolution, a minority of the children of divorce showed vulnerability in the pattern of academic achievement over time while the majority demonstrated academic careers not unlike that of the controls. PMID:1946827
Baggarley, Margaret; And Others
Intended for regular classroom teachers in intermediate science classes serving the gifted and talented student, the curriculum handbook is designed to give a basic understanding of gifted education, to list appropriate goals and objectives for the gifted student, and to suggest materials and strategies for implementation within the regular…
Winter, Gwen W.
The state of South Carolina enacted the Educational Improvement Act of 1984 which mandated the identification of young students gifted in the visual and performing arts. This practicum sought to effectively identify South Carolina children in grades 1-3 who were gifted and talented in art, music, drama, and dance. The program used an…
Lee, Seon-Young; Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Donahue, Rob; Weimbolt, Katrina
This study examined the effects of a service-learning program on the development of civic attitudes and behaviors of 230 high school students who were identified as academically gifted and participated in either a service-learning program or an accelerated academic program during the summer. Students' responses to 3 surveys measuring civic…
Most companies need a steady stream of talent to enter, then move up in, the organization. But at most companies, the care and feeding of that talent stream is often a bit fragmented; recruitment is largely an HR function, while succession planning--to the extent there is any--is left in the hands of executive leadership. Development of the…
Winkler, Daniel L.; Jolly, Jennifer L.
Talent has been described as a special natural ability, or an aptitude or a capacity for achievement or success. Societies throughout history have sought to develop the talent of their citizens in an attempt to maintain dominance or advance the status quo. Since its inception, the United States has tried to do the same. Whether it was Thomas…
Bailey, Kimberlyn; Nanthakumar, Ampalavanar; Preston, Scott; Ilie, Carolina C.
Recent research has proposed that the gender gap in academia is caused by differing perceptions of how much talent is needed to succeed in various fields. It was found that, across the STEM/non-STEM divide, the more that graduate students and faculty see success in their own field as requiring as requiring talent, the fewer women participate in that field. This research examines whether undergraduate students share these attitudes. If these attitudes trickle down to the undergraduate population to influence students to choose different fields of study, then undergraduate beliefs should reflect those of graduate students and faculty. Using a large survey of undergraduates across the country, this study aims to characterize undergraduate attitudes and to determine variables that explain the differences between the attitudes of these two populations. Our findings suggest that the two populations have similar beliefs, but that undergraduate beliefs are strongly influenced by information about the gender ratio in each field and that this strong influence greatly differs between STEM and non-STEM fields. These findings seek to help direct future research to ask the right questions and propose plausible hypotheses about gender the imbalance in academia.
Holmes, Robyn M.; Liden, Sharon; Shin, Lisa
Based on the study of seventy-four middle school children of mostly Filipino and part Hawaiian heritages, this article explores the relationships of children's thinking styles, play preferences, and school performance. Using the Group Embedded Figures Test, the Articulation of the Body Scale, and written responses to three questions, the authors…
Piccinelli, P.; Borgatti, R.; Aldini, A.; Bindelli, D.; Ferri, M.; Perna, S.; Pitillo, G.; Termine, C.; Zambonin, F.; Balottin, U.
The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of reading, writing, and calculation disabilities in children with typical rolandic epilepsy (RE) and healthy control children. We also aimed to define the possible electroclinical markers of specific cognitive dysfunctions in RE. School abilities were evaluated and compared in 20 children…
Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele
The contributions of academic achievement motivation and social status to peer-reported academic influence were explored in a sample of 322 children in grades three through five. Latent moderated structural equation modeling indicated that children who value academics are more likely to be rated by peers as academically influential. Social status…
Bildung und Wissenschaft, 1997
This issue discusses talent development in gifted children and youth. Articles include: (1) "Good and Goodness" (Roman Herzog), which addresses the need to provide gifted youth with financial aid to enable them to attend one of ten higher education institutions sponsoring gifted persons; (2) "It Is Essential To Start at an Early Age" (Joachim…
Levine, Judith A.; Pollack, Harold; Comfort, Maureen E.
This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to investigate the effects of early motherhood on the academic and behavioral outcomes of these mothers' children. The NLSY follows 12,686 young people who were age 14-21 years in 1979 with annual or biannual interviews. African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and poor…
Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Davis, Catherine L.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.
Studies that examine the effects of exercise on children's intelligence, cognition, or academic achievement were reviewed and results were discussed in light of (a) contemporary cognitive theory development directed toward exercise, (b) recent research demonstrating the salutary effects of exercise on adults' cognitive functioning, and (c) studies…
Hirakata, Pam E.; Daniluk, Judith C.
A qualitative phenomenological approach was used to explore the experiences of 10 tenured and untenured women from various disciplines who were engaged in academic careers while mothering pre-teen children. Analysis of the in-depth interview data uncovered six themes common to the participants: (a) sense of vulnerability, (b) sense of isolation,…
Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Sulak, Tracey N.; Fearon, Danielle D.
Objective: ADHD is a commonly diagnosed neuropsychological disorder among school-aged children with reported high rates of coexisting or comorbid disorders. As ADHD has been associated with academic underachievement, the current study examines this association in view of the presence of coexisting disorders. The purpose of the current study is to…
Marschark, Marc; Rhoten, Cathy; Fabich, Megan
This article presents a critical analysis of empirical studies assessing literacy and other domains of academic achievement among children with cochlear implants. A variety of recent studies have demonstrated benefits to hearing, language, and speech from implants, leading to assumptions that early implantation and longer periods of implant should…
Augustine, Jennifer March; Crosnoe, Robert
In this study, we take a dynamic approach to studying the connections among mothers' education, their depression, and their children's academic trajectories during elementary school. Applying latent growth curve modeling to longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth…
Engelke, Martha Keehner; Guttu, Martha; Warren, Michelle B.; Swanson, Melvin
More children with chronic illnesses are attending school, and some of them struggle academically because of issues related to their health. School-based case management has been suggested as one strategy to improve the academic success of these children. This study tracked the academic, health, and quality of life outcomes for 114 children with…
Feldhusen, John F.
This digest paper presents a model for the education of gifted children and youth based on the concept of talent development and suggests specific ways to identify and develop talent. New conceptions of intelligence and talent developed by Sternberg, Gardner, and Gagne are noted. Feldhusen's and Wood's model of talent recognition and development…
Hendricks, Jill T.
This phenomenological research study explored the contributing factors experienced by Black males that epitomized their academic success in a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) area of study. During this investigative project, eleven Black male students were interviewed to determine how they were able to successfully navigate…
Dyregrov, Atle; Dyregrov, Kari; Endsjø, Mathilde; Idsoe, Thormod
It is well documented that loss and trauma may lead to a reduction in school grades and an increase in the school dropout rate among school children. However, in order for the schools to support students in the best way after trauma and loss, it is of great importance that teachers are aware of these problems. In this study, we investigated the…
Talents Unlimited, Inc., Mobile, AL.
The Talents Unlimited (TU) critical and creative thinking skills model is designed to help teachers recognize and nurture the multiple talents of all children. Research based on the work of Calvin Taylor, has identified high-level talent areas of productive thinking, communication, forecasting, decision making, and planning, in which all excel to…
While library programming for children is a staple in most public libraries, it is quite rare in the academic setting. In 2006 the education librarian at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire began offering literacy programs in a library that traditionally discouraged children and community members from using its resources. Successful programs…
Hendricks, Jill T.
This phenomenological research study explored the contributing factors experienced by Black males that epitomized their academic success in a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) area of study. During this investigative project, eleven Black male students were interviewed to determine how they were able to successfully navigate and complete a STEM degree. The data was collected through a qualitative inquiry, which involved interviewing students and collecting the data and organizing their perspectives into common themes. The principal findings in this study suggest that Black males can excel when primary influential people establish high expectations and believe and encourage Black males to succeed by providing the essential educational support models requisite to warrant success; the Black male maintains and affirms a self-assured self-worth in himself; the Black male is exposed to these fields and professions early on in their educational quest to enable them to witness first hand powerful and productive opportunities and pathways to academic success; exposure to other Black successful male role models who can mentor and show positive proof that with effort, these fields can become a reality; increase in academic motivation and recommendations from educators and counselors who direct and guide students into and away from these rigorous career fields. An analysis of the students' individual stories gave a revealing look into the pathways of their consciousness, emotional growth, and perspectives about being a successful STEM major. This kind of insight can be a constructive diagnostic tool for students, educators, counselors, and administrators who want to motivate and influence future students to major in STEM fields of study.
The notion of talent is an elusive concept but there appears to be sound evidence that both savants and experts share important qualities. Brief descriptive accounts of the talents displayed by savants are presented, along with a discussion of intelligence, implicit learning, and the organization of knowledge. Cognitive theories helpful in understanding exceptional abilities in people with autism are also discussed. It is concluded that a certain cognitive style, i.e. weak coherence, may predispose individuals to develop their talents. Although it would be interesting to speculate that some great artists and mathematicians show a similar degree of obsessive preoccupation and a cognitive style reminiscent of autistic spectrum disorder, presumably as a strategic mechanism, there is, as yet, little research on the subject. PMID:15991873
The talent development approach to the conceptualization of giftedness has historical precedent in the field. Examples of large-scale and longitudinal research studies from previous decades guided by the talent development approach are provided as illustrations. The implications of focusing on domain-specific talents in academics, the arts and…
Relating Life-Span Research to the Development of Gifted and Talented Children. Abstracts of Selected Papers [from] The Annual Esther Katz Rosen Symposium on the Psychological Development of Gifted Children (3rd, Lawrence, Kansas, February 19-20, 1993).
Kansas Univ., Lawrence.
This monograph presents abstracts of 29 papers that relate life-span research to the development of gifted and talented children. Sample topics include: attitudes about rural schools and programs for the gifted; social competence, self-esteem, and parent-child time and interaction in an advantaged subculture; helping families of gifted children…
In just a few decades, electronic networks have expanded beyond all expectations. Instant messaging via smart phones and computers of all sorts whizz round the world. Researchers and policy makers are strongly divided in their findings and conclusions as to the effects of possible persuasive changes on the minds and lives of children, particularly…
Douglass, John Aubrey; Edelstein, Richard
In the long term, there is little doubt that US higher education will remain extremely attractive to foreign talent, due to the academic quality of a large number of its research universities; the legacy of a relatively open society for immigrants; and America's still strong, if slightly tarnished, reputation as a land of opportunity. However, a…
Gottfried, Adele E.; Gottfried, Allen W.
This study investigated the relationship between parents' reward strategies for children's school performance and children's intrinsic academic motivation, achievement, and classroom functioning. Nine-year-olds (N=107) were given tests that measured motivation and achievement (the Children's Academic Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and the…
Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Gottfried, Allen W.
Intellectually gifted children (N=20) and a comparison group (N=79) were administered the Children's Academic Intrinsic Motivation Inventory at ages 9, 10, and 13. At all three ages, the gifted children had significantly higher academic intrinsic motivation across all subject areas and in school in general. Assessment of intrinsic motivation is…
Reed, Maureen; Kraft, Stephen; Buncic, Raymond
In this study, children with strabismus, as a group, had significantly more academic and nonacademic difficulties than did children without strabismus. However, since not all the children with strabismus had academic difficulties, other factors that are associated with strabismus, such as headache, eyestrain, perceptual difficulties, and…
de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.
This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and academic performance, and investigated the…
Knight, Jessica; Cassell, Cynthia H.; Meyer, Robert E.; Strauss, Ronald P.
Objective To compare academic outcomes between children with orofacial cleft (OFC) and children without major birth defects. Design and Setting In 2007–2008, we mailed questionnaires to a random sample of mothers of school-aged children with OFC and mothers of children without major birth defects (comparison group). The questionnaire included Likert-scale, closed-ended, and open-ended questions from validated instruments. We conducted bivariate and multivariable analyses on parent-reported educational outcomes and bivariate analyses on parent-reported presence of related medical conditions between children with isolated OFC and unaffected children. Patients/Participants A random sample of 504 parents of children with OFCs born 1996–2002 (age 5–12 years) were identified by the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program. A random sample of 504 parents of children without birth defects born 1996–2002 was selected from North Carolina birth certificates. Of the 289 (28.7%) respondents, we analyzed 112 children with isolated OFC and 138 unaffected children. Main Outcome Measures Letter grades, school days missed, and grade retention. Results Parents of children with isolated OFC reported more developmental disabilities and hearing and speech problems among their children than comparison parents. Children with isolated OFC were more likely to receive lower grades and miss more school days than unaffected children. Because of the low response rate, results should be interpreted cautiously. Conclusion Children with isolated OFC may have poorer academic outcomes during elementary school than their unaffected peers. Future studies are needed to confirm these results and determine whether these differences persist in later grades. PMID:24878348
Cameron, Marie I.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.
The results suggest that cognitive training specifically designed to promote generalization to classroom tasks can improve the classroom behavior and academic achievement of hyperactive children. (Author)
Mulkey, Sarah B; Swearingen, Christopher J; Melguizo, Maria S; Reeves, Rachel N; Rowell, Jacob A; Gibson, Neal; Holland, Greg; Bhutta, Adnan T; Kaiser, Jeffrey R
Children with early surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) are known to have impaired neurodevelopment; their performance on school-age achievement tests and their need for special education remains largely unexplored. The study aimed to determine predictors of academic achievement at school age and placement in special education services among early CHD surgery survivors. Children with CHD surgery at <1 year of age from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2003, at the Arkansas Children's Hospital were identified. Out-of-state births and infants with known genetic and/or neurologic conditions were excluded. Infants were matched to an Arkansas Department of Education database containing standardized assessments at early school age and special-education codes. Predictors for achieving proficiency in literacy and mathematics and the receipt of special education were determined. Two hundred fifty-six children who attended Arkansas public schools and who had surgery as infants were included; 77.7 % had either school-age achievement-test scores or special-education codes of mental retardation or multiple disabilities. Scores on achievement tests for these children were 7-13 % lower than those of Arkansas students (p < 0.01). They had an eightfold increase in receipt of special education due to multiple disabilities [odds ratio (OR) 10.66, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.23-22.35] or mental retardation (OR 4.96, 95 % CI 2.6-8.64). Surgery after the neonatal period was associated with decreased literacy proficiency, and cardiopulmonary bypass during the first surgery was associated with decreased mathematics proficiency. Children who had early CHD surgery were less proficient on standardized school assessments, and many received special education. This is concerning because achievement-test scores at school age are "real-world" predictors of long-term outcomes. PMID:24000004
Berthiaume, Kristen S.
Based on the reliable findings that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have both attentional and academic difficulties, it is assumed that the attentional deficit contributes to the academic problems. In this article, existing support for a link between the attentional and academic difficulties experienced by children…
Smith, Kelsey E.; Patterson, Chavis A.; Szabo, Margo M.; Tarazi, Reem A.; Barakat, Lamia P.
Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for neurocognitive impairment and poor academic achievement, although there is limited research on factors predicting academic achievement in this population. This study explores the relative contribution to academic achievement of a comprehensive set of factors, such as environmental…
Rasmussen, Martin; Laumann, Karin
This review examines the psychological benefits exercise is connected to in healthy children and adolescents. Studies on the effect of exercise on academic performance, self-esteem, emotions, and mood were examined. Academic performance is found to be maintained when normal academic classes are reduced and replaced by an increase in exercise,…
Preston, Andrew S.; Heaton, Shelley C.; McCann, Sarah J.; Watson, William D.; Selke, Gregg
Despite reports of academic difficulties in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about the relationship between performance on tests of academic achievement and measures of attention. The current study assessed intellectual ability, parent-reported inattention, academic achievement, and attention in 45…
Durbrow, Eric H.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Jimerson, Shane R.
Contributions of learning behaviors; anxiety; attention problems; cognitive ability; and home background to academic performance was investigated in Caribbean village children (N=61). It was determined that anxiety, attention, and learning-related behaviors explained 32-35% of variance in academic scores. Results suggest that academic performance…
Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Rothlisberger, Marianne; Roebers, Claudia M.
Unique contributions of Big Five personality factors to academic performance in young elementary school children were explored. Extraversion and Openness (labeled "Culture" in our study) uniquely contributed to academic performance, over and above the contribution of executive functions in first and second grade children (N = 446). Well…
Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo
Aim: Basic verbal and academic skills can be adversely affected by early-onset diabetes, although these skills have been studied less than other cognitive functions. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of learning deficits in children with diabetes by assessing basic verbal and academic skills in children with early-onset diabetes and in…
Provides a review and integration of findings on the effects of parenting styles and maternal employment on children's academic achievement. Presents a model in which it is argued that maternal employment status has little, if any, direct effect on children's academic achievement. Suggests maternal employment affects parenting styles, which in…
Keller-Margulis, Milena; Dempsey, Allison; Llorens, Ashlie
The developmental outcomes for children born preterm have been examined by many, with results unequivocally indicating that children born preterm tend to have poorer cognitive outcomes and more developmental difficulties. Less attention has been paid to academic outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review the academic skills assessment of…
Becker, Derek R.; McClelland, Megan M.; Loprinzi, Paul; Trost, Stewart G.
Research Findings: The present study investigated whether active play during recess was associated with self-regulation and academic achievement in a prekindergarten sample. A total of 51 children in classes containing approximately half Head Start children were assessed on self-regulation, active play, and early academic achievement. Path…
Brown, Eleanor D.
This study examined persistence in the face of academic challenge for economically disadvantaged children. Participants included 103 children attending Head Start preschools, as well as their caregivers and teachers. Child tasks measured persistence in the face of academic challenge as well as emergent implicit theories of intelligence. Caregiver…
Urdan, Tim; Munoz, Chantico
Multiple methods were used to examine the academic motivation and cultural identity of a sample of college undergraduates. The children of immigrant parents (CIPs, n = 52) and the children of non-immigrant parents (non-CIPs, n = 42) completed surveys assessing core cultural identity, valuing of cultural accomplishments, academic self-concept,…
This article explores the scholarship of Asa G. Hilliard III on the theme of student academic and cultural excellence and the development of teachers. Throughout his career, Hilliard questioned the nation's commitment to ensuring the academic success of all children. The premise "Do we have the will to educate all children?" is reflected…
Monaco, Theresa; Goodner, Jane
The University of Houston's Center for Gifted and Talented Education (Texas) conducts summer workshops for teachers and gifted/talented children in a program called HELP (Helping Exceptional Learners Progress). The children learn more about their abilities, interact with other gifted children, and solve some of the problems they face because of…
Talents Unlimited, Inc., Mobile, AL.
The Talents Unlimited (TU) is designed to help teachers recognize and nurture the multiple talents of children. Research based on the work of Calvin Taylor has identified high level talents in which all people excel to varying extents. Taylor has suggested a grouping of talents based on the needs of the world-of-work, specifying the academic…
Karnes, Merle B.; And Others
This teaching guide suggests practical ideas for encouraging artistic and musical talent in preschool children. It is part of a series of similar guides developed by the RAPYHT Project (Retrieval and Acceleration of Promising Young Handicapped and Talented) for educating young gifted/talented handicapped children and gifted children with no…
Keehner Engelke, Martha; Guttu, Martha; Warren, Michelle B; Swanson, Melvin
More children with chronic illnesses are attending school, and some of them struggle academically because of issues related to their health. School-based case management has been suggested as one strategy to improve the academic success of these children. This study tracked the academic, health, and quality of life outcomes for 114 children with asthma, diabetes, severe allergies, seizures, or sickle-cell anemia in 5 different school districts who were provided case management by school nurses. The children ranged in age from 5 to 19 years. At the end of the school year, children experienced an improvement in quality of life and gained skills and knowledge to manage their illness more effectively. Classroom participation, grades, and participation in extracurricular activities also increased for many children. The study provides evidence of the positive impact school nurses have on children with chronic illness and suggests ways they can measure the outcomes of their interventions. PMID:18757353
Erath, Stephen A; Tu, Kelly M; Buckhalt, Joseph A; El-Sheikh, Mona
Sleep problems (long wake episodes, low sleep efficiency) were examined as moderators of the relation between children's intelligence and academic achievement. The sample was comprised of 280 children (55% boys; 63% European Americans, 37% African Americans; mean age = 10.40 years, SD = 0.65). Sleep was assessed during seven consecutive nights of actigraphy. Children's performance on standardized tests of intelligence (Brief Intellectual Ability index of the Woodcock-Johnson III) and academic achievement (Alabama Reading and Math Test) were obtained. Age, sex, ethnicity, income-to-needs ratio, single parent status, standardized body mass index, chronic illness and pubertal development were controlled in analyses. Higher intelligence was strongly associated with higher academic achievement across a wide range of sleep quality. However, the association between intelligence and academic achievement was slightly attenuated among children with more long wake episodes or lower sleep efficiency compared with children with higher-quality sleep. PMID:25683475
Wu, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Shin-Ting
The primary purpose of this study was to utilize a multidimensional perspective to examine whether children's self-concept served as a mediator between academic achievement and depression, and to further investigate whether this mediation effect was moderated by the ages of children. The participants consisted of 632 Taiwanese children in the…
Baker-Henningham, Helen; Meeks-Gardner, Julie; Chang, Susan; Walker, Susan
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between children's experiences of three different types of violence and academic achievement among primary school children in Kingston, Jamaica. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 1300 children in grade 5 [mean (S.D.) age: 11 (0.5) years] from 29 government primary schools in urban…
Silinskas, Gintautas; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This study investigated the longitudinal associations between children's academic performance and their mothers' affect, practices, and perceptions of their children in homework situations. The children's (n = 2,261) performance in reading and math was tested in Grade 1 and Grade 4, and the mothers (n = 1,476) filled out questionnaires on their…
Hughes, Alicia A.; Lourea-Waddell, Brittany; Kendall, Philip C.
The present study aimed to examine somatic complaints in children with anxiety disorders compared to non-anxious control children and whether somatic complaints predict poorer academic performance. The sample consisted of 108 children and adolescents (aged 8-14 years) assessed by a structured diagnostic interview: 69 with a principal (i.e., most…
Jeynes, William H.
Used data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey to study the effects of remarriage following divorce on children's academic achievement. Results indicate that children from reconstituted families score no higher, and often lower than children of divorce from single-parent families. (SLD)
Walker, Ann; Nabuzoka, Dabie
The academic achievement and social functioning of children with learning difficulties (LD) and children without LD (7-12 years old) was examined. Attainment scores in mathematics and English were obtained for each child, and a sample of children without LD was further classified as low achieving (LA) or high achieving (HA) on the basis of these…
Morgan, Allison E.; Singer-Harris, Naomi; Bernstein, Jane H.; Waber, Deborah P.
Forty children (ages 7-11) referred for evaluation of learning problems, who had normal scores on measures of academic achievement, were compared to 81 similarly referred children who had scored low. Children with normal achievement scores had higher IQs and better decoding skills, however, the two groups showed similar neuropsychological…
Flake, Carol L.
Discusses common and critical global problems related to children who are at risk. Section on academic failure examines programs for preschool children, education for disadvantaged children at the elementary school level, and an ecological approach to the problem. Other sections explore issues of youth alienation, the future of the human species,…
Kgosidialwa, Keinyatse T.
This study examined the school related activities that parents in Botswana engage in with their children. The study also examined how parents in Botswana perceive their involvement and expectations of their children's academic achievement goals. Sixteen parents (15 females and 1 male) who had children in standards five, six, or seven participated…
Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang
Using five waves of panel data from 8,008 children in the ECLS-K, the current study compared children's academic performance growth curves from kindergarten through fifth grade among three types of nondisrupted and three types of disrupted families. The analyses found that children in nondisrupted two-biological-parent and nondisrupted stepparent…
Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.; Liew, Jeffrey; Kwok, Oi-Man
The longitudinal relationships between two dimensions of peer relationships and subsequent academic adjustment were investigated in a sample of 543 relatively low achieving children (M = 6.57 years at Year 1, 1st grade). Latent variable SEM was used to test a four stage model positing indirect effects of peer acceptance and peer academic…
Puccioni, Jaime Lynn
By the time children enter kindergarten, significant socioeconomic and racial gaps in academic achievement exist (Coley, 2002; Rouse, Brooks-Gunn, & Mclanahan, 2005). Kindergarten is considered to be a pivotal point of educational transition, as academic achievement upon kindergarten entry is associated with subsequent academic success…
Elias, Maurice J.; Haynes, Norris M.
Despite living in disadvantaged urban communities experiencing social and economic hardships, many children emerge with positive outcomes. Social-emotional competence and social support were hypothesized to have strong influences on academic trajectories during the critical period of academic skill acquisition. Participants were 282 third-grade…
Leung, Grace S. M.; Yeung, K. C.; Wong, Daniel F. K.
We examined the role of paternal support in the relation between academic stress and the mental health of primary school children in Hong Kong. The participants of this cross-sectional study were 1,171 fifth and sixth graders. The results indicated that academic stress was a risk factor that heightened student anxiety levels and that parental…
Heyman, Gail D.; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang
Children's reasoning about the credibility of positive and negative evaluations of academic performance was examined. Across 2 studies, 7- and 10-year-olds from the United States and China (N = 334) judged the credibility of academic evaluations that were directed toward an unfamiliar peer. In Study 1, participants from China responded that…
Baydala, Lola; Rasmussen, Carmen; Birch, June; Sherman, Jody; Wikman, Erik; Charchun, Julianna; Kennedy, Merle; Bisanz, Jeffrey
The authors explored the relationship between measures of self-belief, behavioural development, and academic achievement in Canadian Aboriginal children. Standardized measures of intelligence are unable to consistently predict academic achievement in students from indigenous populations. Exploring alternative factors that may be both predictive…
Bossaert, Goele; Doumen, Sarah; Buyse, Evelien; Verschueren, Karine
The transition from kindergarten to first grade has been described as a critical period for children's academic development. Furthermore, research indicates that peer status is connected with academic adjustment, yet the underlying processes remain unclear. By means of a two-year longitudinal study during kindergarten and first grade (N = 153), we…
Milam, A. J.; Furr-Holden, C. D. M.; Leaf, P. J.
Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population…
Nicholson, Heather; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Van Heest, Jaci
A multiple baseline design was used to examine the effects of participation in antecedent physical activity on the academic engagement of four elementary-school children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The results indicated large effect sizes for academic engaged time for all four students. It was suggested that physical activity in…
Phillipson, Sivanes; Phillipson, Shane N.
It is generally accepted that cognitive ability predicts academic achievement, and that parental involvement and expectations form part of the constellation of factors that predict their children's academic achievement, particularly for families within the Chinese-heritage Cultures. Although a number of interactions between these parental factors…
Nadeem, Erum; Maslak, Kristi; Chacko, Anil; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton
Research Findings: The purpose of this article is to describe current education policies as they relate to the promotion of social, emotional, and academic (SEA) development and competence for young children. Academic and social-emotional competencies are described and conceptualized as developmentally linked, reciprocal processes that should be…
Herman, Keith C.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Ostrander, Rick
The present study investigated the pathways between attention problems and depressive symptoms, particularly the role of academic incompetence, among a community sample of urban African American children. Results supported the hypothesized path models from inattention to depressive symptoms for girls and boys. Academic performance in the spring of…
De La Garza, Jesus Valenzuela; Medina, Marcello, Jr.
Compares academic outcomes for 24 Spanish-dominant and 118 English-dominant Mexican American children in primary grades. Assesses impact of the experimental group's exposure to the transitional bilingual education program by examining their Spanish and English academic performance. Discusses implications for the education of bilingual learners.…
Cheung, Cecilia S.; McBride-Chang, Catherine
A measure of academic parenting practices was developed through parent and teacher interviews and subsequently administered to 91 Hong Kong Chinese fifth graders, who also rated their mothers' restrictiveness and concern, school motivation, and self-perceived academic competence. Children's actual school grades were obtained from school records.…
Luster, Tom; Lekskul, Kunlakarn; Oh, Su Min
The central question addressed in this study was: What factors are associated with individual differences in academic motivation among first-grade students who were born to low-income adolescent mothers? Data from a 7-year longitudinal study were used to address the question. First-grade teachers assessed academic motivation for 89 children at the…
Yang, Fan; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li
The primary purpose of the study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between aggressive behavior and social and psychological adjustment in Chinese children. A sample of children (N = 1,171; 591 boys, 580 girls; initial M age = 9 years) in China participated in the study. Two waves of longitudinal data were collected in Grades 3 and 4 from multiple sources including peer nominations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. The results indicated that the main effects of aggression on adjustment were more evident than those of adjustment on aggression. Moreover, aggression was negatively associated with later leadership status and positively associated with later peer victimization, mainly for high-achieving children. The results suggested that consistent with the resource-potentiating model, academic achievement served to enhance the positive development of children with low aggression. On the other hand, although the findings indicated fewer main effects of adjustment on aggression, loneliness, depression, and perceived social incompetence positively predicted later aggression for low-achieving, but not high-achieving, children, which suggested that consistent with the stress-buffering model, academic achievement protected children with psychological difficulties from developing aggressive behavior. The results indicate that academic achievement is involved in behavioral and socioemotional development in different manners in Chinese children. Researchers should consider an integrative approach based on children's behavioral, psychological, and academic functions in designing prevention and intervention programs. PMID:23557214
Subotnik, Rena F., Ed.; Arnold, Karen D., Ed.
This volume presents 16 papers describing recent longitudinal studies of giftedness. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Longitudinal Study of Giftedness and Talent" (Rena F. Subotnik and Karen D. Arnold); (2) "The Illinois Valedictorian Project: Early Adult Careers of Academically Talented Male High School Students" (Karen D.…
Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Guidance Inst. for Talented Students.
This collection of papers for school personnel and families who deal with gifted and talented children addresses teaching and counseling strategies as well as the role of the family in educating these children. "Instructional Strategies for the Gifted and Talented," by Donna Rae Clasen, emphasizes questioning as an instructional strategy. "Using…
Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.; Liew, Jeffrey; Kwok, Oi-Man
The longitudinal relationships between two dimensions of peer relationships and subsequent academic adjustment were investigated in a sample of 543 relatively low achieving children (M = 6.57 years at Year 1, 1st grade). Latent variable SEM was used to test a four stage model positing indirect effects of peer acceptance and peer academic reputation (PAR) assessed in Year 2 on academic achievement in Year 5, via the effects of the peer relationships variables on perceived academic competence in Year 3 and effortful engagement in Year 4. As expected, the effect of PAR on engagement was partially mediated by perceived academic competence, and the effect of perceived academic competence on achievement was partially mediated by engagement. In the context of PAR, peer acceptance did not contribute to the mediating variables or to achievement. Findings provide a clearer understanding of the processes by which early peer-relationships influence concurrent and future school-related outcomes. Implications for educational practice and future research are discussed. PMID:21113406
Quimby, Harriet B.; And Others
The first section of this two-part bibliography contains a bibliographic essay on building a basic reference collection about children's literature for academic libraries, followed by a list of the basic reference works. These cover such areas as history of children's literature, authors, illustrators, readings, awards and prizes, international…
The talent enigma juxtaposes the discourses of "talent" as an inherent individual quality to be sought out and recruited as against talent as inherent in organizations which grow their own. This article explores this issue in the context of an international "crisis" of school leadership, examining how that crisis is constructed and how it impacts…
Data from approximately 14,000 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey--Kindergarten Cohort were analyzed to examine the associations between children's immigrant status and their academic trajectories from kindergarten to 3rd grade, with particular attention to the effects of school environments. Growth curve modeling results indicated that most children of Latin American origin improved their reading and math scores faster than non-Hispanic White children, thus narrowing their initial score gap and sometimes even surpassing White children by 3rd grade. In contrast, although they maintained higher reading and math scores, children from East Asia and India showed decreasing scores over time, which tended to narrow their initial score advantage over non-Hispanic White children. School-level factors accounted partially for these differences. Particularly in terms of the academic trajectories, children of Latin American origin responded more to school-level factors than did children of Asian origin, who responded more to child and family background, with the exception of children from Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos, who responded more to school-level factors. Simulation results point to the importance of school resources for the academic trajectories of children of immigrants. PMID:18999323
Jitendra, Asha K.; DuPaul, George J.; Volpe, Robert J.; Tresco, Katy E.; Junod, Rosemary E. Vile; Lutz, J. Gary; Cleary, Kristi S.; Flammer-Rivera, Lizette M.; Manella, Mark C.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of two consultation-based models for designing academic interventions to enhance the educational functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Children (N = 167) meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual" (4th ed.--text revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria for…
Richardson, Amy; Chandra, Anita; Martin, Laurie T.; Setodji, Claude Messan; Hallmark, Bryan W.; Campbell, Nancy F.; Hawkins, Stacy; Grady, Patrick
Long and frequent deployments, with short dwell times in between, have placed stresses on Army children and families already challenged by frequent moves and parental absences. RAND Arroyo Center was asked by the Army to examine the effects of parental deployments on children's academic performance as well as their emotional and behavioral…
The author's purpose in this study was to test 4 hypotheses that proposed different paths for the influences of children's television viewing on their academic achievement. Data were drawn from the 1997 Child Development Supplement (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). The population for this study included 1,203 children between the…
Kamtsios, Spiridon; Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia
The purpose of the research was to develop a questionnaire to measure dimensions of academic hardiness in late elementary school children. Questionnaires were distributed to 1474 children. After a set of exploratory factor analyses in studies 1 and 2, the confirmatory factor analysis results provided support for the 9-factor solution which…
Jackson, Linda A.; von Eye, Alexander; Biocca, Frank A.; Barbatsis, Gretchen; Zhao, Yong; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.
HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine the antecedents and consequences of home Internet use in low-income families http://www.HomeNetToo.org). The study was done between December 2000 and June 2002. Among the consequences considered was children's academic performance. Participants were 140 children, mostly African…
Falbo, Toni; Poston, Dudley L., Jr.
Surveyed 4,000 third and sixth graders and their parents and teachers, from 4 Chinese provinces. Found that, although only children scored higher on tests of verbal ability, were taller, and weighed more than firstborn and later born children, other measures of academic and personality development were similar between the groups. (MDM)
Data from approximately 14,000 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey--Kindergarten Cohort were analyzed to examine the associations between children's immigrant status and their academic trajectories from kindergarten to 3rd grade, with particular attention to the effects of school environments. Growth curve modeling results…
Hall, Nancy E.; Segarra, Veronica Rosa
This study examines the ability of preschool speech-language measures and parent report in predicting later academic performance. Preschool measures of speech, language and communication for 35 children with language impairment were analyzed for their ability to predict reading, writing, spelling, and mathematics in these same children at age…
The purpose of this study was to investigate how different forms of peer relationships offer children unique support for loneliness and to examine the direct as well as indirect effects of social behaviours and academic performance through the mediation of peer relationships on the prediction of loneliness in Korean children. Four hundred and…
May, Tamara; Rinehart, Nicole; Wilding, John; Cornish, Kim
Academic attainment in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is under-studied, with associated factors largely undetermined. Parent-reported attention symptoms, attentional-switching and sustained-attention tasks were examined to determine relationships with mathematics and reading attainment in 124 children aged 7-12 years; sixty-four with…
Woods, Sarah; Wolke, Dieter
The association between bullying behaviour and academic achievement was investigated in 1016 children from primary schools (6-7-year-olds/year 2: 480; 8-9-year-olds/year 4: 536). Children were individually interviewed about their bullying experiences using a standard interview. Key Stage I National Curriculum results (assessed at the end of year…
Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris
The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading,…
This study explores the motivations of African American parents for choosing homeschooling for their children and the academic achievement of their Black homeschool students. Their reasons for homeschooling are similar to those of homeschool parents in general, although some use homeschooling to help their children understand Black culture and…
Freeman, Stephanny F. N.; Alkin, Marvin C.
A review of 36 studies on school-age children with mental retardation indicated children in general classes do not attain social acceptance ratings at as high a level as do their typical peers. Integrated students perform better than segregated students on measures of academic achievement and social competence. (Contains extensive references.)…
Herbers, Janette E.; Cutuli, J. J.; Lafavor, Theresa L.; Vrieze, Danielle; Leibel, Cari; Obradovic, Jelena; Masten, Ann S.
Research Findings: Effects of parenting quality on the academic functioning of young homeless children were examined using data from 58 children ages 4 to 7 and their parents during their stay at an emergency homeless shelter. Parenting quality, child executive function, child intellectual functioning, and risk status were assessed in the shelter,…
Stevens, Ann Huff; Schaller, Jessamyn
We study the relationship between parental job loss and children's academic achievement using data on job loss and grade retention from the 1996, 2001, and 2004 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation. We find that a parental job loss increases the probability of children's grade retention by 0.8 percentage points, or around 15%.…
Blackman, Gabrielle L.; Ostrander, Rick; Herman, Keith C.
Although ADHD and depression are common comorbidities in youth, few studies have examined this particular clinical presentation. To address method bias limitations of previous research, this study uses multiple informants to compare the academic, social, and clinical functioning of children with ADHD, children with ADHD and depression, and…
Wilson, Beverly J.; Petaja, Holly; Mancil, Larissa
Research Findings: Aggressive/rejected children are at risk for continuing conduct and school problems. Some limited research indicates that these children have attention problems. Previous research has linked attention problems with academic performance. The current study investigated group differences in attention skills and the role of these…
Cherian, V. I.
Describes a study attempting to determine the relationship between parental income and academic achievement of children in a developing area such as Transkei. Includes details of the samples, questionnaires, and results. Concludes that among children of low socioeconomic status, parental income had a positive relationship with academic…
Pakarinen, Eija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Siekkinen, Martti; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This study examined the extent to which kindergarten children's academic pre-skills are associated with their teachers' subsequent teaching practices. The pre-skills in reading and math of 1268 children (655 boys, 613 girls) were measured in kindergarten in the fall. A pair of trained observers used the Classroom Assessment Scoring System…
Mayo, Aziza; Siraj, Iram
Given the disadvantaged position of working-class children in the education system, it is important to understand how parents and families might support their children to succeed academically. This paper reports on 35 case studies that were conducted as part of the Effective Provision of Pre-School, Primary and Secondary Education (EPPSE 3-16)…
Sektnan, Michaella; McClelland, Megan M.; Acock, Alan; Morrison, Frederick J.
This study examined relations among early family risk, children's behavioral regulation at 54 months and kindergarten, and academic achievement in first grade using data on 1298 children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Family risk was indexed by ethnic…
Kwon, Kyongboon; Kim, Elizabeth; Sheridan, Susan
The positive effect of competent behaviors on academic functioning may outweigh the negative effect of externalizing problems. The current study examined this premise among children with externalizing problems in the early elementary years. Participants were 207 kindergarten through third-grade children and their parents and teachers. Results…
Dagli, Ummuhan Yesil; Jones, Ithel
Background: Research findings suggest that there may be some academic benefits for those children whose kindergarten enrollment is delayed, and the risk of underachievement seems to be greater for children who are younger when they first enter kindergarten. Although kindergarten enrollment occurs naturally, certain child, family, and childcare…
Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Stubben, Jerry D.; LaFromboise, Teresa
Interviews examined factors affecting school success for 196 American Indian children in grades 5-8. The degree to which children were embedded in traditional culture positively affected student academic performance, even when controlling for such variables as family characteristics, parenting, and prosocial activities. Effects of enculturation…
Tazouti, Youssef; Malarde, Amelie; Michea, Aurelie
The present study examines the relationships between parental beliefs relating to development and education, parenting practices, and the intellectual and academic performances of children. Data were collected for 128 families with a child in the second or third year of primary school. Investigations of the factors affecting the children's…
Campisi, Lisa; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.; Schwartzman, Alex E.; Ledingham, Jane E.
The current investigation examined whether inter-generational transfer of risk could be revealed through mothers' and preschool-aged children's expressive language, and whether continuity of risk persisted in these children's academic abilities, 3 years later. Participating families were drawn from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project, a…
Trout, Alexandra L.; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Chmelka, M. Beth; Gehringer, Robert; Epstein, Michael H.; Reid, Robert
Often considered a "last resort placement," residential settings serve a broad range of children who present significant risks. While much is known about emotional and behavioral functioning, less is known about academic strengths and limitations. This study evaluated 127 children at intake into a residential care program to determine demographic,…
Vu, Jennifer A.; Babikian, Talin; Asarnow, Robert F .
Expanding on Babikian and Asarnow's (2009) meta-analytic study examining neurocognitive domains, this current meta-analysis examined academic and language outcomes at different time points post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children and adolescents. Although children with mild TBI exhibited no significant deficits, studies indicate that children…
Arnold, David H.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Marshall, Nastassja A.
This study examined the relationship between social functioning and emergent academic development in a sample of 467 preschool children (M=55.9 months old, SD=3.8). Teachers reported on children's aggression, attention problems, and prosocial skills. Preliteracy, language, and early mathematics skills were assessed with standardized tests. Better…
Cheng Pui-Wah, Doris; Reunamo, Jyrki; Cooper, Paul; Liu, Karen; Vong, Keang-ieng Peggy
The article describes a comparative case study on children's agentive orientations in two Hong Kong preschools, one is play-based and the other is academically focused. Agentive orientations were measured using Reunamo's interview tool, which focuses on children's uses of accommodative and agentive orientations in everyday situations. The findings…
Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S. K.; Leung, Shirley S. L.
The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on academic competence behaviour for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. The participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their parents.…
Monti, Jennifer D.; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Roisman, Glenn I.
Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,312) were analyzed to examine whether the adverse effects of early insensitive parenting on children's academic functioning can be offset by parents' later involvement in children's education. Observations of mothers' early…
Cortes, Kalena E.
This paper analyzes the relationship between age at arrival and immigrant-receiving high schools (i.e., enclave schools) on the academic performance of first- and second-generation immigrant children using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). The CILS survey was conducted in two major immigrant-receiving cities in the…
The study investigated the effect of guided paraprofessional assistance on the academic achievement of lower achieving intermediate grade migrant children. It examined one possible means of overcoming some of the overwhelming handicaps experienced by migrant children by using indigenous paraprofessionals as a humanizing, tutorial factor. Eighty…
Yang, Hua; Ma, Weiyi; Gong, Diankun; Hu, Jiehui; Yao, Dezhong
This study examined the relation between long-term music training and child development based on 250 Chinese elementary school students' academic development of first language (L1), second language (L2), and mathematics. We found that musician children outperformed non-musician children only on musical achievement and second language development. Additionally, although music training appeared to be correlated with children's final academic development of L1, L2, and mathematics, it did not independently contribute to the development of L1 or mathematical skills. Our findings suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings on the non-musical cognitive benefits of music learning. PMID:25068398
Berezowitz, Claire K.; Bontrager Yoder, Andrea B.; Schoeller, Dale A.
Background: Schools face increasing demands to provide education on healthy living and improve core academic performance. Although these appear to be competing concerns, they may interact beneficially. This article focuses on school garden programs and their effects on students' academic and dietary outcomes. Methods: Database searches in CABI,…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2006
"Talent Search" aims to help low-income and first-generation college students (those whose parents do not have four-year college degrees) complete high school and gain access to college through a combination of services designed to improve academic achievement and increase access to financial aid. Services include test taking and study skills…
Conducting potency tests on penicillin, discussing rocket technology with a NASA astronaut, analysing animal bone fragments from medieval times, these are just some of the activities which occupy the time of students at The Irish Centre for Talented Youth. The Centre identifies young students with exceptional academic ability and then provides…
Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris
The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics were examined in children with learning disabilities. As expected, the children with learning disabilities scored poorer on both the locomotor and object-control subtests than their typically developing peers. Furthermore, in children with learning disabilities a specific relationship was observed between reading and locomotor skills and a trend was found for a relationship between mathematics and object-control skills: the larger children's learning lag, the poorer their motor skill scores. This study stresses the importance of specific interventions facilitating both motor and academic abilities. PMID:21700421
Talent Searches offer an opportunity for gifted children to experience learning on prestigious college campuses around the nation, and as importantly, an opportunity to form relationships with like-minded, similar-age peers. Few opportunities open doors for intellectual, social, and emotional growth in gifted children as efficiently as…
Silinskas, Gintautas; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This study investigated the longitudinal associations between children's academic performance and their mothers' affect, practices, and perceptions of their children in homework situations. The children's (n = 2,261) performance in reading and math was tested in Grade 1 and Grade 4, and the mothers (n = 1,476) filled out questionnaires on their affect, practices, and perceptions while their children were in Grades 2, 3, and 4. The results showed, first, that the more help in homework the mothers reported, the slower was the development of their children's academic performance from Grade 1 to Grade 4. This negative association was true especially if mothers perceived their children not to be able to work autonomously. Second, children's good academic performance in Grade 1 predicted mothers' perception of child's ability to be autonomous and positive affect in homework situations later on, whereas poor performance predicted mothers' negative affect, help, and monitoring. Finally, mothers' negative affect mediated the association between children's poor performance, maternal practices, and perceptions of their children. PMID:25798959
Gilboa, Yafit; Rosenblum, Sara; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Toledano-Alhadef, Hagit; Josman, Naomi
The present study aimed to compare the executive function (EF) of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) to those of typically developing children and to investigate whether those abilities could predict the child's academic success in terms of academic skills and enablers. Twenty-nine children with NF1 and 27 age-and-gender-matched controls (aged 8-16 years) were examined with two tests to measure EF in an ecologically valid manner: the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome in Children (BADS-C) and the parent questionnaire for the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). In order to evaluate academic success we used the Academic Competence Evaluation Scales (ACES). The performance of the NF1 group was significantly lower on the Water and Key search subtest of the BADS-C and on four scales of the BRIEF: initiate; working memory; plan/organise and organisation of materials. Significant correlations and predictive models via regression analysis were generated for: BADS-C, BRIEF and ACES scores. Based on these findings, children with NF1 have executive dysfunction that partially accounts for their difficulties in academic achievements. PMID:24875728
Happé, Francesca; Vital, Pedro
In this paper, we explore the question, why are striking special skills so much more common in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) than in other groups? Current cognitive accounts of ASC are briefly reviewed in relation to special skills. Difficulties in ‘theory of mind’ may contribute to originality in ASC, since individuals who do not automatically ‘read other minds’ may be better able to think outside prevailing fashions and popular theories. However, originality alone does not confer talent. Executive dysfunction has been suggested as the ‘releasing’ mechanism for special skills in ASC, but other groups with executive difficulties do not show raised incidence of talents. Detail-focused processing bias (‘weak coherence’, ‘enhanced perceptual functioning’) appears to be the most promising predisposing characteristic, or ‘starting engine’, for talent development. In support of this notion, we summarize data from a population-based twin study in which parents reported on their 8-year-olds' talents and their ASC-like traits. Across the whole sample, ASC-like traits, and specifically ‘restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests’ related to detail focus, were more pronounced in children reported to have talents outstripping older children. We suggest that detail-focused cognitive style predisposes to talent in savant domains in, and beyond, autism spectrum disorders. PMID:19528019
Howe, M J; Davidson, J W; Sloboda, J A
Talents that selectively facilitate the acquisition of high levels of skill are said to be present in some children but not others. The evidence for this includes biological correlates of specific abilities, certain rare abilities in autistic savants, and the seemingly spontaneous emergence of exceptional abilities in young children, but there is also contrary evidence indicating an absence of early precursors of high skill levels. An analysis of positive and negative evidence and arguments suggests that differences in early experiences, preferences, opportunities, habits, training, and practice are the real determinants of excellence. PMID:10097018
Children in traditional families (i.e., married, 2 biological parents) tend to do better than their peers in nontraditional families. An exception to this pattern appears to be children from same-sex parent families. Children with lesbian mothers or gay fathers do not exhibit the poorer outcomes typically associated with nontraditional families.…
Raggi, Veronica L; Chronis, Andrea M
There exists a strong link between ADHD and academic underachievement. Both the core behavioral symptoms of ADHD and associated executive functioning deficits likely contribute to academic impairment. Current evidence-based approaches to the treatment of ADHD (i.e., stimulant medication, clinical behavior therapy and classroom behavioral interventions) have demonstrated a robust impact on behavioral variables such as attention and disruptive behavior within classroom analogue settings; however, their efficacy in improving academic outcomes is much less clear. Although surprisingly few treatment outcome studies of ADHD have attempted to incorporate interventions that specifically target academic outcomes, the studies that are available suggest that these interventions may be beneficial. The state of the treatment literature for addressing academic impairment in children and adolescents with ADHD will be reviewed herein, as well as limitations of current research, and directions for future research. PMID:16972189
Future Assets, Student Talent (FAST) motivates and prepares talented students with disabilities to further their education and achieve High Tech and professional employment. The FAST program is managed by local professionals, business, and industry leaders; it is modeled after High School High Tech project TAKE CHARGE started in Los Angeles in 1983. Through cooperative efforts of Alabama Department of Education, Vocational Rehabilitation, Adult and Children Services, and the President's Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities, north central Alabama was chosen as the second site for a High School High Tech project. In 1986 local business, industry, education, government agencies, and rehabilitation representatives started FAST. The program objectives and goals, results and accomplishments, and survey results are included.
Reed-Knight, Bonney; Lee, Jennifer L; Cousins, Laura A; Mee, Laura L
Although prior research has shown lower intellectual functioning across pediatric solid organ transplant recipients relative to matched siblings or norm comparisons, few studies have assessed intellectual and academic performance prior to transplant across organ groups. The current data examine intellectual and academic functioning in children being evaluated for kidney, liver, or heart transplant. This investigation included intellectual and academic testing data from 195 children and adolescents between the ages of six and 19 yr evaluated for solid organ transplantation. Across organ groups, patients' intellectual functioning as estimated by the WASI/WASI-II at the time of pretransplant evaluation was within the average range, but lower compared to test norms. Patients demonstrated lower estimates of word reading, math computation, and spelling skills compared to the normal population, with the exception of heart patients' word reading and spelling skills and liver patients' spelling scores. Cognitive and academic impairments exist in children prior to transplantation. Findings emphasize the support that patients may require to manage the complicated medical regimen and succeed academically. Routine cognitive and academic assessment can inform healthcare providers regarding transplant patients' capacity to take on increasing medical responsibility and successfully reintegrate into the school environment. PMID:25389073
Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.
This study examined the relationships among academic enablers (i.e., engagement, interpersonal skills, motivation, study skills) and academic achievement in children with and without high levels of parent-rated symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity (Symptoms of IIH Group). The study included 69 participants (29 [42%] in the IIH…
de Greeff, J W; Hartman, E; Mullender-Wijnsma, M J; Bosker, R J; Doolaard, S; Visscher, C
This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and academic performance, and investigated the possible moderator effect of SDC. Data on 544 children were collected and analysed (130 SDC, 414 non-SDC, mean age = 8.0 ± 0.7). Physical fitness was measured with tests for cardiovascular and muscular fitness. Academic performance was evaluated using scores on mathematics, spelling and reading. SDC did not differ on physical fitness, compared with non-SDC, but scored significantly lower on academic performance. In the total group, multilevel analysis showed positive associations between cardiovascular fitness and mathematics (β = 0.23), and between cardiovascular fitness and spelling (β = 0.16), but not with reading. No associations were found between muscular fitness and academic performance. A significant interaction effect between SDC and cardiovascular fitness was found for spelling. To conclude, results showed a specific link between cardiovascular fitness and mathematics, regardless of socioeconomic status. SDC did moderate the relationship between cardiovascular fitness and spelling. PMID:25092881
Jitendra, Asha K.; DuPaul, George J.; Someki, Fumio; Tresco, Katy E.
Although children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exhibit significant academic difficulties in school settings, considerably less attention is devoted to remediating their academic problems when compared to behavioral and social difficulties. The purpose of this article is to review empirically supported academic interventions…
Davenport, Teresa L.
The purpose of this study was to determine if a summer camp utilizing academic and behavioral remediation programming could increase the academic achievement of children with autism spectrum disorders. Academic achievement was measured using the Wide Range Achievement Test-Fourth Edition (WRAT4; Wilkinson & Robertson, 2006) and an Informal Reading…
Clark-Reyna, Stephanie E; Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W
This article examines the effects of children's subjective health status and exposure to residential environmental toxins on academic performance for the first time, while adjusting for school-level effects using generalized estimating equations. The analysis employs National Air Toxics Assessment risk estimates and individual-level data collected through a mail survey. Results indicate that poorer subjective health status and higher levels of residential air toxins are statistically significantly associated with lower grade point averages, meaning that there is an independent effect of air pollution on children's academic achievement that cannot be explained by poor health alone. PMID:27214671
Allegheny Intermediate Unit, Pittsburgh, PA.
Two hundred and fifty talented children in grades 4-9 from suburban school districts in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, participated in the pilot program, Career Education Program for the Talented (CEPT). Practicing professional artists discussed their careers at monthly Saturday workshops which focused on the incorporation of the arts (music,…
Gray, H. Joey; Plucker, Jonathan A.
Similarities between the identification and development of athletic talent and that of gifted children are rarely compared. Interestingly, however, they share analogous processes. The purpose of this review is to investigate the progress of research regarding athletic talent identification and development, including current issues, and provide…
Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Thomson, Dana
When used informally, talent development refers to the deliberate cultivation of ability or giftedness in a specific domain. However, recent discussions have used talent development to refer to a particular framework for viewing giftedness and the education of gifted children. In this article, the authors will present their views on the meaning of…
Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert
This study tested a conceptual model of the reciprocal relations among parents' support for early learning and children's academic skills and preschool enrollment. Structural equation modeling of data from 6,250 children (Ages 2 to 5) and parents in the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort revealed that parental support for early learning was associated with gains in children's academic skills, which, in turn, were associated with their likelihood of preschool attendance. Preschool experience then was associated with further gains in children's early academic competencies, which were then associated with increased parental support. These patterns varied by parents' nativity status. Specifically, foreign-born parents' support for early learning was directly linked with preschool enrollment, and the association between the academic skills of children and parental support was also stronger for foreign-born parents. These immigration-related patterns were primarily driven by immigrant families who originated from Latin America, rather than Asia, and did not vary by immigrants' socioeconomic circumstances. Together, these results underscore the value of considering the synergistic relations between the home and school systems, as well as "child effects" and population diversity, in developmental research. PMID:25938712
Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert
This study tested a conceptual model of the reciprocal relations among parents’ support for early learning and children's academic skills and preschool enrollment. Structural equation modeling of data from 6,250 children (ages 2-5) and parents in the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) revealed that parental support for early learning was associated with gains in children's academic skills, which, in turn, were associated with their likelihood of preschool attendance. Preschool experience then was associated with further gains in children's early academic competencies, which were then associated with increased parental support. These patterns varied by parents' nativity status. Specifically, foreign-born parents' support for early learning was directly linked with preschool enrollment and the association between the academic skills of children and parental support was also stronger for foreign-born parents. These immigration-related patterns were primarily driven by immigrant families who originated from Latin America, rather than Asia and did not vary by immigrants’ socioeconomic circumstances. Together, these results underscore the value of considering the synergistic relations between the home and school systems as well as “child effects” and population diversity in developmental research. PMID:25938712
Sarant, Julia Z.; Harris, David C.; Bennet, Lisa A.
Purpose: This study sought to (a) determine whether academic outcomes for children who received early cochlear implants (CIs) are age appropriate, (b) determine whether bilateral CI use significantly improves academic outcomes, and (c) identify other factors that are predictive of these outcomes. Method: Forty-four 8-year-old children with…
Zevenbergen, Andrea A.; Ryan, Meghan M.
This study examined the relationship between attention problems and expressive language and academic readiness skills in preschool-aged children from middle-class families. Forty-three children (44% female) were assessed individually for expressive language skills and knowledge of basic academic concepts (e.g. colours, letters and numbers). The…
Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kirby, Teri; Gollwitzer, Anton; Oettingen, Gabriele
The current intervention tested whether a metacognitive self-regulatory strategy of goal pursuit can help economically disadvantaged children convert positive thoughts and images about their future into effective action. Mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII) entails mental contrasting a desired future with relevant obstacles of reality and forming implementation intentions (if-then plans) specifying when and where to overcome those obstacles. Seventy-seven fifth graders from an urban middle school were randomly assigned to learn either MCII or a Positive Thinking control strategy. Compared to children in the control condition, children taught how to apply MCII to their academic wishes and concerns significantly improved their report card grades (η(2) = .07), attendance (η(2) = .05), and conduct (η(2) = .07). These findings suggest that MCII holds considerable promise for helping disadvantaged middle school children improve their academic performance. PMID:25068007
Heyman, Gail D; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang
Children's reasoning about the credibility of positive and negative evaluations of academic performance was examined. Across 2 studies, 7- and 10-year-olds from the United States and China (N = 334) judged the credibility of academic evaluations that were directed toward an unfamiliar peer. In Study 1, participants from China responded that criticism should be accepted to a greater extent than did participants from the United States, and children from both countries demonstrated a selective skepticism effect by treating negative feedback more skeptically than positive feedback. Study 2 replicated the selective skepticism effect among children from both countries and ruled out the possibility that it can be explained as a rational analysis of perceived base rates. The results suggest that children are selective in their trust of evaluative feedback and that their credibility judgments may be influenced by the desirability of the information that is being conveyed or its anticipated consequences. PMID:23276127
Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kirby, Teri; Gollwitzer, Anton; Oettingen, Gabriele
The current intervention tested whether a metacognitive self-regulatory strategy of goal pursuit can help economically disadvantaged children convert positive thoughts and images about their future into effective action. Mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII) entails mental contrasting a desired future with relevant obstacles of reality and forming implementation intentions (if-then plans) specifying when and where to overcome those obstacles. Seventy-seven fifth graders from an urban middle school were randomly assigned to learn either MCII or a Positive Thinking control strategy. Compared to children in the control condition, children taught how to apply MCII to their academic wishes and concerns significantly improved their report card grades (η2 = .07), attendance (η2 = .05), and conduct (η2 = .07). These findings suggest that MCII holds considerable promise for helping disadvantaged middle school children improve their academic performance. PMID:25068007
Li-Grining, Christine P; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Maldonado-Carreño, Carolina; Haas, Kelly
Children's early approaches to learning (ATL) enhance their adaptation to the demands they experience with the start of formal schooling. The current study uses individual growth modeling to investigate whether children's early ATL, which includes persistence, emotion regulation, and attentiveness, explain individual differences in their academic trajectories during elementary school. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), the present investigation examined the association between ATL at kindergarten entry and trajectories of reading and math achievement across 6 waves of data from kindergarten, 1st, 3rd, and 5th grade (n = 10,666). The current study found a positive link between early ATL and individual trajectories of reading and math performance. Overall, children's early ATL was equally beneficial for children regardless of their race/ethnicity and dimensions of their socioeconomic background. However, links between early ATL and academic trajectories differed by their gender and initial levels of math and reading achievement. PMID:20822223
Winston, Deborah L.
A large, growing number of mis-educated American citizens are being produced by America's public schools. Many of these students are being funneled into the penal system shortly after dropping out of high school. This phenomenon is especially prevalent among African American male students, many of whom have withdrawn academically years prior…
Yamamoto, Yoko; Holloway, Susan D.
In this paper, we review research on parental expectations and their effects on student achievement within and across diverse racial and ethnic groups. Our review suggests that the level of parental expectations varies by racial/ethnic group, and that students' previous academic performance is a less influential determinant of parental…
Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Allegrante, John P.
Interest in the relationship between health behaviours and academic achievement has recently intensified in the face of an epidemic of childhood and adolescent obesity and converging school reforms in the United States and other nations with advanced economies. Epidemiologic research has demonstrated that poor diet and lack of adequate physical…
Bender, Bruce G.; And Others
Follows 46 unselected children with various sex chromosome abnormalities using intellectual, language, and achievement testing. Notes that, although most children were not mentally retarded, most received special education help. Finds support for the inference that learning disorders were genetically mediated in this group. (RS)
Childers, Glenna J.; Carroll, James L.
While the clinical literature frequently asserts that chronic illness negatively affects children's social development, data in support of such assertions are almost without exception obtained in clinical settings from children with chronic illness and their parents, without data from the school or community environment and without control or…
Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.
Noting that young children need early childhood settings supporting the development of the full range of capacities that will serve as a foundation for future school learning, and that adults have an opportunity and an obligation to assist children in becoming active participants in the learning process, this document details foundations to…
Suldo, Shannon M.; Riley, Kristen N.; Shaffer, Emily J.
Educators and psychologists alike have trumpeted calls for a reduced focus on deficits and pathology and increased attention to strengths and general wellness in all children. Life satisfaction is one of the most well-established indicators of general wellness and, moreover, positive functioning. Most examinations of children's life satisfaction…
Cherian, Varghese I.
Reports a study of 1,021 urban and rural Black children in Transkei, South Africa between the ages of 13 and 17. Findings showed scores on the Standard Seven external examinations were significantly lower among children from polygynous families and that these families were prone to conflict, emotional stress, and anxiety. Suggests teachers can…
Morris, Patricia A.
A preservation needs survey of children's literature collections at the University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries is analyzed. The genre, the subject of a growing body of scholarship, has enduring value and is collected in universities to support programs in literature, education, art, cultural history, and more. Even well known children's…
Garces-Bacsal, Rhoda Myra
Though there have been quite a number of research studies focusing on how Singaporean families promote literacy and instill values of academic excellence inside the home, little has been written about how families nurture the gifts of teenagers talented in the arts in the Singaporean context. This article highlights how the family influences the…
Boyd, Rae; Field, Sue
The paper argues that students talented in design usually demonstrate advanced development in some but not all aspects of design. A battery of tests was developed to enable the art teacher to identify strengths and weaknesses of able students. Noted also is the family's role in nurturing design talent. (Author/DB)
Jackson, Linda A; von Eye, Alexander; Biocca, Frank A; Barbatsis, Gretchen; Zhao, Yong; Fitzgerald, Hiram E
HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine the antecedents and consequences of home Internet use in low-income families (http://www.HomeNetToo.org). The study was done between December 2000 and June 2002. Among the consequences considered was children's academic performance. Participants were 140 children, mostly African American (83%), mostly boys (58%), and most living in single-parent households (75%) in which the median annual income was 15,000 (U.S. dollars) or less. Average age was 13.8 years. Ages ranged between 10 and 18 years, Internet use was continuously recorded, and multiple measures of academic performance were obtained during the 16-month trial. Findings indicated that children who used the Internet more had higher scores on standardized tests of reading achievement and higher grade point averages 6 months, 1 year, and 16 months later than did children who used it less. Older children used the Internet more than did younger children, but age had no effect on the nature or the academic performance benefits of Internet use. Implications for the digital "use" divide are discussed. PMID:16756435
Chen, Xinyin; Yang, Fan; Wang, Li
Shy-sensitive children are likely to develop adjustment problems in today's urban China as the country has evolved into an increasingly competitive, market-oriented society. The main purpose of this one-year longitudinal study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between shyness-sensitivity and later internalizing problems in Chinese children. A sample of 1171 school-age children (591 boys, 580 girls) in China, initially at the age of 9 years, participated in the study. Data on shyness, academic achievement, and internalizing problems were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that shyness positively and uniquely predicted later loneliness, depression, and teacher-rated internalizing problems, with the stability effect controlled, for low-achieving children, but not for high-achieving children. The results indicate that, consistent with the stress buffering model, academic achievement may be a buffering factor that serves to protect shy-sensitive children from developing psychological problems. PMID:23318940
Presentación Herrero, M Jesús; Siegenthaler Hierro, Rebeca; Jara Jiménez, Pilar; Miranda Casas, Ana
The aim of this investigation was to analyze the maintenance of the effects, one year after its conclusion, of an intervention that integrated three coordinated programs, implemented with 27 children with ADHD, aged between 7 and 10 years, their parents and teachers. The intervention lasted 10 weeks and included behavior-modification and cognitive-behavioral techniques, academic adaptations and social skills. We evaluated the effects on academic, emotional and social adjustment from the information provided by parents, teachers and classmates. The results confirm the maintenance in the follow-up evaluation of the improvements experienced after the treatment, especially in the academic and social areas, in which these children displayed the greatest difficulties. PMID:21044513
Hawaii Univ., Manoa. Center on the Family.
This project examined children's academic performance and psychological well-being in rural communities affected by mass layoffs. In one study (Study A), school level data were compared from similar communities where worksite closing had or had not occurred. Study B explored risk and resiliency processes in a sample of 55 rural Asian Pacific…
von Suchodoletz, Antje; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Wanless, Shannon B.; McClelland, Megan M.; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Ragnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur
The present study investigated a direct assessment of behavioral self-regulation (the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders; HTKS) and its contribution to early academic achievement among young children in Germany and Iceland. The authors examined the psychometric properties and construct validity of the HTKS, investigated gender differences in young…
Chen, Yung-Chi; Fish, Marian C.
This study examined how maternal chronic illnesses may affect children's academic achievement through parental involvement. A total of 189 mothers diagnosed with chronic illnesses, such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, cancer, HIV/AIDS, chronic pain, asthma, myelodysplasic syndrome, and fibromyalgia, and with a child in middle school or high…
Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan E.; Elliott, Julian
Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether behaviours typical of working memory problems are associated with poor academic attainment in those with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as a non-clinical group identified on the basis of working memory difficulties. Method: Children clinically diagnosed with…
Salzman, Stephanie A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the potential impact of maternal attributions and self-attributions on the academic achievement of father-absent children in comparison to commonly identified family interaction and demographic variables. Subjects included 33 male and 34 female father-absent sixth graders (mean age of 11.6 years) and their…
Arroyos-Jurado, Elsa; Paulsen, Jane S.; Ehly, Stewart; Max, Jeffrey E.
This study was conducted to examine the impact of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) on intellectual and academic outcomes postinjury. A comprehensive assessment of cognition, achievement, learning, and memory was administered to 27 children and adolescents 6 to 8 years post-TBI. Findings revealed that parent ratings of premorbid achievement…
Powell, Douglas R.; Son, Seung-Hee; File, Nancy; San Juan, Robert R.
Two dimensions of parent-school relationships, parental school involvement and parents' perceptions of teacher responsiveness to child/parent, were examined in state-funded pre-kindergarten classrooms in a large urban school district. Children's social and academic outcomes were individually assessed in the fall and spring. Hierarchical Linear…
Casady, Angela; Luster, Tom; Bates, Laura; Vandenbelt, Marcia
This study focused on family influences on the academic success of first-grade children born to low-income, adolescent mothers. The families in this study were participants in a family support program for teen mothers called Family TIES (Trust, Information, Encouragement, and Support). Families were eligible for services provided by…
Crncec, Rudi; Wilson, Sarah J.; Prior, Margot
There is considerable interest in the potential non-musical cognitive and academic benefits of music listening and instruction to children. This report describes three lines of research relevant to this issue, namely, the effects of: (1) focused music listening on subsequent task performance (the Mozart effect); (2) music instruction; and (3)…
Costley, Kevin C.
During the twentieth century it has been theorized that there is a link between musical achievement and academic achievement of young children. In support of this controversial view, many educators and music specialists promote the relationship between, parent, teacher, and child. The theory is: with cooperative learning experiences in the study…
Estelle, Sarah M.
Numerous empirical studies have found that maternal educational attainment is correlated positively with desirable outcomes for children, including academic achievement. At the same time, little is known about the effect of the timing of mothers' schooling on the same set of child outcomes. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten…
Liu, Junsheng; Bullock, Amanda; Coplan, Robert J.
The goal of this study was to explore longitudinal associations between peer victimization and academic achievement in Chinese children. Participants were N = 805 3rd-grade students (486 boys, 319 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.5 years, SD = 3 months) attending primary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. At Time 1 and Time 2 (2 years…
Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui
This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N = 204, 19 schools, mean age = 9 years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes…
Weis, Robert; Osborne, Karen J.; Dean, Emily L.
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a universal prevention program designed to increase academic engagement and to decrease disruptive behavior in elementary school-age children. Teachers and other school personnel use interdependent group contingencies to improve students' behavior in the classroom. Previous research indicates the GBG is efficacious…
This paper reports the results of a study of strategies that Dutch children with dyslexia employ to cope with recurrent academic failure. All of the students in the study had developed strategies for protecting their self-esteem. Using Harter's theory of coping with discrepancies between performance and standards, we distinguish four strategies:…
Ratner, Hilary Horn; Chiodo, Lisa; Covington, Chandice; Sokol, Robert J.; Ager, Joel; Delaney-Black, Virginia
Community violence exposure (CVE), a critical urban problem, is associated with negative academic outcomes. Children who report feeling safe, however, may perform better than those who do not. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations among CVE, feelings of safety, and cognitive outcomes among 6- and 7-year-olds born to women…
Mallett, Christopher A.
Many victims of childhood maltreatment experience difficulties in school and with academic performance. This article reviews the evidence on the connection between childhood maltreatment and school performance and presents an evaluation of a unique program established by Children's Services in Lorain County, Ohio. Since 2001, the School Success…
Kyle, Diane W.
A study conducted from 1996-2000 focused on the academic development of children within a statewide educational reform effort, including changing the organizational structure of the early years of schooling into nongraded primary programs (formerly age-based classrooms for kindergarteners through third grade). The multisite study involved children…
Li, Yanfang; Lv, Ying; Huntsinger, Carol S.
Relationships between exposure to preschool education and children's academic and social outcomes have been documented in Western countries. There is a lack of comparable research in China, where preschool education is relatively formal, but rather flexible in arrangement. We conducted research at six public kindergartens in a large Chinese…
Yao, Jihai; Mao, Yaqing
Left-behind children refer to those left behind by parents working away from home and taken care of by only one of the parents or relatives because one or both of the parents go out to work in the city. By using questionnaires, this study involves 8,627 rural pupils chosen from 10 provinces to examine academic psychological characteristics,…
Within the current climate of heightened interest in the education of young children, it is essential that consideration be given to different factors which may impact, either positively or negatively, on the achievement of young learners when their academic progress in literacy and numeracy is considered. The research study reported in this paper…
Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette
This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…
Oberlander, Sarah E.; Black, Maureen M.
The United States continues to have the highest incidence of adolescent births among industrialized nations. This study used transactional and life span theories of development to examine whether caregiving patterns assessed over the first 24 months postpartum predicted children's behavior and academic achievement at 7 years. Participants included…
Li, Jian; O'Connell, Ann A.
The authors investigated children's self-reported high-calorie food intake in Grade 5 and its relationship to trends in obesity status and academic achievement over the first 6 years of school. They used 3-level hierarchical linear models in the large-scale database (the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort). Findings indicated…
McCoy, Selina; Banks, Joanne
International studies have raised concerns about the academic and social implications of inclusive policies on school engagement and successful learning and, in particular, on the ways in which friendships are formed between students with SEN and other students. This article stems from research findings which show that Irish children with special…
Amundsen, Jane; And Others
Designed for preschoolers identified as talented by the Bringing Out Head Start Talents (BOHST) project, the small-group lessons contained in this manual focus on nine areas of talent programming and are presented in color-coded sections: creative, intellectual, leadership, art, music, reading, math, science, and psychomotor talent development.…
Brabcová, Dana; Zárubová, Jana; Kohout, Jiří; Jošt, Jiří; Kršek, Pavel
Academic self-concept could significantly affect academic achievement and self-confidence in children with epilepsy. However, limited attention has been devoted to determining factors influencing academic self-concept of children with epilepsy. We aimed to analyze potentially significant variables (gender, frequency of seizures, duration of epilepsy, intellectual disability, learning disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) in relation to academic self-concept in children with epilepsy and to additional domains of their quality of life. The study group consisted of 182 children and adolescents aged 9-14 years who completed the SPAS (Student's Perception of Ability Scale) questionnaire determining their academic self-concept and the modified Czech version of the CHEQOL-25 (Health-Related Quality of Life Measure for Children with Epilepsy) questionnaire evaluating their health-related quality of life. Using regression analysis, we identified learning disability as a key predictor for academic-self concept of children with epilepsy. While children with epilepsy and with no learning disability exhibited results comparable to children without epilepsy, participants with epilepsy and some learning disability scored significantly lower in almost all domains of academic self-concept. We moreover found that children with epilepsy and learning disability have significantly lower quality of life in intrapersonal and interpersonal domains. In contrast to children with epilepsy and with no learning disability, these participants have practically no correlation between their quality of life and academic self-concept. Our findings suggest that considerable attention should be paid to children having both epilepsy and learning disability. It should comprise services of specialized counselors and teaching assistants with an appropriate knowledge of epilepsy and ability to empathize with these children as well as educational interventions focused on their teachers
This book offers teachers of all grades teaching/management strategies for providing gifted students in regular classes the enriched curriculum they need. Chapter 1 describes the learning and behavioral characteristics of gifted students, especially noting underserved groups such as gifted children from multicultural and low socioeconomic…
Lundy, Shannon M; Silva, Graciela E; Kaemingk, Kristine L; Goodwin, James L; Quan, Stuart F
RATIONALE: Few studies have evaluated the relationship between depressive symptomatology and neuropsychological performance in children without symptomatic depression. OBJECTIVES: This study determined the relationship between anxious/depressed and withdrawn symptoms and performance on cognitive and academic achievement measures. METHODS: 335 Caucasian and Hispanic children aged 6 to 11 years who participated in the Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea (TuCASA) study were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery measuring cognitive functioning and academic achievement. Their parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Correlations between performance on the cognitive and academic achievement measures and two Internalizing scales from the CBCL were calculated. Comparisons were made between a "Clinical" referral group (using a T-score of ≥ 60 from the CBCL scales) and a "Normal" group, as well as between Caucasians and Hispanics. RESULTS: No differences were found between those participants with increased anxious/depressed or withdrawn symptoms on the CBCL and those without increased symptoms with respect to age, gender, ethnicity, or parental education level. However, significant negative correlations were found between these symptoms and general intellectual function, language, visual construction skills, attention, processing speed, executive functioning abilities, aspects of learning and memory, psychomotor speed and coordination, and basic academic skills. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the hypothesis that depressive symptomatology negatively impacts performance on cognitive and academic achievement measures in school-aged children and these findings are not affected by ethnicity. The findings also reinforce the concept that the presence of anxious/depressed or withdrawn symptoms needs to be considered when evaluating poor neuropsychological performance in children. PMID:20664711
Callahan, Carolyn M.
Intended to provide teachers with information about research in creativity, the book reviews practical considerations involved in the education of gifted and talented children. The first section analyzes difficulties and issues in defining creativity, including a review of models of creative thinking. The second chapter briefly reviews…
IDRA Newsletter, 1998
This theme issue includes five articles that focus on issues surrounding gifted and talented students, especially as they relate to poor, minority, or limited-English-proficient children. "Traditional Methods of Identifying Gifted Students Overlooks Many" (Linda Cantu) presents findings from the National Educational Longitudinal Study that…
Mashburn, Andrew J; Pianta, Robert C; Hamre, Bridget K; Downer, Jason T; Barbarin, Oscar A; Bryant, Donna; Burchinal, Margaret; Early, Diane M; Howes, Carollee
This study examined development of academic, language, and social skills among 4-year-olds in publicly supported prekindergarten (pre-K) programs in relation to 3 methods of measuring pre-K quality, which are as follows: (a) adherence to 9 standards of quality related to program infrastructure and design, (b) observations of the overall quality of classroom environments, and (c) observations of teachers' emotional and instructional interactions with children in classrooms. Participants were 2,439 children enrolled in 671 pre-K classrooms in 11 states. Adjusting for prior skill levels, child and family characteristics, program characteristics, and state, teachers' instructional interactions predicted academic and language skills and teachers' emotional interactions predicted teacher-reported social skills. Findings suggest that policies, program development, and professional development efforts that improve teacher-child interactions can facilitate children's school readiness. PMID:18489424
Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui
This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N=204, 19 schools, mean age=9years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes about the value of diversity in predicting immigrant youth's attitudes and experiences. Results indicated that Latino immigrant children in this White community held positive and important ethnic identities and perceived low overall rates of discrimination. As expected, however, school and teacher characteristics were important in predicting children's perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity, and moderated whether perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity were related to attitudes about school and academic performance. PMID:22966916
Ly, Jennifer; Zhou, Qing; Chu, Keira; Chen, Stephen H
This study examined the cross-sectional relations between teacher-child relationship quality (TCRQ) and math and reading achievement in a socio-economically diverse sample of Chinese American first- and second-grade children in immigrant families (N=207). Teachers completed a questionnaire measuring TCRQ dimensions including closeness, conflict, and intimacy, and children completed a questionnaire measuring overall TCRQ. Standardized tests were used to assess children's math and reading skills. Analyses were conducted to (a) test the factor structure of measures assessing TCRQ among Chinese American children, (b) examine the associations between teacher- and child-rated TCRQ and children's academic achievement, controlling for demographic characteristics, and (c) examine the potential role of child gender as a moderator in the relations between TCRQ and achievement. Results indicated that teacher-rated TCRQ Warmth was positively associated with Chinese American children's reading achievement. Two child gender-by-TCRQ interactions were found: (a) teacher-rated TCRQ Conflict was negatively associated with girls' (but not boys') math achievement, and (b) child-rated Overall TCRQ was positively associated with boys' (but not girls') reading achievement. These findings highlight the valuable role of TCRQ in the academic success of school-aged children in immigrant families. PMID:22710020
Tamm, Leanne; Garner, Annie A; Loren, Richard E A; Epstein, Jeffery N; Vaughn, Aaron J; Ciesielski, Heather A; Becker, Stephen P
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms may confer risk for academic impairment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated SCT in relation to academic performance and impairment in 252 children (ages 6-12, 67% boys) with ADHD. Parents and teachers completed SCT and academic impairment ratings, and achievement in reading, math, and spelling was assessed. Simultaneous regressions controlling for IQ, ADHD, and comorbidities were conducted. Total SCT predicted parent-rated impairments in writing, mathematics, and overall school but not reading. Parent-rated SCT Slow predicted poorer reading and spelling, but not math achievement. Teacher-rated SCT Slow predicted poorer spelling and math, but not reading achievement. Parent-rated SCT Slow predicted greater academic impairment ratings across all domains, whereas teacher-rated SCT Slow predicted greater impairment in writing only. Age and gender did not moderate these relationships with the exception of math impairment; SCT slow predicted math impairment for younger but not older children. Parent and teacher SCT Sleepy and Daydreamy ratings were not significant predictors. SCT Slow appears to be uniquely related to academic problems in ADHD, and may be important to assess and potentially target in intervention. More work is needed to better understand the nature of SCT Slow symptoms in relation to inattention and amotivation. PMID:27294799
Aj, Milam; Cdm, Furr-Holden; Pj, Leaf
Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population of 3(rd)-5(th) grade students in an urban public school system. Community and school safety were assessed using the School Climate Survey, an annual city-wide assessment of student's perception of school and community safety. Community violence was measured using the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology, an objective observational assessment of neighborhood characteristics. Academic achievement was measured using the Maryland State Assessment (MSA), a standardized exam given to all Maryland 3(rd)-8(th) graders. School Climate Data and MSA data were aggregated by school and grade. Objective assessments of neighborhood environment and students' self-reported school and neighborhood safety were both strongly associated with academic performance. Increasing neighborhood violence was associated with statistically significant decreases from 4.2%-8.7% in math and reading achievement; increasing perceived safety was associated with significant increases in achievement from 16%-22%. These preliminary findings highlight the adverse impact of perceived safety and community violence exposure on primary school children's academic performance. PMID:21197388
Desai, Ishaan K.; Kurpad, Anura V.; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Thomas, Tinku
Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants’ aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test), demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman’s rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P < 0.05). After standardizing scores across grade levels and adjusting for school, gender, socioeconomic status, and weight status (BMI Z-score), children with greater aerobic capacities (mL * kg-1 * min-1) had greater odds of scoring above average on math and Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively). This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their physical and
Desai, Ishaan K; Kurpad, Anura V; Chomitz, Virginia R; Thomas, Tinku
Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants' aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test), demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P < 0.05). After standardizing scores across grade levels and adjusting for school, gender, socioeconomic status, and weight status (BMI Z-score), children with greater aerobic capacities (mL * kg(-1) * min(-1)) had greater odds of scoring above average on math and Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively). This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their physical and
Coldren, Jeffrey T.
Children's ability to shift behavior in response to changing environmental demands is critical for successful intellectual functioning. While the processes underlying the development of cognitive control have been thoroughly investigated, its functioning in an ecologically relevant setting such as school is less well understood. Given the alarming…
Brown, Ronald T.; Madan-Swain, Avi
This research review finds that children with leukemia exhibit deficits in cognitive and neuropsychological functioning following either central nervous system irradiation or intrathecal chemotherapy. Implications of increased life expectancies for school reentry and the need for special education services are addressed. (DB)
Campbell, James Reed; Verna, Marilyn Ann
What constitutes effective parenting? An international consensus has evolved that effective parenting makes important contributions to children's achievement. But the fundamental question is what constitutes effective parenting. Most of the research that has been done in answering this question has been done within existing school frameworks…
Almond, Douglas; Mazumder, Bhashkar; van Ewijk, Reyn
We consider the effects of daytime fasting by pregnant women during the lunar month of Ramadan on their children's test scores at age seven. Using English register data, we find that scores are 0.05 to 0.08 standard deviations lower for Pakistani and Bangladeshi students exposed to Ramadan in early pregnancy. These estimates are downward biased to…
McClelland, Megan M.; Cameron, Claire E.
Self-regulation is a key construct in children's healthy and adaptive development. In this chapter, the authors situate self-regulation in a theoretical context that describes its underlying components that are most important for early school success: flexible attention, working memory, and inhibitory control. The authors review evidence that…
Zwirn, Susan Goetz; Graham, Mark
The arts become a form of resistance, providing educators with a tool to resist mechanical and oppressive school experiences and cultivate a personal voice among children. Two professors on opposite coasts joined forces to design a course for pre- and inservice elementary school teachers. This article describes the course and discusses it's…
Townes, B. D.; And Others
Significant differences were found between younger and older children on most neuropsychological tests. Girls were found to be superior to boys in verbal reasoning, language skills, and serial perceptual matching skills, whereas boys were superior on tests of spatial memory and motor skills. (Author)
This study examined the effect of three aspects of the testing context--physical privacy, anonymity, and offers of help from a tester--on children's expectations. Performance of 96 11-year-old boys and girls on a pictorial recall memory task in a simulated test was evaluated. The subjects were divided into eight different groups varying on the…
Vaiouli, Potheini; Ogle, Lindsey
Typical group activities for kindergarten children depend heavily on children's ability to follow directions, respond verbally to adults' prompts, take turns, initiate, and sustain peer interactions. Therefore, young children with autism may often be excluded from academic group activities because their social skills are under-developed or delayed…
This study investigated predictors of academic achievement among Palestinian children, including child and parent characteristics, exposure to armed conflict, child strengths, and children's hope. Participants were 1,697 children of both genders. The mean age of participants was 12 years, 10 months. Results of the final hierarchical multiple…
Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.
The authors aimed to examine the possible association between (a) accurately reading emotion in facial expressions and (b) social and academic competence among elementary school-aged children. Participants were 840 7-year-old children who completed a test of the ability to read emotion in facial expressions. Teachers rated children's social and…
Kopystynska, Olena; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Seay, Danielle M.; Eisenberg, Nancy
The goal of this work was to examine the complex interrelation of mothers' early gentle control and sensitivity in predicting children's effortful control (EC) and academic functioning. Maternal gentle control, maternal sensitivity, and children's EC were measured when children were 18, 30, and 42 months of age (T1, T2, and T3, respectively), and…
Magi, Katrin; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This longitudinal study investigated the cross-lagged associations between children's academic skill development, task-avoidant behaviour in the context of homework, and parental beliefs about their child's success from kindergarten to Grade 2. The participants were 1267 children. The children's pre-skills were assessed at the end of the…
Mathewson, Karen J.; Miskovic, Vladimir; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.
Research Findings: Individual and contextual variables were examined in relation to children's ability to cope with socioemotional and academic challenges in a sample of typically developing (n = 51) and anxious (n = 72) children of elementary and middle school age. Anxious children had greater social difficulties than controls and showed…
Molepo, Lephodisa S.; Maunganidze, Levison; Mudhovozi, Pilot; Sodi, Tholene
We investigated teacher ratings of the impact of parental divorce on academic achievement of children between 6 and 12 years old up to 12 months after their parents divorced. A purposive sample of 120 children attending four different primary schools in a small South African town took part in the study. One third (n = 40) of the children had…
Jaffee, Sara R.; Gallop, Robert
Objective: To estimate the prevalence and stability of social, emotional, and academic competence in a nationally representative sample of children involved with child protective services. Method: Children were assessed as part of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Children (N = 2,065) ranged in age from 8 to 16 years and were…
Cheung, Cecilia Sin-Sze; Pomerantz, Eva M.
This research examined parents' involvement in children's learning in the United States and China. Beginning in seventh grade, 825 American and Chinese children (mean age = 12.74 years) reported on their parents' involvement in their learning as well as their parents' psychological control and autonomy support every six months until the end of eighth grade. Information on children's academic and emotional adjustment was obtained. American (vs. Chinese) parents' involvement was associated less with their control and more with their autonomy support. Despite these different associations, parents' heightened involvement predicted children's enhanced engagement and achievement similarly in the United States and China. However, it predicted enhanced perceptions of competence and positive emotional functioning more strongly in the United States than China. PMID:21418057
Lo que los Padres Necesitan Saber sobre...Reconocer y Animar los Intereses, las Capacidades, y los Talentos de los Ninos Dotados de la Escuela Primaria. Guia Practica B0213 (What Parents Need To Know about...Recognizing and Encouraging Interests, Strengths, and Talents of Gifted Elementary School Children. Practitioners' Guide B0213).
Delcourt, Marcia A. B.
This brochure, written in Spanish, discusses strategies that Spanish-speaking parents can use to support the interests of their children and how to recognize and extend their children's talents. Parents are urged to: (1) be aware of what their child likes to do and be patient with the changing patterns as the child explores areas of interests and…
Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L.; Dye, Louise
Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behavior, cognitive, and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic performance or in-class behavior is available. The literature was searched for articles published between 1950–2013 indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Pubmed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE databases, and PsychINFO. Thirty-six articles examining the effects of breakfast on in-class behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents were included. The effects of breakfast in different populations were considered, including undernourished or well-nourished children and adolescents from differing socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. The habitual and acute effects of breakfast and the effects of school breakfast programs (SBPs) were considered. The evidence indicated a mainly positive effect of breakfast on on-task behavior in the classroom. There was suggestive evidence that habitual breakfast (frequency and quality) and SBPs have a positive effect on children's academic performance with clearest effects on mathematic and arithmetic grades in undernourished children. Increased frequency of habitual breakfast was consistently positively associated with academic performance. Some evidence suggested that quality of habitual breakfast, in terms of providing a greater variety of food groups and adequate energy, was positively related to school performance. However, these associations can be attributed, in part, to confounders such as SES and to methodological weaknesses such as the subjective nature of the observations of behavior in class. PMID:23964220
Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Dye, Louise
Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behavior, cognitive, and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic performance or in-class behavior is available. The literature was searched for articles published between 1950-2013 indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Pubmed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE databases, and PsychINFO. Thirty-six articles examining the effects of breakfast on in-class behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents were included. The effects of breakfast in different populations were considered, including undernourished or well-nourished children and adolescents from differing socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. The habitual and acute effects of breakfast and the effects of school breakfast programs (SBPs) were considered. The evidence indicated a mainly positive effect of breakfast on on-task behavior in the classroom. There was suggestive evidence that habitual breakfast (frequency and quality) and SBPs have a positive effect on children's academic performance with clearest effects on mathematic and arithmetic grades in undernourished children. Increased frequency of habitual breakfast was consistently positively associated with academic performance. Some evidence suggested that quality of habitual breakfast, in terms of providing a greater variety of food groups and adequate energy, was positively related to school performance. However, these associations can be attributed, in part, to confounders such as SES and to methodological weaknesses such as the subjective nature of the observations of behavior in class. PMID:23964220
Witherspoon, Dawn P; Daniels, Lisa L; Mason, Amber E; Smith, Emilie Phillips
Research consistently shows that neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics and residents' neighborhood perceptions matter for youth well-being, including a positive sense of racial-ethnic identity. Although elementary-school children are likely in the earlier phases of identity formation, the authors examined whether objective and subjective neighborhood characteristics are related to their racial-ethnic identity and, in turn, their academic adjustment. A diverse sample (30.4% African American, 35.2% White, 12.3% Latino, & 22.0% Other) of 227 children in Grades 2 through 5 were surveyed in afterschool programs. Bivariate correlations showed that youth living in disadvantaged neighborhoods reported more barriers due to their race-ethnicity, but these barriers were not related to their sense of academic efficacy. Residing in a disadvantaged neighborhood was unrelated to youth's academic self-efficacy. However, path analyses showed that positive neighborhood perceptions were associated with a stronger sense of race-ethnicity (i.e., affirmation and belonging), which was in turn related to greater academic efficacy. These results suggest that neighborhood connection provides a source of affirmation and value for young children, helping them to understand who they are as part of a racial-ethnic group and helping to foster a sense of future achievement opportunities. This study provides additional evidence that along with other important proximal contexts (e.g., family, school), young children's neighborhood context is important for development. Results are discussed to highlight environmental influences on young children's awareness of race-ethnicity and the implications of the combined impact of neighborhood and racial-ethnic identity on psychosocial adjustment. PMID:27217314
Spera, Christopher; Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Matto, Holly C.
This study examined parental aspirations for their children's educational attainment in relation to ethnicity (African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic), parental education, children's academic performance, and parental perceptions of the quality and climate of their children's school with a sample of 13,577 middle and high school parents. All…
Madison, Alison L.
Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.
Oades-Sese, Geraldine V; Esquivel, Giselle B; Kaliski, Pamela K; Maniatis, Lisette
This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered analysis of 207 Hispanic American preschoolers (ages 4 and 5 years) yielded 6 distinct profiles, 2 of which were socially competent and 1 of which was vulnerable. Findings revealed profile differences in social competence and a significant relationship between bilingualism and social-emotional development. In Study 2, the authors determined which profiles were associated with later academic achievement and growth of English proficiency. Findings indicated a significant relationship of early social-emotional development to later academic success and English acquisition, highlighting the role of bilingualism. PMID:21219064
Lajiness-O'Neill, R; Hoodin, F; Kentor, R; Heinrich, K; Colbert, A; Connelly, J A
The prevalence of late effects following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), a curative treatment for pediatric leukemia, is high: 79% of HCT recipients experience chronic medical conditions. The few extant studies of cognitive late effects have focused on intelligence and are equivocal about HCT neurotoxicity. In an archival study of 30 children (mean transplant age = 6 years), we characterize neuropsychological predictors of academic outcomes. Mean intellectual and academic abilities were average, but evidenced extreme variability, particularly on measures of attention and memory: ∼25% of the sample exhibited borderline performance or lower. Medical predictors of outcome revealed paradoxically better memory associated with more severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and associated with steroid treatment. Processing speed and memory accounted for 69% and 61% of variance in mathematics and reading outcomes, respectively. Thus, our findings revealed neurocognitive areas of vulnerability in processing speed and memory following HCT that contribute to subsequent academic difficulties. PMID:26319492
Anthony, Christopher J; DiPerna, James Clyde; Amato, Paul R
Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) were used to test the hypothesis that approaches to learning (ATL) mediates the link between parental divorce and academic achievement. Fixed effects regression was utilized to test for mediation, and subsequent moderation analyses examining gender and age at time of divorce also were conducted. Results indicated that divorce was associated with less growth in test scores and that ATL mediated 18% and 12% of this association in reading and mathematics respectively. Parental divorce also was associated with larger negative effects for children who experienced divorce at an older age as well as for girls' mathematics test scores. These findings contribute to the understanding of the impact of parental divorce on children's academic achievement and underscore the importance of focusing on the variability of child outcomes following parental divorce. PMID:24930818
Nadeem, Erum; Maslak, Kristi; Chacko, Anil; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton
Research Findings The purpose of this article is to describe current education policies as they relate to the promotion of social, emotional, and academic (SEA) development and competence for young children. Academic and social–emotional competencies are described and conceptualized as developmentally linked, reciprocal processes that should be supported by education in an integrated, holistic manner. Practice or Policy The article reviews major public policies and national initiatives that have implications for the education of young children (e.g., Head Start, No Child Left Behind, IDEA) and highlights opportunities within these policies to promote programs that can support SEA competencies, as well as the limitations of these policies. The article also includes a review of the limitations of existing resources available to educators to identify evidence-based programs that support SEA competencies and concludes with recommendations for better alignment between research and policy to support SEA competencies. PMID:25632216
Hughes, Jan N; Kowk, Oi-Man; Im, Myunghee
The effect of retention in first grade (Year 1) on parents' educational expectations was tested in a sample of 530 ethnically diverse and academically at-risk children. Participants attended one of three school districts in Texas. Of the 530 children, 118 were retained in first grade. Retention had a negative effect on parent expectations in Year 2, which was maintained in Year 3. Year 2 parent expectations partially mediated the effect of retention in first grade on Year 3 reading and math achievement and child academic self-efficacy. All effects controlled for Year 1 measures of the outcome. Results were similar across gender, economic adversity, and ethnicity. Implications for minimizing the negative effect of retention on parents' expectations are suggested. PMID:24357865
Powell, Douglas R; Son, Seung-Hee; File, Nancy; San Juan, Robert R
Two dimensions of parent-school relationships, parental school involvement and parents' perceptions of teacher responsiveness to child/parent, were examined in state-funded pre-kindergarten classrooms in a large urban school district. Children's social and academic outcomes were individually assessed in the fall and spring. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses revealed that parental school involvement positively predicted children's social skills (d=.55) and mathematics skills (d=.36), and negatively predicted problem behaviors (d=.47). Perceived teacher responsiveness to child/parent was positively related to children's early reading (d=.43), and social skills (d=.43), and negatively to problem behaviors (d=.61). All analyses controlled for quality of teacher interaction with children in the classroom, parental home involvement, parental education level, and child race/ethnicity. PMID:20609850
Scudder, Mark R; Federmeier, Kara D; Raine, Lauren B; Direito, Artur; Boyd, Jeremy K; Hillman, Charles H
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have been instrumental for discerning the relationship between children's aerobic fitness and aspects of cognition, yet language processing remains unexplored. ERPs linked to the processing of semantic information (the N400) and the analysis of language structure (the P600) were recorded from higher and lower aerobically fit children as they read normal sentences and those containing semantic or syntactic violations. Results revealed that higher fit children exhibited greater N400 amplitude and shorter latency across all sentence types, and a larger P600 effect for syntactic violations. Such findings suggest that higher fitness may be associated with a richer network of words and their meanings, and a greater ability to detect and/or repair syntactic errors. The current findings extend previous ERP research explicating the cognitive benefits associated with greater aerobic fitness in children and may have important implications for learning and academic performance. PMID:24747513
May, Tamara; Rinehart, Nicole; Wilding, John; Cornish, Kim
Academic attainment in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is under-studied, with associated factors largely undetermined. Parent-reported attention symptoms, attentional-switching and sustained-attention tasks were examined to determine relationships with mathematics and reading attainment in 124 children aged 7-12 years; sixty-four with high-functioning ASD, half girls, and sixty age- and gender-matched typical children (TYP). With full-scale IQ controlled there were no differences in mathematics, reading, attentional switching or sustained attention. In regression analysis, attentional switching was related to mathematics achievement in ASD but not TYP children. Findings highlight attentional switching difficulties are linked with poorer mathematics outcomes in ASD. PMID:23378062
Data from Hong Kong PISA 2003 show that 15-year-old Hong Kong students who have immigrant parents from mainland China are grossly overrepresented in grades below the modal grade attended by most native Hong Kong students. Same-age comparison, when grade level is not taken into account, puts immigrants’ children at a disadvantaged position in the mathematics, reading, and science literacy tests. The academic advantage of immigrants’ children in Hong Kong is only revealed after grade is statistically controlled. Also, mainland immigrant students who are repeaters outperform native Hong Kong repeaters. Immigrant redshirting is a possible driving force behind these results. PMID:25214810
Burchinal, Margaret R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.; Rowley, Stephanie J.
The transition to middle school is often marked by decreased academic achievement and increased emotional stress, and African American children exposed to social risk may be especially vulnerable during this transition. To identify mediators and protective factors, the authors related severity and timing of risk exposure to academic achievement…
Alt, Mary; Arizmendi, Genesis D.; Beal, Carole R.
Purpose: The present study examined the relationship between mathematics and language to better understand the nature of the deficit and the academic implications associated with specific language impairment (SLI) and academic implications for English language learners (ELLs). Method: School-age children (N = 61; 20 SLI, 20 ELL, 21 native…
de Greeff, Johannes W.; Hartman, Esther; Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris
Background: Preventing overweight and improving physical fitness in primary school children is a worldwide challenge, and physically active intervention programs usually come with the cost of academic instruction time. This study aimed to investigate effects of physically active academic lessons on body mass index (BMI) and physical fitness in…
Shin, Richard Q.
This exploratory study examined the relationships between Africentric values, racial/ethnic identity, neighborhood satisfaction, and academic self-efficacy beliefs among 88 African American elementary school children. Results indicated that Africentric values and neighborhood satisfaction were both predictive of academic self-efficacy beliefs.…
Trout, Alexandra L.; Epstein, Michael H.
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for academic failure. Although studies have evaluated the effects of medication on academic outcomes, the literature on non-medication interventions has not received equal attention. This review examined 41 studies that evaluated the impact of non-medication interventions on…
Rispoli, Mandy J.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lang, Russell; Kang, Soyeon; Lancioni, Giulio; Parker, Richard
We evaluated the effects of presession satiation on challenging behavior and academic engagement during subsequent classroom activities for three 5-6 year-old children with autism. The percentage of 10-s intervals with challenging behavior and academic engagement during 20-min classroom activity sessions was observed under two conditions. One…
Hechtman, Lily; Abikoff, Howard; Klein, Rachel G.; Weiss, Gabrielle; Respitz, Chara; Kouri, Joan; Blum, Carol; Greenfield, Brian; Etcovitch, Joy; Fleiss, Karen; Pollack, Simcha
Objective: To test the hypothesis that intensive multimodal psychosocial intervention (that includes academic assistance and psychotherapy) combined with methylphenidate significantly enhances the academic performance and emotional status of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with methylphenidate alone and with…
In the process of children's talent development, fathers have been largely ignored compared to mothers who are mostly identified as the initial and primary influence for their children. Though modern fathers are becoming more engaged in childrearing and interacting more with their children and changes in family systems lead to new challenges and…
Cunningham, Charles E; McHolm, Angela; Boyle, Michael H; Patel, Sejal
This study addressed four questions which parents of children with selective mutism (SM) frequently ask: (1) Is SM associated with anxiety or oppositional behavior? (2) Is SM associated with parenting and family dysfunction? (3) Will my child fail at school? and (4) Will my child make friends or be teased and bullied? In comparison to a sample of 52 community controls, 52 children with SM were more anxious, obsessive, and prone to somatic complaints. In contrast, children with SM were less oppositional and evidenced fewer attentional difficulties at school. We found no group differences in family structure, economic resources, family functioning, maternal mood difficulties, recreational activities, or social networks. While parents reported no differences in parenting strategies, children with SM were described as less cooperative in disciplinary situations. The academic (e.g., reading and math) and classroom cooperative skills of children with SM did not differ from controls. Parents and teachers reported that children with SM had significant deficits in social skills. Though teachers and parents rated children with SM as less socially assertive, neither teachers nor parents reported that children with SM were victimized more frequently by peers. PMID:15482497
Tongue, Cornelia, Ed.
Seven speakers consider gifted and talented students. George Welsh defines the relationship of personality and classroom performance; Marvin Gold describes differential education; and C. Douglas Carter discusses special programs at the elementary level. Also treated are the nature and identification of creativity, by Betty Stovall, advanced…
This study investigated the effect of the disability labels: learning disabilities (LD), physical disabilities (PHD) and emotional and behavioural disorder (EBD), on United Arab Emirates public school general education and special education teachers' willingness to refer and place students in gifted and talented programmes. A total of 269…
Pong, Suet-ling; Landale, Nancy S
Using data from the New Immigrant Survey, a study based on a nationally representative sample of legal immigrants, the present study extends prior research on the academic outcomes of immigrants' children by examining the roles of pre- and postmigration parental characteristics and the home environment. An analysis of 2,147 children aged 6-12 shows that parents' premigration education is more strongly associated with children's academic achievement than any other pre- or postmigration attribute. Premigration parental attributes account for the test score disadvantage of Mexican-origin children of legal immigrants, relative to their non-Latino counterparts. The findings reveal continuities and discontinuities in parental socioeconomic status and demonstrate that what parents bring to the United States and their experiences after arrival influence children's academic achievement. PMID:22966922
Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M
Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms. PMID:11827093
Stabler, B; Clopper, R R; Siegel, P T; Stoppani, C; Compton, P G; Underwood, L E
Limited information is available on the educational and behavioral functioning of short children. Through 27 participating medical centers, we administered a battery of psychologic tests to 166 children referred for growth hormone (GH) treatment (5 to 16 years) who were below the third percentile for height (mean height = -2.7 SD). The sample consisted of 86 children with isolated growth-hormone deficiency (GHD) and 80 children with idiopathic short stature (ISS). Despite average intelligence, absence of significant family dysfunction, and advantaged social background, a large number of children had academic underachievement. Both groups showed significant discrepancy (p < .01) between IQ and achievement scores in reading (6%), spelling (10%), and arithmetic (13%) and a higher-than-expected rate of behavior problems (GHD, 12%, p < .0001; ISS, 10%, p < .0001). Behavior problems included elevated rates of internalizing behavior (e.g., anxiety, somatic complaints) and externalizing behavior (e.g., impulsive, distractable, attention-seeking). Social competence was reduced in school-related activities for GHD patients (6%, p < .03). The high frequency of underachievement, behavior problems, and reduced social competency in these children suggests that short stature itself may predispose them to some of their difficulties. Alternately, parents of short, underachieving children may be more likely to seek help. In addition, some problems may be caused by factors related to specific diagnoses. PMID:8195431
Jordan, Will J.; Plank, Stephen B.
Many graduates who have the academic ability to continue their schooling beyond high school do not enroll in higher education. This phenomenon has been referred to as "talent loss." The challenges involved in financing higher education partially contribute to talent loss and its pervasiveness among poor students, but they fall short of providing a…
Rasmussen, Annette; Rasmussen, Palle
This paper reports from a case study of a "talent class", a special development programme for talented pupils, established in a Danish municipality. It analyses student backgrounds and motives for joining this talent class programme, which is seen in relation to ordinary schooling in Denmark. Drawing on Bourdieu, the paper links social…
de Haan, Annika K. E.; Elbers, Ed; Leseman, Paul P. M.
The aim of this study was to assess whether children's development benefited from teacher-and child-managed academic activities in the preschool and kindergarten classroom. Extensive systematic observations during four half-days in preschool ("n"?=?8) and kindergarten ("n"?=?8) classrooms revealed that classrooms differed…
It is important to determine and develop problem solving skills of gifted and talented children, who have different emotional characteristics compared to peers, in terms of using their potentials at the highest level. In this research, which was done with the aim of determining self sensations of gifted and talented children in problem solving…
Merchant, Bion John
The Ground-Based Monitoring R and E Component Evaluation project performs testing on the hardware components that make up Seismic and Infrasound monitoring systems. The majority of the testing is focused on the Digital Waveform Recorder (DWR), Seismic Sensor, and Infrasound Sensor. The software tool used to capture and analyze the data collected from testing is called TALENT: Test and Analysis Evaluation Tool. This document is the manual for using TALENT. Other reports document the testing procedures that are in place (Kromer, 2007) and the algorithms employed in the test analysis (Merchant, 2011).
Scudder, Mark R.; Federmeier, Kara D.; Raine, Lauren B.; Direito, Artur; Boyd, Jeremy K.; Hillman, Charles H.
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have been instrumental for discerning the relationship between children’s aerobic fitness and aspects of cognition, yet language processing remains unexplored. ERPs linked to the processing of semantic information (the N400) and the analysis of language structure (the P600) were recorded from higher and lower aerobically fit children as they read normal sentences and those containing semantic or syntactic violations. Results revealed that higher fit children exhibited greater N400 amplitude and shorter latency across all sentence types, and a larger P600 effect for syntactic violations. Such findings suggest that higher fitness may be associated with a richer network of words and their meanings, and a greater ability to detect and/or repair syntactic errors. The current findings extend previous ERP research explicating the cognitive benefits associated with greater aerobic fitness in children and may have important implications for learning and academic performance. PMID:24747513
Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F
Numerous factors are known to affect the academic performance of students. These include prenatal conditions, birth conditions, postnatal events, nutritional, socio-economic factors and environmental factors. This paper examines the nutritional status and its relationship with academic performance of 9-10 years old primary school children recruited randomly in Selangor, Malaysia. A standard self-administered questionnaire was utilized to obtain pertinent information and a face-to-face interview was also conducted with the parents. Results of the academic performances were extracted from the students' report cards. The intellectual performance was assessed using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. Physical examination was also conducted on these students by doctors. Overall 1,405 students and 1,317 parents responded to the survey. Of these 83.6% were Malays, 11.6% Indians, and 4.2% Chinese. The majority of them (82.9%) were from urban areas. The female: male ratio was 51:49; mean age was 9.71 years. The mean height and weight were 32.3 kg and 135.2 cm respectively. Their mean BMI was 17.42 kg/cm2, with 0.9% underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight, and 6.3% obese. Academic performance was significantly correlated with breast feeding, income and educational level of their parents, BMI, and whether they have been taking breakfast. There was a weak correlation between presence of anaemia and intellectual performance. Improving the socio-economic status of the parents will lend a helping hand in the academic performance of the students. Since breast feeding is associated with better academic and intellectual performance it must be emphasized, particularly to expectant mothers in the antenatal clinics. PMID:16425650
The document presents a view of the program, "Educational Talent Search," operating in 20 counties in northwest Mississippi and in Wilcox County, Alabama. A description of the poverty conditions found to exist in these counties serves as a foundation for the remainder of the report. Talent scout training, talent scout efforts, and student field…
Recent discussions among HR practitioners in higher education have focused on talent management; specifically, the concept of developing a college or university talent management approach balanced between planning and action. Talent management as a planning tool looks very similar to workforce planning, but where HR will experience a real…
Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Maczuga, Steve
Data were analyzed from a population-based, longitudinal sample of 8,650 U.S. children to (a) identify factors associated with or predictive of oral vocabulary size at 24 months of age and (b) evaluate whether oral vocabulary size is uniquely predictive of academic and behavioral functioning at kindergarten entry. Children from higher…
Tucker, Carolyn M.; Herman, Keith C.
Economic and social barriers to the academic and social success of many African American children are persistent. This provides impetus for developing community-based partnership education programs designed to empower African American children. The Research-Based Model Partnership Education Program one such university-school-community partnership…
Enlund, Emmi; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This study investigated the interindividual stability and mean-level changes in parents' causal attributions for their children's academic performance across a 9-year period from the first year in primary school (Grade 1, age 7) to the end of lower secondary school (Grade 9, age 16). In all, 212 children participated in the study. The results…
Kopystynska, Olena; Spinrad, Tracy L; Seay, Danielle M; Eisenberg, Nancy
The goal of this work was to examine the complex interrelation of mothers' early gentle control and sensitivity in predicting children's effortful control (EC) and academic functioning. Maternal gentle control, maternal sensitivity, and children's EC were measured when children were 18, 30, and 42 months of age (T1, T2, and T3, respectively), and measures of children's academic functioning were combined across 72 and 84 months (T5/T6; Ns = 255, 222, 200, 162, and 143). Using structural equation modeling, results demonstrated that T1 maternal sensitivity moderated the relation between T1 maternal gentle control and T2 EC, and T3 EC predicted children's later academic functioning. There was evidence for moderated mediation, such that when maternal sensitivity was high, children's EC mediated the relation between T1 maternal gentle control and children's academic functioning, even after controlling for stability of the constructs. The relation between maternal gentle control and children's EC was not significant under conditions of low maternal sensitivity. Implications for parenting programs are offered and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27228451
Fastenau, Philip S.; Shen, Jianzhao; Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.
This study assessed rates of learning disabilities (LD) by several psychometric definitions in children with epilepsy and identified risk factors. Participants (N = 173, ages 8-15 years) completed IQ screening, academic achievement testing, and structured interviews. Children with significant head injury, chronic physical conditions, or mental…
Cunningham, Rhonda Phillips
Research has suggested many children with learning disabilities (LD) have deficits in working memory (WM) that hinder their academic achievement. Cogmed RM, a computerized intervention, uses adaptive training over 25 sessions and has shown efficacy in improving WM in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a variety of…
Mokrova, Irina; Broekhuizen, Martine; Burchinal, Margaret
A growing body of research has shown that high quality early care and education (ECE) is positively related to the development of children's social and academic skills (e.g., Barnett, 2011; Lamb & Ahnert, 2006; NICHD ECCRN, 2006). There is evidence that high quality ECE experiences can improve children's levels of social adjustment (Bierman et…
Ohwojero, Chamberlain Joseph
The school system is an institution where teachers adopt different teaching methods to impact knowledge and skills. The teaching method adopted by a class teacher has a great effect on children interest, academic achievement and brain development of a child. To support this fact the researcher used two groups of children from ten schools to carry…
Fives, Allyn; Russell, Dan; Kearns, Norean; Lyons, Rena; Eaton, Patricia; Canavan, John; Devaney, Carmel; O'Brien, Aoife
This paper investigates whether children's academic self-beliefs are associated with reading achievement and whether the relationship is modified by gender and/or age. Data were collected from children at risk of reading failure, that is, emergent readers (6- to 8-year-olds) in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas reading at a level below…
Uyanik, Ozgun; Kandir, Adalet
The aim of this research is s to adapt and apply t the Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills (K-SEALS) to Turkish children in the city of Ankara. In the study, a descriptive screening model was used. The population of the study consisted of children who showed normal developmental characteristics and who were enrolled at public…
Mashburn, Andrew J.
This study examined associations between quality of social and physical environments in preschools and children's development of academic, language, and literacy skills, and the extent to which preschool quality moderated the associations between child risk and development. Participants were a diverse sample of 540 four-year-old children in…
Stevens, Ann Huff; Schaller, Jessamyn
We study the relationship between parental job loss and children's academic achievement using data on job loss and grade retention from the 1996, 2001, and 2004 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation. We find that a parental job loss increases the probability of children's grade retention by 0.8 percentage points, or around 15…
Vesely, Colleen K.; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Mahatmya, Duhita
Research Findings: Using longitudinal survey data from the Welfare, Children, and Families Study: A Three-City Study ("n" = 135), this study examines how congruence in maternal and child care provider sensitivities contributes to young children's social, emotional, and academic outcomes among low-income minority families. Congruence…
Snowden, Peggy L.; Conway, Kathleen D.
This study investigated the self-reported behaviors and attitudes of parents of 17 identified precocious and nonprecocious children. Results found the parental groups were not significantly different and both groups showed desirable to highly desirable parenting behaviors and attitudes. Factors that could influence children's academic achievement…
Son, Seung-Hee; Morrison, Frederick J.
In this study, we examined changes in the early home learning environment as children approached school entry and whether these changes predicted the development of children's language and academic skills. Findings from a national sample of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development…
Chan, Annie Cheuk-ying; Au, Terry Kit-fong
In this study we explored whether compliance-without-pressure techniques, known to encourage adults to behave more altruistically, can be used to encourage children to do more academic work. Using three different approaches--Foot-in-the-Door, Door-in-the-Face, and Single-Request--we asked 60 6- to 8-year-old Hong Kong Chinese children to complete…
Magnuson, Katherine A.; McGroder, Sharon M.
This study investigated the effect of welfare mothers' educational attainment on their young children's academic outcomes and school readiness. Data came from the National Evaluation of Welfare to Work Strategies Child Outcomes Study. Welfare recipients with young children residing in three cities were randomly assigned to participate in either an…
Davis, Robert G.
The effects of a perceptually oriented physical education program (PPE) on perceptual-motor ability and academic ability were studied using kindergarten and first-grade children. The four groups of kindergarten children varied the number of periods of PPE per week which then met--0, 1, 2, and 3 times per week. The four groups of first-grade…
Shield, Bridget M; Dockrell, Julie E
While at school children are exposed to various types of noise including external, environmental noise and noise generated within the classroom. Previous research has shown that noise has detrimental effects upon children's performance at school, including reduced memory, motivation, and reading ability. In England and Wales, children's academic performance is assessed using standardized tests of literacy, mathematics, and science. A study has been conducted to examine the impact, if any, of chronic exposure to external and internal noise on the test results of children aged 7 and 11 in London (UK) primary schools. External noise was found to have a significant negative impact upon performance, the effect being greater for the older children. The analysis suggested that children are particularly affected by the noise of individual external events. Test scores were also affected by internal classroom noise, background levels being significantly related to test results. Negative relationships between performance and noise levels were maintained when the data were corrected for socio-economic factors relating to social deprivation, language, and special educational needs. Linear regression analysis has been used to estimate the maximum levels of external and internal noise which allow the schools surveyed to achieve required standards of literacy and numeracy. PMID:18177145
Tucker, Carolyn M; Herman, Keith C
The economic and social barriers to the academic and social success of many African American children remain in place as the new millennium begins. These realities provide impetus for developing community-based partnership education programs designed to self-empower African American children for academic and social success under any socioeconomic conditions that exist in their lives. Progress toward effective program development, however, has been hindered by a dearth of culturally sensitive theories and research. The Research-Based Model Partnership Education Program (Model Program) is an effective, community-based, university-school-community partnership education program for self-empowering African American children for success. The formative and summative research of the Model Program is described in hopes of advancing theory and research for meeting the academic and social needs of low-income African American children. PMID:12369499
An organization probably prides itself on its openness in finding new talent. It is eager to add people with diverse backgrounds and skills to its roster of employees. Yet, like many companies, it might be hesitant to actively recruit persons with disabilities. Recruiting and integrating these individuals may require greater care, but what an…
Davies, Brent; Davies, Barbara J.
Purpose: Academies are semi-autonomous schools set up outside the normal local government structures with sponsors from business and charity groups to create new and innovative ways of creating and sustaining school transformation. The aim of this paper is to assist in a strategic conversation within the academy movement on talent development.…
Radnor, Hilary; Koshy, Valsa; Taylor, Alexis
This paper investigates aspects of policy implementation that relate to "Excellence in Cities", a UK government initiative. Local Education Authority (LEA) personnel and school teachers, responsible for implementing the Gifted and Talented (G&T) strand of that initiative, were interviewed. These co-ordinators were involved in the selection of…
Valiente, Carlos; Swanson, Jodi; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Berger, Rebecca H
Given that early academic achievement is related to numerous developmental outcomes, understanding processes that promote early success in school is important. This study was designed to clarify how students' (N=291; M age in fall of kindergarten=5.66 years, SD=0.39 year) effortful control, relational peer victimization, and classroom participation relate to achievement, as students progress from kindergarten to first grade. Effortful control and achievement were assessed in kindergarten, classroom participation and relational peer victimization were assessed in the fall of first grade, and achievement was reassessed in the spring of first grade. Classroom participation, but not relational peer victimization, mediated relations between effortful control and first grade standardized and teacher-rated achievement, controlling for kindergarten achievement. Findings suggest that aspects of classroom participation, such as the ability to work independently, may be useful targets of intervention for enhancing academic achievement in young children. PMID:25107413
A school principal at Oak Grove-Bellemeade Elementary School in Richmond, Virginia, describes the application of the Clifton Youth StrengthsExplorer assessment developed by the Gallup organization. A fifth-grade girl who was in frequent conflict with peers and teachers was helped to identify her strengths and develop more effective emotional and…
Shield, Bridget; Dockrell, Julie; Vilatarsana, Gael
The effects of environmental noise upon the academic performance of children aged 7 and 11 years in primary schools in London (UK) have been investigated. Noise surveys were carried out to measure levels of environmental noise during the school day outside 175 schools across London. The majority of the schools were in densely populated areas within 5 miles of central London, where road traffic was the dominant noise source. Thirty three of the schools were in a less densely populated area to the west of London near Heathrow Airport, and were subject to predominantly aircraft noise. The noise levels measured outside each school have been correlated with the results of standard tests in Reading, Writing, Mathematics, English, and Science, which are taken by all children aged 7 and 11 in England and Wales. Significant negative correlations were found between noise levels and many of the test scores, the correlations being stronger in the central London areas than in the schools around Heathrow. These results show that environmental noise has a detrimental effect upon childrens' academic performance, the effect remaining apparent when data were corrected for socio-economic factors such as social deprivation.
Jamieson, Janet R.
The correlation between lowered academic achievement and classroom noise has been demonstrated for normally hearing children (Shield and Dockrell, 2003). However, the implications of poor classroom acoustics on the socialization and academic performance of children who are hard of hearing have not been examined. Eleven hard of hearing students in one school district, ranging from kindergarten to grade 7, were the foci of the present study. Acoustic measurements of each of the 11 classrooms in both unoccupied and occupied conditions revealed that all classrooms were acoustically challenging for the hard of hearing students, particularly at transition times, when ventilation was operational, and in the primary grades, when language learning needs are greatest. Interviews with parents and teachers underscored the difficulty these students experienced in comprehending teacher instructions and participating in group work. The students seldom initiated conversation or seatwork independently, but, rather, followed the lead of their peers. The hard of hearing students experienced frequent difficulties in understanding or participating in informal peer-to-peer conversations in the classroom, and parents and teachers attributed the children's frequent social isolation and withdrawal at school to the combined effects of poor hearing abilities and hostile classroom acoustics. [Work supported by Hampton Research Fund.
Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Keskinen, Paivi; Nuuja, Anja
Aim: The study aimed to assess the effects of diabetes-related risk factors, especially severe hypoglycaemia, on the academic skills of children with early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Method: The study comprised 63 children with T1DM (31 females, 32 males; mean age 9y 11mo, SD 4mo) and 92 comparison children without diabetes (40…
Bean, Kristen F; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly
African American students are overrepresented in special education. Ecological systems theory, social cognitive theory, and a literature review demonstrate that children's environments, particularly school, and self-efficacy impact the educational outcomes of African American children. Interventions have aimed to improve children's environmental resources and efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of environment, efficacy beliefs, and the Nurse-Family Partnership intervention on the educational achievements of African American children in special education. A secondary data analysis of 126 African American children in special education found that self-efficacy and the number of hours spent in special education were associated with their academic achievement. PMID:23171391
Chan, David W.
This article discusses the evolving need for identification of gifted and talented students in Hong Kong, assessment of intelligence, identifying the academically gifted, identifying the creatively gifted, and identification by informal measures. The use of multiple measures for identification used at the Chinese University of Hong Kong is…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2009
Talent Development Middle Grades Program (TDMG) is a whole school reform approach for large middle schools that face serious problems with student attendance, discipline, and academic achievement. The program includes both structural and curriculum reforms. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified 17 studies of TDMG that were published or…
Lunsford, Laura Gail
This study examined the psychology of mentoring in a mixed-method analysis of archival interview records from academically talented college students (N = 128), who had participated in a faculty mentor program for 6 semesters. Qualitative analysis revealed one fourth of the students did not feel mentored and that there was a connection between…
One of the most serious problems plaguing in the field of gifted education is the need for the development of appropriate programs and identification procedures for gifted and talented students from different culturally and diverse backgrounds. Therefore, there has been increased attention and efforts devoted to the academic needs of gifted and…
Attles, Henrietta S. Evans
This book is a study of the impact that changes in living environments (i.e. from homelessness in a shelter to a family's own dwelling unit) have on the academic achievement of school-age children. The study samples seven cases of public school children in grades 5 through 8 during the years 1988 to 1991. The children lived in the same shelter and…
Klein, N K; Hack, M; Breslau, N
Children born at very low birth weights (VLBW) (less than or equal to 1500 g) who were beneficiaries of modern neonatal intensive care are reaching middle childhood, and their school achievement can be evaluated. We compared 65 9-year-old children born in 1976, who were very low birth weight and who were free of neurological impairment, with 65 children of normal birth weight who had been matched for race, sex, age, and social class on measures of IQ, cognitive, visuo-motor, and fine motor abilities, and academic achievement. VLBW children scored significantly lower than controls on the WISC-R, Bender-Gestalt, Purdue Pegboard, subtests from the Woodcock Johnson Cognitive Abilities Battery, and reading and mathematics (math) achievement. Exploratory analysis of a subset of 43 VLBW and matched controls with IQ scores greater than or equal to 85 yielded a similar trend, except that, on achievement tests, differences were significant only in math. Further analyses revealed that the differential in math achievement between VLBW and control children is not fully attributable to differences in IQ. PMID:2925866
Johnson, Rucker C; Kalil, Ariel; Dunifon, Rachel E
Using data from five waves of the Women's Employment Survey (WES; 1997-2003), we examine the links between low-income mothers' employment patterns and the emotional behavior and academic progress of their children. We find robust and substantively important linkages between several different dimensions of mothers' employment experiences and child outcomes. The pattern of results is similar across empirical approaches-including ordinary least squares and child fixed-effect models, with and without an extensive set of controls. Children exhibit fewer behavior problems when mothers work and experience job stability (relative to children whose mothers do not work). In contrast, maternal work accompanied by job instability is associated with significantly higher child behavior problems (relative to employment in a stable job). Children whose mothers work full-time and/or have fluctuating work schedules also exhibit significantly higher levels of behavior problems. However, full-time work has negative consequences for children only when it is in jobs that do not require cognitive skills. Such negative consequences are completely offset when this work experience is in jobs that require the cognitive skills that lead to higher wage growth prospects. Finally, fluctuating work schedules and full-time work in non-cognitively demanding jobs are each strongly associated with the probability that the child will repeat a grade or be placed in special education. PMID:22246798
Esquivel, G B; Lopez, E
This study explored the correlations among nonverbal reasoning ability, creativity, and academic achievement in gifted minority children, 89 girls and 71 boys in Grades 1 through 8 in a program for gifted. A random half of students from all grade levels were tested at the beginning of the year and the remaining half after 7 mo. with Raven Progressive Matrices, Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, and the California Achievement Test. Pearson correlations reflected limited relations among these variables except for a significant positive value between creativity and reading achievement. Suggestions for further study and implications for identification procedures and program development were provided. PMID:3217184
Hillman, C H; Pontifex, M B; Raine, L B; Castelli, D M; Hall, E E; Kramer, A F
The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indexes of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included 20 preadolescent participants (age=9.5+/-0.5 years; eight female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive testing followed by a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to determine aerobic fitness. The exercise session consisted of 20 min of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 60% of estimated maximum heart rate followed by cognitive testing once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Results indicated an improvement in response accuracy, larger P3 amplitude, and better performance on the academic achievement test following aerobic exercise relative to the resting session. Collectively, these findings indicate that single, acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise (i.e. walking) may improve the cognitive control of attention in preadolescent children, and further support the use of moderate acute exercise as a contributing factor for increasing attention and academic performance. These data suggest that single bouts of exercise affect specific underlying processes that support cognitive health and may be necessary for effective functioning across the lifespan. PMID:19356688
Fernandes, Valter R; Ribeiro, Michelle L Scipião; Melo, Thais; de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Paulo; Guimarães, Thiago T; Araújo, Narahyana B; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Deslandes, Andréa C
The relationship between exercise and cognition is an important topic of research that only recently began to unravel. Here, we set out to investigate the relation between motor skills, cognitive function, and school performance in 45 students from 8 to 14 years of age. We used a cross-sectional design to evaluate motor coordination (Touch Test Disc), agility (Shuttle Run Speed-running back and forth), school performance (Academic Achievement Test), the Stroop test, and six sub-tests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). We found, that the Touch Test Disc was the best predictor of school performance (R (2) = 0.20). Significant correlations were also observed between motor coordination and several indices of cognitive function, such as the total score of the Academic Achievement Test (AAT; Spearman's rho = 0.536; p ≤ 0.001), as well as two WISC-IV sub-tests: block design (R = -0.438; p = 0.003) and cancelation (rho = -0.471; p = 0.001). All the other cognitive variables pointed in the same direction, and even correlated with agility, but did not reach statistical significance. Altogether, the data indicate that visual motor coordination and visual selective attention, but not agility, may influence academic achievement and cognitive function. The results highlight the importance of investigating the correlation between physical skills and different aspects of cognition. PMID:27014130
This paper reports the results of a study of strategies that Dutch children with dyslexia employ to cope with recurrent academic failure. All of the students in the study had developed strategies for protecting their self-esteem. Using Harter's theory of coping with discrepancies between performance and standards, we distinguish four strategies: (1) working hard and committing to standards, (2) lowering standards, (3) seeking support from significant others (i.e. parents and teachers), and (4) avoiding comparisons with significant others (i.e. peers). Although self-talk emerged as an important component of all four strategies, it was employed both adaptively (e.g. to preserve the students' belief in their own academic capacities) and maladaptively (e.g. to devalue the importance of learning). The students relied most strongly on support from their parents; teachers and peers were more likely to be seen as threats to self-esteem. Strategies of teachers and parents to encourage adaptive coping with recurrent academic failure are confirming the student's self-worth, explaining dyslexia, showing faith in the student's capacities, fostering adaptive self-talk, providing educational treatment, and preventing teasing and bullying. Besides that, teachers and parents should cooperate. PMID:17937384
Fernandes, Valter R.; Ribeiro, Michelle L. Scipião; Melo, Thais; de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Paulo; Guimarães, Thiago T.; Araújo, Narahyana B.; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Deslandes, Andréa C.
The relationship between exercise and cognition is an important topic of research that only recently began to unravel. Here, we set out to investigate the relation between motor skills, cognitive function, and school performance in 45 students from 8 to 14 years of age. We used a cross-sectional design to evaluate motor coordination (Touch Test Disc), agility (Shuttle Run Speed—running back and forth), school performance (Academic Achievement Test), the Stroop test, and six sub-tests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). We found, that the Touch Test Disc was the best predictor of school performance (R2 = 0.20). Significant correlations were also observed between motor coordination and several indices of cognitive function, such as the total score of the Academic Achievement Test (AAT; Spearman's rho = 0.536; p ≤ 0.001), as well as two WISC-IV sub-tests: block design (R = −0.438; p = 0.003) and cancelation (rho = −0.471; p = 0.001). All the other cognitive variables pointed in the same direction, and even correlated with agility, but did not reach statistical significance. Altogether, the data indicate that visual motor coordination and visual selective attention, but not agility, may influence academic achievement and cognitive function. The results highlight the importance of investigating the correlation between physical skills and different aspects of cognition. PMID:27014130
Hillman, Charles H.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Castelli, Darla M.; Hall, Eric E.; Kramer, Arthur F.
The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included twenty preadolescent participants (Age = 9.5 ± 0.5 years; 8 female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive testing followed by a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to determine aerobic fitness. The exercise session consisted of 20 minutes of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 60% of estimated maximum heart rate followed by cognitive testing once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Results indicated an improvement in response accuracy, larger P3 amplitude, and better performance on the academic achievement test following aerobic exercise relative to the resting session. Collectively, these findings indicate that single, acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise (i.e., walking) may improve the cognitive control of attention in preadolescent children, and further supports the use of moderate acute exercise as a contributing factor for increasing attention and academic performance. These data suggest that single bouts of exercise affect specific underlying processes that support cognitive health and may be necessary for effective functioning across the lifespan. PMID:19356688
Cunningham, Ross B.; Fitzgerald, Robert; Olive, Lisa S.; Prosser, Laurence; Jiang, Xiaoli; Telford, Rohan M.
Objectives. We determined whether physical education (PE) taught by specialists contributed to academic development and prevention of obesity in elementary school children. Methods. Our 2-year longitudinal study involved 620 boys and girls initially in grade 3 in Australia, all receiving 150 minutes per week of PE. One group (specialist-taught PE; n = 312) included 90 minutes per week of PE from visiting specialists; the other (common-practice PE; n = 308) received all PE from generalist classroom teachers. Measurements included percentage of body fat (measured by dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry) and writing, numeracy, and reading proficiency (by government tests). Results. Compared with common-practice PE, specialist-taught PE was associated with a smaller increase in age-related percentage of body fat (P = .02). Specialist-taught PE was also associated with greater improvements in numeracy (P < .03) and writing (P = .13) scores. There was no evidence of a reading effect. Conclusions. The attenuated age-related increases in percentage of body fat and enhanced numeracy development among elementary school children receiving PE from specialists provides support for the role of PE in both preventive medicine and academic development. PMID:21940922
Background Early school success is clearly related to later health. A prediction index that uses parent report to assess children's risk for poor academic achievement could potentially direct targeted service delivery to improve child outcomes. Methods We obtained risk factors through literature review and used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Child Files to examine the predictive associations of these factors with academic achievement scores. Results Twenty predictors were identified including four strong predictors (maternal education, child gender, family income, and low birth weight). Significantly, 12 predictors explained 17-24% of score variance. Conclusions Parent-reported factors provide predictive accuracy for academic achievement. PMID:21851586
Rampersaud, Gail C; Pereira, Mark A; Girard, Beverly L; Adams, Judi; Metzl, Jordan D
Breakfast has been labeled the most important meal of the day, but are there data to support this claim? We summarized the results of 47 studies examining the association of breakfast consumption with nutritional adequacy (nine studies), body weight (16 studies), and academic performance (22 studies) in children and adolescents. Breakfast skipping is highly prevalent in the United States and Europe (10% to 30%), depending on age group, population, and definition. Although the quality of breakfast was variable within and between studies, children who reported eating breakfast on a consistent basis tended to have superior nutritional profiles than their breakfast-skipping peers. Breakfast eaters generally consumed more daily calories yet were less likely to be overweight, although not all studies associated breakfast skipping with overweight. Evidence suggests that breakfast consumption may improve cognitive function related to memory, test grades, and school attendance. Breakfast as part of a healthful diet and lifestyle can positively impact children's health and well-being. Parents should be encouraged to provide breakfast for their children or explore the availability of a school breakfast program. We advocate consumption of a healthful breakfast on a daily basis consisting of a variety of foods, especially high-fiber and nutrient-rich whole grains, fruits, and dairy products. PMID:15883552
Fastenau, Philip S; Jianzhao Shen; Dunn, David W; Austin, Joan K
This study assessed rates of learning disabilities (LD) by several psychometric definitions in children with epilepsy and identified risk factors. Participants (N = 173, ages 8-15 years) completed IQ screening, academic achievement testing, and structured interviews. Children with significant head injury, chronic physical conditions, or mental retardation were excluded. Using an IQ-achievement discrepancy definition, 48% exceeded the cutoff for LD in at least one academic area; using low-achievement definitions, 41% to 62% exceeded cutoffs in at least one academic area. Younger children with generalized nonabsence seizures were at increased risk for math LD using the IQ-achievement discrepancy definition; age of seizure onset and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were risk factors for reading and math LD using low-achievement definitions. Writing was the most common domain affected, but neither ADHD nor seizure variables reliably identified children at risk for writing LD. Although children with earlier seizure onset, generalized nonabsence seizures, and comorbid ADHD appear to be at increased risk for some types of LD by some definitions, these findings largely suggest that all children with epilepsy should be considered vulnerable to LD. A diagnosis of epilepsy (even with controlled seizures and less severe seizure types) should provide sufficient cause to screen school-age children for LD and comorbid ADHD. PMID:18434287
Brock, Laura L.; Nishida, Tracy K.; Chiong, Cynthia; Grimm, Kevin J.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.
This study examines the contribution of the "Responsive Classroom" (RC) Approach, a set of teaching practices that integrate social and academic learning, to children's perceptions of their classroom, and children's academic and social performance over time. Three questions emerge: (a) What is the concurrent and cumulative relation between…
Scheele, Anna F.; Leseman, Paul P. M.; Mayo, Aziza Y.; Elbers, Ed
This study examined the relations between the home language and literacy environment and emergent skill to use academic language in a sample of 58 3-year-old Dutch children, focusing on production and comprehension in 3 genres: personal narrative, impersonal narrative, and instruction in play. Regarding production, children used academic language…
Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Craig, Rebecca; Pelham, William E., Jr.; King, Sara
The authors examined self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with and without ADHD and examined whether stimulant medication influenced self-handicapping. Participants were 61 children ages 6 to 13, including 22 children with ADHD tested after taking a placebo, 21 children with ADHD tested after taking stimulant medication,…
Williams, Andrea T.
The article describes an academic events program in which gifted and talented students (grades one to 12) voluntarily participated in a variety of different academic contests. Development and planning aspects are reviewed and several activities suggested. (Author/CL)
Assouline, Susan; Lupkowski-Shoplik, Ann
This book is a guide to educating and nurturing children with mathematical talent. Chapter 1 presents and refutes 12 myths about mathematically talented students, especially the idea that it is best not to deviate from regular programming. The second chapter is a guide for parents in their efforts to advocate for their child in the regular school…
Lopes, Luís; Santos, Rute; Pereira, Beatriz; Lopes, Vítor P
We aimed to evaluate the relationship between gross motor coordination (MC) and academic achievement (AA) in a sample of Portuguese children aged 9-12 years. The study took place during the 2009/2010 school year and involved 596 urban children (281 girls) from the north of Portugal. AA was assessed using the Portuguese Language and Mathematics National Exams. Gross MC was evaluated with the Körperkoordination Test für Kinder. Cardiorespiratory fitness was predicted by a maximal multistage 20-m shuttle-run test of the Fitnessgram Test Battery. Body weight and height were measured following standard procedures. Socio-economic status was based on annual family income. Logistic Regression was used to analyze the association of gross MC with AA. 51.6% of the sample exhibited MC disorders or MC insufficiency and none of the participants showed very good MC. In both genders, children with insufficient MC or MC disorders exhibited a higher probability of having low AA, compared with those with normal or good MC (p<.05 for trend for both) after adjusting for cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index and socio-economic status. PMID:23260614
Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Fang, Hua; Charak, David; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry
The extremes of birth weight and preterm birth are known to result in a host of adverse outcomes, yet studies to date largely have used cross-sectional designs and variable-centered methods to understand long-term sequelae. Growth mixture modeling (GMM) that utilizes an integrated person- and variable-centered approach was applied to identify latent classes of achievement from a cohort of school-age children born at varying birth weights. GMM analyses revealed 2 latent achievement classes for calculation, problem-solving, and decoding abilities. The classes differed substantively and persistently in proficiency and in growth trajectories. Birth weight was a robust predictor of class membership for the 2 mathematics achievement outcomes and a marginal predictor of class membership for decoding. Neither visuospatial-motor skills nor environmental risk at study entry added to class prediction for any of the achievement skills. Among children born preterm, neonatal medical variables predicted class membership uniquely beyond birth weight. More generally, GMM is useful in revealing coherence in the developmental patterns of academic achievement in children of varying weight at birth and is well suited to investigations of sources of heterogeneity. PMID:19586210
Wang, Ru-Jer; Kuo, Kung-Bin; Cheng, Chien-Ming; Hsieh, Pei-Jung; Wang, Han-Yu; Chang, Ya-Wen; Shen, Chia-Yi
This study aims to assess the measurement invariance of the three subscales of the newly developed Academic Performance Antecedent Scale (APAS)--School Factors, Mother's Parenting Style, and Individual Factors--across native and new immigrant children in Taiwan. The study sample comprised 527 Grade 4 students (M age = 10.4 yr., SD = 0.6), 263 boys and 264 girls. The three groups were urban and rural children of Taiwanese natives (n = 343, 65.1%), and 184 children with non-Taiwanese mothers (34.9%). The four-factor structure of the School Factors Subscale, the three-factor structure of the Mother's Parenting Style Subscale, and the five-factor structure of the Individual Factors Subscale all showed at least acceptable fit for the groups. In addition, metric invariance was confirmed for the School Factors and Individual Factors Subscales. Metric invariance was partially obtained for the Mother's Parenting Style Subscale. The findings provide validity evidences for cross-cultural generalizability of the APAS. PMID:24245069
Keen, Deb; Webster, Amanda; Ridley, Greta
The academic achievement of individuals with autism spectrum disorder has received little attention from researchers despite the importance placed on this by schools, families and students with autism spectrum disorder. Investigating factors that lead to increased academic achievement thus would appear to be very important. A review of the literature was conducted to identify factors related to the academic achievement of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. A total of 19 studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria for the review. Results indicated that many individuals demonstrate specific areas of strength and weakness and there is a great deal of variability in general academic achievement across the autism spectrum. Adolescents and individuals with lower IQ scores were underrepresented, and few studies focused on environmental factors related to academic success. The importance of individualised assessments that profile the relative strengths and weaknesses of children and adolescents to aid in educational programming was highlighted. Further research on child-related and environmental factors that predict academic achievement is needed. PMID:25948598
Stock, Gary C.
The Georgia Talent Search Project FAIT (Find and Inform Talent) was established in 1966 to identify academically able but financially needy students in Georgia secondary schools. Students identified by guidance counselors were informed by FAIT personnel of the availability of funds for higher education. A source book containing pertinent…
Stumpf, Heinrich; Mills, Carol J.; Brody, Linda E.; Baxley, Philip G.
The importance of spatial ability for success in a variety of domains, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), is widely acknowledged. Yet, students with high spatial ability are rarely identified, as Talent Searches for academically talented students focus on identifying high mathematical and verbal abilities.…
Barry, Tammy D.; Lochman, John E.; Fite, Paula J.; Wells, Karen C.; Colder, Craig R.
The current study utilized a longitudinal design to examine the effects of neighborhood and parenting on 120 at-risk children's academic and aggressive outcomes, concurrently and at two later timepoints during the transition to middle school. Random effects regression models were estimated to examine whether neighborhood characteristics and harsh…
HENTON, COMRADGE L.; JOHNSON, EDWARD E.
RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SELF-CONCEPTS, ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, INTERESTS, AND MANIFEST ANXIETIES WERE STUDIED. MEASURES FOR THESE VARIABLES WERE OBTAINED FROM A SAMPLE OF FOURTH- AND SIXTH-GRADE NEGRO STUDENTS. THE MEASURES OBTAINED WERE THEN MATCHED WITH SIMILAR FINDINGS FOR WHITE CHILDREN REPORTED BY BLEDSOE AND GARRISON (CRP-1008).…
Berg, Derek H.
This study examined whether children's psychosocial self-evaluations mediated the relationship between general academic self-concept and self-reported depression. Self-evaluations in three psychosocial domains were assessed: General self-worth, intellectual ability, and social acceptance. Results indicated three significant findings. First, a…
Dandy, Justine; Nettelbeck, Ted
Investigates the relationships among Intelligence Quotient, study time, educational and occupational aspirations, and academic achievement. Focuses on Australian school children (n=160) from Chinese, Vietnamese, and Anglo-Celtic backgrounds. Presents the results in detail, stating that parental involvement may contribute to high achievement when…
DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.
Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exhibit significant academic, social, and behavioural difficulties in school settings. This article reviews empirical findings regarding the effects of classroom interventions for students with ADHD. Three major types of interventions are reviewed including behavioural (e.g., token…
Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, Berkeley, CA.
This brief report is a compilation of academic test score data collected on children in the Responsive Educational Programs sponsored by the Far West Laboratory. In some cases sampling was done and statistical tests run. In other situations sampling was not possible and comparisons are made with national norms. Diagrams and figures are given for…
Harris, Jasper W.; And Others
Presented is the final report of a 4-year project to develop and evaluate a prototype program for training special education consultants who are qualified to assist school personnel and parents in remediating academic and social behaviors of handicapped children in the Kansas City (Missouri) area. An overview and introduction are provided in the…
Haubenstricker, John L.; Milne, D. Conrad
This study investigates the relationship of selected measures of proprioception to measures of physical growth, motor performance, and academic achievement in young children. Measures were obtained from 321 boys and girls attending kindergarten and first and second grade. Sample correlation matrices were computed on all variables at each grade…
Jackson, Linda A; Samona, Ricky; Moomaw, Jeff; Ramsay, Lauren; Murray, Christopher; Smith, Amy; Murray, Lindsay
HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine the antecedents and consequences of home Internet use in low-income families. Participants included 140 children, mostly 13-year-old African American (83%) boys (58%), living in single-parent households (75%) where the median annual income was $15,000 (USD). This report focuses on children's Internet activities, socio-demographic characteristics related to their Internet activities, and the relationship between academic performance and Internet activities. Overall, findings indicate that low-income children initially use the Internet primarily for entertainment. As home Internet use loses its novelty children become more focused in their Internet activities, reducing the number of websites they visit and visiting more websites targeted to their specific interests. Pornography websites are popular initially, especially among boys, but their popularity decreases dramatically after 3 months. Age, race, and sex have little influence on which websites are most popular. Academic performance predicts subsequent Internet activities, and Internet activities predict subsequent academic performance. Directions for future research to identify mechanisms that mediate the relationship between Internet activities and academic performance and implications for the digital divide are discussed. PMID:17474834
Andreou, Eleni; Metallidou, Panagiota
This research explored links between cognition (both social and academic) and children's behaviour in a bullying situation (participant roles). Participants were 186 fourth to sixth grade boys and girls from four primary schools in central Greece. Six categories of social cognition (self-efficacy for assertion, self-efficacy for aggression,…
Troyb, Eva; Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine; Helt, Molly; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Stevens, Michael; Fein, Deborah
This study examines the academic abilities of children and adolescents who were once diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, but who no longer meet diagnostic criteria for this disorder. These individuals have achieved social and language skills within the average range for their ages, receive little or no school support, and are referred to…
Cucciarre, Christine Peters; Morris, Deborah E.; Nickoson, Lee; Owens, Kim Hensley; Sheridan, Mary P.
This article focuses on five women's experiences "making it" as rhetoricians with children. Expanding the definition of success Michelle Ballif, Diane Davis and Roxanne Mountford set forth in "Women's Ways of Making It in Rhetoric and Composition," the article offers suggestions for moving toward more family-friendly academic structures, not least…
Brock, Laura L.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Nathanson, Lori; Grimm, Kevin J.
Executive functioning (EF) refers to higher order thought processes considered foundational for problem-solving. EF has both "cool" cognitive and "hot" emotional components. This study asks: (a) what are the relative contributions of "hot" and "cool" EF to children's academic achievement? (b) What are the relative contributions of "hot" and "cool"…
Odetunde, Florence Olayinka
This study explored how social integration of African immigrants in the Louisville metropolitan area of Kentucky could be a factor in the academic achievements of their children. It involved critically investigating how the process of their adjustments as immigrants might have been shaped by various personal and environmental factors such as…
Jones, Stephanie M.; Brown, Joshua L.; Aber, J. Lawrence
Over the last two decades, developmental science has made significant progress in understanding children's trajectories toward social-emotional and academic outcomes. At the same time, there has been dramatic growth in the design, implementation, and rigorous evaluation of school-based interventions to promote positive social-emotional development…
The present study investigated the prevalence of a primary reflex (the Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex) in children attending ordinary primary school and how this related to attainments in a number of academic areas. The effectiveness of a specific movement intervention programme in reducing primary reflex persistence and improving academic…
de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.
Integrating physical activity into the curriculum has potential health and cognitive benefits in primary school children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of physically active academic lessons on cardiovascular fitness, muscular fitness and executive functions. In the current randomized controlled trial, 499 second and third…
Wexler, Bruce E; Iseli, Markus; Leon, Seth; Zaggle, William; Rush, Cynthia; Goodman, Annette; Esat Imal, A; Bo, Emily
Cognitive operations are supported by dynamically reconfiguring neural systems that integrate processing components widely distributed throughout the brain. The inter-neuronal connections that constitute these systems are powerfully shaped by environmental input. We evaluated the ability of computer-presented brain training games done in school to harness this neuroplastic potential and improve learning in an overall study sample of 583 second-grade children. Doing a 5-minute brain-training game immediately before math or reading curricular content games increased performance on the curricular content games. Doing three 20-minute brain training sessions per week for four months increased gains on school-administered math and reading achievement tests compared to control classes tested at the same times without intervening brain training. These results provide evidence of cognitive priming with immediate effects on learning, and longer-term brain training with far-transfer or generalized effects on academic achievement. PMID:27615029
Kanne, Stephen M; Randolph, Jena K; Farmer, Janet E
Increasing numbers of children diagnosed and treated for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has impacted both neuropsychologists and educators. Though both play key evaluative and treatment roles, there is no available method or process in place enabling the translation of the neuropsychological report recommendations into a format educational teams can easily use, leading to a gap between neuropsychological recommendations and educational planning. In the following, we review the areas evaluated by a neuropsychologist when assessing a child with an ASD, discuss the domains targeted by educational teams when designing an educational plan, and then present a process that has met with some success creating a "bridge" between the diagnostic/assessment process and the subsequent academic planning. Though presented in the context of ASD, the process described can be used by neuropsychologists for various populations to facilitate partnerships with educators that result in improved care for the child. PMID:18855144
Stasolla, Fabrizio; Damiani, Rita; Perilli, Viviana; D'Amico, Fiora; Caffò, Alessandro O; Stella, Anna; Albano, Vincenza; Damato, Concetta; Leone, Antonia Di
This study was aimed at extending the use of assistive technology (i.e. microswitch such as a pressure sensor, interface and laptop) with a new setup, allowing six children with cerebral palsy and extensive motor disabilities to improve their academic activities during classroom. A second objective of the study was to assess a maintenance/generalization phase, occurring three months after the end of the intervention, at participants' homes, involving their parents. A third purpose of the study was to monitor the effects of the intervention program on the indices of positive participations (i.e. constructive engagement) of participants involved. Finally, a social validation procedure involving 36 support teachers as raters was conducted. The study was carried out according to a multiple probe design across behaviours followed by maintenance/generalization phase for each participant. That is, the two behaviours (i.e. choice among academic disciplines and literacy) were learned first singly, then combined together. Results showed an increasing of the performances for all participants involved during intervention phases. Furthermore, during maintenance phase participants consolidated their results. Moreover, positive participation augmented as well. Support teachers, involved in the social validation assessment, considered the combined intervention as more favourable with respect to those singly learned. Clinical, educational and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26196086
OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of aprepitant and fosaprepitant, a neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptor inhibitor, in children and adolescents at a large academic medical center, for the prevention and management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted using an electronic medical record system to evaluate the use of aprepitant and fosaprepitant in all pediatric patients that were discharged from a single academic medical center between February 25, 2009 and May 25, 2012. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were included in this review and received a total of 287 doses over the span of 114 cycles. Mean age was 10.1 years, with a range of 11 months to 17 years old. In 16 of 26 patients, aprepitant was used as the primary prophylaxis. Of those patients who received primary prophylaxis, 6 of 16 received it for highly emetogenic chemotherapy, and 10 of 16 received it for moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. Intravenous fosaprepitant was used in 7 of 26 patients, ages 13 to 17 (median 14) years old. No adverse effects attributable to aprepitant were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Use of aprepitant and fosaprepitant in pediatric patients appeared to be well tolerated. No currently published reports data using aprepitant in a patient younger than 32 months old, whereas we reported its use in patients as young as 11 months old. PMID:25024673
Attracting, developing, and retaining employees, ensuring a pipeline of qualified people, and building a culture of engagement and productivity are important to the success of any organization. It is called "talent management." With the right technology support, talent management's real value is that it allows organizations to identify high…
In the 21st century support for gifted education and talent, as are many other earlier values and solutions, is being reassessed. In the age of rapidly changing values, keeping provision up-to-date is achieved through the continual rethinking, reviewing and challenging the concept of giftedness and talent. The perception and our understanding of…
Richards, Jennifer L; Chapple-McGruder, Theresa; Williams, Bryan L; Kramer, Michael R
Children's cognitive development and academic performance are linked to both fetal and early childhood factors, including preterm birth and family socioeconomic status. We evaluated whether the relationship between preterm birth (PTB) and first grade standardized test performance among Georgia public school students was modified by neighborhood deprivation in early childhood. The Georgia Birth to School cohort followed 327,698 children born in Georgia from 1998 to 2002 through to end-of-year first grade standardized tests. Binomial and log-binomial generalized estimating equations were used to estimate risk differences and risk ratios for the associations of both PTB and the Neighborhood Deprivation Index for the census tract in which each child's mother resided at the time of birth with test failure (versus passing). The presence of additive and multiplicative interaction was assessed. PTB was strongly associated with test failure, with increasing risk for earlier gestational ages. There was positive additive interaction between PTB and neighborhood deprivation. The main effect of PTB versus term birth increased risk of mathematics failure: 15.9% (95%CI: 13.3-18.5%) for early, 5.0% (95% CI: 4.1-5.9%) for moderate, and 1.3% (95%CI: 0.9-1.7%) for late preterm. Each 1 standard deviation increase in neighborhood deprivation was associated with 0.6% increased risk of mathematics failure. For children exposed to both PTB and higher neighborhood deprivation, test failure was 4.8%, 1.5%, and 0.8% greater than the sum of two main effects for early, moderate, and late PTB, respectively. Results were similar, but slightly attenuated, for reading and English/language arts. Our results suggest that PTB and neighborhood deprivation additively interact to produce greater risk among doubly exposed children than would be predicted from the sum of the effects of the two exposures. Understanding socioeconomic disparities in the effect of PTB on academic outcomes at school entry is
Hur, Eunhye; Buettner, Cynthia K.; Jeon, Lieny
Background: Recent studies have suggested that teachers' psychological attributes can be an indicator of teacher quality (Rimm-Kaufman and Hamre in "Dev Psychol" 45(4):958-972. doi: 10.1037/a0015861 , 2010), and teachers' child-centered beliefs have been associated with children's academic achievement (Burchinal and Cryer in "Early…
Salem, Abdelbaky Arafa
The present study aimed at identifying the attitudes of the teacher student towards including students with special needs with the ordinary ones. Also, to determine whether there are statistically significant differences between students who have studied the academic education course of children with special needs in the ordinary schools and the…
Two recently published hypotheses on the biological basis of special talents are discussed in relation to experimental data obtained from musical composers, instrumentalists, painters, and non-musicians, and from adolescent boys and girls with different levels of musical capacities. Both hypotheses assign an important influence to prenatal testosterone effects on the developing brain. Geschwind and Galaburda (1985) predict that subjects with special talents may have anomalous hemispheric dominance for verbal material. This was confirmed experimentally in adolescents and in adults using a dichotic listening task to assess functional lateralization. Hassler and Nieschlag (1989) expect musicians of both sexes to be psychologically androgynous and to have current testosterone levels that differ from sex-typed males and females. Salivary testosterone was measured in adults and in adolescents. Creative musical behavior was associated with very low testosterone values in males, and with high testosterone levels in females. Sexual activity level and motivation did not differ between males with testosterone levels less than or equal to 200 pmol/l and those with greater than 220 pmol/l. We tentatively suggest from our data that, among a complex interaction of biological and social factors, an optimal testosterone range may exist for the expression of creative musical behavior. Exceeding the range in the course of adolescence may be detrimental for musical creativity in boys. PMID:1778236
Davenport, Thomas H; Harris, Jeanne; Shapiro, Jeremy
Do investments in your employees actually affect workforce performance? Who are your top performers? How can you empower and motivate other employees to excel? Leading-edge companies such as Google, Best Buy, Procter & Gamble, and Sysco use sophisticated data-collection technology and analysis to answer these questions, leveraging a range of analytics to improve the way they attract and retain talent, connect their employee data to business performance, differentiate themselves from competitors, and more. The authors present the six key ways in which companies track, analyze, and use data about their people-ranging from a simple baseline of metrics to monitor the organization's overall health to custom modeling for predicting future head count depending on various "what if" scenarios. They go on to show that companies competing on talent analytics manage data and technology at an enterprise level, support what analytical leaders do, choose realistic targets for analysis, and hire analysts with strong interpersonal skills as well as broad expertise. PMID:20929194
To deliver the chief nursing officer for England's vision for compassionate care and embed the 6Cs effectively, the NHS must attract, develop and retain talented nurses with a diverse range of skills. This is particularly important given the predicted shortage of nurses and evidence that NHS providers need to increase skill mix ratios to deliver safe patient care. "Talent management" is increasingly discussed within the health service; we recently asked nurses and student nurses to identify their priorities for talent development. They highlighted the importance of strong ward leadership, effective personal appraisal, clearer career pathways, increased staff engagement and involvement in decision making, as well as a need for greater emphasis on the recognition and reward of nursing achievements. We concluded that these factors are crucial to attracting, retaining and developing talent in nursing. Nurse leaders can learn approaches to developing talent from business and wider healthcare settings. PMID:24380172
Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Metindogan, Aysegul; Evans, Melanie
This study examined the influence of parenting styles, parent-child academic involvement at home, and parent-school contact on academic skills and social behaviors among kindergarten-age children of Caribbean immigrants. Seventy immigrant mothers and fathers participated in the study. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that fathers'…
Brown, Phillip; Power, Sally; Tholen, Gerbrand; Allouch, Annabelle
This article examines student accounts of credentials, talent and academic success, against a backdrop of the enduring liberal ideal of an education-based meritocracy. The article also examines Bourdieu's account of academic qualifications as the dominant source of institutionalised cultural capital, and concludes that it does not adequately…
Reynolds, Stacey; Miller Kuhaneck, Heather; Pfeiffer, Beth
This systematic review describes the published evidence related to the effectiveness of frequency modulation (FM) devices in improving academic outcomes in children with auditory processing difficulties. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standards were used to identify articles published between January 2003 and March 2014. The Cochrane Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome, Study Design approach and the American Occupational Therapy Association process forms were used to guide the article selection and evaluation process. Of the 83 articles screened, 7 matched the systematic review inclusion criteria. Findings were consistently positive, although limitations were identified. Results of this review indicate moderate support for the use of FM devices to improve children's ability to listen and attend in the classroom and mixed evidence to improve specific academic performance areas. FM technology should be considered for school-age children with auditory processing impairments who are receiving occupational therapy services to improve functioning in the school setting. PMID:26709423
WOLFE, ARTHUR B.
AN ACADEMIC TEAMS PROGRAM TO PROVIDE OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPING OPTIMUM LEARNING POTENTIAL AND FOR FULFILLING DESIRES OF TALENTED STUDENTS IS PROPOSED. THE PROGRAM WILL BE INITIATED THROUGH A SERIES OF DISCUSSIONS WITH STUDENTS, FACULTY, PARENTS, AND CONSULTANTS, THE AREA OF CONCENTRATION FOR THE SELECTED TEAMS OF STUDENTS WILL BE IN THE FIELD…
Malecki, Christine Kerres; Elliott, Stephen N.
Investigates relationships among a diverse sample of elementary students' social skills, problem behaviors, academic competence, and academic achievement. Results indicate that social skills are positively predictive of concurrent levels of academic achievement and problem behaviors are negatively predictive of concurrent academic achievement.…
Baxter, Suzanne D; Guinn, Caroline H; Tebbs, Joshua M; Royer, Julie A
School-based initiatives to combat childhood obesity may use academic performance to measure success. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between academic achievement and body mass index percentile, socioeconomic status (SES), and race by linking existing datasets that are not routinely linked. Data from a school-based project (with National Institutes of Health funding) concerning dietary recall accuracy were linked with data from the state's Department of Education through the state's Office of Research and Statistics. Data were available on 1,504 fourth-grade, predominantly African-American children from 18 schools total in one district in South Carolina during the 2004-2005, 2005-2006, and 2006-2007 school years. School staff administered standardized tests in English, math, social studies, and science. Researchers measured children's weight and height. Children were categorized as low-SES, medium-SES, or high-SES based on eligibility for free, reduced-price, or full-price school meals, respectively. Results from marginal regression analyses for each sex for the four academic subjects, separately and combined, showed that test scores were not related to body mass index percentile, but were positively related to SES (P values <0.0001), and were related to race, with lower scores for African-American children than children of other races (P values <0.0039). Cost-efficient opportunities exist to create longitudinal data sets to investigate relationships between academic performance and obesity across kindergarten through 12th-grade children. State agencies can house body mass index data in state-based central repositories where staff can use globally unique identifiers and link data across agencies. Results from such studies could potentially change the way school administrators view nutrition and physical education. PMID:23522577
Zhang, Lili; Karabenick, Stuart A.; Maruno, Shun'ichi; Lauermann, Fani
Students (N=302) in Chinese elementary schools were assessed regarding their academic delay of gratification (ADOG) and reported the time they devoted to non-school study and playtime during an extended interval prior to taking a high-stakes final exam. Students high compared those low in ADOG were more likely to spend time studying and less time…
During the summer and on weekends, it is not unusual to see many children, the youngest holding their parents' hands, walking to classes amongst the beautiful landscaping and old buildings of Northwestern University on Lake Michigan's shores in Evanston, Illinois. The Center for Talent Development (CTD) has been offering services and programs to…
Burns, Deborah E.; Renzulli, Joseph S.
The Teaching the Talented Program in the School of Education at the University of Connecticut is a graduate program designed to prepare teachers and leadership personnel in programing for exceptionally able young children and youth. The program can be completed in one year or up to seven years. (JDD)
Subotnik, Rena F.
This interview with Sunil Weeramantry, a World Chess Federation Master, examines his initial involvement in the world of chess, changes in the field of chess, the role of mentors, the qualifications and role of the chess coach, and the development of chess talent in young children. (DB)
Haapala, Eero A.; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Tompuri, Tuomo; Lintu, Niina; Väistö, Juuso; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.; Laaksonen, David E.; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A.
Background There are no prospective studies that would have compared the relationships of different types of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with academic skills among children. We therefore investigated the associations of different types of PA and SB with reading and arithmetic skills in a follow-up study among children. Methods The participants were 186 children (107 boys, 79 girls, 6–8 yr) who were followed-up in Grades 1–3. PA and SB were assessed using a questionnaire in Grade 1. Reading fluency, reading comprehension and arithmetic skills were assessed using standardized tests at the end of Grades 1–3. Results Among all children more recess PA and more time spent in SB related to academic skills were associated with a better reading fluency across Grades 1–3. In boys, higher levels of total PA, physically active school transportation and more time spent in SB related to academic skills were associated with a better reading fluency across the Grades 1–3. Among girls, higher levels of total PA were related to worse arithmetic skills across Grades 1–3. Moreover, total PA was directly associated with reading fluency and arithmetic skills in Grades 1–3 among girls whose parents had a university degree, whereas these relationships were inverse in girls of less educated parents. Conclusions Total PA, physically active school transportation and SB related to academic skills may be beneficial for the development of reading skills in boys, whereas factors that are independent of PA or SB may be more important for academic skills in girls. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01803776 PMID:25207813
Ullman, Henrik; Spencer-Smith, Megan; Thompson, Deanne K; Doyle, Lex W; Inder, Terrie E; Anderson, Peter J; Klingberg, Torkel
School-age children born preterm are particularly at risk for low mathematical achievement, associated with reduced working memory and number skills. Early identification of preterm children at risk for future impairments using brain markers might assist in referral for early intervention. This study aimed to examine the use of neonatal magnetic resonance imaging measures derived from automated methods (Jacobian maps from deformation-based morphometry; fractional anisotropy maps from diffusion tensor images) to predict skills important for mathematical achievement (working memory, early mathematical skills) at 5 and 7 years in a cohort of preterm children using both univariable (general linear model) and multivariable models (support vector regression). Participants were preterm children born <30 weeks' gestational age and healthy control children born ≥37 weeks' gestational age at the Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia between July 2001 and December 2003 and recruited into a prospective longitudinal cohort study. At term-equivalent age ( ±2 weeks) 224 preterm and 46 control infants were recruited for magnetic resonance imaging. Working memory and early mathematics skills were assessed at 5 years (n = 195 preterm; n = 40 controls) and 7 years (n = 197 preterm; n = 43 controls). In the preterm group, results identified localized regions around the insula and putamen in the neonatal Jacobian map that were positively associated with early mathematics at 5 and 7 years (both P < 0.05), even after covarying for important perinatal clinical factors using general linear model but not support vector regression. The neonatal Jacobian map showed the same trend for association with working memory at 7 years (models ranging from P = 0.07 to P = 0.05). Neonatal fractional anisotropy was positively associated with working memory and early mathematics at 5 years (both P < 0.001) even after covarying for clinical factors using support vector regression but not
Farris, Jaelyn; Burke Lefever, Jennifer E.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.
Research Findings: This study investigated the joint influence of maternal cognitive readiness to parent and children's self-esteem on children's academic achievement and behavioral adjustment in the classroom at age 10. Participants were 153 adolescent mothers and their firstborn children. Findings indicated that low levels of prenatal maternal…
Burchinal, Margaret R; Roberts, Joanne E; Zeisel, Susan A; Rowley, Stephanie J
The transition to middle school is often marked by decreased academic achievement and increased emotional stress, and African American children exposed to social risk may be especially vulnerable during this transition. To identify mediators and protective factors, the authors related severity and timing of risk exposure to academic achievement and adjustment between 4th and 6th grade in 74 African American children. Longitudinal analyses indicated that severity more than timing of risk exposure was negatively related to all outcomes and that language skills mediated the pathway from risk for most outcomes. Transition to middle school was related to lower math scores and to more externalizing problems when children experienced higher levels of social risk. Language skills and parenting served as protective factors, whereas expectations of racial discrimination was a vulnerability factor. Results imply that promoting parenting and, especially, language skills, and decreasing expectations of racial discrimination provide pathways to academic success for African American children during the transition from elementary to middle school, especially those exposed to adversity. PMID:18194027
Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.
The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to be academically at-risk at entry to first grade. Analyses accounted for clustering effects, covariates, baselines of effortful control measures, and prior levels of achievement. Even with such conservative statistical controls, interactive effects were found for task accuracy and positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement. Results suggest that task accuracy served as a protective factor so that children with high task accuracy performed well academically despite not having positive teacher-student relationships. Further, positive teacher-student relationships served as a compensatory factor so that children with low task accuracy performed just as well as those with high task accuracy if they were paired with a positive and supportive teacher. Importantly, results indicate that the influence of positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement was most pronounced for students with low effortful control on tasks that require fine motor skills, accuracy, and attention-related skills. Study results have implications for narrowing achievement disparities for academically at-risk children. PMID:20161421
The Arts Recognition and Talent Search (ARTS) program, which provides young artists with a full range of scholarship opportunities and with cash awards, is described. Student work submitted to ARTS in the past is shown. (RM)
Spilt, Jantine L; Hughes, Jan N; Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-Man
This study modeled teacher-student relationship trajectories throughout elementary school to predict gains in achievement in an ethnic-diverse sample of 657 academically at-risk students (mean age = 6.57 years, SD = .39). Teacher reports of warmth and conflict were collected in Grades 1-5. Achievement was tested in Grades 1 and 6. For conflict, low-stable (normative), low-increasing, high-declining, and high-stable trajectories were found. For warmth, high-declining (normative) and low-increasing patterns were found. Children with early behavioral, academic, or social risks were underrepresented in the normative trajectory groups. Chronic conflict was most strongly associated with underachievement. Rising conflict but not declining Conflict coincided with underachievement. The probability of school failure increased as a function of the timing and length of time children were exposed to relational adversity. PMID:22497209
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Li-Grining, Christine P; Maldonado-Carreño, Carolina
Children's kindergarten experiences are increasingly taking place in full- versus part-day programs, yet important questions remain about whether there are significant and meaningful benefits to full-day kindergarten. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study's Kindergarten Cohort (N= 13,776), this study takes a developmental approach to examining associations between kindergarten program type and academic trajectories from kindergarten (ages 4-6 years) through 5th grade (ages 9-12 years). Full-day kindergarten was associated with greater growth of reading and math skills from fall until spring of kindergarten. Initial academic benefits diminished soon after kindergarten. The fade-out of the full-day advantage is in part explained by differences in the children who attend part- and full-day kindergarten as well as school characteristics. PMID:18717901
Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Maczuga, Steve
Data were analyzed from a population-based, longitudinal sample of 8,650 U.S. children to (a) identify factors associated with or predictive of oral vocabulary size at 24 months of age and (b) evaluate whether oral vocabulary size is uniquely predictive of academic and behavioral functioning at kindergarten entry. Children from higher socioeconomic status households, females, and those experiencing higher-quality parenting had larger oral vocabularies. Children born with very low birth weight or from households where the mother had health problems had smaller oral vocabularies. Even after extensive covariate adjustment, 24-month-old children with larger oral vocabularies displayed greater reading and mathematics achievement, increased behavioral self-regulation, and fewer externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors at kindergarten entry. PMID:26283023
Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Maczuga, Steve
Data were analyzed from a population-based, longitudinal sample of 8,650 U.S. children to (a) identify factors associated with or predictive of oral vocabulary size at 24 months of age and (b) evaluate whether oral vocabulary size is uniquely predictive of academic and behavioral functioning at kindergarten entry. Children from higher socioeconomic status households, females, and those experiencing higher quality parenting had larger oral vocabularies. Children born with very low birth weight or from households where the mother had health problems had smaller oral vocabularies. Even after extensive covariate adjustment, 24-month-old children with larger oral vocabularies displayed greater reading and mathematics achievement, increased behavioral self-regulation, and fewer externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors at kindergarten entry. PMID:26283023
Chomitz, Virginia R.; Slining, Meghan M.; McGowan, Robert J.; Mitchell, Suzanne E.; Dawson, Glen F.; Hacker, Karen A.
Objectives: To determine relationships between physical fitness and academic achievement in diverse, urban public school children. Methods: This cross-sectional study used public school data from 2004 to 2005. Academic achievement was assessed as a passing score on Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) achievement tests in…
Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Gooch, Debbie; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew
Background: The youngest children in an academic year are reported to be educationally disadvantaged and overrepresented in referrals to clinical services. In this study we investigate for the first time whether these disadvantages are indicative of a mismatch between language competence at school entry and the academic demands of the classroom.…
Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.
The Brief Academic Competence Evaluation Screening System (BACESS) is a broadband universal screening instrument with three increasingly stringent phases for the identification of children at risk for academic and related behavior difficulties. The development of the BACESS involved two samples of students: K-5 students (n = 827) from the…
Willner, Cynthia J; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Bierman, Karen L; Greenberg, Mark T; Segalowitz, Sidney J
Learning-related behaviors are important for school success. Socioeconomic disadvantage confers risk for less adaptive learning-related behaviors at school entry, yet substantial variability in school readiness exists within socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Investigation of neurophysiological systems associated with learning-related behaviors in high-risk populations could illuminate resilience processes. This study examined the relevance of a neurophysiological measure of controlled attention allocation, amplitude of the P3b event-related potential, for learning-related behaviors and academic performance in a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners. The sample consisted of 239 children from an urban, low-income community, approximately half of whom exhibited behavior problems at school entry (45% aggressive/oppositional; 64% male; 69% African American, 21% Hispanic). Results revealed that higher P3b amplitudes to target stimuli in a go/no-go task were associated with more adaptive learning-related behaviors in kindergarten. Furthermore, children's learning-related behaviors in kindergarten mediated a positive indirect effect of P3b amplitude on growth in academic performance from kindergarten to 1st grade. Given that P3b amplitude reflects attention allocation processes, these findings build on the scientific justification for interventions targeting young children's attention skills in order to promote effective learning-related behaviors and academic achievement within socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. PMID:26053149
Butler, Thelma R.
This document describes a practicum effort which entailed development and implementation of a mini-science instructional program for nine gifted students in an elementary school pilot program. The new program included development of necessary instruments and inservice training and utilized feedback from students, parents, and staff. Developmental…
Hrabowski, F. A.
This talk will focus on the recent National Academies Report, Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation: America's Science and Technology Talent at the Crossroads. The report (1) suggests stronger coordination among national agencies in developing policies and incentives for broadening participation and (2) focuses on the key roles of different types of educational institutions, from K-12 through higher education. The talk will focus on those issues most important for minority success in STEM, including academic preparation, access and motivation, academic and financial support, and social integration. Finally, Dr. Hrabowski will draw upon his experience in developing the Meyerhoff Scholars Program for talented minority students at his university.
Keane, C. M.
The geosciences, like most technical professions, are facing a critical talent gap into the future, with too few new students entering the profession and too many opportunities for that supply. This situation has evolved as a result of multiple forces, including increased commodity prices, greater strain on water resources, development encroachment on hazardous terrain, and the attrition of Baby Boomers from the workforce. Demand is not the only issue at hand, the legacy of lagging supplies of new students and consequently new professionals has enhanced the problem. The supply issue is a result of the fallout from the 1986 oil bust and the unsubstantiated hopes for an environmental boom in the 1990"s, coupled by the lengthening of academic careers, indefinitely delaying the predicted exodus of faculty. All of these issues are evident in the data collected by AGI, its Member Societies, and the federal government. Two new factors are beginning to play an increased role in the success or failure of geosciences programs: namely student attitudes towards careers and the ability for departments to successfully bridge the demands of the incoming student with the requirements for an individual to succeed in the profession. An issue often lost for geosciences departments is that 95% of geoscientists in the United States work in the private sector or for government agencies, and that those employers drive the profession forward in the long term. Departments that manage to balance the student needs with an end source of gainful employment are witnessing great success and growth. Currently, programs with strong roots in mining, petroleum, and groundwater hydrology are booming, as are graduate programs with strong technology components. The challenge is recognizing the booms, busts, and long-term trends and positioning programs to weather the changes yet retain the core of their program. This level of planning coupled with a profession-wide effort to improve initial recruitment
Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper
Objective To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. Methods This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Results Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all P<0.001), whereas exercise capacity was only associated with better sustained attention (P<0.046) and spatial working memory (P<0.038). Fine and gross motor skills (all P<0.001), exercise capacity and cognitive functions such as working memory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Conclusions The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic
Lamb, Penny; Aldous, David
Background: Programmes to support children identified as gifted and talented in physical education in the UK have evolved as a result of the work of the Youth Sports Trust and the Excellence in Cities (EiC) scheme. However, beyond insights regarding Gifted and Talented (G&T) Policy, there remains little understanding of the pupil experiences…
Heilbronner, Nancy N.
Parents and teachers may suspect early science talent in children, which frequently manifests itself through insatiable curiosity and an intense interest in one or more areas of science. However, sometimes they struggle with identification and then knowing what to do to nurture these talents. The author of this practical article provides a…
Unnithan, Viswanath; White, Jordan; Georgiou, Andreas; Iga, John; Drust, Barry
The purpose of this review article was firstly to evaluate the traditional approach to talent identification in youth soccer and secondly present pilot data on a more holistic method for talent identification. Research evidence exists to suggest that talent identification mechanisms that are predicated upon the physical (anthropometric) attributes of the early maturing individual only serve to identify current performance levels. Greater body mass and stature have both been related to faster ball shooting speed and vertical jump capacity respectively in elite youth soccer players. This approach, however, may prematurely exclude those late maturing individuals. Multiple physiological measures have also been used in an effort to determine key predictors of performance; with agility and sprint times, being identified as variables that could discriminate between elite and sub-elite groups of adolescent soccer players. Successful soccer performance is the product of multiple systems interacting with one another. Consequently, a more holistic approach to talent identification should be considered. Recent work, with elite youth soccer players, has considered whether multiple small-sided games could act as a talent identification tool in this population. The results demonstrated that there was a moderate agreement between the more technically gifted soccer player and success during multiple small-sided games. PMID:23046427
Background Very preterm children exhibit difficulties in working memory, a key cognitive ability vital to learning information and the development of academic skills. Previous research suggests that an adaptive working memory training intervention (Cogmed) may improve working memory and other cognitive and behavioural domains, although further randomised controlled trials employing long-term outcomes are needed, and with populations at risk for working memory deficits, such as children born preterm. In a cohort of extremely preterm (<28 weeks’ gestation)/extremely low birthweight (<1000 g) 7-year-olds, we will assess the effectiveness of Cogmed in improving academic functioning 2 years’ post-intervention. Secondary objectives are to assess the effectiveness of Cogmed in improving working memory and attention 2 weeks’, 12 months’ and 24 months’ post-intervention, and to investigate training related neuroplasticity in working memory neural networks 2 weeks’ post-intervention. Methods/Design This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised controlled trial aims to recruit 126 extremely preterm/extremely low birthweight 7-year-old children. Children attending mainstream school without major intellectual, sensory or physical impairments will be eligible. Participating children will undergo an extensive baseline cognitive assessment before being randomised to either an adaptive or placebo (non-adaptive) version of Cogmed. Cogmed is a computerised working memory training program consisting of 25 sessions completed over a 5 to 7 week period. Each training session takes approximately 35 minutes and will be completed in the child’s home. Structural, diffusion and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, which is optional for participants, will be completed prior to and 2 weeks following the training period. Follow-up assessments focusing on academic skills (primary outcome), working memory and attention (secondary outcomes) will be conducted at 2 weeks’, 12
Abraham, Willard; And Others
Compiled are presentations given at the Institute on Gifted/Talented Early Childhood Education in January, 1977. Considered in "Current Myths Concerning Gifted Children" by H. Robinson are the myth of the "giftedness syndrome", the myth of the qualitatively different gifted individual, and myths about educating children with special gifts. M.…
Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Pakarinen, Eija; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This longitudinal study investigated the associations among children's externalizing problems, task-avoidant behavior, and academic performance in early school years. The participants were 586 children (43% girls, 57% boys). Data pertaining to externalizing problems (teacher ratings) and task-avoidant behaviors (mother and teacher ratings) were…
Massetti, Greta M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E.; Loney, Jan; Ehrhardt, Ashley; Lee, Steve S.; Kipp, Heidi
The predictive validity of symptom criteria for different subtypes of ADHD among children who were impaired in at least one setting in early childhood was examined. Academic achievement was assessed seven times over 8 years in 125 children who met symptom criteria for ADHD at 4-6 years of age and in 130 demographically-matched non-referred…
Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Perry, Nicole B.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart
The current study examines whether the relation between mothers' responses to their children's negative emotions and teachers' reports of children's academic performance and social-emotional competence are similar or different for European-American and African-American families. Two hundred mothers (137 European-American, 63…
Lee, Jungyoon; Yu, Heekeun; Choi, Sumi
This study examined the effects of parental acceptance, psychological control, and behavioral control on children's school adjustment and academic achievement, as well as the possible mediation effect of children's self-regulation in those processes. To do so, we examined 388 upper-level elementary school students (mean age = 11.38 years) in South…
Aldemir, Ozgul; Gursel, Oguz
Children with developmental disabilities are trained using different teaching arrangements. One of these arrangements is called small-group teaching. It has been ascertained that a small-group teaching arrangement is more effective than a one-to-one teaching arrangement. In that sense, teaching academic skills to pre-school children in small-group…
Rutherford, Laura E.; DuPaul, George J.; Jitendra, Asha K.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between treatment-induced changes in academic achievement and social skills in elementary school-age children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. A sample of 123 children in grades 1 through 4 with symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and/or hyperactivity, and significant…
Weems, Carl F; Scott, Brandon G; Taylor, Leslie K; Cannon, Melinda F; Romano, Dawn M; Perry, Andre M
This study tested a theoretical model of continuity in anxious emotion and its links to academic achievement in disaster-exposed youth. An urban school based sample of youths (n = 191; Grades 4-8) exposed to Hurricane Katrina were assessed at 24 months (Time 1) and then again at 30 months (Time 2) postdisaster. Academic achievement was assessed through end of the school year standardized test scores (~31 months after Katrina). The results suggest that the association of traumatic stress to academic achievement was indirect via linkages from earlier (Time 1) posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms that predicted later (Time 2) test anxiety. Time 2 test anxiety was then negatively associated with academic achievement. Age and gender invariance testing suggested strong consistency across gender and minor developmental variation in the age range examined. The model presented advances the developmental understanding of the expression of anxious emotion and its links to student achievement among disaster-exposed urban school children. The findings highlight the importance of identifying heterotypic continuity in anxiety and suggest potential applied and policy directions for disaster-exposed youth. Avenues for future theoretical refinement are also discussed. PMID:23880388
Witte, Amanda L.; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kasson, Sarah C.; Perry, Kyle R.
Previous research has linked talent development to four factors--early experience, coaching, practice, and motivation. In addition to these factors, contemporary talent experts suggest that parents play a critical role in talent development. The purpose of the present study was to uncover parents' in-time perspectives on the talent development…
Gross, Miraca U. M.
A 20-year longitudinal study has traced the academic, social, and emotional development of 60 young Australians with IQs of 160 and above. Significant differences have been noted in the young people's educational status and direction, life satisfaction, social relationships, and self-esteem as a function of the degree of academic acceleration…
Brusseau, Timothy A.; Hannon, James C.
Physical activity is associated with numerous academic and health benefits. Furthermore, schools have been identified as an ideal location to promote physical activity as most youth attend school regularly from ages 5-18. Unfortunately, in an effort to increase academic learning time, schools have been eliminating traditional activity…
Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R.; Ku, Po-Wen; Wang, Ching-Hui
Backround: This study examined the association among childhood obesity, weight status change, and subsequent academic performance at 6-year follow-up. Methods: First-grade students from one elementary school district in Taichung City, Taiwan were followed for 6 years (N = 409). Academic performance was extracted from the school records at the end…
Quilliams, Laura; Beran, Tanya
The purpose of this study was to identify individual and family risk factors that may explain why some students are at risk for academic failure. Students' self-concept, academic motivation, and their parents' involvement in education were reported by both students and teachers. A latent variable path model fit the data well (Comparative Fit Index…