Science.gov

Sample records for acadian clastic wedge

  1. Provenance characterization of Appalachian clastic wedges from sandstone petrography and clast compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, K.A. . Dept. of Geological Science); Simpson, E.L. . Dept. of Physical Science); Krogstad, E.J. . Dept. of Geology); McLennan, S.M. . Dept. of Earth and Space Science); Norman, M. )

    1994-03-01

    Sandstones in the Taconic, Acadian and Alleghanian clastic wedges in the Appalachian Orogenic Belt provide evidence for changing provenances during the late Ordovician through pennsylvanian, Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian, synrift sandstones are predominantly feldspathic arenites, whereas quartz arenites typify sandstones in the Cambrian passive-margin prism. In contrast, sandstones in the overlying foreland-basin clastic wedges typically are lithic arenites and occupy the quartzose to lithic recycled fields on QmFLt diagrams. Mid-Ordovician lithic arenites (Knobs, Bays Fms.) are dominated by a variety of sedimentary rock fragments including feldspathic and quartz arenites, limestone, dolomite and chert. Conglomerates in the Bays Formation similarly are dominated by recycled sedimentary clasts; gneiss clasts are only rarely observed. Above a regional unconformity in the middle Tuscarora formation, a succession of quartz arenites (upper Tuscarora, Rose Hill and Eagle Rock Fms.) developed in response to prolonged reworking. Overlying lithic arenites (Middle Devonian-Pennsylvanian) contain a variety of metamorphic rock fragments including quartz-mica schist, strained and polycrystalline quartz, and detrital mica. Sandstone petrography and clast compositions thus indicate that the Taconic orogeny involved uplift of the older passive-margin prism in a fold-and-thrust belt or accretionary prism. Coarse-grained sedimentary rocks provide no evidence of an arc to the east. Mature Silurian sandstones record an inter-orogenic, quiescent phase of the Appalachian Orogeny.

  2. Acadian dextral transpression and synorogenic sedimentary successions in the Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrill, B.A.; Thomas, W.A.

    1988-07-01

    The successive Seboomook-Littleton (northern Appalachians) and Catskill-Pocono (central Appalachians) clastic wedges suggest oblique convergence and southwestward migration of Acadian orogeny beginning in Early Devonian and continuing into Early Mississippian. Wrench-fault movement in Maritime Canada coincided with deposition of all but the earliest components of the Catskill-Pocono clastic wedge and continued into the Pennsylvanian. Contrasts between a thin, Lower to Middle Devonian shallow-shelf facies in the Alabama Appalachian fold-thrust belt and a time-equivalent, thick, shallowing-upward sedimentary to volcanic succession in the adjacent Talladega slate belt are interpreted to reflect a wrench-fault basin. A wrench-fault setting for Devonian rocks in Alabama integrated with manifestations of oblique convergence during the Acadian orogeny in the central and northern Appalachians can be accommodated in dextral transpression along the entire length of the Acadian Appalachian orogen.

  3. Carboniferous clastic-wedge stratigraphy, sedimentology, and foreland basin evolution: Black Warrior basin, Alabama and Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    Carboniferous clastic-wedge stratigraphy and sedimentology in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama and Mississippi indicate deposition in an evolving foreland basin flanking the Appalachian-Ouachita fold-thrust belt. The strata reflect specific responses to foreland basin subsidence, orogenic activity, sediment supply, and dispersal systems. Definition of the regional stratigraphy of the clastic wedge provides for interpretation of the foreland basin subsidence history by enabling quantitative reconstruction of regional compaction and subsidence profiles. Comparison of the interpreted subsidence history with model profiles of foreland basin subsidence (predicted from loading and flexure of continental lithosphere) allows evaluation of mechanical models in terms of observed clastic-wedge sedimentology and stratigraphy. Mechanical modeling of foreland basin subsidence predicts formation of a flexural bulge that migrates cratonward ahead of the subsiding foreland basin during loading. In the Black Warrior basin, local stratigraphic thins, pinch-outs, and areas of marine-reworked sediments suggest migration of the flexural bulge. Comparison of flexural bulge migration with thermal maturation history allows evaluation of timing of stratigraphic trapping mechanisms with respect to onset of hydrocarbon generation.

  4. Acadian orogen Which Acadian orogen

    SciTech Connect

    Ludman, A. )

    1993-03-01

    The Acadian orogeny is widely viewed as the climactic event in much of the Northern Appalachians, resulting from the closing of one or more ocean basins and the accretion of the Avalonian continent to ancestral North America. Unconformities have traditionally dated the Acadian orogeny as Middle Devonian in the east and Late Middle to Late Devonian in the western part of the orogen. The recent recognition that several post-Acadian'' plutons are actually Late Silurian suggests that the tectonic models are too simplistic; that accretion previously attributed to a Devonian (Acadian) event may have been a two-stage process: Late Silurian (Salinic ) and Acadian sensu stricto; that orogenic activity may have been continuous from Taconian through Acadian'' times. Differences between the records of the Taconic (Ordovician) and Acadian orogenies suggest different plate interactions: near-orthogonal subduction for the former vs transcurrent faulting for the latter as the dominant mechanisms. Distribution of Salinic'' unconformities across the Northern Appalachian orogen in Maine suggests that accretion of Avalon may have been completed by that Silurian event, but faunal provincialities displayed by fossils as young as Early Devonian in terranes bordering the Fredericton Trough argue for later (Devonian) accretion. A further complication is the imprecise knowledge of the extent to which post-Devonian tectonism is responsible for the current terrane configuration in the Northern Appalachians. Alleghenian folding and thrusting is well-established in some areas where post-Acadian (Carboniferous) strata are present, and is now being documented in older rocks in eastern Maine as well: transcurrent faulting as young as post-Mesozoic( ) along the Norumbega Fault Zone; east-directed thrusting involving the Early Devonian Center Pond pluton.

  5. Lower Cretaceous Avile Sandstone, Neuquen basin, Argentina - Exploration model for a lowstand clastic wedge in a back-arc basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ryer, T.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The Neuquen basin of western Argentina is a back-arc basin that was occupied by epeiric seas during much of Jurassic and Cretaceous time. The Avile Sandstone Member of the Agrio Formation records a pronounced but short-lived regression of the Agrio sea during middle Hauterivian (Early Cretaceous) time. Abrupt lowering of relative sea level resulted in emergence and erosion of the Agrio sea floor; shoreline and fluvial facies characteristic of the Centenario Formation shifted basinward. The Avile rests erosionally upon lower Agrio shale over a large area; well-sorted, porous sandstones within the member pinch out laterally against the base-Avile erosional surface. Avile deposition closed with an abrupt transgression of the shoreline to the approximate position it had occupied prior to the Avile regression. The transgressive deposits are carbonate rich, reflecting starvation of the basin as a consequence of sea-level rise. The Avile lowstand clastic wedge consists predominantly of sandstones deposited in fluvial to shallow-marine paleoenvironments; eolian sandstones probably constitute an important component in the eastern part of the area. The sandstones locally have excellent reservoir characteristics; they constitute the reservoirs in the Puesto Hernandez, Chihuido de la Sierra Negra, and Filo Morado fields. The pinch-out of the Avile lowstand clastic wedge has the potential to form stratigraphic traps in favorable structural positions. The depositional model indicates that there may be a viable stratigraphic play to be made along the Avile pinch-out in the deep, relatively undrilled, northwestern part of the Neuquen basin.

  6. Upper Cretaceous Ferron-Frontier clastic wedge, Utah and Wyoming - interplay between sea level, sediment supply, and subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    Ryer, T.A.

    1986-08-01

    The Ferron-Frontier clastic wedge is among the most widespread in the Cretaceous System of North America. Some writers have emphasized the role of eustatic sea level in forming this clastic wedge; others have emphasized tectonics and variations in sediment supply. The evidence indicates that both were important, but to varying degrees and at different times. The Greenhorn regression was rapid, spanning only the middle part of Turonian time. It was caused primarily by lowering of sea level. Vast tracts of the sea floor that had previously been below wave base shoaled and became areas of accumulation of sandy and/or bioclastic-rich sediments. Sea level began to rise during late Turonian time. Subwave-base conditions returned to much of the sea floor, and the shoreline transgressed westward. It was during the Niobrara trangression that uplift in the Sevier orogenic belt and within the western part of the foreland basin caused a large volume of sediment to be carried eastward through the Ferron-Frontier river systems. In southwestern Wyoming, the influx of sediment slowed the transgression and resulted in stacking of shoreline sandstone units. The influx of sediment in central Utah was even greater - so much so that the shoreline once again prograded seaward. Late Turonian time marked the peak regression of the shoreline in that area. The tectonically induced influx of sediment appears to have been short-lived. A continued rise of sea level, combined with renewed downwarping of the foreland basin and trapping of sediment within it, led to abrupt westward transgression of the shoreline during Coniacian time.

  7. Timing of the Acadian Orogeny in Northern New Hampshire.

    PubMed

    Eusden Jr; Guzofski; Robinson; Tucker

    2000-03-01

    New U-Pb geochronology constrains the timing of the Acadian orogeny in the Central Maine Terrane of northern New Hampshire. Sixteen fractions of one to six grains each of zircon or monazite have been analyzed from six samples: (1) an early syntectonic diorite that records the onset of the Acadian; (2) a schist, a migmatite, and two granites that together record the peak of the Acadian; and (3) a postkinematic pluton that records the end of the Acadian. Zircon from the syntectonic Wamsutta Diorite gives a 207Pb/206Pb age of circa 408 Ma, the time at which the boundary between the deforming orogenic wedge and the foreland basin was in the vicinity of the Presidential Range. This age agrees well with the Emsian position of the northwest migrating Acadian orogenic front and records the beginning of the Acadian in this part of the Central Maine Terrane. We propose a possible Acadian tectonic model that incorporates the geochronologic, structural, and stratigraphic data. Monazite from the schist, migmatite, Bigelow Lawn Granite, and Slide Peak Granite gives 207Pb/206U ages, suggesting the peak of Acadian metamorphism and intrusion of two-mica granites occurred at circa 402-405 Ma, the main pulse of Acadian orogenesis. Previously reported monazite ages from schists that likely record the peak metamorphism in the Central Maine Terrane of New Hampshire and western Maine range from circa 406-384 Ma, with younger ages in southeastern New Hampshire and progressively older ages to the west, north, and northeast. Acadian orogenesis in the Presidential Range had ended by circa 355 Ma, the 207Pb/235U age of monazite from the Peabody River Granite. From 408 to perhaps at least 394 Ma, Acadian orogenesis in the Presidential Range was typical of the tectonic style, dominated by synkinematic metamorphism, seen in central and southern New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. From no earlier than 394 Ma to as late as 355 Ma, the orogenesis was typical of the style in parts of

  8. Timing of the Acadian Orogeny in Northern New Hampshire.

    PubMed

    Eusden Jr; Guzofski; Robinson; Tucker

    2000-03-01

    New U-Pb geochronology constrains the timing of the Acadian orogeny in the Central Maine Terrane of northern New Hampshire. Sixteen fractions of one to six grains each of zircon or monazite have been analyzed from six samples: (1) an early syntectonic diorite that records the onset of the Acadian; (2) a schist, a migmatite, and two granites that together record the peak of the Acadian; and (3) a postkinematic pluton that records the end of the Acadian. Zircon from the syntectonic Wamsutta Diorite gives a 207Pb/206Pb age of circa 408 Ma, the time at which the boundary between the deforming orogenic wedge and the foreland basin was in the vicinity of the Presidential Range. This age agrees well with the Emsian position of the northwest migrating Acadian orogenic front and records the beginning of the Acadian in this part of the Central Maine Terrane. We propose a possible Acadian tectonic model that incorporates the geochronologic, structural, and stratigraphic data. Monazite from the schist, migmatite, Bigelow Lawn Granite, and Slide Peak Granite gives 207Pb/206U ages, suggesting the peak of Acadian metamorphism and intrusion of two-mica granites occurred at circa 402-405 Ma, the main pulse of Acadian orogenesis. Previously reported monazite ages from schists that likely record the peak metamorphism in the Central Maine Terrane of New Hampshire and western Maine range from circa 406-384 Ma, with younger ages in southeastern New Hampshire and progressively older ages to the west, north, and northeast. Acadian orogenesis in the Presidential Range had ended by circa 355 Ma, the 207Pb/235U age of monazite from the Peabody River Granite. From 408 to perhaps at least 394 Ma, Acadian orogenesis in the Presidential Range was typical of the tectonic style, dominated by synkinematic metamorphism, seen in central and southern New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. From no earlier than 394 Ma to as late as 355 Ma, the orogenesis was typical of the style in parts of

  9. Timing of the Acadian Orogeny in northern New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eusden, J.D.; Guzofski, C.A.; Robinson, A.C.; Tucker, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    New U-Pb geochronology constrains the timing of the Acadian orogeny in the Central Maine Terrane of northern New Hampshire. Sixteen fractions of one to six grains each of zircon or monazite have been analyzed from six samples: (1) an early syntectonic diorite that records the onset of the Acadian, (2) a schist, a migmatite, and two granites that together record the peak of the Acadian; and (3) a postkinematic pluton that records the end of the Acadian. Zircon from the syntectonic Wamsutta Diorite gives a 207Pb/206Pb age of circa 408 Ma, the time at which the boundary between the deforming orogenic wedge and the foreland basin was in the vicinity of the Presidential Range. This age agrees well with the Emsian position of the northwest migrating Acadian orogenic front and records the beginning of the Acadian in this part of the Central Maine Terrane. We propose a possible Acadian tectonic model that incorporates the geochronologic, structural, and stratigraphic data. Monazite from the schist, migmatite, Bigelow Lawn Granite, and Slide Peak Granite gives 207Pb/206U ages, suggesting the peak of Acadian metamorphism and intrusion of two-mica granites occurred at circa 402-405 Ma, the main pulse of Acadian orogenesis. Previously reported monazite ages from schists that likely record the peak metamorphism in the Central Maine Terrane of New Hampshire and western Maine range from circa 406-384 Ma, with younger ages in southeastern New Hampshire and progressively older ages to the west, north, and northeast. Acadian orogenesis in the Presidential Range had ended by circa 355 Ma, the 207Pb/235U age of monazite from the Peabody River Granite. From 408 to perhaps at least 394 Ma, Acadian orogenesis in the Presidential Range was typical of the tectonic style, dominated by synkinematic metamorphism, seen in central and southern New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. From no earlier than 394 Ma to as late as 355 Ma, the orogenesis was typical of the style in parts of

  10. Detrital mica K/Ar ages for Devonian-Pennsylvanian strata of the north central Appalachian Basin: Dominance of the Acadian Orogen as provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Aronson, J.L. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Lewis, T.L. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Detrital micas were separated from: the Upper Devonian Walton Sandstone and Ohio Shale; Lower Mississippian Berea Sandstone; Upper Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation; and the Lower-Middle Pennsylvanian Pottsville and Allegheny Sandstones. A total of 12 separates were conventionally dated, the only biotite being from the Allegheny Formation sandstone, from which a muscovite was also dated. The total range in dates for the study was encompassed by the Allegheny sample of 414 m.y. (muscovite) to 361 m.y. (biotite), each date having an uncertainty of about [+-] 9 m.y. Excluding this sample, a narrower range of Early to Middle Devonian dates from 406--371 m.y. is obtained. For the Walton Sandstone of the proximal Catskill Wedge and for the northeast OH samples of the distal Catskill Wedge, all deposited within Late Devonian-Early Mississippian time, a very narrow span of 20 m.y. is obtained entirely within Early Devonian time and only approximately 30 m.y. older than deposition. All of these provenance ages have been previously found as primary ages of crystallization or cooling therefrom of regional metamorphism and plutonism in the Acadian Orogen of New England. The mean provenance ages are so close to the age of deposition of the distal Devonian/mississippian Catskill strata as to preclude almost any Precambrian contribution from either the Canadian Shield or the uplifted cores of the Orogen. These results support the paleocurrent and paleoenvironmental analysis of the northeast OH section by Lewis (1988) and argue against the classic Bedford Delta interpretation sourced from the north. Furthermore, the Acadian Orogen persisted as the major provenance for the clastic pulses that prograded into the central Appalachian Basin after the post-Catskill transgression, at least up until Middle Pennsylvanian time.

  11. 78 FR 28837 - Acadian Gas Pipeline System; Notice of Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Acadian Gas Pipeline System; Notice of Petition Take notice that on May 6, 2013, Acadian Gas Pipeline System (Acadian) filed to revise the Statement of Operating...

  12. Acadian dextral transpression in western Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, S.G. ); Marvinney, R.G. )

    1993-03-01

    Two groups of faults characterize the Acadian tectonic regime of northwestern Maine. The first group is largely dextral and reverse in nature and is represented by the Deep Pond (DPF) and Thrasher Peaks (TPF) faults in the Jackman area. The second is reverse in nature, and is represented by three faults in the Caucomgomoc Lake area. Taken together this fault system represents an Acadian dextral transpressive regime. Part of this regime includes an 11 km wide by 17 km long horst of Cambrian( ), Ordovician( ) and Late Silurian rocks in the Caucomgomoc Lake area. This horst is a part of a restraining bend. Associated with this bend is a deflection and rotation of the regional fault, fold axis and cleavage pattern. Orientations of these structures generally change from NE-SW in the Jackman area to N-S in the Caucomgomoc area. In westernmost Maine, the DPF and TPF both strike NE-SW, but the strikes rotate to ENE-WSW farther to the east in the Jackman area. The NW-dipping DPF separates Silurian rocks of the Frontenac Fm on the north from Devonian rocks of the Seboomook Group on the south. Foliation associated with Acadian folding dips moderately (30--50 degrees) near the DPF and major folds are overturned and verge toward the SE along its entire length in Maine. This contrasts sharply with the dominant upright, NW-verging folds and sleep foliation which characterizes the Acadian throughout northwestern Maine. The NW-dipping TPF separates Devonian rocks of the Seboomook Group on the north from Precambrian and Ordovician rocks of the Chain Lakes massif and Attean pluton, respectively, on the south. Along the TPF and DPF are kinematic indicators which suggest reverse and dextral components to movement.

  13. Bibliographie Annotee de Linguistique Acadienne (Annotated Bibliography of Acadian Linguistics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesner, Edward

    A bibliography of 430 books, journal articles, papers, and other references on Acadian French written in English or French is divided into two principal sections: an annotated bibliography of works focusing on the Acadian French dialect spoken in the Canadian Maritime Provinces, and an unannotated bibliography pertaining to Louisiana Acadian…

  14. The eastern limit of Acadian high grade metamorphism in northern New England: Implications for the location of the Acadian Suture''

    SciTech Connect

    West, D.P. Jr. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Identifying the eastern limit of Acadian high grade metamorphism in New England is complicated by the presence of pre-Devonian high grade relics, locally intense Late Paleozoic thermal overprints, and post-metamorphic faults. New [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar mineral ages from along the eastern margin of high grade metamorphism in Maine and New Hampshire help delineate the eastern limit of Devonian amphibolite facies metamorphism thereby placing constraints on the location of the Acadian suture. In New Hampshire, Acadian high grade metamorphism extends southeast at least as far as the Campbell Hill fault and perhaps as far as the Flint Hill fault. New [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar hornblende ages and previously published U-Pb monazite ages from the Massabesic Gneiss Complex are Permian indicating high grade Alleghanian metamorphism. New [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar hornblende ages from the Rye Formation, although complicated by excess argon, are considerably older, indicating an earlier Pre-Silurian amphibolite facies metamorphism affected these rocks. North of Portland, [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar hornblende ages east of the Norumbega Fault Zone from high grade rocks of the Casco Bay Group have ages that range from Middle Devonian to Early Carboniferous, consistent with diachronous cooling following Acadian metamorphism. Further northeast, in upper amphibolite facies rocks of the Passagassawakeag Gneiss, new [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar hornblende ages range from 385--395 Ma suggesting that these rocks were also affected by high grade Acadian metamorphism.

  15. Acadians of Louisiana: Curriculum Guide. Grade 8. Bulletin 1780.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Academic Programs.

    This document, a supplement to the "Louisiana Studies Curriculum Guide," was designed to enhance junior high school students' appreciation for the Acadian settlers impact on Louisiana history and culture. A course outline presents four units of study that include: (1) early history; (2) life in Louisiana; (3) social and cultural life; and (4) the…

  16. Structural and petrologic characteristics of the Taconian-Acadian overprint zone in Massachusetts and Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, T.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Hames, W.E. . Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Structural and petrologic relationships from two regions of the New England Taconide Zone provide distinction of Taconian and Acadian deformation fabrics and related metamorphisms. In SW Massachusetts, Taconian metamorphism increases eastward from chlorite- to kyanite-grade, with staurolite zone Zr hb plateau ages of [approx]445 Ma. Within the Acadian fibrolite zone, Ar cooling ages are related to a thermal maximum at 390--400Ma, coeval with crenulation cleavage that deforms Taconian fabrics. Taconian and Acadian metamorphic regimes are separated by a 4 km-wide zone in which polymetamorphic assemblages exist but yield consistent Acadian mineral-rim P-T data, and Acadian structures are pervasive. In southern Vermont, the overlap zone is broad ([approx]30 km); undisturbed Taconian Ar K-feldspar cooling ages occur on the west side of the Green Mountain massif. Farther east, Taconian fabric is almost completely obliterated by dynamic Acadian metamorphism, and is truncated and retrograded in areas adjacent to a major Acadian thrust zone. The upper plate rocks, including the Barnard Belt and the Silurian-Devonian sequences (the CVB), do not contain Taconian fabrics, the early Acadian deformations, or retrogression, and are associated with garnet-to-kyanite-grade Acadian metamorphism and a coeval, regionally dominant deformation, both of which are younger than 390Ma and older than 373Ma.

  17. Rethinking wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Steven J.; Cao, Long; Caldeira, Ken; Hoffert, Martin I.

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Stabilizing CO2 emissions at current levels for fifty years is not consistent with either an atmospheric CO2 concentration below 500 ppm or global temperature increases below 2 °C. Accepting these targets, solving the climate problem requires that emissions peak and decline in the next few decades, and ultimately fall to near zero. Phasing out emissions over 50 years could be achieved by deploying on the order of 19 'wedges', each of which ramps up linearly over a period of 50 years to ultimately avoid 1 GtC y-1 of CO2 emissions. But this level of mitigation will require affordable carbon-free energy systems to be deployed at the scale of tens of terawatts. Any hope for such fundamental and disruptive transformation of the global energy system depends upon coordinated efforts to innovate, plan, and deploy new transportation and energy systems that can provide affordable energy at this scale without emitting CO2 to the atmosphere. 1. Introduction In 2004, Pacala and Socolow published a study in Science arguing that '[h]umanity can solve the carbon and climate problem in the first half of this century simply by scaling up what we already know how to do' [1]. Specifically, they presented 15 options for 'stabilization wedges' that would grow linearly from zero to 1 Gt of carbon emissions avoided per year (GtC y-1 1 Gt = 1012 kg) over 50 years. The solution to the carbon and climate problem, they asserted, was 'to deploy the technologies and/or lifestyle changes necessary to fill all seven wedges of the stabilization triangle'. They claimed this would offset the growth of emissions and put us on a trajectory to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentration at 500 ppm if emissions decreased sharply in the second half of the 21st century. The wedge concept has proven popular as an analytical tool for considering the potential of different technologies to reduce CO2 emissions. In the years since the paper was published, it has been cited more than 400 times, and

  18. The geology of a part of Acadia and the nature of the Acadian orogeny across Central and Eastern Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucker, R.D.; Osberg, P.H.; Berry, H.N.

    2001-01-01

    The zone of Acadian collision between the Medial New England and Composite Avalon terranes is well preserved in Maine. A transect from northwest (Rome) to southeast (Camden) crosses the eastern part of Medial New England comprising the Central Maine basin, Liberty-Orrington thrust sheet, and Fredericton trough, and the western part of Composite Avalon, including the Graham Lake, Clarry Hill, and Clam Cove thrust sheets. U-Pb geochronology of events before, during, and after the Acadian orogeny helps elucidate the nature and distribution of tectonostrati& graphic belts in this zone and the timing of some Acadian events in the Northern Appalachians. The Central Maine basin consists of sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Middle Ordovician (???470 to ???460 Ma) age overlain with probable conformity by latest Ordovician(?) through earliest Devonian marine rift and flysch sedimentary rocks; these are intruded by weakly to undeformed plutonic rocks of Early and Middle Devonian age (???399??378 Ma). The Fredericton trough consists of Early Silurian gray pelite and sandstone to earliest Late Silurian calcareous turbidite, deformed and variably metamorphosed prior to the emplacement of Late Silurian (???422 Ma) and Early to Late Devonian (???418 to ???368 Ma) plutons. The Liberty-Orrington thrust sheet consists of Cambrian(?)-Ordovician (>???474 to ???469 Ma and younger) clastic sedimentary and volcanic rocks intruded by highly deformed Late Silurian (???424 to ???422 Ma) and Devonian (???418 to ???389 Ma) plutons, possibly metamorphosed in Late Silurian time (prior to ???417 Ma), and metamorphosed to amphibolite facies in Early to Middle Devonian time (???400 to ???381 Ma). The Graham Lake thrust sheet contains possible Precambrian rocks, Cambrian sedimentary rocks with a volcanic unit dated at ???503 Ma, and Ordovician rocks with possible Caradocian Old World fossils, metamor& phosed and deformed in Silurian time and intruded by mildly to undeformed Late Silurian (???421 Ma

  19. Memoires d'une famille acadienne de Van Buren, Maine (Memoirs of an Acadian Family of Van Buren, Maine).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Marguerite

    These memoirs of an Acadian family present aspects of the cultural history of the Acadians in the St. John River Valley in Maine. The six chapters deal with the following topics: (1) a brief history of the land and the people; (2) the chronicles of a large Acadian family from the time of the arrival of their ancestors from France until the…

  20. Rethinking wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Steven J.; Cao, Long; Caldeira, Ken; Hoffert, Martin I.

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Stabilizing CO2 emissions at current levels for fifty years is not consistent with either an atmospheric CO2 concentration below 500 ppm or global temperature increases below 2 °C. Accepting these targets, solving the climate problem requires that emissions peak and decline in the next few decades, and ultimately fall to near zero. Phasing out emissions over 50 years could be achieved by deploying on the order of 19 'wedges', each of which ramps up linearly over a period of 50 years to ultimately avoid 1 GtC y-1 of CO2 emissions. But this level of mitigation will require affordable carbon-free energy systems to be deployed at the scale of tens of terawatts. Any hope for such fundamental and disruptive transformation of the global energy system depends upon coordinated efforts to innovate, plan, and deploy new transportation and energy systems that can provide affordable energy at this scale without emitting CO2 to the atmosphere. 1. Introduction In 2004, Pacala and Socolow published a study in Science arguing that '[h]umanity can solve the carbon and climate problem in the first half of this century simply by scaling up what we already know how to do' [1]. Specifically, they presented 15 options for 'stabilization wedges' that would grow linearly from zero to 1 Gt of carbon emissions avoided per year (GtC y-1 1 Gt = 1012 kg) over 50 years. The solution to the carbon and climate problem, they asserted, was 'to deploy the technologies and/or lifestyle changes necessary to fill all seven wedges of the stabilization triangle'. They claimed this would offset the growth of emissions and put us on a trajectory to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentration at 500 ppm if emissions decreased sharply in the second half of the 21st century. The wedge concept has proven popular as an analytical tool for considering the potential of different technologies to reduce CO2 emissions. In the years since the paper was published, it has been cited more than 400 times, and

  1. Radial wedge flange clamp

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Karl H.

    2002-01-01

    A radial wedge flange clamp comprising a pair of flanges each comprising a plurality of peripheral flat wedge facets having flat wedge surfaces and opposed and mating flat surfaces attached to or otherwise engaged with two elements to be joined and including a series of generally U-shaped wedge clamps each having flat wedge interior surfaces and engaging one pair of said peripheral flat wedge facets. Each of said generally U-shaped wedge clamps has in its opposing extremities apertures for the tangential insertion of bolts to apply uniform radial force to said wedge clamps when assembled about said wedge segments.

  2. Acadian flycatcher nest placement: Does placement influence reproductive success?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, R.R.; Cooper, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    We located 511 Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) nests in bottomland hardwood forest of eastern Arkansas. Microhabitat characteristics were measured and their relationship with nest success evaluated. Fifty-two percent of all nesting attempts resulted in predation. Attributes of nest placement were similar between successful and unsuccessful nests, although successful nests were placed higher. Similarly, nonparasitized nests were typically higher than parasitized nests. Nests initiated late in the breeding season were placed in larger trees with higher canopy bases resulting in increased vegetation around the nest. Fifteen different tree species were used for nesting. Acadian Flycatchers chose nest trees in a nonrandom fashion, selecting Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii) and possumhaw (Ilex decidua) in greater proportions than their availability. However, there was no relationship between tree species used for nesting and nest success. Nest height was positively correlated with concealment at the nest site, supporting the predator-avoidance theory. No other attribute of nest placement differentiated successful nest sites, suggesting that nest predation is likely a function of random events in space and time.

  3. Pre-lithification tectonic foliation development in a clastic sedimentary sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meere, Patrick; Mulchrone, Kieran; McCarthy, David; Timmermann, Martin; Dewey, John

    2016-04-01

    The current view regarding the timing of regionally developed penetrative tectonic fabrics in sedimentary rocks is that their development postdates lithification of those rocks. In this case fabric development is achieved by a number of deformation mechanisms including grain rigid body rotation, crystal-plastic deformation and pressure solution (wet diffusion). The latter is believed to be the primary mechanism responsible for shortening and the domainal structure of cleavage development commonly observed in low grade metamorphic rocks. In this study we combine field observations with strain analysis and modelling to fully characterise considerable (>50%) mid-Devonian Acadian crustal shortening in a Devonian clastic sedimentary sequence from south west Ireland. Despite these high levels of shortening and associated penetrative tectonic fabric there is a marked absence of the expected domainal cleavage structure and intra-clast deformation, which are expected with this level of deformation. In contrast to the expected deformation processes associated with conventional cleavage development, fabrics in these rocks are a product of translation, rigid body rotation and repacking of extra-formational clasts during deformation of an un-lithified clastic sedimentary sequence.

  4. Geochronologic studies in central New England I: Evidence for pre-Acadian metamorphism in eastern Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, F.S. ); Harrison, T.M. )

    1989-02-01

    {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar geochronology on hornblendes from central New England reveals a Grenvillian cooling age (1026 {plus minus} 12 Ma) along the eastern margin of the Green Mountain massif, Acadian ages in east-central Vermont (350-397 Ma) and along the Bronson Hill anticlinorium in New Hampshire and Massachusetts (407-280 Ma), and Late Ordovician to Silurian ages (440-451 Ma) along a belt in eastern Vermont and central Massachusetts. These ages indicate a minimal Acadian overprint in eastern Vermont, the highest degree of Acadian overprint being located along the axis of the domes in the Connecticut Valley synclinorium. These data suggest that the formation of the domes occurred in the Acadian. Moreover, the Late Ordovician to Silurian cooling ages in eastern Vermont suggest that much of the metamorphic mineralogy and fabric observed in the Connecticut Valley synclinorium may be pre-Silurian in age.

  5. Variation in habitat use by juvenile Acadian redfish, Sebastes fasciatus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auster, P.J.; Lindholm, J.; Valentine, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    A basic paradigm in behavioral ecology is that organisms expand their distribution as preferred sites become saturated with individuals that reduce the availability of resources (e.g., shelter, prey) on a per capita basis. Previous fish community studies at Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary have shown that juvenile Acadian redfish Sebastes fasciatus (20 cm TL) also occurred in dense cerianthid habitats. Two explanations for these distributions can be advanced. The simplest is that redfish use both boulder and cerianthid habitats on an encounter basis, regardless of habitat saturation or predation pressure. Alternatively, boulder reefs serve as recruitment habitats and cerianthid habitats serve as a conduit for redfish moving away from saturated boulder reef sites, essentially serving as elements of a 'redfish pump'.

  6. Migration of the Acadian Orogen and foreland basin across the Northern Appalachians of Maine and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight Culver; Tucker, Robert D.; Lux, Daniel R.; Harris, Anita G.; McGregor, D. Colin

    2000-01-01

    The timing of Acadian orogenesis in Maine is reassessed, on the basis of a new Silurian-Devonian time scale, new U/Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages of Acadian plutons, new conodont and palynomorph ages of strata that constrain the age of deformation, and published information. This analysis shows that the Acadian deformation front migrated some 240 km (present distance) from southeast to northwest during a span of about 40 million years from Late Silurian to Middle Devonian time.

  7. Thermally actuated wedge block

    DOEpatents

    Queen, Jr., Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

  8. Wedge Joints for Trusses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Kenneth E.

    1987-01-01

    Structure assembled rapidly with simple hand tools. Proposed locking wedge joints enable rapid assembly of lightweight beams, towers, scaffolds, and other truss-type structures. Lightweight structure assembled from tubular struts joined at nodes by wedge pins fitting into mating slots. Joint assembled rapidly by seating wedge pin in V-shaped slots and deforming end of strut until primary pawl engages it.

  9. Coupled wedge waves.

    PubMed

    Abell, Bradley C; Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J

    2013-11-01

    The interface between two wedges can be treated as a displacement discontinuity characterized by elastic stiffnesses. By representing the boundary between the two quarter-spaces as a displacement discontinuity, coupled wedge waves were determined theoretically to be dispersive and to depend on the specific stiffness of the non-welded contact between the two wedges. Laboratory experiments on isotropic and anisotropic aluminum confirmed the theoretical prediction that the velocity of coupled wedge waves, for a non-welded interface, ranged continuously from the single wedge wave velocity at low stress to the Rayleigh velocity as the load applied normal to the interface was increased. Elastic waves propagating along the coupled wedges of two quarter-spaces in non-welded contact are found to exist theoretically even when the material properties of the two quarter-spaces are the same.

  10. Pseudo-ice-wedge casts of Connecticut, northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Robert F.

    1983-07-01

    Since 1965, ice-wedge casts have been reported in deposits of sand and gravel in Connecticut. These are wedge forms up to 1.1 m wide and many meters high. Most are single forms, not in polygonal array. They are found in adjoining states as well. Their distribution, dimensions, structure, and fabric and an assessment of the former physical environment preclude their origin as permafrost features. They appear to be tension fractures produced by the loading of coarse clastics on fine clastics near and below the water table where sediments creep toward a stream or depression. Locally movement started with kettle formation during deglaciation. However, some wedges cut horizontal layers of iron-coated sand and gravel and must be younger than those distinctly postglacial phenomena. Moreover, modern B horizons of the overlying soil have moved down into some wedges more than 2 m, indicating that fracturing is still active today. Complex fracture fillings in bedrock also have been attributed to a permafrost origin, but this too seems unlikely.

  11. Predicting the age of the mutation for Usher syndrome type I in the Acadian population

    SciTech Connect

    Nouri, N.; Risch, N.J.; Pelias, M.Z.

    1994-09-01

    The locus for Usher syndrome type I (USH1C) in the Acadian population is in the p15.1-p14 region of chromosome 11. This recessive disease is characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment, vestibular dysfunction, and pigmentary retinopathy. Three separate loci have been localized for Usher syndrome type I. All Acadian, but no non-Acadian, families show linkage to the 11p locus, suggesting a founder effect in the Acadian population. Linkage and haplotype analyses of eight markers spanning 10 centiMorgans demonstrate that USH1C lies between D11S1397 and D11S1310. Based on analyses of Usher and CEPH families the most likely linkage map for the eight markers is: D11S569-(.02)-D11S861-(.01)-D11S419-(.01)-D11S1397-(.004)-D11S921-(.007)-D11S1310-(.01)-D11S899-(.04)-D11S928. Evidence of linkage disequilibrium with USH1C was found for all markers, indicating a recent origin of a unique mutation. Parental haplotypes were separated into those with the disease allele and those with the normal allele at the USH1C locus. Of the 54 chromosomes with the disease allele, 17 had an identical haplotype for the eight markers. All but one of the haplotypes on the remaining 37 chromosomes could be explained by a few recombination events, suggesting that a single mutation is responsible for nearly all cases of Usher syndrome type I in the Acadian population. The same alleles were found at D11S921 and D11S1310 on 50 of the 54 chromosomes with the disease allele and on only 5 of the 50 chromosomes with the normal allele. Analysis of recombination and linkage disequilibrium between USH1C and each of the markers suggests that the age of the mutation is approximately 15 generations, which corresponds with the time that the Acadians arrived in the Canadian territory of Acadia. The analysis indicates that this mutation was already established in the Acadians who made their way to Louisiana after 1755.

  12. Micromachine Wedge Stepping Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.J.; Schriner, H.K.

    1998-11-04

    A wedge stepping motor, which will index a mechanism, has been designed and fabricated in the surface rnicromachine SUMMiT process. This device has demonstrated the ability to index one gear tooth at a time with speeds up to 205 teeth/see. The wedge stepper motor has the following features, whi:h will be useful in a number of applications. o The ability to precisely position mechanical components. . Simple pulse signals can be used for operation. o Only 2 drive signals are requixed for operation. o Torque and precision capabilities increase with device size . The device to be indexed is restrained at all times by the wedge shaped tooth that is used for actuation. This paper will discuss the theory of operation and desi=m of the wedge stepping motor. The fabrication and testing of I he device will also be presented.

  13. Wedges for ultrasonic inspection

    DOEpatents

    Gavin, Donald A.

    1982-01-01

    An ultrasonic transducer device is provided which is used in ultrasonic inspection of the material surrounding a threaded hole and which comprises a wedge of plastic or the like including a curved threaded surface adapted to be screwed into the threaded hole and a generally planar surface on which a conventional ultrasonic transducer is mounted. The plastic wedge can be rotated within the threaded hole to inspect for flaws in the material surrounding the threaded hole.

  14. The Cosmonaut Sea Wedge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solli, K.; Kuvaas, B.; Kristoffersen, Y.; Leitchenkov, G.; Guseva, J.; Gandyukhin, V.

    2007-01-01

    A set of multi-channel seismic profiles (~15000 km) acquired by Russia, Norway and Australia has been used to investigate the depositional evolution of the Cosmonaut Sea margin of East Antarctica. We recognize a regional sediment wedge below the upper part of the continental rise. The wedge, herein termed the Cosmonaut Sea Wedge, is positioned stratigraphically underneath the inferred glaciomarine section and extends for at least 1200 km along the continental margin and from 80 to about 250 km seaward or to the north. Lateral variations in the growth pattern of the wedge indicate several overlapping depocentres, which at their distal northern end are flanked by elongated mounded drifts and contourite sheets. The internal stratification of the mounded drift deposits suggests that westward flowing bottom currents reworked the marginal deposits. The action of these currents together with sea-level changes is considered to have controlled the growth of the wedge. We interpret the Cosmonaut Sea Wedge as a composite feature comprising several bottom current reworked fan systems.

  15. Simulation model of clastic sedimentary processes

    SciTech Connect

    Tetzlaff, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation describes SEDSIM, a computer model that simulates erosion, transport, and deposition of clastic sediments by free-surface flow in natural environments. SEDSIM is deterministic and is applicable to sedimentary processes in rivers, deltas, continental shelves, submarine canyons, and turbidite fans. The model is used to perform experiments in clastic sedimentation. Computer experimentation is limited by computing power available, but is free from scaling problems associated with laboratory experiments. SEDSIM responds to information provided to it at the outset of a simulation experiment, including topography, subsurface configuration, physical parameters of fluid and sediment, and characteristics of sediment sources. Extensive computer graphics are incorporated in SEDSIM. The user can display the three-dimensional geometry of simulated deposits in the form of successions of contour maps, perspective diagrams, vector plots of current velocities, and vertical sections of any azimuth orientation. The sections show both sediment age and composition. SEDSIM works realistically with processes involving channel shifting and topographic changes. Example applications include simulation of an ancient submarine canyon carved into a Cretaceous sequence in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, known mainly from seismic sections and a sequence of Tertiary age in the Golden Meadow oil field of Louisiana, known principally from well logs.

  16. Europa Wedge Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image shows an area of crustal separation on Jupiter's moon, Europa. Lower resolution pictures taken earlier in the tour of NASA's Galileo spacecraft revealed that dark wedge-shaped bands in this region are areas where the icy crust has completely pulled apart. Dark material has filled up from below and filled the void created by this separation.

    In the lower left corner of this image, taken by Galileo's onboard camera on December 16, 1997, a portion of one dark wedge area is visible, revealing a linear texture along the trend of the wedge. The lines of the texture change orientation slightly and reflect the fact that we are looking at a bend in the wedge. The older, bright background, visible on the right half of the image, is criss-crossed with ridges. A large, bright ridge runs east-west through the upper part of the image, cutting across both the older background plains and the wedge. This ridge is rough in texture, with numerous small terraces and troughs containing dark material.

    North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the northwest. This image, centered at approximately 16.5 degrees south latitude and 196.5 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 10 kilometers square (about 6.5 miles square). The resolution of this image is about 26 meters per picture element. This image was taken by the solid state imaging system from a distance of 1250 kilometers (750 miles).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  17. Giant clastic intrusions primed by silica diagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Richard J.; Huuse, Mads; Hirst, Philip; Cartwright, Joe; Yang, Yuesuo

    2006-11-01

    Postdepositional sediment mobilization is a common phenomenon that occurs over large areas of sedimentary basins, usually within mudstone-rich successions; however, defining the exact mechanism that initiates this process has proved elusive. Here we describe a number of large-scale clastic intrusions (injectites), 50 to >300 m in height, hosted within fine-grained biosiliceous upper Eocene to Pliocene strata in four sedimentary basins. Within these basins diagenetic conversion of opal A into opal CT (cristobalite and tridymite) causes a marked reduction in sediment porosity and the liberation of bound water, often at relatively shallow burial (<0.5 km). We propose that this occurs over geologically short time periods over large expanses of sedimentary basins, causing rapid pore fluid expulsion and overpressure buildup within interbedded sands. The liberated fluids primed these sands, rendering them susceptible to remobilization. This mechanism should have broad applicability.

  18. One-dimensional thermal modelling of Acadian metamorphism in southern Vermont, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, T.R.; Tracy, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    One-dimensional thermal (1DT) modelling of an Acadian (Devonian) tectonothermal regime in southern Vermont, USA, used measured metamorphic pressures and temperatures and estimated metamorphic cooling ages based on published thermobarometric and geochronological studies to constrain thermal and tectonic input parameters. The area modelled lies within the Vermont Sequence of the Acadian orogen and includes: (i) a western domain containing garnet-grade pre-Silurian metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks from the eastern flank of an Acadian composite dome structure (Rayponda-Sadawga Dome); and (ii) an eastern domain containing similar, but staurolite- or kyanite-grade, rocks from the western flank of a second dome structure (Athens Dome), approximately 10 km farther east. Using reasonable input parameters based on regional geological, petrological and geochronological constraints, the thermal modelling produced plausible P-T paths, and temperature-time (T-t) and pressure-time (P-t) curves. Information extracted from P-T-t modelling includes values of maximum temperature and pressure on the P-T paths, pressure at maximum temperature, predicted Ar closure ages for hornblende, muscovite and K-feldspar, and integrated exhumation and cooling rates for segments of the cooling history. The results from thermal modelling are consistent with independently obtained pressure, temperature and Ar cooling age data on regional metamorphism in southern Vermont. Modelling results provide some important bounding limits on the physical conditions during regional metamorphism, and indicate that the pressure contemporaneous with the attainment of peak temperature was probably as much as 2.5 kbar lower than the actual maximum pressure experienced by rocks along various particle paths. In addition, differences in peak metamorphic grade (garnet-grade versus staurolite-grade or kyanite-grade) and peak temperature for rocks initially loaded to similar crustal depths, differences in calculated

  19. Timing of middle Paleozoic (Acadian) metamorphism in the southern Appalachians: K-Ar studies in the Talladega belt, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Kish, S.A. )

    1990-07-01

    The Talladega belt of Alabama and Georgia is located at the southernmost exposed part of the southern Appalachian orogen and is one of the westernmost metamorphic terranes in this part of the orogen. The presence of the Lower Devonian Jemison Chert of the Talladega Group provides a maximum age for the timing of greenschist facies metamorphism and penetrative slaty cleavage formation in this terrane. Six slate collected form upper Precambrian( )-Lower Cambrian, and Silurian( )-Devonian rocks of the Talladega belt have an average K-Ar age of 399 {plus minus} 17 Ma. This age is interpreted to be the approximate time of regional greenschist facies metamorphism. The timing of metamorphism in the Talladega belt is similar to the age of the Acadian orogeny in the Maritime and northern Appalachians. Unlike the accreted nature of the Acadian terranes in the northern Appalachians, the Talladega belt appears to have been part of the early to middle Paleozoic cratonic margin of North America. The results of this study indicate that Acadian dynamothermal events extended into parts of the Laurentian margin in the southern Appalachians. Paleozoic igneous activity in the southern Appalachians was less extensive compared with the voluminous Acadian plutonism of the northern Appalachians; however, synkinematic to postkinematic Devonian plutons are present in the central and western parts of the orogen.

  20. [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar evidence for delayed post-Acadian cooling in the southernmost Connecticut Valley Synclinorium

    SciTech Connect

    Moecher, D.P. . Dept. of Geological Science); Cosca, M.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Available Ar-40/Ar-39 data for the Connecticut Valley Synclinorium (CVS) of the New England segment of the Appalachian Orogen indicate rapid post-Acadian cooling. However, new data indicate this pattern does not extend the entire length of the CVS. Ar-40/Ar-39 ages obtained from hornblende and muscovite in The Straits Schist indicate delayed cooling and a more complex post-Acadian thermal history. Data for the Seymour area are consistent with the studies above for the vicinity of the Waterbury Dome. The data farther south indicate one or more of the following: (1) slow (2--3C/Ma) post-Acadian cooling and uplift through the Permian; (2) post-Acadian cooling through Hbl closure in the Mississippian with a subsequent Alleghanian metamorphism that did not exceed 500 C; or (3) post-Acadian cooling with subsequent metamorphism that approached 500 C or involved ductile recrystallization, partly resetting hornblende and totally resetting muscovite south of Derby. Petrologic evidence supporting (2) or (3) consists of widespread but not pervasive greenschist facies retrogression of Hbl + Pl + Sph assemblages in amphibolites to Act + Ep, and Grt + Ky + St assemblages in metapelites to Chl + Bt + Qz. The present data cannot resolve between (2) or (3). However, both are consistent with results of a study in the Bridgeport Synform that yield (1) a U-Pb monazite age of 296 [+-] 2 Ma from the Ansonia Leucogranite, implying the occurrence of an Alleghanian thermal event that promoted monazite growth; and, (2) a U-Pb cooling age of 360 Ma from sphene in the Pumpkin Ground Granodiorite, indicating that Alleghanian events did not exceed ca. 550 C.

  1. Modeling the Emergent Impacts of Harvesting Acadian Forests over 100+ Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luus, K. A.; Plug, L. J.

    2007-12-01

    Harvesting strategies and policies for Acadian forest in Nova Scotia, Canada, presently are set using Decision Support Models (DSMs) that aim to maximize the long-term (>100y) value of forests through decisions implemented over short time horizons (5-80 years). However, DSMs typically are aspatial, lack ecological processes and do not treat erosion, so the long-term (>100y) emergent impacts of the prescribed forestry decisions on erosion and vegetation in Acadian forests remain poorly known. To better understand these impacts, we created an equation-based model that simulates the evolution of a ≥4 km2 forest in time steps of 1 y and at a spatial resolution of 3 m2, the footprint of a single mature tree. The model combines 1) ecological processes of recruitment, competition, and mortality; 2) geomorphic processes of hillslope erosion; 3) anthropic processes of tree harvesting, replanting, and road construction under constraints imposed by regulations and cost/benefit ratio. The model uses digital elevation models, parameters (where available), and calibration (where measurements are not available) for conditions presently found in central Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. The model is unique because it 1) deals with the impacts of harvesting on an Acadian forest; and 2) vegetation and erosion are coupled. The model was tested by comparing the species-specific biomass of long-term (40 y) forest plot data to simulated results. At the spatial scale of individual 1 ha plots, model predictions presently account for approximately 50% of observed biomass changes through time, but predictions are hampered by the effects of serendipitous "random" events such as single tree windfall. Harvesting increases the cumulative erosion over 3000 years by 240% when compared to an old growth forest and significantly suppresses the growth of Balsam Fir and Sugar Maple. We discuss further tests of the model, and how it might be used to investigate the long-term sustainability of the

  2. Influence of sedimentary environments on mechanical properties of clastic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhaoping; Zhang, Jincai; Peng, Suping

    2006-10-01

    The sedimentary environments are the intrinsic factor controlling the mechanical properties of clastic rocks. Examining the relationship between rock sedimentary environments and rock mechanical properties gives a better understanding of rock deformation and failure mechanisms. In this study, more than 55 samples in coal measures were taken from seven different lithologic formations in eastern China. Using the optical microscope the sedimentary characteristics, such as components of clastic rocks and sizes of clastic grains were quantitatively tested and analyzed. The corresponding mechanical parameters were tested using the servo-controlled testing system. Different lithologic attributes in the sedimentary rocks sampled different stress-strain behaviors and failure characteristics under different confining pressures, mainly due to different compositions and textures. Results demonstrate that clastic rocks have the linear best-fit for Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The elastic moduli in clastic rocks are highly dependent upon confining pressures, unlike hard rocks. The envelope lines of the mechanical properties versus the contents of quartz, detritus of the grain diameter of more than 0.03 mm, and grain size in clastic rocks are given. The compressive strength or elastic modulus and the grain diameter have a non-monotonic relation and demonstrate the “grain-diameter softening” effect.

  3. Capillary Rise in a Wedge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piva, M.

    2009-01-01

    In introductory-level physics courses, the concept of surface tension is often illustrated using the example of capillary rise in thin tubes. In this paper the author describes experiments conducted using a planar geometry created with two small plates forming a thin wedge. The distribution of the fluid entering the wedge can be studied as a…

  4. Geochronologic studies in central New England II: Post-Acadian hinged and differential uplift

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, T.M.; Heizler, M.T. ); Spear, F.S. )

    1989-02-01

    {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar analyses of muscovite, biotite, and K-feldspar from central New England reveal a remarkable pattern of mineral ages: the ages are progressively younger from central to western New Hampshire and rise sharply near the Vermont border to ages more typical of post-Acadian cooling. This distribution is attributed to differential uplift via isostatic rebound of an anomalously thickened crust at the Bronson Hill anticlinorium. This explanation requires that between 6 and 8 km of normal fault motion has occurred on structures in western New Hampshire, not previously recognized to have accommodated this kind or magnitude of displacement. This hinged, differential uplift occurred from {approximately} 360-170 Ma and is consistent with a time constant for rebound of {approximately} 80 m.y.

  5. Preliminary vitrinite reflectance study of the post-Acadian Mapleton and Trout Valley Formation, northern Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Malinconico, M.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Vitrinite reflectance was measured on plant fossils from the Devonian Mapleton and Trout Valley Formations in northern Maine in order to assess the degree and possible history of thermal maturation of these post-Acadian intermontane basin deposits, generally considered to be unmetamorphosed. The Middle Devonian Mapleton Formation, west of Presque Isle, lies within the prehnite-pumpellyite terrane of northeastern Aroostook County in which the degree of metamorphism increases from west to east. Vitrinite reflectance from the quarry'' plant fossil locality has a reflectance of 1.4%, which is slightly higher than the death line'' of oil and indicates a maximum paleotemperature of ca. 120--150 C. If not due to burial alone, this very low grade metamorphism may be due to (1) intrusion of nearby teschenite dikes or (2) the Maritime Disturbance of the Pennsylvanian. Based on conodont alteration indices and vitrinite and graptolite reflectance, the degree of thermal maturation of pre-Acadian Ordovician to Lower Devonian formations decreases rapidly several kilometers west of the prehnite-analcime isograd; the lowest rank rocks, in a northeast-trending ban from Square Lake to Mud Lake have paleotemperatures in the range of 60--90 C, the birth line'' of oil. In the post- orogenic Lower Devonian Trout Valley Formation immediately north of Mt. Katahdin, two samples about seven kilometers apart have anthracite grade reflectances of 3.0% and 8.2% respectively. Both localities are near andesite sills. Importantly, the smooth nongranular non-coked texture of these samples suggests that all or part of the Trout Valley Formation had been heated by an unidentified thermal event to temperatures above the coking range of coal before being subjected to later very local contact metamorphism by dikes and sills.

  6. Water Quality in the Acadian-Pontchartrain Drainages; Louisiana and Mississippi, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demcheck, Dennis K.; Tollett, Roland W.; Mize, Scott V.; Skrobialowski, Stanley C.; Fendick, Robert B.; Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Porter, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1999?2001 assessment of water quality in the Acadian-Pontchartrain Drainages Study Unit. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report also is for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live, and how that water quality compares to other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the Acadian-Pontchartrain Drainages Study Unit summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed from (http://la.water.usgs.gov/nawqa/default.htm). Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to other reports in this series from other basins can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa).

  7. Friedreich ataxia in Acadian families from eastern Canada: Clinical diversity with conserved haplotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, A.; Poirier, J.; Mercier, J.

    1996-09-06

    The gene for Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), an autosomal-recessive neurodegenerative disease, remains elusive. The current candidate region of about 150 kb lies between loci FR2 and F8101 near the D9S15/D9S5 linkage group at 9q13-21.1. Linkage homogeneity between classical FRDA and a milder, slowly progressive Acadian variant (FRDA-Acad) has been demonstrated. An extended D9S15-D9S5 haplotype (C6) predominates in FRDA-Acad chromosomes from Louisiana. We studied 10 Acadian families from New Brunswick, Canada. In eight families, affected individuals conformed to the clinical description of FRDA-Acad; in one, 2 sibs presented with spastic ataxia (SPA-Acad). In the last family, 2 sibs had FRDA-Acad, and one had SPA-Acad. We found that SPA-Acad is linked to the FRDA gene region. The C6 haplotype and a second major haplotype (137) were identified. The same ataxia-linked haplotypes segregated with both FRDA-Acad and SPA-Acad in two unrelated families. The parental origins of these haplotypes were different. Our observation of different phenotypes associated with the same combination of haplotypes may point to the influence of the parent of origin on gene expression, indicate the effect of modifier genes, or reflect the presence of different mutations on the same haplotype. Our findings underline the need to investigate families with autosomal-recessive ataxias for linkage to the FRDA region, despite lack of key diagnostic manifestations such as cardiomyopathy or absent deep-tendon reflexes. 28 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Sojourner, Wedge, & Shark

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) image taken near the end of daytime operations on Sol 50 shows the Sojourner rover between the rocks 'Wedge' (foreground) and 'Shark' (behind rover). The rover successfully deployed its Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer on Shark on Sol 52.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  9. Belize model, a carbonate-clastic shelf buildup

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, W.

    1987-05-01

    Belize, a small Central American country located on the Caribbean Sea south of the Yucatan Peninsula, offers an excellent modern analog of a mixed carbonate/clastic shelf buildup. Its 175-mi long reef tract, second longest in the world, restricts a shallow shelf depobasin into which terrigenous clastics source from the Maya Mountains to the west and carbonates dominate from the east. Mixed lithologies occur along strandlines, in submarine channels, and in lagoons and river-delta fronts, which are scattered throughout the depobasin. Energy sources from both land and sea influence sedimentation. Heavy summer rains flood the basin with arkosic and quartzose clastics, and periodic sea storms and hurricanes drive carbonate particles from the reef tract landward into the basin. Modern environments include the reef tract, carbonate tidal flats, shallow shelf patch reefs, lagoons, cayes, mainland coast deltas, estuaries, lagoons, and beach/bar barriers. Modern sediments include reef metazoans, algae, coralline algae, lime mud, quartz, and feldspathic sand and clay. The setting for the model has been influenced by Tertiary tectonics and Pleistocene sea level changes. Karstification occurred during the past 10,000 years, partly controlling topography and resulting Holocene sediment patterns. Facies patterns of the Belize Holocene are compared to the Jurassic of Montana. The Middle Jurassic Piper Formation exhibits a nearly 100-mi long carbonate barrier/buildup restricting a clastic-dominated shelf. Other ancient mixed carbonate/clastic terranes may fit this model as well.

  10. Wedge and Flat Top

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Flat Top, the rectangular rock at right, is part of a stretch of rocky terrain in this image, taken by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. Dust has accumulated on the top of Flat Top, but is not present on the sides due to the steep angles of the rock. This dust may have been placed by dust storms moving across the Martian surface. The rock dubbed 'Wedge' is at left. The objects have been studied using several different color filters on the IMP camera.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  11. Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

  12. Clastic rocks associated with the Midcontinent rift system in Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Raymond R.; McKay, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    The Middle Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) of North America is a failed rift that formed in response to region-wide stresses about 1,100 Ma. In Iowa, the MRS is buried beneath 2,200?3,500 ft of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and Quaternary glaciogenic deposits. An extremely large volume of sediments was deposited within basins associated with the rift at several stages during its development. Although the uplift of a rift-axial horst resulted in the erosional removal of most of these clastic rocks from the central region of the MRS in Iowa, thick sequences are preserved in a series of horst-bounding basins. Recent studies incorporating petrographic analysis, geophysical modeling, and other analytical procedures have led to the establishment of a preliminary stratigraphy for these clastic rocks and interpretations of basin geometries. This information has allowed the refinement of existing theories and history of MRS formation in Iowa. Additionally, drill samples previously interpreted as indicating the existence of early Paleozoic basins overlying the Proterozoic MRS basins were re-examined. Samples previously interpreted as deep-lying Paleozoic rocks are now known to have caved from upper levels of the drillhole and were out of stratigraphic position. No deep Paleozoic basins exist in this area. These investigations led to the development of petrographic parameters useful in differentiating the Proterozoic MRS Red clastics from Paleozoic clastic rocks having similar lithologies.

  13. Leucogranites and the prolonged, episodic nature of Acadian orogenesis, southwestern Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, J.H.; Lanzirotti, A.; Hanson, G.N. . Dept of Earth and Space Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    The Acadian of southwestern Connecticut exposes a middle crustal level orogenic zone comprised of multiply-deformed metapelitic and metaplutonic units that have been intruded by a number of generations of crustally-derived leucogranites. U-Pb ages from garnet + muscovite [+-] biotite leucogranites, pegmatites, and pelitic schists constrain the timing of crustal anatexis and amphibolite facies metamorphism. The Ansonia leucogranite (406 [+-] 13 Ma) is a stitching granite that shares the regional foliation with Silurian and Ordovician orthogneisses. A muscovite granite dike (390 [+-] 3 Ma) that cuts a Silurian orthogneiss has been transposed and is foliated. The Shelton muscovite granite (380 [+-] 3 Ma) is deformed by the regional foliation. Undeformed, garnet two-mica granite (376 [+-] 2 Ma) and muscovite pegmatite (375 [+-] 1 Ma) show that kinematic metamorphic recrystallization pre-dated ca. 375 Ma. Volumetrically minor biotite pegmatite is 354 [+-] 3 Ma. Morphologically distinct monazites in pelitic schists give ages ranging from ca. 395 to 376 Ma. Monazite ages in pelitic schists and crystallization ages in leucogranites and pegmatites probably record episodes of heating, fluid influx, and ductile shearing primarily between 420 and 375 Ma, but extending to 354 Ma in southwestern Connecticut.

  14. Risky business: Site selection by Acadian Flycatchers under threat of nest predation and brood parasitism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    HazIer, K.R.; Cooper, R.J.; Twedt, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Habitat quality is determined not only by habitat structure and the availability of resources, but also by competitors, cooperators, predators, and parasites. We hypothesized that, for passerines, minimizing risk from avian nest predators and brood parasites is an important factor in selecting a breeding site. Through the early part of two breeding seasons, we spot-mapped locations of Acadian Flycatchers (Empidonax virescens, territory selectors), Red-bellied Woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus, nest predators) and Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater, brood parasites) in a 56-ha study area within an extensive bottomland hardwood forest. We were thereby able to determine the order of flycatcher territory settlement and nest initiation in relation to risk of predation and parasitism, while accounting for habitat structure. Male settlement was influenced by both habitat structure and risk avoidance. However, risk trom woodpeckers was relatively more important in the first season and risk from cowbirds in the second, evidently due to differences in the relative abundance of predator and brood-parasite in each year. For male flycatchers, settlement choices appear to be flexible in the face of changing 'risk landscapes.' For females, habitat structure was the most important predictor of nest site selection. Even so, there was evidence that females avoided cowbirds. Surprisingly, nest site selection was positively associated with woodpecker abundance in the first season when woodpeckers were present in greater numbers. Possible explanations for this contradictory result are discussed.

  15. Ultrasonic fluid densitometer having liquid/wedge and gas/wedge interfaces

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic liquid densitometer that uses a material wedge having two sections, one with a liquid/wedge interface and another with a gas/wedge interface. It is preferred that the wedge have an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the liquid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the liquid. Ultrasonic signals are internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a liquid is determined by immersing the wedge into the liquid and measuring reflections of ultrasound at the liquid/wedge interface and at the gas/wedge interface.

  16. A model for northern Vermont's Acadian magmatism with insight from Italy's Tuscan magmatic province

    SciTech Connect

    Westerman, D.S. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    S-type Devonian acidic intrusives in northern Vermont occur scattered throughout the turbiditic flysch sequence and pervasive horizon of mafic Standing Pond Volcanics of the Connecticut Valley--Gaspe Trough (CVGT). These granitoids formed in a successor basin that opened over the stalled Taconic subduction zone located between the Bronson Hill--Boundary Mountain Volcanic arc (east) and the ophiolite-bearing accretionary complex of the Green Mountains (west). Contact aureoles surrounding the granitoids are superimposed over low-pressure facies series metamorphic isograds that have concentric pattern correlated with the centers of intrusion. Italy's Tuscan Magmatic Province, also dominated by S-type acidic intrusives, developed between 7 and 2 Ma in a successor basin over an extinct subduction zone. In that case, the basin and its plutons developed when the Corsica-Sardinia plate pulled back to form the Tyrrhenian Sea after having collided with Italy to form the Apennine range approximately 10 m.y. earlier. In this model for northern Vermont, a volcanic arc and accretionary complex developed during Ordovician subduction, perhaps with continuing trench--arc separation due to shallow subduction. When the leading edge of continental North America entered the subduction zone, the process stalled and the subducted Iapetus slab continued to lose heat and increase density, promoting its separation from the overlying plate. Upwelling under the former forearc region rifted the crust to form the CVGT. The mantle-derived mafic melts rose, transferring heat to metamorphose and partially melt the basin fill. The Standing Pond Volcanics represent this melt that reached the surface at one stage and flooded the basin. Northern Vermont's granitoids rose, penetrating the domed strata above their source region, as extensional tectonism was replaced by Acadian compression.

  17. Wavelength meter having elliptical wedge

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.; Feldman, M.

    1992-12-01

    A wavelength meter is disclosed which can determine the wavelength of a laser beam from a laser source within an accuracy range of two parts in 10[sup 8]. The wavelength meter has wedge having an elliptically shaped face to the optical path of the laser source and includes interferometer plates which form a vacuum housing. 7 figs.

  18. Wavelength meter having elliptical wedge

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.; Feldman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    A wavelength meter is disclosed which can determine the wavelength of a laser beam from a laser source within an accuracy range of two parts in 10.sup.8. The wavelength meter has wedge having an elliptically shaped face to the optical path of the laser source and includes interferometer plates which form a vacuum housing.

  19. Clastic depositional styles and reservoir potential of Mediterranean basins

    SciTech Connect

    Bouma, A.H. )

    1990-05-01

    A variety of tectonic styles and activities throughout the late Mesozoic and younger epochs influenced sediment transport to the Mediterranean basins and, consequently, the approach needed to finding reservoir-type clastics. The style of the present-day basins varies from west to east, with large basinal depressions and continental rises in the western province, more elongate shapes in the central area, and numerous small basins and trenches in the eastern Mediterranean. In general terms, all these basins contain a similar fill: a deep-water sequence older than late Miocene, overlain by upper Miocene evaporites, and topped by Pliocene-Quaternary clastics. The exact type of fill depends on several factors, including proximity to the sediment source, climatic conditions, subsidence and tectonic activity, and tectono-eustatic or glacio-eustatic oscillations. Investigations on many of the clastic reservoirs in Mediterranean basins should emphasize submarine fans. The modern Mediterranean Sea contains several mid-sized fans (Rhone, Ebro, Valencia, and Nile fans) and many small ones (e.g., Crati Fan). There are several well-studied Tertiary subsurface and outcropping turbidite systems. The concept of deep-water marine sands, and many of the initial studies, began with some of the now classic outcrops in Italy, France, and Spain. A well-integrated study of both modern and ancient turbidite series is needed to construct basic exploration models for the Mediterranean region. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Wedge immersed thermistor bolometer measures infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreyfus, M. G.

    1965-01-01

    Wedge immersed-thermistor bolometer measures infrared radiation in the atmosphere. The thermistor flakes are immersed by optical contact on a wedge-shaped germanium lens whose narrow dimension is clamped between two complementary wedge-shaped germanium blocks bonded with a suitable adhesive.

  1. Constraints on ages of Taconian and Acadian deformation from zircon evaporation ages of felsic plutons from western Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, B.F.; Karabinos, P. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    New dates on three felsic plutons constrain the age of Taconian and Acadian deformation in western Massachusetts. The tonalitic Hallockville Pond Gneiss intrudes the Moretown Formation of the Rowe-Hawley belt and shows deformation comparable in degree and orientation to that of the surrounding rocks. The Middlefield Granite, a quartz monzonite, intrudes the Rowe and Moretown Formations at their contact. The Williamsburg Granodiorite, of minimum-melt composition, intrudes Silurian and Devonian formations of the Connecticut Valley Synclinorium, east of the Row-Hawley belt, and contains no obvious deformation fabric. [sup 207]Pb/[sup 206]Pb single-grain zircon evaporation ages for these plutons are as follows: the Hallockville Pond Gneiss, 484 [plus minus] 7 Ma; the Middlefield Granite, 447 [plus minus] 3 Ma (weighted average of 4 grains); and the Williamsburg Granodiorite, 373 [plus minus] 5 Ma (weighted average of 3 grains). The Moretown Formation, presently correlated with the Middle Ordovician Beauceville Formation in Quebec, must be older than 484 Ma (Early Ordovician), the age of the intruding Hallockville Pond Gneiss, which might be related to rocks in the proposed Shelburne Falls arc of similar age (Karabinos and Tucker, 1992). Field relations and the age of the Middlefield Granite show that if the Rowe-Moretown contact is a fault, one interpretation suggested by Stanley and Hatch (1988) and advocated by Ratcliffe et al. (1992), then Taconian thrusting in this area ended by 447 Ma because the pluton is not offset by faults. The 373 Ma age of the unfoliated Williamsburg Granodiorite, together with a U-Pb zircon age on a strongly deformed sill in the Granville dome of 376 [plus minus] 4 Ma, tightly constrains the timing of the main phase of Acadian deformation in western Massachusetts.

  2. Paleomagnetism of clastic dikes along the Front Range, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulin, S. A.; Elmore, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous clastic dikes occur within the Proterozoic basement along nearly 75km of the Front Range of Colorado. These dikes are composed predominately of well-rounded, non-metamorphosed quartz and are red in color due to the abundance of authigenic hematite. The Cambrian Sawatch sandstone is assumed by most studies to be the source of dike sediments due to its similar composition. Despite over a century of study, the origins, age, and emplacement mechanisms of these dikes remain enigmatic. A preliminary paleomagnetic study of the clastic dikes using standard demagnetization techniques indicates the presence of a complex multicomponent magnetization with at least three components. An easterly and moderately steep component residing in hematite was resolved from several dikes and corresponds to an early Cambrian pole position when compared to the apparent polar wander path of North America. An east-southeasterly and shallow magnetization, also residing in hematite, yields a pole of early Paleozoic age. The third component is northwesterly and steep down and is Mesozoic or Cenozoic in age. These results are similar to a previous paleomagnetic study (Kost, MS thesis, Univ. Colorado) in 1984 of different dikes which found poorly defined early and late Paleozoic, as well as Mesozoic-Cenozoic components. Many researchers suggest emplacement occurred during faulting that was associated with either the Ancestral Rockies uplift of the late Paleozoic or the Laramide orogeny of the late Mesozoic/early Cenozoic. The presence of magnetizations of Cambrian age, with subsequent younger remagnetizations, indicates that the emplacement of many of the dikes preceded both of these tectonic events.

  3. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Albian Clastic and Updip Albian Clastic Assessment Units, U.S. Gulf Coast Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merrill, Matthew D.

    2016-03-11

    U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessments (NOGA) of Albian aged clastic reservoirs in the U.S. Gulf Coast region indicate a relatively low prospectivity for undiscovered hydrocarbon resources due to high levels of past production and exploration. Evaluation of two assessment units (AUs), (1) the Albian Clastic AU 50490125, and (2) the Updip Albian Clastic AU 50490126, were based on a geologic model incorporating consideration of source rock, thermal maturity, migration, events timing, depositional environments, reservoir rock characteristics, and production analyses built on well and field-level production histories. The Albian Clastic AU is a mature conventional hydrocarbon prospect with undiscovered accumulations probably restricted to small faulted and salt-associated structural traps that could be revealed using high resolution subsurface imaging and from targeting structures at increased drilling depths that were unproductive at shallower intervals. Mean undiscovered accumulation volumes from the probabilistic assessment are 37 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 152 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG), and 4 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL). Limited exploration of the Updip Albian Clastic AU reflects a paucity of hydrocarbon discoveries updip of the periphery fault zones in the northern Gulf Coastal region. Restricted migration across fault zones is a major factor behind the small discovered fields and estimation of undiscovered resources in the AU. Mean undiscovered accumulation volumes from the probabilistic assessment are 1 MMBO and 5 BCFG for the Updip Albian Clastic AU.

  4. Ice Particle Impacts on a Moving Wedge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Struk, Peter M.; Kreeger, Richard E.; Palacios, Jose; Iyer, Kaushik A.; Gold, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the results of an experimental study of ice particle impacts on a moving wedge. The experiment was conducted in the Adverse Environment Rotor Test Stand (AERTS) facility located at Penn State University. The wedge was placed at the tip of a rotating blade. Ice particles shot from a pressure gun intercepted the moving wedge and impacted it at a location along its circular path. The upward velocity of the ice particles varied from 7 to 12 meters per second. Wedge velocities were varied from 0 to 120 meters per second. Wedge angles tested were 0 deg, 30 deg, 45 deg, and 60 deg. High speed imaging combined with backlighting captured the impact allowing observation of the effect of velocity and wedge angle on the impact and the post-impact fragment behavior. It was found that the pressure gun and the rotating wedge could be synchronized to consistently obtain ice particle impacts on the target wedge. It was observed that the number of fragments increase with the normal component of the impact velocity. Particle fragments ejected immediately after impact showed velocities higher than the impact velocity. The results followed the major qualitative features observed by other researchers for hailstone impacts, even though the reduced scale size of the particles used in the present experiment as compared to hailstones was 4:1.

  5. Ice Particle Impacts on a Moving Wedge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Struk, Peter M.; Kreeger, Richard E.; Palacios, Jose; Lyer, Kaushik A.; Gold, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the results of an experimental study of ice particle impacts on a moving wedge. The experiment was conducted in the Adverse Environment Rotor Test Stand (AERTS) facility located at Penn State University. The wedge was placed at the tip of a rotating blade. Ice particles shot from a pressure gun intercepted the moving wedge and impacted it at a location along its circular path. The upward velocity of the ice particles varied from 7 to 12 meters per second. Wedge velocities were varied from 0 to 120 meters per second. Wedge angles tested were 0, 30, 45, and 60. High speed imaging combined with backlighting captured the impact allowing observation of the effect of velocity and wedge angle on the impact and the post-impact fragment behavior. It was found that the pressure gun and the rotating wedge could be synchronized to consistently obtain ice particle impacts on the target wedge. It was observed that the number of fragments increase with the normal component of the impact velocity. Particle fragments ejected immediately after impact showed velocities higher than the impact velocity. The results followed the major qualitative features observed by other researchers for hailstone impacts, even though the reduced scale size of the particles used in the present experiment as compared to hailstones was 4:1.

  6. Wedged Fibers Suppress Feedback of Laser Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladany, I.

    1986-01-01

    When injected laser is coupled into optical fiber, emission instabilities arise because of optical feedback losses from fiber into laser. Coupling efficiencies as high as 80 percent, however, obtained by shaping end of multimode fiber into obtuse-angled wedge. Because slanted sides eliminate back reflection, such wedged fiber achieves high coupling efficiency.

  7. Capillarity driven motion of solid film wedges

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, H.; Miksis, M.J.; Voorhees, P.W.; Davis, S.H.

    1997-06-01

    A solid film freshly deposited on a substrate may form a non-equilibrium contact angle with the substrate, and will evolve. This morphological evolution near the contact line is investigated by studying the motion of a solid wedge on a substrate. The contact angle of the wedge changes at time t = 0 from the wedge angle {alpha} to the equilibrium contact angle {beta}, and its effects spread into the wedge via capillarity-driven surface diffusion. The film profiles at different times are found to be self-similar, with the length scale increasing as t{sup 1 4}. The self-similar film profile is determined numerically by a shooting method for {alpha} and {beta} between 0 and 180. In general, the authors find that the film remains a wedge when {alpha} = {beta}. For {alpha} < {beta}, the film retracts, whereas for {alpha} > {beta}, the film extends. For {alpha} = 90{degree}, the results describe the growth of grain-boundary grooves for arbitrary dihedral angles. For {beta} = 90{degree}, the solution also applies to a free-standing wedge, and the thin-wedge profiles agree qualitatively with those observed in transmission electron microscope specimens.

  8. Ultrasonic transducer with laminated coupling wedge

    DOEpatents

    Karplus, Henry H. B.

    1976-08-03

    An ultrasonic transducer capable of use in a high-temperature environment incorporates a laminated metal coupling wedge including a reflecting edge shaped as a double sloping roof and a transducer crystal backed by a laminated metal sound absorber disposed so as to direct sound waves through the coupling wedge and into a work piece, reflections from the interface between the coupling wedge and the work piece passing to the reflecting edge. Preferably the angle of inclination of the two halves of the reflecting edge are different.

  9. Pressure Distributions About Finite Wedges in Bounded and Unbounded Subsonic Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoughe, Patrick L; Prasse, Ernst I

    1953-01-01

    An analytical investigation of incompressible flow about wedges was made to determine effects of tunnel-wedge ratio and wedge angle on the wedge pressure distributions. The region of applicability of infinite wedge-type velocity distribution was examined for finite wedges. Theoretical and experimental pressure coefficients for various tunnel-wedge ratios, wedge angles, and subsonic Mach numbers were compared.

  10. Appalachian Basin Low-Permeability Sandstone Reservoir Characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Ray Boswell; Susan Pool; Skip Pratt; David Matchen

    1993-04-30

    A preliminary assessment of Appalachian basin natural gas reservoirs designated as 'tight sands' by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) suggests that greater than 90% of the 'tight sand' resource occurs within two groups of genetically-related units; (1) the Lower Silurian Medina interval, and (2) the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Acadian clastic wedge. These intervals were targeted for detailed study with the goal of producing geologic reservoir characterization data sets compatible with the Tight Gas Analysis System (TGAS: ICF Resources, Inc.) reservoir simulator. The first phase of the study, completed in September, 1991, addressed the Medina reservoirs. The second phase, concerned with the Acadian clastic wedge, was completed in October, 1992. This report is a combined and updated version of the reports submitted in association with those efforts. The Medina interval consists of numerous interfingering fluvial/deltaic sandstones that produce oil and natural gas along an arcuate belt that stretches from eastern Kentucky to western New York. Geophysical well logs from 433 wells were examined in order to determine the geologic characteristics of six separate reservoir-bearing intervals. The Acadian clastic wedge is a thick, highly-lenticular package of interfingering fluvial-deltaic sandstones, siltstones, and shales. Geologic analyses of more than 800 wells resulted in a geologic/engineering characterization of seven separate stratigraphic intervals. For both study areas, well log and other data were analyzed to determine regional reservoir distribution, reservoir thickness, lithology, porosity, water saturation, pressure and temperature. These data were mapped, evaluated, and compiled into various TGAS data sets that reflect estimates of original gas-in-place, remaining reserves, and 'tight' reserves. The maps and data produced represent the first basin-wide geologic characterization for either interval. This report outlines the methods and

  11. Annotated Bibliography of Water-Related Information and Studies, Acadian-Pontchartrain Study Unit, Louisiana, 1863-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimsley, Kevin J.; D'Arconte, Patricia J.

    2003-01-01

    The mission of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program is to describe the status and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the nation's surface- and ground-water resources and to improve understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting the quality of these resources. This report is a collection of 1,364 bibliographic references to water-related information and studies that are pertinent to these goals in the Acadian-Ponchartrain Study Unit of the National Water- Quality Assessment Program This study unit includes all or parts of 39 parishes in southern Louisiana and 5 counties in southwestern Mississippi. These references encompass a large range of subjects, including aquatic biology, climate, geology, land use, liminology, salinity, sedimentation, subsidence, surface-and ground-water hydrology, urban runoff, water chemistry, and water use and management. Publication dates for references range from 1863 through 2000. Whenever possible, an abstract is included in addition to the bibliographic information.

  12. Long-range hybrid wedge plasmonic waveguide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhonglai; Wang, Jian

    2014-11-03

    We design a novel long-range hybrid wedge plasmonic (LRHWP) waveguide composed of two identical dielectric nanowires symmetrically placed on two opposed wedges of a diamond shaped metal wire. With strong coupling between the dielectric nanowire mode and long-range surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode, both deep subwavelength mode confinement and low propagation loss are achieved. On one hand, when compared to the previous long-range hybrid SPP waveguide, LRHWP waveguide can achieve smaller mode size with similar propagation length; on the other hand, when compared to the previous hybrid wedge SPP waveguide, LRHWP waveguide can provide an order of magnitude longer propagation length with similar level of mode confinement. The designed LRHWP waveguide also features an overall advantage of one-order improvement of Figure of Merit. We further evaluate in detail the impacts of possible practical fabrication imperfections on the mode properties. The obtained results of mode properties show that the proposed LRHWP waveguide with an optimized wedge tip angle of 140 degree is fairly tolerant to practical fabrication errors in geometry parameters such as misalignment in the horizontal direction, asymmetry in the vertical direction, variation of wedge tip angle, tilt or rotation of metal wire, and variation of wedge tip curvature radius.

  13. Long-range hybrid wedge plasmonic waveguide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhonglai; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    We design a novel long-range hybrid wedge plasmonic (LRHWP) waveguide composed of two identical dielectric nanowires symmetrically placed on two opposed wedges of a diamond shaped metal wire. With strong coupling between the dielectric nanowire mode and long-range surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode, both deep subwavelength mode confinement and low propagation loss are achieved. On one hand, when compared to the previous long-range hybrid SPP waveguide, LRHWP waveguide can achieve smaller mode size with similar propagation length; on the other hand, when compared to the previous hybrid wedge SPP waveguide, LRHWP waveguide can provide an order of magnitude longer propagation length with similar level of mode confinement. The designed LRHWP waveguide also features an overall advantage of one-order improvement of Figure of Merit. We further evaluate in detail the impacts of possible practical fabrication imperfections on the mode properties. The obtained results of mode properties show that the proposed LRHWP waveguide with an optimized wedge tip angle of 140 degree is fairly tolerant to practical fabrication errors in geometry parameters such as misalignment in the horizontal direction, asymmetry in the vertical direction, variation of wedge tip angle, tilt or rotation of metal wire, and variation of wedge tip curvature radius. PMID:25362900

  14. Terrigenous clastic depositional systems. Applications to petroleum, coal and uranium exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, W.E.; Hobday, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    Two experts in fundamental and applied sedimentology and sedimentary economic geology provide a state-of-the-art summary of clastic depositional environments and their associated mineral fuel deposits. Utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, the authors focus on the recognition, mapping, and three-dimensional reconstruction of clastic deposits, primarily from subsurface data, examine the hydrology of sedimentary basins, and discuss applications of genetic facies analysis to mineral fuel resource appraisal, exploration, and development.

  15. Role of Neogene Exhumation and Sedimentation on Critical-Wedge Kinematics in the Zagros Orogenic Belt, Northeastern Iraq, Kurdistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshnaw, R. I.; Horton, B. K.; Stockli, D. F.; Barber, D. E.; Tamar-Agha, M. Y.; Kendall, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Zagros orogenic belt and foreland basin formed during the Cenozoic Arabia-Eurasia collision, but the precise histories of shortening and sediment accumulation remain ambiguous, especially at the NW extent of the fold-thrust belt in Iraqi Kurdistan. This region is characterized by well-preserved successions of Cenozoic clastic foreland-basin fill and deformed Paleozoic-Mesozoic hinterland bedrock. The study area provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the linkage between orogenic wedge behavior and surface processes of erosion and deposition. The aim of this research is to test whether the Zagros orogenic wedge advanced steadily under critical to supercritical wedge conditions involving in-sequence thrusting with minimal erosion or propagated intermittently under subcritical condition involving out-of-sequence deformation with intense erosion. These endmember modes of mountain building can be assessed by integrating geo/thermochronologic and basin analyses techniques, including apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology, detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, stratigraphic synthesis, and seismic interpretations. Preliminary apatite (U-Th)/He data indicate activation of the Main Zagros Fault (MZF) at ~10 Ma with frontal thrusts initiating at ~8 Ma. However, thermochronometric results from the intervening Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), located between the MZF and the frontal thrusts, suggest rapid exhumation at ~6 Ma. These results suggest that the MFF, represented by the thrust-cored Qaradagh anticline, represents a major episode of out-of-sequence deformation. Detrital zircon U-Pb analyses from the Neogene foreland-basin deposits show continuous sediment derivation from sources to the NNE in Iraq and western Iran, suggesting that out-of-sequence thrusting did not significantly alter sedimentary provenance. Rather, intense hinterland erosion and recycling of older foreland-basin fill dominated sediment delivery to the basin. The irregular distribution of

  16. Mechanics of injection wedges in collision orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. B.; Schulmann, K.

    2003-04-01

    Instantaneously juxtaposed lithospheric sections, marked by different geothermal gradient and lithological make-up, are examined to identify zones of highly contrasting strength in adjacent transposed crust and lithospheric mantle. Three types of geotherms and four reference lithospheric segments: thin crust/hot geotherm (rift), thin crust/mean geotherm (relaxed rift), standard crust/hot geotherm (arc), standard crust/mean geotherm (normal crust), are compared with variable permutations of cratonic, standard and rifted lithosphere thicknesses. This permits identification of strong brittle-elastic or plastic mantle, lower and upper crust juxtaposed against plastic rocks of a weak adjacent lithosphere. Vertical positions of shallow dipping detachment zones thus delineate possible areas of hot or cold injection wedges which include: (i) Single shallow wedge (or Flake), (ii) Double shallow and deep wedge, (iii) Deep lithospheric crocodile, (iv) Crustal thickening due to shallow strength differences, (v) Mantle Lithosphere thickening, or wedging, due to deep mantle strength differences and (vii) Exchange tectonics as an extreme wedging process, in which horizontal mass exchange is approximately equal. Rheological calculations are compared to a database of seismic profiles in which the geometry of detachment zones and proposed thermal conditions and lithological make-ups have been presented.

  17. Long polymers near wedges and cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Yosi; Kantor, Yacov

    2015-12-01

    We perform a Monte Carlo study of N -step self-avoiding walks, attached to the corner of an impenetrable wedge in two dimensions (d =2 ), or the tip of an impenetrable cone in d =3 , of sizes ranging up to N =106 steps. We find that the critical exponent γα, which determines the dependence of the number of available conformations on N for a cone or wedge with opening angle α , is in good agreement with the theory for d =2 . We study the end-point distribution of the walks in the allowed space and find similarities to the known behavior of random walks (ideal polymers) in the same geometry. For example, the ratio between the mean square end-to-end distances of a polymer near the cone or wedge and a polymer in free space depends linearly on γα, as is known for ideal polymers. We show that the end-point distribution of polymers attached to a wedge does not separate into a product of angular and radial functions, as it does for ideal polymers in the same geometry. The angular dependence of the end position of polymers near the wedge differs from theoretical predictions.

  18. Long polymers near wedges and cones.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Yosi; Kantor, Yacov

    2015-12-01

    We perform a Monte Carlo study of N-step self-avoiding walks, attached to the corner of an impenetrable wedge in two dimensions (d=2), or the tip of an impenetrable cone in d=3, of sizes ranging up to N=10(6) steps. We find that the critical exponent γ(α), which determines the dependence of the number of available conformations on N for a cone or wedge with opening angle α, is in good agreement with the theory for d=2. We study the end-point distribution of the walks in the allowed space and find similarities to the known behavior of random walks (ideal polymers) in the same geometry. For example, the ratio between the mean square end-to-end distances of a polymer near the cone or wedge and a polymer in free space depends linearly on γ(α), as is known for ideal polymers. We show that the end-point distribution of polymers attached to a wedge does not separate into a product of angular and radial functions, as it does for ideal polymers in the same geometry. The angular dependence of the end position of polymers near the wedge differs from theoretical predictions. PMID:26764719

  19. Structure of turbulent wedges created by isolated surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuester, Matthew S.; White, Edward B.

    2016-04-01

    Isolated surface roughness in a laminar boundary layer can create a wedge of turbulence that spreads laterally into the surrounding laminar flow. Some recent studies have identified high- and low-speed streaks along the exterior of turbulent wedges. In this experiment, developing turbulent wedges are measured to observe the creation of these streaks. Naphthalene shear stress surface visualization and hotwire measurements are utilized to investigate the details of turbulent wedges created by cylinders in a laminar flat-plate boundary layer. Both the surface visualization and the hotwire measurements show high- and low-speed streaks in the wake of the cylinder that devolve into a turbulent wedge. The turbulent wedge spreading is associated with the emergence of these high- and low-speed streaks along the outside of the wedge. As the wedge evolves in the streamwise direction, these streaks persist inside of the core of the wedge, while new, lower amplitude streaks form along the outside of the wedge. Adding asymmetry to the cylinder moved the virtual origin closer to the roughness and increased the vortex shedding frequency, while adding small-scale roughness features did not strongly affect turbulent wedge development. Intermittency calculations additionally show the origin of the turbulent core inside of the wedge. The structure and spacing of the high-speed streaks along the extremities of the turbulent wedge give insight into the spreading angle of the turbulent wedge.

  20. Pathways and consequences of contaminant flux to Acadian flycatchers (Empidonax virescens) in urbanizing landscapes of Ohio, USA.

    PubMed

    Rowse, Linnea M; Rodewald, Amanda D; Sullivan, S Mažeika P

    2014-07-01

    A prevalent environmental contaminant, mercury (Hg) is mobile and persistent in aquatic systems, where it often occurs in its bioavailable form methylmercury. Because methylmercury can bioaccumulate in aquatic insects and then transfer to terrestrial food webs, riparian consumers reliant upon aquatic emergent insects, should be disproportionately affected. Using the aerial insectivore Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) as a focal species, we examined (1) the extent to which total Hg loads in breeding flycatchers affected body condition and reproductive output and (2) potential pathways of contaminant flux in 19 riparian forest fragments distributed across an urban-to-rural landscape gradient in Ohio, USA. From April-August 2011-2012, we collected blood samples from adult (n=76) and nestling (n=17 from 7 nests) flycatchers, monitored their annual reproductive success (i.e., total number of fledglings), and sampled water, sediment, and aquatic emergent insects at each site. Hg concentrations in adult flycatcher blood (47 to 584 μg/kg, x¯=211.8, SD=95.5) were low relative to published advisory levels and not related to body condition. However, even at low concentrations, blood Hg was negatively related to reproductive success, with a 0.83 decline in the number of fledglings per μg/kg (loge) increase of blood Hg. Adult flycatchers had 11× greater concentrations of blood Hg than their offspring. Hg levels in flycatcher blood were not predicted by Hg concentrations in sediment, water, or aquatic emergent insects, with the exception of rural landscapes alone, in which flycatcher Hg was negatively related to sediment Hg. In addition to illustrating the difficulty of predicting exposure pathways that may vary among landscape contexts, our study provides evidence that even trace levels of contaminants may impair reproductive success of free-living songbirds. PMID:24742556

  1. Wedge indentation of an elastoviscoplastic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhihong; Lucas, Margaret; Adams, Michael J.

    2002-05-01

    This paper describes the modeling of the indentation of an elasto-viscoplastic material. The finite element code ABAQUS was used to study the bulk mechanical, thermal and interface frictional characteristics for rigid wedge indenters. A series of simulations has been performed at a constant velocity to prescribed depths of penetration for a range of wedge surface temperatures and semi-included angles. Selected experimental data are provided as a basis for validating the numerical simulation. In the simulations, the constitutive behavior of the model material Plasticine is treated as non-linear elasto-viscoplastic, in which the stress scales linearly with the elastic strain and non-linearly with the plastic strain rate. The result demonstrate that the FE simulations agree well with the experimental dat of displacement, strain and stress for all the range of wedge angles and temperatures examined.

  2. A review of dynamics modelling of friction wedge suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qing; Cole, Colin; Spiryagin, Maksym; Sun, Yan Quan

    2014-11-01

    Three-piece bogies with friction wedge suspensions are the most widely used bogies in heavy haul trains. Fiction wedge suspensions play a key role in these wagon systems. This article reviews current techniques in dynamic modelling of friction wedge suspension with various motivations: to improve dynamic models of friction wedge suspensions so as to improve general wagon dynamics simulations; to seek better friction wedge suspension models for wagon stability assessments in complex train systems; to improve the modelling of other friction devices, such as friction draft gear. Relevant theories and friction wedge suspension models developed by using commercial simulation packages and in-house simulation packages are reviewed.

  3. Wedge Waveguides and Resonators for Quantum Plasmonics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic structures can provide deep-subwavelength electromagnetic fields that are useful for enhancing light–matter interactions. However, because these localized modes are also dissipative, structures that offer the best compromise between field confinement and loss have been sought. Metallic wedge waveguides were initially identified as an ideal candidate but have been largely abandoned because to date their experimental performance has been limited. We combine state-of-the-art metallic wedges with integrated reflectors and precisely placed colloidal quantum dots (down to the single-emitter level) and demonstrate quantum-plasmonic waveguides and resonators with performance approaching theoretical limits. By exploiting a nearly 10-fold improvement in wedge-plasmon propagation (19 μm at a vacuum wavelength, λvac, of 630 nm), efficient reflectors (93%), and effective coupling (estimated to be >70%) to highly emissive (∼90%) quantum dots, we obtain Ag plasmonic resonators at visible wavelengths with quality factors approaching 200 (3.3 nm line widths). As our structures offer modal volumes down to ∼0.004λvac3 in an exposed single-mode waveguide–resonator geometry, they provide advantages over both traditional photonic microcavities and localized-plasmonic resonators for enhancing light–matter interactions. Our results confirm the promise of wedges for creating plasmonic devices and for studying coherent quantum-plasmonic effects such as long-distance plasmon-mediated entanglement and strong plasmon–matter coupling. PMID:26284499

  4. Wedge Waveguides and Resonators for Quantum Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Kress, Stephan J P; Antolinez, Felipe V; Richner, Patrizia; Jayanti, Sriharsha V; Kim, David K; Prins, Ferry; Riedinger, Andreas; Fischer, Maximilian P C; Meyer, Stefan; McPeak, Kevin M; Poulikakos, Dimos; Norris, David J

    2015-09-01

    Plasmonic structures can provide deep-subwavelength electromagnetic fields that are useful for enhancing light-matter interactions. However, because these localized modes are also dissipative, structures that offer the best compromise between field confinement and loss have been sought. Metallic wedge waveguides were initially identified as an ideal candidate but have been largely abandoned because to date their experimental performance has been limited. We combine state-of-the-art metallic wedges with integrated reflectors and precisely placed colloidal quantum dots (down to the single-emitter level) and demonstrate quantum-plasmonic waveguides and resonators with performance approaching theoretical limits. By exploiting a nearly 10-fold improvement in wedge-plasmon propagation (19 μm at a vacuum wavelength, λvac, of 630 nm), efficient reflectors (93%), and effective coupling (estimated to be >70%) to highly emissive (~90%) quantum dots, we obtain Ag plasmonic resonators at visible wavelengths with quality factors approaching 200 (3.3 nm line widths). As our structures offer modal volumes down to ~0.004λvac(3) in an exposed single-mode waveguide-resonator geometry, they provide advantages over both traditional photonic microcavities and localized-plasmonic resonators for enhancing light-matter interactions. Our results confirm the promise of wedges for creating plasmonic devices and for studying coherent quantum-plasmonic effects such as long-distance plasmon-mediated entanglement and strong plasmon-matter coupling.

  5. Modes in Lined Wedge-Shaped Ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechel, F. P.

    1998-10-01

    The computation of sound fields in wedge-shaped spaces with an absorbing boundary (the seabed) is a classical problem of underwater acoustics, covered by a large number of publications. All known solutions are approximations which are restricted to very small wedge angles θ0, typically less than 3°. In underwater acoustics it is further assumed thatk0r≫1. The background of the present paper is the performance of lined conical duct sections in silencers. There the wedge angle can attain values around 45°, and the assumptionk0r≫1 cannot be made. The absorber of the lined boundary here is supposed to be locally reacting (for reasons of simplicity); it can be characterized by a normalized surface admittanceG0. The problems of the analysis arise from the fact, that the fundamental field solutions (modes) can no longer be separated in the cylindrical co-ordinatesr, θ if a boundary is absorbing. This paper describes analytical solutions for the construction of modes in lined wedge-shaped ducts; they can be applied for wedge angles up to about 15° (a subsequent paper will describe a method for angles up to about 45° but only moderatek0rvalues). In the solutions, use is made of “fictitious modes”, which satisfy the boundary conditions and solve a part of the wave equation. They must be completed by a “modal rest” to satisfy approximately the full wave equation. In the first solution, the rest is synthesized by fictitious modes; in the second solution, a separate function is introduced for the rest. Modes for typical underwater acoustics conditions will arise as side products.

  6. 21 CFR 884.5200 - Hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge. 884.5200... Devices § 884.5200 Hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge. (a) Identification. A hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge provides mechanical support to the perianal region during the labor and delivery...

  7. 21 CFR 884.5200 - Hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge. 884.5200... Devices § 884.5200 Hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge. (a) Identification. A hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge provides mechanical support to the perianal region during the labor and delivery...

  8. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...

  9. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...

  10. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...

  11. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...

  12. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...

  13. A mixed clastic-carbonate lake margin succession from Triassic of East Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Lake margin deposits are being increasingly studied, but this is often focussed on either clastic or carbonate/microbial dominated end members. This study examines the interaction of clastic and carbonate system from a dynamic lake margin. The Late Triassic Edderfugledal Member outcrops between 71° and 72° 40' N in East Greenland. Throughout the Late Triassic, lacustrine conditions predominated and deposition occurred in the largely closed, underfilled Jameson Land Basin which lay at approximately 30° to 40° north in Northern Pangea. Regular fluctuations in lake level, interpreted as a response to cyclic, orbitally forced climatic variance, resulted in a highly mobile lake shore zone. The response and interaction of both clastic and carbonate components of the shore zone environment to these fluctuations in lake level are documented in this study. The studied, ≈ 10 m thick, section which has been traced for over 4 km, lies within the transition between the carbonate dominated Sporfjeld Beds and the overlying Pingel Dal Beds which contain an increased clastic content. During the deposition of the Edderfugledal Member, arid conditions prevailed leading to more ephemeral lacustrine developments and low sediment input. Extensive post depositional disruption occurred with there being evidence for desiccation, pedogenic processes and evaporite precipitation. These effects increase towards the lake margins where exposure was most regular and most prolonged. Up section, increasingly humid conditions led to the formation of longer lived lacustrine developments and increased clastic sediment input. During the transgressive phases of individual climatically driven cycles, sediment input was pushed back to the lake margin allowing extensive microbialite development. Ooidal shoals developed in shallow water beyond the extend of clastic input. The lakeward migration of the ooidal shoals and the progradation of clastic systems eventually stifle the microbialites prior to

  14. 70193-Influence of Clastic Dikes on Vertical Migration of Contaminants in the Vadose Zonde at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J Murray; Anderson L. Ward; John L. Wilson

    2004-04-07

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that clastic dikes could form a preferential flow path through the vadose zone to the water table at the Hanford Site. Clastic dikes are subvertical structures that form within sedimentary sequences after deposition and cut across the original sedimentary layers. They are common throughout the Hanford Site, often occurring in organized polygonal networks. In the initial phase of the project, we analyzed the large-scale geometry of the clastic dikes and developed an algorithm for simulating their spatial distribution. This result will be useful in providing maps of the potential distribution of clastic dikes in areas where they are not exposed at the surface (e.g., where covered by windblown sand or construction of facilities like tank farms at the surface). In addition to the study of the large-scale distribution of the dikes, a major focus of the project was on field, laboratory, and modeling studies of the hydrogeological properties of the clastic dikes and the effect that they have on transport of water through the vadose zone. These studies were performed at two field locations at the Hanford Site. We performed an extensive series of field and laboratory measurements of a large number of samples from the clastic dikes, linked with infrared (IR) and visual imagery of the clastic dikes and surrounding matrix. We developed a series of correlations from the sample data that allowed us to estimate the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the dike and matrix at an extremely high resolution (approximately 1 mm). The resulting grids, each of which measured several meters on a side and included nearly four million grid nodes, were used to study the distribution of moisture between the clastic dike and surrounding matrix, as well as the relative velocities that moisture would have through the clastic dike and matrix for a number of different recharge scenarios. Results show the development of complex flow networks

  15. Experimental study on the water impact of a symmetrical wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yettou, El-Mahdi; Desrochers, Alain; Champoux, Yvan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of our experimental investigation of the pressure distribution on a free-falling wedge upon entering water. Parameters such as the drop height, the deadrise angle and the mass of the wedge are related to the water pressure on the wedge and its dynamic behavior. Existing models that assumed a constant water-entry velocity of the wedge are compared with experimental data. In order to take into account the inherent variation in the velocity of a free-falling wedge, a combination of two models are proposed. This method gives an adequate approximation of the maximum pressures measured.

  16. Life at the wedge: the activity and diversity of arctic ice wedge microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Roland C; Radtke, Kristin J; Mykytczuk, Nadia C S; Greer, Charles W; Whyte, Lyle G

    2012-04-01

    The discovery of polygonal terrain on Mars underlain by ice heightens interest in the possibility that this water-bearing habitat may be, or may have been, a suitable habitat for extant life. The possibility is supported by the recurring detection of terrestrial microorganisms in subsurface ice environments, such as ice wedges found beneath tundra polygon features. A characterization of the microbial community of ice wedges from the high Arctic was performed to determine whether this ice environment can sustain actively respiring microorganisms and to assess the ecology of this extreme niche. We found that ice wedge samples contained a relatively abundant number of culturable cells compared to other ice habitats (∼10(5) CFU·mL(-1)). Respiration assays in which radio-labeled acetate and in situ measurement of CO(2) flux were used suggested low levels of microbial activity, though more sensitive techniques are required to confirm these findings. Based on 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, bacterial and archaeal ice wedge communities appeared to reflect surrounding soil communities. Two Pseudomonas sp. were the most abundant taxa in the ice wedge bacterial library (∼50%), while taxa related to ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota occupied 90% of the archaeal library. The tolerance of a variety of isolates to salinity and temperature revealed characteristics of a psychrotolerant, halotolerant community. Our findings support the hypothesis that ice wedges are capable of sustaining a diverse, plausibly active microbial community. As such, ice wedges, compared to other forms of less habitable ground ice, could serve as a reservoir for life on permanently cold, water-scarce, ice-rich extraterrestrial bodies and are therefore of interest to astrobiologists and ecologists alike. .

  17. Life at the wedge: the activity and diversity of arctic ice wedge microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Roland C; Radtke, Kristin J; Mykytczuk, Nadia C S; Greer, Charles W; Whyte, Lyle G

    2012-04-01

    The discovery of polygonal terrain on Mars underlain by ice heightens interest in the possibility that this water-bearing habitat may be, or may have been, a suitable habitat for extant life. The possibility is supported by the recurring detection of terrestrial microorganisms in subsurface ice environments, such as ice wedges found beneath tundra polygon features. A characterization of the microbial community of ice wedges from the high Arctic was performed to determine whether this ice environment can sustain actively respiring microorganisms and to assess the ecology of this extreme niche. We found that ice wedge samples contained a relatively abundant number of culturable cells compared to other ice habitats (∼10(5) CFU·mL(-1)). Respiration assays in which radio-labeled acetate and in situ measurement of CO(2) flux were used suggested low levels of microbial activity, though more sensitive techniques are required to confirm these findings. Based on 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, bacterial and archaeal ice wedge communities appeared to reflect surrounding soil communities. Two Pseudomonas sp. were the most abundant taxa in the ice wedge bacterial library (∼50%), while taxa related to ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota occupied 90% of the archaeal library. The tolerance of a variety of isolates to salinity and temperature revealed characteristics of a psychrotolerant, halotolerant community. Our findings support the hypothesis that ice wedges are capable of sustaining a diverse, plausibly active microbial community. As such, ice wedges, compared to other forms of less habitable ground ice, could serve as a reservoir for life on permanently cold, water-scarce, ice-rich extraterrestrial bodies and are therefore of interest to astrobiologists and ecologists alike. . PMID:22519974

  18. Radiation pressure on a dielectric wedge.

    PubMed

    Mansuripur, Masud; Zakharian, Armis; Moloney, Jerome

    2005-03-21

    The force of electromagnetic radiation on a dielectric medium may be derived by a direct application of the Lorentz law of classical electrodynamics. While the light's electric field acts upon the (induced) bound charges in the medium, its magnetic field exerts a force on the bound currents. We use the example of a wedge-shaped solid dielectric, immersed in a transparent liquid and illuminated at Brewster's angle, to demonstrate that the linear momentum of the electromagnetic field within dielectrics has neither the Minkowski nor the Abraham form; rather, the correct expression for momentum density has equal contributions from both. The time rate of change of the incident momentum thus expressed is equal to the force exerted on the wedge plus that experienced by the surrounding liquid.

  19. High-energy rate forgings of wedges :

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Thomas Bither; Everhart, Wesley; Switzner, Nathan T; Balch, Dorian K.; San Marchi, Christopher W.

    2014-05-01

    The wedge geometry is a simple geometry for establishing a relatively constant gradient of strain in a forged part. The geometry is used to establish gradients in microstructure and strength as a function of strain, forging temperature, and quenching time after forging. This geometry has previously been used to benchmark predictions of strength and recrystallization using Sandias materials model for type 304L austenitic stainless steel. In this report, the processing conditions, in particular the times to forge and quench the forged parts, are summarized based on information recorded during forging on June 18, 2013 of the so-called wedge geometry from type 316L and 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn austenitic stainless steels.

  20. Two dimensional wedge/translating shroud nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiden, D. L. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A jet propulsion exhaust nozzle is reported for multi-engine installations which produces high internal/external, thrust-minus-drag, performance for transonic cruise or transonic acceleration as well as improved performance at subsonic and supersonic speeds. A two dimensional wedge/translating shroud provides the variable nozzle exit geometry needed to achieve high engine performance over a wide range of throttle power settings.

  1. Wedge assembly for electrical transformer component spacing

    DOEpatents

    Baggett, Franklin E.; Cage, W. Franklin

    1991-01-01

    A wedge assembly that is easily inserted between two surfaces to be supported thereby, and thereafter expanded to produce a selected spacing between those surfaces. This wedge assembly has two outer members that are substantially identical except that they are mirror images of each other. Oppositely directed faces of these of these outer members are substantially parallel for the purpose of contacting the surfaces to be separated. The outer faces of these outer members that are directed toward each other are tapered so as to contact a center member having complementary tapers on both faces. A washer member is provided to contact a common end of the outer members, and a bolt member penetrates this washer and is threadably received in a receptor of the center member. As the bolt member is threaded into the center member, the center member is drawn further into the gap between the outer members and thereby separates these outer members to contact the surfaces to be separated. In the preferred embodiment, the contacting surfaces of the outer member and the center member are provided with guide elements. The wedge assembly is described for use in separating the secondary windings from the laminations of an electrical power transformer.

  2. Interior impedance wedge diffraction with surface waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Griesser, Timothy

    1988-01-01

    The exact impedance wedge solution is evaluated asymptotically using the method of steepest descents for plane wave illumination at normal incidence. Uniform but different impedances on each face are considered for both soft and hard polarizations. The asymptotic solution isolates the incident, singly reflected, multiply reflected, diffracted, and surface wave fields. Multiply reflected fields of any order are permitted. The multiply reflected fields from the exact solution are written as ratios of auxiliary Maliuzhinets functions, whereas a geometrical analysis gives the reflected fields as products of reflection coefficients. These two representations are shown to be identical in magnitude, phase and the angular range over which they exist. The diffracted field includes four Fresnel transition functions as in the perfect conductor case, and the expressions for the appropriate discontinuities at the shadow boundaries are presented. The surface wave exists over a finite angular range and only for certain surface impedances. A surface wave transition field is included to retain continuity. Computations are presented for interior wedge diffractions although the formulation is valid for both exterior and interior wedges.

  3. Upper Strawn (Desmoinesian) carbonte and clastic depositional environments, southeastern King County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Boring, T.H. )

    1990-02-01

    The Pennsylvanian upper Strawn Group of southeastern King County, Texas, provides a unique setting to study interactions between coeval carbonate and clastic deposition during the Desmoinesian. One of the most perplexing problems is the relationship of massive Pennsylvanian platform carbonates to shallow-water terrigenous clastic sediments. Within the study area, carbonate facies were deposited along the northern edge of the Knox-Baylor trough on the Spur platform, and terrigenous clastics were carried toward the Midland basin through the Knox-Baylor trough. Based on the analysis of subsurface cores, five carbonate lithofacies and four clastic lithofacies were recognized in southeastern King County, Texas. The distribution and geometry of these lithofacies are related to variations in the rate of subsidence in the Knox-Baylor trough, Pennsylvanian tectonics, deltaic progradation, avulsion, and compaction. The platform carbonates within the northern region of southeastern King County record environments within the carbonate platform complex, including middle platform, outer platform, algal mound, and platform margin. The quartzarenitic sandstones within the southern region of southeastern King County occur in a variety of complex depositional geometries, including distributary-bar fingers, lobate deltas, and offshore bars. Cores of these sandstones represent mainly the uppermost portion of the various sandstone bodies. The upper Strawn Group provides an attractive area for exploration geology. Both carbonates and clastics provide excellent reservoirs from a depth of approximately 5,000-6,000 ft. Total production within the area is over 100 million bbl of oil since the early 1940s. Multiple pay zones within a 600-ft interval also provide an added incentive for exploration. Areas within and around the Knox-Baylor trough deserve a detailed study due to these relatively shallow, unexplored, multiple pay zones.

  4. The Acadian Dikes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Gregory R.; Yetman, Krista

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interdisciplinary unit that combines science and technology as a social-historical study on Arcadian dikes. Promotes an authentic task for assessment. Provides a student resource materials packet and activity sheet. (ASK)

  5. Les Acadiens (The Acadians).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Normand

    Designed for use in a bilingual program, this elementary reader is the story of early French settlers in Acadia, the region now known as Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. The French text is illustrated with color drawings. (PMP)

  6. Knee abduction angular impulses during prolonged running with wedged insoles.

    PubMed

    Lewinson, Ryan T; Worobets, Jay T; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2013-07-01

    Wedged insoles may produce immediate effects on knee abduction angular impulses during running; however, it is currently not known whether these knee abduction angular impulse magnitudes are maintained throughout a run when fatigue sets in. If changes occur, this could affect the clinical utility of wedged insoles in treating conditions such as patellofemoral pain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether knee abduction angular impulses are altered during a prolonged run with wedged insoles. It was hypothesized that knee abduction angular impulses would be reduced following a prolonged run with wedged insoles. Nine healthy runners participated. Runners were randomly assigned to either a 6-mm medial wedge condition or a 6-mm lateral wedge condition and then ran continuously overground for 30 min. Knee abduction angular impulses were quantified at 0 and 30 min using a gait analysis procedure. After 2 days, participants returned to perform the same test but with the other wedge type. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate main effects of wedge condition and time and interactions between wedge condition and time (α = 0.05). Paired t-tests were used for post hoc analysis (α = 0.01). No interaction effects (p = 0.958) were found, and knee abduction angular impulses were not significantly different over time (p = 0.384). Lateral wedge conditions produced lesser knee abduction angular impulses than medial conditions at 0 min (difference of 2.79 N m s, p = 0.006) and at 30 min (difference of 2.76 N m s, p < 0.001). It is concluded that significant knee abduction angular impulse changes within wedge conditions do not occur during a 30-min run. Additionally, knee abduction angular impulse differences between wedge conditions are maintained during a 30-min run.

  7. Opening wedge osteotomies for correction of hallux valgus: a review of wedge plate fixation.

    PubMed

    Smith, W Bret; Hyer, Christopher F; DeCarbo, William T; Berlet, Gregory C; Lee, Thomas H

    2009-12-01

    Osteotomy of the proximal metatarsal for the correction of moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity is commonly performed. The purpose of this study is to review the early results of a technique for the correction of hallux valgus, an opening wedge osteotomy of the proximal first metatarsal with opening wedge plate fixation. A review was performed of the results of 47 patients (49 feet) who underwent correction of hallux valgus with proximal metatarsal opening wedge osteotomy. All osteotomies were secured with plate fixation on the medial side. Evaluation consisted of preoperative and postoperative radiographic as well as clinical evaluations. Mean corrections of 7 degrees were achieved for the 1-2 intermetatarsal angles. Fourteen complications occurred, 6 of which involved mild hardware irritation and did not affect outcome. Four nonunions or delayed unions were identified. The authors find the opening wedge osteotomy of the proximal first metatarsal to be a technically straightforward procedure for correcting moderate to severe hallux valgus. The correction obtained is comparable to other described techniques. PMID:20400425

  8. Impingement of water droplets on wedges and double-wedge airfoils at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, John S

    1954-01-01

    An analytical solution has been obtained for the equations of motion of water droplets impinging on a wedge in a two-dimensional supersonic flow field with a shock wave attached to the wedge. The closed-form solution yields analytical expressions for the equation of the droplet trajectory, the local rate of impingement and the impingement velocity at any point on the wedge surface, and the total rate of impingement. The analytical expressions are utilized to determine the impingement on the forward surfaces of diamond airfoils in supersonic flow fields with attached shock waves. The results presented include the following conditions: droplet diameters from 2 to 100 microns, pressure altitudes from sea level to 30,000 feet, free-stream static temperatures from 420 degrees r, free stream Mach numbers from 1.1 to 2.0, semiapex angles for the wedge from 1.14 degrees to 7.97 degrees, thickness-to-chord ratios for the diamond airfoil from 0.02 to 0.14, chord lengths from 1 to 20 feet, and angles of attack from zero to the inverse tangent of the airfoil thickness-to-chord ratio.

  9. Replication in plastic of three-dimensional fossils preserved in indurated clastic sedimentary rocks.

    PubMed

    Zapasnik, H T; Johnston, P A

    1984-06-29

    A new technique for replicating in plastic the fossils preserved in clastic rocks should now make available reliable morphologic and frequency data, comparable in quality to those derived from acid-prepared silicified faunas, for a major segment of the fossil record. The technique involves three steps: the dissolution of carbonate in fossiliferous rocks with hydrochloric acid, impregnation of resulting voids with liquid plastic, and dissolution of the rock matrix with hydrofluoric acid, leaving a concentrate of plastic-replaced fossils.

  10. Significance of carbonate-clastic shoaling cycles in Mississippian of northern Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, J.W.

    1983-03-01

    Shoaling-upward carbonate shelf cycles are known to occur in many parts of the world and throughout the geologic record. Upper Mississippian (Chesterian) strata in northern Arkansas consist of alternating limestones and shales that include a set of shoaling-upward cycles. These cycles, occurring within the dominantly carbonate Pitkin Formation, differ from the pattern described above in that they contain a significant terrigenous component. At the beginning of a cycle, the shoreline was distinct from the deeply submerged shelf and lime and terrigenous mud accumulated in a quiet-water setting. Thickness and facies analysis of the Pitkin indicate an east-west trending shelf with a shoreline located in southern Missouri, perhaps curving south around the Ozark uplift. Eastward increase in shale percentage in the Pitkin suggests transport of fine clastics around the southeast flank of this uplift. The Illinois basin was an active Chesterian depocenter and during periods of maximum transgression fine clastics may have passed through a seaway southwest into northern Arkansas. As shoaling proceeded, the shoreline regressed south with the advancing carbonate sand sheet, cutting off the avenue of fine clastics. Quartz sand, probably derived from a thick sequence of lower Paleozoic sandstones exposed along the uplift by the retreating sea, became admixed with oolite across the newly built platform. These shoaling cycles are the product of slow, steady, subsidence along a northern Arkansas shelf punctuated by episodes of relatively rapid carbonate sand sedimentation and clastic influx. A similar tectonic and depositional setting must have given rise to other such deposits that occur in the geologic record.

  11. Mixing of biogenic siliceous and terrigenous clastic sediments: South Belridge field and Beta field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, D.E. )

    1990-05-01

    The intermixing and interbedding of biogenically derived siliceous sediment with terrigenous clastic sediment in reservoirs of upper Miocene age provides both reservoir rock and seal and influences productivity by affecting porosity and permeability. Miocene reservoirs commonly contain either biogenic-dominated cyclic diatomite, porcelanite, or chert (classic Monterey Formation) or clastic-dominated submarine fan sequences with interbedded or intermixed siliceous members of biogenic origin. Biogenic-clastic cycles, 30-180 ft thick, at South Belridge field were formed by episodic influx of clastic sediment from distant submarine fans mixing with slowly accumulating diatomaceous ooze. The cycles consist of basal silt and pelletized massive diatomaceous mudstone, overlain by burrowed, faintly bedded clayey diatomite and topped by laminated diatomite. Cycle tops have higher porosity and permeability, lower grain density, and higher oil saturation than clay and silt-rich portions of the cycles. Submarine fan sediments forming reservoirs at the Beta field are comprised of interbedded sands and silts deposited in a channelized middle fan to outer fan setting. Individual turbidites display fining-upward sequences, with oil-bearing sands capped by wet micaceous silts. Average sands are moderately to poorly sorted, fine- to medium-grained arkosic arenites. Sands contain pore-filling carbonate and porcelaneous cements. Porcelaneous cement consists of a mixture of opal-A, opal-CT, and chert with montmorillonite and minor zeolite. This cement is an authigenic material precipitated in intergranular pore space. The origin of the opal is biogenic, with recrystallization of diatom frustules (opal-A) into opal-CT lepispheres and quartz crystals. Porcelaneous cement comprises 4-21% of the bulk volume of the rock. Seventy percent of the bulk volume of the cement is micropore space.

  12. Upper Strawn (Desmoinesian) carbonate and clastic depositional environments, SE King County, TX

    SciTech Connect

    Boring, T.H. )

    1990-05-01

    The Pennsylvanian upper Strawn Group of southeast King County, Texas, provides a unique setting to study interactions between coeval carbonate and clastic deposition during the Desmoinesian. One of the most perplexing problems is the relationship of massive Pennsylvanian platform carbonates to shallow-water marine and deltaic sediments. Within the study area carbonate facies were deposited along the northern edge of the Knox-Baylor trough on the Spur platform, and terrigenous clastics were carried toward the Midland basin through the Knox-Baylor trough. Based on the analysis of subsurface cores, five carbonate lithofacies and four clastic lithofacies were recognized in southeast King County, Texas. The distribution and geometry of these lithofacies are related to variations in the rate of subsidence in the Knox-Baylor trough, Pennsylvanian tectonics, deltaic progradation, avulsion and compaction. The platform carbonates within the northern region record environments within the carbonate platform complex, including middle platform, outer platform, algal mound, and platform margin. The quartzarenitic sandstones within the southern region occur in a variety of complex depositional geometries, including distributary bar fingers, lobate deltas, and offshore bars. The upper Strawn Group provides an attractive area for exploration geology. Both carbonates and clastics provide excellent reservoirs from a depth of approximately 5,000 to 6,000 ft. Total production since the early 1940s, within the area is over 100,000,000 bbl of oil. Multiple pay zones within a 600-ft interval also provide an added incentive for exploration. Areas within and around the Knox-Baylor trough deserve additional study due to these relatively shallow, unexplored, multiple pay zones.

  13. Molecular depth profiling by wedged crater beveling.

    PubMed

    Mao, Dan; Lu, Caiyan; Winograd, Nicholas; Wucher, Andreas

    2011-08-15

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy are employed to characterize a wedge-shaped crater eroded by a 40-keV C(60)(+) cluster ion beam on an organic film of Irganox 1010 doped with Irganox 3114 delta layers. From an examination of the resulting surface, the information about depth resolution, topography, and erosion rate can be obtained as a function of crater depth for every depth in a single experiment. It is shown that when measurements are performed at liquid nitrogen temperature, a constant erosion rate and reduced bombardment induced surface roughness is observed. At room temperature, however, the erosion rate drops by ∼(1)/(3) during the removal of the 400 nm Irganox film and the roughness gradually increased to from 1 nm to ∼4 nm. From SIMS lateral images of the beveled crater and AFM topography results, depth resolution was further improved by employing glancing angles of incidence and lower primary ion beam energy. Sub-10 nm depth resolution was observed under the optimized conditions on a routine basis. In general, we show that the wedge-crater beveling is an important tool for elucidating the factors that are important for molecular depth profiling experiments.

  14. Experimental and numerical investigations on melamine wedges.

    PubMed

    Schneider, S

    2008-09-01

    Melamine wedges are often used as acoustic lining material for anechoic chambers. It was proposed here to study the effects of the mounting conditions on the acoustic properties of the melamine wedges used in the large anechoic chamber at the LMA. The results of the impedance tube measurements carried out show that the mounting conditions must be taken into account when assessing the quality of an acoustic lining. As it can be difficult to simulate these mounting conditions in impedance tube experiments, a numerical method was developed, which can be used to complete the experiments or for parametric studies. By combining the finite and the boundary element method, it is possible to investigate acoustic linings with almost no restrictions as to the geometry, material behavior, or mounting conditions. The numerical method presented here was used to study the acoustic properties of the acoustic lining installed in the anechoic chamber at the LMA. Further experiments showed that the behavior of the melamine foam is anisotropic. Numerical simulations showed that this anisotropy can be used to advantage when designing an acoustic lining.

  15. Mid-Calcaneal Length After Evans Calcaneal Osteotomy: A Retrospective Comparison of Wedge Locking Plates and Tricortical Allograft Wedges.

    PubMed

    Protzman, Nicole M; Wobst, Garrett M; Storts, Eric C; Mulhern, Jennifer L; McCarroll, Raymond E; Brigido, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Evans calcaneal osteotomy remains a cornerstone in the correction of the flexible flatfoot. Although multiple techniques have been used to maintain the length of the lateral column, a low profile wedge locking plate was recently introduced as an alternative to the traditional tricortical allograft wedge. We hypothesized that the wedge locking plate would better maintain the mid-calcaneal length compared with the tricortical allograft wedge. To test this hypothesis, after Evans osteotomy, the mid-calcaneal length was measured in the immediate postoperative period and again at 3 and 6 months. A total of 24 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean patient age was 48.1 years (range 11 to 66). Of the 24 patients, 9 (37.5%) were treated with a tricortical allograft wedge and 15 (62.5%) with a wedge locking plate. At 3 months postoperatively, the mean decrease in mid-calcaneal length was similar for the tricortical allograft wedge group (1.3 ± 1.9 mm) and the wedge locking plate group (0.5 ± 0.9 mm, p = .275). At 6 months postoperatively, however, the mean decrease in mid-calcaneal length was greater for the tricortical allograft wedge group (2.8 ± 1.7 mm) than for the wedge locking plate group (0.6 ± 0.7 mm, p = .004). The 2 groups demonstrated a similar incidence of dorsally displaced distal calcaneal fragments throughout the study endpoint (p ≥ .052). These results suggest that the wedge locking plate better maintains the mid-calcaneal length over time compared with the tricortical allograft wedge.

  16. Model for the incorporation of plant detritus within clastic accumulating interdistributary bays

    SciTech Connect

    Gastaldo, R.A.; McCarroll, S.M.; Douglass, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    Plant-bearing clastic lithologies interpreted as interdistributary bay deposits are reported from rocks Devonian to Holocene in age. Often, these strata preserve accumulations of discrete, laterally continuous leaf beds or coaly horizons. Investigations within two modern inter-distributary bays in the lower delta plain of the Mobile Delta, Alabama have provided insight into the phytotaphonomic processes responsible for the generation of carbonaceous lithologies, coaly horizons and laterally continuous leaf beds. Delvan and Chacalooche Bays lie adjacent to the Tensaw River distributary channel and differ in the mode of clastic and plant detrital accumulation. Delvan Bay, lying west of the distributary channel, is accumulating detritus solely by overbank deposition. Chacaloochee Bay, lying east of the channel, presently is accumulating detritus by active crevasse-splay activity. Plant detritus is accumulating as transported assemblages in both bays, but the mode of preservation differs. In Delvan Bay, the organic component is highly degraded and incorporated within the clastic component resulting in a carbonaceous silt. Little identifiable plant detritus can be recovered. On the other hand, the organic component in Chacaloochee Bay is accumulating in locally restricted allochthonous peat deposits up to 2 m in thickness, and discrete leaf beds generated by flooding events. In addition, autochthonous plant accumulations occur on subaerially and aerially exposed portions of the crevasse. The resultant distribution of plant remains is a complicated array of transported and non-transported organics.

  17. Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian clastics sedimentation and stratigraphy in the Central and Southern Appalachians: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, F.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    A clear understanding of paleogeography, tectonics, and sedimentary framework now exists for Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian clastics in the Central and Southern Appalachians. It is based on well-constrained data on mineralogy, texture, and sedimentary structures and less precise information on age and regional variations in lithology and thickness. From 900 m.y. ago until 600 m.y. ago, tension along the eastern edge of North America produced a series of NE-SW basins (grabens and aulacogens ). These rift-related basins filled with thick, coarse, arkosic clastics (Mechum River Fm., Mt. Rogers Volc. Gp., Grandfather Mtn. Fm., portions of the Ocoee Series) mimicking the setting that later typified the Triassic of eastern North America. Coeval sequences exposed along the southeastern edge of the Blue Ridge in Va. and N.C. (Fauquier Fm., Lynchburg Gp., Ashe Fm.) define the hinge zone of a developing continental margin. Farther south in Tenn., Ga., and Ala., the picture is less clear. In latest Precambrian and Early Cambrian time, a passive Atlantic-type'' margin existed. This consisted of paired continental shelf and continental slope-rise areas (shallow water deposits of the Chilhowee Gp. and overlying muds and carbonates to the northwest; deep water clastics of the Evington Gp. and Alligator Back Fm. to the southeast). The cohesiveness of this framework argues against these tectonostratigraphic belts being considered terranes.

  18. Organic geochemistry of Upper Carboniferous bituminous coals and clastic sediments from the Lublin Coal Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gola, Marek R.; Karger, Michał; Gazda, Lucjan; Grafka, Oliwia

    2013-09-01

    Bituminous coals and clastic rocks from the Lublin Formation (Pennsylvanian, Westphalian B) were subjected to detailed biomarker and Rock-Eval analyses. The investigation of aliphatic and aromatic fractions and Rock-Eval Tmax suggests that the Carboniferous deposits attained relatively low levels of thermal maturity, at the end of the microbial processes/initial phase of the oil window. Somewhat higher values of maturity in the clastic sediments were caused by postdiagenetic biodegradation of organic matter. The dominance of the odd carbon-numbered n-alkanes in the range n-C25 to n-C31 , high concentrations of moretanes and a predominance of C 28 and C29 steranes are indicative of a terrigenous origin of the organic matter in the study material. This is supported by the presence of eudesmane, bisabolane, dihydro-ar-curcumene and cadalene, found mainly in the coal samples. In addition, tri- and tetracyclic diterpanes, e. g. 16β(H)-kaurane, 16β(H)-phyllocladane, 16α(H)-kaurane and norisopimarane, were identified, suggesting an admixture of conifer ancestors among the deposited higher plants. Parameters Pr/n-C17 and Rdit in the coal samples show deposition of organic matter from peat swamp environments, with the water levels varying from high (water-logged swamp) to very low (ephemeral swamp). Clastic deposits were accumulated in a flood plain environment with local small ponds/lakes. In pond/lake sediments, apart from the dominant terrigenous organic matter, research also revealed a certain quantity of algal matter, indicated, i.a., by the presence of tricyclic triterpanes C28 and C29 and elevated concentrations of steranes. The Paq parameter can prove to be a useful tool in the identification of organic matter, but the processes of organic matter biodegradation observed in clastic rocks most likely influence the value of the parameter, at the same time lowering the interpretation potential of these compounds. The value of Pr/Ph varies from 0.93 to 5.24 and from 3

  19. 28. REPRESENTATIVE CENTER WEDGE. BALANCE WHEELS ON TRACK, WITH RACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. REPRESENTATIVE CENTER WEDGE. BALANCE WHEELS ON TRACK, WITH RACK TO OUTSIDE, SHOWN TO RIGHT OF THE WEDGE. PHOTO TAKEN AT SOUTH SWING SPAN. - George P. Coleman Memorial Bridge, Spanning York River at U.S. Route 17, Yorktown, York County, VA

  20. Computing pressure distributions in wedges and pinch-outs

    SciTech Connect

    Chih-Cheng Chen; Raghaven, R.

    1995-12-31

    A solution for wedge-type systems in terms of the Laplace transformation is derived. Characteristics of responses are discussed and computational issues are addressed. The algorithm given here is a practical tool for analyzing flows in wedge-type systems and may be incorporated immediately into existing software packages. Existing solutions are a subset of the solution given here.

  1. Magneto-optical and photoemission studies of ultrathin wedges

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, S.D.; Li, Dongqi

    1995-12-01

    Magnetic phase transitions of Fe wedges grown epitaxially on Cu(100) are detected via the surface magneto-optical Kerr effect and used to construct a phase diagram for face centered Fe. Also, the confinement of Cu sp- and d-quantum-well states is studied for Cu/Co(wedge)/Cu(100) utilizing undulator-based photoemission experiments.

  2. 21 CFR 884.5200 - Hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge. 884.5200... Devices § 884.5200 Hemorrhoid prevention pressure wedge. (a) Identification. A hemorrhoid prevention... hemorrhoids associated with vaginal childbirth. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The...

  3. 49 CFR 230.104 - Driving box shoes and wedges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driving box shoes and wedges. 230.104 Section 230.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.104 Driving box shoes and wedges. Driving box shoes and...

  4. 49 CFR 230.104 - Driving box shoes and wedges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Driving box shoes and wedges. 230.104 Section 230.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.104 Driving box shoes and wedges. Driving box shoes and...

  5. 49 CFR 230.104 - Driving box shoes and wedges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Driving box shoes and wedges. 230.104 Section 230.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.104 Driving box shoes and wedges. Driving box shoes and...

  6. 49 CFR 230.104 - Driving box shoes and wedges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Driving box shoes and wedges. 230.104 Section 230.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.104 Driving box shoes and wedges. Driving box shoes and...

  7. 49 CFR 230.104 - Driving box shoes and wedges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Driving box shoes and wedges. 230.104 Section 230.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.104 Driving box shoes and wedges. Driving box shoes and...

  8. Transmission of a Gaussian beam by a Fizeau interferential wedge.

    PubMed

    Stoykova, Elena

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of transmission of a finite-diameter Gaussian beam by a Fizeau interferential wedge is presented. The fringe calculation is based on angular spectrum expansion of the complex amplitude of the incident wave field. The developed approach is applicable to any beam diameter and wedge thickness at any distance from the wedge and yields as a boundary case the fringes at plane-wave illumination. The spatial region of resonant transmission on the wedge surface is given by the width of the transmitted peak for plane-wave illumination. At higher coating reflectivity, the direction of the transmitted beam is deviated with respect to that of the incident beam. Evaluation of the spectral response based on the spectral width of the transmitted power curve is introduced as more realistic for a correct description of the application of a Fizeau wedge as an interferential selector in laser resonators. PMID:16396037

  9. Effect of friction in wedging of elastic solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Arin, K.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper the contact problem for an elastic wedge of arbitrary angle is considered. It is assumed that the external load is applied to the medium through a rigid wedge and the coefficient of friction between the loading wedge and the elastic solid is constant. The problem is reduced to a singular integral equation of the second kind with the contact pressure as the unknown function. An effective numerical solution of the integral equation is described and the results of three examples are presented. The comparison of these results with those obtained from the frictionless wedge problem indicates that generally friction has the tendency of reducing the peak values of the stress intensity factors calculated at the wedge apex and at the end points of the contact area.

  10. Fabrication of wedged multilayer Laue lenses

    DOE PAGES

    Prasciolu, M.; Leontowich, A. F. G.; Krzywinski, J.; Andrejczuk, A.; Chapman, H. N.; Bajt, S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method to fabricate wedged multilayer Laue lenses, in which the angle of diffracting layers smoothly varies in the lens to achieve optimum diffracting efficiency across the entire pupil of the lens. This was achieved by depositing a multilayer onto a flat substrate placed in the penumbra of a straight-edge mask. The distance between the mask and the substrate was calibrated and the multilayer Laue lens was cut in a position where the varying layer thickness and the varying layer tilt simultaneously satisfy the Fresnel zone plate condition and Bragg’s law for all layers in the stack.more » This method can be used to extend the achievable numerical aperture of multilayer Laue lenses to reach considerably smaller focal spot sizes than achievable with lenses composed of parallel layers.« less

  11. Fabrication of wedged multilayer Laue lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Prasciolu, M.; Leontowich, A. F. G.; Krzywinski, J.; Andrejczuk, A.; Chapman, H. N.; Bajt, S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method to fabricate wedged multilayer Laue lenses, in which the angle of diffracting layers smoothly varies in the lens to achieve optimum diffracting efficiency across the entire pupil of the lens. This was achieved by depositing a multilayer onto a flat substrate placed in the penumbra of a straight-edge mask. The distance between the mask and the substrate was calibrated and the multilayer Laue lens was cut in a position where the varying layer thickness and the varying layer tilt simultaneously satisfy the Fresnel zone plate condition and Bragg’s law for all layers in the stack. This method can be used to extend the achievable numerical aperture of multilayer Laue lenses to reach considerably smaller focal spot sizes than achievable with lenses composed of parallel layers.

  12. Characterization of CNRS Fizeau wedge laser tuner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A fringe detection and measurement system was constructed for use with the CNRS Fizeau wedge laser tuner, consisting of three circuit boards. The first board is a standard Reticon RC-100 B motherboard which is used to provide the timing, video processing, and housekeeping functions required by the Reticon RL-512 G photodiode array used in the system. The sampled and held video signal from the motherboard is processed by a second, custom fabricated circuit board which contains a high speed fringe detection and locating circuit. This board includes a dc level discriminator type fringe detector, a counter circuit to determine fringe center, a pulsed laser triggering circuit, and a control circuit to operate the shutter for the He-Ne reference laser beam. The fringe center information is supplied to the third board, a commercial single board computer, which governs the data collection process and interprets the results.

  13. Cesarean section in a wedged head.

    PubMed

    Khosla, A H; Dahiya, K; Sangwan, K

    2003-05-01

    Cesarean section many a times, has to be done late in labour when the head is deeply wedged in the pelvis. The techniques described in standard text books, usually result in extension of the incision either laterally into the broad ligament or vertically upwards into the upper segment or downwards posterior to the bladder from the centre of the incision line. In this study we have reviewed the Patwardhan's technique for the extraction of baby and fetomaternal outcome was compared with cases where this technique was not used. There was no extension of the incision either laterally into broad ligament or upwards or downwards. Haemorrhage due to extension of incision requiring blood transfusion occurred in 24% of patients in group II as compared to nil in group I. PMID:14514249

  14. Characterization of CNRS Fizeau wedge laser tuner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A fringe detection and measurement system was constructed for use with the CNRS Fizeau wedge laser tuner, consisting of three circuit boards. The first board is a standard Reticon RC-100 B motherboard which is used to provide the timing, video processing, and housekeeping functions required by the Reticon RL-512 G photodiode array used in the system. The sampled and held video signal from the motherboard is processed by a second, custom fabricated circuit board which contains a high speed fringe detection and locating circuit. This board includes a dc level discriminator type fringe detector, a counter circuit to determine fringe center, a pulsed laser triggering circuit, and a control circuit to operate the shutter for the He-Ne reference laser beam. The fringe center information is supplied to the third board, a commercial single board computer, which governs the data collection process and interprets the results.

  15. Configuration and Generation of Substorm Current Wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xiangning

    The substorm current wedge (SCW), a core element of substorm dynamics coupling the magnetotail to the ionosphere, is crucial in understanding substorms. It has been suggested that the field-aligned currents (FACs) in the SCW are caused by either pressure gradients or flow vortices, or both. Our understanding of FAC generations is based predominately on numerical simulations, because it has not been possible to organize spacecraft observations in a coordinate system determined by the SCW. This dissertation develops an empirical inversion model of the current wedge and inverts midlatitude magnetometer data to obtain the parameters of the current wedge for three solar cycles. This database enables statistical data analysis of spacecraft plasma and magnetic field observations relative to the SCW coordinate. In chapter 2, a new midlatitude positive bay (MPB) index is developed and calculated for three solar cycles of data. The MPB index is processed to determine the substorm onset time, which is shown to correspond to the auroral breakup onset with at most 1-2 minutes difference. Substorm occurrence rate is found to depend on solar wind speed while substorm duration is rather constant, suggesting that substorm process has an intrinsic pattern independent of external driving. In chapter 3, an SCW inversion technique is developed to determine the strength and locations of the FACs in an SCW. The inversion parameters for FAC strength and location, and ring current strength are validated by comparison with other measurements. In chapter 4, the connection between earthward flows and auroral poleward expansion is examined using improved mapping, obtained from a newly-developed dynamic magnetospheric model by superimposing a standard magnetospheric field model with substorm current wedge obtained from the inversion technique. It is shown that the ionospheric projection of flows observed at a fixed point in the equatorial plane map to the bright aurora as it expands poleward

  16. The matching of wedge transmission factors across six multi-energy linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Weston, S J; Thompson, R C A; Morgan, A M

    2007-01-01

    Elekta Precise linear accelerators create a wedged isodose distribution using a single, fixed, motorized wedge with a nominal wedge angle of 60 degrees. Wedge angles of less than 60 degrees can be produced by varying the proportion of open and wedge monitor units for a given exposure. The fixed wedge can be replaced with a mobile wedge, the position of which can be moved in order to adjust the wedge transmission factor (WTF). Using the original fixed wedges installed in our fleet of six Elekta accelerators, we found a range of 4% in measured wedge transmission factor for 6 MV beams. Results are presented which demonstrate that by using the mobile wedge it is possible to match the wedge transmission factors to within 1% for the six linear accelerators over three energies. PMID:17267473

  17. Standardizing texture and facies codes for a process-based classification of clastic sediment and rock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrell, K.M.; Harris, W.B.; Mallinson, D.J.; Culver, S.J.; Riggs, S.R.; Pierson, J.; ,; Lautier, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Proposed here is a universally applicable, texturally based classification of clastic sediment that is independent from composition, cementation, and geologic environment, is closely allied to process sedimentology, and applies to all compartments in the source-to-sink system. The classification is contingent on defining the term "clastic" so that it is independent from composition or origin and includes any particles or grains that are subject to erosion, transportation, and deposition. Modifications to Folk's (1980) texturally based classification that include applying new assumptions and defining a broader array of textural fields are proposed to accommodate this. The revised ternary diagrams include additional textural fields that better define poorly sorted and coarse-grained deposits, so that all end members (gravel, sand, and mud size fractions) are included in textural codes. Revised textural fields, or classes, are based on a strict adherence to volumetric estimates of percentages of gravel, sand, and mud size grain populations, which by definition must sum to 100%. The new classification ensures that descriptors are applied consistently to all end members in the ternary diagram (gravel, sand, and mud) according to several rules, and that none of the end members are ignored. These modifications provide bases for standardizing vertical displays of texture in graphic logs, lithofacies codes, and their derivatives- hydrofacies. Hydrofacies codes are nondirectional permeability indicators that predict aquifer or reservoir potential. Folk's (1980) ternary diagram for fine-grained clastic sediments (sand, silt, and clay size fractions) is also revised to preserve consistency with the revised diagram for gravel, sand, and mud. Standardizing texture ensures that the principles of process sedimentology are consistently applied to compositionally variable rock sequences, such as mixed carbonate-siliciclastic ramp settings, and the extreme ends of depositional

  18. Migration and sedimentation of clastic sediments from beach to inner shelf off Miho Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Shuro; Nemoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Shin-Ichiro; Kitoh, Takeshi; Kimura, Kenshi

    The coastal erosion is a serious problem in Japan, especially along a coast of the Miho Peninsula, Shizuoka. Since 1980's, numerous coastal structures have been built and nourishments have been performed for protection and preservation of the coastline, however, it has not become a fundamental solution so far. The mechanisms of clastic sediment transport, timing of the coastal erosion, and an influence of the erosional debris to a seafloor are not clearly understood. It is important to examine the problem of the coastal erosion from the beach to the continental shelf comprehensively. This paper describes topographic changes from the beach to the inner shelf to see seasonal variation and examines the relation of the coastal erosion and clastic sediment transport. The following results are discussed; 1) A timing and amount of the coastal erosion are examined in wave-dominated zone. The coastal erosion occurs dominantly at summer and autumn seasons when several typhoons hit the coast, and the coastal geographical feature change in winter and spring seasons is not significant. The seafloor becomes depositional zone when the coastal erosion occurs. 2) Several bulges of the sea floor (Coastal Swells) are found just seaward side of the coastal structures. Numerous linear and positive topographic features (Sand Ridges) are found off these Coastal Swells. The topographic characteristics determined by narrow multi-beam system and grain size analysis on dredged samples together suggest bottom materials of these positive topographic features are results from masstransportation from the coast to shelf. 3) Configurations of subaqueous dunes distributed at the northern part (the Hagoromo Spur) of the study area were clearly changed for about half a year. These changes reflect the influence of the storm, typhoons during summer and autumn seasons. 4) Sedimentary environment is greatly different between the northern and southern parts of the study area. In the northern part (the

  19. Foreland-forearc collisional granitoid and mafic magmatism caused by lower-plate lithospheric slab breakoff: The Acadian of Maine, and other orogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoonmaker, A.; Kidd, W.S.F.; Bradley, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    During collisional convergence, failure in extension of the lithosphere of the lower plate due to slab pull will reduce the thickness or completely remove lower-plate lithosphere and cause decompression melting of the asthenospheric mantle; magmas from this source may subsequently provide enough heat for substantial partial melting of crustal rocks under or beyond the toe of the collisional accretionary system. In central Maine, United States, this type of magmatism is first apparent in the Early Devonian West Branch Volcanics and equivalent mafic volcanics, in the slightly younger voluminous mafic/silicic magmatic event of the Moxie Gabbro-Katahdin batholith and related ignimbrite volcanism, and in other Early Devonian granitic plutons. Similar lower-plate collisional sequences with mafic and related silicic magmatism probably caused by slab breakoff are seen in the Miocene-Holocene Papuan orogen, and the Hercynian-Alleghenian belt. Magmatism of this type is significant because it gives evidence in those examples of whole-lithosphere extension. We infer that normal fault systems in outer trench slopes of collisional orogens in general, and possibly those of oceanic subduction zones, may not be primarily due to flexural bending, but are also driven by whole-lithosphere extension due to slab pull. The Maine Acadian example suggests that slab failure and this type of magmatism may be promoted by pre-existing large margin-parallel faults in the lower plate. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  20. Analysis of Oblique Wedges Using Analog and Numerical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, S. S.; Koster, K.; Martin, R. S.; Flesch, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    Oblique plate motion is understood to be a primary factor in determining the style and location of deformation at many convergent margins. These margins are frequently characterized by a dominant strike-slip fault parallel to the margin, which accommodates margin-parallel motion and shear and is adjacent to partitioned and near margin-normal thrusting. We have performed a series of analog experiment in which we have simulated oblique wedges with frictional and layered, friction over viscous, rheologies. Using the detailed analysis of topography and strain from these analog models we have compared them to geometrically similar 2D and 3D numerical models. While our pure frictional analog wedges are characterized by numerous discrete thrust faults in the pro-wedge and a zone of shear between the pro-wedge and the retro-wedges, our layered wedges have a dominate shear zone that is long-lived. In all models the highest rate of contractional deformation is at the thrust front, while the highest rate of shear is isolated in a relatively narrow zone at the back of the pro-wedge. Because the layered analog wedge is better able isolate shear behind the pro-wedge it can better partition strain into dip-slip thrusting normal to the margin. Our numerical simulations support the assertion that a relatively small amount of extensional stress is needed to play a significant role in the structural evolution of convergent systems. However, the manner in which this stress is localized on discrete structures, and in particular, how the style of strain (extension or contraction) will evolve, is a strong function of rheology and its strength at depth for a given initial geometry.

  1. Fan-delta and interdeltaic shoreline sediments of Middle Devonian Granite Wash and Keg River clastics, Red Earth field, north Alberta basin, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Sabry, H.

    1989-03-01

    A detailed sedimentological investigation of over 4000 ft of core and 500 well logs of the Middle Devonian granite wash and Keg River clastics in the Red Earth field, North Alberta basin, Canada, has led to the recognition of a granite wash subaerial fan-delta system that is laterally continuous with a Keg River subaqueous delta component along an eastern shoreline of the ancestral Peace River arch. The subaerial fan delta includes alluvial fan facies, sheet wash and mud flows, and playa lakes. The subaqueous delta component includes lower shoreface, upper shoreface, beach-foreshore, eolian sand dunes, lagoon, washover sands, tidal channels and flats, and supratidal carbonates and anhydrites. Within this system, six mappable units are defined. A conceptual depositional model for the sequence depicts four main events. (1) Erosion of Peach River arch uplifted fault blocks, which produced coarse-grained fan-delta sediments in an adjacent fault-bounded margin. Subsequent fluvial reworking resulted in the deposition of thick, lenticular, wedge-shaped alluvial fans of granite wash. (2) Progradation of alluvial fans seaward into the Keg River Sea. (3) Transgression by Middle Devonian seas from the east, which reworked alluvial fans and led to deposition of discontinuous linear sand bodies represented by the Keg River regressive shoreline sediments. (4) Restriction of the sea by the Presqu'ile barrier reef to the north, which deposited evaporites of the Muskeg Formation over the whole sequence. Modern analog to this fan-delta system is the coastal fans of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Red Earth field contains over 27 million bbl of recoverable oil, related to a combination structural-stratigraphic trap.

  2. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew G. Cole; George B. Asquith; Jose I. Guzman; Mark D. Barton; Mohammad A. Malik; Shirley P. Dutton; Sigrid J. Clift

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based enhanced oil recovery. The study focused on the Ford Geraldine unit, which produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). Reservoirs in this and other Delaware Mountain Group fields have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Outcrop analogs were studied to better interpret the depositional processes that formed the reservoirs at the Ford Geraldine unit and to determine the dimensions of reservoir sandstone bodies. Facies relationships and bedding architecture within a single genetic unit exposed in outcrop in Culberson County, Texas, suggest that the sandstones were deposited in a system of channels and levees with attached lobes that initially prograded basinward, aggraded, and then turned around and stepped back toward the shelf. Channel sandstones are 10 to 60 ft thick and 300 to 3,000 ft wide. The flanking levees have a wedge-shaped geometry and are composed of interbedded sandstone and siltstone; thickness varies from 3 to 20 ft and length from several hundred to several thousands of feet. The lobe sandstones are broad lens-shaped bodies; thicknesses range up to 30 ft with aspect ratios (width/thickness) of 100 to 10,000. Lobe sandstones may be interstratified with laminated siltstones.

  3. Recirculating wedges for metal-vapor plasma tubes

    DOEpatents

    Hall, J.P.; Sawvel, R.M.; Draggoo, V.G.

    1994-06-28

    A metal vapor laser is disclosed that recycles condensed metal located at the terminal ends of a plasma tube back toward the center of the tube. A pair of arcuate wedges are incorporated on the bottom of the plasma tube near the terminal ends. The wedges slope downward toward the center so that condensed metal may be transported under the force of gravity away from the terminal ends. The wedges are curved to fit the plasma tube to thereby avoid forming any gaps within the tube interior. 8 figures.

  4. Recirculating wedges for metal-vapor plasma tubes

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jerome P.; Sawvel, Robert M.; Draggoo, Vaughn G.

    1994-01-01

    A metal vapor laser is disclosed that recycles condensed metal located at the terminal ends of a plasma tube back toward the center of the tube. A pair of arcuate wedges are incorporated on the bottom of the plasma tube near the terminal ends. The wedges slope downward toward the center so that condensed metal may be transported under the force of gravity away from the terminal ends. The wedges are curved to fit the plasma tube to thereby avoid forming any gaps within the tube interior.

  5. Octave spanning wedge dispersive mirrors with low dispersion oscillations.

    PubMed

    Habel, Florian; Shirvanyan, Vage; Trubetskov, Michael; Burger, Christian; Sommer, Annkatrin; Kling, Matthias F; Schultze, Martin; Pervak, Vladimir

    2016-05-01

    A novel concept for octave spanning dispersive mirrors with low spectral dispersion oscillations is presented. The key element of the so-called wedge dispersive mirror is a slightly wedged layer which is coated on a specially optimized dispersive multilayer stack by a common sputter coating process. The group delay dispersion (GDD) of a pulse reflected on a wedge dispersive mirror is nearly free of oscillations. Fabricated mirrors with negative GDD demonstrate the compression of a pulse down to 3.8 fs as good as double angled mirrors optimized for the same bandwidth.

  6. Ancient Yedoma carbon loss: primed by ice wedge thaw?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdy, K. L.; Vonk, J. E.; Mann, P. J.; Zimov, N.; Bulygina, E. B.; Davydova, A.; Spencer, R. G.; Holmes, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Northeast Siberian permafrost is dominated by frozen Yedoma deposits containing ca. 500 Gt of carbon, nearly a quarter of northern permafrost organic carbon (OC). Yedoma deposits are Pleistocene-age alluvial and/or aeolian accumulations characterized by high ice wedge content (~50%), making them particularly vulnerable to a warming climate and to surface collapse upon thaw. Dissolved OC in streams originating primarily from Yedoma has been shown to be highly biolabile, relative to waters containing more modern OC. The cause of this biolability, however, remains speculative. Here we investigate the influence of ice wedge input upon the bioavailability of Yedoma within streams from as a potential cause of Yedoma carbon biolability upon release into the Kolyma River from the thaw-eroding river exposures of Duvannyi Yar, NE Siberia. We measured biolability on (1) ice wedge, Kolyma, and Yedoma leachate controls; (2) ice wedge and Kolyma plus Yedoma OC (8 g/L); and (3) varying ratios of ice wedge water to Kolyma river water. Biolability assays were conducted using both 5-day BOD (biological oxygen demand) and 11-day BDOC (biodegradable dissolved organic carbon) incubations. We found that ancient DOC in Yedoma soil leachate alone was highly biolabile with losses of 52±0.1% C over a 5-day BOD incubation. Similarly, DOC contained in pure ice wedge water was found to be biolabile, losing 21±0% C during a 5-day BOD incubation. Increased ice wedge contributions led to higher overall C losses in identical Yedoma soil leachates, with 8.9±0.6% losses of Yedoma C with 100% ice wedge water, 7.1±1% (50% ice wedge/ 50% Kolyma) and 5±0.3% with 100% Kolyma River water. We discuss potential mechanisms for the increased loss of ancient C using associated measurements of nutrient availability, carbon quality (CDOM/FDOM) and extracellular enzyme activity rates. Our initial results indicate that ice wedge meltwater forming Yedoma streams makes Yedoma OC more bioavailable than it would

  7. GPR Imaging of Clastic Dikes at the Hanford Site, Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, William P.; Murray, Christopher J.

    2007-12-08

    We use ground penetrating radar (GPR) data to help determine the spatial distribution and the subsurface geometry of clastic injection dikes at the Hanford site. This information will help to improve the understanding of the hydrological role of these ubiquitous clastic dikes at the Han¬ford Site. We collected 100 MHz ground penetrating radar (GPR) 3D surface reflection data at two sites, the S-16 Pond and the Army Loop Road sites, and 2D reflection data along a 6.9 km lin¬ear transect near the Army Loop Road site. The dikes are distinguished in the GPR data by a strongly attenuated zone, disruptions in the continuity of reflections, and diffractions where reflections are disrupted. In general, the data quality is better at the Army Loop Road and Traverse sites than at the S-16 Pond site, probably due to the presence of cobbles at the S-16 Pond site. A high-moisture, fine-grained unit probably causes the strong reflections at the Army Loop Road site and the Traverse survey site. The signal penetration varies between 5 to 12 m below the land surface.

  8. The paleomagnetism of clastic and precipitate deposits in limestone and dolomite caves

    SciTech Connect

    Latham, A.G. ); Ford, D.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Clastic sediments and calcite precipitates (stalagmites, flowstones, etc.) are abundant in modern limestone caves and normally are the dominant infillings in buried (paleokarst) caves. Clastic sediment fillings are chiefly of fluviatile or local breakdown origin, but lacustrine, colluvial, eolian, and glacial deposits are known. Paleomagnetism has been studied in the fluviatile and lacustrine types: (1) reversal stratigraphy aids dating of geomorphic and paleoclimatic events in the late Pliocene/Pleistocene; (2) fine magnetostratigraphy has yielded estimates of the westward drift. Calcite precipitates (speleothems) may display natural remanent magnetism of either depositional (DRM) or chemical (CRM) origin. NRMs of modern speleothems are primary, not diagenetic; CRMs are invariably associated with the degradation of surface organic matter. (1) Coarse reversal stratigraphy dates geomorphic, etc., events and erosion rates. (2) Fine stratigraphy combined with {sup 230}Th:{sup 234}U dating gives high precision estimates of secular variation, westward drift, and rate of change of geomagnetic anomalies in upper Pleistocene and Holocene deposits. Magnetostratigraphy of paleokarst speleothem fillings associated with hydrocarbons in Ordovician limestones suggest a Permian age for the karstification. Potential applications of magnetostratigraphy to paleokarst deposits of many different scales are considerable.

  9. VIEW OF LINE OF DRILL HOLES WITH METAL WEDGES, IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LINE OF DRILL HOLES WITH METAL WEDGES, IN NORTHERN QUARRY AREA, FACING NORTH - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  10. VIEW OF LINE OF DRILL HOLES WITH METAL WEDGES, IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LINE OF DRILL HOLES WITH METAL WEDGES, IN NORTHERN QUARRY AREA, FACING SOUTHEAST - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  11. DETAIL VIEW OF THREEPART METAL WEDGE EMBEDDED IN EDGE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THREE-PART METAL WEDGE EMBEDDED IN EDGE OF QUARRY WALL, FACING NORTHWEST - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 3, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  12. DETAIL VIEW OF THREEPART METAL WEDGE EMBEDDED IN EDGE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THREE-PART METAL WEDGE EMBEDDED IN EDGE OF QUARRY WALL, FACING EAST - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 3, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  13. Single-photon cooling in a wedge billiard

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, S.; Sundaram, B.; Raizen, M. G.

    2010-09-15

    Single-photon cooling (SPC), noted for its potential as a versatile method for cooling a variety of atomic species, has recently been demonstrated experimentally. In this paper, we study possible ways to improve the performance of SPC by applying it to atoms trapped inside a wedge billiard. The main feature of the wedge billiard for atoms, also experimentally realized recently, is that the nature of atomic trajectories within it changes from stable periodic orbit to random chaotic motion with the change in wedge angle. We find that a high cooling efficiency is possible in this system with a relatively weak dependence on the wedge angle and that chaotic dynamics, rather than a regular orbit, is more desirable for enhancing the performance of SPC.

  14. Structure and Kinematics of the Indo-Burmese Wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurin, T.; Rangin, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Burma subduction trench and the associated Indo Burmese wedge mark the present eastern boundary of the Indian plate in the northern Bengal area. The initiation, duration and history of the Bengal crust subduction beneath Burma is still debated. The aim of this paper is to provide a structural and kinematic analysis of the Indo- Burmese wedge in order to better constraints the Bengal crust subduction history beneath Burma. On the basis of field observations, seismic reflection data interpretation and well logs data we present a structural analysis of the Outer Indo-Burmese Wedge. We also constrain the onset of this Outer Wedge to be younger than 2Ma, implying a recent and fast westward growth (~10cm/yr) since Late Pliocene in close relationship with the onset of the Shillong plateau. Restoration process of a synthetic cross section through the Outer Wedge allowed us to estimate the amount of EW shortening accommodated in the Outer Wedge to be 5.1mm/yr since 2Ma. These results combined with previous available GPS data from central Myanmar suggest strain partitioning at wedge scale. The core of the wedge is affected by shear deformation and acts as a buttress for a frontal wedge that accommodates a more compressive strain component. Finally we propose that the main characteristic of the Indo-Burmese wedge growth mechanism is the progressive incorporation of the most internal part of the wedge, formerly affected by transpressive thin-skinned tectonics, to the buttress where they are subsequently affected by shear deformation. The crustal structure boarding the newly formed buttress seems to be guided by the subducting crust fabrics. We are in favour of a very recent (Late Miocene) onset of the present Indian crust subduction beneath Burma coeval with the global plate kinematics reorganisation related to the Indian/Australian plate spliting. This subduction postdates the Indo Burmese range onset that must have started in early Miocene. This range first began to

  15. Structure and Kinematics of the Indo-Burmese Wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurin, T.; Rangin, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Burma subduction trench and the associated Indo Burmese wedge mark the present eastern boundary of the Indian plate in the northern Bengal area. The initiation, duration and history of the Bengal crust subduction beneath Burma is still debated. The aim of this paper is to provide a structural and kinematic analysis of the Indo- Burmese wedge in order to better constraints the Bengal crust subduction history beneath Burma. On the basis of field observations, seismic reflection data interpretation and well logs data we present a structural analysis of the Outer Indo-Burmese Wedge. We also constrain the onset of this Outer Wedge to be younger than 2Ma, implying a recent and fast westward growth (~10cm/yr) since Late Pliocene in close relationship with the onset of the Shillong plateau. Restoration process of a synthetic cross section through the Outer Wedge allowed us to estimate the amount of EW shortening accommodated in the Outer Wedge to be 5.1mm/yr since 2Ma. These results combined with previous available GPS data from central Myanmar suggest strain partitioning at wedge scale. The core of the wedge is affected by shear deformation and acts as a buttress for a frontal wedge that accommodates a more compressive strain component. Finally we propose that the main characteristic of the Indo-Burmese wedge growth mechanism is the progressive incorporation of the most internal part of the wedge, formerly affected by transpressive thin-skinned tectonics, to the buttress where they are subsequently affected by shear deformation. The crustal structure boarding the newly formed buttress seems to be guided by the subducting crust fabrics. We are in favour of a very recent (Late Miocene) onset of the present Indian crust subduction beneath Burma coeval with the global plate kinematics reorganisation related to the Indian/Australian plate spliting. This subduction postdates the Indo Burmese range onset that must have started in early Miocene. This range first began to

  16. Early Pennsylvanian wrenching along the Red River-Matador Arch: Formation of a pull-apart basin, Depocenter for Atokan to Lower Des Moines (bend) clastics, Cottle County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, W.C. Jr.; Gunn, R.D.

    1995-06-01

    Early Pennsylvanian wrenching along the Red River-Matador Arch (Tectonic Zone) created a braided series of en echelon faults and folds with associated pop-up structures and pull-apart basins. Local extension, or overstepping, in Southeast Cottle County, Texas, has produced the deepest pull-apart basin along the arch with over 10,000` of structural relief. The emerging Wichita-Amarillo Uplift, to the north, provided an abundant sediment source, which prograded rapidly southward as an alluvial fan-braided river complex. Exposure of basement rocks and lower Paleozoic sediments along the Red River-Matador Arch, also contributed to the basin fill. Syntectonic sedimentation led to the accumulation of over 6000` of Bend (Atoka-lower Des Moines) sediments within the basin. Deposition was dominated initially by alluvial fan to fluvial siliciclastics. As basin subsidence was further amplified by sediment loading, accommodation exceeded sedimentation capturing a large segment of the southward prograding Wichita-Amarillo derived clastic wedge. Encroachment of the late Atoka to lower Des Moines epeiric sea promoted further evolution of depositional environments to fan deltas, marine dominated clastics and, later, localized carbonate development. Type III kerogen rich organic shales produced abundant gas prone source rocks. The extreme depth of the basin combined with the local geothermal gradient provided for significant hydrocarbon generation. By early 1988 new well control helped revise previous stratigraphic correlation demonstrating a rapidly expanding lower Des Moines to Atokan section. The drilling of the Gunn Oil Company-Brothers No. 1 to a total depth of 10,301` in the Mississippian Chappel Limestone, encountered 2025` of Bend sediments, with 279` of gross Bend Conglomerate (162` of net pay). The Brothers No. 1 was potentialled on 11/19/89 with a CAOF of 6.0 MMCFD and filed as the field discovery for the Broken Bone (Bend Conglomerate) field.

  17. The statics of the wedge-shaped jar opener

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donolato, C.

    2015-11-01

    This paper analyzes the static equilibrium of a simple jar opener on the basis of rigid-body mechanics with friction. The opener-lid system is described as a disk lying inside a wedge, where only one side has friction; the disk is assumed to be acted upon by a wedging force and a torque. The resulting equilibrium equations have an exact solution that yields the non-sliding conditions for the disk as functions of applied forces and system parameters.

  18. Modeling Structural and Mechanical Responses to Localized Erosional Processes on a Bivergent Orogenic Wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzen, R.; Morgan, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    Critical Coulomb wedge theory established that orogenic and accretionary wedges should develop self-similarly and maintain a critical taper that reflects the balance of strength of the wedge material and a basal décollement. However, a variety of geological processes can perturb that balance, forcing readjustment of the wedge. For example, glacial erosion and landsliding can concentrate erosion on a localized portion of the wedge slope, leaving that portion of the wedge with an out-of-equilibrium slope that would need to re-develop for the wedge to resume self-similar growth. We use the discrete element method to analyze how growing bivergent wedges with different cohesive strengths respond structurally and mechanically to erosional events localized along upper, middle, and lower segments of the pro-wedge. Mechanically, pro-wedge erosion results in a sudden decrease followed by a quick recovery of the mean stress and maximum shear stress throughout the pro-wedge. However, when erosion is localized in the mid- to lower portions of the pro-wedge, a zone of increased mean stress develops where the wedge is concentrating deformation to recover its taper. In contrast, when erosion is localized in the upper axial zone, there is almost no recovery of the wedge taper, reflecting the fact that the material at the top of the wedge is being carried passively in a transition zone between the pro-wedge and retro-wedge. Structurally, wedges composed of lower cohesion material recover their critical taper almost immediately through distributed deformation, while wedges of higher-cohesion material recover more slowly, and incompletely, by concentrating deformation along existing fault surfaces. As a result, localized erosional episodes can have a lasting effect on the wedge morphology when the wedge is composed of higher cohesion material.

  19. Challenges modeling clastic eruptions: applications to the Lusi mud eruption, East Java, Indonesia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collignon, Marine; Schmid, Daniel; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    Clastic eruptions involve brecciation and transport of the hosting rocks by ascent fluids (gas and/or liquids), resulting in a mixture of rock clasts and fluids (i.e. mud breccia). This kind of eruptions is often associated with geological features such as mud volcanoes, hydrothermal vents or more generically with piercement structures. Over the past decades, several numerical models, often based on those used in volcanology, have been employed to better understand the behavior of such clastics systems. However, modeling multiphase flow is challenging, and therefore most of the models are considering only one phase flow. Many chemical, mechanical and physical aspects remain still poorly understood. In particular, the rheology of the fluid is one of the most important aspects, but also the most difficult to characterize. Experimental flow curves can be obtained on the finest fraction, but coarser particles (> 1mm) are usually neglected. While these experimental measurements usually work well on magma, they are much more difficult to perform when clay minerals are involved. As an initial step, we use analytical and simplified numerical models (flow in a pipe) to better understand the flow dynamics within a main conduit connected to an overpressured reservoir. The 2D numerical model solves the stokes equations, discretized on a finite element mesh. The solid phase is treated as rigid particles in suspension in the liquid. The gaseous phase (methane and carbon dioxide) is treated in an analytical manner using the equations of state of the H2O-CO2 and H2O-CH4 systems. Here, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art in modeling clastic eruptions as well as the limitations and challenges of such numerical models. We also discuss the challenges associated to the specific case of Lusi. In particular the difficulty to characterize the mud properties and the technical challenges associated with the acquisition of new data and development of more sophisticated models

  20. 40Ar/39Ar whole-rock data constraints on Acadian diagenesis and Alleghanian cleavage in the Martinsburg Formation, eastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wintsch, R.P.; Kunk, M.J.; Epstein, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of 40Ar/39Ar age spectra of whole-rock mudstone and slate samples from the Ordovician Martinsburg Formation at Lehigh Gap, Pennsylvania, and stratigraphic and thermal constraints support an Alleghanian age for regional slaty cleavage and a late Acadian age for diagenesis in these rocks. Age spectra from mudstones have a sigmoidal shape, with slopes that climb steeply from apparent Mesozoic ages to intermediate saddle regions with Devonian apparent ages, and then climb steeply again to Late Proterozoic apparent ages. The steps with these oldest apparent ages are interpreted to be dominated by Late Proterozoic detrital muscovite. The saddle region of the mudstone samples gives very Late Silurian to earliest Devonian ages, which are maximum ages of diagenetic micas and which eliminate a Taconic age for the cleavage. The ages of the saddle regions of the slate samples containing cleavage-forming muscovite is

  1. Textural aspects of high T-low P polymetamorphism in the Rangeley area, western Maine: General implications for studies of Acadian metamorphic rocks in New England

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, C.V. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    High T-Low P polymetamorphism in W. Maine results from overlapping, regionally extensive thermal aureoles around sheet-like granitic plutons. At least five metamorphic events have been recognized. The Rangeley-Oquossoc (R-O) area was affected by two high T, static events (M[sub 2] and M[sub 3]). M[sub 2], (400 Ma) developed and + St + Bt regionally. M[sub 3] (370 Ma), due to heating by the sheet-like Mooselookmeguntic Pluton (MP), is superimposed on M[sub 2] such that near the MP, M[sub 2] rocks were prograded to upper sillimanite zone, migmatitic gneisses. To the E., M[sub 2] rocks have been downgraded to garnet zone. Mineral chemistry and assemblage data strongly suggest that M[sub 3] parageneses closely approximated a new equilibrium. These temporally separate superimposed events produced pseudomorphic replacement textures; in the E. by downgrade reactions; in the W. by prograde reactions. The nature of the downgrade or prograde pseudomorphs reflects where they occur in the M[sub 3] range of metamorphic grades. Some authors have interpreted these textures as due to continuous PTt paths or K-metasomatism. Even worse, in some studies the textures are simply ignored and mineral assemblages merely assumed to be the result of a single, equilibrium metamorphic event. The three Al-silicate rocks in the Littleton-Mooselauke area of New Hampshire probably fall in this latter category. It is suggested that in most cases such textures are best interpreted as the R-O area. Metamorphic textures probably are unique in some aspects related to the details of the metamorphism(s) of the given area. However, in New England the commonness in Acadian metamorphic rocks of textures similar to those found in the fortuitously well displayed example of temporally separated polymetamorphism in the R-O area suggests a basis to recognize similar histories elsewhere.

  2. Sedimentology of clastic rocks from the Fra Mauro region of the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A thin-section examination of sixteen clastic rock samples returned by the Apollo 14 mission from the Fra Mauro region of the moon suggests the presence of at least two distinctly different lithologies. Five of the samples (group I) are characterized by an abundant glassy matrix and glass particles and lesser amounts of plagioclase and pyroxene grains, and lithic clasts. The other eleven samples (group II) are relatively fine grained, very poorly sorted, and consist largely of pyroxene, plagioclase, and lithic clasts set in an abundant mineralic matrix. Group I and II lithologies were probably both deposited from impact generated base surges. The differences between them stem not as much from the basic sedimentary processes as from the differences in the magnitude of the events generating the base surges and the resultant difference in available detrital materials.

  3. Clastic Breccias at the Slates Islands Complex Impact Structure, Northern Lake Superior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Sharpton, V. L.; Schnieders, B.; Scott, J.

    1996-01-01

    About 150 impact craters are known on Earth and each year several structures are added to this number. The general geology of the Slate Islands archipelago has been described by Sage (1991) and a short summary based on Sage's work is given in Dressler et al. (1995). The reader is referred to these publications for information on the bedrock geology of the island group. Early studies on the Slate Islands impact structure include: Halls and Grieve (1976), Grieve and Robertson (1976) and Stesky and Halls (1983). In this report, we provide a summary of the impact process as presently understood. We also present some of the results of our laboratory investigations conducted in 1995 and 1996. We describe in some detail the various clastic breccias encountered on the islands during our 1994 and 1995 field work and relate them to the various phases of the impact process. A more encompassing treatise on the breccias has been submitted for publication. (Dressler and Sharpton 1996).

  4. Clastic dikes of Heart Mountain fault breccia, northwestern Wyoming, and their significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, W.G.

    1979-01-01

    Structural features in northwestern Wyoming indicate that the Heart Mountain fault movement was an extremely rapid, cataclysmic event that created a large volume of carbonate fault breccia derived entirely from the lower part of the upper plate. After fault movement had ceased, much of the carbonate fault breccia, here called calcibreccia, lay loose on the resulting surface of tectonic denudation. Before this unconsolidated calcibreccia could be removed by erosion, it was buried beneath a cover of Tertiary volcanic rocks: the Wapiti Formation, composed of volcanic breccia, poorly sorted volcanic breccia mudflows, and lava flows, and clearly shown in many places by inter lensing and intermixing of the calcibreccia with basal volcanic rocks. As the weight of volcanic overburden increased, the unstable water-saturated calcibreccia became mobile and semifluid and was injected upward as dikes into the overlying volcanic rocks and to a lesser extent into rocks of the upper plate. In some places the lowermost part of the volcanic overburden appears to have flowed with the calcibreccia to form dike like bodies of mixed volcanic rock and calcibreccia. One calcibreccia dike even contains carbonized wood, presumably incorporated into unconsolidated calcibreccia on the surface of tectonic denudation and covered by volcanic rocks before moving upward with the dike. Angular xenoliths of Precambrian rocks, enclosed in another calcibreccia dike and in an adjoining dikelike mass of volcanic rock as well, are believed to have been torn from the walls of a vent and incorporated into the basal part of the Wapiti Formation overlying the clastic carbonate rock on the fault surface. Subsequently, some of these xenoliths were incorporated into the calcibreccia during the process of dike intrusion. Throughout the Heart Mountain fault area, the basal part of the upper-plate blocks or masses are brecciated, irrespective of the size of the blocks, more intensely at the base and in places

  5. Clastic sedimentary rocks of the Michipicoten Volcanic-sedimentary belt, Wawa, Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojakangas, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Wawa area, part of the Michipicoten greenstone belt, contains rock assemblages representative of volcanic sedimentary accumulations elsewhere on the shield. Three mafic to felsic metavolcanic sequences and cogenetic granitic rocks range in age from 2749 + or - 2Ma to 2696 + or - 2Ma. Metasedimentary rocks occur between the metavolcanic sequences. The total thickness of the supracrustal rocks may be 10,000 m. Most rocks have been metamorphosed under greenschist conditions. The belt has been studied earlier and is currently being remapped by Sage. The sedimentrologic work has been briefly summarized; two mainfacies associations of clastic sedimentary rocks are present - a Resedimented (Turbidite) Facies Association and a Nonmarine (Alluvial Fan Fluvial) Facies Association.

  6. Aligning Optical Fibers by Means of Actuated MEMS Wedges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Brian; Ghodssi, Reza

    2007-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) of a proposed type would be designed and fabricated to effect lateral and vertical alignment of optical fibers with respect to optical, electro-optical, optoelectronic, and/or photonic devices on integrated circuit chips and similar monolithic device structures. A MEMS device of this type would consist of a pair of oppositely sloped alignment wedges attached to linear actuators that would translate the wedges in the plane of a substrate, causing an optical fiber in contact with the sloping wedge surfaces to undergo various displacements parallel and perpendicular to the plane. In making it possible to accurately align optical fibers individually during the packaging stages of fabrication of the affected devices, this MEMS device would also make it possible to relax tolerances in other stages of fabrication, thereby potentially reducing costs and increasing yields. In a typical system according to the proposal (see Figure 1), one or more pair(s) of alignment wedges would be positioned to create a V groove in which an optical fiber would rest. The fiber would be clamped at a suitable distance from the wedges to create a cantilever with a slight bend to push the free end of the fiber gently to the bottom of the V groove. The wedges would be translated in the substrate plane by amounts Dx1 and Dx2, respectively, which would be chosen to move the fiber parallel to the plane by a desired amount Dx and perpendicular to the plane by a desired amount Dy. The actuators used to translate the wedges could be variants of electrostatic or thermal actuators that are common in MEMS.

  7. Insights on frictional processes in sheared clastic marine sediments using ultrasonic nondestructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, M. W.; Tobin, H. J.; Marone, C.; Ikari, M.

    2010-12-01

    We investigate changes in the elastic properties of deforming core materials recovered from the Nankai Trough Accretionary Prism along the IODP NanTroSEIZE transect. We shear clastic marine sediments while simultaneously making ultrasonic velocity measurements across the deforming layers. Examining the resulting changes in elastic moduli at the laboratory scale allows us to identify characteristic “fingerprints” of deformation style during direct-shear experiments, which may then be compared with measurements conducted at the field scale to infer how deformation is localized within the accretionary prism. Identifying relationships between hold time and attenuation may also shed light on fault healing mechanisms taking place immediately following a rupture. Together the effects of sliding rate and hold time on elastic moduli provide us with new ways of constraining the mechanical behavior of large plat-boundary settings throughout the seismic cycle. We tested intact core material, remolded layers, and disaggregated granular powders derived from a range of depths from IODP sites C0007 and C0004 penetrating the frontal thrust and a large out-of-sequence thrust in the outer prism, respectively. Samples were deformed in a double-direct shear configuration, varying first the strain rate and then subjecting the gouge layer to a series of slides and holds of increasing duration. Elastic wave propagation depends on micromechanical interactions and gouge layer strength, so as the shear zone evolves changes in elastic wavespeed provide a means to interrogate strain materials non-destructively, providing insight into frictional processes and mechanics as that deformation is taking place. Our results suggest that there are characteristic changes in P and S-wave velocity and attenuation for marine clastic to hemipelagic sediments as a function of sliding rate and hold time. Ultimately, examining variation in elastic moduli during a simulated seismic cycle may provide insight

  8. Complex carbonate and clastic stratigraphy of the inner shelf off west-central Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Locker, S.D.; Doyle, L.J.; Hine, A.C.; Blake, N.J. )

    1990-05-01

    The near surface stratigraphy (< 30 m) of the inner shelf off the west coast of Florida was investigated using high-resolution seismic, side-scan sonar, and continuous underwater video camera coverage. The simultaneous operation of all three systems provided a unique opportunity to calibrate acoustic data with actual video images of the sea floor in a geologically complex area characterized by limestone dissolution structures, hard-bottom exposures, and overlain by a limited supply of terrigenous clastics. Three principle bottom types, grass, sand, and hard-bottom mapped using video and side-scan sonographs, show a correlation with two subsurface stratigraphic zones. The nearshore subsurface zone extending to 6-7 m water depth is characterized by flat or rolling strata and sinkholes that increase in size (200-1,200 m in diameter) and become more numerous further offshore. This zone is truncated by a major erosional unconformity overlain by a thin (<3 m) sequence of Holocene sediment, which together form a terrace upon which the Anclote Key barrier island formed. The offshore subsurface zone (7-11 m water depth) exhibits irregular and discontinuous high-amplitude flat or inclined reflections and few sinkholes. Offshore, extensive hard-bottom exposures are common with discontinuous sediment that occur as lenses or sand waves. The complex stratigraphy of the west Florida shelf includes outcropping Neogene limestones that have undergone dissolution during sea level lowstands. Carbonates and clastics dispersed during multiple sea level changes overlie the Neogene limestones. Dissolution styles and erosional unconformities produced bedrock topography and now control modern geological and biological processes.

  9. Sedimentation and tectonic implications of Cambrian-Ordovician clastics, Renville county, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Mescher, P.K.; Pol, J.C.

    1985-02-01

    Cambrian-Ordovician clastics of the Deadwood Formation were studied in detail from Newporte field in Renville County, North Dakota. This small Cambrian-Ordovician oil pool was extensively cored, often to the Precambrian basement, allowing close examination of clastic deposition influenced by local basement tectonics. In Renville County, the basal unit consists of a well-rounded, fine to medium-grained glauconitic quartz sandstone. Paleohighs appear to have had a pronounced effect on Deadwood sedimentation. Sands, from quiet water settings, show poor to moderate sorting, are commonly finely laminated, and/or show traces of minor small-scale cross-bedding. In places, bedding planes are highly disrupted, suggesting intervals of intense bioturbation (Skolithos). Sands associated with paleohighs are clean, well sorted, and commonly friable. Their association with basement structure is suggestive of beach-barrier-bar sequences related to irregularly upthrown basement blocks. In one example, this clean basal sand is associated with an upthrown basement block and is sharply truncated by the pre-Winnipeg (early Ordovician) unconformity. The first unit above the basal sandstone in structurally lower wells is an anomalous conglomerate unit. Large angular basement clasts up to cobble size were viewed in core. This unit grades upward into a fine sand sequence and distally grades into a marine sand. It terminates abruptly in upthrown wells and indicates rapid fault movement and offset during middle Deadwood deposition, with development of localized fanglomerate sequences associated with fault scarps. Immediately capping this sequence is a dark-gray marine shale that thins depositionally toward paleohighs.

  10. Five questions to consider before conducting a stepped wedge trial.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, James R; Copas, Andrew J; Beard, Emma; Osrin, David; Lewis, James J; Davey, Calum; Thompson, Jennifer A; Baio, Gianluca; Fielding, Katherine L; Prost, Audrey

    2015-08-17

    Researchers should consider five questions before starting a stepped wedge trial. Why are you planning one? Researchers sometimes think that stepped wedge trials are useful when there is little doubt about the benefit of the intervention being tested. However, if the primary reason for an intervention is to measure its effect, without equipoise there is no ethical justification for delaying implementation in some clusters. By contrast, if you are undertaking pragmatic research, where the primary reason for rolling out the intervention is for it to exert its benefits, and if phased implementation is inevitable, a stepped wedge trial is a valid option and provides better evidence than most non-randomized evaluations. What design will you use? Two common stepped wedge designs are based on the recruitment of a closed or open cohort. In both, individuals may experience both control and intervention conditions and you should be concerned about carry-over effects. In a third, continuous-recruitment, short-exposure design, individuals are recruited as they become eligible and experience either control or intervention condition, but not both. How will you conduct the primary analysis? In stepped wedge trials, control of confounding factors through secular variation is essential. 'Vertical' approaches preserve randomization and compare outcomes between randomized groups within periods. 'Horizontal' approaches compare outcomes before and after crossover to the intervention condition. Most analysis models used in practice combine both types of comparison. The appropriate analytic strategy should be considered on a case-by-case basis. How large will your trial be? Standard sample size calculations for cluster randomized trials do not accommodate the specific features of stepped wedge trials. Methods exist for many stepped wedge designs, but simulation-based calculations provide the greatest flexibility. In some scenarios, such as when the intracluster correlation coefficient is

  11. Empirical evidence for two nightside current wedges during substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, R. A.; Gjerloev, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    We present results from a comprehensive statistical study of the ionospheric current system and its coupling to the magnetosphere during classical bulge type substorms. We identified 116 substorms and determined the global ionospheric current system before and during the substorm using the SuperMAG initiative and global auroral images obtained by the Polar VIS Earth camera. The westward electrojet (WEJ) display a distinct latitudinal shift between the pre- and post-midnight region and we find evidence that the two WEJ regions are disconnected. This, and other observational facts, led us to propose a new 3D current system configuration that consists of 2 wedge type systems: a current wedge in the pre-midnight region (substorm current wedge), and another current wedge system in the post-midnight region (oval current wedge). There is some local time overlap between the two systems. The former maps to the region inside the near Earth neutral line and is associated with structured BPS type electron precipitation. The latter maps to the inner magnetosphere and is associated with diffuse electron precipitation. We present results of the statistical study, show typical events, results from Biot-Savart simulations, and discuss the implications for our understanding of the 3D current system associated with substorms.

  12. Diffusion induced flow on a wedge-shaped obstacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagumennyi, Ia V.; Dimitrieva, N. F.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the problem of evolution of diffusion induced flow on a wedge-shaped obstacle is analyzed numerically. The governing set of fundamental equations is solved using original solvers from the open source OpenFOAM package on supercomputer facilities. Due to breaking of naturally existing diffusion flux of a stratifying agent by the impermeable surface of the wedge a complex multi-level vortex system of compensatory fluid motions is formed around the obstacle. Sharp edges of the obstacle generate extended high-gradient horizontal interfaces which are clearly observed in laboratory experiments by high-resolution Schlieren visualization. Formation of an intensive pressure depression zone in front of the leading vertex of the wedge is responsible for generation of propulsive force resulting in a self-displacement of the obstacle along the neutral buoyancy horizon in a stably stratified environment. The size of the pressure deficiency area near the sharp vertex of a concave wedge is about twice that for a convex one. This demonstrates a more intensive propulsion mechanism in case of the concave wedge and, accordingly, a higher velocity of its self-movement in a continuously stratified medium.

  13. Casimir effect for a semitransparent wedge and an annular piston

    SciTech Connect

    Milton, Kimball A.; Wagner, Jef; Kirsten, Klaus

    2009-12-15

    We consider the Casimir energy due to a massless scalar field in a geometry of an infinite wedge closed by a Dirichlet circular cylinder, where the wedge is formed by {delta}-function potentials, so-called semitransparent boundaries. A finite expression for the Casimir energy corresponding to the arc and the presence of both semitransparent potentials is obtained, from which the torque on the sidewalls can be derived. The most interesting part of the calculation is the nontrivial nature of the angular mode functions. Numerical results are obtained which are closely analogous to those recently found for a magnetodielectric wedge, with the same speed of light on both sides of the wedge boundaries. Alternative methods are developed for annular regions with radial semitransparent potentials, based on reduced Green's functions for the angular dependence, which allows calculations using the multiple-scattering formalism. Numerical results corresponding to the torque on the radial plates are likewise computed, which generalize those for the wedge geometry. Generally useful formulas for calculating Casimir energies in separable geometries are derived.

  14. Casimir effect for a semitransparent wedge and an annular piston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Kimball A.; Wagner, Jef; Kirsten, Klaus

    2009-12-01

    We consider the Casimir energy due to a massless scalar field in a geometry of an infinite wedge closed by a Dirichlet circular cylinder, where the wedge is formed by δ-function potentials, so-called semitransparent boundaries. A finite expression for the Casimir energy corresponding to the arc and the presence of both semitransparent potentials is obtained, from which the torque on the sidewalls can be derived. The most interesting part of the calculation is the nontrivial nature of the angular mode functions. Numerical results are obtained which are closely analogous to those recently found for a magnetodielectric wedge, with the same speed of light on both sides of the wedge boundaries. Alternative methods are developed for annular regions with radial semitransparent potentials, based on reduced Green’s functions for the angular dependence, which allows calculations using the multiple-scattering formalism. Numerical results corresponding to the torque on the radial plates are likewise computed, which generalize those for the wedge geometry. Generally useful formulas for calculating Casimir energies in separable geometries are derived.

  15. K?Ar dating and geological significance of clastic sediments of the Paleocene Sepultura Formation, Baja California, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Téllez Duarte, Miguel Agustín.; López Martínez, Margarita

    2002-12-01

    At its type locality, the Paleocene Sepultura Formation consists of two members: a lower glauconitic-rich clastic section and an upper calcareous section. Three samples of authigenic glauconite pellets from two localities with good clastic sediment exposures were dated using K-Ar. At the type locality of Mesa La Sepultura, pellets from the middle of the clastic section yield a date of 60±1 Ma (weighted average of four experiments), and pellets from the top of the clastic unit give a date of 60±1 Ma (weighted average of two experiments). Pellets from the base of the section at La Mesa, 60 km distant, give a date of 59±1 Ma (one experiment). Dates obtained are in good agreement with those reported by biostratigraphy and confirm a Late Danian age. Our results differ from those reported elsewhere, in which low potassium content glauconites yield younger K-Ar ages than expected. An explanation for our observed agreement in ages could be related to the tectonic setting of forearc basins, where the low geothermal gradient prevents argon loss and reliable dates can be obtained.

  16. Reverse wedge osteotomy of the distal radius in Madelung's deformity.

    PubMed

    Mallard, F; Jeudy, J; Rabarin, F; Raimbeau, G; Fouque, P-A; Cesari, B; Bizot, P; Saint-Cast, Y

    2013-06-01

    Madelung's deformity results from a growth defect in the palmar and ulnar region of the distal radius. It presents as an excessively inclined radial joint surface, inducing "spontaneous progressive palmar subluxation of the wrist". The principle of reverse wedge osteotomy (RWO) consists in the reorientation of the radial joint surface by taking a circumferential bone wedge, the base of which is harvested from the excess of the radial and dorsal cortical bone of the distal radius, then turning it over and putting back this reverse wedge into the osteotomy so as to obtain closure on the excess and opening on the deficient cortical bone. RWO corrects the palmar subluxation of the carpus and improves distal radio-ulnar alignment. All five bilaterally operated patients were satisfied, esthetically and functionally. Its corrective power gives RWO a place apart among the surgical techniques currently available in Madelung's deformity.

  17. Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, E.S.

    1980-05-09

    An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.

  18. Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, Edward S.

    1982-01-01

    An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.

  19. An analysis of scattering from a reentrant wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, Ambika

    In this thesis the scattering of acoustic pressure from a rigid wedge is examined. The wedges having re-entrant geometry are of particular interest. The incident field is considered from a time harmonic point source. The solution for the scattered pressure field is obtained by modal, image and asymptotic analysis. It is numerically shown that the exact modal solution and image based solution for different incident frequencies and source positions are the same. It is also shown that the asymptotic solution obtained matches with the image based solution.

  20. A generalized Nadai failure criterion for both crystalline and clastic rocks based on true triaxial tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haimson, Bezalel; Chang, Chandong; Ma, Xiaodong

    2016-04-01

    The UW true triaxial testing system enables the application of independent compressive loads to cuboidal specimens (19×19×38 mm) along three principal directions. We used the apparatus to conduct extensive series of experiments in three crystalline rocks (Westerly granite, KTB amphibolite, and SAFOD granodiorite) and three clastic rocks of different porosities [TCDP siltstone (7%), Coconino sandstone (17%), and Bentheim sandstone (24%)]. For each rock, several magnitudes of σ3 were employed, between 0 MPa and 100-160 MPa, and for every σ3, σ2 was varied from test to test between σ2 = σ3 and σ2=(0.4 to 1.0) σ1.Testing consisted of keeping σ2and σ3constant, and raising σ1to failure (σ1,peak). The results, plotted as σ1,peakvs. σ2for each σ3 used, highlight the undeniable effect of σ2on the compressive failure of rocks. For each level of σ3, the lowest σ2 tested (σ2 = σ3) yielded the data point used for conventional-triaxial failure criterion. However, for the same σ3 and depending on σ2 magnitude, the maximum stress bringing about failure (σ1,peak) may be considerably higher, by as much as 50% in crystalline rocks, or 15% in clastic rocks, over that in a conventional triaxial test. An important consequence is that use of a Mohr-type criterion leads to overly conservative predictions of failure. The true triaxial test results demonstrate that a criterion in terms of all (three principal stresses is necessary to characterize failure. Thus, we propose a 'Generalized Nadai Criterion' (GNC) based on Nadai (1950), i.e. expressed in terms of the two stress invariants at failure (f), τoct,f = βσoct,f, where τoct,f = 1/3[(σ1,peak ‑σ2)2+(σ2 ‑σ3)2+(σ3 ‑σ1,peak)2]0.5 and σoct,f = (σ1,peak + σ2 + σ3)/3, and β is a function that varies from rock to rock. Moreover, the criterion depends also on the relative magnitude of σ2, represented by a parameter b [= (σ2 - σ3)/(σ1,peak - σ3)]. For each octahedral shear stress at failure (

  1. Clastic Pipes: Proxies of High Water Tables and Strong Ground Motion, Jurassic Carmel Formation, Southern Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, David; Chan, Marjorie

    2015-04-01

    Multiple soft sediment deformation features from bed-scale to basin-scale are well preserved within the Jurassic Carmel Formation of Southern Utah. Field mapping reveals thousands of small-scale clastic injectite pipes (10 cm to 10 m diameter, up to 20 m tall) in extremely high densities (up to 500+ pipes per 0.075 square kilometers). The pipes weather out in positive relief from the surrounding host strata of massive sandstone (sabkha) and crossbedded sands with minor conglomerate and shale (fluvial) deposits. The host rock shows both brittle and ductile deformation. Reverse, normal, and antithetical faulting is common with increased frequency, including ring faults, surrounding the pipes. The pipes formed from liquefaction and subsequent fluidization induced by strong ground motion. Down-dropped, graben blocks and ring faults surrounding pipes indicate initial sediment volume increase during pipe emplacement followed by sediment volume decrease during dewatering. Complex crosscutting relationships indicate several injection events where some pipe events reached the surface as sand blows. Multiple ash layers provide excellent stratigraphic and temporal constraints for the pipe system with the host strata deposited between 166 and 164 Ma. Common volcanic fragments and rounded volcanic cobbles occur within sandstone and conglomerate beds, and pipes. Isolated volcanic clasts in massive sandstone indicate explosive volcanic events that could have been the exogenic trigger for earthquakes. The distribution of pipes are roughly parallel to the Middle Jurassic paleoshoreline located in marginal environments between the shallow epicontinental Sundance Sea and continental dryland. At the vertical stratigraphic facies change from dominantly fluvial sediments to dominantly massive sabkha sediments, there is a 1-2 m-thick floodplain mudstone that was a likely seal for underlying, overpressurized sediments. The combination of loose porous sediment at a critical depth of water

  2. Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging of Ancient Clastic Deposits: A Tool for Three-Dimensional Outcrop Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinpelu, Oluwatosin Caleb

    The growing need for better definition of flow units and depositional heterogeneities in petroleum reservoirs and aquifers has stimulated a renewed interest in outcrop studies as reservoir analogues in the last two decades. Despite this surge in interest, outcrop studies remain largely two-dimensional; a major limitation to direct application of outcrop knowledge to the three dimensional heterogeneous world of subsurface reservoirs. Behind-outcrop Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) imaging provides high-resolution geophysical data, which when combined with two dimensional architectural outcrop observation, becomes a powerful interpretation tool. Due to the high resolution, non-destructive and non-invasive nature of the GPR signal, as well as its reflection-amplitude sensitivity to shaly lithologies, three-dimensional outcrop studies combining two dimensional architectural element data and behind-outcrop GPR imaging hold significant promise with the potential to revolutionize outcrop studies the way seismic imaging changed basin analysis. Earlier attempts at GPR imaging on ancient clastic deposits were fraught with difficulties resulting from inappropriate field techniques and subsequent poorly-informed data processing steps. This project documents advances in GPR field methodology, recommends appropriate data collection and processing procedures and validates the value of integrating outcrop-based architectural-element mapping with GPR imaging to obtain three dimensional architectural data from outcrops. Case studies from a variety of clastic deposits: Whirlpool Formation (Niagara Escarpment), Navajo Sandstone (Moab, Utah), Dunvegan Formation (Pink Mountain, British Columbia), Chinle Formation (Southern Utah) and St. Mary River Formation (Alberta) demonstrate the usefulness of this approach for better interpretation of outcrop scale ancient depositional processes and ultimately as a tool for refining existing facies models, as well as a predictive tool for subsurface

  3. Emplacement of the Jurassic Mirdita ophiolites (southern Albania): evidence from associated clastic and carbonate sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Ionescu, Corina; Hoeck, Volker; Koller, Friedrich; Onuzi, Kujtim; Bucur, Ioan I.; Ghega, Dashamir

    2012-09-01

    Sedimentology can shed light on the emplacement of oceanic lithosphere (i.e. ophiolites) onto continental crust and post-emplacement settings. An example chosen here is the well-exposed Jurassic Mirdita ophiolite in southern Albania. Successions studied in five different ophiolitic massifs (Voskopoja, Luniku, Shpati, Rehove and Morava) document variable depositional processes and palaeoenvironments in the light of evidence from comparable settings elsewhere (e.g. N Albania; N Greece). Ophiolitic extrusive rocks (pillow basalts and lava breccias) locally retain an intact cover of oceanic radiolarian chert (in the Shpati massif). Elsewhere, ophiolite-derived clastics typically overlie basaltic extrusives or ultramafic rocks directly. The oldest dated sediments are calpionellid- and ammonite-bearing pelagic carbonates of latest (?) Jurassic-Berrasian age. Similar calpionellid limestones elsewhere (N Albania; N Greece) post-date the regional ophiolite emplacement. At one locality in S Albania (Voskopoja), calpionellid limestones are gradationally underlain by thick ophiolite-derived breccias (containing both ultramafic and mafic clasts) that were derived by mass wasting of subaqueous fault scarps during or soon after the latest stages of ophiolite emplacement. An intercalation of serpentinite-rich debris flows at this locality is indicative of mobilisation of hydrated oceanic ultramafic rocks. Some of the ophiolite-derived conglomerates (e.g. Shpati massif) include well-rounded serpentinite and basalt clasts suggestive of a high-energy, shallow-water origin. The Berriasian pelagic limestones (at Voskopoja) experienced reworking and slumping probably related to shallowing and a switch to neritic deposition. Mixed ophiolite-derived clastic and neritic carbonate sediments accumulated later, during the Early Cretaceous (mainly Barremian-Aptian) in variable deltaic, lagoonal and shallow-marine settings. These sediments were influenced by local tectonics or eustatic sea

  4. Origin of bentonites and clastic sediments of the Paleocene Basilika Formation, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elling, Felix; Spiegel, Cornelia; Estrada, Solveig; Davis, Donald; Reinhardt, Lutz; Henjes-Kunst, Friedhelm; Allroggen, Niklas; Dohrmann, Reiner; Piepjohn, Karsten; Lisker, Frank

    2016-07-01

    The Paleocene was a time of transition for the Arctic, with magmatic activity of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province giving way to magmatism of the North Atlantic Large Igneous Province in connection to plate tectonic changes in the Arctic and North Atlantic. In this study we investigate the Paleocene magmatic record and sediment pathways of the Basilika Formation exposed in the Central Tertiary Basin of Svalbard. By means of geochemistry, Sm-Nd isotopic signatures and zircon U-Pb geochronology we investigate the characteristics of several bentonite layers contained in the Basilika Formation, as well as the provenance of the intercalated clastic sediments. Our data show that the volcanic ash layers of the Basilika Formation, which were diagenetically altered to bentonites, originate from alkaline continental-rift magmatism such as the last, explosive stages of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province in North Greenland and the Canadian Arctic. The volcanic ash layers were deposited on Svalbard in a flat shelf environment with dominant sediment supply from the east. Dating of detrital zircons suggests that the detritus was derived from Siberian sources, primarily from the Verkhoyansk Fold-and-Thrust Belt, which would require transport over ~3000 km across the Arctic.

  5. Sedimentology of clastic rocks returned from the moon by Apollo 15.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A petrographic study of eleven samples of clastic rock returned from the moon by Apollo 15 suggests that two lithologies are present. The distinction between the two lithologies is based on the glass content of the rock matrices and the morphology of the detrital particles. Group I rocks have abundant, glass-rich, porous matrices and glass particles with morphologies comparable to those of glass particles in the lunar soil. The group I rocks were probably formed by welding or sintering of surficial soil deposits by impact-generated base surges of limited extent. Group II rocks have an essentially mineralic matrix and have an abundance of rounded mineral grains. Sample 15455 is the only Apollo 15 sample assigned to this group. In its general textural features, sample 15455 is comparable with the group II rocks from the Fra Mauro Formation at the Apollo 14 site. Textural features such as shock modification and rounding of mineral grains suggest that this sample is the product of a large-scale impact-generated base surge which possibly resulted from the Imbrian event.

  6. Clastic diversion by fold salients and blind thrust ridges in coal-swamp development

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, D.U. ); Belt, E.S. ); Lyons, P.C. )

    1991-05-01

    Abrupt shifts from single widespread coal swamps to coarse siliciclastic alluvial channel deposits occur in at least five coal beds and zones within the Pennsylvania Allegheny Formation. One of these, the Upper Freeport coal zone, was deposited over and area at least 200 {times} 200 km with a spacing of alluvial channels one-half to possibly one-fifth that of the immediately overlying coarse clastics. All these shifts occured next to the rising Appalachian orogen, far from the eustatic effects of a marine shoreline. Recent models relating coal-swamp formation to isostatic warping of orogenic forelands by tectonic loads surely apply to this environment, but they seem to need an additional, more delicate mechanism to produce such abrupt but widespread switches in grain size and drainage spacing. The authors propose that irregularities in the advancing front folds and blind thrusts caused temporary geomorphic diversions into the recessed areas and allowed a widespread coal swamp to form in the sedimentary shadow of the salients, a shadowing process that is occurring today in the central Zagros Mountains of Iraq and Iran.

  7. Late Mississippian (Chesterian) carbonate to carbonate-clastic cycles in the eastern Illinois Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.B.; Read, J.F. )

    1994-03-01

    Late Mississippian (Chesterian) rocks of the eastern Illinois Basin in Kentucky and Indiana show depositional cycles (3--20 meters thick) composed of a range of facies deposited during the transition from carbonate-dominated deposition of the Middle Mississippian to the predominantly siliciclastic regime of the Pennsylvanian. Within the basal Ste. Genevieve Formation (30--70 meters thick) there are five predominantly carbonate cycles. Cycle bases vary from thin calcareous sandstone near the northern clastic source to ooid-quartz dolomitic pelletal grainstone and mudstone further south. Massive cross-bedded and channeled ooid-skeletal grainstones represent the cycle tops and are commonly capped by caliche and subaerial breccia, particularly where there was no subsequent siliciclastic deposition. The cycles are interpreted to be driven by fourth-order (400 k.y.) glacio-eustatic sea-level fluctuations based on coincidence of the calculated cycle period with the long-term eccentricity signal, the Late Mississippian onset of Gondwana glaciation and cycle correlation over more than 100 kilometers. The breccia and caliche formed during lowstands, the siliciclastics, eolianites and dolomitic pelletal grainstones are transgressive facies and the ooid-skeletal grainstones represent sea-level highstands.

  8. Hydrogeologic assessment of shallow clastic and carbonate rock aquifers in Hendry and Collier counties, southwestern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C. Erwin; Krulikas, R.K.; Brendle, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Direct-current electrical resistivity data were collected from 109 vertical electrical sounding sites in Hendry and Collier Counties, southwestern Florida. Selected direct-current electrical resistivity surveys, together with available borehole geologic and geophysical data, were used to determine the approximate areal extent of the shallow clastic aquifers composed of thick sands and carbonate lithologies. Results indicated that a complex pattern of shallow sands, clays, and carbonate lithologies occur throughout the area. Buried channel sands were found as deep as 50 meters below land surface in some places. The channels contain unconsolidated fine- to medium-grained quartz sand interbedded with sandy limestone, shell fragments, and gray-green sandy clay. Both surface and borehole geophysical techniques with lithologic data were necessary to approximately locate and define layers that might behave as confining layers and to locate and define the extent of any buried sand aquifers. The borehole geophysical data were used to analyze the zones of higher resistivity. Direct-current electrical resistivity data indicated the approximate location of certain layer boundaries. The conjunctive use of natural gamma and short- and long-normal resistivity logs was helpful in determining lithologic effects. Geohydrologic sections were prepared to identify potential locations of buried channels and carbonates containing freshwater. Buried channel sands and carbonate rock sections were identified in the subsurface that potentially may contain freshwater supplies.

  9. Clastic facies and diagenesis, Lewis-Evans interval in Black Warrior Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cleaves, A.W.; Bat, D.

    1988-01-01

    Subsurface maps of the Lewis and Evans sandstone-facies tracts (Chester Group) on the northern shelf of the Black Warrior basin document two distinct deltaic depositional systems, each having a source area from the Mid-Dontinent interior. Within the Lewis genetic interval, six dip-elongate, river-dominated, cratonic delta lobes comprise the principal coarse-grained clastic units. However, in the higher Evans interval, five strike-elongate (cuspate) wave-dominated lobes are present on the northwestern rim of the basin. Petrographic evidence from four Mississippi cores associated with delta-plain and delta-front facies in the two sandstone unites indicates a dominance of monocrystalline quartz and chert rock fragments and a relative absence of orogenic indicators such as polycrystalline quartz, muscovite, and metamorphic rock fragments. Porosity development results largely from the formation of moldic secondary porosity and enlarged intergranular porosity. Primary porosity is occluded by the precipitation of quartz overgrowths and early calcite cement. Secondary moldic porosity was generated through the dissolution of feldspars and shale fragments. Enlarged intergranular porosity resulted from the dissolution of detrital illite matrix. Secondary porosity itself is partially occluded by authigenic kaolinite and illite, as well as by late-stage pyrite and dolomite.

  10. Integrated hydraulic flow units analysis for carbonate and clastic conventional and unconventional petroleum reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, Aleksandr; Abirov, Rustem; Gulnur, Asan; Shopenova, Aigerim; Makarova, Maria; Telman, Meruert

    2014-05-01

    Thorough understanding of the phenomena in variation of pore properties and permeability in lithofacies of conventional carbonate and clastic petroleum reservoirs together with unconventional reservoirs before and after their hydraulic fracturing is the main concept in reservoir description. It is known that new reservoir description techniques will cut off the amount of unexplored hydrocarbon reserves. Discrepancies in pore geometry are the evidence of that there exist hydraulic flow units with similar or different characteristics. So the rock type determination processes cannot be accomplished only by one way. There is demand for several techniques in order to make away with different uncertainties by proper correlation and analysing the results. Classic determination of rock types is realized by geological observations and by the porosity versus permeability log. In this paper, the new methodology is proposed for determination of flow zones. The methodology is based on the Kozeny-Carmen equation where we can get the reservoir quality index which indicates the porosity versus permeability data. The specialty of this new technique is that it takes into account the influence of depositional and diagenetic units controlling the fluid flow besides the reservoir quality index. The proposed technique has been successfully tested in reservoirs. The paper describes the hydraulic flow units and presents graphs demonstrating the utility of this method.

  11. Elastic and Electrical Properties Evaluation of Low Resistivity Pays in Malay Basin Clastics Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almanna Lubis, Luluan; Ghosh, Deva P.; Hermana, Maman

    2016-07-01

    The elastic and electrical properties of low resistivity pays clastics reservoirs in Malay Basin are strongly dependent on the complex nature of the clay content, either dispersed or laminated/layered. Estimating the hydrocarbon pore volume from conventional electrical log, i.e. resistivity log, is quite a challenge. The low elastic impedance contrast also found as one of the challenge thus create a problem to map the distribution of the low resistivity reservoirs. In this paper, we evaluate the electrical properties and elastic rock properties to discriminate the pay from the adjacent cap rock or shale. Forward modeling of well log responses including electrical properties are applied to analyze the nature of the possible pays on laminated reservoir rocks. In the implementation of rock properties analysis, several conventional elastic properties are comparatively analyzed for the sensitivity and feasibility analysis on each elastic parameters. Finally, we discussed the advantages of each elastic parameters in detail. In addition, cross-plots of elastic and electrical properties attributes help us in the clear separation of anomalous zone and lithologic properties of sand and shale facies over conventional elastic parameter crossplots attributes. The possible relationship on electrical and elastic properties are discussed for further studies.

  12. Flowfield Establishment and Unsteadiness in Hypervelocity Double Wedge Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swantek, A. B.; Knisely, A. M.; Austin, J. M.

    Significant discrepancies between experiments and simulations have been reported in the normalized establishment times for hypervelocity double wedge and double cone flows. Experimental results for flow establishment times based on heat transfer measurements have been reported by Holden and Mallinson, Gai, and Mudford [1, 2].

  13. Magnetic and structural instabilities of ultrathin Fe(100) wedges

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, S.D.; Li, Dongqi; Qiu, Z.Q.

    1994-05-01

    An overview is provided of recent efforts to explore magnetic and related structural issues for ultrathin Fe films grown epitaxially as wedge structures onto Ag(100) and Cu(100). Experiments were carried out utilizing the surface magneto-optic Kerr effect (SMOKE). Ordinary bcc Fe is lattice-matched to the primitive unit cell of the Ag(100) surface. Fe wedges on Ag(100) can be fabricated whose thick end has in-plane magnetic easy axes due to the shape anisotropy, and whose thin end has perpendicular easy axes due to the surface magnetic anisotrophy. A spin-reorientation transition can thus be studied in the center of the wedge where the competing anisotropies cancel. The goal is to test the Mermin-Wagner theorem which states that long-range order is lost at finite temperatures in an isotropic two-dimensional Heisenberg system. Fe wedges on Cu(100) can be studied in like manner, but the lattice matching permits fcc and tetragonally-distorted fcc phases to provide structural complexity in addition to the interplay of competing magnetic anisotropies. The results of these studies are new phase identifications that help both to put previous work into perspective and to define issues to pursue in the future.

  14. Thrusting and wedge growth, Southern Alps of Lombardia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeder, Dietrich

    1992-06-01

    A south-vergent fold-thrust belt of Miocene-Recent age accompanies the south slope of the Lombardian Alps and is partly buried beneath Plio-Pleistocene Po Valley basin fill. The belt is probably detached along a trans-crustal thrust, named Main South Alpine Thrust (MSAT), with an estimated dip slip of 70-100 km. Transport on this thrust piggybacks the Adamello pluton of Late Eocene age, pre-Adamello folds, and Oligocene-Miocene Insubric strike-slip structures, by ramping up through 12-15 km of Austro-Alpine (Adria) crust and through 8-10 km of Triassic to Eocene sediments. Folds in the Front Ranges are ascribed to MSAT ramping, not to pre-Adamello compression. The MSAT soles upward in a blind thrust beneath 3-4 km of Oligocene-Pliocene foredeep fill. Initial regional failure along the MSAT implies substantial and pre-existing topographic relief near the Insubric line. An average of 25% wedge thickening during MSAT transport is consistent with the requirement of Coulomb critical taper. Progression of the south-Alpine detachment from the MSAT to the base of the foreland sediments has added a thickness of 6-12 km in footwall imbrications to the base and the toe of the thrust wedge. This addition in wedge volume is consistent with wedge dynamics only if a mid-Miocene or younger spike of excess Alpine topography is admitted.

  15. How important is randomisation in a stepped wedge trial?

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, James R; Prost, Audrey; Fielding, Katherine L; Copas, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    In cluster randomised trials, randomisation increases internal study validity. If enough clusters are randomised, an unadjusted analysis should be unbiased. If a smaller number of clusters are included, stratified or matched randomisation can increase comparability between trial arms. In addition, an adjusted analysis may be required; nevertheless, randomisation removes the possibility for systematically biased allocation and increases transparency. In stepped wedge trials, clusters are randomised to receive an intervention at different start times ('steps'), and all clusters eventually receive it. In a recent study protocol for a 'modified stepped wedge trial', the investigators considered randomisation of the clusters (hospital wards), but decided against it for ethical and logistical reasons, and under the assumption that it would not add much to the rigour of the evaluation. We show that the benefits of randomisation for cluster randomised trials also apply to stepped wedge trials. The biggest additional issue for stepped wedge trials in relation to parallel cluster randomised trials is the need to control for secular trends in the outcome. Analysis of stepped wedge trials can in theory be based on 'horizontal' or 'vertical' comparisons. Horizontal comparisons are based on measurements taken before and after the intervention is introduced in each cluster, and are unbiased if there are no secular trends. Vertical comparisons are based on outcome measurements from clusters that have switched to the intervention condition and those from clusters that have yet to switch, and are unbiased under randomisation since at any time point, which clusters are in intervention and control conditions will have been determined at random. Secular outcome trends are a possibility in many settings. Many stepped wedge trials are analysed with a mixed model, including a random effect for cluster and fixed effects for time period to account for secular trends, thereby combining both

  16. Computation of the seismic stability of rock wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Haupt, W.

    1989-04-01

    Newmark's concept of computing the permanent displacement under seismic loads has been combined with the conventional limit equilibrium analysis to compute the displacements of a rock wedge. The rock wedge formed by the intersecting planes may or may not have a tension crack in the upper slope surface. As the static analysis of a rock wedge is available from the literature, only the seismic problem is treated theoretically in more details. A computer program has been developed to compute the displacements from the digitised input data of the acceleration-time-history. The program can take into account the water pressure on the intersecting planes and on the planes of the tension crack. The effect of rock anchors if present is also taken care of in addition to static surcharge loads. The program calculates the conventional static factor of safety, remaining resistance against sliding, the critical acceleration, exciting force, relative velocity with time and the cumulative displacements. Two model examples are presented: one with simple sinusoidal acceleration and the other one with actual earthquake data considering the different systems of forces acting on the wedge. The results are critically discussed with respect to the different parameters e. g. anchor forces, water pressure and cohesion influencing the magnitude of displacements under seismic loads. It is shown that the critical acceleration is a better index for the seismic stability than the conventional factor of safety. The critical acceleration presented in this paper serves as a very handy tool for a site engineer to get the first hand information about the stability of the wedge for a given acceleration-time-history without going into the details of dynamic analysis.

  17. Tektite-bearing, deep-water clastic unit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Smit, J; Montanari, A; Swinburne, N H; Alvarez, W; Hildebrand, A R; Margolis, S V; Claeys, P; Lowrie, W; Asaro, F

    1992-02-01

    The hypothesis of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact on Yucatán, Mexico, predicts that nearby sites should show evidence of proximal impact ejecta and disturbance by giant waves. An outcrop along the Arroyo el Mimbral in northeastern Mexico contains a layered clastic unit up to 3 m thick that interrupts a biostratigraphically complete pelagic-marl sequence deposited at more than 400 m water depth. The marls were found to be unsuitable for determining magnetostratigraphy, but foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the clastic unit precisely at the K-T boundary. We interpret this clastic unit as the deposit of a megawave or tsunami produced by an extraterrestrial impact. The clastic unit comprises three main subunits. (1) The basal "spherule bed" contains glass in the form of tektites and microtektites, glass spherules replaced by chlorite-smectite and calcite, and quartz grains showing probable shock features. This bed is interpreted as a channelized deposit of proximal ejecta. (2) A set of lenticular, massive, graded "laminated beds" contains intraclasts and abundant plant debris, and may be the result of megawave backwash that carried coarse debris from shallow parts of the continental margin into deeper water. (3) At the top, several thin "ripple beds" composed of fine sand are separated by clay drapes; they are interpreted as deposits of oscillating currents, perhaps a seiche. An iridium anomaly (921 +/- 23 pg/g) is observed at the top of the ripple beds. Our observations at the Mimbral locality support the hypothesis of a K-T impact on nearby Yucatán.

  18. Tektite-bearing, deep-water clastic unit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northeastern Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, J. ); Montanari, A.; Swinburne, N.H.M.; Alvarez, W. ); Hildebrand, A.R. ); Margolis, S.V.; Claeys, P. ); Lowrie, W. ); Asaro, F. )

    1992-02-01

    The hypothesis of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact on Yucatan, Mexico, predicts that nearby sites should show evidence of proximal impact ejecta and disturbance by giant waves. An outcrop along the Arroyo el Mimbral in northeastern Mexico contains a layered clastic unit up to 3 m thick that interrupts a biostratigraphically complete pelagic-marl sequence deposited at more than 400 m water depth. The marls were found to be unsuitable for determining magnetostratigraphy, but foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the clastic unit precisely at the K-T boundary. The authors interpret this clastic unit as the deposit of a megawave or tsunami produced by an extraterrestrial impact. The clastic unit comprises three main subunits. (1) The basal 'spherule bed' contains glass in the form of tektites and microtektites, glass spherules replaced by chlorite-smectite and calcite, and quartz grains showing probable shock features. This bed is interpreted as a channelized deposit of proximal ejecta. (2) A set of lenticular, massive, graded 'laminated beds' contains intraclasts can abundant plant debris, and may the result of megawave backwash that carried coarse debris from shallow parts of the continental margin into deeper water. (3) At the top, several thin 'ripple beds' composed of fine sand are separated by clay drapes; they are interpreted as deposits of oscillating currents, perhaps a seiche. An iridium anomaly (921 {plus minus} 23 pg/g) is observed at the top of the ripple beds. Their observations at the Mimbral locality support the hypothesis of a K-T impact on nearby Yucatan.

  19. Tektite-bearing, deep-water clastic unit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northeastern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smit, J.; Montanari, A.; Swinburne, N. H.; Alvarez, W.; Hildebrand, A. R.; Margolis, S. V.; Claeys, P.; Lowrie, W.; Asaro, F.

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact on Yucatan, Mexico, predicts that nearby sites should show evidence of proximal impact ejecta and disturbance by giant waves. An outcrop along the Arroyo el Mimbral in northeastern Mexico contains a layered clastic unit up to 3 m thick that interrupts a biostratigraphically complete pelagic-marl sequence deposited at more than 400 m water depth. The marls were found to be unsuitable for determining magnetostratigraphy, but foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the clastic unit precisely at the K-T boundary. We interpret this clastic unit as the deposit of a megawave or tsunami produced by an extraterrestrial impact. The clastic unit comprises three main subunits. (1) The basal "spherule bed" contains glass in the form of tektites and microtektites, glass spherules replaced by chlorite-smectite and calcite, and quartz grains showing probable shock features. This bed is interpreted as a channelized deposit of proximal ejecta. (2) A set of lenticular, massive, graded "laminated beds" contains intraclasts and abundant plant debris, and may be the result of megawave backwash that carried coarse debris from shallow parts of the continental margin into deeper water. (3) At the top, several thin "ripple beds" composed of fine sand are separated by clay drapes; they are interpreted as deposits of oscillating currents, perhaps a seiche. An iridium anomaly (921 +/- 23 pg/g) is observed at the top of the ripple beds. Our observations at the Mimbral locality support the hypothesis of a K-T impact on nearby Yucatan.

  20. Tektite-bearing, deep-water clastic unit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Smit, J; Montanari, A; Swinburne, N H; Alvarez, W; Hildebrand, A R; Margolis, S V; Claeys, P; Lowrie, W; Asaro, F

    1992-02-01

    The hypothesis of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact on Yucatán, Mexico, predicts that nearby sites should show evidence of proximal impact ejecta and disturbance by giant waves. An outcrop along the Arroyo el Mimbral in northeastern Mexico contains a layered clastic unit up to 3 m thick that interrupts a biostratigraphically complete pelagic-marl sequence deposited at more than 400 m water depth. The marls were found to be unsuitable for determining magnetostratigraphy, but foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the clastic unit precisely at the K-T boundary. We interpret this clastic unit as the deposit of a megawave or tsunami produced by an extraterrestrial impact. The clastic unit comprises three main subunits. (1) The basal "spherule bed" contains glass in the form of tektites and microtektites, glass spherules replaced by chlorite-smectite and calcite, and quartz grains showing probable shock features. This bed is interpreted as a channelized deposit of proximal ejecta. (2) A set of lenticular, massive, graded "laminated beds" contains intraclasts and abundant plant debris, and may be the result of megawave backwash that carried coarse debris from shallow parts of the continental margin into deeper water. (3) At the top, several thin "ripple beds" composed of fine sand are separated by clay drapes; they are interpreted as deposits of oscillating currents, perhaps a seiche. An iridium anomaly (921 +/- 23 pg/g) is observed at the top of the ripple beds. Our observations at the Mimbral locality support the hypothesis of a K-T impact on nearby Yucatán. PMID:11537752

  1. Vertebral Osteotomies in Ankylosing Spondylitis-Comparison of Outcomes Following Closing Wedge Osteotomy versus Opening Wedge Osteotomy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ravinsky, Robert A; Ouellet, Jean-Albert; Brodt, Erika D; Dettori, Joseph R

    2013-04-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Study Rationale To seek out and assess the best quality evidence available comparing opening wedge osteotomy (OWO) and closing wedge osteotomy (CWO) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis to determine whether their results differ with regard to several different subjective and objective outcome measures. Objective The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a difference in subjective and objective outcomes when comparing CWO and OWO in patients with ankylosing spondylitis suffering from clinically significant thoracolumbar kyphosis with respect to quality-of-life assessments, complication risks, and the amount of correction of the spine achieved at follow-up. Methods A systematic review was undertaken of articles published up to July 2012. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies comparing effectiveness and safety outcomes between adult patients with ankylosing spondylitis who received closing wedge versus opening wedge osteotomies. Studies that included pediatric patients, polysegmental osteotomies, or revision procedures were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed the strength of evidence using the GRADE criteria and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results From a total of 67 possible citations, 4 retrospective cohorts (class of evidence III) met our inclusion criteria and form the basis for this report. No differences in Oswestry Disability Index, visual analog scale for pain, Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-24 score, SRS-22 score, and patient satisfaction were reported between the closing and opening wedge groups across two studies. Regarding radiological outcomes following closing versus opening osteotomies, mean change in sagittal vertical axis ranged from 8.9 to 10.8 cm and 8.0 to 10.9 cm, respectively, across three studies; mean change in lumbar lordosis ranged from 36 to 47 degrees and 19 to 41 degrees across four studies; and mean change

  2. Recycling and transport of continental material through the mantle wedge above subduction zones: A Caribbean example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Agramonte, Yamirka; Garcia-Casco, Antonio; Kemp, Anthony; Kröner, Alfred; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Lázaro, Concepción; Liu, Dunyi

    2016-02-01

    Estimates of global growth rates of continental crust critically depend upon knowledge of the rate at which crustal material is delivered back into the mantle at subduction zones and is then returned to the crust as a component of mantle-derived magma. Quantification of crustal recycling by subduction-related magmatism relies on indirect chemical and isotopic tracers and is hindered by the large range of potential melt sources (e.g., subducted oceanic crust and overlying chemical and clastic sediment, sub-arc lithospheric mantle, arc crust), whose composition may not be accurately known. There is also uncertainty about how crustal material is transferred from subducted lithosphere and mixed into the mantle source of arc magmas. We use the resilient mineral zircon to track crustal recycling in mantle-derived rocks of the Caribbean (Greater Antilles) intra-oceanic arc of Cuba, whose inception was triggered after the break-up of Pangea. Despite juvenile Sr and Nd isotope compositions, the supra-subduction zone ophiolitic and volcanic arc rocks of this Cretaceous (∼135-70 Ma) arc contain old zircons (∼200-2525 Ma) attesting to diverse crustal inputs. The Hf-O isotope systematics of these zircons suggest derivation from exposed crustal terranes in northern Central America (e.g. Mexico) and South America. Modeling of the sedimentary component in the most mafic lavas suggests a contribution of no more than 2% for the case of source contamination or less than 4% for sediment assimilation by the magma. We discuss several possibilities for the presence of inherited zircons and conclude that they were transported as detrital grains into the mantle beneath the Caribbean Plate via subduction of oceanic crust. The detrital zircons were subsequently entrained by mafic melts that were rapidly emplaced into the Caribbean volcanic arc crust and supra-subduction mantle. These findings suggest transport of continental detritus, through the mantle wedge above subduction zones, in

  3. Caldera formation and varied eruption styles on North Pacific seamounts: the clastic lithofacies record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portner, Ryan A.; Clague, Dave A.; Paduan, Jennifer B.

    2014-08-01

    Detailed examination of volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks collected from the Taney (30 Ma), President Jackson (4 Ma), Vance (3 Ma) and Alarcon (2 Ma) near-ridge seamount chains of the North Pacific reveals seven clastic lithofacies that record various modes of eruption, magma fragmentation, and particle dispersal. Lithofacies are distinguished by differences in lithology, bedding habit, compositional heterogeneity, and relationship to volcanic landforms. Breccia lithofacies were produced through mechanical fragmentation during caldera collapse (polymict) or effusive eruptions onto steep slopes (monomict). Rare globular lapilli mudstone lithofacies contain clasts with morphologies formed by magma-sediment mingling processes (peperite). Seamount summit pyroclastic deposits include proximal lapilli tuff with vesicular pyroclasts, and more distal limu o Pele tuff lithofacies. Much finer-grained hydrothermal mudstone/tuff lithofacies occurs around caldera rims and contains greenschist minerals, hydrothermal clays and basaltic ash that record subsurface phreatomagmatic fragmentation processes. Very fine-grained ash is transported to distal regions by oceanic currents and hydrothermal plumes, and is a component of the regional pelagic sediment budget. Pyroclastic lithofacies only occur on seamount summits suggesting formation during the latter stages of seamount evolution. As a seamount drifts away from an adjacent ridge axis and associated heat source, its magma supply is reduced allowing for magmatic gas buildup and mild explosive eruptions. During this stage, the diminished melt supply under the seamount is unable to fully compensate for extension along the ridge axis and vertical seamount growth. Lateral intrusion into spreading-related structures in this stage causes magma withdrawal and caldera formation. Formation of caldera ring faults also promotes seawater ingress into subseafloor hydrothermal cells, which interact with magma conduits causing phreatomagmatic

  4. Experimental investigation of sound absorption of acoustic wedges for anechoic chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, I. V.; Golubev, A. Yu.; Zverev, A. Ya.; Makashov, S. Yu.; Palchikovskiy, V. V.; Sobolev, A. F.; Chernykh, V. V.

    2015-09-01

    The results of measuring the sound absorption by acoustic wedges, which were performed in AC-3 and AC-11 reverberation chambers at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), are presented. Wedges of different densities manufactured from superfine basaltic and thin mineral fibers were investigated. The results of tests of these wedges were compared to the sound absorption of wedges of the operating AC-2 anechoic facility at TsAGI. It is shown that basaltic-fiber wedges have better sound-absorption characteristics than the investigated analogs and can be recommended for facing anechoic facilities under construction.

  5. [Sensitometry of Mammographic Screen-film System Using Bootstrap Aluminum Step-Wedge.].

    PubMed

    Abe, Shinji; Imada, Ryou; Terauchi, Takashi; Fujisaki, Tatsuya; Monma, Masahiko; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Mochizuki, Yasuo

    2005-01-01

    Recently, a few types of step-wedges for bootstrap sensitometry with a mammographic screen-film system have been proposed. In this study, the bootstrap sensitometry with the mammographic screen-film system was studied for two types of aluminum step-wedges. Characteristic X-ray energy curves were determined using mammographic and general radiographic aluminum step-wedges devised to prevent scattered X-rays generated from one step penetrating into the region of another one, and dependence of the characteristic curves on the wedges was also discussed. No difference was found in the characteristic curves due to the difference in the step-wedges for mammography and general radiography although there was a slight difference in shape at the shoulder portion for the two types of step-wedges. Therefore, it was concluded that aluminum step-wedges for mammography and general radiography could be employed in bootstrap sensitometry with the mammographic screen-film system. PMID:16479054

  6. Mechanism of Hot Finger Formation in Mantle Wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, M. Y.; Tamura, Y.; Sakaguchi, H.

    2013-12-01

    Processes of mantle melting and volcanic eruptions along subduction zones are often illustrated by the use of two-dimensional cross-section models of convergent margins. However, Quaternary volcanoes in the NE Japan arc could be grouped into ten volcano clusters striking transverse to the arc; these have an average width of ~ 50 km, and are separated by parallel gaps 30-75 km wide (Tamura et al., 2002). Moreover, the structure of the mantle wedge and arc crust beneath the NE Japan arc and the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc, respectively, suggest that the third dimension, lying along the strike of the arc, is necessary to understand the actual production of magmas in subduction zones (e.g., Nakajima et al., 2001; Hasegawa & Nakajima, 2004; Kodaira et al., 2007; Kodaira et al., 2008). Common periodic structural variations, having wavelengths of 80-100 km, can be observed in both areas. This grouping of volcanoes and the structural variations may be related to locally developed hot regions within the mantle wedge that have the form of inclined, 50 km-wide fingers (hot fingers). The 'hot fingers' models (Tamura et al., 2002) may play an important role in linking the 3D structures within the mantle wedge and overlying arc crust to volcanic eruptions at the surface. To explore a physical and mathematical mechanism to produce a hot finger pattern, we develop a hydrodynamic model of mantle convection in mantle wedge. A hypothesis incorporated in our model is a double diffusive mechanism of mantle materials; diffusion of composition of mantle materials is much weaker than temperature diffusion. We show that our model shows a spatiotemporal pattern in a mantle material composition, temperature, and velocity that are similar to the spatiotemporal patterns observed in the NE Japan arc.

  7. Modal Analysis in Lined Wedge-Shaped Ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechel, F. P.

    1998-10-01

    It has been suggested to describe the sound field in a wedge-shaped duct in a cylindrical co-ordinate system in which the boundaries of the wedge lie in a co-ordinate surface. This suggestion was developed in a companion paper [1]. The wave equation can be separated only if the boundaries are ideally reflecting (rigid or soft). Two solutions were proposed in reference [1] for absorbing boundaries. In the first solution the sound field is composed of “ideal modes” (modes in a wedge with ideally reflecting boundaries); the boundary condition at the absorbing boundary then leads to a system of equations for the mode amplitudes. The problem with this method lies in the fact that there is no radial orthogonality of the ideal modes so that the precision of the field synthesis by ideal modes is doubtful. In the second method in reference [1] one defines “fictitious modes” which satisfy the boundary conditions at the flanks exactly and which are based on hypergeometric functions as radial functions, but which produce a “rest” in the wave equation. It was described how this rest can be minimized; this procedure leads to slow numerical integrations. In the present paper, the wedge is subdivided into duct sections with parallel walls (the boundary is stepped); the fields in the sections are composed of duct modes (modes in a straight lined duct); the mode amplitudes are determined from the boundary conditions at the section limits. The advantages of the present method are (analytically) the duct modes are orthogonal across the sections, so the mode amplitudes can be determined with the usual precision of a modal analysis, and (numerically) no numerical integrations are needed.

  8. On the acoustic wedge design and simulation of anechoic chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Changyong; Zhang, Shangyu; Huang, Lixi

    2016-10-01

    This study proposes an alternative to the classic wedge design for anechoic chambers, which is the uniform-then-gradient, flat-wall (UGFW) structure. The working mechanisms of the proposed structure and the traditional wedge are analyzed. It is found that their absorption patterns are different. The parameters of both structures are optimized for achieving minimum absorber depth, under the condition of absorbing 99% of normal incident sound energy. It is found that, the UGFW structure achieves a smaller total depth for the cut-off frequencies ranging from 100 Hz to 250 Hz. This paper also proposes a modification for the complex source image (CSI) model for the empirical simulation of anechoic chambers, originally proposed by Bonfiglio et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134 (1), 285-291 (2013)]. The modified CSI model considers the non-locally reactive effect of absorbers at oblique incidence, and the improvement is verified by a full, finite-element simulation of a small chamber. With the modified CSI model, the performance of both decorations with the optimized parameters in a large chamber is simulated. The simulation results are analyzed and checked against the tolerance of 1.5 dB deviation from the inverse square law, stipulated in the ISO standard 3745(2003). In terms of the total decoration depth and anechoic chamber performance, the UGFW structure is better than the classic wedge design.

  9. Dual Double-Wedge Pseudo-Depolarizer with Anamorphic PSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Peter; Thompson, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    A polarized scene, which may occur at oblique illumination angles, creates a radiometric signal that varies as a function of viewing angle. One common optical component that is used to minimize such an effect is a polarization scrambler or depolarizer. As part of the CLARREO mission, the SOLARIS instrument project at Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a new class of polarization scramblers using a dual double-wedge pseudo-depolarizer that produces an anamorphic point spread function (PSF). The SOLARIS instrument uses two Wollaston type scramblers in series, each with a distinct wedge angle, to image a pseudo-depolarized scene that is free of eigenstates. Since each wedge is distinct, the scrambler is able to produce an anamorphic PSF that maintains high spatial resolution in one dimension by sacrificing the spatial resolution in the other dimension. This scrambler geometry is ideal for 1-D imagers, such as pushbroom slit spectrometers, which require high spectral resolution, high spatial resolution, and low sensitivity to polarized light. Moreover, the geometry is applicable to a wide range of scientific instruments that require both high SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) and low sensitivity to polarized scenes

  10. Shock interaction mechanisms on a double wedge at Mach 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durna, Ahmet Selim; El Hajj Ali Barada, Mohamad; Celik, Bayram

    2016-09-01

    Present computational study investigates formation and interaction mechanisms of shocks and boundary layer for low enthalpy Mach 7 flows of nitrogen over double wedges, which have fixed fore and various aft angles of 30° and 45°-60°, respectively. We use a density based finite-volume Navier-Stokes solver to simulate low enthalpy Mach 7 flows of nitrogen over double wedges. The solver is first and second order accurate in time and space, respectively. The meshes used in simulations of two-dimensional laminar flows consist of multiple blocks of structured mesh. Depending on the intensity, impingement angle, and impingement location of transmitted shock wave, the resulting adverse pressure gradient related disturbances on the wedge surface can trigger complex flow physics both in subsonic and supersonic regions. We observe a strong interaction between the deformation of the boundary layer and the bow shock as well as the transmitted shock for high aft angles. Comparison of the obtained results in terms of general flow physics shows that there exists an aft angle threshold value for such interaction which is in the range of 45°-50°.

  11. Reflection of cylindrical converging shock wave over a plane wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fu; Si, Ting; Zhai, Zhigang; Luo, Xisheng; Yang, Jiming; Lu, Xiyun

    2016-08-01

    The cylindrical converging shock reflection over a plane wedge is investigated experimentally and numerically in a specially designed shock tube which converts a planar shock into a cylindrical one. When the converging shock is moving along the wedge, both the shock strength and the incident angle are changing, which provides the possibility for the wave transition. The results show that both regular reflection (RR) and Mach reflection (MR) are found on the wedge with different initial incident angles. The wave transitions from direct Mach reflection (DiMR) to inverse Mach reflection (InMR) and further to transitioned regular reflection (TRR) are observed with appropriate initial incident angles. The instability development in the shear layer and strong vortices formation near the wall are evident, which are ascribed not only to the interaction of two shear layers but also to the shock impact and the shock converging effect. Because of the flow unsteadiness after the converging shock, the detachment criterion provides a good estimation for the RR → MR transition, but fails to predict the DiMR → InMR transition, and MR is found to persist slightly below the mechanical equilibrium condition. A hysteresis process is found in the MR → TRR transition and becomes more apparent as the increase of the initial incident angle due to the shock converging effect.

  12. The wedge hot-film anemometer in supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiner, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A commercial wedge hot-film probe is studied to determine its heat transfer response in transonic to low supersonic flows of high unit Reynolds number. The results of this study show that its response in this flow regime differs from the response of cylindrical type sensors. Whereas the cylindrical sensor has the same sensitivity to velocity as to density for free-stream Mach numbers exceeding 1.3, the wedge probe sensitivity to velocity is always greater than its sensitivity to density over the entire flow regime. This property requires determination of three fluctuation components due to density, velocity, and temperature, in a transonic or supersonic turbulent flow. Sensitivity equations are derived based on the observed behavior of the wedge probe. Both the durability and the frequency response of the probe are excellent, the square wave insertion test indicating frequency response near 130 kHz. The directional response of the probe at sonic speed is poor and requires further examination before Reynolds stress measurements are attempted with dual sensor probes.

  13. Geomorphological-thermo-mechanical modeling: Application to orogenic wedge dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, K.; Willett, S. D.; Gerya, T.; Ruh, J.

    2015-09-01

    Coupled geomorphological-thermo-mechanical modeling is presented in a new implementation that combines two established thermo-mechanical and landscape evolution models. A finite-difference marker-in-cell technique is used to solve for the thermo-mechanical problem including complex visco-plastic rheologies in high resolution. Each timestep is synchronously solved with a fluvial landscape evolution model that includes numerical solution of fluvial incision and analytical hillslope processes for both diffusive and slope-limited processes on an adaptive grid. The implementation is successful in modeling large deformation at different scales. We demonstrate high degrees of coupling through processes such as exhumation of rocks with different erodibilities. Sensitivity of the coupled system evolution to surface parameters, and mechanical parameters, is explored for the established case of development of compressive wedges. The evolution of wedge models proves to be primarily sensitive to erodibility and the degree of river network integration. Relief follows deformation in propagating forward with wedge growth. We apply the method to a large-scale model of continental collision, in which a close relationship between deep tectonics, fluvial network evolution, and uplift and erosion can be demonstrated.

  14. Missing wedge computed tomography by iterative algorithm DIRECTT.

    PubMed

    Kupsch, Andreas; Lange, Axel; Hentschel, Manfred P; Lück, Sebastian; Schmidt, Volker; Grothausmann, Roman; Hilger, André; Manke, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    A strategy to mitigate typical reconstruction artefacts in missing wedge computed tomography is presented. These artefacts appear as elongations of reconstructed details along the mean direction (i.e. the symmetry centre of the projections). Although absent in standard computed tomography applications, they are most prominent in advanced electron tomography and also in special topics of X-ray and neutron tomography under restricted geometric boundary conditions. We investigate the performance of the DIRECTT (Direct Iterative Reconstruction of Computed Tomography Trajectories) algorithm to reduce the directional artefacts in standard procedures. In order to be sensitive to the anisotropic nature of missing wedge artefacts, we investigate isotropic substructures of metal foam as well as circular disc models. Comparison is drawn to filtered backprojection and algebraic techniques. Reference is made to reconstructions of complete data sets. For the purpose of assessing the reconstruction quality, Fourier transforms are employed to visualize the missing wedge directly. Deficient reconstructions of disc models are evaluated by a length-weighted kernel density estimation, which yields the probabilities of boundary orientations. The DIRECTT results are assessed at different signal-to-noise ratios by means of local and integral evaluation parameters. PMID:26367127

  15. Washing wedges: a capillary instability in a gradient of confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, Ludovic; Herbaut, Remy; Bico, Jose; Reyssat, Etienne

    2015-11-01

    When a drop of oil is introduced into a gradient of confinement (two glass plates forming a sharp wedge) capillary forces drive it toward the most confined regions, where the solid-fluid contact area is maximal. A surfactant solution subsequently introduced into the wedge undergoes the same movement until it reaches the oil previously added. If the aqueous phase wets the solid better than the oil, a complex exchange process between both phases occurs. The water-oil interface destabilizes, oil fingers grow in the water phase, pinch-off and lead to the formation of droplets that migrate away from the tip of the wedge. The whole oil phase is eventually extracted. A linear stability analysis of the interface is presented and captures the size of the oil droplets. The dynamics of the system is however not perfectly explained by a simple Poiseuille flow. Indeed, more refined models should account for the dissipation in meniscii and lubrication films. Finally, we suggest that our model experiment may constitute a useful tool to select optimal systems for oil recovery processes.

  16. Integrated waste management as a climate change stabilization wedge.

    PubMed

    Bahor, Brian; Van Brunt, Michael; Stovall, Jeff; Blue, Katherine

    2009-11-01

    Anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gas emissions are known to contribute to global increases in greenhouse gas concentrations and are widely believed to contribute to climate change. A reference carbon dioxide concentration of 383 ppm for 2007 is projected to increase to a nominal 500 ppm in less than 50 years according to business as usual models. This concentration change is equivalent to an increase of 7 billion tonnes of carbon per year (7 Gt C year(-1)). The concept of a stabilization wedge was introduced by Pacala and Socolow (Science, 305, 968-972, 2004) to break the 7 Gt C year(- 1) into more manageable 1 Gt C year(- 1) reductions that would be achievable with current technology. A total of fifteen possible 'wedges' were identified; however, an integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management system based on the European Union's waste management hierarchy was not evaluated as a wedge. This analysis demonstrates that if the tonnage of MSW is allocated to recycling, waste to energy and landfilling in descending order in lieu of existing 'business-as-usual' practices with each option using modern technology and best practices, the system would reduce greenhouse gas emissions by more than 1 Gt C year( -1). This integrated waste management system reduces CO(2) by displacing fossil electrical generation and avoiding manufacturing energy consumption and methane emissions from landfills.

  17. Active processes on a mixed clastic carbonate Brazilian shelf margin: Importance for hydrocarbon exploration in turbidites

    SciTech Connect

    Cainelli, C. )

    1991-03-01

    The search for subtle hydrocarbon accumulations in turbidite systems requires additional approaches for more successful exploration, particularly when direct recognition on seismic lines is difficult. This includes the determination and understanding of processes controlling sand distribution on the shelf and the mapping of sand pathways from the shelf to the slop/basin that can guide efforts to look for more favorable sites for turbidite sandstone deposition. The approach can be exemplified in the Sergipe-Alagoas basin, on the Brazillian Atlantic passive margin. The section analyzed is the Piacabucu Formation, a thick seaward prograding wedge composed of coastal sandstones and shelf edge carbonates on a narrow shelf and slope-basin shales with turbidite lenses. Waves and currents control the redistribution of sediments transported to the shelf by rivers. More wave energy is expended in ten hours in the San Francisco delta than in an entire year in the Mississippi delta. Such environment precludes deposition of mud on the shelf, but it stimulates the development of shelf edge carbonates. Rimed carbonates along the shelf break serve as a barrier for downslope movements of coarse-grained sediment, where turbidites are oil targets. The search for gaps in the carbonate barrier which can tap the behind-barrier sands is critical for sand-rich turbidite development. It is believed that canyons create these gaps and act as active turbidity current routes.

  18. Identifying the annual signal in laminated clastic sediments from a Late Pleistocene lake succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Samuel; Starnberger, Reinhard; Spötl, Christoph; Brauer, Achim; Dulski, Peter

    2014-05-01

    A thick (>250m) succession of laminated lacustrine sediments at the Baumkirchen site in the Inn Valley (Austria) indicates the presence of a lake or series of lake phases existing during Marine Isotope Stage 3. The laminations are highly complex, entirely clastic, and vary considerably in thickness and internal structure. Despite high sedimentation rates of 5-6 cm per year indicated by radiocarbon and pollen data, there is no systematic macroscopic annual pattern in the laminations which could be used to develop a high-resolution (varve) chronology. Microscopic investigations of thin sections revealed sub-mm to cm-scale silt layers punctuated by very thin (0.25-2 mm) clay-rich layers spaced semi-regularly between 2 and 8 cm where present. The spacing and small grain size of these thin layers suggests a possible annual process responsible for their formation: rain-out of the fine suspended sediment from the water column during winter, when fluvial discharge into the lake was negligible and its surface was frozen. These potentially annual layers are not reliably identifiable macroscopically, however, analysis of X-ray fluorescence core scan data revealed the layers to be enriched in several heavy metals: most strongly in Zn but also in Pb, Cu and Ni. Possible carrier minerals of these heavy metals are currently being investigated. The radiocarbon chronology (in the short upper section where it is available) and heavy metal peak counting agree within error suggesting the heavy metal enriched clay-rich layers are mostly annual. Available X-ray fluorescence data for 150 m of the section suggest no significant long-term changes in annual layer spacing (i.e. sedimentation rate) from the 5-6 cm average indicated by the radiocarbon data, although there is a high degree of small-scale variation. Preliminary optically stimulated luminescence dates point to the presence of several hiatuses in this succession suggesting a fragmented record containing several lake periods of

  19. Subduction zone evolution and low viscosity wedges and channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, Vlad; Gurnis, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Dehydration of subducting lithosphere likely transports fluid into the mantle wedge where the viscosity is decreased. Such a decrease in viscosity could form a low viscosity wedge (LVW) or a low viscosity channel (LVC) on top of the subducting slab. Using numerical models, we investigate the influence of low viscosity wedges and channels on subduction zone structure. Slab dip changes substantially with the viscosity reduction within the LVWs and LVCs. For models with or without trench rollback, overthickening of slabs is greatly reduced by LVWs or LVCs. Two divergent evolutionary pathways have been found depending on the maximum depth extent of the LVW and wedge viscosity. Assuming a viscosity contrast of 0.1 with background asthenosphere, models with a LVW that extends down to 400 km depth show a steeply dipping slab, while models with an LVW that extends to much shallower depth, such as 200 km, can produce slabs that are flat lying beneath the overriding plate. There is a narrow range of mantle viscosities that produces flat slabs (5 to10 × 10 19 Pa s) and the slab flattening process is enhanced by trench rollback. Slab can be decoupled from the overriding plate with a LVC if the thickness is at least a few 10 s of km, the viscosity reduction is at least a factor of two and the depth extent of the LVC is several hundred km. These models have important implications for the geochemical and spatial evolution of volcanic arcs and the state of stress within the overriding plate. The models explain the poor correlation between traditional geodynamic controls, subducting plate age and convergence rates, on slab dip. We predict that when volcanic arcs change their distance from the trench, they could be preceded by changes in arc chemistry. We predict that there could be a larger volatile input into the wedge when arcs migrate toward the trench and visa-versa. The transition of a subduction zone into the flat-lying regime could be preceded by changes in the volatile

  20. Robustness of oscillatory α2 dynamos in spherical wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, E.; Brandenburg, A.; Käpylä, P. J.; Käpylä, M. J.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Large-scale dynamo simulations are sometimes confined to spherical wedge geometries by imposing artificial boundary conditions at high latitudes. This may lead to spatio-temporal behaviours that are not representative of those in full spherical shells. Aims: We study the connection between spherical wedge and full spherical shell geometries using simple mean-field dynamos. Methods: We solve the equations for one-dimensional time-dependent α2 and α2Ω mean-field dynamos with only latitudinal extent to examine the effects of varying the polar angle θ0 between the latitudinal boundaries and the poles in spherical coordinates. Results: In the case of constant α and ηt profiles, we find oscillatory solutions only with the commonly used perfect conductor boundary condition in a wedge geometry, while for full spheres all boundary conditions produce stationary solutions, indicating that perfect conductor conditions lead to unphysical solutions in such a wedge setup. To search for configurations in which this problem can be alleviated we choose a profile of the turbulent magnetic diffusivity that decreases toward the poles, corresponding to high conductivity there. Oscillatory solutions are now achieved with models extending to the poles, but the magnetic field is strongly concentrated near the poles and the oscillation period is very long. By changing both the turbulent magnetic diffusivity and α profiles so that both effects are more concentrated toward the equator, we see oscillatory dynamos with equatorward drift, shorter cycles, and magnetic fields distributed over a wider range of latitudes. Those profiles thus remove the sensitive and unphysical dependence on θ0. When introducing radial shear, we again see oscillatory dynamos, and the direction of drift follows the Parker-Yoshimura rule. Conclusions: A reduced α effect near the poles with a turbulent diffusivity concentrated toward the equator yields oscillatory dynamos with equatorward migration and

  1. Study of stress distribution of forming slandering of automobile semi-axes with multi-wedge cross wedge rolling by FEM simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing; Shu, Xuedao; Hu, Zhenghuan

    2005-12-01

    Cross wedge rolling with multi-wedge (MCWR) is a new advanced technology of forming the slandering of automobile semi-axes. However, restriction relationship between main wedges and side wedges is complex, there is not almost theory forming automobile axes at inland or overseas. According to the characteristics of forming slandering of automobile semi-axes by MCWR, three-dimensional parameterized model of the MCWR and corresponding program of finite element simulation is worked out. Adopting FEM analysis technology, rules of stress distribution in work piece at main stages, such as knifing zone, stretching zone in main wedges was investigated. The results indicate that forming automobile semi-axes by MCWR is feasible. It provides reliable theory foundation for designing mould of rolling automobile axes by MCWR and choosing technology parameters.

  2. Study of the impact of truncations on wedge waves by using the laser ultrasound technique.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jing; Shen, Zhonghua; Sun, KaiHua

    2015-08-20

    This research focuses on measuring the impact of truncations on the dispersion characteristics of wedge waves propagating along the wedge tip by using the laser-generated ultrasound. First, the finite element method was used to simulate laser-induced wedge waves and the dispersion curves were obtained by using the 2D Fourier transformation method. Pulsed laser excitation and laser-based wedge wave detection were also utilized to investigate these characteristics experimentally. For the 20° and 60° line wedges, both experimental and numerical results indicated that a nonideal wedge tip had great impact on the wedge waves. The modes of the 20° line wedge with truncations presented anomalous dispersion, low mode closed to high mode in high frequency, and the characteristics of antisymmetric Lamb waves as truncation increased. Meanwhile, the modes of the 60° line wedge with truncations showed the characteristics of antisymmetric Lamb waves, and the A1 mode was also observed clearly. The findings of this study can be used to evaluate and detect wedge structure.

  3. Mississippian clastic-to-carbonate transition in the northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska: Depositional cycles of the Endicott and Lisburne Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Lepain, D.L.; Crowden, R.K.; Watts, K.F. )

    1990-05-01

    The Ellesmerian sequence in northeastern Alaska consists of a thick succession of Mississippian to Lower Cretaceous platform carbonate and terrigenous clastic rocks. At the base of the Ellesmerian sequence, clastic rocks of the Endicott Group are the lower part of a major transgressive sequence that passes gradationally upward into carbonates of the Lisburne Group. In the Endicott Group, the basal Kekiktuk Conglomerate was deposited in fluvial and marginal marine environments. A broad suite of tidally influenced, shallow-marine environments are recorded in the overlying Kayak Shale. The transition into carbonate platform rocks of the Lisburne Group is recorded in a series of depositional cycles developed within the upper half of the Kayak Shale. In the lower beds of the transition, the depositional cycles are multiple upward-thickening and upward-coarsening successions composed of (1) organic-rich siltstone containing flaser-bedded and lenticular-bedded fine-grained sandstone, (2) fine-grained, ripple-laminated quartzarenite, and (3) an intensely bioturbated horizon of medium- to coarse-grained quartzarenite that contains scattered brachiopods, bryozoa, and crinoids. Each cycle is terminated by a sharp transgressive surface that consists of a thin shale drape. Near the top of the Kayak Shale, the coarse-grained horizons become increasingly replaced by wackestone, grainstone, and coralline boundstone. Despite the lithologic change, the vertical upward-thickening and upward-coarsening cycles continue in the basal limestone of the Lisburne Group. Repeated upward-shallowing episodes, followed by coastal onlap, are likely mechanisms for this cyclicity and suggests a genetic relation between both the clastic and carbonate depositional cycles.

  4. Bed-form climb models to analyze geometry and preservation potential of clastic facies and erosional surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Larue, D.K.; Martinez, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Based on a combination of Walther's Law of Facies and bed-form climb theory, the authors propose a model that explains how erosion surfaces and vertical sequences of clastic strata are preserved where deposition occurs in channelized or locally erosional environments including fluvial and submarine-channel deposits, barred beaches, and transgressive coastlines. the model considers both lateral and vertical migration of a scour surface and its associated depositional products. As in studies of bed-form climb, they recognize subcritical, critical, and supercritical climb of scour surfaces relative to adjacent depositional forms. 12 figures.

  5. Gap test modeling to predict wedge tests initiation of PBXN-103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Clinton T.

    1998-07-01

    The experimental initiation of PBXN-103 by the standard wedge test has been modeled by using the HVRB initiation and growth model in the CTH code. The P-081 plane wave lens was used as initiator in these experiments. The wedge test was converted to a gap test by replacing the PBXN-103 wedge by a PBXN-103 cylinder. By modeling this gap test, shock initiation in PBXN-103 was calculated. The results of these calculations are in agreement with the data of the wedge test experiments. Comparison of the CTH code calculations with the wedge test data was accomplished by using an auxiliary program called the BCAT code. In particular, it computes the "pop plot" and compares it to the wedge test data. Shock initiation of PBX-9404 was also calculated by the HVRB model and the results compared to the initiation of PBX-9404 using the Lee-Tarver model. The two calculations from both of the models are very compatible.

  6. Medial Closing-Wedge Distal Femoral Osteotomy: Fixation With Proximal Tibial Locking Plate

    PubMed Central

    Tírico, Luís Eduardo Passarelli; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Pécora, José Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Distal femoral varus osteotomy is a well-established procedure for the treatment of lateral compartment cartilage lesions and degenerative disease, correcting limb alignment and decreasing the progression of the pathology. Surgical techniques can be performed with a lateral opening-wedge or medial closing-wedge correction of the deformity. Fixation methods for lateral opening-wedge osteotomies are widely available, and there are various types of implants that can be used for fixation. However, there are currently only a few options of implants for fixation of a medial closing-wedge osteotomy on the market. This report describes a medial, supracondylar, V-shaped, closing-wedge distal femoral osteotomy using a locked anterolateral proximal tibial locking plate that fits anatomically to the medial side of the distal femur. This is a great option as a stable implant for a medial closing-wedge distal femoral osteotomy. PMID:26870647

  7. Dosimetric Characteristics of 6 MV Modified Beams by Physical Wedges of a Siemens Linear Accelerator.

    PubMed

    Zabihzadeh, Mansour; Birgani, Mohammad Javad Tahmasebi; Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi, Mojtaba; Arvandi, Sholeh; Hoseini, Seyed Mohammad; Fadaei, Mahbube

    2016-01-01

    Physical wedges still can be used as missing tissue compensators or filters to alter the shape of isodose curves in a target volume to reach an optimal radiotherapy plan without creating a hotspot. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosimetric properties of physical wedges filters such as off-axis photon fluence, photon spectrum, output factor and half value layer. The photon beam quality of a 6 MV Primus Siemens modified by 150 and 450 physical wedges was studied with BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) code. The calculated present depth dose and dose profile curves for open and wedged photon beam were in good agreement with the measurements. Increase of wedge angle increased the beam hardening and this effect was more pronounced at the heal region. Using such an accurate MC model to determine of wedge factors and implementation of it as a calculation algorithm in the future treatment planning systems is recommended. PMID:27221838

  8. Modes of continental extension in a crustal wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guangliang; Lavier, Luc L.; Choi, Eunseo

    2015-07-01

    We ran numerical experiments of the extension of a crustal wedge as an approximation to extension in an orogenic belt or a continental margin. We study the effects of the strength of the lower crust and of a weak mid-crustal shear zone on the resulting extension styles. A weak mid-crustal shear zone effectively decouples upper crustal extension from lower crustal flow. Without the mid-crustal shear zone, the degree of coupling between the upper and the lower crust increases and extension of the whole crust tends to focus on the thickest part of the wedge. We identify three distinct modes of extension determined by the strength of the lower crust, which are characterized by 1) localized, asymmetric crustal exhumation in a single massif when the lower crust is weak, 2) the formation of rolling-hinge normal faults and the exhumation of lower crust in multiple core complexes with an intermediate strength lower crust, and 3) distributed domino faulting over the weak mid-crustal shear zone when the lower crust is strong. A frictionally stronger mid-crustal shear zone does not change the overall model behaviors but extension occurred over multiple rolling-hinges. The 3 modes of extension share characteristics similar to geological models proposed to explain the formation of metamorphic core complexes: 1) the crustal flow model for the weak lower crust, 2) the rolling-hinge and crustal flow models when the lower crust is intermediate and 3) the flexural uplift model when the lower crust is strong. Finally we show that the intensity of decoupling between the far field extension and lower crustal flow driven by the regional pressure gradient in the wedge control the overall style of extension in the models.

  9. Inverted-wedge silica resonators for controlled and stable coupling.

    PubMed

    Bo, Fang; Huang, Steven He; Özdemir, Sahin Kaya; Zhang, Guoquan; Xu, Jingjun; Yang, Lan

    2014-04-01

    Silica microresonators with an inverted-wedge shape were fabricated using conventional semiconductor fabrication methods. The measured quality factors of the resonators were greater than 10(6) in 1550 nm band. Controllable coupling from undercoupling to the overcoupling regime through the critical coupling point was demonstrated by horizontally moving a fiber taper while in touch with the top surface of the resonator. The thin outer ring of the resonator provided a support for the fiber taper leading to robust stable coupling. PMID:24686619

  10. The Newton two-knife experiment: Intricacies of wedge diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, M. P.; Strange, Wayne

    1996-06-01

    About a century before Young's celebrated two-slit experiment, Isaac Newton quantitatively investigated the diffraction of light from a wedge aperture, but failed to understand the implications of his findings. We have reexamined this unusual system theoretically within the framework of the Fresnel-Kirchhoff scalar diffraction theory, and experimentally using a laser light source with pinhole spatial filter and CCD camera. Both the far-field shadow region and near-field directly illuminated region reveal aesthetically striking images that are deducible from the mathematical analysis, but whose interpretation is subtle and best elucidated by an alternative and less widely known perspective of diffraction.

  11. Hexahedron, wedge, tetrahedron, and pyramid diffusion operator discretization

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.M.

    1996-08-06

    The diffusion equation, {phi}({rvec x}), is solved by finding the extrema of the functional, {Gamma}[{phi}] = {integral}({1/2}D{rvec {nabla}}{phi}{center_dot}{rvec {nabla}}{phi} + {1/2}{sigma}{sub a}{phi}{sup 2} - {ital Q}{phi}){ital d}{sup 3}{ital x}. A matrix is derived that is investigated for hexahedron, wedge, tetrahedron, and pyramid cells. The first term of the diffusion integration was concentrated and the others dropped; these dropped terms are also considered. Results are presented for hexahedral meshes and three weighting methods.

  12. Devonian stratigraphy of the Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrill, B.A.; Thomas, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Lower and lower Middle Devonian (below the top of the Onondaga and equivalent) strata in the Appalachian unmetamorphosed fold-thrust belt are relatively thin and are laterally variable in lithology, thickness, and age. South of Virginia, thickness is less than 100 m; in Virginia and farther north, thickness ranges from 100 to 450 m. Locally, rocks of this age are unconformably absent in Pennsylvania and in Virginia and farther south. Clastic rocks dominate the interval in places along the southeastern margin of the fold-thrust belt and near pinch-outs at unconformities. Elsewhere, the interval is dominated by carbonate rocks. In contrast, thick sequences of lower Devonian rocks are preserved in Appalachian metamorphic belts in New England and in Alabama. The stratigraphic distribution of upper Middle (above the top of the Onondaga and equivalent) and Upper Devonian rocks is dominated by the widespread semicircular Catskill clastic wedge, centered on southeastern Pennsylvania. Near the depocenter, the succession grades upward from deep-water black shale, through shallow-marine sandstones and mudstones, to deltaic and fluvial red beds. These facies prograde both northwestward toward the craton and southwestward along structural strike. Pelitic rocks dominate the distal part of the wedge. Distribution of the Catskill clastic wedge reflects sediment transport onto the earlier Devonian shelf from an Acadian orogenic uplift. Local basins in Maine were probably not interconnected and reflect fault-block uplifts and pull-apart basins associated with wrench faults.

  13. Demonstration of Color Separation with 2ω KDP Wedge in High Power Laser Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Li, Fu-Quan; Han, Wei; Feng, Bin; Zhou, Li-Dan; Jia, Huai-Ting; Cao, Hua-Bao

    2014-01-01

    A 2ω wedge design is proposed with KDP crystal to disperse the unconverted light away from the target in a high power laser facility for inertial confinement fusion. The ultraviolet B-integral problem is released, and about 1.2 times in color separation angle is achieved according to both theoretical and experimental investigations when compared with conventional 3ω wedge. The frequency conversion efficiency is unaffected when the wedge is along the non-sensitive axis of the tripler.

  14. Comparative palynology of clastics and lignites from the Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Upper Eocene, Grimes County, TX

    SciTech Connect

    Gennett, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    The 3500 lignite seam at the Gibbons Creek Mine in Grimes County, TX was sampled for pollen and spores at 10 cm intervals. The majority of samples are dominated (to 60%) by Momipites from the Juglandaceae (walnut family), as is typical of Jackson Group sediments. Other palynomorph taxa vary systematically, with a peak of pollen of the freshwater tree Nyssa (blackgum) and associated Rboipites angustus (to 17%) occurring at the base. Higher in the seam, increase (to 55%) of Cupuliferoipollenites (a chestnut-like grain) and Cyrillaceae-pollenites? ventosus (to 7%) percentages may indicate a higher salinity environment. A Chrysophyllum (satin leaf) peak (to 25%) near the top of the seam suggests relatively shallow fresh-water conditions. Core samples from an interval above the lignites represent a transgressive-regressive cycle in inner shelf clastics. These samples were taken at 40 cm or greater intervals and reveal the regional pollen flora. Although minor changes occur, palynomorph spectra are for the most part homogenous. The dominant grain is again Momipites coryloides, but in general percentages are lower (to 35%). Cupuliferoipollenites (to 17%), Chrysophyllum (to 5%), and Rhoipites angustus (to 3%) are not less important, but do not peak as they do in the lignite spectra. Palm leaf megafossils; in one sample suggest a clastic wetland; in this sample palm pollen (mostly Arecipites, representing the modern saw palmetto) reaches 73%. Another sample contains high (26%) percentages of the fern spore Lygodiumsporites adriennis. High percentages of these two taxa do not occur in the lignite samples.

  15. Deep-water facies and petrography of the Galoc clastic unit, offshore Palawan, Philippines (south China Sea)

    SciTech Connect

    Link, M.H.; Helmold, K.P.

    1988-02-01

    The lower Miocene Galoc clastic unit, offshore Palawan, Philippines, is about 500-600 ft thick. The unit overlies the Galoc Limestone and is overlain by the Pelitic Pagasa Formation. The Galoc clastic unit consists of alternating quartzose sandstone, mudstone, and resedimented carbonate deposited at bathyal depths, mainly as turbidites. The deep-water deposits are confined to the axis of a northeast-trending trough in which slope, submarine channel, interchannel, depositional lobe, slump, and basinal facies are recognized. Eroded shallow-marine carbonate lithoclasts are commonly incorporated within the siliciclastic turbidites. The main reservoir sandstones occur in submarine channels and depositional lobes. The sandstones are texturally submature, very fine to medium-grained feldspathic litharenites and subarkoses. The sandstones have detrital modes of Q78:F11:L11 and Qm51:F11:Lt38, with partial modes of the monocrystalline components of Qm82:P13:K5. Lithic fragments include chert, shale, schist, volcanic rock fragments, and minor plutonic rock fragments. Porosity in the better reservoir sandstones ranges from 11 to 25%, and calcite is the dominant cement. Dissolution textures and inhomogeneity of calcite distribution suggest that at least half of the porosity in the sandstones has formed through the leaching of calcite cement and labile framework grains. A source terrain of quartzo-feldspathic sediments and metasediments, chert, volcanics, and acid-intermediate plutonic rocks is visualized.

  16. Cave clastic sediments and implications for speleogenesis: New insights from the Mugnano Cave (Montagnola Senese, Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Ivan

    2011-11-01

    The study of cave clastic sediments has been considered one of the hottest topics during the last years because of their importance in paleoclimatic reconstructions and archaeological surveys. This paper focuses on clastic deposits of the Mugnano Cave, a small cave located in the Siena district (Northern Apennines, Italy), showing unique features regarding the sedimentary fill, mostly made of grey-blue dolomitic silts. The sedimentary succession was investigated through a detailed sedimentological analysis aimed at a better understanding of sedimentary processes active during the deposition. The entire succession was subsequently reinterpreted through an allostratigraphic approach: the recognition of an important erosional surface, associated with a significant change in sedimentation, allowed the distinguishing of two main allounits labelled MG1 and MG2. Furthermore, the different kinds of sediments collected in the cave were analysed using the XRF and XRD techniques, in order to establish their chemical and mineralogical compositions. The integration of lithological, sedimentological, allostratigraphic and mineralogical data permits formulation of an interesting hypothesis about speleogenetic processes that influenced the cave, with particular reference to the processes capable of generating the underground space. In this context, most of the current available space results from a complex interplay between different processes: disintegration of a particular lithofacies of the bedrock, consequent production of sediments and deposition into a subterranean lake. These sediments were removed from the cave during some non-depositional and erosive phases, which led to a positive balance in the available space.

  17. A depth dependence determination of the wedge transmission factor for 4-10 MV photon beams.

    PubMed

    McCullough, E C; Gortney, J; Blackwell, C R

    1988-01-01

    The depth dependence (up to 25 cm) of the in-phantom wedge transmission factor (WTF) has been determined for three medical linear accelerator x-ray beams with energies of 4, 6, and 10 MV containing 15 degrees-60 degrees (nominal) brass wedges. All measurements were made with a cylindrical ionization chamber in water, for a field size of 10 X 10 cm2 with a source-skin distance of 80 or 100 cm. We conclude that, for the accelerators studied, the WTF factor at depth is less than 2% different from that determined at dmax (for the nominal wedge angles and photon energies studied) unless the depth of interest is greater than 10 cm. Up to the maximum depth studied (25 cm) the relative wedge factor--that is, wedge factor at depth compared to that determined at dmax--was about equal to or less than 1.02 for the 15 degrees and 30 degrees wedges and any of the photon beam energies studied. For the seldom utilized combination of a nominal wedge angle in excess of 45 degrees with a depth greater than 10 cm, the WTF at depth can differ from the WTF determined at dmax, by up to 5%. Since the wedge transmission factor is reflective of relative percent dose data, our results also indicate that it is in error to use open field percent depth doses for certain combinations of wedge angle, photon energy, and depth. PMID:3211057

  18. Predicting Run Distances for a Modified Wedge Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorgan, Robert J.; Lee, Richard; Sutherland, Gerrit

    2012-03-01

    Simulations were used to aid in the development of a modified wedge test (MWT). This explosive sensitivity experiment allows the shockwave curvature to be defined in order to investigate the effect of combined shock-shear loading on sensitivity. Various widths of PBXN-110 donor slabs were used to define the shockwave curvature introduced to wedge samples of the same explosive. The donor slabs were initiated with a linewave generator and a Detasheet booster, and the shock wave was attenuated using a slab of PMMA. In developing simulations for these three material experiments, calibrations of the PBXN-110 ignition and growth model and of the PMMA constitutive model were investigated in order to choose between several models found in the literature. A calibration shot from the MWT was also used to demonstrate the appropriateness of the models selected. Experimental results were compared to CTH calculations to indicate if there were effects associated with highly curved shock fronts that could not be adequately predicted. The run distances predicted in CTH for the thicker donor slab compare very favorably with the actual experiments; however, for thinner donor slabs, the actual experimental results seem to suggest a more sensitive behavior than the simulations are able to capture.

  19. Predicting Run Distances for a Modified Wedge Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorgan, Robert; Lee, Richard; Sutherland, Gerrit

    2011-06-01

    Simulations were used to aid in the development of a modified wedge test (MWT). This explosive sensitivity experiment allows the shockwave curvature to be defined in order to investigate the effect of combined shock-shear loading on sensitivity. Various widths of PBXN-110 donor slabs were used to define the shockwave curvature introduced to wedge samples of the same explosive. The donor slabs were initiated with a linewave generator and a Detasheet booster, and the shock wave was attenuated using a slab of PMMA. In developing simulations for these three material experiments, calibrations of the PBXN-110 ignition and growth model and of the PMMA constitutive model were investigated in order to choose between several models found in the literature. A calibration shot from the MWT was also used to demonstrate the appropriateness of the models selected. Experimental results were compared to CTH calculations to indicate if there were effects associated with highly curved shock fronts that could not be adequately predicted. The run distances predicted in CTH for the thicker donor slab compare very favorably with the actual experiments; however, for thinner donor slabs, the actual experimental results seem to suggest a more sensitive behavior than the simulations are able to capture. DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. (96ABW-2011-0053)

  20. An automated optical wedge calibrator for Dobson ozone spectrophotometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, R. D.; Komhyr, W. D.; Grass, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    The Dobson ozone spectrophotometer measures the difference of intensity between selected wavelengths in the ultraviolet. The method uses an optical attenuator (the 'Wedge') in this measurement. The knowledge of the relationship of the wedge position to the attenuation is critical to the correct calculation of ozone from the measurement. The procedure to determine this relationship is time-consuming, and requires a highly skilled person to perform it correctly. The relationship has been found to change with time. For reliable ozone values, the procedure should be done on a Dobson instrument at regular intervals. Due to the skill and time necessary to perform this procedure, many instruments have gone as long as 15 years between procedures. This article describes an apparatus that performs the procedure under computer control, and is adaptable to the majority of existing Dobson instruments. Part of the apparatus is usable for normal operation of the Dobson instrument, and would allow computer collection of the data and real-time ozone measurements.

  1. Dying Flow Bursts as Generators of the Substorm Current Wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerendel, G.

    2015-12-01

    Many theories or conjectures exist on the driver of the substorm current wedge, e.g. rerouting of the tail current, current disruption, flow braking, vortex formation, and current sheet collapse. Magnitude, spatial scale, and temporal development of the related magnetic perturbations suggest that the generator is related to the interaction of the flow bursts with the dipolar magnetosphere after onset of reconnection in the near-Earth tail. The question remains whether it is the flow energy that feeds the wedge current or the internal energy of the arriving plasma. In this presentation I argue for the latter. The current generation is attributed to the force exerted by the dipolarized magnetic field of the flow bursts on the preceding layer of high-beta plasma after flow braking. The generator current is the grad-B current at the outer boundary of the compressed high-beta plasma layers. It needs the sequential arrival of several flow bursts to account for duration and magnitude of the ionospheric closure current.

  2. Dying Flow Bursts as Generators of the Substorm Current Wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerendel, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    Many theories or conjectures exist on the driver of the substorm current wedge, e.g. rerouting of the tail current, current disruption, flow braking, vortex formation, and current sheet collapse. Magnitude, spatial scale, and temporal development of the related magnetic perturbations suggest that the generator is related to the interaction of the flow bursts with the dipolar magnetosphere after onset of reconnection in the near-Earth tail. The question remains whether it is the flow energy that feeds the wedge current or the internal energy of the arriving plasma. In this presentation I argue for the latter. The current generation is attributed to the force exerted by the dipolarized magnetic field of the flow bursts on the preceding layer of high-beta plasma after flow braking. The generator current is the grad-B current at the outer boundary of the compressed high-beta plasma layers. It needs the sequential arrival of several flow bursts to account for duration and magnitude of the ionospheric closure current.

  3. The wedge bias in reionization 21-cm power spectrum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Hannes; Majumdar, Suman; Mellema, Garrelt; Lidz, Adam; Iliev, Ilian T.; Dixon, Keri L.

    2016-02-01

    A proposed method for dealing with foreground emission in upcoming 21-cm observations from the epoch of reionization is to limit observations to an uncontaminated window in Fourier space. Foreground emission can be avoided in this way, since it is limited to a wedge-shaped region in k∥, k⊥ space. However, the power spectrum is anisotropic owing to redshift-space distortions from peculiar velocities. Consequently, the 21-cm power spectrum measured in the foreground avoidance window - which samples only a limited range of angles close to the line-of-sight direction - differs from the full redshift-space spherically averaged power spectrum which requires an average over all angles. In this paper, we calculate the magnitude of this `wedge bias' for the first time. We find that the bias amplifies the difference between the real-space and redshift-space power spectra. The bias is strongest at high redshifts, where measurements using foreground avoidance will overestimate the redshift-space power spectrum by around 100 per cent, possibly obscuring the distinctive rise and fall signature that is anticipated for the spherically averaged 21-cm power spectrum. In the later stages of reionization, the bias becomes negative, and smaller in magnitude (≲20 per cent).

  4. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies.

  5. Laboratory and numerical investigation of transport processes occurring above and within a saltwater wedge.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sun Woo; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2013-04-01

    Salt wedges divide coastal groundwater flow regime into two distinct regions that include a freshwater region above the saltwater-freshwater interface and a saltwater region below the interface. Several recent studies have investigated saltwater transport in coastal aquifers and the associated flow and mixing processes. Most of these studies, however, have either focused on studying the movement of salt wedge itself or on studying contaminant transport processes occurring above the wedge. As per our knowledge, so far no one has completed laboratory experiments to study contaminant transport processes occurring within a saltwater wedge. In this study, we completed laboratory experiments to understand contaminant transport dynamics occurring within a saltwater wedge. We used a novel experimental approach that employed multiple neutral-density tracers to map and compare the mixing and transport processes occurring above and within a saltwater wedge. The experimental data were simulated using SEAWAT, and the model was used to further investigate the saltwater flow and transport dynamics within a wedge. The laboratory data show that the transport rates active within the wedge are almost two orders of magnitude slower than the transport rates active above the wedge for the small-scale experimental system which is characterized by very low level of mixing. The numerical results, however, postulate that for large-scale systems involving higher levels of mixing (or dispersion) the transport rate active within the wedge could be comparable or even higher than the rates active above the wedge. More field or laboratory studies completed under high dispersion conditions are needed to further test this hypothesis.

  6. Wedge and spring assembly for securing coils in electromagnets and dynamoelectric machines

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, M.; Cottingham, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    A wedge and spring assembly for use in electromagnets or dynamoelectric machines having a housing with an axis therethrough and a plurality of coils supported on salient poles that extend radially inward from the housing toward the housing axis to define a plurality of interpole spaces, respectively between the housing and adjacent coils, the interpole spaces each extending in a direction generally parallel to the housing axis. The wedge and spring assembly includes a nonmagnetic retainer spring and a nonmagnetic wedge. The retainer spring is formed to fit into one of the interpole spaces, and has juxtaposed ends defining between them a slit extending in a direction generally parallel to the housing axis. The wedge for insertion into the slit provides an outwardly directed force on respective portions of the juxtaposed ends defining the slit to expand the slit so that respective portions of the retainer spring engage areas of the coils adjacent thereto, thereby resiliently holding the coils against their respective salient poles. Preferably, the spring retainer and wedge are self-locking wherein wedge is fabricated from a material softer than a material the retainer spring is fabricated from, so that the wedge is securely retained in the slit. The retainer spring is generally triangular shaped to fit within the interpole space and fabricated from berryllium-copper alloy, and the wedge is generally T-shaped and fabricated from aluminum. Alternatively, a wedge and spring assembly includes a wedge having divergent sloped surfaces in which each surface and the respective juxtaposed ends of the retainer spring are angled relative to one another so that the wedge is securely retained in the slit by friction existing between its sloped surfaces and the juxtaposed ends of the retaining spring.

  7. Tritanium acetabular wedge augments: short-term results

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Camilo; Heller, Snir

    2016-01-01

    Background Reconstruction of acetabular defects in total hip arthroplasty (THA) presents a great challenge to orthopaedic surgeons. Previous studies have reported on the use and outcomes of trabecular metal acetabular augments for the reconstruction of acetabular defects. However, no study has been conducted evaluating the short-term results of tritanium acetabular wedge augments for the reconstruction of acetabular defects in THA. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using a prospective database at a single institution including primary and revision THA patients from January 2013 to December 2014. Patients were included if they received a tritanium acetabular wedge augment system and had a minimum of 2-year follow-up (average 2.2 years ±0.3, range, 2–2.6 years). Demographic data and outcomes data [Harris Hip Score—HHS and Short Form (SF)-36] was collected. Radiographic data was also collected on THA revision cases (Paprosky classification), developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) cases (Crowe classification), and radiographic follow-up using DeLee and Charnley’s classification system. Results There were 4 revision THA patients, 3 DDH patients, and 1 patient with posttraumatic arthritis. At the latest radiographic follow-up, there were no lucent lines in DeLee and Charnley Zones I, II or III. During the follow-up period, there was no open revision surgery. The SF-36 physical score significantly improved from preoperative measurement (29.6±2.2) to postoperative measurement (52.2±8.7, P=0.003), and the SF-36 mental score also significantly improved from preoperative assessment (34.5±4.5) to postoperative assessment (52.2±7.5, P=0.003). Total HHS scores also significantly improved postoperatively (P=0.02), with significant improvements in both the pain score (P=0.01) and function score (P=0.02). Conclusions Tritanium acetabular wedge augments in this short follow-up case series exhibit high clinical outcome scores, no radiographic lucency, and no

  8. Revisit the classical Newmark displacement method for earthquake-induced wedge slide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Che-Ming; Cheng, Hui-Yun; Wu, Wen-Jie; Hsu, Chang-Hsuan; Dong, Jia-Jyun; Lee, Chyi-Tyi

    2016-04-01

    Newmark displacement method has been widely used to study the earthquake-induced landslides and adopted to explore the initiation and kinematics of catastrophic planar failure in recent years. However, surprisingly few researchers utilize the Newmark displacement method to study the earthquake-induced wedge slide. The classical Newmark displacement method for earthquake-induced wedge sliding assumed the wedge is rigid and the vertical acceleration, as well as the horizontal acceleration perpendicular to the sliding direction, is neglected. Moreover, the friction coefficients on the weak planes are assumed as unchanged during sliding. The purpose of this study is to test the reasonableness of the aforementioned assumptions. This study uses Newmark displacement method incorporating the rigid wedge method (RWM) and maximum shear stress method (MSSM) to evaluate the influence of wedge deformation. We design the geometry of the wedge and input the synthetic seismicity to trigger the wedge slide. The influence for neglecting the vertical and horizontal (perpendicular to the sliding direction) accelerations is also assessed. Besides, this research incorporates the velocity-displacement dependent friction law in the analysis to evaluate the influence of constant friction coefficient assumption. Result of this study illustrated that the aforementioned assumptions have significant effects on the calculated permeant displacement, moving speed, and failure initiation. To conclude, this study provides new insights on the initiation and kinematics of an earthquake induced wedge slide.

  9. Immediate and 1 week effects of laterally wedge insoles on gait biomechanics in healthy females.

    PubMed

    Weinhandl, Joshua T; Sudheimer, Sarah E; Van Lunen, Bonnie L; Stewart, Kimberly; Hoch, Matthew C

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that approximately 45% of the U.S. population will develop knee osteoarthritis, a disease that creates significant economic burdens in both direct and indirect costs. Laterally wedged insoles have been frequently recommended to reduce knee abduction moments and to manage knee osteoarthritis. However, it remains unknown whether the lateral wedge will reduce knee abduction moments over a prolonged period of time. Thus, the purposes of this study were to (1) examine the immediate effects of a laterally wedged insole in individuals normally aligned knees and (2) determine prolonged effects after the insole was worn for 1 week. Gait analysis was performed on ten women with and without a laterally wedged insole. After participants wore the wedges for a week, a second gait analysis was performed with and without the insole. The wedged insole did not affect peak knee abduction moment, although there was a significant increase in knee abduction angular impulse after wearing the insoles for 1 week. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in vertical ground reaction force at the instance of peak knee abduction moment with the wedges. While the laterally wedged insole used in the current study did not alter knee abduction moments as expected, other studies have shown alterations. Future studies should also examine a longer acclimation period, the influence of gait speed, and the effect of different shoe types with the insole.

  10. Preliminary analysis of coil wedge dimensional variation in SSC Prototype Dipole Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, D.; Brown, G.; Dwyer, S.; Gattu, R.; Warner, D.

    1993-05-01

    The wedges used in SSC Prototype Dipole Magnets determine the relative position of conductor blocks within magnet coils. They serve to compensate partially for the less than full keystoning of the superconductor cable and to adjust current distribution with azimuth to determine the magnetic field shape. The ability to control the size and uniformity of wedges therefore is an important factor influencing magnet quality. This paper presents preliminary results of a Statistical Quality Control study of wedge dimensional variation and predicted field quality. Dimensions of samples from outer wedges for magnet DCA102 have been measured using a programmable optical comparator. The data is used to evaluate wedge manufacturing process capability, wedge uniformity, and to predict changes in conductor block position due to wedge deviation. Expected multipole variation attributable to observed wedge variation is discussed. This work focuses on a Prototype Dipole Magnet being built at the SSCL Magnet Development Laboratory (SSCL MDL) in Waxahachie, Texas. The magnet is of the same design as the DCA3xx series magnets built at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in 1991--92 and later used in the 1992 Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST).

  11. Enhancement of linear and second-order hyperpolarizabilities in wedge-shaped nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayabalan, J.; Singh, Manoranjan P.; Rustagi, K. C.

    2003-08-01

    Analytical solutions for the wave functions for free electrons inside a wedge-shaped quantum dot are reported. For silver wedge-shaped quantum dots, linear and second-order hyperpolarizabilities are calculated for various apex angles. It is found that linear and nonlinear hyperpolarizabilities both increase with decreasing apex angle.

  12. Pan-Arctic ice-wedge degradation in warming permafrost and its influence on tundra hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liljedahl, Anna K.; Boike, Julia; Daanen, Ronald P.; Fedorov, Alexander N.; Frost, Gerald V.; Grosse, Guido; Hinzman, Larry D.; Iijma, Yoshihiro; Jorgenson, Janet C.; Matveyeva, Nadya; Necsoiu, Marius; Raynolds, Martha K.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Schulla, Jörg; Tape, Ken D.; Walker, Donald A.; Wilson, Cathy J.; Yabuki, Hironori; Zona, Donatella

    2016-04-01

    Ice wedges are common features of the subsurface in permafrost regions. They develop by repeated frost cracking and ice vein growth over hundreds to thousands of years. Ice-wedge formation causes the archetypal polygonal patterns seen in tundra across the Arctic landscape. Here we use field and remote sensing observations to document polygon succession due to ice-wedge degradation and trough development in ten Arctic localities over sub-decadal timescales. Initial thaw drains polygon centres and forms disconnected troughs that hold isolated ponds. Continued ice-wedge melting leads to increased trough connectivity and an overall draining of the landscape. We find that melting at the tops of ice wedges over recent decades and subsequent decimetre-scale ground subsidence is a widespread Arctic phenomenon. Although permafrost temperatures have been increasing gradually, we find that ice-wedge degradation is occurring on sub-decadal timescales. Our hydrological model simulations show that advanced ice-wedge degradation can significantly alter the water balance of lowland tundra by reducing inundation and increasing runoff, in particular due to changes in snow distribution as troughs form. We predict that ice-wedge degradation and the hydrological changes associated with the resulting differential ground subsidence will expand and amplify in rapidly warming permafrost regions.

  13. Performance of an isolated two-dimensional wedge nozzle with fixed cowl and variable wedge centerbody at Mach numbers up to 2.01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiden, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation has been conducted to determine the aeropropulsion performance (thrust minus drag) of an isolated, two-dimensional wedge nozzle with a simulated variable-wedge mechanism and a fixed cowl. The investigation was conducted statically and at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20 in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel and at a Mach number of 2.01 in the Langley 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel. The ratio of exhaust jet total pressure to free-stream static pressure was varied up to 27 depending on free-stream Mach number. The results indicate that the aeropropulsion performance of the two-dimensional fixed-cowl variable-wedge nozzle is slightly lower (0.7 to 1.4 percent of ideal thrust) than that achieved for a two-dimensional wedge nozzle with a translating shroud, although part of the difference in performance is attributed to internal-performance differences. The effects of cowl boattail angle, internal expansion area ratio, and wedge half-angle on the performance of the two-dimensional wedge nozzle are discussed.

  14. Stratigraphic sequence architecture of deep-sea clastic system from aerial photographs, Great Valley sequence, northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Paramore, R.C.; Suchecki, R.K.

    1989-04-01

    Lineations interpreted from aerial photographs reveal stratal geometries of deep-sea clastic deposits along an ancient basin margin that was strongly influenced by both subduction and related volcanogenic processes. These stratal patterns of four principal stratigraphic sequences in steeply dipping Tithonian to Valanginian sediments of the Great Valley sequence, northern California, in combination with lithic facies data, illustrate the major components and internal architecture that resulted from eustatic and tectonic variations. Although deposited along a tectonically active margin, the component geometries and internal stratal patterns of the sequences are similar in detail to seismically defined stratigraphic sequences of Vail. The integration of fine-scale stratal architecture based on aerial photograph interpretation and sediment facies using classical models of submarine-fan deposits illustrates the depositional and stratigraphic evolution of a convegent deep-sea margin.

  15. Comparison of the hamstring/quadriceps ratio in females during squat exercise using various foot wedges.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the hamstring/quadriceps ratio in females during squat exercise using various foot wedges. [Subjects and Methods] Nine females participated in this study. Surface electrodes measurements were taken over the hamstring and quadriceps under 3 squat exercise conditions, and the hamstring/quadriceps ratio was calculated. [Results] The hamstring/quadriceps ratio was significantly increased during squat exercise in inclined wedge condition (7.4 ± 1.8), compared to the declined wedge condition (5.3 ± 2.2) and no wedge condition (6.4 ± 3.2). [Conclusion] This study suggests that squat exercise in the inclined wedge condition may be effective for increasing the hamstring/quadriceps ratio in females. PMID:27630437

  16. Periodic nanostructures from self assembled wedge-type block-copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Xia, Yan; Sveinbjornsson, Benjamin R.; Grubbs, Robert H.; Weitekamp, Raymond; Miyake, Garret M.; Piunova, Victoria; Daeffler, Christopher Scot

    2015-06-02

    The invention provides a class of wedge-type block copolymers having a plurality of chemically different blocks, at least a portion of which incorporates a wedge group-containing block providing useful properties. For example, use of one or more wedge group-containing blocks in some block copolymers of the invention significantly inhibits chain entanglement and, thus, the present block copolymers materials provide a class of polymer materials capable of efficient molecular self-assembly to generate a range of structures, such as periodic nanostructures and microstructures. Materials of the present invention include copolymers having one or more wedge group-containing blocks, and optionally for some applications copolymers also incorporating one or more polymer side group-containing blocks. The present invention also provides useful methods of making and using wedge-type block copolymers.

  17. Wedge and spring assembly for securing coils in electromagnets and dynamoelectric machines

    DOEpatents

    Lindner, Melvin; Cottingham, James G.

    1996-03-12

    A wedge and spring assembly for use in electromagnets or dynamoelectric machines having a housing with an axis therethrough and a plurality of coils supported on salient poles that extend radially inward from the housing toward the housing axis to define a plurality of interpole spaces. The wedge and spring assembly includes a nonmagnetic retainer spring and a nonmagnetic wedge. The retainer spring is formed to fit into one of the interpole spaces, and has juxtaposed ends defining between them a slit extending in a direction generally parallel to the housing axis. The wedge for insertion into the slit provides an outwardly directed force on respective portions of the juxtaposed ends to expand the slit so that respective portions of the retainer spring engage areas of the coils adjacent thereto, thereby resiliently holding the coils against their respective salient poles. The retainer spring is generally triangular shaped to fit within the interpole space, and the wedge is generally T-shaped.

  18. Comparison of the hamstring/quadriceps ratio in females during squat exercise using various foot wedges

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the hamstring/quadriceps ratio in females during squat exercise using various foot wedges. [Subjects and Methods] Nine females participated in this study. Surface electrodes measurements were taken over the hamstring and quadriceps under 3 squat exercise conditions, and the hamstring/quadriceps ratio was calculated. [Results] The hamstring/quadriceps ratio was significantly increased during squat exercise in inclined wedge condition (7.4 ± 1.8), compared to the declined wedge condition (5.3 ± 2.2) and no wedge condition (6.4 ± 3.2). [Conclusion] This study suggests that squat exercise in the inclined wedge condition may be effective for increasing the hamstring/quadriceps ratio in females.

  19. Mechanics of fold-and-thrust belts and accretionary wedges Cohesive Coulomb theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlen, F. A.; Suppe, J.; Davis, D.

    1984-01-01

    A self-consistent theory for the mechanics of thin-skinned accretionary Coulomb wedges is developed and applied to the active fold-and-thrust belt of western Taiwan. The state of stress everywhere within a critical wedge is determined by solving the static equilibrium equations subject to the appropriate boundary conditions. The influence of wedge cohesion, which gives rise to a concave curvature of the critical topographic surface and affects the orientation of the principal stresses and Coulomb fracture within the wedge, is considered. The shape of the topographic surface and the angles at which thrust faults step up from the basal decollement in the Taiwanese belt is analyzed taking into account the extensive structural and fluid-pressure data available there. It is concluded that the gross geometry and structure of the Taiwan wedge are consistent with normal laboratory frictional and fracture strengths of sedimentary rocks.

  20. Comparison of the hamstring/quadriceps ratio in females during squat exercise using various foot wedges

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the hamstring/quadriceps ratio in females during squat exercise using various foot wedges. [Subjects and Methods] Nine females participated in this study. Surface electrodes measurements were taken over the hamstring and quadriceps under 3 squat exercise conditions, and the hamstring/quadriceps ratio was calculated. [Results] The hamstring/quadriceps ratio was significantly increased during squat exercise in inclined wedge condition (7.4 ± 1.8), compared to the declined wedge condition (5.3 ± 2.2) and no wedge condition (6.4 ± 3.2). [Conclusion] This study suggests that squat exercise in the inclined wedge condition may be effective for increasing the hamstring/quadriceps ratio in females. PMID:27630437

  1. The Cimmerian accretionary wedge of Anarak, Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchi, Andrea; Malaspina, Nadia; Zanchetta, Stefano; Berra, Fabrizio; Benciolini, Luca; Bergomi, Maria; Cavallo, Alessandro; Javadi, Hamid Reza; Kouhpeyma, Meyssam

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence in Iran of several ophiolite belts dating between Late Palaeozoic to Triassic poses several questions on the possible existence of various sutures marking the closure of the Palaeotethys ocean between Eurasia and this Gondwana-derived microplate. In this scenario, the Anarak region in Central Iran still represents a conundrum. Contrasting geochronological, paleontological, paleomagnetic data and reported field evidence suggest different origins for the Anarak Metamorphic Complex (AMC). The AMC is either interpreted, as: (1) relict of an accretionary wedge developed at the Eurasia margin during the Palaeotethys subduction as part of the Cimmerian suture zone of NE Iran, displaced to Central Iran by a large counter-clockwise rotation of the central Iranian blocks; (2) autochthonous unit forming a secondary branch of the main suture zone. Our structural, petrographic and geochemical data indicate that the AMC consists of several metamorphic units also including dismembered "ophiolites" which display different tectono-metamorphic evolutions. Three main ductile deformational events can be distinguished in the AMC. The Morghab and Chah Gorbeh complexes preserve a different M1 metamorphism, characterized by blueschist relics in the S1 foliation of the former unit, and greenschist assemblages in the latter. They share a subsequent similar D2 deformational and M2 metamorphic history, showing a prograde metamorphism with syn- to post-deformation growth of blueschist facies mineral assemblages on pre-existing greenschist facies associations. High pressure, low temperature (HP/LT) metamorphism responsible for the growth of sodic amphibole has been recognized also within marble lenses at the contact between the Chah Gorbeh Complex and serpentinites. Evidence of HP/LT metamorphism also occurs in glaucophane-bearing meta-pillow lavas and serpentinites, which contain antigorite and form most of the "ophiolites" within the AMC. Structural relationships show that the

  2. Magnetic quantum well states in ultrathin film and wedge structures

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Bader, S.D.

    1996-04-01

    Magnetic quantum-well (QW) states are probed with angle- and spin-resolved photoemission to address critical issues pertaining to the origin of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) optimization and oscillatory coupling of magnetic multilayers. Two epitaxial systems are highlighted: Cu/Co(wedge)/Cu(100) and Cr/Fe(100)-whisker. The confinement of Cu sp-QW states by a Co barrier requires a characteristic Co thickness of 2.2 {+-} 0.6 {angstrom}, which is consistent with the interfacial Co thickness reported to optimize the GMR of permalloy-Cu structures. The controversial k-space origin of the 18-{angstrom} long period oscillation in Fe/Cr multilayers is identified by the vector that spans the d-derived lens feature of the Cr Fermi surface, based on the emergence of QW states with 17 {+-} 2 {angstrom} periodicity in this region.

  3. Anterolateral Biplanar Proximal Tibial Opening-Wedge Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Dean, Chase S; Chahla, Jorge; Moulton, Samuel G; Nitri, Marco; Serra Cruz, Raphael; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    Proximal tibial anterolateral opening-wedge osteotomies have been reported to achieve successful biplanar lower-extremity realignment. Indications for a proximal tibial anterolateral osteotomy include symptomatic genu recurvatum with genu valgus alignment, usually in patients with a flat sagittal-plane tibial slope. The biplanar approach is able to simultaneously address both components of a patient's malalignment with a single procedure. The correction amount is verified with spacers and intraoperative imaging, while correction of the patient's heel height is simultaneously measured. A plate is secured into the osteotomy site, and the site is filled with bone allograft. The anterolateral tibial osteotomy has been reported to be an effective surgical procedure for correcting concomitant genu recurvatum and genu valgus malalignment. PMID:27656374

  4. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges

    SciTech Connect

    Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio

    2014-12-15

    We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.

  5. Numerical investigation of shedding partial cavities over a sharp wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budich, B.; Neuner, S.; Schmidt, S. J.; Adams, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this contribution, we examine transient dynamics and cavitation patterns of periodically shedding partial cavities by numerical simulations. The investigation reproduces reference experiments of the cavitating flow over a sharp wedge. Utilizing a homogeneous mixture model, full compressibility of the two-phase flow of water and water vapor is taken into account by the numerical method. We focus on inertia-dominated mechanisms, thus modeling the flow as inviscid. Based on the assumptions of thermodynamic equilibrium and barotropic flow, the thermodynamic properties are computed from closed-form analytical relations. Emphasis is put on a validation of the employed numerical approach. We demonstrate that computed shedding dynamics are in agreement with the references. Complex flow features observed in the experiments, including cavitating hairpin and horse-shoe vortices, are also predicted by the simulations. Furthermore, a condensation discontinuity occurring during the collapse phase at the trailing portion of the partial cavity is equally obtained.

  6. Landward thrusting in accretionary wedges: evidence for seafloor rupture?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubas, N.; Souloumiac, P.

    2015-12-01

    The 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Japan earthquakes took the community by surprise because they ruptured frontal sections of megathrust thought to slip aseismically. Studying the deformation of accretionary prisms can help in characterizing the specific structures associated to frontal propagation and determining the mechanical properties leading to this behavior. Recent observations suggest a correlation between landward faults and frontal propagation of earthquakes along the Sumatra subduction zone. Large sections of landward thrusts are also observed along Cascadia known to have ruptured in 1700 with a M~9 generating a large tsunami. In this study, we propose to investigate if specific frictional properties could lead to a landward sequence of thrusting with the limit analysis approach. We first show that such sequence requires very low effective friction along the megathrust with a rather high internal effective friction. We also show that landward sequence appears close to the extensional critical limit. We retrieve the megathrust effective friction for three wedges with different sediment incomes. For Cascadia, we find a maximal effective friction of 0.032. For northern and southern Sumatra, we find μ≤0.02 and μ≤ 0.08 respectively. This very low effective friction is probably due to lithostatic pore pressure. This high pore pressure could either be a long-term property or due to dynamic effects such as thermal pressurization. The fact that landward vergence appears far from the compressional critical limit favors a dynamic effect. Indeed, a wedge would move away from this limit if material is added synchronously to the deformation or if it is suddenly submitted to a lower effective friction. In addition, the long-term high pore pressure could be due to a low permeability enhancing thermal pressurization and co-seismic slip along the frontal part of the megathrust.

  7. Distribution of strain rates in the Taiwan orogenic wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouthereau, F.; Fillon, C.; Ma, K.-F.

    2009-07-01

    To constrain the way Eurasian crust is accreted to the Taiwan orogenic wedge we investigate the present-day 3D seismogenic deformation field using the summation of 1129 seismic moment tensors of events ( Mw > 4) covering a period of 11 years (1995 to 2005). Based on the analysis of the principal strain-rate field, including dilatation and maximum shear rates, we distinguish four domains. Domain I comprises the Coastal Plain and the Western Foothills. It is mainly contractional in both the horizontal plane and in cross-section. Domain II comprises the eastern Western Foothills, the Hsuehshan Range and the Backbone Range. It is characterized by the highest contraction rates of 10 - 6 yr - 1 in association with area expansion in cross-section and area contraction in the horizontal plane. Domain III corresponds to the Central Range. It is characterized by area contraction in cross-section and area expansion in the horizontal plane. The maximum contractional axis is typically low and plunges ~ 30°E. Extension is larger, horizontal and strikes parallel to the axis of the mountain range. Domain IV corresponding to the Coastal Range and offshore Luzon Arc shows deformation patterns similar to domain II. This seismogenic strain-rate field, which is found in good agreement with the main features of the geodetic field, supports shortening within a thick wedge whose basal décollement is relatively flat and located in the middle-to-lower crust > 20 km. The east plunges of maximum strain-rate axes below the Central Range argue for the development of top-to-the-east transport of rocks resulting from the extrusion of the whole crust along west-dipping crustal-scale shear zones. The study of seismogenic strain rates argues that the initiation of subduction reversal has already started in the Taiwan collision domain.

  8. The Substorm Current Wedge: Further Insights from MHD Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birn, J.; Hesse, M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a recent magnetohydrodynamic simulation of magnetotail dynamics, we further investigate the buildup and evolution of the substorm current wedge (SCW), resulting from flow bursts generated by near-tail reconnection. Each flow burst generates an individual current wedge, which includes the reduction of cross-tail current and the diversion to region 1 (R1)-type field-aligned currents (earthward on the dawn and tailward on the duskside), connecting the tail with the ionosphere. Multiple flow bursts generate initially multiple SCW patterns, which at later times combine to a wider single SCW pattern. The standard SCWmodel is modified by the addition of several current loops, related to particular magnetic field changes: the increase of Bz in a local equatorial region (dipolarization), the decrease of |Bx| away from the equator (current disruption), and increases in |By| resulting from azimuthally deflected flows. The associated loop currents are found to be of similar magnitude, 0.1-0.3 MA. The combined effect requires the addition of region 2 (R2)-type currents closing in the near tail through dawnward currents but also connecting radially with the R1 currents. The current closure at the inner boundary, taken as a crude proxy of an idealized ionosphere, demonstrates westward currents as postulated in the original SCW picture as well as North-South currents connecting R1- and R2-type currents, which were larger than the westward currents by a factor of almost 2. However, this result should be applied with caution to the ionosphere because of our neglect of finite resistance and Hall effects.

  9. Isolating active orogenic wedge deformation in the southern Subandes of Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Jonathan R.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Foster, James H.; Bevis, Michael; Echalar, Arturo; Caccamise, Dana; Heck, Jacob; Kendrick, Eric; Ahlgren, Kevin; Raleigh, David; Smalley, Robert; Vergani, Gustavo

    2016-08-01

    A new GPS-derived surface velocity field for the central Andean backarc permits an assessment of orogenic wedge deformation across the southern Subandes of Bolivia, where recent studies suggest that great earthquakes (>Mw 8) are possible. We find that the backarc is not isolated from the main plate boundary seismic cycle. Rather, signals from subduction zone earthquakes contaminate the velocity field at distances greater than 800 km from the Chile trench. Two new wedge-crossing velocity profiles, corrected for seasonal and earthquake affects, reveal distinct regions that reflect (1) locking of the main plate boundary across the high Andes, (2) the location of and loading rate at the back of orogenic wedge, and (3) an east flank velocity gradient indicative of décollement locking beneath the Subandes. Modeling of the Subandean portions of the profiles indicates along-strike variations in the décollement locked width (WL) and wedge loading rate; the northern wedge décollement has a WL of ~100 km while accumulating slip at a rate of ~14 mm/yr, whereas the southern wedge has a WL of ~61 km and a slip rate of ~7 mm/yr. When compared to Quaternary estimates of geologic shortening and evidence for Holocene internal wedge deformation, the new GPS-derived wedge loading rates may indicate that the southern wedge is experiencing a phase of thickening via reactivation of preexisting internal structures. In contrast, we suspect that the northern wedge is undergoing an accretion or widening phase primarily via slip on relatively young thrust-front faults.

  10. Vertebral body or intervertebral disc wedging: which contributes more to thoracolumbar kyphosis in ankylosing spondylitis patients?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hao; Qian, Bang-Ping; Qiu, Yong; Wang, Yan; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Ze-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Both vertebral body wedging and disc wedging are found in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis. However, their relative contribution to thoracolumbar kyphosis is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to compare different contributions of vertebral and disc wedging to the thoracolumbar kyphosis in AS patients, and to analyze the relationship between the apical vertebral wedging angle and thoracolumbar kyphosis. From October 2009 to October 2013, a total of 59 consecutive AS patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis with a mean age of 38.1 years were recruited in this study. Based on global kyphosis (GK), 26 patients with GK < 70° were assigned to group A, and the other 33 patients with GK ≥ 70° were included in group B. Each GK was divided into disc wedge angles and vertebral wedge angles. The wedging angle of each disc and vertebra comprising the thoracolumbar kyphosis was measured, and the proportion of the wedging angle to the GK was calculated accordingly. Intergroup and intragroup comparisons were subsequently performed to investigate the different contributions of disc and vertebra to the GK. The correlation between the apical vertebral wedging angle and GK was calculated by Pearson correlation analysis. The duration of disease and sex were also recorded in this study. With respect to the mean disease duration, significant difference was observed between the two groups (P < 0.01). The wedging angle and wedging percentage of discs were significantly higher than those of vertebrae in group A (34.8° ± 2.5° vs 26.7° ± 2.7°, P < 0.01 and 56.6% vs 43.4%, P < 0.01), whereas disc wedging and disc wedging percentage were significantly lower than vertebrae in group B (37.6° ± 7.0° vs 50.1° ± 5.1°, P < 0.01 and 42.7% vs 57.3%, P < 0.01). The wedging of vertebrae was significantly higher in group B than in group A (50.1° ± 5.1° vs 26.7° ± 2.7°, P < 0

  11. Ice-wedge based permafrost chronologies and stable-water isotope records from Arctic Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterich, Sebastian; Opel, Thomas; Meyer, Hanno; Schwamborn, Georg; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Dereviagin, Alexander Yu.

    2016-04-01

    Late Quaternary permafrost of northern latitudes contains large proportions of ground ice, including pore ice, segregation ice, massive ice, buried glacier ice and in particular ice wedges. Fossil ice-wedges are remnants of polygonal patterned ground in former tundra areas, which evolved over several tens of thousands of years in non-glaciated Beringia. Ice wedges originate from repeated frost cracking of the ground in winter and subsequent crack filling by snowmelt and re-freezing in the ground in spring. Hence, the stable water isotope composition (δ18O, δD, d excess) of wedge ice derives from winter precipitation and is commonly interpreted as wintertime climate proxy. Paleoclimate studies based on ice-wedge isotope data cover different timescales and periods of the late Quaternary. (MIS 6 to MIS 1). In the long-term scale the temporal resolution is rather low and corresponds to mid- and late Pleistocene and Holocene stratigraphic units. Recent progress has been made in developing centennial Late Glacial and Holocene time series of ice-wedge stable isotopes by applying radiocarbon dating of organic remains in ice samples. Ice wedges exposed at both coasts of the Dmitry Laptev Strait (East Siberian Sea) were studied to deduce winter climate conditions since about 200 kyr. Ice wedges aligned to distinct late Quaternary permafrost strata were studied for their isotopic composition and dated by radiocarbon ages of organic matter within the wedge ice or by cosmogenic nuclide ratios (36Cl/Cl-) of the ice. The paleoclimate interpretation is furthermore based on geocryological and paleoecological proxy data and geochronological information (radiocarbon, luminescence, radioisotope disequilibria 230Th/U) from ice-wedge embedding frozen deposits. Coldest winter conditions are mirrored by most negative δ18O mean values of -37 ‰ and δD mean values of -290 ‰ from ice wedges of the Last Glacial Maximum (26 to 22 kyr BP) while late Holocene (since about 4 kyr BP) and in

  12. Hyper-extended continental crust deformation in the light of Coulomb critical wedge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirrengarten, Michael; Manatschal, Gianreto; Yuan, Xiaoping; Kusznir, Nick; Maillot, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    The rocks forming the wedge shape termination of hyper-extended continental crust are deformed in the frictional field during the last stage of continental rifting due to cooling and hydration. Seismic interpretation and field evidence show that the basal boundary of the wedge is a low frictional décollement level. The wedge shape, the frictional deformation and the basal décollement correspond to the requirements of the critical Coulomb wedge (CCW) theory which describes the stability limit of a frictional wedge over a décollement. In a simple shear separation model the upper-plate margin (in the hangingwall of the detachment fault) corresponds to a tectonic extensional wedge whereas the lower plate (in the footwall of the detachment fault) is a gravitational wedge. This major difference causes the asymmetry of conjugate hyper-extended rifted margins. We measure a dataset of upper and lower hyper-extended wedge and compare it to the stability envelope of the CCW theory for serpentine and clay friction. We find a good fit by adjusting fluid pressure. The main results of our analysis are that the crustal wedges of lower plate margins are close to the critical shape, which explains their low variability whereas upper plate wedges can be critical, sub- or sup- critical due to the detachment evolution during rifting. On the upper plate side, according to the Coulomb tectonic extensional wedge, faults should be oriented toward the continent. Observations showed some continentward faults in the termination of the continental crust but there are also oceanward faults. This can be explained by two processes, first continentward faults are created only over the detachment, therefore if part of the hyper-extended upper plate crust is not directly over the detachment it will not be part of the wedge. Secondly the tip block of the wedge can be detached creating an extensional allochthon induced by the flattening of the detachment near the surface, therefore continentward

  13. Critical taper wedge strength varies with structural style: results from distinct-element models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, L. M.; Suppe, J.

    2015-12-01

    Critical-taper theory has given diverse insight into kinematics, roles of erosion and sedimentation, and the morphology of compressive mountain belts. We have made progress by recasting the parameter-rich mathematics into a simpler form that describes a linear, co-varying relationship between surface slope and detachment dip (α, β), and internal- and basal-sliding strengths (W, F). Using distinct-element models, we tested this simpler theory over a range of wedge strengths and structural styles. We also obtained W & F from observations of surface slope α and detachment dip β in active natural systems, all of which including the numerical models, show wedges are strong but detachments are weak, with F/W=0.1 or less. Model-derived W & F vary about a mean that matches geometry-derived values. Time- and spatially-averaged dynamical F & W are observed to be equal to wedge-derived results. Critical taper reflects the dynamical strengths during wedge growth and is controlled dynamically as base friction varies between an assigned quasi-static value and lower values during slip events. In the wedge, W varies more than F, which may also be true for natural systems. Detachments have frictional stick/slip behavior on a basal wall, but the wedge has more going on within it. Tandem faulting & folding serve to simultaneously weaken and strengthen the wedge, and may occur anywhere: structural style appears to be important to wedge strength evolution. The dynamics of deformation within the wedge and slip upon the base control the finite wedge geometry: static strengths drop to dynamic levels during seismicity, resulting in materials and faults that are weaker than prescribed in models or determined by testing. Relationships between α and W & F are complex. All sudden, stepwise changes in α, W & F with time coincide with seismicity spikes in the models. Large events trigger or are triggered by large changes in F and W. We examine the complex details of dynamically driven

  14. Mineralogy and geochemistry of pseudogley soils and recent alluvial clastic sediments in the Ngog-Lituba region, Southern Cameroon: An implication to their genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndjigui, Paul-Désiré; Ebah Abeng, Sandrine Appolonie; Ekomane, Emile; Nzeukou, Aubin Nzeugang; Ngo Mandeng, Francine Sidonie; Matoy Lindjeck, Marthe

    2015-08-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical investigations have been done on the hydromorphic clays (pseudogley soils and recent alluvial clastic sediments) in the Sanaga Maritime region (Southern Cameroon). Pseudogley soils are developed on gneisses from the Yaoundé Group. They have a dark brown to greyish brown color, with silty clay texture. Their mineral assemblage is made up of kaolinite, goethite, quartz, smectite, rutile, muscovite-illite and feldspars. The alluvial clastic sediments are characterized by variable colors (purple yellow, greenish, dark brown and purple brown) and sandy clay to clay texture. The mineral assemblage of alluvial clays is similar to that of pseudogley soils. SEM observations confirm the presence of kaolinite, smectite, quartz and muscovite-illite. Infrared data show that kaolinite is more orderly in pseudogley than in the alluvial clastic sediments. The Ngog-Lituba gneisses have moderate contents in SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O and several trace elements including REE. High element depletion is noticed in the pseudogley soils except Cr, V, Zr, Pb and REE. However, the alluvial clays are marked by a strong mobilization of LILE (Na, K, Ba, Rb and Sr) and REE, relative to the parent rock and pseudogley soils. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns are homogenous and parallel with Ce-anomalies. The (La/Yb)N shows that the REE fractionation increase from the parent rock to the alluvial clastic sediments. The mineralogical and geochemical features show that the clastic river sediments are derived from the erosion of the neighboring pseudogley materials before hydraulic sorting.

  15. A Study in Wedge Waves with Applications in Acoustic Delay- line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Po-Hsien; Wang, Wen-Chi; Yang, Che-Hua

    The acoustic delay line is usually used to supply protection from dangerous environment, to enhance signal intensity by fit geometry of analyte, or to achieve specific angle/focusing by Snell's law, but rarely to avoid noise from coupling agent and to raise spatial resolution by reducing contact area. This study is focused on wedge waves with applications in delay-line to solve the knot of traditionally transducer measurement. Wedge waves are guided acoustic waves propagating along the tip of a wedge. The advantages of wedge being used in acoustic delay line are wedge waves has large motion amplitude of anti-symmetric flexural (ASF) mode, low energy attenuation and the velocity of ASF more is regular weather frequency varied or not. According the characteristic of wedge wave and vibration direction of particle, the acoustical wedge delay line with high signal- noise-ratio, approximate point-like contact area, without coupling agent and in/out vibration measurement by specific experimental setup is developed.

  16. Biomechanical effects of lateral and medial wedge insoles on unilateral weight bearing

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Tomonori; Kito, Nobuhiro; Yukimune, Masaki; Tokuda, Kazuki; Tanimoto, Kenji; Anan, Masaya; Takahashi, Makoto; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lateral wedge insoles reduce the peak external knee adduction moment and are advocated for patients with knee osteoarthritis. However, some patients demonstrate adverse biomechanical effects with treatment. In this study, we examined the immediate effects of lateral and medial wedge insoles under unilateral weight bearing. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy young adults participated in this study. The subjects were assessed by using the foot posture index, and were divided into three groups: normal foot, pronated foot, and supinated foot groups. The knee adduction moment and knee-ground reaction force lever arm under the studied conditions were measured by using a three-dimensional motion capture system and force plates. [Results] In the normal and pronated groups, the change in knee adduction moment significantly decreased under the lateral wedge insole condition compared with the medial wedge insole condition. In the normal group, the change in the knee-ground reaction force lever arm also significantly decreased under the lateral wedge insole condition than under the medial wedge insole condition. [Conclusion] Lateral wedge insoles significantly reduced the knee adduction moment and knee-ground reaction force lever arm during unilateral weight bearing in subjects with normal feet, and the biomechanical effects varied according to individual foot alignment. PMID:26957775

  17. Biomechanical effects of lateral and medial wedge insoles on unilateral weight bearing.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Tomonori; Kito, Nobuhiro; Yukimune, Masaki; Tokuda, Kazuki; Tanimoto, Kenji; Anan, Masaya; Takahashi, Makoto; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lateral wedge insoles reduce the peak external knee adduction moment and are advocated for patients with knee osteoarthritis. However, some patients demonstrate adverse biomechanical effects with treatment. In this study, we examined the immediate effects of lateral and medial wedge insoles under unilateral weight bearing. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy young adults participated in this study. The subjects were assessed by using the foot posture index, and were divided into three groups: normal foot, pronated foot, and supinated foot groups. The knee adduction moment and knee-ground reaction force lever arm under the studied conditions were measured by using a three-dimensional motion capture system and force plates. [Results] In the normal and pronated groups, the change in knee adduction moment significantly decreased under the lateral wedge insole condition compared with the medial wedge insole condition. In the normal group, the change in the knee-ground reaction force lever arm also significantly decreased under the lateral wedge insole condition than under the medial wedge insole condition. [Conclusion] Lateral wedge insoles significantly reduced the knee adduction moment and knee-ground reaction force lever arm during unilateral weight bearing in subjects with normal feet, and the biomechanical effects varied according to individual foot alignment.

  18. Inferring the spatial variation of the wedge strength based on a modified critical taper model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.; Liu, H.; Hsieh, Y.; Dong, J.

    2013-12-01

    Critical taper wedge theory has been widely applied to evaluate the strength of the detachment fault and the wedge by measuring taper angle. Traditional taper model, which incorporated constant cohesion and friction angle, fails to explain the lateral variation of the taper angle. A modified critical taper model adopting nonlinear Hoek-Brown failure criterion is proposed accordingly. The fold-and-thrust belt of central Taiwan was studied. Based on the field works and laboratory tests, the geological strength index (GSI) and the uniaxial compressive strength were obtained and the wedge strength can be estimated accordingly. The GSI values from investigation are decreased from the west to the east along the cross section due to the wedge strength heterogeneity. The uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock varies from the age of formation and lithology. The estimated wedge strength exhibits a strong spatial variation. The strength of the detachment fault was derived from rotary shear tests using fault gouge materials under different velocities and normal stresses. General speaking, the steady-state friction coefficient are about 0.29-0.46 when the shear velocity less than 0.1 m/s. The friction coefficient is not sensitive to the normal stress. Consequently, the lateral variation of the taper angle, which calculated by modified critical taper model, is mainly dominated by the wedge strength heterogeneity and the thickening of the wedge from the west to the east.

  19. Gap Test Modeling to Predict Wedge Tests Initiation of PBXN-103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Clinton Thomas

    1997-07-01

    The experimental Initiation of PBXN-103 by the standard wedge test has been modeled by using the HVRB initiation and growth model in the CTH code. The P-081 plane wave lens was used as initiator in these experiments. The wedge test was converted to a gap test by replacing the PBXN-103 wedge by a PBXN-103 cylinder. By modeling this gap test, shock initiation in the PBXN-103 was calculated. The results of these calculations are in agreement with the experimental results of the wedge tests. Comparison of the CTH code calculations with the wedge test data was accomplished by using an auxiliary program to the CTH code called the BCAT code. In particular, it computes the ``pop plot'' and compares it to the wedge test data. It also predicts other fundamental results of the wedge test. Shock initiation of PBX-9404 was also calculated by the HVRB model and compared to the same calculation using the Lee-Tarver model. Comparison of the two calculations indicate that the HVRB model is apparently as good as the Lee-Tarver model.

  20. Semi-analytical solutions of groundwater flow in multi-zone (patchy) wedge-shaped aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samani, Nozar; Sedghi, Mohammad M.

    2015-03-01

    Alluvial fans are potential sites of potable groundwater in many parts of the world. Characteristics of alluvial fans sediments are changed radially from high energy coarse-grained deposition near the apex to low energy fine-grained deposition downstream so that patchy wedge-shaped aquifers with radial heterogeneity are formed. The hydraulic parameters of the aquifers (e.g. hydraulic conductivity and specific storage) change in the same fashion. Analytical or semi-analytical solutions of the flow in wedge-shaped aquifers are available for homogeneous cases. In this paper we derive semi-analytical solutions of groundwater flow to a well in multi-zone wedge-shaped aquifers. Solutions are provided for three wedge boundary configurations namely: constant head-constant head wedge, constant head-barrier wedge and barrier-barrier wedge. Derivation involves the use of integral transforms methods. The effect of heterogeneity ratios of zones on the response of the aquifer is examined. The results are presented in form of drawdown and drawdown derivative type curves. Heterogeneity has a significant effect on over all response of the pumped aquifer. Solutions help understanding the behavior of heterogeneous multi-zone aquifers for sustainable development of the groundwater resources in alluvial fans.

  1. Diffuse holographic interferometric observation of shock wave reflection from a skewed wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numata, D.; Ohtani, K.; Takayama, K.

    2009-06-01

    The pattern of shock wave reflection over a wedge is, in general, either a regular reflection or a Mach reflection, depending on wedge angles, shock wave Mach numbers, and specific heat ratios of gases. However, regular and Mach reflections can coexist, in particular, over a three-dimensional wedge surface, whose inclination angles locally vary normal to the direction of shock propagation. This paper reports a result of diffuse double exposure holographic interferometric observations of shock wave reflections over a skewed wedge surface placed in a 100 × 180 mm shock tube. The wedge consists of a straight generating line whose local inclination angle varies continuously from 30° to 60°. Painting its surface with fluorescent spray paint and irradiating its surface with a collimated object beam at a time interval of a few microseconds, we succeeded in visualizing three-dimensional shock reflection over the skewed wedge surface. Experiments were performed at shock Mach numbers, 1.55, 2.02, and 2.53 in air. From reconstructed holographic images, we estimated critical transition angles at these shock wave Mach numbers and found that these were very close to those over straight wedges. This is attributable to the flow three-dimensionality.

  2. Role of Hydrogen in stagnant slabs and big mantle wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, E.; Zhao, D.

    2008-12-01

    Recent seismic tomography data imply that subducting slabs are stagnant at some regions such as beneath Japan and Northeast China [1, 2]. The stagnant slab can have an important effect on the overlying transition zone and upper mantle. A big mantle wedge (BMW) model has been proposed by Zhao [2], in which the stagnant slab in the transition zone could play an essential role in the intra-plate volcanic activities overlying the slab. Water released by the stagnant slab could be important for such igneous activities, such as Mt. Changbai in Northeast China. In cold subducting slabs, several hydrous minerals together with nominally anhydrous minerals accommodate OH and transport water into the transition zone [3]. The effect of dehydration of the stagnant slab has been analyzed by Richard et al. [4]. They argued that warming of the stagnant slab due to heat conduction could play an important role for the slab dehydration, and local oversaturation could be achieved due to decrease of the water solubility in minerals with temperature, and fluid can be formed in the overlying transition zone. We determined the hydrogen diffusion in wadsleyite and ringwoodite under the transition zone conditions in order to clarify the deep processes of the stagnant slabs, and found that diffusion rates of hydrogen are comparable with that of olivine [5]. We also determined the dihedral angle of aqueous fluid between wadsleyite grains and majorite grains under the transition zone conditions. The dihedral angles are very small, around 20-40 degrees, indicating that the oversaturated fluids can move rapidly by the percolation mechanism in the transition zone. The fluids moved to the top of the 410 km discontinuity can generate heavy hydrous melts due to a larger depression of the wet solidus at the base of the upper mantle [6]. Gravitationally stable hydrous melts can be formed at the base of the upper mantle, which is consistent with seismological observations of the low velocity beneath

  3. Transonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two Wedge Airfoil Sections Including Unsteady Flow Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Patrick J.

    1959-01-01

    A two-dimensional wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted on a 20-percent-thick single-wedge airfoil section. Steady-state forces and moments were determined from pressure measurements at Mach numbers from 0.70 to about 1.25. Additional information on the flows about the single wedge is provided by means of instantaneous pressure measurements at Mach numbers up to unity. Pressure distributions were also obtained on a symmetrical double-wedge or diamond-shaped profile which had the same leading-edge included angle as the single-wedge airfoil. A comparison of the data on the two profiles to provide information on the effects of the afterbody showed that with the exception of drag, the single-wedge profile proved to be aerodynamically superior to the diamond profile in all respects. The lift effectiveness of the single-wedge airfoil section far exceeded that of conventional thin airfoil sections over the speed range of the investigation. Pitching-moment irregularities, caused by negative loadings near the trailing edge, generally associated with conventional airfoils of equivalent thicknesses were not exhibited by the single-wedge profile. Moderately high pulsating pressures existing over the base of the single-wedge airfoil section were significantly reduced as the Mach number was increased beyond 0.92 and the boundaries of the dead airspace at the base of the model converged to eliminate the vortex street in the wake. Increasing the leading-edge radius from 0 to 1 percent of the chord had a minor effect on the steady-state forces and generally raised the level of pressure pulsations over the forward part of the single-wedge profile.

  4. Ground Penetrating Radar Detection of Ice Wedge Geometry: Implications for Climate Change Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, K. K.; Haltigin, T.; Pollard, W. H.

    2011-12-01

    Polygonal features in the Canadian High Arctic are found in many areas, have diverse appearances, and occur in a variety of surface materials. As part of a larger project using geophysical methods to study ice wedge depth, width, and thickness, ground penetrating radar (GPR) data were collected across polygonal surface features on Devon Island. As with polygonal features in other locations on Earth, not all of the features studied on Devon Island contain subsurface ice, however polygons with notable surface troughs did contain fairly large ice wedges. The polygons in this study were formed in fine sediments near Thomas Lee Inlet east of the Haughton impact crater, and GPR data were collected at 200 MHz and 400 MHz using the GSSI, Inc. SIR-3000 system. Although both GPR and capacity-coupled resistivity (CCR) data were collected, the CCR data may have been adversely affected by melt water at the base of the active layer. Conversely, the GPR data show the thickness of the active layer, the width of the top of the ice wedge, and other subsurface stratigraphic features very well. Locations and widths of wedge ice were confirmed by augering and trenching to the tops of the ice wedges. GPR data clearly delineate the edges of the tops of ice wedges. Interestingly, the GPR-determined edges correlate with surface tensional cracks that appear to be related to subsidence above the wedge. It is possible that this subsidence is caused by an increase in active layer thickness and downward melting of the ice wedge in response to increasing temperatures over several years or more. If this is the case, small amounts of surface subsidence above ice wedges could be a useful indicator of past and current climate change in Arctic regions. To address this possibility, a broader study is proposed.

  5. Depth dependence determination of the wedge transmission factor for 4--10 MV photon beams

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, E.C.; Gortney, J.; Blackwell, C.R.

    1988-07-01

    The depth dependence (up to 25 cm) of the in-phantom wedge transmission factor (WTF) has been determined for three medical linear accelerator x-ray beams with energies of 4, 6, and 10 MV containing 15/sup 0/--60/sup 0/ (nominal) brass wedges. All measurements were made with a cylindrical ionization chamber in water, for a field size of 10 x 10 cm/sup 2/ with a source--skin distance of 80 or 100 cm. We conclude that, for the accelerators studied, the WTF factor at depth is less than 2% different from that determined at d/sub max/ (for the nominal wedge angles and photon energies studied) unless the depth of interest is greater than 10 cm. Up to the maximum depth studied (25 cm) the relative wedge factor: that is, wedge factor at depth compared to that determined at d/sub max/ : was about equal to or less than 1.02 for the 15/sup 0/ and 30/sup 0/ wedges and any of the photon beam energies studied. For the seldom utilized combination of a nominal wedge angle in excess of 45/sup 0/ with a depth greater than 10 cm, the WTF at depth can differ from the WTF determined at d/sub max/, by up to 5%. Since the wedge transmission factor is reflective of relative percent dose data, our results also indicate that it is in error to use open field percent depth doses for certain combinations of wedge angle, photon energy, and depth.

  6. Metastable olivine wedge beneath northeast China and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, G.; Zhao, D.; Zhang, G.

    2013-12-01

    When the Pacific slab subducted into the mantle transition zone, there might exist a metastable olivine wedge (MOW) inside the slab due to the phase transition. Lots of researchers have adopted such various methods to detect the characteristics of this MOW as the forward modeling of travel times, shear wave amplitude patterns, teleseismic P wave coda, receiver function imaging, thermodynamic simulation and so on. Almost all results could be more or less affected by the source, the receiver and/or the velocity model passed through by the seismic rays. In this study, we have used 21 deep earthquakes, greater than 400 km and locating beneath northeast China, to study the velocity within the MOW. For more precisions, we have done further modifications in two ways based on our previous studies. (1) Double-difference location method is used to relocate all events with an error of 1-2 km with the data recorded by stations both at northeast China and at Japan. All relocated events locate in a zone about 30 km away from the upper boundary of Pacific slab. (2) Double residual travel times, generated by an event-pair at a common station at only Japan, are used to constrain the velocity anomaly rather than the residuals themselves. As a result, we have found that an ultra-lower velocity zone (ULVZ), averagely -7% relative to the iasp91 model, exists within the subducted Pacific slab around the deep earthquakes, which might be represented as the metastable olivine wedge. Because of the lower-velocity corresponding to the lower-density, the MOW would provide upward buoyancy forces which might prevent the slab from free subduction into the mantle transition zone. This feed-back mechanism of MOW to the slab is called ';parachute-effect', which is characterized by other researchers. In addition, the existence of the ULVZ or the MOW in the slab may supply a possible mechanism for triggering deep earthquakes, called ';phase transformation faulting', which was already proposed few

  7. Links Between Displacement Rates and Erosion in Experimental Tectonic Wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, L.; Hilley, G.; Take, A.

    2008-12-01

    Erosional redistribution of mass along Earth's surface modifies the near-surface lithostatic stresses, altering displacement rates and the kinematics within orogens. In this study we use analogue experiments of a deforming sand wedge to systematically examine the impact that erosion may have had on the kinematics of the Argentine Precordilleran fold-and-thrust belt at ~32.5°S. Here, the history of deformation has been superbly documented by others, and that work resolves changes in shortening rates over time throughout the range. Specifically, total shortening rates across the fold-and-thrust belt may have changed over time, and out-of-sequence thrusting may have played an important role accommodating deformation at various times in the history of the fold-and-thrust belt. We hypothesize that such changes may be the response of the fold-and-thrust belt to changing erosion of these ranges. To this end, we have constructed an analogue sandbox experiments whose specific layered rheology is akin to that documented in the Precordillera fold-and-thrust belt in central Argentina. Our contractional experimental apparatus (sandbox) includes a servo-controlled feedback system that allows for a variety of boundary conditions to be applied to the moving wall, including constant displacement rate, time-varying displacement rate, constant loading, and time-varying loading. The application of a loading rate allows us to explicitly investigate feedbacks between topographic construction, erosion, strain softening within the dry sand, and temporal changes in total shortening rates that would be difficult to examine using the constant velocity conditions that are usually applied to the analogue models. We also apply Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) techniques to digital images from the experimental model to derive high-resolution kinematics and calculate strain, uplift and exhumation rates. Preliminary results indicate that changes in the erosional efficiency in the experimental

  8. Unusual occurrence of some sedimentary structures and their significance in Jurassic transgressive clastic successions of Northern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, N.; Bheemalingeswara, K.

    2009-04-01

    Mesozoic sedimentary successions produced by marine transgression and regression of sea in northeastern part of Africa are well preserved in Mekelle basin of Ethiopia. Here, a typical second order sequence is well developed and preserved overlying the Precambrian basement rocks or patchy Palaeozoic sedimentary successions. Initiation of Mesozoic sedimentation in Mekelle basin has started with deposition of Adigrat Sandstone Formation (ASF). It is a retrogradational succession of siliciclastics in coastline/beach environment due to transgression of sea from southeast. ASF is followed by Antallo Limestone Formation (ALF)- an aggradational succession of carbonates in tidal flat environment; Agula Shale/Mudstone Formation (AMF); and Upper/Ambaradom Sandstone Formation (USF)- a progradational succession formed during regression in ascending order (Dubey et al., 2007). AMF is deposited in a lagoonal evaporatic environment whereas USF in a fluvial coastal margin. ASF is an aggregate of cyclically stacked two lithologies ASF1 and ASF2 produced by sea-level rise and fall of a lower order mini-cycle. ASF1 is a thick, multistoried, pink to red, friable, medium to fine grained, cross-bedded sandstone deposited in a high energy environment. ASF2 is a thin, hard and maroon colored iron-rich mudstone (ironstones) deposited in a low energy environment. ASF1 has resulted during regressive phase of the mini-cycle when rate of sedimentation was extremely high due to abundant coarser clastic supply from land to the coastal area. On the other hand, ASF2 has resulted during transgressive phase of the mini-cycle which restricted the supply of the coarser clastic to the coastal area and deposited the muddy ferruginous sediments in low energy offshore part of the basin where sedimentation rate was very low. Apart from these two major lithologies, there are also few other minor lithologies like fine-grained white sandstone, carbonate (as bands), claystone and mudstone present in ASF. ASF is

  9. Application of the critical Coulomb wedge theory to hyper-extended, magma-poor rifted margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirrengarten, M.; Manatschal, G.; Yuan, X. P.; Kusznir, N. J.; Maillot, B.

    2016-05-01

    The Critical Coulomb Wedge Theory (CCWT) has been extensively used in compressional tectonics to resolve the shape of orogenic or accretionary prisms, while it is less applied to extensional and gravitational wedges despite the fact that it can be described by the same equation. In particular, the hyper-extended domain at magma-poor rifted margins, forming the oceanward termination of extended continental crust, satisfies the three main requirements of the CCWT: 1) it presents a wedge shape, 2) the rocks forming the wedge are completely brittle (frictional), and 3) the base of the wedge corresponds to a low friction décollement. However hyper-extended margins present a fully frictional behaviour only for a very thin crust; therefore this study is limited to the termination of hyper-extended continental crust which deforms in the latest stage of continental rifting. In this paper we define a method to measure the surface slope and the basal deep of this wedge that we apply to 17 hyper-extended, magma-poor rifted margins in order to compare the results to the values predicted by the CCWT. Because conjugate pairs of hyper-extended, magma-poor rifted margins are commonly asymmetric, due to detachment faulting, the wedges in the upper and lower plate margins corresponding respectively to the hanging wall and footwall of the detachment system are different. While the stress field in the upper plate wedge corresponds to a tectonic extensional wedge, the one in the lower plate matches that of a gravity extensional wedge. Using typical frictional properties of phyllosilicates (e.g. clays and serpentine), the shape of the hyper-extended wedges can be resolved by the CCWT using consistent fluid overpressures. Our results show that all lower plate margins are gravitationally stable and therefore have a close to critical shape whereas the tectonic extensional wedges at upper plate margins are critical, sub or sup critical due to the detachment initial angle and the duration of

  10. Line-shape flattening resulting from hypersonic nozzle wedge flow in low-pressure chemical lasers.

    PubMed

    Livingston, P M; Bullock, D L

    1980-07-01

    The new hypersonic wedge nozzle (HYWN) supersonic wedge nozzle design produces a significant component of directed gas flow along the optical axis of a laser cavity comparable to thermal speeds. The gain-line-shape function is broadened and the refractive-index line shape is also spread as a function of wedge-flow half-angle. An analytical treatment as well as a numerical study is presented that evaluates the Doppler-directed-flow impact on the number of longitudinal modes and their frequencies as well as on gain and refractive-index saturation of those that lase in a Fabry-Perot cavity.

  11. Sol-gel based anti-reflection coatings on wedged laser rods using a spin coater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareek, R.; Joshi, A. S.; Gupta, P. D.; Biswas, P. K.; Das, S.

    2005-07-01

    Anti-reflection (AR) sol-gel coatings are deposited on wedge glass optics for high-power lasers using spin coating technique. Characterization of these coatings on BK-7 glass substrates is carried out in terms of thickness profile across the surface, thickness variation w.r.t. wedge angle, and its effect on AR coating reflectivity, at different wedge angles from 1° to 7°. Results of the study are used to deposit AR coatings on inclined end faces of Nd:phosphate glass laser rods.

  12. Transport of marked pebbles in short periods of time on a coarse clastic beach (Marina di Pisa, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, D.; Ciavola, P.; Grottoli, E.; Sarti, G.

    2012-04-01

    Transport of coarse sediments on coarse clastic beaches still presents aspects that are not fully understood. For instance, there is a generally perceived notion that during fair-weather periods coarse grains hardly move, if not at all. The aim of this experiment is to prove that sediments such as pebbles are subject to significant shift in very short lapses of time and under low energy waves. An artificial coarse clastic beach at Marina di Pisa (Tuscany, Italy) was chosen as study site: Barbarossa beach is 110 m long and is bounded by two groynes. The mean grain size is about 40-to-50 mm. About 80 pebbles were marked by means of the RFID technology, which enables to univocally identify the tracers. The marked pebbles were released along cross-shore transects (one pebble each on the fair-weather berm, on the beachface and on the step crest) on the morning of September 15th, and two recovery campaigns were carried out after 6 and 24 hours from the injection. No particular wave activity was recorded during the time frame of the experiment. After the first recovery campaign, which was performed 6 hours later than the injection, about 94% of the pebbles were detected. After the second recovery campaign, 24 hours later, the recovery rate decreased to 89%. Considering that the technique provides for detection of tracers within 50 cm, the resulting loss of pebbles after so brief spans of time is remarkable. The lack of detection of few tracers implies that the transport rate that they experienced is not negligible. The highest rate of losses was recorded on the beachface, the zone that is subjected the most to waves even under calm conditions. Pebble movement is also confirmed by the fact that tracers detected after the first recovery campaign were not detected once again after the second recovery campaign, and vice versa. The results of the experiment are useful to better define the transport of coarse sediments, verifying that pebbles have to be expected be moving even

  13. Using the U-Pb system of calcretes to date the time of sedimentation of clastic sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. S.; Rasbury, E. T.; Hanson, G. N.; Meyers, W. J.

    1998-08-01

    The time of sedimentation of rapidly deposited clastic sedimentary rocks in fluvial environments may be directly dated with an uncertainty of less than three million years using U-Pb dating of pure micritic calcite from calcretes developed in overbank deposits. This conclusion is based on results obtained for calcretes (soil calcite, caliche) formed in the late Triassic New Haven Arkose, Hartford Basin, Connecticut, USA. The paragenesis of calcrete samples from the New Haven Arkose was determined using plane-polarized light and cathodoluminesence petrography, uranium fission track analysis, as well as trace element and stable isotope geochemistry. These calcretes contain an abundance of paleosol microfabrics and diagenetic calcite. The first-generation micritic calcite and second-generation blocky calcite have characteristics consistent with soil calcite. The third generation blocky calcite is a later diagenetic calcite (post-soil calcite). The U-Pb data for pure micritic calcite (first generation) in a horizontal sheet calcrete in sedimentary rocks of Norian age gives a 238U/ 207Pb- 206Pb/ 207Pb isochron age of 211.9 ± 2.1 Ma (2-sigma, and used hereafter for all ages). This age and the stratigraphic position for this sample are in excellent agreement with the ages proposed by Gradstein et al. (1994) for the Norian/Rhaetian boundary of 209.6 ± 4.1 Ma and the Carnian/Norian boundary of 220.7 ± 4.4 Ma. The U-Pb data for two samples of first generation micrite in rhizoliths with about 15% insoluble residues give "ages" of 7 ± 66 Ma and 20 ± 36 Ma. These results suggest that relatively recent events disturbed the U-Pb system of these detrital rich samples, perhaps due to redistribution of U during weathering or during chemical dissolution for analysis. The U-Pb data for a sample of pure third generation blocky calcite cement in a rhizolith yields a 206Pb/ 238U- 207Pb/ 235U isochron age of 81 ± 11 Ma. This age suggests that this sample of third generation blocky

  14. Dose distribution analysis of physical and dynamic wedges by using an intensity-modulated radiotherapy MatriXX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hae-Kag; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Dae-chul

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated differences between the physical wedge and the dynamic wedge distributions of radiation by using an intensity-modulated radiotherapy (ImRT) MatriXX. The linear accelerator used X-rays with energy levels of 6 MV and 10 MV to adjust the collimator by motoring the independent jaws (X1, X2, Y1, Y2) for setting wedge angles of 15, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. The collimator field size was set as 10 × 10 cm2 or 20 × 20 cm2 at the maximum dose point. The dose distribution for each wedge had ±5% and ±11% errors for field sizes of 10 × 10 cm2 and 20 × 20 cm2, respectively. The error was greatest at a wedge angle of 45 degrees and was pronounced at the end of the dynamic wedge where Y1 and Y2 met. Consequently, concluded that the dose distributions were similar for both wedges for the field size of a small beam profile. The beam dose was greatly increased at the end of the dynamic wedge. A more precise estimate of the therapeutic dose of radiation for a dynamic wedge that nearly matches that of the physical wedge can be achieved by correcting of the increasing part of the beam dose. The findings imply that a heavy wedge filter should not be used when calculating the isodose distribution and the therapeutic dose.

  15. The role of pore fluid overpressure in the substrates of advancing salt sheets, ice glaciers, and critical-state wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Gang; Flemings, Peter B.; Hudec, Michael R.; Nikolinakou, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Critical-state wedges, ice glaciers, and salt sheets have many geometric and mechanical similarities. Each has a tapering geometry and moves along a basal detachment. Their motions result from the combined effects of internal deformation and basal sliding. Wedge deformation and geometry, basal conditions, and overpressure (pore fluid pressure less hydrostatic pore fluid pressure) development within the substrate interact with each other in this mechanically coupled system. However, the nature of this interaction is poorly understood. In order to investigate this coupled system, we have developed two-dimensional poromechanical finite-element models with porous fluid flow in sediments. We have simulated the advance of a salt sheet wedge across poroelastic sediments in this study. We emphasize that our results have applications beyond salt wedges to both critical-state wedges and ice glaciers. Overpressure develops within the substrate over time during the advance of the wedge. The magnitude of the overpressure influences the wedge geometry and the wedge advance rate. Lower overpressure results in a thicker and steeper wedge geometry, and a slower advance rate, while higher overpressure favors a thinner, wider, and more flattened wedge geometry and a faster advance rate. This study provides key insights into the links between wedge geometry, basal shear stress, and overpressure in substrates.

  16. Influence of intermolecular forces at critical-point wedge filling.

    PubMed

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Parry, Andrew O

    2016-04-01

    We use microscopic density functional theory to study filling transitions in systems with long-ranged wall-fluid and short-ranged fluid-fluid forces occurring in a right-angle wedge. By changing the strength of the wall-fluid interaction we can induce both wetting and filling transitions over a wide range of temperatures and study the order of these transitions. At low temperatures we find that both wetting and filling transitions are first order in keeping with predictions of simple local effective Hamiltonian models. However close to the bulk critical point the filling transition is observed to be continuous even though the wetting transition remains first order and the wetting binding potential still exhibits a small activation barrier. The critical singularities for adsorption for the continuous filling transitions depend on whether retarded or nonretarded wall-fluid forces are present and are in excellent agreement with predictions of effective Hamiltonian theory even though the change in the order of the transition was not anticipated.

  17. Transonic flow past a wedge profile with detached bow wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincenti, Walter G; Wagoner, Cleo B

    1952-01-01

    A theoretical study has been made of the aerodynamic characteristics at zero angle of attack of a thin, doubly symmetrical double-wedge profile in the range of supersonic flight speed in which the bow wave is detached. The analysis utilizes the equations of the transonic small-disturbance theory and involves no assumptions beyond those implicit in this theory. The mixed flow about the front half of the profile is calculated by relaxation solution of boundary conditions along the shock polar and sonic line. The purely subsonic flow about the rear of the profile is found by means of the method of characteristics specialized to the transonic small-disturbance theory. Complete calculations were made for four values of the transonic similarity parameter. These were found sufficient to bridge the gap between the previous results of Guderley and Yoshihara at a Mach number of 1 and the results which are readily obtained when the bow wave is attached and the flow is completely supersonic.

  18. Hydrodynamics of superfluids confined in blocked rings and wedges.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Chandan; Valls, Oriol T

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by many recent experimental studies of nonclassical rotational inertia (NCRI) in superfluid and supersolid samples, we present a study of the hydrodynamics of a superfluid confined in the two-dimensional region (equivalent to a long cylinder) between two concentric arcs of radii b and a (bwedges (b=0) with beta>pi , we find an unexpected divergence of the velocity at the origin, which implies the presence of either a region of normal fluid or a vortex for any nonzero value of the angular velocity. Implications of our results for experiments on "supersolid" behavior in solid 4He are discussed. A number of mathematical issues are pointed out and resolved. PMID:19257135

  19. Performance of an isolated two-dimensional variable-geometry wedge nozzle with translating shroud and collapsing wedge at speeds up to Mach 2.01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiden, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the aeropropulsion performance (thrust-minus-drag) of a single-engine, variable-geometry, two-dimensional (2-D) wedge nozzle with simulated translating-shroud and collapsing-wedge mechanisms. The investigation was conducted statically and at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 2.01 at an angle of attack of 0 deg and at varied jet total-pressure ratios up to 21, depending on the Mach number. The results indicate that the isolated aeropropulsion performance of a variable-geometry two-dimensional wedge nozzle is competitive with axisymmetric nozzles at transonic and supersonic speeds, but the isolated performance is slightly inferior for static take-off and low subsonic speeds. With the use of a simple tertiary-air ejector, the static take-off performance was increased.

  20. Testing the critical Coulomb wedge theory on hyper-extended rifted margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirrengarten, Michael; Manatschal, Gianreto; Kusznir, Nick

    2015-04-01

    Deformation of hyper-extended continental crust and its relationship with the underlying mantle is a key process in the evolution of rifted margins. Recent studies have focused on hyper-extension in rifted margins using different approaches such as numerical modelling, seismic interpretation, potential field methods and field observations. However many fundamental questions about the observed structures and their evolution during the formation of hyper-extended margins are still debated. In this study an observation driven approach has been used to characterise geometrical and physical attributes of the continental crust termination, considered as a hyper-extended wedge, in order to test the applicability of critical Coulomb wedge theory to hyper-extended margins. The Coulomb wedge theory was first developed on accretionary prisms and on fold and thrust belts, but it has also been applied in extensional settings. Coulomb wedge theory explains the evolution of the critical aperture angle of the wedge as a function of basal sliding without deformation in the overlying wedge. This critical angle depends on the frictional parameters of the material, the basal friction, the surface slope, the basal dip and the fluid pressure. If the evolution of hyper-extended wedges could be described by the critical Coulomb wedge theory, it would have a major impact in the understanding of the structural and physical evolution of rifted domains during the hyper-extension processes. On seismic reflection lines imaging magma-poor hyper-extended margins, the continental crust termination is often shown to form a hyper-extended wedge. ODP Sites 1067, 900 and 1068 on the Iberian margin as well as field observations in the Alps give direct access to the rocks forming the hyper-extended wedge, which are typically composed of highly deformed and hydrated continental rocks underlain by serpentinised mantle. The boundary between the hydrated continental and mantle rocks corresponds to a

  1. Measurements of dose from secondary radiation outside a treatment field: effects of wedges and blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Sherazi, S.; Kase, K.R.

    1985-12-01

    Radiation dose outside the radiotherapy treatment field can be significant and therefore is of clinical interest in estimating organ doses. In a previous paper we reported the results of measurements made using unmodified radiation fields. We have extended this study to include the effects of wedge filters and blocks. For a given dose on the central axis of a radiation field, wedges can cause a factor of 2 to 4 increase in dose at any point outside the field compared with the dose when no wedge is used. Adding blocks to a treatment field can cause an increase in dose at points outside the field, but the effect is much smaller than the effect of a wedge, and generally less than a factor of 2. From the results of these measurements, doses to selected organs outside the field for specified treatment geometries were estimated, and the potential for reducing these organ doses by additional shielding was assessed.

  2. Crustal wedge deformation in an internally-driven, numerical subduction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dinther, Ylona; Morra, Gabriele; Funiciello, Francesca; Rossetti, Federico; Faccenna, Claudio

    2010-05-01

    The Earth's active convergent margins are characterized by dynamic feedback mechanisms that interact to form an intricate system in which a crustal wedge is shaped and metamorphosed at the will of two large, converging plates. This framework is accompanied by complicated processes, such as seismogenesis and the exhumation of high pressure rocks. To honor the dynamic interaction between different entities and advance on these persisting issues, we model the interaction between the subducting and overriding lithospheres, the mantle and the crustal wedge explicitly, and observe how a crustal wedge evolves in detail within a set of rigid, internally-driven boundary conditions. We model crustal wedge evolution in an intra-oceanic subduction setting by using a plane-strain implicit solid-mechanical Finite Element Model, in which the mechanical conservation equations are solved using the software package ABAQUS. The crustal wedge is modeled as a thick-skinned accretionary wedge of inter-mediate thickness with a linear visco-elastic bulk rheology. The dynamic interaction between the subducting plate, the overriding plate, and crustal wedge is implemented using a Coulomb frictional algorithm. The interaction with the mantle is incorporated using a computationally favorable mantle drag formulation that simulates induced three-dimensional mantle flow. This results in a quasi-static framework with a freely moving slab, trench, and fault, where a weaker wedge deforms in response to self-regulating, rigid boundary conditions formed by single, frictional bounding faults. The self-regulating evolution of crustal wedge architecture follows three phases; 1) initial vertical growth, 2) coeval compression and extension leading to internal corner flow, and 3) a steady-state taper with continuous corner flow. Particle trajectories show that, as shortening continues throughout the second phase, wedge material is constantly forced upward against the backstop, while extension and ocean

  3. Study on Mach stems induced by interaction of planar shock waves on two intersecting wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Gaoxiang; Wang, Chun; Teng, Honghui; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Zonglin

    2016-06-01

    The properties of Mach stems in hypersonic corner flow induced by Mach interaction over 3D intersecting wedges were studied theoretically and numerically. A new method called "spatial dimension reduction" was used to analyze theoretically the location and Mach number behind Mach stems. By using this approach, the problem of 3D steady shock/shock interaction over 3D intersecting wedges was transformed into a 2D moving one on cross sections, which can be solved by shock-polar theory and shock dynamics theory. The properties of Mach interaction over 3D intersecting wedges can be analyzed with the new method, including pressure, temperature, density in the vicinity of triple points, location, and Mach number behind Mach stems. Theoretical results were compared with numerical results, and good agreement was obtained. Also, the influence of Mach number and wedge angle on the properties of a 3D Mach stem was studied.

  4. Plane-wave diffraction by a wedge: A spectral domain approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarkowski, A.; Mittra, R.

    1981-11-01

    In this paper we investigate the canonical problem of plane wave diffraction by a wedge in the context of the spectral domain approach which exploits the relationship between the induced current on a scatterer and its far field. We show how the Sommerfeld solution to the wedge diffraction problem can be manipulated in a form which enables one to interpret the far scattered field as the Fourier transform of the physical optics current on the two faces of the wedge, augmented by the fringe current near the tip of the wedge. We also show that the uniform asymptotic expansion derived by Lee and Deschamps on the basis of the Lewis, Ahluwalia and Boersma ansatz can be rigorously obtained using the approach presented in this paper.

  5. Plane-wave diffraction by a wedge - A spectral domain approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarkowski, A.; Boersma, J.; Mittra, R.

    1984-01-01

    The canonical problem of plane wave diffraction by a wedge in the context of the spectral domain approach which exploits the relationship between the induced current on a scatterer and its far field is investigated. It is shown how the exact solution to the wedge diffraction problem can be manipulated in a form which enables one to interpret the far scattered field as the Fourier transform of the physical optics (PO) current on the two faces of the wedge augmented by the fringe current near the tip of the wedge. A uniform asymptotic expansion for the total field which slightly modifies the Ansatz in the uniform asymptotic theory of electromagnetic edge diffraction is constructed.

  6. Molecular orbital calculations of proton transfer involving amines as models for the clastic binding of opiates with their receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, L.K.; Beamer, R.L.

    1986-08-01

    Semi-empirical (CNDO) molecular orbital calculations, based on a previously reported ammonia-amine model system, were performed on an extended series of methyl-, ethyl-, and propylamines as models for the analgesic receptor. Methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethylamines were chosen to represent the opiate molecules. Interatomic distances were varied within normally expected biological values. The results for the larger systems are similar to more elaborate calculations previously reported using smaller molecules. At internuclear distances of greater than 0.275 nm, the potential energy curves had two minima. At 0.2731 nm, the optimized N-N distance, the depth of the minima in the potential energy curve were not as great. Energy differences as well as population differences suggest deviation from the currently stated clastic binding theories mechanism for the analgesic response of the tertiary amines. The dimethylamine energy profile and population data indicate that the hypothesis of N-demethylated opiate as the active molecule needs further consideration and investigation. Investigation of larger systems is also indicated to develop increasingly realistic models for the analgesic response.

  7. Possible origin of clastic plugs in the Triassic system of northeast New Mexico, southeast Colorado, and northwest Oklahoma panhandle

    SciTech Connect

    Mulvany, P.S. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-03-01

    Over 138 clastic plugs occur in Triassic Dockum Group strata in the study area. Plugs are near vertical, roughly cylindrical, and up to 91 m across. A 107 m shaft was dug into one. Plugs are composed of relatively clean very fine quartz sandstone, brecciated country rock, or both. Small amounts of Cu and traces of Au, Ag, and U occur. Quartz sandstone dikes less than 1 m thick radiate from plugs or occur singly. Plugs and dikes are truncated by Jurassic strata. Upward intrusion of mobile sand and collapse modes of origin have been proposed; however, thorough studies are lacking. Preliminary field work indicates that plugs and dikes occur only in pre-Jurassic structural (and paleotopographic ) lows. Well logs reveal thick Permian anhydrite beds at about 330 m depth. Possibly, prior to Jurassic deposition, buried gypsum dewatered and recrystallized to anhydrite, with a 38% reduction in rock volume. Saline waters of dehydration, under lithostatic pressure, rose to the surface along fractures. Strata above the anhydrite sagged regionally and collapsed locally. Sand plugs and dikes are water-escape features: rising water winnowed out fines, leaving sand-sized detritus. Country rock and pre-Jurassic surficial deposits are probable sand sources. Breccia plugs are collapse features.

  8. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Mark B.

    1999-02-24

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico is a cost-shared field demonstration project in the US Department of Energy Class II Program. A major goal of the Class III Program is to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geologic, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description is being used as a risk reduction tool to identify ''sweet spots'' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well simulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir.

  9. Sedimentological and palaeoenvironmental studies on the clastic sequence of Gebel El-Zeit area, gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Wahab, Antar; Allam, A.; Kholief, M.; Salem, A.

    1992-01-01

    The present work deals with the sedimentological and palaeoenvironmental studies of the Palaeozoic clastic sequence (Cambrian?) of the Gebel El-Zeit area. The sandstones which build up the major part of this sequence are fine to coarse grained moderately to well sorted, mostly of unimodal patterns, strongly fine skewed to near symmetrical and vary from meso- to very lepto-kurtic. The grain-size parameters and their bivariate relations do not give an exact environment of deposition nevertheless, most of them have a fluviatile origin. So, the application of some of the bivariate relations to ancient sediments, which microscopically show mild or no cementation, is still valid if coupled with other parameters, such as sedimentary structures, palaeocurrent analysis and other confirmed data. The palaeocurrent analysis indicates that these sandstones came from two completely different sources. A marine transgression from the north northeast produced the Araba Formation, whereas the Naqus Formation has been interpreted as fluvial. The source is situated to the south southwest. The streams were probably very erratic and intermittent.

  10. 3-D seismic evidence of the effects of carbonate karst collapse on overlying clastic stratigraphy and reservoir compartmentalization

    SciTech Connect

    Hardage, B.A.; Carr, D.L.; Simmons, J.L. Jr.; Jons, R.A.; Lancaster, D.E.; Elphick, R.Y.; Pendleton, V.M.

    1996-09-01

    A multidisciplinary team, composed of stratigraphers, petrophysicists, reservoir engineers, and geophysicists, studied a portion of Boonsville gas field in the Fort Worth Basin of north-central Texas to determine how modern techniques can be combined to understand the mechanisms by which fluvio-deltaic depositional processes create reservoir compartmentalization in a low- to moderate-accommodation basin. An extensive database involving well logs, cores, production, and pressure data from more than 200 wells, 26 mi{sup 2} of 3-D seismic data, vertical seismic profiles, and checkshots was assembled to support this investigation. The authors found the most important geologic influence on stratigraphy and reservoir compartmentalization in this basin to be the existence of numerous karst collapse chimneys over the area covered. These near-vertical karst collapses originated in, or near, the deep Ordovician-age Ellenburger carbonate section and created vertical chimneys extending as high as 2,500 ft above their point of origin, causing significant disruptions in the overlying clastic strata.

  11. Crestal unconformities as indicators of clastic stratigraphic traps: genetic relation of Berlin field and Elk City structure, deep Anadarko basin

    SciTech Connect

    Lyday, J.R.

    1988-02-01

    The Berlin fan-delta gas reservoir in the deep Anardarko basin was deposited during the late Atokan (Pennsylvanian) as a response to the initial uplift and erosion of the Elk City structure. During the late Atokan pulse of the episodic Pennsylvanian orogeny in the south-central US, abrupt epeirogenic uplift and brittle deformation created an interregional unconformity on positive areas around foreland and cratonic basins. The Elk City structure within the deep Anadarko basin originated as a distinct, subaerially exposed upthrust-block during the late Atokan tectonic event. A crestal unconformity developed on the emergent upthrust block concurrent with its uplift. Terrigenous, detrital Atoka dolomite, originally sourced from the Arbuckle dolomite (Cambrian-Ordovician) of the Amarillo-Wichita uplift, was eroded from the upthrust block and recycled northward as the Berlin fan-delta. Today, the Berlin recrystallized, recycled detrital dolomite fan-delta is a large 41 mi/sup 2/ overpressured gas reservoir with 242-362 bcf reserves at 15,000 ft. The Berlin field is genetically related to the late Atokan crestal unconformity of the Elk City structure, and is an example of the association of crestal unconformities and clastic stratigraphic traps. Such stratigraphic traps originated in marine environments proximal to active structures that have become subaerially exposed. With adequate seals and favorable structural position, detrital deposits recycled from local uplifts can form significant stratigraphic traps. Such stratigraphic traps can occur in compressional, extensional, and diapiric regions.

  12. Salt-wedge propagation in a Mediterranean micro-tidal river mouth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haralambidou, Kiriaki; Sylaios, Georgios; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A.

    2010-12-01

    The dynamics of a seasonally formed salt-wedge propagating along the micro-tidal channel of Strymon River estuary, Northern Greece, and its consequences on river water quality, are thoroughly studied through intensive sampling campaigns. The wedge is developed at the downstream river part, under the summer limited freshwater discharge conditions ( Q < 30 m 3/s). The geometric features of the wedge (length and thickness) appeared directly related to Strymon River discharge. A maximum intrusion length of 4.7 km along Strymon River estuary was observed under minimum river discharge of almost 6 m 3/s. Relations produced from in situ data illustrate that limited river flow expands the wedge horizontally, reducing its vertical dimension, while higher flows lead to increased wedge thickness. Estuarine flushing time ranges between 0.2 and 1.5 days, exponentially dependent on Strymon River discharge. Wedge velocities depicted tidal asymmetry between tidal phases, with consistent inward motion, even under the ebb tidal stage. Strong vertical stratification prevails throughout the tidal cycle, proving the limited vertical mixing between the two layers, although higher interfacial stresses are produced in ebb. Bottom topography plays an interesting role in wedge propagation, as the presence of an underwater sill either prevents saline intrusion during flood or isolates the front of the wedge from its core at the ebb. Ecological consequences of salt-wedge propagation in Strymon River estuary are the frequent evidence of bottom hypoxic conditions and the increased TSS levels, leading to the occurrence of a turbidity maximum at the tip of the salt-wedge. Higher BOD and ammonium levels were mostly observed at the river end, associated to point and non-point pollution sources. Nitrates and silicates were found associated with freshwater fluxes, while ammonia levels were related to saline intrusions. The reduced phosphorus freshwater fluxes, resulting from phosphorus uptake at the

  13. Stress and displacement fields in the outer wedge induced by megathrust earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukao, Yoshio; Hori, Takane; Kodaira, Shuichi

    2014-05-01

    We model plate boundary slip at the outer (oceanward) segment of the megathrust wedge as slip at the base of a two-dimensional elastic wedge, subject to gravity force, with a sloping seafloor at the top, and drag at the bottom from a rigid plate in frictional contact. The stress and displacement fields in the wedge are given analytically as functions of basal frictional coefficient μe. Unlike either conventional dislocation models (constant slip) or crack models (constant stress drop), our wedge model (constant μe drop) does not show a stress singularity at the updip toe of the plate boundary. The slip increases, but the stress drop decreases updip along the fault toward the trench axis. There is a minimum stress difference state in the wedge when μe is varied. By referring to this state (μe = μec), the stress state is separated into a horizontally tensile regime (μe < μec) and a horizontally compressional regime (μe > μec). Slip associated with a μe drop in the range μe ≤ μec occurs toward increasing horizontal tension and shear energy. Such earthquakes include tsunami earthquakes occurring in the outer segment and the 2011 great Tohoku-Oki earthquake, which involved both the outer and inner segments, with much larger slip in the outer segment. These earthquakes are characterized by an almost complete drop of basal stress, which brings the wedge into the maximum tensile state, leading to the rare occurrence of thrust aftershocks at the base of the wedge and frequent occurrence of normal fault aftershocks within the wedge.

  14. The effect of a dynamic wedge in the medial tangential field upon the contralateral breast dose

    SciTech Connect

    McParland, B.J. )

    1990-12-01

    The elevated incidence of breast cancer following irradiation of breast tissue has led to concern over the magnitude of the scattered radiation received by the uninvolved contralateral breast during radiation therapy for a primary breast lesion and the risk of an induced contralateral breast cancer. Some linear accelerators use a single dynamic (or universal) wedge that is mounted within the treatment head at an extended distance from the patient. Because of the combined effects of distance and shielding, the contralateral breast dose due to a medial tangent containing a dynamic wedge is expected to be less than that containing a conventional wedge. This paper presents contralateral breast dose (CBD) measurements performed on an anthropomorphic phantom with breast prostheses irradiated with 6 MV X rays from a linear accelerator equipped with a dynamic wedge. Doses were measured at 15 points within the contralateral breast prosthesis with thermoluminescent dosimeters. It was found that the contralateral breast dose per unit target breast dose decreases with the perpendicular distance from the posterior edge of the medial tangent to the dose measurement point and increases with effective wedge angle by factors ranging up to 2.8, in agreement with data presented earlier for a water phantom geometry. This dose elevation showed no statistically significant dependence (p less than 0.05) upon the perpendicular distance from the beam edge. Comparisons with data in the literature show that the contralateral breast dose increase by a dynamic wedge is typically only about half of that reported for a conventional wedge for the same wedge angle and distance from the beam.

  15. Assessment of a multibeam Fizeau wedge interferometer for Doppler wind lidar.

    PubMed

    McKay, Jack A

    2002-03-20

    The Fabry-Perot interferometer is the standard instrument for the direct detection Doppler lidar measurement of atmospheric wind speeds. The multibeam Fizeau wedge has some practical advantages over the Fabry-Perot, such as the linear fringe pattern, and is evaluated for this application. The optimal Fizeau must have a resolving power of 10(6) or more. As the multibeam Fizeau wedge is pushed to such high resolving power, the interference fringes of the device become complicated by asymmetry and secondary maxima. A simple condition for the interferometer plate reflectance, optical gap, and wedge angle reveals whether a set of parameters will yield simple, Airy-like fringes or complex Fizeau fringes. Tilting of the Fizeau wedge improves the fringe shape and permits an extension of the regime of Airy-like fringes to higher resolving power. Sufficient resolving power for the wind lidar application is shown to be possible with a large-gap, low-finesse multibeam Fizeau wedge. Liabilities of the multibeam Fizeau wedge in the wind lidar application include a smaller acceptance solid angle and calibration sensitivity to localized deviations of the plates from the ideal. PMID:11921807

  16. Improve the transconductance of a graphene field-effect transistor by folding graphene into a wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guiming; Liu, Weihua; Cao, Meng; Li, Xin; Zhang, Anping; Wang, Xiaoli; Chen, Bangdao

    2016-07-01

    The transport property of a graphene wedge channel is studied theoretically and its leakage current through field emission is estimated when considering the effect of the internal electric field. The transconductance of the graphene transistor is improved from 0.016 to 0.321 μS μm‑1 when the graphene is folded into a wedge (with angle of wedge π/6 and radius curvature 2.7 nm at the tip), while the wedge height is much smaller than the space between the top-gate and the channel. The improved transconductance is due to the locally enhanced electric field, which results in a potential well and causes electron accumulation at the wedge tip. The leakage current through field emission J FE shows a super-linear increase with the channel conductive current J DS, where overall the electron supply for the field emission at the wedge tip is improved by the channel bias voltage V DS.

  17. Assessment of a multibeam Fizeau wedge interferometer for Doppler wind lidar.

    PubMed

    McKay, Jack A

    2002-03-20

    The Fabry-Perot interferometer is the standard instrument for the direct detection Doppler lidar measurement of atmospheric wind speeds. The multibeam Fizeau wedge has some practical advantages over the Fabry-Perot, such as the linear fringe pattern, and is evaluated for this application. The optimal Fizeau must have a resolving power of 10(6) or more. As the multibeam Fizeau wedge is pushed to such high resolving power, the interference fringes of the device become complicated by asymmetry and secondary maxima. A simple condition for the interferometer plate reflectance, optical gap, and wedge angle reveals whether a set of parameters will yield simple, Airy-like fringes or complex Fizeau fringes. Tilting of the Fizeau wedge improves the fringe shape and permits an extension of the regime of Airy-like fringes to higher resolving power. Sufficient resolving power for the wind lidar application is shown to be possible with a large-gap, low-finesse multibeam Fizeau wedge. Liabilities of the multibeam Fizeau wedge in the wind lidar application include a smaller acceptance solid angle and calibration sensitivity to localized deviations of the plates from the ideal.

  18. Improve the transconductance of a graphene field-effect transistor by folding graphene into a wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guiming; Liu, Weihua; Cao, Meng; Li, Xin; Zhang, Anping; Wang, Xiaoli; Chen, Bangdao

    2016-07-01

    The transport property of a graphene wedge channel is studied theoretically and its leakage current through field emission is estimated when considering the effect of the internal electric field. The transconductance of the graphene transistor is improved from 0.016 to 0.321 μS μm-1 when the graphene is folded into a wedge (with angle of wedge π/6 and radius curvature 2.7 nm at the tip), while the wedge height is much smaller than the space between the top-gate and the channel. The improved transconductance is due to the locally enhanced electric field, which results in a potential well and causes electron accumulation at the wedge tip. The leakage current through field emission J FE shows a super-linear increase with the channel conductive current J DS, where overall the electron supply for the field emission at the wedge tip is improved by the channel bias voltage V DS.

  19. The Effects of a Lateral Wedge Insole on Knee and Ankle Joints During Slope Walking.

    PubMed

    Uto, Yuki; Maeda, Tetsuo; Kiyama, Ryoji; Kawada, Masayuki; Tokunaga, Ken; Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Fukudome, Kiyohiro; Ohshige, Tadasu; Yoshimoto, Yoichi; Yone, Kazunori

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a lateral wedge insole reduces the external knee adduction moment during slope walking. Twenty young, healthy subjects participated in this study. Subjects walked up and down a slope using 2 different insoles: a control flat insole and a 7° lateral wedge insole. A three-dimensional motion analysis system and force plate were used to examine the knee adduction moment, the ankle valgus moment, and the moment arm of the ground reaction force to the knee joint center in the frontal plane. The lateral wedge insole significantly decreased the moment arm of the ground reaction force, resulting in a reduction of the knee adduction moment during slope walking, similar to level walking. The reduction ratio of knee adduction moment by the lateral wedge insole during the early stance of up-slope walking was larger than that of level walking. Conversely, the lateral wedge insole increased the ankle valgus moment during slope walking, especially during the early stance phase of up-slope walking. Clinicians should examine the utilization of a lateral wedge insole for knee osteoarthritis patients who perform inclined walking during daily activity, in consideration of the load on the ankle joint. PMID:26252560

  20. Field observation of low-to-mid-frequency acoustic propagation characteristics of an estuarine salt wedge.

    PubMed

    Reeder, D Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The estuarine environment often hosts a salt wedge, the stratification of which is a function of the tide's range and speed of advance, river discharge volumetric flow rate, and river mouth morphology. Competing effects of temperature and salinity on sound speed in this stratified environment control the degree of acoustic refraction occurring along an acoustic path. A field experiment was carried out in the Columbia River Estuary to test the hypothesis: the estuarine salt wedge is acoustically observable in terms of low-to-mid-frequency acoustic propagation. Linear frequency-modulated acoustic signals in the 500-2000 Hz band were transmitted during the advance and retreat of the salt wedge during May 27-29, 2013. Results demonstrate that the salt wedge front is the dominant physical mechanism controlling acoustic propagation in this environment: received signal energy is relatively stable before and after the passage of the salt wedge front when the acoustic path consists of a single medium (either entirely fresh water or entirely salt water), and suffers a 10-15 dB loss and increased variability during salt wedge front passage. Physical parameters and acoustic propagation modeling corroborate and inform the acoustic observations. PMID:26827001

  1. Investigation of Acoustical Shielding by a Wedge-Shaped Airframe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Clark, Lorenzo R.; Dunn, Mark H.; Tweed, John

    2004-01-01

    Experiments on a scale model of an advanced unconventional subsonic transport concept, the Blended Wing Body (BWB), have demonstrated significant shielding of inlet-radiated noise. A computational model of the shielding mechanism has been developed using a combination of boundary integral equation method (BIEM) and equivalent source method (ESM). The computation models the incident sound from a point source in a nacelle and determines the scattered sound field. In this way the sound fields with and without the airfoil can be estimated for comparison to experiment. An experimental test bed using a simplified wedge-shape airfoil and a broadband point noise source in a simulated nacelle has been developed for the purposes of verifying the analytical model and also to study the effect of engine nacelle placement on shielding. The experimental study is conducted in the Anechoic Noise Research Facility at NASA Langley Research Center. The analytic and experimental results are compared at 6300 and 8000 Hz. These frequencies correspond to approximately 150 Hz on the full scale aircraft. Comparison between the experimental and analytic results is quite good, not only for the noise scattering by the airframe, but also for the total sound pressure in the far field. Many of the details of the sound field that the analytic model predicts are seen or indicated in the experiment, within the spatial resolution limitations of the experiment. Changing nacelle location produces comparable changes in noise shielding contours evaluated analytically and experimentally. Future work in the project will be enhancement of the analytic model to extend the analysis to higher frequencies corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the high bypass ratio ducted fan engines that are expected to power the BWB.

  2. Modes of continental extension in a lithospheric wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G.; Lavier, L. L.; Choi, E.

    2014-12-01

    We studied extension of a lithospheric wedge as an approximation to an orogenic belt or a continental margin. We ran a series of numerical models to quantify the effects of the strength of the lower crust and a mid-crustal shear zone (MCSZ) on the extension processes. When the MCSZ is present, we found that the regional lower crustal flow plays a critical role in controlling the modes of extension. The compensation is long-wavelength when the lower crust flows from the highest to the lowest elevation in order to compensate upper crustal thinning. In response to this motion, the mantle flows towards the highest elevation in order to balance for the lower crust leaving the area under the highest topography. For weak (wet quartz regime with partial melting) or intermediate (wet quartz regime), or strong (dry quartz regime) lower crust, we recognized three predominantly decoupled modes of extension characterized by 1) significant lower crustal exhumation exemplified as a large massif, 2) formation of core complexes and detachment faults, and 3) distributive domino faulting, respectively. Without the MCSZ, however, the lower crustal flow is essentially subdued with predominantly coupled extension. For weak or intermediate, or strong lower crust, we recognized three coupled modes characterized by 1) localized generally symmetric crustal exhumation, 2) distributed grabens and narrow rifts, and 3) wide continental margins, respectively. The MCSZ controls the degree of decoupling of the lower crustal flow such that a frictionally stronger MCSZ does not change the behaviors of the models but results in a more distributed extension. Due to the long-wavelength compensation, subhorizontal Moho is achieved where intensive extension occurred for all the decoupled models with a MCSZ. Natural counterparts for each mode may be easily identified, for instance, in the Basin and Range or the Aegean.

  3. Grounding zone wedges, Kveithola Trough (NW Barents Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebesco, Michele; Urgeles, Roger; Özmaral, Asli; Hanebuth, Till; Caburlotto, Andrea; Hörner, Tanja; Lantzsch, Hendrik; LLopart, Juame; Lucchi, Renata; Skøtt Nicolaisen, Line; Giacomo, Osti; Sabbatini, Anna; Camerlenghi, Angelo

    2014-05-01

    Swath bathymetry within Kveithola Trough (NW Barents Sea) shows a seafloor characterized by E-W trending megascale glacial lineations (MSGLs) overprinted by transverse Grounding Zone Wedges (GZWs), which give the trough a stair profile (Rebesco et al., 2011). GZWs are formed by deposition of subglacial till at temporarily stable ice-stream fronts in between successive episodic retreats (Rüther et al., 2012; Bjarnadóttir et al., 2012). Sub-bottom data show that present-day morphology is largely inherited from palaeo-seafloor topography of GZWs, which is draped by a deglacial to early Holocene glaciomarine sediments (about 15 m thick). The ice stream that produced such subglacial morphology was flowing from East to West inside Kveithola Trough during Last Glacial Maximum. Its rapid retreat was likely associated with progressive lift-offs, and successive rapid melting of the grounded ice, induced by the eustatic sea-level rise (Lucchi et al., 2013). References: Bjarnadóttir, L.R., Rüther, D.C., Winsborrow, M.C.M., Andreassen, K., 2012. Grounding-line dynamics during the last deglaciation of Kveithola, W Barents Sea, as revealed by seabed geomorphology and shallow seismic stratigraphy. Boreas, 42, 84-107. Lucchi R.G., et al. 2013. Postglacial sedimentary processes on the Storfjorden and Kveithola TMFs: impact of extreme glacimarine sedimentation. Global and Planetary Change, 111, 309-326. Rebesco, M., et al. 2011. Deglaciation of the Barents Sea Ice Sheet - a swath bathymetric and subbottom seismic study from the Kveitehola Trough. Marine Geology, 279, 141-14. Rüther, D.C., Bjarnadóttir, L.R., Junttila, J., Husum, K., Rasmussen, T.L., Lucchi, R.G., Andreassen, K., 2012. Pattern and timing of the north-western Barents Sea Ice Sheet deglaciation and indications of episodic Holocene deposition. Boreas 41, 494-512.

  4. Saline Fluids in Subduction Channels and Mantle Wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, T.; Hertwig, A.; Schertl, H. P.; Maresch, W. V.; Shigeno, M.; Mori, Y.; Nishiyama, T.

    2015-12-01

    Saline fluids can transport large-ion-lithophile elements and carbonate. Subduction-zone fluids contain salts with various amounts of NaCl equivalent similar to that of the present and/or Phanerozoic seawater (about 3.5 wt% NaCl). The salinity of aqueous fluids in the mantle wedge decreases from trench side to back-arc side, although available data have been limited. Such saline fluids from mantle peridotite underneath Pinatubo, a frontal volcano of the Luzon arc, contain 5.1 wt% NaCl equivalent and CO2 [Kawamoto et al., 2013 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] and in Ichinomegeta, a rear-arc volcano of the Northeast Japan arc, contain 3.7 wt% NaCl equivalent and CO2 [Kumagai et al., Contrib Mineral Petrol 2014]. Abundances of chlorine and H2O in olivine-hosted melt inclusions also suggest that aqueous fluids to produce frontal basalts have higher salinity than rear-arc basalts in Guatemala arc [Walker et al., Contrib Mineral Petrol 2003]. In addition to these data, quartz-free jadeitites contain fluid inclusions composed of aqueous fluids with 7 wt% NaCl equivalent and quartz-bearing jadeitite with 4.6 wt% NaCl equivalent in supra-subduction zones in Southwest Japan [Mori et al., 2015, International Eclogite Conference] and quartz-bearing jadeitite and jadeite-rich rocks contain fluid inclusions composed of aqueous fluids with 4.2 wt% NaCl equivalent in Rio San Juan Complex, Dominica Republic [Kawamoto et al., 2015, Goldschmidt Conference]. Aqueous fluids generated at pressures lower than conditions for albite=jadeite+quartz occurring at 1.5 GPa, 500 °C may contain aqueous fluids with higher salinity than at higher pressures.

  5. Investigation of Acoustical Shielding by a Wedge-Shaped Airframe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Clark, Lorenzo R.; Dunn, Mark H.; Tweed, John

    2006-01-01

    Experiments on a scale model of an advanced unconventional subsonic transport concept, the Blended Wing Body (BWB), have demonstrated significant shielding of inlet-radiated noise. A computational model of the shielding mechanism has been developed using a combination of boundary integral equation method (BIEM) and equivalent source method (ESM). The computation models the incident sound from a point source in a nacelle and determines the scattered sound field. In this way the sound fields with and without the airfoil can be estimated for comparison to experiment. An experimental test bed using a simplified wedge-shape airfoil and a broadband point noise source in a simulated nacelle has been developed for the purposes of verifying the analytical model and also to study the effect of engine nacelle placement on shielding. The experimental study is conducted in the Anechoic Noise Research Facility at NASA Langley Research Center. The analytic and experimental results are compared at 6300 and 8000 Hz. These frequencies correspond to approximately 150 Hz on the full scale aircraft. Comparison between the experimental and analytic results is quite good, not only for the noise scattering by the airframe, but also for the total sound pressure in the far field. Many of the details of the sound field that the analytic model predicts are seen or indicated in the experiment, within the spatial resolution limitations of the experiment. Changing nacelle location produces comparable changes in noise shielding contours evaluated analytically and experimentally. Future work in the project will be enhancement of the analytic model to extend the analysis to higher frequencies corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the high bypass ratio ducted fan engines that are expected to power the BWB.

  6. Flow Pattern relative to the Substorm Current Wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, X.; McPherron, R. L.; Hsu, T.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetospheric substorms play a key role in the coupling of the solar wind and the magnetosphere. The Substorm Current Wedge (SCW) is a key element in the present physical model of substorms. It is widely accepted that the SCW is created by earthward busty flows, but the generation mechanism is still unknown. Previous studies suggest pressure gradients and magnetic vortices are possible candidates. Due to the sparse coverage of satellites in space, these studies were strongly dependent on the assumption that the satellites were in the generation region of the field-aligned currents (FAC) forming the SCW. In this work, we take advantage of an inversion technique that determines the parameters describing the SCW and perform a statistical study on the plasma and magnetic field parameters of the flow pattern relative to the SCW. The inversion technique finds the location and the intensity of the SCW from midlatitude magnetic data. The technique has been validated using auroral observations, Equivalent Ionospheric Currents (EIC), SYM-H index from SuperMAG, and magnetic perturbations at geosynchronous orbit by the GOES satellite. A database of substorm events has been created using midlatitude positive bays, which are the ground signature of the SCW at lower latitudes. The inversion technique is applied to each event in the database to determine the location of the origin of the SCW. The inversion results are also used to find conjunction events with space observations from VAP (RBSP), THEMIS and GOES. The plasma and magnetic field parameters such as the pressure gradient and magnetic vorticity are then categorized as a function of their location relative to the origin of the SCW. How the distribution/pattern of the pressure gradient and vorticity are related to the properties of the SCW (locations and intensity of the FAC), and flows (entropy, velocity and density) will be determined.

  7. Flow bursts, breakup arc, and substorm current wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerendel, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    Energy liberated by the reconnection process in the near-Earth tail is transported via flow bursts toward the dipolar magnetosphere during substorms. The breakup arc is a manifestation of the arrival of the bursts under flow braking and energy deposition. Its structure and behavior is analyzed on the basis of five striking spatial, temporal, and energetic properties, qualitatively and in part also quantitatively. A key element is the formation of stop layers. They are thin layers, of the width of an ion gyro radius, in which the magnetic field makes a transition from tail to near-dipolar magnetosphere configurations and in which the kinetic energy of fast flows is converted into electromagnetic energy of kinetic Alfvén waves. The flows arise from the relaxation of the strong magnetic shear stresses in the leading part of the flow bursts. The bright narrow arcs of less than 10 km width inside the broad poleward expanding breakup arc, Alfvénic in nature and visually characterized by erratic short-lived rays, are seen as traces of the stop layers. The gaps between two narrow and highly structured arcs are filled with more diffuse emissions. They are attributed to the relaxation of the less strained magnetic field of the flow bursts. Eastward flows along the arcs are linked to the shrinking gaps between two successive arcs and the entry of auroral streamers into the dipolar magnetosphere in the midnight sector. Flow braking in the stop layers forms multiple pairs of narrow balanced currents and cannot be behind the formation of the substorm current wedge. Instead, its origin is attributed to the force exerted by the dipolarized magnetic field of the flow bursts on the high-beta plasma, after the high magnetic shears have relaxed and the fast flows and stop layer process have subsided, in other words, to the "dying flow bursts."

  8. Discrete dislocation plasticity analysis of the wedge indentation of films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, D. S.; Deshpande, V. S.; Needleman, A.; Van der Giessen, E.

    2006-11-01

    The plane strain indentation of single crystal films on a rigid substrate by a rigid wedge indenter is analyzed using discrete dislocation plasticity. The crystals have three slip systems at ±35.3∘ and 90∘ with respect to the indentation direction. The analyses are carried out for three values of the film thickness, 2, 10 and 50 μm, and with the dislocations all of edge character modeled as line singularities in a linear elastic material. The lattice resistance to dislocation motion, dislocation nucleation, dislocation interaction with obstacles and dislocation annihilation are incorporated through a set of constitutive rules. Over the range of indentation depths considered, the indentation pressure for the 10 and 50 μm thick films decreases with increasing contact size and attains a contact size-independent value for contact lengths A>4 μm. On the other hand, for the 2 μm films, the indentation pressure first decreases with increasing contact size and subsequently increases as the plastic zone reaches the rigid substrate. For the 10 and 50 μm thick films sink-in occurs around the indenter, while pile-up occurs in the 2 μm film when the plastic zone reaches the substrate. Comparisons are made with predictions obtained from other formulations: (i) the contact size-independent indentation pressure is compared with that given by continuum crystal plasticity; (ii) the scaling of the indentation pressure with indentation depth is compared with the relation proposed by Nix and Gao [1998. Indentation size effects in crystalline materials: a law for strain gradient plasticity. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 43, 411-423]; and (iii) the computed contact area is compared with that obtained from the estimation procedure of Oliver and Pharr [1992. An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic-modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments, J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564-1583].

  9. Geology, mineralogy, and chemistry of sediment-hosted clastic massive sulfides in shallow cores, Middle Valley, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Goodfellow, W.D.; Franklin, J.M. )

    1993-12-01

    Middle Valley is a sediment-covered rift near the northern end of Juan de Fuca Ridge. Hydrothermal fluids are presently being discharged at two vent fields about 3 km apart, Bent Hill and the area of active venting. The hydrothermally active chimneys at both Bent Hill and the area of active venting consist of anhydrite and Mg-rich silicates with minor pyrite, Cu-Fe sulfide, sphalerite, and galena. Hydrothermal discharge in these areas appears to be focused along extensional faults. At the Bent Hill massive sulfide deposit, clastic sulfide layers are interbedded with hydrothermally altered and unaltered hemipelagic and turbiditic sediment along the flanks of the sulfide mound. Sulfide textures and mineralogy suggest that the Bent Hill sulfide mound formed by the build-up and collapse of sulfide chimneys, the resedimentation of sulfide debris and the formation of clastic sulfide layers, and the infilling and replacement of clastic sulfides by hydrothermal fluids near vents. Sulfur isotope values that are consistently more positive than basaltic sulfur support the addition of seawater sulfur. Pb isotope values for the Bent Hill deposit that are transitional between midocean ridge basalt (MORB) and Middle Valley sediments indicate that the sulfides probably formed from fluids which originated in the oceanic crust but which have been modified by reaction with lower temperature (<274 C) fluids generated in the sedimentary pile, similar to those now venting in Middle Valley.

  10. Three-Dimensional Vertebral Wedging in Mild and Moderate Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Sophie-Anne; Begon, Mickaël; Leardini, Alberto; Coillard, Christine; Rivard, Charles-Hilaire; Allard, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Vertebral wedging is associated with spinal deformity progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Reporting frontal and sagittal wedging separately could be misleading since these are projected values of a single three-dimensional deformation of the vertebral body. The objectives of this study were to determine if three-dimensional vertebral body wedging is present in mild scoliosis and if there are a preferential vertebral level, position and plane of deformation with increasing scoliotic severity. Methodology Twenty-seven adolescent idiopathic scoliotic girls with mild to moderate Cobb angles (10° to 50°) participated in this study. All subjects had at least one set of bi-planar radiographs taken with the EOS® X-ray imaging system prior to any treatment. Subjects were divided into two groups, separating the mild (under 20°) from the moderate (20° and over) spinal scoliotic deformities. Wedging was calculated in three different geometric planes with respect to the smallest edge of the vertebral body. Results Factorial analyses of variance revealed a main effect for the scoliosis severity but no main effect of vertebral Levels (apex and each of the three vertebrae above and below it) (F = 1.78, p = 0.101). Main effects of vertebral Positions (apex and above or below it) (F = 4.20, p = 0.015) and wedging Planes (F = 34.36, p<0.001) were also noted. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated a greater wedging in the inferior group of vertebrae (3.6°) than the superior group (2.9°, p = 0.019) and a significantly greater wedging (p≤0.03) along the sagittal plane (4.3°). Conclusions Vertebral wedging was present in mild scoliosis and increased as the scoliosis progressed. The greater wedging of the inferior group of vertebrae could be important in estimating the most distal vertebral segment to be restrained by bracing or to be fused in surgery. Largest vertebral body wedging values obtained in the sagittal plane support the claim

  11. Oncologic Safety of Laparoscopic Wedge Resection with Gastrotomy for Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Comparison with Conventional Laparoscopic Wedge Resection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sejin; Kim, You Na; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Various laparoscopic wedge resection (LWR) techniques requiring gastrotomy for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of the stomach have been applied to facilitate tumor resection and preserve the remnant gastric volume. However, there is the possibility of cancer cell dissemination during these procedures. The aim of this study was to assess the oncologic safety of LWR with gastrotomy (LWR-G) compared to LWR without luminal exposure. Materials and Methods Clinicopathologic and operative results of 193 patients who underwent LWR for gastric GIST were retrospectively analyzed from 2003 to 2013. We stratified the patients into two groups: LWR-G and LWR without gastrotomy (LWR-C). Clinicopathologic features, short-term outcomes, and long-term outcomes were compared. Results A total of 26 patients underwent LWR-G, and 167 patients underwent LWR-C. The LWR-G group showed significantly more anterior wall-located (n=10, 38.5%), intraluminal (n=20, 76.9%), and ulcerative (n=13, 50.0%) tumors than the LWR-C group (n=33, 19.8%; n=96, 57.5%; n=46, 27.5%, respectively). Postoperative short-term outcomes did not differ between the two groups. When tumor staging was compared, no statistical difference was noted. There was no recurrence in the LWR-G group, while 2 patients in the LWR-C group experienced recurrence. The two recurrences in the LWR-C group were found in the liver and in the remnant stomach at 63 and 12 months after the operation, respectively. No gastric GIST-related death was recorded in any group during the study period. Conclusions LWR-G for gastric GIST is an oncologically safe procedure even for masses with ulcerations. PMID:26819802

  12. Process Based Explanations for Correlations Between the Structural and Seismic Segmentation of the Cascadia Subduction Wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, C. W.; Brandon, M. T.; Willett, S. D.

    2006-12-01

    Variations in the geological and geophysical characteristics of the Cascadia subduction wedge, the region between the trench and arc, result in along-strike wedge segmentation. We focus on explaining the large-scale structural segmentation and how processes causing this segmentation influence segmentation with respect to the seismic behavior of the wedge and subduction thrust. The relationships we develop illustrate the fundamental interplay of processes controlling long-term structure and short-term seismic behavior. Our conclusions are based on the results of numerical models designed to simulate the growth and evolution of the Cascadia subduction wedge through the accretion of a thin layer of sediment to the basaltic Coast Range Terrane (CRT) of the Cascadia margin. Two aspects of wedge structural segmentation are of interest: (1) segmentation with respect to the location or absence of large, continental shelf, forearc basins, and (2) segmentation with respect to the Coastal Range (CR) structural high. Our models illustrate that the form of the submarine portion of the Cascadia wedge, including the basins or lack thereof, is a consequence of the frictional behavior of this region of wedge, subduction thrust strength, wedge strength, and dip thrust. We propose that basin segments have stronger wedge material, a weaker thrust, or a steeper thrust than basin free segments. The presence of basins is significant because they stabilize the margin and prevent subduction and accretion related deformation. This stabilization allows the thrust to preferentially support thermally induced, fluid overpressures and undergo fault healing thus increasing the likelihood of large coseismic slip within basin segments. While no historical earthquake data supporting this argument exists for Cascadia, such behavior has been observed in many margins (Song and Simons, 2003; Wells et al., 2003). It is reasonable to assume that large earthquakes in Cascadia will have the same association

  13. Markov chains and entropy tests in genetic-based lithofacies analysis of deep-water clastic depositional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borka, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between structural elements and the so-called genetic lithofacies in a clastic deep-water depositional system. Process-sedimentology has recently been gaining importance in the characterization of these systems. This way the recognized facies attributes can be associated with the depositional processes establishing the genetic lithofacies. In this paper this approach was presented through a case study of a Tertiary deep-water sequence of the Pannonian-basin. Of course it was necessary to interpret the stratigraphy of the sequences in terms of "general" sedimentology, focusing on the structural elements. For this purpose, well-logs and standard deep-water models were applied. The cyclicity of sedimentary sequences can be easily revealed by using Markov chains. Though Markov chain analysis has broad application in mainly fluvial depositional environments, its utilization is uncommon in deep-water systems. In this context genetic lithofacies was determined and analysed by embedded Markov chains. The randomness in the presence of a lithofacies within a cycle was estimated by entropy tests (entropy after depositional, before depositional, for the whole system). Subsequently the relationships between lithofacies were revealed and a depositional model (i.e. modal cycle) was produced with 90% confidence level of stationarity. The non-randomness of the latter was tested by chi-square test. The consequences coming from the comparison of "general" sequences (composed of architectural elements), the genetic-based sequences (showing the distributions of the genetic lithofacies) and the lithofacies relationships were discussed in details. This way main depositional channel has the best, channelized lobes have good potential hydrocarbon reservoir attributes, with symmetric alternation of persistent fine-grained sandstone (Facies D) and muddy fine-grained sandstone with traction structures (Facies F)

  14. Using the U-Pb system of calcretes to date the time of sedimentation of clastic sedimentary rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.S.; Rasbury, E.T.; Hanson, G.N.; Meyers, W.J.

    1998-08-01

    The time of sedimentation of rapidly deposited clastic sedimentary rocks in fluvial environments may be directly dated with an uncertainty of less than three million years using U-Pb dating of pure micritic calcite from calcretes developed in overbank deposits. This conclusion is based on results obtained for calcretes (soil calcite, caliche) formed in the late Triassic New Haven Arkose, Hartford Basin, Connecticut, USA. The paragenesis of calcrete samples from the New Haven Arkose was determined using plane-polarized light and cathodoluminescence petrography, uranium fission track analysis, as well as trace element and stable isotope geochemistry. These calcretes contain an abundance of paleosol microfabrics and diagenetic calcite. The first-generation micritic calcite and second-generation blocky calcite have characteristics consistent with soil calcite. The third generation blocky calcite is a later diagenetic calcite (post-soil calcite). The U-Pb data for pure micritic calcite (first generation) in a horizontal sheet calcrete in sedimentary rocks of Norian age gives a {sup 238}U/{sup 207}Pb-{sup 206}Pb/{sub 207}Pb isochron age of 211.9 {+-} 2.1 Ma (2-sigma, and used hereafter for all ages). The U-Pb data for two samples of first generation micrite in rhizoliths with about 15% insoluble residues give ages of 7 {+-} 66 Ma and 20 {+-} 36 Ma. These results suggest that relatively recent events disturbed the U-Pb system of these detrital rich samples, perhaps due to redistribution of U during weathering or during chemical dissolution for analysis. The U-Pb data for a sample of pure third generation blocky calcite cement in a rhizolith yields a {sup 206}Pb/{sup 238}U-{sup 207}Pb/{sup 235}U isochron age of 81 {+-} 11 Ma. This age suggests that this sample of third generation blocky calcite precipitated during the late Cretaceous perhaps over an extended period.

  15. Fractured reservoirs in clastic rocks: Differences between a basement-cored structure and a detached fold belt

    SciTech Connect

    Engelder, T.; Gross, M.R.; Younes, A.

    1996-08-01

    The Elk Basin anticline, Wyoming-Montana, has an order of magnitude more structural relief than structures of the Appalachian Plateau, New York. Despite its structural relief the Elk Basin anticline shows very little macroscopic evidence for layer-parallel shortening vs. more than 10% for the subtle Appalachian Plateau folds. Elk Basin anticline is a passive drape fold extending over a tongue of basement punching up into the sedimentary cover. On the other extreme, the detached fold belt of the Appalachian Plateau remained in compression during most, if not all, of the Alleghanian layer-parallel shortening event. The joint pattern in Elk Basin is dominated by fold-parallel sets. The joint pattern in the Appalachian Plateau is dominated by fold-perpendicular sets. These two joint patterns are consistent with states of stress that suppress layer-parallel shortening in the former case and favor it in the latter case. Curvy cross joints are unambiguous records of the change in stress field orientation. Such structures in the clastic rocks of Elk Basin indicate a 10{degrees} to 15{degrees} clockwise reorientation of the stress field during later stages of fold development. The early to synfolding propagation of fold-parallel joints is indicated by their attitude normal to bedding on both limbs of the Elk Basin anticline. Fold-parallel joints are also rotated during strike-slip motion on later, vertical faults cutting subperpendicular to the anticlinal axis. Finally, the fracture spacing index for fold-parallel joints in various formations at Elk Basin is less than for cross fold joints of the Appalachian Plateau.

  16. U-Pb detrital zircon age patterns of Cenozoic clastic sedimentary rocks in Trinidad and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiangyang; Mann, Paul

    2014-06-01

    The Cenozoic evolution of northern South America can be simplified as a diachronous, west-to-east change from north-facing passive margin, to active convergence and transcurrent plate margin. As the current eastern end of the Caribbean-South America plate boundary, the Trinidad area records the most recent tectonic regime transition. Documenting the provenance of Cenozoic clastic rocks in Trinidad provides insights into the spatial and temporal relationships between mountain range uplifting, sediment dispersal, and drainage system development along the eastern end of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. Four Eocene to Pliocene age outcropping sandstone samples were collected from Trinidad and 545 detrital zircon grains were analyzed using the U-Pb LA-ICP-MS method. A total of 404 analyses with less than 10% discordance were used for the final interpretation. Results show that the age distribution of the Eocene to the Early Oligocene samples is very restricted and dominated by Precambrian age grains with age peaks at ~ 1400 Ma, ~ 1800 Ma, and ~ 2000 Ma, typically derived from the Guyana Shield. In contrast, the Late Oligocene and younger samples show much broader and mixed age distribution that includes Mesozoic, Paleozoic, and Precambrian peaks. This age shift was interpreted as arriving of the Great Caribbean Arc and oblique collision between the South America and Caribbean plates. Continuing collision uplifted the Andes belts to the west. The Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, the Merida Andes, and the northern Venezuela coastal ranges then became the second primary sources. Offshore sedimentation switched from the passive margin with multiple small drainage systems to the active convergent and transcurrent plate margin with a single large river-dominated delivery system.

  17. Hiatuses and changes in clastic versus carbonate facies in Holocene riverine tufa deposits from the Iberian Range (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Navarro, Juan; Eugenio Ortiz, Jose; de Torres, Trinidad; Vázquez, Angel

    2014-05-01

    Calcareous tufa deposits are a type of terrestrial limestone formed by the precipitation of carbonate minerals in water bodies at ambient temperature. They represent an outstanding record of continental paleo-environmental information, as their frequent presence during interglacial periods of the European geological record is the result of warmer and more humid climatic conditions -. These climate phases favoured the development of forest vegetation in contrast to the steppe biome, rather predominant during glacial/stadial times. Commonly tufa deposits are selected to conduct detailed paleoclimatic reconstructions, using multiproxy approaches with: malacological and pollen spectra, trace elements, and δ18O and δ13C of calcite. Additionally, they can preserve a better record of the erosion episodes in relation to other fluvial sediments, constituting a type of non-continuous sedimentary archive. We document here the existence of ten previously-unknown Holocene tufa riverine deposits belonging to a wide area in the central and eastern Iberian Range (Spain). In order to establish their stratigraphy and chronology, these have been dated by means of the aminoacid racemization method, applied on ostracod valves extracted from carbonate facies. Geomorphologic, sedimentologic, and chronologic surveys have been carried out, having as a result a database that will be provided with the aim to compare its sedimentary environments and the synchrony of regional sedimentation and erosion. The evolution of these tufa sequences is described with special attention to the transitions between different sedimentary phases from carbonates to clastic. Climate drivers, rather than other plausible triggering factors such as tectonics, are considered the responsibles of the tufa 'erosion episodes' and the transitions between facies. The successive dissection episodes generally took place in the spotted area during transition climate conditions, from the relatively wet early Holocene to

  18. Effect of Laterally Wedged Insoles on the External Knee Adduction Moment across Different Reference Frames

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Kitamura, Masako; Ushikubo, Tomohiro; Murata, Atsushi; Akagi, Ryuichiro; Sasho, Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Biomechanical effects of laterally wedged insoles are assessed by reduction in the knee adduction moment. However, the degree of reduction may vary depending on the reference frame with which it is calculated. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of reference frame on the reduction in the knee adduction moment by laterally wedged insoles. Methods Twenty-nine healthy participants performed gait trials with a laterally wedged insole and with a flat insole as a control. The knee adduction moment, including the first and second peaks and the angular impulse, were calculated using four different reference frames: the femoral frame, tibial frame, laboratory frame and the Joint Coordinate System. Results There were significant effects of reference frame on the knee adduction moment first and second peaks (P < 0.001 for both variables), while the effect was not significant for the angular impulse (P = 0.84). No significant interaction between the gait condition and reference frame was found in either of the knee adduction moment variables (P = 0.99 for all variables), indicating that the effects of laterally wedged insole on the knee adduction moments were similar across the four reference frames. On the other hand, the average percent changes ranged from 9% to 16% for the first peak, from 16% to 18% for the second peak and from 17% to 21% for the angular impulse when using the different reference frames. Conclusion The effects of laterally wedged insole on the reduction in the knee adduction moment were similar across the reference frames. On the other hand, Researchers need to recognize that when the percent change was used as the parameter of the efficacy of laterally wedged insole, the choice of reference frame may influence the interpretation of how laterally wedged insoles affect the knee adduction moment. PMID:26397375

  19. Climate adaptation wedges: a case study of premium wine in the western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Diffenbaugh, Noah; White, Michael A; Jones, Gregory V; Ashfaq, Moetasim

    2011-01-01

    Design and implementation of effective climate change adaptation activities requires quantitative assessment of the impacts that are likely to occur without adaptation, as well as the fraction of impact that can be avoided through each activity. Here we present a quantitative framework inspired by the greenhouse gas stabilization wedges of Pacala and Socolow. In our proposed framework, the damage avoided by each adaptation activity creates an 'adaptation wedge' relative to the loss that would occur without that adaptation activity. We use premium winegrape suitability in the western United States as an illustrative case study, focusing on the near-term period that covers the years 2000 39. We find that the projected warming over this period results in the loss of suitable winegrape area throughout much of California, including most counties in the high-value North Coast and Central Coast regions. However, in quantifying adaptation wedges for individual high-value counties, we find that a large adaptation wedge can be captured by increasing the severe heat tolerance, including elimination of the 50% loss projected by the end of the 2030 9 period in the North Coast region, and reduction of the projected loss in the Central Coast region from 30% to less than 15%. Increased severe heat tolerance can capture an even larger adaptation wedge in the Pacific Northwest, including conversion of a projected loss of more than 30% in the Columbia Valley region of Washington to a projected gain of more than 150%. We also find that warming projected over the near-term decades has the potential to alter the quality of winegrapes produced in the western US, and we discuss potential actions that could create adaptation wedges given these potential changes in quality. While the present effort represents an initial exploration of one aspect of one industry, the climate adaptation wedge framework could be used to quantitatively evaluate the opportunities and limits of climate adaptation

  20. Rainfall induced groundwater mound in wedge-shaped promontories: The Strack-Chernyshov model revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacimov, A. R.; Kayumov, I. R.; Al-Maktoumi, A.

    2016-11-01

    An analytical solution to the Poisson equation governing Strack's discharge potential (squared thickness of a saturated zone in an unconfined aquifer) is obtained in a wedge-shaped domain with given head boundary conditions on the wedge sides (specified water level in an open water body around a porous promontory). The discharge vector components, maximum elevation of the water table in promontory vertical cross-sections, quantity of groundwater seeping through segments of the wedge sides, the volume of fresh groundwater in the mound are found. For acute angles, the solution to the problem is non-unique and specification of the behaviour at infinity is needed. A "basic" solution is distinguished, which minimizes the water table height above a horizontal bedrock. MODFLOW simulations are carried out in a finite triangular island and compare solutions with a constant-head, no-flow and "basic" boundary condition on one side of the triangle. Far from the tip of an infinite-size promontory one has to be cautious with truncation of the simulated flow domains and imposing corresponding boundary conditions. For a right and obtuse wedge angles, there are no positive solutions for the case of constant accretion on the water table. In a particular case of a confined rigid wedge-shaped aquifer and incompressible fluid, from an explicit solution to the Laplace equation for the hydraulic head with arbitrary time-space varying boundary conditions along the promontory rays, essentially 2-D transient Darcian flows within the wedge are computed. They illustrate that surface water waves on the promontory boundaries can generate strong Darcian waves inside the porous wedge. Evaporation from the water table and sea-water intruded interface (rather than a horizontal bed) are straightforward generalizations for the Poissonian Strack potential.

  1. Measured Hydrologic Storage Characteristics of Three Major Ice Wedge Polygon Types, Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, A. J.; Liljedahl, A.; Wilson, C. J.; Cable, W.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2014-12-01

    Model simulations have suggested that the hydrologic fluxes and stores of Arctic wetlands are constrained by the micro-topographical features of ice wedge polygons, which are abundant in lowland tundra landscapes. Recently observed changes in ice wedge polygon landscapes - in particular, ice wedge degradation and trough formation - emphasize the need to better understand how differing ice wedge polygon morphologies affect the larger hydrologic system. Here we present three seasons of measured end-of-winter snow accumulation, continuous soil moisture and water table elevations, and repeated frost table mapping. Together, these describe the hydrologic characteristics of three main ice wedge polygon types: low centered polygons with limited trough development (representative of a ~500 year old vegetated drained thaw lake basin), and low- and high-centered polygons with well-defined troughs. Dramatic spatiotemporal variability exists both between polygon types and between the features of an individual polygon (e.g. troughs, centers, rims). Landscape-scale end-of-winter snow water equivalent is similar between polygon types, while the sub-polygon scale distribution of the surface water differs, both as snow and as ponded water. Some sub-polygon features appear buffered against large variations in water levels, while others display periods of prolonged recessions and large responses to rain events. Frost table elevations in general mimic the ground surface topography, but with spatiotemporal variability in thaw rate. The studied thaw seasons represented above long-term average rainfall, and in 2014, record high June precipitation. Differing ice wedge polygon types express dramatically different local hydrology, despite nearly identical climate forcing and landscape-scale snow accumulation, making ice wedge polygons an important component when describing the Arctic water, nutrient and energy system.

  2. Magnetic fabric (anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility) constraints on emplacement mechanism of clastic dikes: an example from the Cretaceous Dadaepo Basin in SE Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, M.; Cho, H.; Sohn, Y. K.

    2014-12-01

    Emplacement mechanisms of clastic dikes, which are discordant and tabular bodies comprised of weakly to strongly lithified clastic detritus, have been a matter of considerable interest over the last 20 years. Clastic dikes are generally classified into neptunian and injected dikes. Using the magnetic fabrics (AMS), we attempt to classify the clastic dikes in the late Cretaceous Dadaepo Basin, SE Korea, and interpret their emplacement mechanisms. The neptunian dikes exhibit a typical oblate sedimentary fabric which makes a sharp contrast with the injected dikes. The fabrics of the injected dikes are greatly influenced by current conditions (flow directions, rheological properties, and rates) and transportation types (imbrication or rolling) of filling materials. Based on the AMS fabrics, they are classified into four types. (1) Type-VP is formed by grain imbrication in low- to moderate-energy vertical flow of a Newtonian fluid and characterized by a bilateral symmetry of fabrics across the dike. (2) Type-VT results from grain rolling in vertical high-energy flow and is characterized by subvertical k2 and subhorizontal k1 axes on the dike plane. (3) Type-HP is formed by grain imbrication in horizontal low- to moderate-energy flow, resulting in subvertical k3 and subhorizontal k1 and k2 axes. (4) Type-HT is formed by grain rolling in horizontal high-energy flow, resulting in streaked k2-k3 on the dike plane and horizontally clustered k1 axes. The AMS fabrics of each type can be a significant indicator for flow direction. The observed AMS fabric of low-energy current immediately above the source layer indicates that fluidized clastic materials in the lower part of injected dike can flow laterally by lateral propagation of new or pre-existing fractures due to a dominant horizontal pressure gradient. Based on abundant AMS fabrics of high-energy current, coexistence of paleoseismic structures, and tectonic setting of the basin, earthquake-induced liquefaction is the most

  3. Distribution of lithium in the Cordilleran Mantle wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Jean, M. M.; Seitz, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    Enriched fluid-mobile element (i.e., B, Li, Be) concentrations in peridotites from the Coast Range ophiolite are compelling evidence that this ophiolite originated in a subduction environment. A new method presented in Shervais and Jean (2012) for modeling the fluid enrichment process, represents the total addition of material to the mantle wedge source region and can be applied to any refractory mantle peridotite that has been modified by melt extraction and/or metasomatism. Although the end-result is attributed to an added flux of aqueous fluid or fluid-rich melt phase derived from the subducting slab, in the range of tens of parts per million - the nature and composition of this fluid could not be constrained. To address fluid(s) origins, we have analyzed Li isotopes in bulk rock peridotite and eclogite, and garnet separates, to identify possible sources, and fluid flow mechanisms and pathways. Bulk rock Li abundances of CRO peridotites (δ7Li = -14.3 to 5.5‰; 1.9-7.5 ppm) are indicative of Li addition and δ7Li-values are lighter than normal upper mantle values. However, Li abundances of clino- and orthopyroxene appear to record different processes operating during the CRO-mantle evolution. Low Li abundances in orthopyroxene (<1 ppm) suggest depletion via partial melting, whereas high concentrations in clinopyroxenes (>2 ppm) record subsequent interaction with Li-enriched fluids (or melts). The preferential partitioning of lithium in clinopyroxene could be indicative of a particular metasomatic agent, e.g., fluids from a dehydrating slab. Future in-situ peridotite isotope studies via laser ablation will further elucidate the fractionation of lithium between orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and serpentine. To obtain a more complete picture of the slab to arc transfer processes, we also measured eclogites and garnet separates to δ7Li= -18 to 3.5‰ (11.5-32.5 ppm) and δ7Li= 1.9 to 11.7‰ (0.7-3.9 ppm), respectively. In connection with previous studies focused

  4. Laser-based linear and nonlinear guided elastic waves at surfaces (2D) and wedges (1D).

    PubMed

    Hess, Peter; Lomonosov, Alexey M; Mayer, Andreas P

    2014-01-01

    The characteristic features and applications of linear and nonlinear guided elastic waves propagating along surfaces (2D) and wedges (1D) are discussed. Laser-based excitation, detection, or contact-free analysis of these guided waves with pump-probe methods are reviewed. Determination of material parameters by broadband surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and other applications in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are considered. The realization of nonlinear SAWs in the form of solitary waves and as shock waves, used for the determination of the fracture strength, is described. The unique properties of dispersion-free wedge waves (WWs) propagating along homogeneous wedges and of dispersive wedge waves observed in the presence of wedge modifications such as tip truncation or coatings are outlined. Theoretical and experimental results on nonlinear wedge waves in isotropic and anisotropic solids are presented.

  5. Characterizing and configuring motorized wedge for a new generation telecobalt machine in a treatment planning system.

    PubMed

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A; Sharma, Smriti; Upreti, Rituraj; Tambe, Chandrashekhar M; Deshpande, Deepak D

    2007-01-01

    A new generation telecobalt unit, Theratron Equinox-80, (MDS Nordion, Canada) has been evaluated. It is equipped with a single 60-degree motorized wedge (MW), four universal wedges (UW) for 15°, 30°, 45° and 60°. MW was configured in Eclipse (Varian, Palo Alto, USA) 3D treatment planning system (TPS). The profiles and central axis depth doses (CADD) were measured with radiation field analyzer blue water phantom for MW. These profiles and CADD for MW were compared with UW in a homogeneous phantom generated in Eclipse for various field sizes. The absolute dose was measured for a field size of 10 × 10 cm2 only in a MEDTEC water phantom at 10 cm depth with a 0.13 cc thimble ion chamber (Scanditronix Wellhofer, Uppsala, Sweden) and a NE electrometer (Nuclear Enterprises, UK). Measured dose with ion chamber was compared with the TPS predicted dose. MW angle was verified on the Equinox for four angles (15°, 30°, 45° and 60°). The variation in measured and calculated dose at 10 cm depth was within 2%. The measured and the calculated wedge angles were in well agreement within 2°. The motorized wedges were successfully configured in Eclipse for four wedge angles. PMID:21217916

  6. Investigation of turbulent wedges generated by different single surface roughness elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traphan, Dominik; Meinlschmidt, Peter; Lutz, Otto; Peinke, Joachim; Gülker, Gerd

    2013-11-01

    It is known that small faults on rotor blades of wind turbines can cause significant power loss. In order to better understand the governing physical effects, in this experimental study, the formation of a turbulent wedge over a flat plate induced by single surface roughness elements is under investigation. The experiments are performed at different ambient pressure gradients, thus allowing conclusions about the formation of a turbulent wedge over an airfoil. With respect to typical initial faults on operating airfoils, the roughness elements are modified in both size and shape (raised or recessed). None intrusive experimental methods, such as stereoscopic PIV and LDA, enable investigations based on temporally and spatially highly resolved velocity measurements. In this way, a spectral analysis of the turbulent boundary layer is performed and differences in coherent structures within the wedge are identified. These findings are correlated with global measurements of the wedge carried out by infrared thermography. This correlation aims to enable distinguishing the cause and main properties of a turbulent wedge by the easy applicable method of infrared thermography, which is of practical relevance in the field of condition monitoring of wind turbines.

  7. Effect of Shockwave Curvature on Run Distance Observed with a Modified Wedge Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Richard; Dorgan, Robert; Sutherland, Gerrit; Benedetta, Ashley; Milby, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    The effect of wave curvature on shock initiation in PBXN-110 was investigated using a modified wedge test configuration. Various thicknesses of PBXN-110 donor slabs were used to define the shockwave curvature introduced to wedge samples of the same explosive. The donor slabs were initiated with line-wave generators so that the introduced shock would be the same shape, magnitude and duration across the entire input surface of the wedge. The shock parameters were varied for a given donor thickness via different widths of PMMA spacers placed between the donor and the wedge. A framing camera was used to observe where initiation occurred along the face of the wedge. Initiation always occurred at the center of the shock front instead of the sides like that reported by others using a much smaller test format. Results were compared to CTH calculations to indicate if there were effects associated with highly curved shock fronts that could not be adequately predicted. The run distance predicted in CTH for a 50.8 mm thick donor slab (low curvature) compared favorably with experimental results. However, results from thinner donor slabs (higher curvature) indicate a more sensitive behavior than the simulations predicted.

  8. Effect of shockwave curvature on run distance observed with a modified wedge test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Richard; Dorgan, Robert J.; Sutherland, Gerrit; Benedetta, Ashley; Milby, Christopher

    2012-03-01

    The effect of wave curvature on shock initiation in PBXN-110 was investigated using a modified wedge test configuration. Various widths of PBXN-110 donor slabs were used to define the shockwave curvature introduced to wedge samples of the same explosive. The donor slabs were initiated with line-wave generators so that the shock from the donor would be the same shape, magnitude and duration across the entire input surface of the wedge. The shock parameters were varied for a given donor with PMMA spacers placed between the donor and the wedge sample. A high-speed electronic framing camera was used to observe where initiation occurred along the face of the wedge. Initiation always occurred at the center of the shock front instead of along the sides like that reported by others using a much smaller test format. Results were compared to CTH calculations to indicate if there were effects associated with highly curved shock fronts that could not be adequately predicted. The run distance predicted in CTH for a 50.8 mm wide donor slab (low curvature) compared favorably with experimental results. However, results from thinner donor slabs (higher curvature) indicate a more sensitive behavior than the simulations predicted.

  9. Wedge and spring assembly for securing coils in electromagnets and dynamoelectric machines

    DOEpatents

    Lindner, M.; Cottingham, J.G.

    1996-03-12

    A wedge and spring assembly for use in electromagnets or dynamoelectric machines is disclosed having a housing with an axis therethrough and a plurality of coils supported on salient poles that extend radially inward from the housing toward the housing axis to define a plurality of interpole spaces. The wedge and spring assembly includes a nonmagnetic retainer spring and a nonmagnetic wedge. The retainer spring is formed to fit into one of the interpole spaces, and has juxtaposed ends defining between them a slit extending in a direction generally parallel to the housing axis. The wedge for insertion into the slit provides an outwardly directed force on respective portions of the juxtaposed ends to expand the slit so that respective portions of the retainer spring engage areas of the coils adjacent thereto, thereby resiliently holding the coils against their respective salient poles. The retainer spring is generally triangular shaped to fit within the interpole space, and the wedge is generally T-shaped. 6 figs.

  10. Parental arc magma compositions dominantly controlled by mantle-wedge thermal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Stephen J.; Langmuir, Charles H.; Katz, Richard F.; Dungan, Michael A.; Escrig, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    The processes that lead to the fourfold variation in arc-averaged compositions of mafic arc lavas remain controversial. Control by the mantle-wedge thermal structure is supported by chemical correlations with the thickness of the underlying arc crust, which affects the thermal state of the wedge. Control by down-going slab temperature is supported by correlations with the slab thermal parameter. The Chilean Southern Volcanic Zone provides a test of these hypotheses. Here we use chemical data to demonstrate that the Southern Volcanic Zone and global arc averages define the same chemical trends, both among elements and between elements and crustal thickness. But in contrast to the global arc system, the Southern Volcanic Zone is built on crust of variable thickness with a constant slab thermal parameter. This natural experiment, along with a set of numerical simulations, shows that global arc compositional variability is dominated by different extents of melting that are controlled by the thermal structure of the mantle wedge. Slab temperatures play a subordinate role. Variations in the subducting slab's fluid flux and sediment compositions, as well as mantle-wedge heterogeneities, produce second-order effects that are manifested as distinctive trace element and isotopic signatures; these can be more clearly elucidated once the importance of wedge thermal structure is recognized.

  11. Interaction of disturbances with an oblique detonation wave attached to a wedge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasseigne, D. G.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1992-01-01

    The linear response of an oblique overdriven detonation to impose free stream disturbances or to periodic movements of the wedge is examined. The free stream disturbances are assumed to be steady vorticity waves and the wedge motions are considered to be time periodic oscillations either about a fixed pivot point or along the plane of symmetry of the wedge aligned with the incoming stream. The detonation is considered to be a region of infinitesmal thickness in which a finite amount of heat is released. The response to the imposed disturbances is a function of the Mach number of the incoming flow, the wedge angle, and the exothermocity of the reaction within the detonation. It is shown that as the degree of overdrive increases, the amplitude of the response increases significantly; furthermore, a fundamental difference in the dependence of the response on the parameters of the problem is found between the response to a free stream disturbance and to a disturbance emanating from the wedge surface.

  12. Medpor Craniotomy Gap Wedge Designed to Fill Small Bone Defects along Cranial Bone Flap

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Duck-Ho; Kim, Gyoung-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Objective Medpor porous polyethylene was used to reconstruct small bone defects (gaps and burr holes) along a craniotomy bone flap. The feasibility and cosmetic results were evaluated. Methods Medpor Craniotomy Gap Wedges, V and T, were designed. The V implant is a 10 cm-long wedge strip, the cross section of which is an isosceles triangle with a 4 mm-long base, making it suitable for gaps less than 4 mm after trimming. Meanwhile, the Medpor T wedge includes a 10 mm-wide thin plate on the top surface of the Medpor V Wedge, making it suitable for gaps wider than 4 mm and burr holes. Sixty-eight pterional craniotomies and 39 superciliary approaches were performed using the implants, and the operative results were evaluated with respect to the cosmetic results and pain or tenderness related to the cranial flap. Results The small bone defects were eliminated with less than 10 minutes additional operative time. In a physical examination, there were no considerable cosmetic problems regarding to the cranial bone defects, such as a linear depression or dimple in the forehead, anterior temporal hollow, preauricular depression, and parietal burr hole defect. Plus, no patient suffered from any infectious complications. Conclusion The Medpor Craniotomy Gap Wedge is technically easy to work with for reconstructing small bone defects, such as the bone gaps and burr holes created by a craniotomy, and produces excellent cosmetic results. PMID:19844617

  13. Determination of the pulmonary capillary wedge position in patients with giant left atrial V waves.

    PubMed

    Moore, R A; Neary, M J; Gallagher, J D; Clark, D L

    1987-04-01

    Thirteen patients with giant left atrial V waves during preoperative cardiac catheterization were admitted into the study group. While awake and breathing spontaneously, simultaneous recordings of electrocardiographic leads II and V5, radial arterial traces, and pulmonary arterial or pulmonary capillary wedge traces were obtained. Measurements were made on four consecutive cardiac cycles in the unwedged and wedged positions for the following intervals: Q wave to the radial arterial upstroke (220 +/- 20 milliseconds) and peak (360 +/- 10 milliseconds), Q wave to the pulmonary arterial upstroke (170 +/- 20 milliseconds) and peak (350 +/- 20 milliseconds), Q wave to the V wave upstroke (280 +/- 20 milliseconds) and peak (570 +/- 20 milliseconds), and QT interval (420 +/- 20 milliseconds). These findings indicate that the radial arterial and pulmonary arterial upstrokes and peaks occur nearly simultaneously. Upon wedging, the V wave upstroke occurs significantly later in the cardiac cycle (P less than .05) compared with the pulmonary arterial upstroke, and the V wave peak occurs significantly later compared with both the pulmonary arterial and the radial arterial peak (P less than .05). A rapid, simple beat-to-beat method for differentiating pulmonary arterial from pulmonary capillary wedge positions in the presence of giant left atrial V waves is the superimposition of the pulmonary arterial trace on the radial arterial trace. When a wedge position is attained, there is an immediate rightward shift in the upstroke and peak of the pulmonary arterial pressure trace, which can be easily identified by observing the relationship between the pulmonary arterial and systemic arterial traces.

  14. Joint Geophysical and Hydrologic Constraints on Shallow Groundwater Flow Systems in Clastic Salt Marshes of the South Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppel, C.; Fulton, P.; Schultz, G. M.; Castillo, L.; Bartlett, J.; Sibley, S.

    2005-12-01

    Salt marsh systems play a critical role in buffering upland coastal areas from the influence of open saltwater bodies and in filtering contaminants that originate offshore or are flushed from uplands. For these reasons, it is important to understand the salt marsh hydrologic cycle, especially the interaction of groundwater and surface water across low-lying coastal fringes and the changes in physical, chemical, and ecological parameters across salinity gradients extending from upland to tidal creek to open water. For the past 5 years, we have conducted hydrogeophysical surveys (inductive EM and DC resistivity) and collected limited, coincident groundwater hydrologic data in clastic salt marshes throughout the South Atlantic Bight (SAB), stretching from South Carolina on the north to the Georgia-Florida border on the south. All of the marshes are dominated by Spartina and Juncus grasses and are cut by tidally-influenced creeks, but both the lithology and age of the marshes vary widely. For example, one highly homogeneous marsh study site has formed only within the past century, while most sites have existed for thousands of years and have laterally and vertically heterogeneous lithology. Geophysical images of the marsh subsurface and coincident monitoring of groundwater temperature, water level, and/or chemistry consistently show that marshes in the mixed energy environment of the middle part of the SAB (GCE LTER) tend to be dominated by submarsh discharge of freshwater to adjacent tidal creeks. In the South Carolina part of the SAB, we have greater evidence for seepage, particularly through biologically-created macropore networks and permeable sediment bodies that intersect tidal creeks. It is possible though that the South Carolina results are not so much 'universal' as reflective of local lithology. In a very young marsh near the Florida border, geophysical imaging implies a mixture of seepage and submarsh flow, and hydrologic data provide unequivocal proof that

  15. Clastic metasediments of the Early Proterozoic Broken Hill Group, New South Wales, Australia: Geochemistry, provenance, and metallogenic significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Stevens, B.P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Whole-rock analyses of samples of pelite, psammite, and psammopelite from the Early Proterozoic Broken Hill Group (Willyama Supergroup) in the Broken Hill Block, New South Wales, Australia, reveal distinctive geochemical signatures. Major-element data show high Al2O3 and K2O, low MgO and Na2O, and relatively high Fe2O3T MgO ratios, compared to average Early Proterozoic clastic metasediments. High field strength elements (HFSE) are especially abundant, including Nb (most 15-27 ppm), Ta (most 1.0-2.2 ppm), Th (17-36 ppm), Hf (4-15 ppm), and Zr (most 170-400 ppm); Y (33-74 ppm) is also high. Concentrations of ferromagnesian elements are generally low (Sc = < 20 ppm, Ni = ??? 62 ppm, Co = <26 ppm; Cr = most < 100 ppm). Data for rare earth elements (REEs) show high abundances of light REEs (LaCN = 116-250 ?? chondrite; LaCN = 437 in one sample), high LaCN YbCN ratios (5.6-13.9), and large negative Eu anomalies ( Eu Eu* = 0.32-0.57). The geochemical data indicate derivation of the metasedimentary rocks of the Broken Hill Group by the erosion mainly of felsic igneous (or meta-igneous) rocks. High concentrations of HFSE, Y, and REEs in the metasediments suggest a provenance dominanted by anorogenic granites and(or) rhyolites, including those with A-type chemistry. Likely sources of the metasediments were the rhyolitic to rhyodacitic protoliths of local quartz + feldspar ?? biotite ?? garnet gneisses (e.g., Potosi-type gneiss) that occur within the lower part of the Willyama Supergroup, or chemically similar basement rocks in the region; alternative sources may have included Early Proterozoic anorogenic granites and(or) rhyolites in the Mount Isa and(or) Pine Creek Blocks of northern Australia, or in the Gawler craton of South Australia. Metallogenic considerations suggest that the metasediments of the Broken Hill Block formed enriched source rocks during the generation of pegmatite-hosted deposits and concentrations of La, Ce, Nb, Ta, Th, and Sn in the region. Li, Be, B, W

  16. Periglacial complexes in Utopia Planitia: rimless, tiered depressions, (clastically) sorted and unsorted polygonised terrain and an ice-rich mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, Richard; Conway, Susan; Gallagher, Colman; Dohm, James; Clifford, Stephen M.; Williams, Jean-pierre

    2016-10-01

    We report the spatial and possible genetic-relationship at the mid-latitudes of Utopia Planitia (45-500N 115-1200E), Mars, of: (a) metre to decametre deep, rimless, tiered depressions; terrain that exhibits (b) (clastically) sorted and (c) unsorted (small-sized) polygons; and, (d) a very youthful, ice-rich mantle. We show that these individual landscape features are separated stratigraphically, this being presented to the Mars community for the first time, and suggest that the stratigraphical separation of these features could be the result of boundary conditions and formation processes that have varied much more widely than has been thought hitherto. In cold-climate and non-glacial regions such as the Yamal Peninsula of eastern Russia and the Tuktoyaktuk Coastlands of northern Canada, landscape assemblages comprised of similar features are referenced as "ice complexes" and are indicative of periglacialism on two fronts: first, the presence of "ice-rich" permafrost or permafrost comprised of "excess ice", i.e. "permafrost" whose pore space is exceeded by the "water ice" within that body of sediment; and, second, antecedently or currently active freeze-thaw cycling, minimally, to the full depth of the "ice-complex" depressions. In the Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, where the atmospheric aridity and cold-temperatures approach those of Mars, ice-vapour diffusion and adsorption cycles are cited as the means by which the near-surface, permafrost, i.e. ≤1m deep, has become ice-cemented. However, the metre to decametre depths of the "ice-complex" depressions on Earth and the morphologically-similar ones on Mars lie beyond the vertical reach of the Antarctic diffusion and adsorption cycles, both empirically and theoretically. By deduction, this points to the freeze-thaw cycling of water to depth, fostered either by exogenic or endogenic means, perhaps playing a more important role in the formation of the possible Martian "ice complexes" than might be expected were

  17. Quantitative comparisons of analogue models of brittle wedge dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreurs, Guido

    2010-05-01

    Analogue model experiments are widely used to gain insights into the evolution of geological structures. In this study, we present a direct comparison of experimental results of 14 analogue modelling laboratories using prescribed set-ups. A quantitative analysis of the results will document the variability among models and will allow an appraisal of reproducibility and limits of interpretation. This has direct implications for comparisons between structures in analogue models and natural field examples. All laboratories used the same frictional analogue materials (quartz and corundum sand) and prescribed model-building techniques (sieving and levelling). Although each laboratory used its own experimental apparatus, the same type of self-adhesive foil was used to cover the base and all the walls of the experimental apparatus in order to guarantee identical boundary conditions (i.e. identical shear stresses at the base and walls). Three experimental set-ups using only brittle frictional materials were examined. In each of the three set-ups the model was shortened by a vertical wall, which moved with respect to the fixed base and the three remaining sidewalls. The minimum width of the model (dimension parallel to mobile wall) was also prescribed. In the first experimental set-up, a quartz sand wedge with a surface slope of ˜20° was pushed by a mobile wall. All models conformed to the critical taper theory, maintained a stable surface slope and did not show internal deformation. In the next two experimental set-ups, a horizontal sand pack consisting of alternating quartz sand and corundum sand layers was shortened from one side by the mobile wall. In one of the set-ups a thin rigid sheet covered part of the model base and was attached to the mobile wall (i.e. a basal velocity discontinuity distant from the mobile wall). In the other set-up a basal rigid sheet was absent and the basal velocity discontinuity was located at the mobile wall. In both types of experiments

  18. Growth of the deposit wedge in the mountain reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Song, G.

    2011-12-01

    The sedimentary problem of mountain reservoirs in Taiwan is getting serious year by year.Due to eroded sediments enter downstream reservoirs,the loss of sediment transport capacity may cause deposition of sediment in reservoirs.This phenomenon make problems to small mountain reservoirs.To realize the interaction between deposit wedges and mountain reservoirs,we selected Wushe reservoir which is situated in central Taiwan for a case study. Wushe reservoir is long and narrow.In recent years,most sediment is introduced during rain events that now accompany climate change are very important in sediment supply.In this thesis,we collected data of underwater landform and sub-bottom bedding information by using high resolution Multibeam Survey System(MBS) and seismic-reflection system.Up to now,we already had the bathymetric data for more than ten years,moreover,in 2010,we used 3.5kHz sub-bottom seismic profiler to analysis the sedimentary bedding situation in this area.These methods provide us accurate reservoir topography,sediment accumulation and the major ways of sediment transportation.The study purposes are as follows: First,according to the available underwater data for last ten years,we recognize the geomorphological characters of sedimentation as well as complete the mappings.Comparing to bathymetric images each year,we evaluate the carried ways of sediment.The flow water which enters this area transports along the thalweg,which in eastern reservoir.The range of water level variation cause alteration of sedimentary morphology,it also affects the scope of alluvial fan.The alluvial fan is located in the middle of the reservoir,the edge of it had moved forward 500 meters for last ten years.The annual mean of forward velocity was 50 meters,the elevation of fan edge also accelerated 10 meters per year.In a word,the large volume of the sedimentary delta is in Wushe reservoir now. Second,trying to clarify the composition of sedimentation and explain the sub

  19. Three-dimensional measurement of wedged scoliotic vertebrae and intervertebral disks.

    PubMed

    Aubin, C E; Dansereau, J; Petit, Y; Parent, F; de Guise, J A; Labelle, H

    1998-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis involves complex spinal intrinsic deformations such as the wedging of vertebral bodies (VB) and intervertebral disks (ID), and it is obvious that the clinical evaluation obtained by the spinal projections on the two-dimensional (2D) radiographic planes do not give a full and accurate interpretation of scoliotic deformities. This paper presents a method that allows reconstruction in 3D of the vertebral body endplates and measurement of the 3D wedging angles. This approach was also used to verify whether 2D radiographic measurements could lead to a biased evaluation of scoliotic spine wedging. The 3D reconstruction of VB contours was done using calibrated biplanar X-rays and an iterative projection computer procedure that fits 3D oriented ellipses of adequate diameters onto the 3D endplate contours. "3D wedging angles" of the VB and ID (representing the maximum angle between adjacent vertebrae) as well as their angular locations with respect to the vertebral frontal planes were computed by finding the positions of the shortest and longest distances between consecutive endplates along their contour. This method was extensively validated using several approaches: (1) by comparing the 3D reconstructed endplates of a cadaveric functional unit (T8-T9) with precise 3D measurements obtained using a coordinate measuring machine for 11 different combinations of vertebral angular positions; (2) by a sensitivity study on 400 different vertebral segments mathematically generated, with errors randomly introduced on the digitized points (standard deviations of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mm); (3) by comparing the clinical wedging measurements (on postero-anterior and lateral radiographs) at the thoracic apical level of 34 scoliotic patients (15 degrees < Cobb < 45 degrees) to the computed values. Mean errors for the 11 vertebral positions were 0.5 +/- 0.4 mm for VB thickness, less than 2.2 degrees for endplate orientation, and about 11 degrees (3 mm) for the location of

  20. Wedge energy bands of monolayer black phosphorus: a first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Minwoo; Bae, Hyeonhu; Lee, Seunghan; Yang, Li; Lee, Hoonkyung

    2016-08-01

    On the basis of first-principles calculations, we present intriguing electronic properties of halogen-striped functionalized monolayer black phosphorus. The halogen-striped monolayer black phosphorus is found to have a wedge energy band with the energy-momentum relation of E\\propto {{p}y} when the stripe–stripe distance is smaller than ~40 Å. Our tight-binding study shows that the wedge energy band occurs when 2-atom basis 1D lattices are periodically repeated aligned with each other in a 2D lattice. We also discuss the possible applications of this wedge energy band in electron supercollimation with high mobility or severely anisotropic electronic transport, which can be used for the development of optics-like nano-electronics.

  1. Relationship between colloid osmotic pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure in patients with acute cardiorespiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Weil, M H; Henning, R J; Morissette, M; Michaels, S

    1978-04-01

    Close relationships between progressive respiratory failure, roentgenographic signs of pulmonary opacification and decreases in the difference between colloid osmotic pressure of plasma and the pulmonary artery wedge pressure (colloid-hydrosatic pressure gradient) were demonstrated in 49 critically ill patients with multisystem failure, in patients in shock. The potential importance of this relationship is underscored by the observation that fatal progression of pulmonary edema was related to a critical reduction in the colloid-hydrostatic pressure gradient to levels of less than 0 mm Hg. More often, reduction in colloid osmotic pressure rather than increases in left ventricular filling pressure (pulmonary artery wedge pressure) accounted for the decline in colloid-hydrostatic pressure gradient. Routine measurement of colloid osmotic pressure, preferably in conjunction with pulmonary artery wedge pressure, is likely to improve understanding of the mechanisms of acute pulmonary edema.

  2. Wedge energy bands of monolayer black phosphorus: a first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Minwoo; Bae, Hyeonhu; Lee, Seunghan; Yang, Li; Lee, Hoonkyung

    2016-08-01

    On the basis of first-principles calculations, we present intriguing electronic properties of halogen-striped functionalized monolayer black phosphorus. The halogen-striped monolayer black phosphorus is found to have a wedge energy band with the energy-momentum relation of E\\propto {{p}y} when the stripe-stripe distance is smaller than ~40 Å. Our tight-binding study shows that the wedge energy band occurs when 2-atom basis 1D lattices are periodically repeated aligned with each other in a 2D lattice. We also discuss the possible applications of this wedge energy band in electron supercollimation with high mobility or severely anisotropic electronic transport, which can be used for the development of optics-like nano-electronics.

  3. Wedge Shock and Nozzle Exhaust Plume Interaction in a Supersonic Jet Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond; Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Heath, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental research for sonic boom reduction is needed to quantify the interaction of shock waves generated from the aircraft wing or tail surfaces with the nozzle exhaust plume. Aft body shock waves that interact with the exhaust plume contribute to the near-field pressure signature of a vehicle. The plume and shock interaction was studied using computational fluid dynamics and compared with experimental data from a coaxial convergent-divergent nozzle flow in an open jet facility. A simple diamond-shaped wedge was used to generate the shock in the outer flow to study its impact on the inner jet flow. Results show that the compression from the wedge deflects the nozzle plume and shocks form on the opposite plume boundary. The sonic boom pressure signature of the nozzle exhaust plume was modified by the presence of the wedge. Both the experimental results and computational predictions show changes in plume deflection.

  4. Wedge energy bands of monolayer black phosphorus: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Park, Minwoo; Bae, Hyeonhu; Lee, Seunghan; Yang, Li; Lee, Hoonkyung

    2016-08-01

    On the basis of first-principles calculations, we present intriguing electronic properties of halogen-striped functionalized monolayer black phosphorus. The halogen-striped monolayer black phosphorus is found to have a wedge energy band with the energy-momentum relation of [Formula: see text] when the stripe-stripe distance is smaller than ~40 Å. Our tight-binding study shows that the wedge energy band occurs when 2-atom basis 1D lattices are periodically repeated aligned with each other in a 2D lattice. We also discuss the possible applications of this wedge energy band in electron supercollimation with high mobility or severely anisotropic electronic transport, which can be used for the development of optics-like nano-electronics. PMID:27299467

  5. Achieving Hard X-ray Nanofocusing Using a Wedged Multilayer Laue Lens

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaojing; Conley, Raymond; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Macrander, Albert; Maser, Jorg; Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-05-04

    Here, we report on the fabrication and the characterization of a wedged multilayer Laue lens for x-ray nanofocusing. The lens was fabricated using a sputtering deposition technique, in which a specially designed mask was employed to introduce a thickness gradient in the lateral direction of the multilayer. X-ray characterization shows an efficiency of 27% and a focus size of 26 nm at 14.6 keV, in a good agreement with theoretical calculations. Our results indicate that the desired wedging is achieved in the fabricated structure. Furthermore, we anticipate that continuous development on wedged MLLs will advance x-ray nanofocusing optics to new frontiers and enrich capabilities and opportunities for hard X-ray microscopy.

  6. Effectiveness of a Wedge Probe to Measure Sonic Boom Signatures in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.

    2013-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) to determine the effectiveness of a wedge probe to measure sonic boom pressure signatures compared to a slender conical probe. A generic business jet model at a constant angle of attack and at a single model to probe separation distance was used to generate a sonic boom signature. Pressure signature data were acquired with both the wedge probe and a slender conical probe for comparison. The test was conducted at a Mach number of 2.0 and a free-stream unit Reynolds number of 2 million per foot. The results showed that the wedge probe was not effective in measuring the sonic boom pressure signature of the aircraft model in the supersonic wind tunnel. Data plots and a discussion of the results are presented. No tabulated data or flow visualization photographs are included.

  7. Tectonic and gravity extensional collapses in overpressured cohesive and frictional wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, X. P.; Leroy, Y. M.; Maillot, B.

    2015-03-01

    Two modes of extensional collapse in a cohesive and frictional wedge of arbitrary topography, finite extent, and resting on an inclined weak décollement are examined by analytical means. The first mode consists of the gravitational collapse by the action of a half-graben, rooting on the décollement and pushing seaward the frontal part of the wedge. The second mode results from the tectonics extension at the back wall with a similar half-graben kinematics and the landward sliding of the rear part of the wedge. The predictions of the maximum strength theorem, equivalent to the kinematic approach of limit analysis and based on these two collapse mechanisms, not only match exactly the solutions of the critical Coulomb wedge theory, once properly amended, but generalizes them in several aspects: wedge of finite size, composed of cohesive material and of arbitrary topography. This generalization is advantageous to progress in our understanding of many laboratory experiments and field cases. For example, it is claimed from analytical results validated by experiments that the stability transition for a cohesive, triangular wedge occurs with the activation of the maximum length of the décollement. It is shown that the details of the topography, for the particular example of the Mejillones peninsula (North Chile) is, however, responsible for the selection of a short length-scale, dynamic instability corresponding to a frontal gravitational instability. A reasonable amount of cohesion is sufficient for the pressures proposed in the literature to correspond to a stability transition and not with a dynamically unstable state.

  8. 3D stability of accretionary wedges by application of the maximum strength theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souloumiac, P.; Leroy, Y. M.; Krabbenhoft, K.; Maillot, B.

    2009-04-01

    The objective is to capture the 3D failure modes in accretionary wedges and their analogue experiments in the laboratory from the sole knowledge of the material and interface strengths. The proposed methodology relies on the maximum strength theorem inherited from classical limit analysis. The virtual velocity field is constructed by spatial discretization. The numerical scheme is first applied to a perfectly-triangular 2D wedge. It is shown that the 2D critical slope αc for stability is captured precisely by the numerical scheme, the ramp and the back thrust corresponding to regions of localized virtual strain. The influence of the back-wall friction on αc is explored, explained by the Mohr construction and by analogue experiments with sand. The first 3D problem concerns a wedge with a lateral variation in its topographic slope α so that it is sub-critical (α < αc) and super-critical (α > αc) to the right and to the left boundary, respectively. It is shown that the localized deformation of the ramp on the right side, is getting diffuse as one moves to the left side where more décollement is activated. The influence of the two lateral boundaries is felt for wedge widths even greater than the length. The second 3D problem explores the influence of the side wall friction on the results of laboratory experiments. It is found that the deformation is diffuse close to the side wall with a vertical stretching and less dcollement activated. The side wall influences the rest of the wedge over a width 1.5 times the wedge thickness, for realistic friction angles. Comparison with analogue experiments shows the connection between the virtual 3D velocity field and the actual deformation.

  9. The mantle wedge's transient 3-D flow regime and thermal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, D. R.; Le Voci, G.; Goes, S.; Kramer, S. C.; Wilson, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Arc volcanism, volatile cycling, mineralization, and continental crust formation are likely regulated by the mantle wedge's flow regime and thermal structure. Wedge flow is often assumed to follow a regular corner-flow pattern. However, studies that incorporate a hydrated rheology and thermal buoyancy predict internal small-scale-convection (SSC). Here, we systematically explore mantle-wedge dynamics in 3-D simulations. We find that longitudinal "Richter-rolls" of SSC (with trench-perpendicular axes) commonly occur if wedge hydration reduces viscosities to Pa s, although transient transverse rolls (with trench-parallel axes) can dominate at viscosities of Pa s. Rolls below the arc and back arc differ. Subarc rolls have similar trench-parallel and trench-perpendicular dimensions of 100-150 km and evolve on a 1-5 Myr time-scale. Subback-arc instabilities, on the other hand, coalesce into elongated sheets, usually with a preferential trench-perpendicular alignment, display a wavelength of 150-400 km and vary on a 5-10 Myr time scale. The modulating influence of subback-arc ridges on the subarc system increases with stronger wedge hydration, higher subduction velocity, and thicker upper plates. We find that trench-parallel averages of wedge velocities and temperature are consistent with those predicted in 2-D models. However, lithospheric thinning through SSC is somewhat enhanced in 3-D, thus expanding hydrous melting regions and shifting dehydration boundaries. Subarc Richter-rolls generate time-dependent trench-parallel temperature variations of up to K, which exceed the transient 50-100 K variations predicted in 2-D and may contribute to arc-volcano spacing and the variable seismic velocity structures imaged beneath some arcs.

  10. The Effect of Large-Field Wedge Filters on Stopping Power Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Ronald Jay

    Over the past few decades, linear accelerators have been used for the treatment of cancer. These accelerators produce a spectrum of x-ray energies, with the maximum energy determined by the accelerating potential in the accelerator waveguide. Traditionally, the beams produced by these accelerators have been modified for certain treatment schemes to improve the overall dose distribution in the tumor volume. One of the beam modifiers has been the use of wedge filters. Although it has been accepted for some years that the introduction of a wedge filter hardens the x-ray beam from a linear accelerator, little or no correction for this effect has been routinely performed in the typical clinic. The results of this research will demonstrate that (1) a detectable change in the x-ray fluence energy distribution results with the introduction of a large field wedge, and (2) the change in the photon fluence results in a change in the average stopping power ratio for water to air used in the conversion of ionization chamber reading to absorbed dose. These effects are demonstrated for a variety of configurations including central axis and off axis points, with and without the wedge. To demonstrate the change in the x-ray fluence energy distribution, a reconstruction of bremsstrahlung spectra from measured transmission data technique was used, utilizing a Laplace Transform Pair Model. Following determination of Phi(E) for various beam configurations, with and without a wedge filter, average stopping power ratios of water to air were determined for each spectra. The results presented indicate that although a significant change in the photon fluence energy distribution results with the introduction of the wedge filter into the beam, the change in stopping power is <=q 0.5 %. This small change, however, is on the order of the chamber perturbation factors normally incorporated when using national or international dosimetry protocols. Thus this small change should be considered in

  11. Separation over a flat plate-wedge configuration at oceanic Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental study of flow over a two-dimensional flat plate-wedge configuration is presented. The investigation encompasses a range of Reynolds numbers characteristics of conditions encountered by deep submersible oceanic vehicles. Flow separation, similar to that found on high speed aircraft control surfaces, is reported and discussed in light of the laminar or transitional nature of the separated shear layer. As discovered in previous high Mach number studies of plate-wedge or ramp configurations, the dependency of the size of the separated region on free stream Reynolds number is reversed for laminar and transitional types of flow separation.

  12. A wedged-peak-pulse design with medium fuel adiabat for indirect-drive fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Zhengfeng; Ren, Guoli; Liu, Bin; Wu, Junfeng; He, X. T.; Liu, Jie; Wang, L. F.; Ye, Wenhua

    2014-10-15

    In the present letter, we propose the design of a wedged-peak pulse at the late stage of indirect drive. Our simulations of one- and two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics show that the wedged-peak-pulse design can raise the drive pressure and capsule implosion velocity without significantly raising the fuel adiabat. It can thus balance the energy requirement and hydrodynamic instability control at both ablator/fuel interface and hot-spot/fuel interface. This investigation has implication in the fusion ignition at current mega-joule laser facilities.

  13. Comparison of infinite and wedge fringe settings in Mach Zehnder interferometer for temperature field measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Haridas, Divya; P, Vibin Antony; Sajith, V.; Sobhan, C. B.

    2014-10-15

    Interferometric method, which utilizes the interference of coherent light beams, is used to determine the temperature distribution in the vicinity of a vertical heater plate. The optical components are arranged so as to obtain wedge fringe and infinite fringe patterns and isotherms obtained in each case were compared. In wedge fringe setting, image processing techniques has been used for obtaining isotherms by digital subtraction of initial parallel fringe pattern from deformed fringe pattern. The experimental results obtained are compared with theoretical correlations. The merits and demerits of the fringe analysis techniques are discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  14. Developing a numerical model of ice wedge degradation and trough formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garayshin, V.; Nicolsky, D.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2014-12-01

    The research was initiated as a part of the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) in the Arctic and also as a part of the Integrated Ecosystem Model for Alaska. The presented project explores influence of climate (mean annual and summer temperatures, and snow cover depth and density) and physical properties, soil textures and moisture content on thawing and destabilization of ice wedges on the North Slope of Alaska. Recall that ice wedges formed many years ago, when ground cracked and the cracks were filled by water. The infiltrated water then became frozen and turned into ice. When the annual and summer air temperatures become higher, the depth of the active layer increases. Deeper seasonal thawing may cause melting of the ice wedges from their tops. Consequently, the ground starts to settle and a trough form above the ice wedge. Once the trough is formed, the winter snow cover becomes deeper above it and provides a potential feedback mechanism to the further degradation of permafrost. The work deals with analysis of temperature regimes and moisture distribution and dynamics during seasonal cycles of freezing and thawing. The research focuses on the development of a computational approach to the study of seasonal temperature dynamics of the active layer, ice wedge and surrounding it permafrost. A thermo-mechanical model of the ice wedge based on principles of macroscopic thermodynamics and continuum mechanics is presented. The model includes the energy and mass conservation equations, a visco-poroelastic rheology for ground deformation, and an empirical formula which relates unfrozen water content to temperature. The complete system is reduced to a computationally convenient set of coupled equations for the temperature, pore water pressure, ground velocities and porosity in a two-dimensional domain. A finite element method and an implicit scheme in time were utilized to construct a non-linear system of equations, which was solved iteratively. The model

  15. [Radiocarbon dating of pollen and spores in wedge ice from Iamal and Kolyma].

    PubMed

    Vasil'chuk, A K

    2004-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of pollen concentrate from late Pleistocene syngenetic wedge ice was carried out using acceleration mass spectrometry (AMS) in Seyakha and Bizon sections. Comparison of the obtained dating with palynological analysis and AMS radiocarbon dating previously obtained for other organic fractions of the same samples allowed us to evaluate accuracy of dating of different fractions. Quantitative tests for data evaluation were considered in terms of possible autochthonous or allochthonous accumulation of the material on the basis of pre-Pleistocene pollen content in these samples. Paleoecological information content of pollen spectra from late Pleistocene syngenetic wedge ice was evaluated.

  16. Comparison of infinite and wedge fringe settings in Mach Zehnder interferometer for temperature field measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haridas, Divya; P, Vibin Antony; Sajith, V.; Sobhan, C. B.

    2014-10-01

    Interferometric method, which utilizes the interference of coherent light beams, is used to determine the temperature distribution in the vicinity of a vertical heater plate. The optical components are arranged so as to obtain wedge fringe and infinite fringe patterns and isotherms obtained in each case were compared. In wedge fringe setting, image processing techniques has been used for obtaining isotherms by digital subtraction of initial parallel fringe pattern from deformed fringe pattern. The experimental results obtained are compared with theoretical correlations. The merits and demerits of the fringe analysis techniques are discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  17. Oblique wedge osteotomy for femoral diaphyseal deformity in fibrous dysplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Hashimoto, Y; Mizuno, K

    2001-03-01

    A patient with fibrous dysplasia who had a three-dimensional diaphyseal deformity in the left femur was treated using an oblique wedge osteotomy. The patient was 26-year-old man with a history of two pathologic fractures in the midshaft of the femur. A 22 degrees angular deformity in the coronal plane and 15 degrees anterior bowing were corrected. The results at a followup 2 years after surgery were satisfactory in functional and radiologic terms. The technique and advantages of the oblique wedge osteotomy are discussed. PMID:11249172

  18. Characterization of Vibrio tapetis strains isolated from diseased cultured Wedge sole (Dicologoglossa cuneata Moreau).

    PubMed

    López, J R; Balboa, S; Núñez, S; de la Roca, E; de la Herran, R; Navas, J I; Toranzo, A E; Romalde, J L

    2011-04-01

    The first isolation of Vibrio tapetis from Wedge sole (Dicologoglossa cuneata) is reported. The bacterium was recovered from ulcers of ailing cultured fish, from two different outbreaks occurred in spring 2005. The four isolates found (a200, a201, a204 and a255) were biochemically, genetically and serologically characterized and diagnosis was confirmed by PCR V. tapetis specific primers and multilocus sequencing analysis (MLSA). The isolates constituted a homogeneous phenotypic and genotypic group, being distinct to the already serological and genetic groups defined within the species. A virulence evaluation of the isolate a255 was also carried out; however this strain was unable to induce disease in fry and juvenile Wedge sole.

  19. Reconstruction of Bulk Operators within the Entanglement Wedge in Gauge-Gravity Duality.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xi; Harlow, Daniel; Wall, Aron C

    2016-07-01

    In this Letter we prove a simple theorem in quantum information theory, which implies that bulk operators in the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence can be reconstructed as CFT operators in a spatial subregion A, provided that they lie in its entanglement wedge. This is an improvement on existing reconstruction methods, which have at most succeeded in the smaller causal wedge. The proof is a combination of the recent work of Jafferis, Lewkowycz, Maldacena, and Suh on the quantum relative entropy of a CFT subregion with earlier ideas interpreting the correspondence as a quantum error correcting code. PMID:27447499

  20. Reconstruction of Bulk Operators within the Entanglement Wedge in Gauge-Gravity Duality.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xi; Harlow, Daniel; Wall, Aron C

    2016-07-01

    In this Letter we prove a simple theorem in quantum information theory, which implies that bulk operators in the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence can be reconstructed as CFT operators in a spatial subregion A, provided that they lie in its entanglement wedge. This is an improvement on existing reconstruction methods, which have at most succeeded in the smaller causal wedge. The proof is a combination of the recent work of Jafferis, Lewkowycz, Maldacena, and Suh on the quantum relative entropy of a CFT subregion with earlier ideas interpreting the correspondence as a quantum error correcting code.

  1. A thrust-ridge paleodepositional model for the Upper Freeport coal bed and associated clastic facies, Upper Potomac coal field, Appalachian basin, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belt, E.S.; Lyons, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    A blind-thrust-ridge model is proposed to explain the lack of coarse clastic material in the vast minable Upper Freeport coal bed (UF). This coal bed contains only fine elastic partings and is overlain by regionally extensive, closely spaced channel-belt deposits in the Upper Potomac coal field of the Appalachian basin. A blind-thrust ridge may have formed a sediment trap and prevented c coarse fluvial sediments from entering the swamp during a period (Westphalian D) when the thick Upper Freeport peat accumulated. Anticlinal thrust ridges and associated depressions may have existed uninterrupted for about 40 km parallel to the Appalachian orogen. Sediment shed from the breached anticlinal ridges accumulated in the sediment trap and was carried out of the ends of the trap by streams that occupied the shear zone at the ends of the blind-thrust ridge. The extent, parallel to the orogen, of thick, areally extensive UF is related to the length of the blind-thrust ridge that, in turn, controlled the spacing of the river-derived coarse clastic sediments that entered the main basin from the east. The thrust plane eventually emerged to the surface of the blind-thrust ridge and peat accumulation was terminated when the ridge became eroded and the sediment trapped behind it was released. The peat was buried by abundant coarse clastic sediment, which formed closely spaced channel belts and intervening flood basins. This model has implications for widespread peat deposits (now coal) that developed in tropical regions a few hundred kilometers from the sea in a tectonically active foreland basin. ?? 1989.

  2. A conceptual review of regional-scale controls on the composition of clastic sediment and the co-evolution of continental blocks and their sedimentary cover.

    PubMed

    Cox, R; Lowe, D R

    1995-01-01

    Both sediment recycling and first-cycle input influence the composition of clastic material in sedimentary systems. This paper examines conceptually the roles played by these processes in governing the composition of clastic sediment on a regional scale by outlining the expected effects on sediment composition of protracted sediment recycling and of continuous first-cycle input on a maturing continental block. Generally speaking, long-term recycling tends to enrich sediments in the most chemically and mechanically stable components: quartz in the sand and silt size fractions, and illite among the clay minerals. Sandstones trend towards pure quartz arenites, and mudrocks become more potassic and aluminous. The average grain size of clastic sediment decreases by a combination of progressive attrition of sand grains and ongoing breakdown of primary silicate minerals to finer-grained clay minerals and oxides. Sandstones derived by continuous first-cycle input from an evolving continental crustal source also become increasingly rich in quartz, but in addition become more feldspathic as the proportion of granitic material in the upper continental crust increases during crustal stabilization. Associated mudrocks also become richer in potassium and aluminum, but will have higher K2O/Al2O3 ratios than recycled muds. The average grain size of the sediment may increase with time as the proportion of sand-prone granitic source rocks increases at the expense of more mud-prone volcanic sources. In general, except in instances where chemical weathering is extreme, first-cycle sediments lack the compositional maturity of recycled detritus, and are characterized by the presence of a variety of primary silicate minerals. Sedimentary systems are not usually completely dominated by either recycling or first-cycle detritus. Generally, however, sedimentary systems associated with the earliest phases of formation and accretion of continental crust are characterized by first-cycle input

  3. Origin and depositional setting of pre-Devonian, coarse-clastic sequences in the central Transantarctic Mountains: Evidence of one or more tectonic events

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, M.N. )

    1987-09-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains extend over 4,000 kilometers between the Weddell and Ross seas and form the western boundary of the east antarctic craton. Within the mountain chain and in the Ellsworth Mountains in West Antarctica, Upper Proterozoic and Lower Paleozoic rocks crop out in isolated areas. From regional mapping and some detailed studies geologists have shown that generally these areas have similar geologic histories, but these studies also have indicated that differences in stratigraphy and structure exist. The study focuses on two sequences of conglomerate and sandstone, one in the central Transantarctic Mountains and the other in northern Victoria Land. The similarity in stratigraphy of the clastic sequences in these areas suggests that a genetic relationship may exist between the two geographically widespread areas. To improve the understanding of the tectonic and geologic history of rocks in these areas, the authors will analyze facies to establish the depositional settings, evaluate the sediment composition to ascertain the lithologies and ages of the source areas, determine ages of interbedded volcanic rocks, collect fossils from fine-grained sedimentary units to establish the age of deposition, and examine the relationship between the coarse-clastic sequences and underlying formations. From these data, he will try to determine if the tectonic setting that controlled the origin and distribution of the sequences later deformed them. If he can determine that there is a genetic relationship between the coarse-clastic rocks of the Bowers terrane and those in the central Transantarctic Mountains, these data will greatly modify scientific understanding of the lower Paleozoic development of the western continental margin of Antarctica and perhaps of Gondwana.

  4. Source variability of the Bourget lake clastic sediment between the LIA and older sediments, traced by a geochemical approach. Climatic implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revel-Rolland, M.; Arnaud, F.; Chapron, E.; Desmet, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Bourget lake (northwestern Alps) is well suited to provide information on flood frequency and strength of the Rhone River: floods that exceed significantly mean runoff enter the lake via its usual outlet, importing Rhone detrital materials. Thus, the Bourget Lake seems to be a recorder of the paleohydrographic activity of the lakes watershed. However, changes in modern human impacts on the alluvial system or change in the vegetation caused by anthropic deforestation (which caused greater erosion) could also induce changes in the amount and the quality of clastic material transported, independently of climatic change. In order to discuss these possibilities one must first determine the geographical origin of the sediment and its variability through time.To answer these questions, we use a geochemical method based on i) major element compositions and ii) the variations of the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systems. After defining specific geochemical signatures for the different river sediments (which are considered as potential sources of clastic supply in the Bourget lake) we have compared them with the geochemical composition of Bourget sediment, in order to identify the origin of the clastic fraction of the Bourget sediment. For the Little Ice Age (LIA) sediment, the Sr and Nd isotope values could be explained by a mixture of the permanent local rivers combined with the Rhone river, which is mainly fed by the Arve river (Mont-Blanc Massif). For older sediment (> 4000 year 14C dated) the isotope results indicate mainly the Rhone river contribution. We speculate that the human occupation around the lake could have induced a more important contribution of the local river supply for the LIA.

  5. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Mendez, Daniel L.

    2001-05-08

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstone's of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover oil more economically through geologically based field development. This project was focused on East Ford field, a Delaware Mountain Group field that produced from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 9160, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO2 flood was being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  6. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  7. An Experimental and Theoretical Approach on the Modeling of Sliding Response of Rock Wedges under Dynamic Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydan, Ömer; Kumsar, Halil

    2010-11-01

    The stability of rock slopes under dynamic loading in mining and civil engineering depends upon the slope geometry, mechanical properties of rock mass and discontinuities, and the characteristics of dynamic loads with time. The wedge failure is one of the common forms of slope failures. The authors presented some stability conditions for rock wedges under dynamic loading and they confirmed their validity through the laboratory experimental studies in a previous paper in 2000, which is often quoted by others to validate their softwares, including some commercial software. In this study, the authors investigate the sliding responses of rock wedges under dynamic loads rather than the initiation of wedge sliding. First, some laboratory model tests are described. On the basis of these model tests on rock wedges, the theoretical model proposed previously is extended to compute the sliding responses of rock wedges in time domain. The proposed theoretical model is applied to simulate the sliding responses of rock wedge model tests and its validity is discussed. In the final part, the method proposed is applied to actual wedge failures observed in 1995 Dinar earthquake and 2005 Pakistan-Kashmir earthquake, and the results are discussed.

  8. Latest Pleistocene Sediment Wedge on the New Jersey Outer Continental Shelf - Forced Regressive Paleo-Hudson Delta?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, M.; Goff, J. A.; Steel, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    The offlapping sediment wedge on the outer shelf off New Jersey that overlies the regional reflector R-horizon shows many of the characteristic features of a progradational succession deposited during falling sea level (forced regression). This interpretation is consistent with the estimated latest Pleistocene age of the wedge - a well-established period of large-scale eustatic sea level fall. The sediment wedge occupies the outer shelf of New Jersey south of the Hudson Shelf Valley, extending down to the shelf edge. The sediment wedge appears to be strongly strike-oriented. The absence of any record of time-equivalent fluvial/distributary channels on the proximal part of the sediment wedge led some previous workers to the interpretation that the wedge was a product of redistribution of sediment on the shelf rather than a deltaic feature supplied by a fluvial source. The absence of fluvial and coastal plain deposits capping the proximal end of the wedge is actually a characteristic feature of forced regressive deposits and does not preclude a fluvial source for the sediments constituting the wedge. Reinterpretation of high-resolution (1-12 kHz), deep-towed and hull-mounted CHIRP seismic data collected on the New Jersey outer shelf in 2001, 2002 and 2006 shows possible terminal distributary channel deposits and mass transport deposits preserved in the distal part of the wedge that have not been described previously. These channel-like features are restricted in their distribution and their preservation in the sedimentary record is possibly due to punctuated sea-level rise within the overall falling trajectory of sea level that preceded the last glacial maximum (LGM). The presence of these channels and the mass transport complexes point to a direct fluvial feeder, which supplied the sediments to build the sediment wedge on New Jersey outer continental shelf. Detailed mapping of the sediment wedge using the CHIRP data shows that the sediment wedge is composed of

  9. Long range hybrid tube-wedge plasmonic waveguide with extreme light confinement and good fabrication error tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li; Qin, Jin; Xu, Kai; Wang, Liang

    2016-02-22

    We studied a novel long range hybrid tube-wedge plasmonic (LRHTWP) waveguide consisting of a high index dielectric nanotube placed above a triangular metal wedge substrate. Using comprehensive numerical simulations on guiding properties of the designed waveguide, it is found that extreme light confinement and low propagation loss are obtained due to strong coupling between dielectric nanotube mode and wedge plasmon polariton. Comparing with previous studied hybrid plasmonic waveguides, the LRHTWP waveguide has longer propagation length and tighter mode confinement. In addition, the LRHTWP waveguide is quite tolerant to practical fabrication errors such as variation of the wedge tip angle and the horizontal misalignment between the nanotube and the metal wedge. The proposed LRHTWP waveguide could have many application potentials for various high performance nanophotonic components.

  10. Widespread Degradation of Ice Wedges on the Arctic Coastal Plain in Northern Alaska in Response to the Recent Warmer Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, Y.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Pullman, E. R.

    2003-12-01

    The continuous permafrost on the Arctic Coastal Plain in northern Alaska has been considered stable because permafrost temperatures remain low, even with an increase of several degrees during the last decades. Ice wedges, however, are particularly susceptible to degradation because only a very thin layer of permafrost (the transient layer) exists between the ice and the bottom of the active layer. An increase in the active layer during unusually warm periods causes the thawing front to encounter the underlying ice wedges and initiate degradation. Field observations and photogrammetric analysis of 1945, 1979, and 2001 aerial photography indicate that there has been widespread degradation of the ice wedges on the Arctic Coastal Plain west of the Colville Delta over the recent 57-year period, and indications are that most of the degradation occurred during the last two decades. Field sampling at 46 polygonal troughs and their intersections showed that ice wedge degradation has been relatively recent as indicated by newly drowned vegetation. We found thermokarst was widespread on a variety of terrain conditions, but most prevalent on, ice-rich centers of old drained lake basins and alluvial-marine terraces, which have the greatest ice wedge development in the studied landscape. Ice wedges on these terrains typically occupy from 10 to 20 % of the upper permafrost. We attributed the natural degradation to warm weather during the last decades, because disturbance of the ground surface, which could have similar impact on ice wedges, was not evident. While, ice-wedge degradation probably has been periodically occurring at low rates over the preceding centuries, it has greatly accelerated during the last several decades. We identified six stages of ice-wedge degradation and stabilization. They include: (1) the loss of transient layer of upper permafrost above ice wedges, leading to enhanced nutrient availability and vegetative growth; (2) thawing of ice wedges and surface

  11. Critical taper wedge mechanics of fold-and-thrust belts on Venus - Initial results from Magellan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suppe, John; Connors, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Examples of fold-and-thrust belts from a variety of tectonic settings on Venus are introduced. Predictions for the mechanics of fold-and-thrust belts on Venus are examined on the basis of wedge theory, rock mechanics data, and currently known conditions on Venus. The theoretical predictions are then compared with new Magellan data.

  12. Geochemical interaction between subducting slab and mantle wedge:Insight from observation and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baitsch Ghirardello, B.; Gerya, T. V.; Burg, J.-P.; Jagoutz, O.

    2009-04-01

    Understanding the subduction factory and geochemical interactions between subducting slab and the overlying non homogeneously depleted mantle wedge requires better knowledge of passways of slab-derived fluids and melts and their interactions with the melt source in the mantle wedge. Our approach of understanding subduction-related processes consists in coupled geochemical-petrological-thermomechanical numerical geodynamic modelling of subduction zones. With this method we can simulate and visualize the evolution of various fields such as temperature, pressure, melt production etc. Furthermore we extend this tool for 2D and 3D modelling of the evolution of various geochemical signatures in subduction zones. Implementation of geochemical signatures in numerical models is based on marker-in-cell method and allows capturing influences of various key processes such as mechanical mixing of crustal and mantle rocks, fluid release, transport and consuming and melt generation and extraction. Concerning the isotopic signatures, we focus at the first stage on a limited number of elements: Pb, Hf, Sr and Nd. These incompatible elements are transported by hydrated fluids and/or melts through the mantle wedge and therefore they are good tracers for presenting the interaction between mantle wedge and slab. The chosen incompatible elements are also well explored and a large data set is available from literature. At this stage we focus on intra-oceanic subduction and numerical modelling predictions are compared to natural geochemical data from various modern and fossil subduction zones (Aleutian, Marianas, New Britain, Kermadec arcs, Kohistan, Vanuatu).

  13. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 223 - Boone Wedge Cut Escape Opening

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boone Wedge Cut Escape Opening 17 Figure 17 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1508 - Crib Slat Loading Wedge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crib Slat Loading Wedge 1 Figure 1 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1508—Crib Slat...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1508 - Crib Slat Loading Wedge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crib Slat Loading Wedge 1 Figure 1 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1508—Crib Slat...

  16. Non-Coulomb wedges, wrong-way thrusting, and natural hazards in Cascadia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutscher, Marc-André; Klaeschen, Dirk; Flueh, Ernst; Malavieille, Jacques

    2001-05-01

    Landward vergence in accretionary wedges is an uncommon phenomenon not readily explained by classical Mohr-Coulomb critical wedge theory. Predominantly landward- vergent thrust faults are observed along the Cascadia convergent margin from 45°N to 48°N. We present depth-migrated multichannel seismic images of the internal structure of the accretionary wedge offshore Washington collected during the ORWELL project in 1996. These reveal a high p-wave velocity (≥4 km/s) basal layer that thickens landward and serves as a décollement for a series of overlying landward-vergent thrust faults. Analog modeling using a ductile basal layer consisting of silicone putty produces an array of trenchward-propagating, landward-vergent thrusts and offers a plausible mechanical model for the evolution of these structures. The rheological properties of a basal calcareous mudstone layer offshore Cascadia are discussed in relation to the mechanics of landward vergence and to rapid loading due to the prograding Nitinat and Astoria deep-sea fans. A viscoelastic layer beneath the accretionary wedge is considered to be capable of rupturing during great interplate earthquakes and thus represents an increased risk for both the maximum size of such an event and for the generation of tsunamis.

  17. Driving forces in moving-contact problems of dynamic elasticity: Indentation, wedging and free sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slepyan, Leonid I.; Brun, Michele

    2012-11-01

    The steady-state solution for an elastic half-plane under a moving frictionless smooth indenter of arbitrary shape is derived based on the corresponding transient problem and on a condition concerning energy fluxes. Resulting stresses and displacements are found explicitly starting from their expressions in terms of a single analytical function. This solution incorporates all speed ranges, including the super-Rayleigh subsonic and intersonic speed regimes, which received no final description to date. Next, under a similar formulation the wedging of an elastic plane is considered for a finite wedge moving at a distance from the crack tip. Finally, we solve the problem for such a wedge moving along the interface of two elastic half-planes compressed together. Considering these problems we determine the driving forces caused by the main underlying factors: the stress field singular points on the contact area (super-Rayleigh subsonic speed regime), the wave radiation (intersonic and supersonic regimes) and the fracture resistance (wedging problem). In addition to the sub-Rayleigh speed regime, where the sliding contact itself gives no contribution to the driving forces, there exists a sharp decrease in the resistance in the vicinity of the longitudinal wave speed with zero limit at this speed.

  18. Analysis and measurement of electromagnetic scattering by pyramidal and wedge absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, B. T.; Burnside, Walter D.

    1986-01-01

    By modifying the reflection coefficients in the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction a solution that approximates the scattering from a dielectric wedge is found. This solution agrees closely with the exact solution of Rawlins which is only valid for a few minor cases. This modification is then applied to the corner diffraction coefficient and combined with an equivalent current and geometrical optics solutions to model scattering from pyramid and wedge absorbers. Measured results from 12 inch pyramid absorbers from 2 to 18 GHz are compared to calculations assuming the returns add incoherently and assuming the returns add coherently. The measured results tend to be between the two curves. Measured results from the 8 inch wedge absorber are also compared to calculations with the return being dominated by the wedge diffraction. The procedures for measuring and specifying absorber performance are discussed and calibration equations are derived to calculate a reflection coefficient or a reflectivity using a reference sphere. Shaping changes to the present absorber designs are introduced to improve performance based on both high and low frequency analysis. Some prototypes were built and tested.

  19. Accretion in the wake of terrane collision: The Neogene accretionary wedge off Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fruehn, J.; Von Huene, R.; Fisher, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Subduction accretion and repeated terrane collision shaped the Alaskan convergent margin. The Yakutat Terrane is currently colliding with the continental margin below the central Gulf of Alaska. During the Neogene the terrane's western part was subducted after which a sediment wedge accreted along the northeast Aleutian Trench. This wedge incorporates sediment eroded from the continental margin and marine sediments carried into the subduction zone on the Pacific plate. Prestack depth migration was performed on six seismic reflection lines to resolve the structure within this accretionary wedge and its backstop. The lateral extent of the structures is constrained by high-resolution swath bathymetry and seismic lines collected along strike. Accretionary structure consists of variably sized thrust slices that were deformed against a backstop during frontal accretion and underplating. Toward the northeast the lower slope steepens, the wedge narrows, and the accreted volume decreases notwith-standing a doubling of sediments thickness in the trench. In the northeasternmost transect, near the area where the terrane's trailing edge subducts, no frontal accretion is observed and the slope is eroded. The structures imaged along the seismic lines discussed here most likely result from progressive evolution from erosion to accretion, as the trailing edge of the Yakutat Terrane is subducting.

  20. Geodetic observations of megathrust earthquakes and backarc wedge deformation across the central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, J. R.; Brooks, B. A.; Foster, J. H.; Bevis, M. G.; Echalar, A.; Caccamise, D.; Heck, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    High-precision Global Positioning System (GPS) data offer an opportunity to investigate active orogenic wedges yet surface velocity fields are available for only a few examples worldwide. More observations are needed to link deformation processes across multiple timescales and to better understand strain accumulation and release in active wedge settings. Here we present a new GPS velocity field for the central Andes and the backarc orogenic wedge comprising the southern Subandes of Bolivia (SSA), a region previously thought to be mostly isolated from the plate boundary earthquake cycle. The time span of our observations (2000 to mid-2014) includes two megathrust earthquakes along the Chile trench that affected the SSA. The 2007 Mw 7.7 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake resulted in a regional postseismic decrease in the eastward component of horizontal surface velocities. Preliminary analysis of the deformation field from the April 01 2014 Mw 8.2 Pisagua, Chile earthquake also indicates a postseismic signal extending into the SSA. We create an interseismic velocity field for the SSA by correcting campaign GPS site velocities for the seasonal cycles estimated from continuous GPS site time series. We remove the effects of both megathrust events by estimating coseismic steps and fitting linear and logarithmic functions to the postseismic GPS site motions. The velocity estimates at most locations increase after correcting for the transients. This finding suggests that forces leading to shortening and earthquakes in the backarc wedge are not as temporally consistent as previously considered.

  1. Arc-parallel flow in the mantle wedge beneath Costa Rica and Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Hoernle, Kaj; Abt, David L; Fischer, Karen M; Nichols, Holly; Hauff, Folkmar; Abers, Geoffrey A; van den Bogaard, Paul; Heydolph, Ken; Alvarado, Guillermo; Protti, Marino; Strauch, Wilfried

    2008-02-28

    Resolving flow geometry in the mantle wedge is central to understanding the thermal and chemical structure of subduction zones, subducting plate dehydration, and melting that leads to arc volcanism, which can threaten large populations and alter climate through gas and particle emission. Here we show that isotope geochemistry and seismic velocity anisotropy provide strong evidence for trench-parallel flow in the mantle wedge beneath Costa Rica and Nicaragua. This finding contradicts classical models, which predict trench-normal flow owing to the overlying wedge mantle being dragged downwards by the subducting plate. The isotopic signature of central Costa Rican volcanic rocks is not consistent with its derivation from the mantle wedge or eroded fore-arc complexes but instead from seamounts of the Galapagos hotspot track on the subducting Cocos plate. This isotopic signature decreases continuously from central Costa Rica to northwestern Nicaragua. As the age of the isotopic signature beneath Costa Rica can be constrained and its transport distance is known, minimum northwestward flow rates can be estimated (63-190 mm yr(-1)) and are comparable to the magnitude of subducting Cocos plate motion (approximately 85 mm yr(-1)). Trench-parallel flow needs to be taken into account in models evaluating thermal and chemical structure and melt generation in subduction zones.

  2. The influence of physical wedges on penumbra and in-field dose uniformity in ocular proton beams.

    PubMed

    Baker, Colin; Kacperek, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    A physical wedge may be partially introduced into a proton beam when treating ocular tumours in order to improve dose conformity to the distal border of the tumour and spare the optic nerve. Two unwanted effects of this are observed: a predictable broadening of the beam penumbra on the wedged side of the field and, less predictably, an increase in dose within the field along a relatively narrow volume beneath the edge (toe) of the wedge, as a result of small-angle proton scatter. Monte Carlo simulations using MCNPX and direct measurements with radiochromic (GAFCHROMIC(®) EBT2) film were performed to quantify these effects for aluminium wedges in a 60 MeV proton beam as a function of wedge angle and position of the wedge relative to the patient. For extreme wedge angles (60° in eye tissue) and large wedge-to-patient distances (70 mm in this context), the 90-10% beam penumbra increased from 1.9 mm to 9.1 mm. In-field dose increases from small-angle proton scatter were found to contribute up to 21% additional dose, persisting along almost the full depth of the spread-out-Bragg peak. Profile broadening and in-field dose enhancement are both minimised by placing the wedge as close as possible to the patient. Use of lower atomic number wedge materials such as PMMA reduce the magnitude of both effects as a result of a reduced mean scattering angle per unit energy loss; however, their larger physical size and greater variation in density are undesirable. PMID:26988936

  3. Facies stratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous chalk-to-clastic transition zone and discontinuity-bounded genetic packages created by rapid sea level change on Campanian shelf of central and eastern Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.T. Jr.; Skotnicki, M.C.

    1986-05-01

    The intertonguing Mooreville Chalk and clastic Blufftown Formation (Campanian) contain a transition zone from chalk to clastic rocks in the outcrop area between Montgomery, in central Alabama, and the Chattahooche Valley of Alabama's eastern border, a span of 150 km. A dipsection transect of the shelf facies shows the shoreward sequence: chalk (outer shelf), clayey marl (inner outer shelf), marly glauconitic siltstone (inner shelf), and bioturbated sand (lower shoreface). The inner-shelf facies contains evidence of punctuated mixing of clastics in the form of hummocky cross-bedded sand, turbidite-emplaced coquinoid sandstone beds, and imbricated Exogyra shell beds. The outer-shelf facies contains sandy shelf-bar deposits associated with regressive episodes. A regional correlation of shelf and shoreline facies shows distinct genetic packages marked by facies discontinuities. These discontinuities are the result of rapid sea level changes. The authors interpreted four transgressive-dominant genetic packages, ranging from 15 m to 50 m thick, each of which can be traced from the shoreline clastic region in the east to the outer-shelf area on the west. In the shoreline clastic region, truncated, transgressive barrier-island sequences rest on lagoonal facies. In the shelf area, the tops of some genetic packages are marked by increased frequency of storm and turbidite sand layers and the development of sandy shelf bars.

  4. Clastic dikes of the Hatrurim basin (western flank of the Dead Sea) as natural analogues of alkaline concretes: Mineralogy, solution chemistry, and durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, E. V.; Gaskova, O. L.; Kozmenko, O. A.; Kokh, S. N.; Vapnik, E. A.; Novikova, S. A.; Nigmatulina, E. N.

    2014-11-01

    This study shows that the mineral assemblages from clastic dikes in areas adjacent to the Dead Sea graben may be considered as natural analogues of alkaline concretes. The main infilling material of the clastic dikes is composed of well-sorted and well-rounded quartz sand. The cement of these hard rocks contains hydroxylapophyllite, tacharanite, calcium silicate hydrates, opal, calcite, and zeolite-like phases, which is indicative of a similarity of the natural cementation processes and industrial alkaline concrete production from quartz sands and industrial alkaline cements. The quartz grains exhibit a variety of reaction textures reflecting the interaction with alkaline solutions (opal and calcium hydrosilicate overgrowths; full replacement with apophyllite or thomsonite + apophyllite). The physicochemical analysis and reconstruction of the chemical composition of peralkaline Ca, Na, and K solutions that formed these assemblages reveal that the solutions evolved toward a more stable composition of zeolite-like phases, which are more resistant to long-term chemical weathering and atmospheric corrosion. The 40Ar/39Ar age of 6.2 ± 0.7 Ma obtained for apophyllite provides conclusive evidence for the high corrosion resistance of the assemblages consisting of apophyllite and zeolite-like phases.

  5. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.; Asquith, G.B.; Barton, M.D.; Cole, A.G.; Gogas, J.; Malik, M.A.; Clift, S.J.; Guzman, J.I.

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. This project involves reservoir characterization of two Late Permian slope and basin clastic reservoirs in the Delaware Basin, West Texas, followed by a field demonstration in one of the fields. The fields being investigated are Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields in Reeves and Culberson Counties, Texas. Project objectives are divided into two major phases, reservoir characterization and implementation. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project were to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of the two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field. Reservoir characterization utilized 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once reservoir characterized was completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} at the northern end of the Ford Geraldine unit was chosen for reservoir simulation. This report summarizes the results of the second year of reservoir characterization.

  6. An Analytical Investigation of an Oscillating Wedge in a Supersonic Perfect Gas Flow. Ph.D Thesis - North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, R. M.

    1971-01-01

    Several aspects of the oscillating wedge are investigated to evaluate both the resulting trends for the wedge and methods of analyzing unsteady flows. An existing hypersonic small disturbance theory for an oscillating thin wedge is extended and applied. A perturbation method involving linearization about the known flow is then derived and discussed. Subsequently, a finite difference technique for calculating the complete unsteady flow field of the wedge in motion is presented and discussed in conjunction with some calculated quasi-static nonlinear trends.

  7. Role of ground ice dynamics and ecological feedbacks in recent ice wedge degradation and stabilization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mark Torre Jorgenson,; Mikhail Kanevskiy,; Yuri Shur,; Natalia Moskalenko,; Dana Brown,; Wickland, Kimberly P.; Striegl, Rob; Koch, Joshua C.

    2015-01-01

    Ground ice is abundant in the upper permafrost throughout the Arctic and fundamentally affects terrain responses to climate warming. Ice wedges, which form near the surface and are the dominant type of massive ice in the Arctic, are particularly vulnerable to warming. Yet processes controlling ice wedge degradation and stabilization are poorly understood. Here we quantified ice wedge volume and degradation rates, compared ground ice characteristics and thermal regimes across a sequence of five degradation and stabilization stages and evaluated biophysical feedbacks controlling permafrost stability near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Mean ice wedge volume in the top 3 m of permafrost was 21%. Imagery from 1949 to 2012 showed thermokarst extent (area of water-filled troughs) was relatively small from 1949 (0.9%) to 1988 (1.5%), abruptly increased by 2004 (6.3%) and increased slightly by 2012 (7.5%). Mean annual surface temperatures varied by 4.9°C among degradation and stabilization stages and by 9.9°C from polygon center to deep lake bottom. Mean thicknesses of the active layer, ice-poor transient layer, ice-rich intermediate layer, thermokarst cave ice, and wedge ice varied substantially among stages. In early stages, thaw settlement caused water to impound in thermokarst troughs, creating positive feedbacks that increased net radiation, soil heat flux, and soil temperatures. Plant growth and organic matter accumulation in the degraded troughs provided negative feedbacks that allowed ground ice to aggrade and heave the surface, thus reducing surface water depth and soil temperatures in later stages. The ground ice dynamics and ecological feedbacks greatly complicate efforts to assess permafrost responses to climate change.

  8. Role of ground ice dynamics and ecological feedbacks in recent ice wedge degradation and stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgenson, M. T.; Kanevskiy, M.; Shur, Y.; Moskalenko, N.; Brown, D. R. N.; Wickland, K.; Striegl, R.; Koch, J.

    2015-11-01

    Ground ice is abundant in the upper permafrost throughout the Arctic and fundamentally affects terrain responses to climate warming. Ice wedges, which form near the surface and are the dominant type of massive ice in the Arctic, are particularly vulnerable to warming. Yet processes controlling ice wedge degradation and stabilization are poorly understood. Here we quantified ice wedge volume and degradation rates, compared ground ice characteristics and thermal regimes across a sequence of five degradation and stabilization stages and evaluated biophysical feedbacks controlling permafrost stability near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Mean ice wedge volume in the top 3 m of permafrost was 21%. Imagery from 1949 to 2012 showed thermokarst extent (area of water-filled troughs) was relatively small from 1949 (0.9%) to 1988 (1.5%), abruptly increased by 2004 (6.3%) and increased slightly by 2012 (7.5%). Mean annual surface temperatures varied by 4.9°C among degradation and stabilization stages and by 9.9°C from polygon center to deep lake bottom. Mean thicknesses of the active layer, ice-poor transient layer, ice-rich intermediate layer, thermokarst cave ice, and wedge ice varied substantially among stages. In early stages, thaw settlement caused water to impound in thermokarst troughs, creating positive feedbacks that increased net radiation, soil heat flux, and soil temperatures. Plant growth and organic matter accumulation in the degraded troughs provided negative feedbacks that allowed ground ice to aggrade and heave the surface, thus reducing surface water depth and soil temperatures in later stages. The ground ice dynamics and ecological feedbacks greatly complicate efforts to assess permafrost responses to climate change.

  9. Enhanced dynamic wedge output factors for Varian 2300CD and the case for a reference database.

    PubMed

    Njeh, Christopher F

    2015-01-01

    Dose inhomogeneity in treatment planning can be compensated using physical wedges. Enhanced dynamic wedges (EDW) were introduced by Varian to overcome some of the shortcomings of physical wedges. The objectives of this study were to measure EDW output factors for 6 MV and 20 MV photon energies for a Varian 2300CD. Secondly, to review the literature in terms of published enhanced dynamic wedge output factors (EDWOF) for different Varian models and thereby add credence to the case of the validity of reference databases. The enhanced dynamic wedge output factors were measured for the Varian 2300CD for both 6MV and 20 MV photon energies. Twelve papers with published EDWOF for different Varian linac models were found in the literature. Comparing our results with the published mean, we found an excellent agreement for 6 MV EDWOF, with the percentage differences ranging from 0.01% to 0.57%, with a mean of 0.03%. The coefficient of variation of published EDWOF ranged from 0.17% to 0.85% and 0.1% to 0.9% for the for 6 MV and 18 MV photon energies, respectively. This paper provides the first published EDWOF for 20 MV photon energy. In addition, we have provided the first compendium of EDWOFs for different Varian linac models. The consistency of value across models and institution provide further support that a standard dataset of basic photon and electron dosimetry could be established as a guide for future commissioning, beam modeling, and quality assurance purposes. PMID:26699307

  10. Opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy: a seven - to twelve-year study

    PubMed Central

    PIPINO, GENNARO; INDELLI, PIER FRANCESCO; TIGANI, DOMENICO; MAFFEI, GIUSEPPE; VACCARISI, DAVIDE

    2016-01-01

    Purpose medial opening-wedge osteotomy is a widely performed procedure used to treat moderate isolated medial knee osteoarthritis. Historically, the literature has contained reports showing satisfactory mid-term results when accurate patient selection and precise surgical techniques were applied. This study was conducted to investigate the clinical and radiographic seven- to twelve-year results of opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy in a consecutive series of patients affected by varus knee malalignment with isolated medial compartment degenerative joint disease. Methods we reviewed a case series of 147 medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomies at an average follow-up of 9.5 years. Endpoints for evaluation included the reporting of adverse effects, radiographic evidence of bone union, radiographic changes in the correction angle during union, and clinical and functional final outcomes. Results good or excellent results were obtained in 94% of the cases: the patients reported no major complications related to the opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy surgical technique, bone graft resorption, implant choice or postoperative rehabilitation protocol. At final follow-up, the average hip-knee angle was 4° of valgus without major loss of correction during the healing process. A statistically significant change in the patellar height was detected postoperatively, with a trend towards patella infera. Conclusions medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy is still a reliable method for correcting varus deformity while producing stable fixation, thus allowing satisfactory stability, adequate bone healing and satisfactory mid- to long-term results. Level of evidence Level IV, therapeutic cases series. PMID:27386441

  11. Complex interactions between diapirs and 4-D subduction driven mantle wedge circulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvia, R. T.; Kincaid, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Analogue laboratory experiments generate 4-D flow of mantle wedge fluid and capture the evolution of buoyant mesoscale diapirs. The mantle is modeled with viscous glucose syrup with an Arrhenius type temperature dependent viscosity. To characterize diapir evolution we experiment with a variety of fluids injected from multiple point sources. Diapirs interact with kinematically induced flow fields forced by subducting plate motions replicating a range of styles observed in dynamic subduction models (e.g., rollback, steepening, gaps). Data is collected using high definition timelapse photography and quantified using image velocimetry techniques. While many studies assume direct vertical connections between the volcanic arc and the deeper mantle source region, our experiments demonstrate the difficulty of creating near vertical conduits. Results highlight extreme curvature of diapir rise paths. Trench-normal deflection occurs as diapirs are advected downward away from the trench before ascending into wedge apex directed return flow. Trench parallel deflections up to 75% of trench length are seen in all cases, exacerbated by complex geometry and rollback motion. Interdiapir interaction is also important; upwellings with similar trajectory coalesce and rapidly accelerate. Moreover, we observe a new mode of interaction whereby recycled diapir material is drawn down along the slab surface and then initiates rapid fluid migration updip along the slab-wedge interface. Variability in trajectory and residence time leads to complex petrologic inferences. Material from disparate source regions can surface at the same location, mix in the wedge, or become fully entrained in creeping flow adding heterogeneity to the mantle. Active diapirism or any other vertical fluid flux mechanism employing rheological weakening lowers viscosity in the recycling mantle wedge affecting both solid and fluid flow characteristics. Many interesting and insightful results have been presented based

  12. Vertebral body or intervertebral disc wedging: which contributes more to thoracolumbar kyphosis in ankylosing spondylitis patients?: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Qian, Bang-Ping; Qiu, Yong; Wang, Yan; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Ze-Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Both vertebral body wedging and disc wedging are found in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis. However, their relative contribution to thoracolumbar kyphosis is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to compare different contributions of vertebral and disc wedging to the thoracolumbar kyphosis in AS patients, and to analyze the relationship between the apical vertebral wedging angle and thoracolumbar kyphosis.From October 2009 to October 2013, a total of 59 consecutive AS patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis with a mean age of 38.1 years were recruited in this study. Based on global kyphosis (GK), 26 patients with GK < 70° were assigned to group A, and the other 33 patients with GK ≥ 70° were included in group B. Each GK was divided into disc wedge angles and vertebral wedge angles. The wedging angle of each disc and vertebra comprising the thoracolumbar kyphosis was measured, and the proportion of the wedging angle to the GK was calculated accordingly. Intergroup and intragroup comparisons were subsequently performed to investigate the different contributions of disc and vertebra to the GK. The correlation between the apical vertebral wedging angle and GK was calculated by Pearson correlation analysis. The duration of disease and sex were also recorded in this study.With respect to the mean disease duration, significant difference was observed between the two groups (P < 0.01). The wedging angle and wedging percentage of discs were significantly higher than those of vertebrae in group A (34.8° ± 2.5° vs 26.7° ± 2.7°, P < 0.01 and 56.6% vs 43.4%, P < 0.01), whereas disc wedging and disc wedging percentage were significantly lower than vertebrae in group B (37.6° ± 7.0° vs 50.1° ± 5.1°, P < 0.01 and 42.7% vs 57.3%, P < 0.01). The wedging of vertebrae was significantly higher in group B than in group A (50.1° ± 5.1° vs 26.7° ± 2.7°, P < 0

  13. Late Holocene stable-isotope based winter temperature records from ice wedges in the Northeast Siberian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opel, Thomas; Meyer, Hanno; Laepple, Thomas; Dereviagin, Alexander Yu.

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic is currently undergoing an unprecedented warming. This highly dynamic response on changes in climate forcing and the global impact of the Arctic water, carbon and energy balances make the Arctic a key region to study past, recent and future climate changes. Recent proxy-based temperature reconstructions indicate a long-term cooling over the past about 8 millennia that is mainly related to a decrease in solar summer insolation and has been reversed only by the ongoing warming. Climate model results on the other hand show no significant change or even a slight warming over this period. This model-proxy data mismatch might be caused by a summer bias of the used climate proxies. Ice wedges may provide essential information on past winter temperatures for a comprehensive seasonal picture of Holocene Arctic climate variability. Polygonal ice wedges are a widespread permafrost feature in the Arctic tundra lowlands. Ice wedges form by the repeated filling of thermal contraction cracks with snow melt water, which quickly refreezes at subzero ground temperatures and forms ice veins. As the seasonality of frost cracking and infill is generally related to winter and spring, respectively, the isotopic composition of wedge ice is indicative of past climate conditions during the annual cold season (DJFMAM, hereafter referred to as winter). δ18O of ice is interpreted as proxy for regional surface air temperature. AMS radiocarbon dating of organic remains in ice-wedge samples provides age information to generate chronologies for single ice wedges as well as regionally stacked records with an up to centennial resolution. In this contribution we seek to summarize Holocene ice-wedge δ18O based temperature information from the Northeast Siberian Arctic. We strongly focus on own work in the Laptev Sea region but consider as well literature data from other regional study sites. We consider the stable-isotope composition of wedge ice, ice-wedge dating and chronological

  14. Provenance analysis and detrital zircon geochronology on the onshore Makran accretionary wedge, SE Iran: implication for the geodynamic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Winkler, Wilfried; Ruh, Jonas

    2014-05-01

    The Makran, located in Southeast Iran and South Pakistan, is one of the largest accretionary wedges on Earth. In Iran it comprises turbiditic sediments ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene. We present a provenance analysis on sandstones, which is aimed at reconstructing the assemblages of source rocks and the tectonic setting from which the clastic material was derived. Sandstone samples collected from different units span the regional stratigraphy from Late Cretaceous to Miocene. Laser ablation ICP-MS resulted in ca 2800 new U-Pb ages of individual detrital zircons from 18 samples collected in onshore Makran. 101 detrital zircons from a Late Cretaceous fine grained sandstone range from 180 to 160 Ma (Middle Jurassic). 478 detrital zircons from mid- to late Eocene sandstones allow differentiating a NE and NW sector of the Makran Basin. Zircon grains in the NE basin belong to two populations peaking at 180 to 160 Ma (late Early to Middle Jurassic) and 50 to 40 Ma (Mid-Eocene), with the noticeable absence of Cretaceous grains. In the NW basin, detrital zircons are 120 to 40 Ma (late Early Cretaceous to Lutetian, Eocene). 587 detrital zircon grains from fine to medium grained Oligocene sandstones collected over the whole area also range from 120 to 40 Ma (late Early Cretaceous to Eocene, Lutetian). 1611 detrital zircons from early Miocene sandstones show again distinctly different ages in the eastern and western parts of the basin. They range from 120 to 40 Ma (late Early Cretaceous to Eocene) in the eastern and from 80 to 40 Ma (Late Cretaceous to Eocene) in the western basin. Hf isotopes analyses were performed on 120 zircon grains from 6 samples. Negative values (-2 to -15) in Middle Jurassic and late Early Cretaceous zircons indicate minor or no influence of mantle reservoirs which implies a rifting setting during crystallization of the zircons. Low negative to positive (-5 to +10) values in Late Cretaceous and Eocene zircons indicate mixed crustal and

  15. Orthotic Heel Wedges Do Not Alter Hindfoot Kinematics and Achilles Tendon Force During Level and Inclined Walking in Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Weinert-Aplin, Robert A; Bull, Anthony M J; McGregor, Alison H

    2016-04-01

    Conservative treatments such as in-shoe orthotic heel wedges to treat musculoskeletal injuries are not new. However, weak evidence supporting their use in the management of Achilles tendonitis suggests the mechanism by which these heel wedges works remains poorly understood. It was the aim of this study to test the underlying hypothesis that heel wedges can reduce Achilles tendon load. A musculoskeletal modeling approach was used to quantify changes in lower limb mechanics when walking due to the introduction of 12-mm orthotic heel wedges. Nineteen healthy volunteers walked on an inclinable walkway while optical motion, force plate, and plantar pressure data were recorded. Walking with heel wedges increased ankle dorsiflexion moments and reduced plantar flexion moments; this resulted in increased peak ankle dorsiflexor muscle forces during early stance and reduced tibialis posterior and toe flexor muscle forces during late stance. Heel wedges did not reduce overall Achilles tendon force during any walking condition, but did redistribute load from the medial to lateral triceps surae during inclined walking. These results add to the body of clinical evidence confirming that heel wedges do not reduce Achilles tendon load and our findings provide an explanation as to why this may be the case.

  16. Wedge hybrid plasmonic THz waveguide with long propagation length and ultra-small deep-subwavelength mode area

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Chengcheng; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel design of wedge hybrid plasmonic terahertz (THz) waveguide consisting of a silicon (Si) nanowire cylinder above a triangular gold wedge with surrounded high-density polyethylene as cladding. It features long propagation length and ultra-small deep-subwavelength mode confinement. The mode properties of wedge hybrid plasmonic THz waveguide are comprehensively characterized in terms of propagation length (L), normalized mode area (Aeff /A0), figure of merit (FoM), and chromatic dispersion (D). The designed wedge hybrid plasmonic THz waveguide enables an ultra-small deep-subwavelength mode area which is more than one-order of magnitude smaller compared to previous rectangular one. When choosing the diameter of Si nanowire cylinder, a smaller diameter (e.g. 10 μm) is preferred to achieve longer L and higher FoM, while a larger diameter (e.g. 60 μm) is favorable to obtain smaller Aeff /A0 and higher FoM. We further study the impacts of possible practical fabrication errors on the mode properties. The simulated results of propagation length and normalized mode area show that the proposed wedge hybrid plasmonic THz waveguide is tolerant to practical fabrication errors in geometry parameters such as misalignment in the horizontal direction, variation of wedge tip angle, and variation of wedge tip curvature radius. PMID:26155782

  17. Stable isotope and gas properties of two ice wedges from Cape Mamontov Klyk, Laptev Sea, Northern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boereboom, T.; Samyn, D.; Meyer, H.; Tison, J.-L.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents and discusses the texture, fabric and gas properties (contents of total gas, O2, N2, CO2, and CH4) of two ice wedges from Cape Mamontov Klyk, Laptev Sea, Northern Siberia. The two ice wedges display contrasting structures: one being of relatively "clean" ice and the other showing clean ice at its centre as well as debris-rich ice on its sides (referred to as ice-sand wedge). A comparison of gas properties, crystal size, fabrics and stable isotope data (δ18O and δD) allows discriminating between three different facies of ice with specific paleoenvironmental signatures, suggesting different climatic conditions and rates of biological activity. More specifically, total gas content and composition reveal variable intensities of meltwater infiltration and show the impact of biological processes with contrasting contributions from anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Stable isotope data are shown to be valid for discussing changes in paleoenvironmental conditions and/or decipher different sources for the snow feeding into the ice wedges with time. Our data also give support to the previous assumption that the composite ice wedge was formed in Pleistocene and the ice wedge in Holocene times. This study sheds more light on the conditions of ice wedge growth under changing environmental conditions.

  18. Orthotic Heel Wedges Do Not Alter Hindfoot Kinematics and Achilles Tendon Force During Level and Inclined Walking in Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Weinert-Aplin, Robert A; Bull, Anthony M J; McGregor, Alison H

    2016-04-01

    Conservative treatments such as in-shoe orthotic heel wedges to treat musculoskeletal injuries are not new. However, weak evidence supporting their use in the management of Achilles tendonitis suggests the mechanism by which these heel wedges works remains poorly understood. It was the aim of this study to test the underlying hypothesis that heel wedges can reduce Achilles tendon load. A musculoskeletal modeling approach was used to quantify changes in lower limb mechanics when walking due to the introduction of 12-mm orthotic heel wedges. Nineteen healthy volunteers walked on an inclinable walkway while optical motion, force plate, and plantar pressure data were recorded. Walking with heel wedges increased ankle dorsiflexion moments and reduced plantar flexion moments; this resulted in increased peak ankle dorsiflexor muscle forces during early stance and reduced tibialis posterior and toe flexor muscle forces during late stance. Heel wedges did not reduce overall Achilles tendon force during any walking condition, but did redistribute load from the medial to lateral triceps surae during inclined walking. These results add to the body of clinical evidence confirming that heel wedges do not reduce Achilles tendon load and our findings provide an explanation as to why this may be the case. PMID:26502456

  19. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Mark B. Murphy

    2005-09-30

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico was a cost-shared field demonstration project in the U.S. Department of Energy Class III Program. A major goal of the Class III Program was to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques were used at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP) project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. The objective of the project was to demonstrate that a development program, which was based on advanced reservoir management methods, could significantly improve oil recovery at the NDP. Initial goals were (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to other oil and gas producers. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description was used as a risk reduction tool to identify 'sweet spots' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well stimulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir. An Advanced

  20. Hydrodynamic controls on oxygen dynamics in a riverine salt wedge estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, L. C.; Cook, P. L. M.; Teakle, I.; Hipsey, M. R.

    2014-04-01

    Oxygen depletion in coastal and estuarine waters has been increasing rapidly around the globe over the past several decades, leading to decline in water quality and ecological health. In this study we apply a numerical model to understand how salt wedge dynamics, changes in river flow and temperature together control oxygen depletion in a micro-tidal riverine estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models have been previously applied to study how hydrodynamics impact upon seasonal hypoxia; however, their application to relatively shallow, narrow riverine estuaries with highly transient patterns of river inputs and sporadic periods of oxygen depletion has remained challenging, largely due to difficulty in accurately simulating salt wedge dynamics in morphologically complex areas. In this study we overcome this issue through application of a flexible mesh 3-D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model in order to predict the extent of salt wedge intrusion and consequent patterns of oxygen depletion. The extent of the salt wedge responded quickly to the sporadic riverine flows, with the strength of stratification and vertical density gradients heavily influenced by morphological features corresponding to shallow points in regions of tight curvature ("horseshoe" bends). The spatiotemporal patterns of stratification led to the emergence of two "hot spots" of anoxia, the first downstream of a shallow region of tight curvature and the second downstream of a sill. Whilst these areas corresponded to regions of intense stratification, it was found that antecedent conditions related to the placement of the salt wedge played a major role in the recovery of anoxic regions following episodic high flow events. Furthermore, whilst a threshold salt wedge intrusion was a requirement for oxygen depletion, analysis of the results allowed us to quantify the effect of temperature in determining the overall severity and extent of hypoxia and anoxia. Climate

  1. Formation of metamorphic core complex in inherited wedges: A thermomechanical modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huet, B.; Le Pourhiet, L.; Labrousse, L.; Burov, E. B.; Jolivet, L.

    2011-09-01

    Metamorphic Core Complexes (MCCs) form when a thickened domain with a low-strength lower crust is submitted to extension. These structures are characteristic of post-orogenic extension, and field observations suggest that several MCCs rework a crustal nappe-stack emplaced before extension begins. These MCCs therefore develop within heterogeneous crusts that contain pre-existing dipping heterogeneities, such as thrust faults and dipping nappes in a crustal wedge. Although very common, this first order structural inheritance has never been considered in studies modelling MCCs. Our contribution therefore investigates the effect of an inherited crustal wedge structure on the dynamics and kinematics of formation of the MCCs, using fully coupled thermomechanical modelling. The wealth of petrological, structural and time informations available in the Cycladic MCCs (Aegean domain) allows setting up more realistic initial conditions for the experiments than usual flat-lying setups. It also allows the results of the numerical computation to be directly validated with final geometries, P-T paths and exhumation rates. The experiments using dipping heterogeneities are characterised by a much more complex evolution and final structure than their flat-lying layered equivalents. Dipping heterogeneities drive lateral strength contrasts and help to re-localise the deformation on successive detachments. The dip of the inherited wedge structures imposes kinematic constraints on the flow, which provides a model that explains the regional scale asymmetry of the Cycladic MCCs. The P-T paths, the exhumation rates and the final crustal structure that come out of an initial shallow-dipping wedge model provide a much more realistic comparison with their natural counter-parts than common flat-lying models. Other parameters, like crustal-scale density inversion, thermal structure and creep law parameters are of second order when compared to the initial wedge structure. Being little dependent

  2. Subsurface Thermal Erosion Of Ice-Wedge Polygon Terrains: Implications For Arctic Geosystem In Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, D.; Godin, E.; Lévesque, E.; Veillette, A.

    2014-12-01

    Subsurface thermal erosion is triggered by convective heat transfers between flowing water and permafrost. For inland ice-wedge polygon terrains, heat advection due to infiltration of run-off in the massive ice wedges and the ice-rich upper portion of permafrost creates sink holes and networks of interconnected tunnels in the permafrost. Mass movements such as collapse of tunnel's roof, retrogressive thaw-slumping along exposed permafrost and active layer detachment slides lead to the development of extensive gully networks in the landscape. These gullies drastically change the hydrology of ice-wedge polygon terrains and the fluxes of heat, water, sediment and carbon within the permafrost geosystem. Exportation of sediments by fluvial processes within gullies are positive mechanical feed-back effects that keep gully channels active over decades. Along gully margins, drainage of disturbed polygons and ponds, slope drainage, soil consolidation, plant colonization of disturbed gully slopes and wet to mesic plant succession of drained polygons change the thermal properties of the active layer and create negative feedback effects that stabilize active erosion processes and promote permafrost recovery in gully slopes and adjacent disturbed polygons. On Bylot Island (Nunavut), over 40 gullies were mapped and monitored to characterize gully geomorphology, thermal and mechanical processes of gully erosion, rates of gully erosion over time within different sedimentary deposits, total volume of eroded permafrost at the landscape scale and gully hydrology. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to quantify heat convection processes and speed of ice wedge ablation in order to derive empirical equations to develop a numerical, fully-coupled, heat and mass (water) transfer model of ice-wedge thermal erosion. We used data collected over 10 years of geomorphological gully monitoring, regional climate scenarios, our physics-based numerical thermal erosion model and our field

  3. Serpentinisation of the Mantle Wedge Controls the Chemistry of Arc Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yardley, B. W.

    2008-12-01

    Arc magmas are derived from mantle wedge source regions that are more highly oxidised than other parts of the mantle but the cause of the oxidation is not well understood. Conventionally it has been attributed to influx of water derived from dehydration of the underlying slab, but this possibility has been comprehensively debunked by Frost et al. (1998). A direct link to the introduction of the fluids that flux melting fails to explain the ubiquitous high oxygen fugacity of xenoliths from this region, which point to extensive oxidation of the wedge. If it is not possible to introduce excess oxygen to the mantle wedge, it is likely that the oxidation arises from residual enrichment in oxygen due to dissociation of water and subsequent loss of hydrogen. Serpentinisation is the only geological process that generates sufficiently reducing conditions for water to dissociate, and it allows hydrogen fugacities to rise to sufficiently high levels for hydrogen to be lost as a migrating vapour phase. Because it creates magnetite, serpentinisation results in an increase in the Fe3+ content of the serpentinised rocks, which means that if subsequent heating regenerates less hydrous peridotite assemblages, the magnetite content of their spinel phase will be higher than in the precursor peridotite. For these regenerated peridotites, the greater magnetite content results in a higher oxygen fugacity than for the precursor peridotite. Hence the high Fe3+ signature generated during serpentine growth is carried down by flow in the wedge beyond the temperatures of serpentine breakdown and results in generation of high Fe3+:Fe2+ magmas. The main introduction of slab volatiles to the mantle wedge takes place at low temperatures, probably above 50km depth, where fluids are more abundant than at greater depths. This interpretation is consistent with geological and geophysical evidence for the existence of a serpentine body immediately above the slab in both ancient and modern subduction

  4. The effect of foot orthoses and in-shoe wedges during cycling: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of foot orthoses and in-shoe wedges in cycling are largely based on theoretical benefits and anecdotal evidence. This review aimed to systematically collect all published research on this topic, critically evaluate the methods and summarise the findings. Methods Study inclusion criteria were: all empirical studies that evaluated the effects of foot orthoses or in-shoe wedges on cycling; outcome measures that investigated physiological parameters, kinematics and kinetics of the lower limb, and power; and, published in English. Studies were located by data-base searching (Medline, CINAHL, Embase and SPORTDiscus) and hand-searching in February 2014. Selected studies were assessed for methodological quality using a modified Quality Index. Data were synthesised descriptively. Meta-analysis was not performed as the included studies were not sufficiently homogeneous to provide a meaningful summary. Results Six studies were identified as meeting the eligibility criteria. All studies were laboratory-based and used a repeated measures design. The quality of the studies varied, with Quality Index scores ranging from 7 to 10 out of 14. Five studies investigated foot orthoses and one studied in-shoe wedges. Foot orthoses were found to increase contact area in the midfoot, peak pressures under the hallux and were perceived to provide better arch support, compared to a control. With respect to physiological parameters, contrasting findings have been reported regarding the effect foot orthoses have on oxygen consumption. Further, foot orthoses have been shown to not provide effects on lower limb kinematics and perceived comfort. Both foot orthoses and in-shoe wedges have been shown to provide no effect on power. Conclusion In general, there is limited high-quality research on the effects foot orthoses and in-shoe wedges provide during cycling. At present, there is some evidence that during cycling foot orthoses: increase contact area under the foot and increase

  5. A Janus-Wedge DNA triplex with A-W1-T and G-W2-C base triplets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Han; Meena; McLaughlin, Larry W

    2008-10-01

    A new type of double-stranded DNA targeting format by formation of a Janus-Wedge (J-W) triple helix is described. The "wedge" residue W1 is used for A-T and T-A base pairs while W2 is used for G-C and C-G base pairs. Both wedge residues are attached to a PNA backbone that is designed to insert the probe strand into double-stranded DNA and base pair with both Watson-Crick faces. To study the stability of such an assembly, we have examined the formation of the J-W triplex with various sequences.

  6. Some Historical Treatments should not be Forgotten: A Review of Cast Wedging and A Trick to Normalize Non-Standardized Digital X-rays

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Nathan A.; Lee, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cast wedging is a simple and reproducible method of manipulating a sub-optimally reduced fracture producing a correction and a final alignment that is amenable to definitive closed treatment. Multiple successful techniques have been previously described in the literature (opening wedge, closing wedge and combination). Technical Note: We present a simple reproducible method of templating and executing a proper cast wedging technique using digital imaging systems that are not controlled for magnification with an illustrative case. Conclusion: Renewed interest in cast wedging can provide a cost effective treatment with proven clinical outcomes in an ever changing and uncertain reimbursement climate. PMID:27298956

  7. Pulsed dipole radiation in a transformation-optics wedge waveguide designed by azimuthal space compression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heungjoon; Pack, Seung Pil; Yi, Yun; Kim, Hwi

    2013-09-23

    A transformation-optics wedge waveguide designed for the simultaneous collection and directional collimation of pulsed dipole radiation is described and tested with numerical simulation. Azimuthal compression of free space toward a narrow fan-shaped waveguide sector allows dipole pulse radiation in free space to be transformed into a directional non-dispersive pulse propagating within that sector. The collection and collimation ability of the proposed structure is compared with classical approaches using metallic wedge mirrors and parabolic mirrors, which inherently allow multiple internal reflections and thus generate significant pulse distortion and low light-collection efficiency. It is shown that the optical pulse generated by the dipole and propagated through the proposed transformation-optics waveguide maintains its original shape within the structure, and demonstrates enhanced optical power.

  8. A creep model for austenitic stainless steels incorporating cavitation and wedge cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesh, S.; Alur, K. C.; Mathew, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    A model of damage evolution in austenitic stainless steels under creep loading at elevated temperatures is proposed. The initial microstructure is idealized as a space-tiling aggregate of identical rhombic dodecahedral grains, which undergo power-law creep deformation. Damage evolution in the form of cavitation and wedge cracking on grain-boundary facets is considered. Both diffusion- and deformation-driven grain-boundary cavity growth are treated. Cavity and wedge-crack length evolution are derived from an energy balance argument that combines and extends the models of Cottrell (1961 Trans. AIME 212 191-203), Williams (1967 Phil. Mag. 15 1289-91) and Evans (1971 Phil Mag. 23 1101-12). The time to rupture predicted by the model is in good agreement with published experimental data for a type 316 austenitic stainless steel under uniaxial creep loading. Deformation and damage evolution at the microscale predicted by the present model are also discussed.

  9. Soil carbon sequestration is a climate stabilization wedge: comments on Sommer and Bossio (2014).

    PubMed

    Lassaletta, Luis; Aguilera, Eduardo

    2015-04-15

    Sommer and Bossio (2014) model the potential soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agricultural soils (croplands and grasslands) during the next 87 years, concluding that this process cannot be considered as a climate stabilization wedge. We argue, however, that the amounts of SOC potentially sequestered in both scenarios (pessimistic and optimistic) fulfil the requirements for being considered as wedge because in both cases at least 25 GtC would be sequestered during the next 50 years. We consider that it is precisely in the near future, and meanwhile other solutions are developed, when this stabilization effort is most urgent even if after some decades the sequestration rate is significantly reduced. Indirect effects of SOC sequestration on mitigation could reinforce the potential of this solution. We conclude that the sequestration of organic carbon in agricultural soils as a climate change mitigation tool still deserves important attention for scientists, managers and policy makers.

  10. Crossflow Instability on a Wedge-Cone at Mach 3.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeler, George B.; Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Balakumar, P.; McDaniel, Keith S.

    2012-01-01

    As a follow-on activity to the HyBoLT flight experiment, a six degree half angle wedge-cone model at zero angle of attack has been employed to experimentally and computationally study the boundary layer crossflow instability at Mach 3.5 under low disturbance freestream conditions. Computed meanflow and linear stability analysis results are presented along with corresponding experimental Pitot probe data. Using a model-mounted probe survey apparatus, data acquired to date show a well defined stationary crossflow vortex pattern on the flat wedge surface. This effort paves the way for additional detailed, calibrated flow field measurements of the crossflow instability, both stationary and traveling modes, and transition-to-turbulence under quiet flow conditions as a means of validating existing stability theory and providing a foundation for dynamic flight instrumentation development.

  11. Switched reluctance motor with magnetic slot wedges for automotive traction application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhadi, M.'Hamed; Krebs, Guillaume; Marchand, Claude; Hannoun, Hala; Mininger, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    The switched reluctance motor (SRM) is very attractive because of its many advantages especially in electric vehicle (EV). However, it presents two major drawbacks: torque ripples and stator vibrations. These phenomena are the cause of a disturbing noise. In order to reduce the torque ripples and the radial force (main cause of the stator vibrations), one solution is to add magnetic slot wedges. In this paper, a SRM with wedges is compared to the conventional one including some static and dynamic features. First, field lines, magnetization curves and static torques are discussed. Secondly, torque-speed curves, harmonic analyzes and cartographies with minimum ripples are compared. The last includes several operating points (speed-torque) in steady state.

  12. Exact solution to plane-wave scattering by an ideal "left-handed" wedge.

    PubMed

    Monzon, Cesar; Forester, Donald W; Smith, Douglas; Loschialpo, Peter

    2006-02-01

    An exact analytical solution to the problem of plane-wave diffraction by a penetrable left-handed medium (LHM) epsilon = micro = -1 wedge of arbitrary angle (subject to valid physical constraints) is presented. Standard analysis involving discontinuous angular eigenfunctions and even/odd symmetry decomposition resulted in a discrete spectrum leading to a series solution resembling the traditional perfect electric conductor wedge solution but exhibiting the expected negative refraction phenomenology. Numerical results are presented, some of which seemed paradoxical but are explainable by classical means. A new type of illusory edge radiation is observed and explained. Also, a novel edge-launched interface standing wave is observed on the directly illuminated side. The exact analytical solution is verified by comparison with finite-difference time-domain simulation on causal LHM materials.

  13. Laser Oscillator Incorporating a Wedged Polarization Rotator and a Porro Prism as Cavity Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Steven

    2011-01-01

    A laser cavity was designed and implemented by using a wedged polarization rotator and a Porro prism in order to reduce the parts count, and to improve the laser reliability. In this invention, a z-cut quartz polarization rotator is used to compensate the wavelength retardance introduced by the Porro prism. The polarization rotator rotates the polarization of the linear polarized beam with a designed angle that is independent of the orientation of the rotator. This unique property was used to combine the retardance compensation and a Risley prism to a single optical component: a wedged polarization rotator. This greatly simplifies the laser alignment procedure and reduces the number of the laser optical components.

  14. A numerical investigation of the prompt oblique detonation wave sustained by a finite-length wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Han, Xudong; Yao, Songbai; Wang, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    The prompt oblique detonation wave (PODW) sustained by a finite-length wedge is investigated by numerical simulation. The numerical results show that it is possible to stabilize a PODW on a finite-length wedge shorter than the induction length of the mixture behind the inert shock by numerically imposing a premature initiation of combustion in the initial flow field. The fully coupled and the partially coupled PODWs are observed in the numerical results. For the fully coupled PODW, the upstream facing transverse waves (UF TW) are swept downstream and consequently a fully coupled PODW can persist. For the partially coupled PODW, the UF TWs propagate upstream and the downstream facing transverse waves are weakened by the expansion wave emanating from the corner. As a result, a partially coupled PODW forms. Further, it is found that the stability of the partially coupled PODW is weak. The configuration of the partially coupled PODW can be altered by local explosions occurring downstream.

  15. Laser diode stack beam shaping by reflective two-wedge-angle prism arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guoxing; Du, Chunlei; Zhou, Chongxi; Zheng, Chunyan

    2005-04-01

    An innovative beam-shaping method for laser diode stacking is presented by employing a pair of reflective two-wedge-angle prism arrays. Each subprism with two variable wedge angles is designed for deflecting the partial emission from different bars to the dead spaces of the stack, according to the configuration of the real laser diode (LD) stack and the requirement of the system. The formula to determine the parameters of each subprism is deduced by way of geometrical analysis. A beam-shaping system for stack laser diodes with three bars is designed and simulated, and the results show that the stack laser beam is well transformed into a required distribution efficiently.

  16. Wightman function and scalar Casimir densities for a wedge with two cylindrical boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Saharian, A.A. Tarloyan, A.S.

    2008-07-15

    Wightman function, the vacuum expectation values of the field square and the energy-momentum tensor are investigated for a massive scalar field with general curvature coupling parameter inside a wedge with two coaxial cylindrical boundaries. It is assumed that the field obeys Dirichlet boundary condition on bounding surfaces. The application of a variant of the generalized Abel-Plana formula enables to extract from the expectation values the contribution corresponding to the geometry of a wedge with a single shell and to present the interference part in terms of exponentially convergent integrals. The local properties of the vacuum are investigated in various asymptotic regions of the parameters. The vacuum forces acting on the boundaries are presented as the sum of self-action and interaction terms. It is shown that the interaction forces between the separate parts of the boundary are always attractive. The generalization to the case of a scalar field with Neumann boundary condition is discussed.

  17. [A Patient with a Wedge-shaped Pulmonary Lesion Associated with Streptococcus parasanguinis].

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Hiroya; Gomi, Harumi; Ishioka, Haruhiko; Shirokawa, Taijiro

    2016-05-01

    An 84-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with bloody sputum. He was found to have a right lower lobe wedge-shaped nodular lesion with chest X-ray and computed tomography of the chest. Ceftriaxone and minocycline were started empirically based on a working diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia. Streptococcus parasanguinis was isolated with sputum cultures obtained on three consecutive days and was identified based on its biochemical properties. S. parasanguinis is a member of the sanguinis group of viridans Streptococci. It is known as a causative pathogen for endocarditis. There are very few reports of S. parasanguinis associated with pulmonary infections. The present report describes the association of S. parasanguinis with a wedge-shaped nodular lesion in the lungs. PMID:27529967

  18. Formation and stability of a Janus-Wedge type of DNA triplex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongli; Meena, Meena; Sharma, Sunil K; McLaughlin, Larry W

    2004-01-14

    A new type of DNA targeting with the formation of a Janus-Wedge (J-W) triple helix is described. The "wedge" residue (W) attached to a PNA backbone is designed to insert itself into double-stranded DNA and base pair with both Watson-Crick faces. To study the stability of such an assembly, we have examined the formation of the J-W triplex with dC8 - T8 target sequence. The use of this target sequence permits the study of this new helix form without competing Watson-Crick interactions between the two target residues. Studies indicate that the W strand binds to both target strands, with defined polarity and a stability (-15.2 kcal/mol) that is roughly the sum of the two independent duplex interactions.

  19. Generation of vector beams using a double-wedge depolarizer: Non-quantum entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samlan, C. T.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of horizontally polarized Gaussian beam through a double-wedge depolarizer generates vector beams with spatially varying state of polarization. Jones calculus is used to show that such beams are maximally nonseparable on the basis of even (Gaussian)-odd (Hermite-Gaussian) mode parity and horizontal-vertical polarization state. The maximum nonseparability in the two degrees of freedom of the vector beam at the double wedge depolarizer output is verified experimentally using a modified Sagnac interferometer and linear analyser projected interferograms to measure the concurrence 0.94±0.002 and violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt form of Bell-like inequality 2.704±0.024. The investigation is carried out in the context of the use of vector beams for metrological applications.

  20. Stress intensity factors in a cracked infinite elastic wedge loaded by a rigid punch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Civelek, M. B.

    1978-01-01

    A plane elastic wedge-shaped solid was split through the application of a rigid punch. It was assumed that the coefficient of friction on the the contact area was constant, and the problem had a plane of symmetry with respect to loading and geometry, with the crack in the plane of symmetry. The problem was formulated in terms of a system of integral equations with the contact stress and the derivative of the crack surface displacement as the unknown functions. The solution was obtained for an internal crack and for an edge crack. The results include primarily the stress intensity factors at the crack tips, and the measure of the stress singularity at the wedge apex, and at the end points of the contact area.

  1. Modal analysis of Lamb wave generation in elastic plates by liquid wedge transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, X.

    1997-02-01

    A modal analysis is presented to describe the excitation of Lamb waves in an elastic plate using a liquid wedge transducer. Analytical expression for the displacement of a given mode is derived for the excitation by a uniform bounded beam. In contrast to previous studies, the contribution of the reflected wave is included in the input exciting forces using a perturbation theory. The conversion efficiency, defined as the ratio of the guided mode power to the incident power, is related to a single parameter which depends on the rate of attenuation due to leakage from the guided wave into the liquid wedge. Numerical results relevant to the fundamental Lamb modes are obtained as a function of frequency for various incident beam widths and plate thickness. Using optical interferometric detection, direct measurements of the Lamb modes displacements have been carried out in aluminium plates to verify the theoretical analysis. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  2. Pattern Recognition Using The Ring-Wedge Detector And Neural-Network Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Nicholas; Wang, Shen-Ge; Venable, Dennis L.

    1989-10-01

    In pattern recognition and in optical metrology, optical transform systems have been widely applied. Their use is particularly appropriate when the object is detailed and the recognition depends upon features that can be coarsely sampled in the transform space. Now with the advent of neural-network software, it is shown that the major difficulty in applying this optoelectronic hybrid is overcome. Using the ring-wedge photodetector and neural-network software, we illustrate the classification technique using thumbprints. This is a problem of known difficulty to us. Instead of a 4 person-month effort to devise software for its solution, we find that a 4-hour effort is all that is required. Other experiments also discussed are the sorting of photographs of cats and dogs, particulate suspensions, and image quality of digital halftones. All of these are shown to be promising examples for the application of the ring-wedge detector and neural-network software.

  3. Nd and Sr isotope systematics of clastic metasediments from Isua, West Greenland - Identification of pre-3.8 Ga differentiated crustal components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, Stein B.; Dymek, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic study of the Isua clastic metasediments has been performed in the context of recently established stratigraphy for the Isua section. Samples from the sequence B are investigated for the first time. A clear correlation between lithology and isotopic characteristics is pointed out. The results indicate the existence of at least three distinct components for each of the distinct sequences A and B. It is suggested that some of these components may be derived from continental crustal sources that predate the time of depositon of these sediments by as much as about 0.4 b.y. A large pre-3.8 Ga continental crust is also inferred by the data.

  4. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Shirley P.

    2000-07-07

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstone's of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two main phases. The original objectives of the reservoir-characterization phase of the project were (1) to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two representative fields of the Delaware Mountain Group, Geraldine Ford and Ford West, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, (2) to chose a demonstration area in one of the fields, and (3) to simulate a CO{sub 2} flood in the demonstration area.

  5. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Shirley

    1999-11-09

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two main phases. The original objectives of the reservoir-characterization phase of the project were (1) to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two representative fields of the Delaware Mountain Group, Geraldine Ford and Ford West, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, (2) to chose a demonstration area in one of the fields, and (3) to simulate a CO 2 flood in the demonstration area.

  6. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.

    2000-05-24

    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  7. Dehydration of chlorite explains anomalously high electrical conductivity in the mantle wedges.

    PubMed

    Manthilake, Geeth; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Novella, Davide; Mookherjee, Mainak; Andrault, Denis

    2016-05-01

    Mantle wedge regions in subduction zone settings show anomalously high electrical conductivity (~1 S/m) that has often been attributed to the presence of aqueous fluids released by slab dehydration. Laboratory-based measurements of the electrical conductivity of hydrous phases and aqueous fluids are significantly lower and cannot readily explain the geophysically observed anomalously high electrical conductivity. The released aqueous fluid also rehydrates the mantle wedge and stabilizes a suite of hydrous phases, including serpentine and chlorite. In this present study, we have measured the electrical conductivity of a natural chlorite at pressures and temperatures relevant for the subduction zone setting. In our experiment, we observe two distinct conductivity enhancements when chlorite is heated to temperatures beyond its thermodynamic stability field. The initial increase in electrical conductivity to ~3 × 10(-3) S/m can be attributed to chlorite dehydration and the release of aqueous fluids. This is followed by a unique, subsequent enhancement of electrical conductivity of up to 7 × 10(-1) S/m. This is related to the growth of an interconnected network of a highly conductive and chemically impure magnetite mineral phase. Thus, the dehydration of chlorite and associated processes are likely to be crucial in explaining the anomalously high electrical conductivity observed in mantle wedges. Chlorite dehydration in the mantle wedge provides an additional source of aqueous fluid above the slab and could also be responsible for the fixed depth (120 ± 40 km) of melting at the top of the subducting slab beneath the subduction-related volcanic arc front. PMID:27386526

  8. Growth and characterization of epitaxial fcc Fe wedges on diamond (100).

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, S. D.; Keavneu, D. J.; Keune, W.; Li, D.; Pearson, J.

    1997-12-05

    Epitaxial Fe wedges with a thickness gradation from 0--20 {angstrom} were grown on diamond(100) at room temperature, subsequently annealed, and investigated with reflection high-energy electron diffraction and the surface magneto-optical Kerr effect. The results indicate that for <5 monolayer thicknesses the Fe grows on C(100) as smooth, epitaxial fcc films, which are not ferromagnetic, but that thicker films undergo a transition to become rough and the ordinary bcc ferromagnetic phase.

  9. Drainage network evolution and patterns of sedimentation in an experimental wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viaplana-Muzas, Marc; Babault, Julien; Dominguez, Stéphane; Van Den Driessche, Jean; Legrand, Xavier

    2015-11-01

    In fold and thrust belts drainage organization and patterns of sedimentation depend conceptually on the ability or not for preexisting reaches to incise uplifting thrust sheets. In this study we investigate experimentally the dynamics of drainage network in a wedge submitted to shortening and erosion. It allows us to reproduce and to monitor the interactions between tectonics, erosion and sedimentation during the development of up to five successive thrust sheets. In the experiments channels adjust to uplift rate by both increasing their slope and narrowing their channels as it is observed in nature. The series of experiments shows that the proportion of persistent preexisting transverse channels increases with the ratio of rainfall over shortening rates. The experiments confirm the view that the competition between discharge and tectonic uplift controls along-strike variations in sediment flux in sedimentary basins by controlling the drainage organization. If the transverse channels draining a wedge are not diverted, a line-source dispersal system develops in front of the active structure. If channels are diverted in the backlimb of the frontal structure it results in point-sourced depositional systems separated by areas fed only by small channels developing in the front of the wedge. Fans accumulated in front of the active structures reveal two stages of sedimentation, one of progradation, while the frontal structure is active and a second one of valley backfilling and thrust sealing during internal deformation of the wedge. The experiments also suggest that spatial variations in rock uplift rate along a thrust front may be evidenced by minimum-discharge variations of persistent transverse channels.

  10. Epoch of reionization window. II. Statistical methods for foreground wedge reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Adrian; Parsons, Aaron R.; Trott, Cathryn M.

    2014-07-01

    For there to be a successful measurement of the 21 cm epoch of reionization (EoR) power spectrum, it is crucial that strong foreground contaminants be robustly suppressed. These foregrounds come from a variety of sources (such as Galactic synchrotron emission and extragalactic point sources), but almost all share the property of being spectrally smooth and, when viewed through the chromatic response of an interferometer, occupy a signature "wedge" region in cylindrical k⊥k∥ Fourier space. The complement of the foreground wedge is termed the "EoR window" and is expected to be mostly foreground-free, allowing clean measurements of the power spectrum. This paper is a sequel to a previous paper that established a rigorous mathematical framework for describing the foreground wedge and the EoR window. Here, we use our framework to explore statistical methods by which the EoR window can be enlarged, thereby increasing the sensitivity of a power spectrum measurement. We adapt the Feldman-Kaiser-Peacock approximation (commonly used in galaxy surveys) for 21 cm cosmology and also compare the optimal quadratic estimator to simpler estimators that ignore covariances between different Fourier modes. The optimal quadratic estimator is found to suppress foregrounds by an extra factor of ˜105 in power at the peripheries of the EoR window, boosting the detection of the cosmological signal from 12σ to 50σ at the midpoint of reionization in our fiducial models. If numerical issues can be finessed, decorrelation techniques allow the EoR window to be further enlarged, enabling measurements to be made deep within the foreground wedge. These techniques do not assume that foreground is Gaussian distributed, and we additionally prove that a final round of foreground subtraction can be performed after decorrelation in a way that is guaranteed to have no cosmological signal loss.

  11. Dehydration of chlorite explains anomalously high electrical conductivity in the mantle wedges.

    PubMed

    Manthilake, Geeth; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Novella, Davide; Mookherjee, Mainak; Andrault, Denis

    2016-05-01

    Mantle wedge regions in subduction zone settings show anomalously high electrical conductivity (~1 S/m) that has often been attributed to the presence of aqueous fluids released by slab dehydration. Laboratory-based measurements of the electrical conductivity of hydrous phases and aqueous fluids are significantly lower and cannot readily explain the geophysically observed anomalously high electrical conductivity. The released aqueous fluid also rehydrates the mantle wedge and stabilizes a suite of hydrous phases, including serpentine and chlorite. In this present study, we have measured the electrical conductivity of a natural chlorite at pressures and temperatures relevant for the subduction zone setting. In our experiment, we observe two distinct conductivity enhancements when chlorite is heated to temperatures beyond its thermodynamic stability field. The initial increase in electrical conductivity to ~3 × 10(-3) S/m can be attributed to chlorite dehydration and the release of aqueous fluids. This is followed by a unique, subsequent enhancement of electrical conductivity of up to 7 × 10(-1) S/m. This is related to the growth of an interconnected network of a highly conductive and chemically impure magnetite mineral phase. Thus, the dehydration of chlorite and associated processes are likely to be crucial in explaining the anomalously high electrical conductivity observed in mantle wedges. Chlorite dehydration in the mantle wedge provides an additional source of aqueous fluid above the slab and could also be responsible for the fixed depth (120 ± 40 km) of melting at the top of the subducting slab beneath the subduction-related volcanic arc front.

  12. 2D Traveling Wave Array Employing a Trapezoidal Dielectric Wedge for Beam Steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Host, Nicholas K.; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranada, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation addresses the progress made so far in the development of an antenna array with reconfigurable transmission line feeds connecting each element in series. In particular, 2D traveling wave array employing trapezoidal Dielectric Wedge for Beam Steering will be discussed. The presentation includes current status of the effort and suggested future work. The work is being done as part of the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist's Space Technology Research Fellowship (NSTRF).

  13. Dehydration of chlorite explains anomalously high electrical conductivity in the mantle wedges

    PubMed Central

    Manthilake, Geeth; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Novella, Davide; Mookherjee, Mainak; Andrault, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Mantle wedge regions in subduction zone settings show anomalously high electrical conductivity (~1 S/m) that has often been attributed to the presence of aqueous fluids released by slab dehydration. Laboratory-based measurements of the electrical conductivity of hydrous phases and aqueous fluids are significantly lower and cannot readily explain the geophysically observed anomalously high electrical conductivity. The released aqueous fluid also rehydrates the mantle wedge and stabilizes a suite of hydrous phases, including serpentine and chlorite. In this present study, we have measured the electrical conductivity of a natural chlorite at pressures and temperatures relevant for the subduction zone setting. In our experiment, we observe two distinct conductivity enhancements when chlorite is heated to temperatures beyond its thermodynamic stability field. The initial increase in electrical conductivity to ~3 × 10−3 S/m can be attributed to chlorite dehydration and the release of aqueous fluids. This is followed by a unique, subsequent enhancement of electrical conductivity of up to 7 × 10−1 S/m. This is related to the growth of an interconnected network of a highly conductive and chemically impure magnetite mineral phase. Thus, the dehydration of chlorite and associated processes are likely to be crucial in explaining the anomalously high electrical conductivity observed in mantle wedges. Chlorite dehydration in the mantle wedge provides an additional source of aqueous fluid above the slab and could also be responsible for the fixed depth (120 ± 40 km) of melting at the top of the subducting slab beneath the subduction-related volcanic arc front. PMID:27386526

  14. Geomorphology, kinematic history, and earthquake behavior of the active Kuwana wedge thrust anticline, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Mueller, Karl; Togo, Masami; Okada, Atsumasa; Takemura, Keiji

    2004-12-01

    We combine surface mapping of fault and fold scarps that deform late Quaternary alluvial strata with interpretation of a high-resolution seismic reflection profile to develop a kinematic model and determine fault slip rates for an active blind wedge thrust system that underlies Kuwana anticline in central Japan. Surface fold scarps on Kuwana anticline are closely correlated with narrow fold limbs and angular hinges on the seismic profile that suggest at least ˜1.3 km of fault slip completely consumed by folding in the upper 4 km of the crust. The close coincidence and kinematic link between folded terraces and the underlying thrust geometry indicate that Kuwana anticline has accommodated slip at an average rate of 2.2 ± 0.5 mm/yr on a 27°, west dipping thrust fault since early-middle Pleistocene time. In contrast to classical fault bend folds the fault slip budget in the stacked wedge thrusts also indicates that (1) the fault tip propagated upward at a low rate relative to the accrual of fault slip and (2) fault slip is partly absorbed by numerous bedding plane flexural-slip faults above the tips of wedge thrusts. An historic earthquake that occurred on the Kuwana blind thrust system possibly in A.D. 1586 is shown to have produced coseismic surface deformation above the doubly vergent wedge tip. Structural analyses of Kuwana anticline coupled with tectonic geomorphology at 103-105 years timescales illustrate the significance of active folds as indicators of slip on underlying blind thrust faults and thus their otherwise inaccessible seismic hazards.

  15. Geochemistry of lower Vindhyan clastic sedimentary rocks of Northwestern Indian shield: Implications for composition and weathering history of Proterozoic continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Mahshar; Dayal, A. M.; Khan, Abdullah; Bhardwaj, V. R.; Rais, Sarwar

    2010-07-01

    The western margin of the ˜1600 Ma Vindhyan basin of the Indian shield is marked by the presence of lower Vindhyan Group (LVG) comprising shales and sandstone with minor limestone, conglomerate and mafic volcanic flows at the base. Major and trace element compositions of sandstones and shales of the LVG have been investigated to infer the nature of provenance, weathering processes, and tectonic setting. Provenance analysis using trace elements and petrography suggests that the Archaean Banded Gneissic Complex (BGC) of Rajasthan is most likely the source of these clastic rocks. The shale and sandstone comprising lower part of LVG namely Khardeola Formation are distinctive in having high LILE such as Th, Rb, and K 2O, high ferromagnesian trace elements and also higher values of K 2O/Na 2O, Rb/Sr and (La/Yb) n ratios in comparison to succeeding sedimentary units comprising upper formations of the LVG. The significantly different geochemical characteristics of Khardeola Formation suggest change in provenance with sediments in the lower formation being derived from proximal source and those of upper formations from distal source. Based on REE patterns and Eu/Eu ∗ values, the clastic sediments of Khardeola formation can be modeled by a mixture of 60% Berarch Granite and 40% mafic volcanic rocks of Hindoli belt. On the other hand, the upper formations are best modeled with a mixture of 60% BGC granitic gneisses, 20% BGC mafic enclaves and 20% Berach Granite. CIA (chemical index of alteration) values and A-CN-K plot suggest that the source area experienced moderate to high degree of chemical weathering under warm and humid conditions. The shift of sediment source from local in the beginning to distal during later period suggests sedimentation in a tectonically active basin.

  16. High resolution variability in the Quaternary Indian monsoon inferred from records of clastic input and paleo-production recovered during IODP Expedition 355

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Annette; Lyle, Mitchell; Kulhanek, Denise; Ando, Sergio; Clift, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The sediment cores obtained from the Indus fan at Site U1457 during Expedition 355 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) contain a ca. 100m spliced section covering the past ca. 1Ma. We aim to make use of this unique long, mostly continuous climate archive to unravel the millennial scale atmospheric and oceanic processes linked to changes in the Indian monsoon climate over the Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles. Our aim is to fill this gap using fast, cost-efficient methods (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy [FTIRS] and X-ray Fluorescence [XRF] scanning) which allow us to study this sequence at a millennial scale resolution (2-3cm sampling interval). An important methodological aspect of this study is developing FTIRS as a method for the simultaneous estimation of the sediment total inorganic carbon and organic carbon content by using the specific fingerprint absorption spectra of minerals (e.g. calcite) and organic sediment components. The resulting paleo-production proxies give indications of oceanic circulation patterns and serve as a direct comparison to the XRF scanning data. Initial results show that variability in paleo-production is accompanied by changes in the quantity and composition of clastic input to the site. Phases of increased deposition of terrigenous material are enriched in K, Al, Fe and Si. Both changes in the weathering and erosion focus areas affect the mineralogy and elemental composition of the clastic input as grain size and mineralogical changes are reflected in the ratios of lighter to heavier elements. Furthermore, trace element compositions (Zn, Cu, Mn) give indications of diagenetic processes and contribute to the understanding of the depositional environment. The resulting datasets will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the interplay of the local atmospheric and oceanic circulation processes over glacial-interglacial cycles; an essential prerequisite for regional predictions of global climate

  17. Extension of a double-wedged orogen potentially leads to the current South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G.; Lavier, L. L.

    2015-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is surrounded by South China on the NW, Palawan and Reed Bank on the SE, as well as several microplates, resembling a jigsaw puzzle. In an attempt to better understand its evolution, we designed simplified thermomechanical models to simulate extension of a double-wedge-shaped orogen with highlands on both sides and lowland in the center to mimic the geological condition of the proto-SCS. We imposed constant extension rates on both sides and Gaussian-shaped thermal impulse in the center. We also varied the strength of lower crust but did not explicitly incorporate mid-ocean ridges and searfloor spreading mechanisms. We currently used symmetric double-wedge, but further tests are planed for asymmetric double-wedges. Our preliminary results show that the models produced many structures that resemble those of SCS, such as 1) a series of domino or conjugate faults sitting above a subsurface detachment (or décollement), 2) exhumed domes of middle-lower crust, 3) extreme thinning of both upper crust and lower crust, and 4) propagation of extension towards NW and SE margins. Our models suggest that superimposition of these modeled characteristics produced during several phases of extension of the SCS that may be due to thermal impulsion, magmatic events, and subduction related relaxation potentially produces high resemblance of the SCS.

  18. Automatic lumbar vertebra segmentation from clinical CT for wedge compression fracture diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subarna; Alomari, Raja'S.; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

    2011-03-01

    Lumbar vertebral fractures vary greatly in types and causes and usually result from severe trauma or pathological conditions such as osteoporosis. Lumbar wedge compression fractures are amongst the most common ones where the vertebra is severely compressed forming a wedge shape and causing pain and pressure on the nerve roots and the spine. Since vertebral segmentation is the first step in any automated diagnosis task, we present a fully automated method for robustly localizing and segmenting the vertebrae for preparation of vertebral fracture diagnosis. Our segmentation method consists of five main steps towards the CAD(Computer-Aided Diagnosis) system: 1) Localization of the intervertebral discs. 2) Localization of the vertebral skeleton. 3) Segmentation of the individual vertebra. 4) Detection of the vertebrae center line and 5) Detection of the vertebrae major boundary points. Our segmentation results are promising with an average error of 1.5mm (modified Hausdorff distance metric) on 50 clinical CT cases i.e. a total of 250 lumbar vertebrae. We also present promising preliminary results for automatic wedge compression fracture diagnosis on 15 cases, 7 of which have one or more vertebral compression fracture, and obtain an accuracy of 97.33%.

  19. An experimental study of shock wave reflection over non-Newtonian liquid wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Hongjoo; Dougherty, Christopher; Miller, Ryan; Eliasson, Veronica

    2014-11-01

    An experimental investigation of the reflection of a planar shock wave over different density liquid wedges was performed by means of an angled shock tube. The goal is to find a transition criterion between regular reflection (RR) and irregular reflection (IR). The shock tube can be rotated to any angle between the horizontal and vertical planes for various impact media. The reflection of the oblique shock wave for different wedges was visualized using the shadowgraph and schlieren techniques. Previous research by Ben-Dor et al. (1987) conducted different types of reflecting solid conditions and Takayama et al. (1989) investigated a similar experiment with a nonsolid reflecting surface. Motivated by the previous work, we undertook a series of shock tube experiments where both Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids were used to form a wedge for a shock wave to impact. Shear-thickening materials, such as a water-cornstarch mixture, or similar suspensions, could potentially be utilized to protect soldiers and other high-risk personnel from impacts. Results show that, for both a water-cornstarch and ballistic gelatin sample, the detachment angle at which the RR transitions to an IR was different from those of a solid and water. This work is funded by NSF Grant #CBET-1437412.

  20. Hot fingers in the mantle wedge: new insights into magma genesis in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Yoshihiko; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Zhao, Dapeng; Kido, Yukari; Shukuno, Hiroshi

    2002-03-01

    Quaternary volcanoes in the Northeast Japan arc can be grouped into 10 volcanic clusters striking transverse to the arc; these have an average width of 50 km, and are separated by parallel gaps 30-75 km wide. This clustering of volcanic centres, topographic profiles, low-velocity regions in the mantle wedge and local negative Bouguer gravity anomalies along the Japan Sea side of the volcanic arc are closely correlated. All these observations may be related to locally developed hot regions within the mantle wedge that have the form of inclined, 50 km wide fingers. Each of the 10 fingers recognised extends from deep mantle (>150 km) below the back-arc region towards the shallower mantle (˜50 km) beneath the volcanic front. Quaternary volcanoes are built immediately above the hot mantle fingers. The volcanic basement along the fingers has been uplifted by repeated injection of magmas into the crust, accompanied by Quaternary volcanic activity at the surface. Although volcanic activity is rare along the Japan Sea coast, tomographic results show that hot, low-velocity mantle fingers exist within the mantle wedge. The negative Bouguer anomalies at the rear of the volcanic arc could be caused by magmas supplied from the hot mantle fingers; these have not yet been erupted, but have accumulated at the Moho discontinuity.

  1. Experiments on the water entry of asymmetric wedges using particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Adel; Jalalisendi, Mohammad; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we experimentally characterize the water entry of an asymmetric wedge into a quiescent fluid through particle image velocimetry (PIV). The wedge enters the water surface with an orthogonal velocity falling from a fixed height. We systematically vary the heel angle to elucidate the effect of asymmetric impact on the flow physics and on the fluid-structure interaction. The pressure field in the fluid is reconstructed from PIV data by integrating the Poisson equation. We find that the impact configuration significantly influences both the velocity and the pressure field, ultimately, regulating the hydrodynamic loading on the wedge. Specifically, as the heel angle increases, the location of maximum velocity of the flow moves from the pile-up region to the keel. At the same time, the pressure field significantly decreases in the vicinity of the keel, reaching values smaller than the atmospheric pressure. The spatiotemporal evolution of the hydrodynamic loading is thus controlled by the heel angle, with larger heel angles resulting into more rapid and sustained impacts.

  2. Continuous beam divergence control via wedge-pair for laser communication applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichs, Keith M.; DeCew, Alan E.; Narkewich, Lawrence E.; Williams, Timothy H.

    2015-03-01

    Lasercom terminals often scan an area of uncertainty during acquisition with a wide-divergence beacon beam. Once the terminal has established cooperative tracking with the remote terminal, a narrow divergence beam is used for communication. A mechanism that enables continuous beam divergence control can provide significant size, weight, and power (SWaP) benefits to the terminal. First, the acquisition and the communication beams can be launched from the same fiber so only a single high-power optical amplifier is required. Second, by providing mid-divergences, it eases the remote terminal's transition from the acquisition phase to the communication phase. This paper describes a mechanism that provides gradual, progressive adjustment of far-field beam divergence, from wide divergence (> 300 μrad FWHM) through collimated condition (38 μrad FWHM) and that works over a range of wavelengths. The mechanism is comprised of a variable-thickness optical element, formed by a pair of opposing wedges that is placed between the launch fiber and the collimating lens. Variations in divergence with no beam blockage are created by laterally translating one wedge relative to a fixed wedge. Divergence is continuously adjustable within the thickness range, allowing for a coordinated transition of divergence, wavelength, and beam power. Measurements of this low-loss, low-wavefront error assembly show that boresight error during divergence transition is maintained to a fraction of the communication beamwidth over wavelength and optical power ranges.

  3. Computational analysis of asymmetric water entry of wedge and ship section at constant velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Md. Mashiur; Ullah, Al Habib; Afroz, Laboni; Shabnam, Sharmin; Sarkar, M. A. Rashid

    2016-07-01

    Water impact problems receive much attention due to their short duration and large unsteady component of hydrodynamic loads. The effect of water entry has several important applications in various aspects of the naval field. Significant attention has been given to various water entry phenomena such as ship slamming, planning hulls, high-speed hydrodynamics of seaplanes, surface-piercing propellers and the interaction of high-speed liquid drops with structural elements. Asymmetric water entry may be caused by various natural phenomena such as weather conditions or strong winds. Since the determination of hydrodynamic impact load plays a vital role in designing safe and effcient vessels, an accurate and reliable prediction method is necessary to investigate asymmetric water entry problems. In this paper, water entry of a two-dimensional wedge and ship section at constant velocity in asymmetric condition will be analysed numerically and the effects of asymmetric impact on the velocity and pressure distribution will be discussed. The finite volume method is employed to solve the dynamic motion of the wedge in two-phase flow. During the water entry, the air and water interface is described implicitly by the volume of fluid (VOF) scheme. The numerical code and method was first validated for symmetric condition by one of the present author is applied for asymmetric wedge and ship section. The free surface, velocity and pressure distribution for asymmetric water entry are investigated and visualized with contour plots at different time steps.

  4. Integrated waste management as a climate change stabilisation wedge for the Maltese islands.

    PubMed

    Falzon, Clyde; Fabri, Simon G; Frysinger, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The continuous increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions occurring since the Industrial Revolution is offering significant ecological challenges to Earth. These emissions are leading to climate changes which bring about extensive damage to communities, ecosystems and resources. The analysis in this article is focussed on the waste sector within the Maltese islands, which is the largest greenhouse gas emitter in the archipelago following the energy and transportation sectors. This work shows how integrated waste management, based on a life cycle assessment methodology, acts as an effective stabilisation wedge strategy for climate change. Ten different scenarios applicable to the Maltese municipal solid waste management sector are analysed. It is shown that the scenario that is most coherent with the stabilisation wedges strategy for the Maltese islands consists of 50% landfilling, 30% mechanical biological treatment and 20% recyclable waste export for recycling. It is calculated that 16.6 Mt less CO2-e gases would be emitted over 50 years by means of this integrated waste management stabilisation wedge when compared to the business-as-usual scenario. These scientific results provide evidence in support of policy development in Malta that is implemented through legislation, economic instruments and other applicable tools.

  5. Viscid-inviscid interaction associated with incompressible flow past wedges at high Reynolds number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warpinski, N. R.; Chow, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical method is suggested for the study of the viscid inviscid interaction associated with incompressible flow past wedges with arbitrary angles. It is shown that the determination of the nearly constant pressure (base pressure) prevailing within the near wake is really the heart of the problem, and the pressure can only be established from these interactive considerations. The basic free streamline flow field is established through two discrete parameters which adequately describe the inviscid flow around the body and the wake. The viscous flow processes such as the boundary layer buildup, turbulent jet mixing, and recompression are individually analyzed and attached to the inviscid flow in the sense of the boundary layer concept. The interaction between the viscous and inviscid streams is properly displayed by the fact that the aforementioned discrete parameters needed for the inviscid flow are determined by the viscous flow condition at the point of reattachment. It is found that the reattachment point behaves as a saddle point singularity for the system of equations describing the recompressive viscous flow processes, and this behavior is exploited for the establishment of the overall flow field. Detailed results such as the base pressure, pressure distributions on the wedge, and the geometry of the wake are determined as functions of the wedge angle.

  6. Flow visualization around a double wedge airfoil model with focusing schlieren system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashitani, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Yutaka

    2006-03-01

    In the present study, aerodynamic characteristics of the double wedge airfoil model were investigated in a transonic flow by using the shock tube as an intermittent wind tunnel. The driver and driven gases of the shock tube are dry air. The airfoil model of double wedge has the span of 58 mm, chord length c = 75 mm and its maximum thickness is 7.5 mm. The apex of the double wedge airfoil model is located on the 35% chord length from the leading edge. The range of hot gas Mach numbers are from 0.80 to 0.88, and the Reynolds numbers based on chord length are 3.11 × 105 ˜ 3.49 × 105, respectively. The flow visualizations were performed by the sharp focusing schlieren method which can visualize the three dimensional flow fields. The results show that the present system can visualize the transonic flowfield clearer than the previous system, and the shock wave profiles of the center of span in the test section are visualized

  7. Dose conformation to the spine during palliative treatments using dynamic wedges

    SciTech Connect

    Ormsby, Matthew A.; Herndon, R. Craig; Kaczor, Joseph G.

    2013-07-01

    Radiation therapy is commonly used to alleviate pain associated with metastatic disease of the spine. Often, isodose lines are manipulated using dynamic or physical wedges to encompass the section of spine needing treatment while minimizing dose to normal tissue. We will compare 2 methods used to treat the entire thoracic spine. The first method treats the thoracic spine with a single, nonwedged posterior-anterior (PA) field. Dose is prescribed to include the entire spine. Isodose lines tightly conform to the top and bottom vertebrae, but vertebrae between these 2 received more than enough coverage. The second method uses a combination of wedges to create an isodose line that mimics the curvature of the thoracic spine. This “C”-shaped curvature is created by overlapping 2 fields with opposing dynamic wedges. Machine constraints limit the treatment length and therefore 2 isocenters are used. Each of the 2 PA fields contributes a portion of the total daily dose. This technique creates a “C”-shaped isodose line that tightly conforms to the thoracic spine, minimizing normal tissue dose. Spinal cord maximum dose is reduced, as well as mean dose to the liver, esophagus, and heart.

  8. Seismological evidence for a sub-volcanic arc mantle wedge beneath the Denali volcanic gap, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, D.E.; Pasyanos, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Arc volcanism in Alaska is strongly correlated with the 100 km depth contour of the western Aluetian Wadati-Benioff zone. Above the eastern portion of the Wadati-Benioff zone however, there is a distinct lack of volcanism (the Denali volcanic gap). We observe high Poisson's ratio values (0.29-0.33) over the entire length of the Alaskan subduction zone mantle wedge based on regional variations of Pn and Sn velocities. High Poisson's ratios at this depth (40-70 km), adjacent to the subducting slab, are attributed to melting of mantle-wedge peridotites, caused by fluids liberated from the subducting oceanic crust and sediments. Observations of high values of Poisson's ratio, beneath the Denali volcanic gap suggest that the mantle wedge contains melted material that is unable to reach the surface. We suggest that its inability to migrate through the overlying crust is due to increased compression in the crust at the northern apex of the curved Denali fault.

  9. 76 FR 52313 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e., Axes & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e., Axes & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges... AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: As...

  10. Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and wedge angle of optical windows using Fizeau interferometry and a cyclic path optical configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Y. Pavan; Chatterjee, Sanjib

    2009-08-20

    We present a new technique for the simultaneous measurement of refractive index and wedge angle of optical windows using Fizeau interferometry and a cyclic path optical configuration (CPOC). Two laterally separated beams are obtained from an expanded collimated beam using an aperture containing two rectangular openings. The test wedge plate is placed in one of the two separated beams. Using CPOC, these two beams are made to overlap and interfere, producing interference fringes in the overlapping region. The beams reflected from the front and back surfaces of the test wedge plate interfere and produce Fizeau fringes. The refractive index is related to the spacing of the above two beam fringes. The wedge angle is determined from the evaluated values of the refractive index and Fizeau fringe spacing. The results obtained for a BK-7 optical window are presented.

  11. Three-dimensional finite-element elastic analysis of a thermally cycled single-edge wedge geometry specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizon, P. T.; Hill, R. J.; Guilliams, B. P.; Drake, S. K.; Kladden, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    An elastic stress analysis was performed on a wedge specimen (prismatic bar with single-wedge cross section) subjected to thermal cycles in fluidized beds. Seven different combinations consisting of three alloys (NASA TAZ-8A, 316 stainless steel, and A-286) and four thermal cycling conditions were analyzed. The analyses were performed as a joint effort of two laboratories using different models and computer programs (NASTRAN and ISO3DQ). Stress, strain, and temperature results are presented.

  12. A 5° medial wedge reduces frontal but not saggital plane motion during jump landing in highly trained women athletes

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Michael F; Denegar, Craig R; Horn, Elaine; MacDougall, Bradley; Rahl, Michael; Sheehan, Jessica; Trojian, Thomas; Anderson, Jeffery M; Clark, James E; Kraemer, William J

    2010-01-01

    Lower extremity mechanics during landing have been linked to traumatic and nontraumatic knee injuries, particularly in women’s athletics. The effects of efforts to mitigate these risks have not been fully elucidated. We previously reported that a 5° medial wedge reduced ankle eversion and knee valgus. In the present report we further investigated the effect of a 5° medial wedge inserted in the shoes of female athletes on frontal plane hip motion, as well as ankle, knee, hip, and trunk saggital plane motion during a jump landing task. Kinematic data were obtained from 10 intercollegiate female athletes during jump landings from a 31 cm platform with and without a 5° medial wedge. Hip adduction was reduced 1.98° (95% CI 0.97–2.99°) by the medial wedge but saggital plane motions were unaffected. A 5° medial wedge reduces frontal plane motion and takes the knee away from a position associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Although frontal plane motion was not captured it is unlikely to have increased in a bilateral landing task. Thus, it is likely that greater muscle forces were generated in these highly trained athletes to dissipate ground reaction forces when a medial wedge was in place. Additional investigation in younger and lesser trained athletes is warranted to assess the impact of orthotic devices on knee joint mechanics. PMID:24198539

  13. Structural evolution of a three-dimensional, finite-width crustal wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Jean; Yamato, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    We present the results of three-dimensional numerical experiments designed to study the response of a layer of crustal material subjected to convergence through an imposed basal velocity discontinuity and to surface processes (erosion/sedimentation). We focus on the three-dimensional response of the system arising from the finite width of the imposed velocity discontinuity. In particular, we describe the complex structures that develop around the wedge and their interactions with the loading/unloading produced by the surface processes. We show that the pro- and retro-shear zones that develop in a doubly-vergent two-dimensional wedge curve around the end of the velocity line-discontinuity to merge into the strike-slip structure that naturally develop, i.e. as a consequence of the imposed boundary conditions, along the edge of the wedge. Along the retro-shear zone the stress orientation rotates along a vertical axis, which implies that the retro-shear zone is a pure thrust along all of its curved length, whereas, along the pro-shear zone stresses rotate along a horizontal axis, which, in turn, implies that the pro-shear zone progressively evolves towards an oblique thrust in its curved section. Furthermore, the outward motion (i.e. perpendicular to the direction of imposed shortening) along the curved section of the retro-shear zone is accommodated by oblique extension along a secondary, kinked structure antithetic to the retro-shear zone. We also show the complex evolution of the wedge when ductile flow and ductile strain softening is activated by increasing the imposed basal temperature. In this situation, the wedge is broader as structures develop at finite distances on either side of the line-discontinuity and its dynamics resembles more that of a 'vise-like' orogen. At the surface, a flat plateau forms that accumulates sediment from the surrounding actively deforming mountain ranges until a channel breaks through one of the sides and flushes the inward

  14. Transient and Steady-State Kinematic Response to Erosional Forcing in an Orogenic Wedge: Sandbox Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, L.; Teyssier, C.; Annia, F.; Take, A.

    2005-12-01

    The evolution of orogens is highly affected by surface processes that control mass distribution. Transportation and redistribution of mass at the Earth's surface modifies the gravitational load and alters the stress field and kinematics within orogens. We explore the role of asymmetric erosion, indenter dip angle, and flux steady/non-steady state in determining the patterns of deformation and exhumation in doubly-sided orogenic wedges. In our analogue model, shortening of the orogen is driven by rigid indenters, represented by Plexiglas wedged blocks (35 and 70 degrees) that deform a non-cohesive dry Coulomb material (walnut shells) representing crustal material. Three end-member erosional scenarios are considered. In the first case, erosion is not applied, and thus the doubly-sided orogenic wedge evolves without restraints (non-steady state). In the second case, erosion is concentrated solely on the indenters side of the orogen (retrowedge), and in the third case, erosion is focused on the flank opposite to the indenter side (prowedge). In the last two cases, steady-state conditions were present in the middle stages of shortening. Strain and exhumation were calculated using displacement fields from 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV analysis). In the three cases, the model deforms as a combination of lateral compaction and localization of strain in shear bands. In the early stages of deformation, a "pop-up" structure develops, bounded by a fore-shear on the front and a back-shear toward the indenter. As deformation continues, a new fore-shear develops, and the previous one remains inactive and is passively pushed up the wedge. In the case of no erosion, the old fore-shears rotate slightly toward the indenter, and the shear bands evolve to steeply dipping structures. In the case of retrowedge erosion, the old fore-shears back rotate toward the indenter, and the shear bands evolve to shallowly dipping structures. In the case of prowedge erosion, old fore

  15. Zig-Zag Thermal-Chemical 3-D Instabilities in the Mantle Wedge: Numerical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, G.; Gerya, T. V.; Arcay, D.; Yuen, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    To understand the plume initiation and propagation it is important to understand whether small-scale convection is occurring under the back-arc in the Low Viscosity Wedge(LVW) and its implication on the island-arc volcanism. Honda et al. [Honda and Saito, 2003; Honda, et al., 2007]) already deployed small- scale convection in the Low Viscosity Wedge (LVW) above a subducting slab with kinematically imposed velocity boundary condition. They have suggested that a roll (finger)-like pattern of hot and cold anomalies emerges in the mantle wedge above the subducting slab. Here, we perform three-dimensional coupled petrological-thermomechanical numerical simulations of intraoceanic one-sided subduction with spontaneously bending retreating slab characterized by weak hydrated upper interface by using multigrid approach combined with characteristics-based marker-in-cell method with conservative finite difference schemes[Gerya and Yuen, 2003a], to investigate the 3D instabilities above the slab and lateral variation along the arc. Our results show that water released from subducting slab through dehydration reactions may lower the viscosity of the mantle. It allows the existence of wave-like small-scale convection in the LVW, which is shown as roll-like structure in 2D petrological-thermomechanical numerical experiments [Gorczyk et al., 2006] using in-situ rock properties computed on the basis of Gibbs free energy minimization. However, in our 3D cases, the rolls aligning with the arc mainly occur earlier , while zig-zag small-scale thermal-chemical instabilities may episodically form above the slab at later stages, which is different from the aligning finger-like pattern in purely thermal models (Honda et al,2003;2007). Also in contrast to thermal convection chemically buoyant hydrated plumes rising from the slab in our models are actually colder then the mantle wedge [Gerya and Yuen 2003b] which also strongly modify both the convection pattern and the seismic structure in

  16. Laparoscopic wedge resection and partial nephrectomy--the Washington University experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    McDougall, E M; Elbahnasy, A M; Clayman, R V

    1998-01-01

    Open partial nephrectomy is an accepted form of treatment for a variety of benign conditions and for localized renal cell carcinoma. To date, there is limited experience with the clinical application of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and wedge resection for benign and malignant disease of the kidney. Herein, we report our clinical experience with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and a review of the current literature. Twelve patients (27-81 years) have undergone laparoscopic wedge resection (3) or attempted polar partial nephrectomy (9) since 1993. In the group of 12 patients, 5 had a mass suspicious for a malignancy, 4 patients had symptomatic polar calyceal dilation with or without stone disease, and 3 patients had an atrophic or hydronephrotic upper pole moiety. Among the patients in the polar nephrectomy group, a third were converted to an open procedure. The remaining 6 patients had a mean operative time of 6.5 hours (5.7-8.3 hours). These patients resumed their oral intake on average 0.8 days postoperatively. In the 2 patients with a mass, the final pathology was oncocytoma (1), and xanthogranulomatous reaction in a renal cyst (1). Postoperative complications included a nephrocutaneous fistula which was endoscopically fulgurated, a retroperitoneal urinoma which was percutaneously drained, and a two-day bout of ileus. The mean hospital stay was 5.3 days (2-9). Their full convalescence was completed in a mean of 4.2 weeks (2-8). Three patients underwent a wedge resection for a superficial < 2 cm mass. The average operative time in this group was 3.5 hours (2-5.4). The mean time to resuming oral intake was 0.7 days (0.3-0.7). The final pathology was oncocytoma (1), oncocytic renal cell cancer (1), and old infarction (1); none of the patients had any complications. The mean hospital stay was 2.7 days (2-4). Convalescence was completed in 4 weeks (range 1-8). Laparoscopic wedge resection and polar partial nephrectomy are feasible, albeit currently tedious

  17. Evolution of Strain in Obliquely Convergent Analog Doubly-Vergent Wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, D. M.; Haq, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    We have conducted a range of analog experiments across the parameter space from 0° to 70°, in which we have tracked the evolution of the model geometries and strain fields. Surface deformation is monitored by photographic analysis of the experiment and a plane laser is used to obtain precise topography of the developing pro and retro-wedges normal to strike At both high and low obliquities, our results are broadly consistent with theoretical expectations. At obliquities ranging from 0° to close to 60°, doubly-vergent wedges with the same combination of a broad, minimum taper pro-wedge and a narrower, maximum-taper double retro-wedge found in normal convergence at obliquities up to close to 60°. Above about 60° obliquity, though, the orogen continues to grow with a much greater degree of symmetry; it never develops the broad prowedge that characterizes the orogens at low to moderately high obliquities. This result is entirely consistent with the rotation of stresses and reversal in principal stress order associated with the transition from an essentially convergent orogen with some margin-parallel shear to transpression with dominant strike-slip, as described by various authors. This marked change in tectonic style and orogen shape at about 60° obliquity is accompanied by a change in the distribution of shear within the model. In normal convergence, there is no margin-parallel shear to be accommodated, so it is everywhere equal to zero. Margin-normal shortening is accommodated across the orogen, but, as taper is maintained, it occurs most rapidly near the deformation front (at left). In no case is there extension in these purely frictional models, unlike the case with a ductile layer at depth. At non-zero obliquities, there is also margin-parallel shear to be distributed across the margin. In addition to a broad zone centered on the topographic high (over the tip of the backstop), that shear is distributed across the prowedge, where it is accommodated in the

  18. Carboniferous stratigraphy of the Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, R.A.; Thomas, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Carboniferous rocks in the Appalachian fold-thrust belt and foreland basins include parts of four clastic wedges. Distribution, composition, and ages of the clastic wedges record diachronous orogenic uplifts along the Appalachian margin. Lower Mississippian Pocono sandstones form the upper part of the Catskill-Pocono clastic wedge, which includes the Devonian Catskill deltaic facies. Pocono rocks reflect clastic sediments transport toward the northwest and west from an orogenic source east of the Pennsylvania salient. The upper Mississippian-Pennsylvanian Mauch Chunk-Pottsville clastic wedge prograded westward and southwestward from the Pennsylvania salient over Mississippian limestone. The southwestern limit of the Mauch Chunk-Pottsville clastic wedge is overlapped in the Virginia recess by the oppositely directed Pennington-Lee clastic wedge. The Upper Mississippian-Pennsylvanian Pennington-Lee clastic wedge prograded northeastward and northwestward from the Tennessee salient. Southwestward in the Alabama recess, the Pennington clastic facies grades into Mississippian limestone, and Lee-equivalent sandstones extend over the limestone. In the western part of the Alabama recess, Upper Mississippian-Lower Pennsylvanian delta systems prograded northeastward over the Mississippian carbonate facies. These clastic sediments are an eastern shelf-delta part of a thick clastic wedge that consists of turbidites in the Ouachita salient. The eastern fringe of the Ouachita clastic wedge merges with the southwestward-prograding Pennington-Lee clastic wedge above Mississippian carbonate rocks in the Alabama recess.

  19. Sorted (clastic) polygons in the Argyre region, Mars, and possible evidence of pre- and post-glacial periglaciation in the Late Amazonian Epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, R. J.; Conway, S. J.; Gallagher, C.; Dohm, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Argyre basin and associated rim-materials in the southern highlands of Mars are ancient, having been formed by the impact of a large body ∼3.9 Gya. Despite its age, the regional landscape exhibits a wide range of geological/geomorphological modifications and/or features, e.g. fluvial, lacustrine, aeolian, glacial and periglacial. Collectively, this bears witness to the dynamic evolution of the Argyre region from the deep past through to, perhaps, the present day. Here, we present three principal findings that point to at least two distinct episodes of periglaciation, separated by a possible glacial-interval, during the very Late Amazonian Epoch in eastern Aonia Terra (AT), i.e. on the western flank of the Argyre basin. These findings are the product of our circum-Argyre study of all HiRISE images (∼35-65°S and ∼290-350°E). (1) (a) The first periglacial episode involves the development of small-sized (∼15-25 m in diam.) and clastically-"sorted polygons" (SPs). The SPs are observed at eighteen locations within eastern AT. Hitherto, the presence of SPs in this region has been reported at one location alone. No other observations of SPs in the southern hemisphere of Mars have been documented. Morphologically similar landforms develop in cold-climate (permafrost) landscapes on Earth by means of periglacial processes, i.e. freeze-thaw cycling, segregated-ice formation, cryoturbation and frost heave. (b) We ascribe a periglacial origin to the SPs in eastern AT on the basis of this similarity of form and, no less importantly, on the close spatial-association of the SPs with blockfields (whose weathered "clastic" products are the building blocks of periglacial sorting on Earth), gelifluction-like lobes and possible "wet" gullies. Where similar assemblages occur in terrestrial permafrost-landscapes, the presence of liquid water and of boundary conditions tolerant of freeze-thaw cycling, are observed or inferred. (c) Fifteen of the eighteen

  20. A comparison of the biomechanical effects of valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard K; Nester, Christopher J; Richards, Jim D; Kim, Winston Y; Johnson, David S; Jari, Sanjiv; Laxton, Philip; Tyson, Sarah F

    2013-03-01

    Increases in the external knee adduction moment (EKAM) have been associated with increased mechanical load at the knee and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles are common approaches to reducing this loading; however no study has directly compared the biomechanical and clinical effects of these two treatments in patients with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. A cross-over randomised design was used where each intervention was worn by 28 patients for a two week period. Pre- and post-intervention gait kinematic/kinetic data and clinical outcomes were collected to evaluate the biomechanical and clinical effects on the knee joint. The valgus knee brace and the lateral wedged insole significantly increased walking speed, reduced the early stance EKAM by 7% and 12%, and the knee adduction angular impulse by 8.6 and 16.1% respectively. The lateral wedged insole significantly reduced the early stance EKAM compared to the valgus knee brace (p=0.001). The valgus knee brace significantly reduced the knee varus angle compared to the baseline and lateral wedged insole. Improvements in pain and function subscales were comparable for the valgus knee brace and lateral wedged insole. There were no significant differences between the two treatments in any of the clinical outcomes; however the lateral wedged insoles demonstrated greater levels of acceptance by patients. This is the first study to biomechanically compare these two treatments, and demonstrates that given the potential role of knee loading in osteoarthritis progression, that both treatments reduce this but lateral wedge insoles appear to have a greater effect.

  1. Control of structural inheritance on thrust initiation and material transfer in accretionary wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leever, Karen; Geersen, Jacob; Ritter, Malte; Lieser, Kathrin; Behrmann, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Faults in the incoming sediment layer are commonly observed in subduction zone settings and well developed in the incoming plate off Sumatra. To investigate how they affect the structural development of the accretionary wedge, we conducted a series of 2D analogue tectonic experiments in which a 2 cm thick quartz sand layer on top of a thin detachment layer of glass beads was pulled against a rigid backstop by a basal conveyor belt in a 20cm wide box with glass walls. A gap at the base of the back wall avoids entrainment of the glass beads. At regular spacing of either 2.3, 5.5 or 7.8 cm (fractions of the thrust sheet length in the reference model), conjugate pairs of weakness zones dipping 60deg were created by cutting the sand layer with a thin (1 mm) metal blade. Both the undisturbed sand and the pre-cuts have an angle of internal friction of ~29o, but their cohesion is different by 50 Pa (110 Pa for the undisturbed material, 60 Pa along the pre-cuts). Friction of the glass beads is ~24deg. The experiments are monitored with high resolution digital cameras; displacement fields derived from digital image correlation are used to constrain fault activity. In all experiments, a critically tapered wedge developed with a surface slope of 7.5deg. In the reference model (no weakness zones in the input section), the position of new thrust faults is controlled by the frontal slope break. The average length of the thrust sheets is 11 cm and the individual thrusts accommodate on average 8 cm displacement each. The presence of weakness zones causes thrust initiation at a position different from the reference case, and affects their dip. For a fault spacing of 7.8 cm (or 75% of the reference thrust sheet length), every single incoming weakness zone causes the formation of a new thrust, thus resulting in thrust sheets shorter than the equilibrium case. In addition, less displacement is accommodated on each thrust. As a consequence, the frontal taper is smaller than expected

  2. Two-dimensional simulation of clastic and carbonate sedimentation, consolidation, subsidence, fluid flow, heat flow and solute transport during the formation of sedimentary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitzer, Klaus

    1999-05-01

    Geological processes that create sedimentary basins or act during their formation can be simulated using the public domain computer code `BASIN'. For a given set of geological initial and boundary conditions the sedimentary basin evolution is calculated in a forward modeling approach. The basin is represented in a two-dimensional vertical cross section with individual layers. The stratigraphic, tectonic, hydrodynamic and thermal evolution is calculated beginning at an initial state, and subsequent changes of basin geometry are calculated from sedimentation rates, compaction and pore fluid mobilization, isostatic compensation, fault movement and subsidence. The sedimentologic, hydraulic and thermal parameters are stored at discrete time steps allowing the temporal evolution of the basin to be analyzed. A maximum flexibility in terms of geological conditions is achieved by using individual program modules representing geological processes which can be switched on and off depending on the data available for a specific simulation experiment. The code incorporates a module for clastic and carbonate sedimentation, taking into account the impact of clastic sediment supply on carbonate production. A maximum of four different sediment types, which may be mixed during sedimentation, can be defined. Compaction and fluid flow are coupled through the consolidation equation and the nonlinear form of the equation of state for porosity, allowing nonequilibrium compaction and overpressuring to be calculated. Instead of empirical porosity-effective stress equations, a physically consistent consolidation model is applied which incorporates a porosity dependent sediment compressibility. Transient solute transport and heat flow are calculated as well, applying calculated fluid flow rates from the hydraulic model. As a measure for hydrocarbon generation, the Time-Temperature Index (TTI) is calculated. Three postprocessing programs are available to provide graphic output in Post

  3. Influence of climate on deep-water clastic sedimentation: application of a modern model, Peru-Chile Trough, to an ancient system, Ouachita Trough

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgar, N. Terence; Cecil, C. Blaine

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, an abrupt and massive influx of siliciclastic sediments into an area of deposition has been attributed to tectonic uplift without consideration of the influence of climate or climatic change on rates of weathering, erosion, transportation, and deposition. With few exceptions, fluvial sediment transport is minimal in both extremely arid climates and in perhumid (everwet) climates. Maximum sediment transport occurs in climates characterized by strongly seasonal rainfall, where the effect of vegetation on erosion is minimal. The Peru–Chile trench and Andes Mountain system (P–CT/AMS) of the eastern Pacific Ocean clearly illustrates the effects of climate on rates of weathering, erosion, transport, and deep-sea sedimentation. Terrigenous sediment is virtually absent in the arid belt north of lat. 30° S in the P–CT, but in the belt of seasonal rainfall south of lat. 30° S terrigenous sediment is abundant. Spatial variations in the amount and seasonality of annual precipitation are now generally accepted as the cause for this difference. The spatial variation in sediment supply to the P–CT appears to be an excellent modern analogue for the temporal variation in sediment supply to certain ancient systems, such as the Ouachita Trough in the southern United States. By comparison, during the Ordovician through the early Mississippian, sediment was deposited at very slow rates as the Ouachita Trough moved northward through the southern hemisphere dry belt (lat. 10° S to lat. 30° S). The deposystem approached the tropical humid zone during the Mississippian, coincident with increased coarse clastic sedimentation. By the Middle Pennsylvanian (Atokan), the provenance area and the deposystem moved well into the tropical humid zone, and as much as 8,500 m of mineralogically mature (but texturally immature) quartz sand was introduced and deposited. This increase in clastic sediment deposition traditionally has been attributed solely to tectonic activity

  4. Stabilization Wedges and the Management of Global Carbon for the next 50 years

    ScienceCinema

    Socolow, Robert [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States

    2016-07-12

    More than 40 years after receiving a Ph.D. in physics, I am still working on problems where conservation laws matter. In particular, for the problems I work on now, the conservation of the carbon atom matters. I will tell the saga of an annual flow of 8 billion tons of carbon associated with the global extraction of fossil fuels from underground. Until recently, it was taken for granted that virtually all of this carbon will move within weeks through engines of various kinds and then into the atmosphere. For compelling environmental reasons, I and many others are challenging this complacent view, asking whether the carbon might wisely be directed elsewhere. To frame this and similar discussions, Steve Pacala and I introduced the 'stabilization wedge' in 2004 as a useful unit for discussing climate stabilization. Updating the definition, a wedge is the reduction of CO2 emissions by one billion tons of carbon per year in 2057, achieved by any strategy generated as a result of deliberate attention to global carbon. Each strategy uses already commercialized technology, generally at much larger scale than today. Implementing seven wedges should enable the world to achieve the interim goal of emitting no more CO2 globally in 2057 than today. This would place humanity, approximately, on a path to stabilizing CO2 at less than double the pre-industrial concentration, and it would put those at the helm in the following 50 years in a position to drive CO2 emissions to a net of zero in the following 50 years. Arguably, the tasks of the two half-centuries are comparably difficult.

  5. Mantle wedge anisotropy in Southern Tyrrhenian Subduction Zone (Italy), from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Park, Jeffrey; Lucente, Francesco Pio

    2008-12-01

    We constrain mantle wedge seismic structure in the Southern Tyrrhenian Subduction Zone (Italy) using teleseismic receiver functions (RF) recorded at station CUC of the Mednet seismographic network. Station CUC lies above the northern portion of the Calabrian slab segment, which is recognized from deep seismicity and tomographic imaging as a narrow, laterally high-arched slab fragment, extending from the surface below Calabria down to the transition zone. To better define the descending slab interface and possible shear-coupled flow in the mantle wedge above the slab, we computed receiver functions from the P-coda of 147 teleseismic events to analyze the back-azimuth dependence of Ps converted phases from interfaces beneath CUC. We stack the RF data-set with back azimuth to compute its harmonic expansion, which relates to the effects of interface dip and anisotropy at layer boundaries. The seismic structure constrained through the RF analysis is characterized in its upper part by a sub-horizontal Moho at about 25 km depth, overlying a thin isotropic layer at top of mantle. For the deeper part, back-azimuth variation suggests two alternative models, each with an anisotropic layer between two dipping interfaces near 70- and 90-km depth, with fast- and slow-symmetry axes, respectively, above the Apennines slab. Although independent evidence suggests a north-south strike for the slab beneath CUC, the trend of the inferred anisotropy is 45° clockwise from north, inconsistent with a simple downdip shear-coupled flow model in the supra-slab mantle wedge. However complexities of flow and induced rock fabric in the Tyrrhenian back arc may arise due to several concurring factors such as the arcuate shape of the Apennines slab, its retreating kinematics, or slab edge effects.

  6. Video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resections of pulmonary metastatic osteosarcoma: should it be performed?

    PubMed

    Yim, A P; Lin, J; Chan, A T; Li, C K; Ho, J K

    1995-10-01

    We studied the use of video-assisted thoracoscopic (VAT) surgery in the management of metastatic osteosarcoma. From September 1993 to March 1994, we performed a total of 11 VAT wedge resections of pulmonary metastatic osteosarcoma in seven patients (six males, one female, age 12 to 46 years). Three patients had bilateral procedures performed either under the same anaesthesia or in stages. One patient had two operations on the same side. The average number of nodules excised was three. Two patients subsequently required formal lobectomies when the metastatic tumours were either too big or too close to the hilum for safe wedge resections. There was one death on postoperative day 3 due to dysrhythmia. One patient died 5 months later from a progression of his underlying disease. Two patients remained disease free up to 8 and 12 months, respectively, from their first operations. The average postoperative chest drain duration was 1.4 +/- 0.7 days and hospital stay 2.3 +/- 1.1 days. The procedure was well tolerated and postoperative morbidity was minimal. We conclude that although VAT wedge resection of pulmonary metastatic osteosarcoma is feasible technically and is associated with a short hospital stay and minimal morbidity, this approach cannot be recommended when complete resection of all metastases is the goal as the technique relies heavily on computed tomographic scans to detect nodules. Recurrence of metastasis from 4 to 6 months in three of seven patients argues against VAT surgery being an adequate procedure. The high cost of the staplers, in addition, is a secondary consideration.

  7. Distribution of active faulting along orogenic wedges: Minimum-work models and natural analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagupsky, Daniel L.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Whipple, Kelin X.; Duncan, Christopher C.; Bevis, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Numerical 2-D models based on the principle of minimum work were used to examine the space-time distribution of active faulting during the evolution of orogenic wedges. A series of models focused on thin-skinned thrusting illustrates the effects of arid conditions (no erosion), unsteady state conditions (accretionary influx greater than erosional efflux) and steady state conditions (accretionary influx balances erosional efflux), on the distribution of fault activity. For arid settings, a general forward accretion sequence prevails, although a significant amount of internal deformation is registered: the resulting fault pattern is a rather uniform spread along the profile. Under fixed erosional efficiency settings, the frontal advance of the wedge-front is inhibited, reaching a steady state after a given forward propagation. Then, the applied shortening is consumed by surface ruptures over a narrow frontal zone. Under a temporal increase in erosional efficiency (i.e., transient non-steady state mass balance conditions), a narrowing of the synthetic wedge results; a rather diffuse fault activity distribution is observed during the deformation front retreat. Once steady balanced conditions are reached, a single long-lived deformation front prevails. Fault activity distribution produced during the deformation front retreat of the latter scenario, compares well with the structural evolution and hinterlandward deformation migration identified in southern Bolivian Subandes (SSA) from late Miocene to present. This analogy supports the notion that the SSA is not in steady state, but is rather responding to an erosional efficiency increase since late Miocene. The results shed light on the impact of different mass balance conditions on the vastly different kinematics found in mountain ranges, suggesting that those affected by growing erosion under a transient unbalanced mass flux condition tend to distribute deformation along both frontal and internal faults, while others

  8. Predicting orogenic wedge styles as a function of analogue erosion law and material softening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mary, Baptiste C. L.; Maillot, Bertrand; Leroy, Yves M.

    2013-10-01

    The evolution of a compressive frictional wedge on a weak, frictional and planar décollement, subjected to frontal accretion, is predicted with a two step method called sequential limit analysis. The first step consists in finding, with the kinematic approach of limit analysis, the length of the active décollement and the dips of the emerging ramp and of the conjugate shear plane composing the emerging thrust fold. The second step leads to a modification of the geometry, first, because of the thrust fold development due to compression and, second, because of erosion. Erosion consists in removing periodically any material above a fictitious line at a selected slope, as done in analogue experiments. This application of sequential limit analysis generalizes the critical Coulomb wedge theory since it follows the internal deformation development. With constant frictional properties, the deformation is mostly diffuse, a succession of thrust folds being activated so that the topographic slope reaches exactly the theoretical, critical value. Frictional weakening on the ramps results in a deformation style composed of thrust sheets and horses. Applying an erosion slope at the critical topographic value leads to exhumation in the frontal, central, or rear region of the wedge depending on the erosion period and the weakening. Erosion at slopes slightly above or below the critical value results in exhumation toward the foreland or the hinterland, respectively, regardless of the erosion period. Exhumation is associated with duplexes, imbricate fans, antiformal stacks, and major backthrusting. Comparisons with sandbox experiments confirm that the thickness, dips, vergence, and exhumation of thrust sheets can be reproduced with friction and erosion parameters within realistic ranges of values.

  9. Observations of the Columbia River salt wedge and estuarine turbidity maximum using AUVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, C. L.; Shcherbina, A.; Litchendorf, T.; Sanford, T. B.; Martin, D.; Baptista, A. M.; Lopez, J.; Crump, B.

    2012-12-01

    We present detailed observations of the salt wedge and estuarine turbidity maxima (ETM) in the North Channel of the Columbia River estuary (OR, USA) under conditions of high river discharge during May 2012. Measurements were made using two REMUS-100 autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs; Hydroid, Inc.) equipped with SBE-49 CTDs (Seabird-Electronics, Inc.) for water temperature and salinity, upward/downward looking ADCPs (Teledyne RDI, Inc.) for currents, and ECO Puck triplets (WET Labs, Inc.) for optical backscatter measurement of turbidity. The acoustic backscatter intensity from the ADCP was also used as a proxy measurement for suspended sediments and was found to correlate quite well with the optical backscatter measurements. Daily forecasts of tidal currents in the estuary were used to simulate the AUV path in advance of deployment to aid data collection. Repeat AUV sections were made along and across the channel during flood tide. The turbidity and height above riverbed of the bottom boundary layer was observed to increase toward the deeper waters at the center of the channel. An ETM-like feature was observed ahead of the advancing salt wedge front with locally higher turbidity levels, presumably the result of flocculation and resuspension. To visualize better the repeat section measurements we made data movies. Each frame of the movie is our best estimate of a synoptic snapshot of along-section tracer distribution at a given point in time. These snapshots were created by re-location of non-synoptic AUV measurements to account for the advection of water parcels. An example data movie showing the intrusion of the salt wedge during the flood tide will be presented.

  10. The Superimposed Paleocene-Miocene Tectonics of the middle part of the Nallihan Wedge (NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Murat; Yaltirak, Cenk

    2015-04-01

    In the NW Turkey, the area between the suture zones of the Rhodope-Pontide Ocean and Izmir-Ankara Ocean, and North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and Thrace-Eskişehir Fault Zone (TEFZ) is known as the Nallıhan Wedge. The shape of Nallıhan Wedge is a 90 degree counter-clockwise rotated isosceles triangle. The northwestern boundary is a part of NAFZ and the southwestern boundary is a part of TEFZ. The 160 km-long eastern boundary is located at around Beypazarı and western corner is on the Bursa Plain. Nallıhan is situated at the centre of this isosceles triangle. While all the thrusts and folds shrink towards to the west and show an imbricate-like structure, the characteristics of the folds turn into to the open folds. Thrusts faults are locally observed as blind and almost perpendicular thrusts at the fold limbs towards to the east. The rocks of the study area show different characteristics according to their types and basins of formation. On the other hand the structural properties of these rocks display the effects of the closure of the Intra-Pontide and Izmir-Ankara Oceans in between Paleocene and Early Oligocene. During Miocene, the thrust faults reactivated and a deformation formed the NEE-SWW left lateral strike-slip faults parallel to these thrust faults. Whereas the first events are related to the closure of the branches of Neo-Tethys, the Miocene deformation is probably based on the Miocene tectonics of the Western Anatolia by the reason of equivalent age of the TEFZ. In this framework, the deformation of the Nallıhan Wedge presents significant information about the period between the evolution of Paleotectonic and Neotectonic of Turkey.

  11. Proximal Tibia Medial Biplanar Retrotubercle Open Wedge Osteotomy for Varus Knees with Medial Gonarthrosis

    PubMed Central

    Türkmen, İsmail; Esenkaya, İrfan; Ünay, Koray; Türkmensoy, Fatih; Özkut, Afşar Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the early results of proximal tibia medial biplanar retrotubercle open wedge osteotomy for varus gonarthrosis and compare the results with the literatüre. Methods: The results of proximal tibia medial biplanar retrotubercle open wedge osteotomy for 23 knees of 22 patients with medial gonarthrosis were evaluated clinically and radiologically. Results: Twenty of the patients were female and two were male. Mean age of the patients was 56.24; mean boy mass index was 31.95 and preoperative HSS (Hospital for Special Surgery) score was 68.7. Mean tibiofemoral axis was 186.39° and mean Insall-Salvatti index value was 1.04 preoperatively. Mean follow up period was 30.19 months. Mean HSS score was 86.48, femorotibial anatomic axis angle was 175° and Insall-Salvati index value 1.06 during the last follow-up. The improvement of the HSS score and the femorotibial anatomic axis angle was statistically significant. However, the change in Insall Salvati index values was statistically insignificant. Nonfatal pulmonary embolus in 1 patient, and deep vein thrombosis that occured one year after the procedure in 1 patient, rhabdomyolysis in 1 patient and loss of correction (relapse) in 1 patient were encountered as complications. Conclusion: Our results show that proximal tibia medial biplanar retrotubercle open wedge osteotomy improves the frontal and sagittal plane deformities without changing the patellar tendon length. Hence, possible patellofemoral problems are prevented and the clinical results are improved.

  12. Groundwater flow within a sub-aerial orogenic wedge subject to depth-dependent permeability structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollyea, R.; Van Dusen, E.; Fischer, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, investigators have revisited the problem of basin-scale fluid flow with an emphasis on depth-dependent permeability, which is a frequently observed geological phenomenon that is seldom accounted for in basin-scale flow models. These recent investigations have shown that depth-dependent permeability at the basin scale strongly influences the relationship between sub-basin and regional-scale flow paths. Here, we revisit topography driven fluid flow within a foreland basin using a numerical modeling experiment designed to assess first-order fluid system behavior when permeability decreases systematically with depth. Critical taper theory is invoked to define two-dimensional basin geometry, and three sub-aerially exposed orogenic wedge models are presented with critical taper angles of 2°, 4°, and 10°. To assess the combined influence of topographic slope and depth-dependent permeability, a constant rate infiltration is applied at the wedge surface and a transient simulation is performed within each model for 500,000 years. Our results suggest that fluid system structure within the narrowly tapering orogenic wedge (2°) is explained by recent investigations applying depth-decaying permeability to the classic Tóth basin; however, increasing topographic slope beyond 3° results in a fundamentally different fluid system architecture. As topographic slope increases, fluid system structure is characterized by (1) dominant regional flow paths and little, if any, sub-basin scale fluid circulation, (2) shallow meteoric water penetration, (3) a stratified distribution of groundwater residence time without pronounced stagnation points. Moreover, for a given detachment slope, these effects become more pronounced as topographic gradient increases.

  13. The effect of a compliant accretionary wedge on earthquake rupture and tsunamigenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotto, Gabriel; Jeppson, Tamara; Dunham, Eric; Tobin, Harold

    2016-04-01

    The 11 March 2011 Tohoku megathrust earthquake ruptured through the shallowest part of the subduction zone boundary, resulting in tens of meters of displacement at the seafloor. This extreme shallow slip generated a devastating tsunami. The elastic properties of off-fault materials have an important role in determining slip along a fault. Laboratory ultrasonic velocity measurements performed on samples of rock obtained from the area surrounding the Tohoku earthquake principal fault zone during the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST) have shown that shallow off-fault materials are extremely compliant - P-wave velocities of 2.0-2.4 km/s, S-wave velocities of 0.7-1.0 km/s, and shear moduli ranging from 1.0-2.2 GPa. Seismic imaging around the JFAST drill site corroborates the presence of a compliant, low-velocity frontal prism at the toe of the hanging wall. This compliant wedge is likely a fairly robust feature across the horizontal extent of the Japan Trench and may have contributed to the large amount of displacement recorded. In order to investigate the impact of compliant off fault materials on earthquake rupture and tsunamigenesis, we employ a 2-D finite difference method that models the full seismic and tsunami wavefield associated with dynamic rupture on a dipping fault in a heterogeneous medium. Our numerical method rigorously couples the elastodynamic response of the solid Earth to that of a compressible ocean in the presence of gravity. Idealized models of subduction zone earthquakes show that the presence of a compliant wedge leads to increased slip, greater seafloor displacement, and a larger tsunami. However, preliminary results for a representative Tohoku geometry were not so simple; the compliant wedge enhanced slip and seafloor deformation but only in a localized zone, and tsunami height was not significantly affected. This surprising result indicates that the details of geometry and material structure we observe in real subduction zones are

  14. Exhumation and subduction erosion in orogenic wedges: Insights from numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinther, Y.; Morra, G.; Funiciello, F.; Rossetti, F.; Faccenna, C.

    2012-06-01

    At oceanic margins, syn-convergent exhumation, subduction erosion, and inter-plate coupling are intimately related, but ample questions remain concerning their interaction and individual mechanisms. To analyze these interactions for a thick-skinned, visco-elastic wedge, we focus on properly modeling stresses, energies, and topographies at the inter-plate and wedge bounding interfaces using a Coulomb frictional contact algorithm. In this innovative plane-strain, free surface, Lagrangian finite element model, fault dynamics is modulated by retreating subduction. Subduction is dynamically driven by slab-pull due to a slab sinking in a semi-analytic, computationally favorable approximation of three-dimensional induced mantle flow. Nodal trajectories show that continuous underthrusting of a slab induces a steady state corner flow through forced underplating and subsequent trenchward extrusion due to gravitational spreading. This flow pattern confirms early-proposed models of syn-orogenic deep-seated rock exhumation propelled by coexisting extension and continuous shortening at depth. A distinct reduction in upward flowing material and accompanying decrease of exhumation velocities, to millimeters per year as observed in nature, is induced by a diversion of orogenic wedge material toward the mantle once a subduction channel is formed. The key parameter affecting model evolution and spontaneous formation of a subduction channel is basal friction, which modulates the amount of erosion. However, formation of a subduction channel entrance needs to be ensured through the deformability of the overriding plate, which is influenced by applied pressure at the overriding plate tip and material properties. The down dragging of the overriding plate is sufficient above a threshold inter-plate shear stress of about 2-7 MPa.

  15. Using cyclic steps on drift wedges to amend established models of carbonate platform slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betzler, Christian; Lindhorst, Sebastian; Eberli, Gregor; Reijmer, John; Lüdmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Hydroacoustic and sedimentological data of the western flank of Great Bahama Bank and Cay Sal Bank document how the interplay of offbank sediment export, along-slope transport, and erosion together shape facies and thickness distribution of slope deposits. The integrated data set depicts the combined product of these processes and allows formulating a comprehensive model of a periplatform drift that significantly amends established models of carbonate platform slope facies distribution and geometry. The basinward thinning wedge of the periplatform drift at the foot of the escarpment of Great Bahama Bank displays along- and down-slope variations in sedimentary architecture. Sediments consist of periplatform ooze, i.e. carbonate mud and muddy carbonate sand, coarsening basinward. In zones of lower contour current speed, depth related facies belts develop. In the upper part of the periplatform drift wedge in a water depth of 180 to 300 m and slope angles of 6° - 9° the seafloor displays a smooth surface. Parasound data indicate that this facies is characterized by a parallel layering. Basinward, the slope shows a distinct break at which the seafloor inclination diminishes to 1° to 2°. Downslope of this break, the drift wedge has a 3 - 4 km wide pervasive cover of bedforms down to a water depth of around 500 m. The steep flanks and internal stratification of the wavy bedforms face upslope, indicating upstream migration; the bedforms therefore share all the characteristics of cyclic step sedimentation. This is the first description of cyclic step sedimentation patterns in carbonate slope depositional systems. This new slope sedimentation model aids in understanding the complexity of carbonate slope sedimentation models with facies belts perpendicular and parallel to the platform margin. The new model sharply contrasts with existing slope facies models in which facies belts are solely positioned parallel to the platform margin.

  16. Experimental simulation of frost wedging-induced crack propagation in alpine rockwall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Hailiang; Leith, Kerry; Krautblatter, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Frost wedging is widely presumed to be the principal mechanism responsible for shattering jointed low-porosity rocks in high alpine rockwalls. The interaction of ice and rock physics regulates the efficacy of frost wedging. In order to better understand temporal aspects of this interaction, we present results of a series of laboratory experiments monitoring crack widening as a result of ice formation in an artificial crack (4mm wide, 80mm deep) cut 20 mm from the end of a rectangular granite block. Our results indicate that i) freezing direction plays a key role in determining the magnitude of crack widening; in short-term (1 day) experiments, maximum crack widening during top-down freezing (associated with 'autumn' conditions) was around 0.11mm, while inside-out freezing (resulting from 'spring' conditions) produced only 0.02 mm of deformation; ii) neither ice, nor water pressure (direct tension and hydraulic fracturing respectively) caused measurable irreversible crack widening during short-term tests, as the calculated maximum stress intensity at the crack tip was less than the fracture toughness of our granite sample; iii) development of ice pressure is closely related to the mechanical properties of the fracture in which it forms, and as such, the interaction of ice and rock is intrinsically dynamic; iv) irreversible crack widening (about 0.03mm) was only observed following a long-term (53 day) experiment representing a simplified transition from autumn to winter conditions. We suggest this is the result of stress corrosion aided by strong opening during freezing, and to a lesser degree by ice segregation up to one week after the initial freezing period, and downward migration of liquid water during the remainder of the test. Our results suggest the fundamental assumption of frost wedging, that rapid freezing from open ends of cracks can seal water inside the crack and thus cause damage through excessive stresses induced by volumetric expansion seems

  17. Hinterland-vergent tectonic wedge below the Riwat thrust, Himalayan foreland, Pakistan: Implications for hydrocarbon exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Jadoon, I.A.K.; Frisch, W.

    1997-03-01

    The Riwat thrust, with a surface trace of over 50 km, is one of the major faults in the footwall of the main boundary thrust in the Himalayan foreland of Pakistan. Surface geology shows that the Riwat thrust is a foreland-vergent thrust along which lower to middle Siwalik molasse strata are thrust southward over upper Siwalik strata. Seismic reflection interpretation shows that the Riwat thrust developed as a roof thrust of a hinterland-vergent tectonic wedge (triangle zone) underlain by evaporites. The Riwat thrust propagates upsection from depth of about 4 km at the base of the Siwalik Group. At this depth, it merges into a hinterland-vergent blind thrust that propagates upsection as a ramp from Eocambrian evaporites covering the basement at a depth of about 6 km. Bounded between this set of conjugate faults, a tectonic wedge of Eocambrian (evaporites) to Neogene strata is thrust toward the hinterland to form a triangle zone. The roof thrusts of triangles zones have been widely mapped as backthrusts in deformed mountain fronts. Hinterland motion of tectonic wedges as in the Riwat thrust triangle zone may be a feature of the fold-and-thrust belts underlain by evaporites acting as an extremely weak decollement layer. Their recognition, with a trap-forming geometry below a thrust, is important for interpreting particular fold belts and for hydrocarbon exploration. These structures could be predicted by the surface geology data where hinterland vergence of a fold below a thrust is apparent; however, seismic reflection data appear to be critical in recognizing these structures.

  18. Vibration and local edge buckling of thermally stressed, wedge airfoil cantilever wings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    The local edge buckling phenomena that can occur along the heated thin edge of a wedge shape airfoil is calculated. Qualitative comparison (qualitative only because the experimental temperature distribution was not measured) is made to the experimentally observed phenomena. The consequences of the assumption of identical vibration and buckling modes is shown by a comparison of results with and without the assumption of mode identity. Computer plots of the elastic surface as local buckling develops with increasing temperature are shown. The calculated, fully developed local edge buckling is compared to a photograph of a fully developed buckling as observed in the laboratory.

  19. Design, performance, and calibration of CMS hadron-barrel calorimeter wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullin, S.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B.; Adams, M.; Akchurin, N.; Akgun, U.; Anderson, E. W.; Antchev, G.; Ayan, S.; Aydin, S.; Baarmand, M.; Baden, D.; Banerjee, Sud.; Banerjee, Sun.; Bard, R.; Barnes, V.; Bawa, H.; Baiatian, G.; Bencze, G.; Beri, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.; Burchesky, K.; Camporesi, T.; Cankoçak, K.; Carrell, K.; Chendvankar, S.; Chung, Y.; Cremaldi, L.; Cushman, P.; Damgov, J.; de Barbaro, P.; Demianov, A.; de Visser, T.; Dimitrov, L.; Dugad, S.; Dumanoglu, I.; Duru, F.; Elias, J.; Elvira, D.; Emeliantchik, I.; Eno, S.; Ershov, A.; Eskut, E.; Fisher, W.; Freeman, J.; Gavrilov, V.; Genchev, V.; Gershtein, Y.; Golutvin, I.; Goncharov, P.; Grassi, T.; Green, D.; Gribushin, A.; Grinev, B.; Gülmez, E.; Gümüş, K.; Haelen, T.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hauptman, J.; Hazen, E.; Heering, A.; Imboden, M.; Isiksal, E.; Jarvis, C.; Johnson, K.; Kaftanov, V.; Kalagin, V.; Karmgard, D.; Kalmani, S.; Katta, S.; Kaur, M.; Kaya, M.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Kellogg, R.; Khmelnikov, A.; Kisselevich, I.; Kodolova, O.; Kohli, J.; Kolossov, V.; Korablev, A.; Korneev, Y.; Kosarev, I.; Krinitsyn, A.; Krokhotin, A.; Kryshkin, V.; Kuleshov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kunori, S.; Polatoz, A.; Laasanen, A.; Lawlor, C.; Lazic, D.; Levchuk, L.; Litvintsev, D.; Litov, L.; Los, S.; Lubinsky, V.; Lukanin, V.; Machado, E.; Mans, J.; Massolov, V.; Mazumdar, K.; Merlo, J. P.; Mescheryakov, G.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Miller, M.; Mondal, N.; Nagaraj, P.; Norbeck, E.; O'Dell, V.; Olson, J.; Onel, Y.; Onengut, G.; Ozdes-Koca, N.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Ozok, F.; Paktinat, S.; Patil, M.; Petrushanko, S.; Pikalov, V.; Piperov, S.; Podrasky, V.; Pompos, A.; Posch, C.; Qian, W.; Ralich, R.; Reddy, L.; Reidy, J.; Ruchti, R.; Rohlf, J.; Ronzhin, A.; Ryazanov, A.; Sanders, D. A.; Sanzeni, C.; Sarycheva, L.; Satyanarayana, B.; Schmidt, I.; Senchishin, V.; Sergeyev, S.; Serin-Zeyrek, M.; Sever, R.; Singh, J.; Sirunyan, A.; Skuja, A.; Sherwood, B.; Shumeiko, N.; Smirnov, V.; Sorokin, P.; Stefanovich, R.; Stolin, V.; Sudhakar, K.; Suzuki, I.; Talov, V.; Thomas, R.; Tully, C.; Turchanovich, L.; Ulyanov, A.; Vankov, I.; Vardanyan, I.; Verma, P.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vidal, R.; Vlassov, E.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Volkov, A.; Volodko, A.; Winn, D.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, S. X.; Zalan, P.; Zarubin, A.; Zeyrek, M.

    2008-05-01

    Extensive measurements have been made with pions, electrons and muons on four production wedges of the compact muon solenoid (CMS) hadron barrel (HB) calorimeter in the H2 beam line at CERN with particle momenta varying from 20 to 300 GeV/ c. The time structure of the events was measured with the full chain of preproduction front-end electronics running at 34 MHz. Moving-wire radioactive source data were also collected for all scintillator layers in the HB. The energy dependent time slewing effect was measured and tuned for optimal performance.