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Sample records for acai fruit euterpe

  1. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea mart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as "acai" found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has received c...

  2. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea Mart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as “açai” found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and their phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has rece...

  3. Phytochemical and nutrient composition of the freeze-dried amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Euterpe oleraceae is a large palm tree indigenous to the Amazon River and its tributaries and estuaries in South America. Its fruit, known as acai, is of great economic value to native people. In this study, a standardized freeze-dried acai fruit pulp/skin powder was used for all analyses and tests....

  4. Impact of solar dehydration on composition and antioxidant properties of acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    PubMed

    Sangronis, Elba; Sanabria, Neida

    2011-03-01

    Commercial products derived from the acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) are available in Brazil, but in Venezuela, it is only known by ethnic indigenous groups of the Amazon. In this study, acai flour was made by solar dehydration and the effect of processing on the composition, microbiological quality, and antioxidant properties of such flour were evaluated. The fruit was purchased in Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela, and a portion was manually pulped. Microbiological quality, proximal composition, minerals, polyphenols, tannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. The remaining portion of fruit was blanched in a solution of ascorbic acid and citric acid at 98 degrees C for 1 min in the same manner, manually pulped, dried by solar dehydration and the acai flour was also analysed. From the composition of the acai flour, its high content of fat (22.9%), protein (13.7%), dietary fibre (20.5%), total polyphenols (1.60 g/kg) and antioxidant capacity (79.97%) stood out. The blanching of the fruit and the solar dehydrating of the acai pulp did not modify the composition, but they improved its microbiological quality and reduced phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The flour obtained is stable and innocuous and could be used to diversify the diet of the indigenous people of the Amazon region.

  5. Antioxidant capacity and other bioactivities of the freeze-dried Amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fruit of Euterpe oleraceae, commonly known as acai, has been demonstrated to exhibit significantly high antioxidant capacity in vitro, especially for superoxide and peroxyl scavenging, and, therefore, may have possible health benefits. In this study, the antioxidant capacities of freeze-dried ac...

  6. Frozen fruit pulp of Euterpe oleraceae Mart. (Acai) prevents hydrogen peroxide-induced damage in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus of rats.

    PubMed

    Spada, Patricia D S; Dani, Caroline; Bortolini, Giovana V; Funchal, Claudia; Henriques, João A P; Salvador, Mirian

    2009-10-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in several human illnesses, including neurological disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Acai is largely consumed in Brazil and contains high levels of antioxidant compounds. This work aims to study the antioxidant activity of acai frozen fruit pulp in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated with the oxidizing agent hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Pretreatment of tissue with acai decreased H(2)O(2)-induced damage of both lipids and proteins in all tissues tested. This fruit was also able to reduce the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase to basal levels. We observed a negative correlation between the polyphenol content of acai and the levels of lipid (r = -0.689; P acai has a positive contribution in the development of age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Photoacoustic Study of Fungal Disease of Acai ( Euterpe oleracea) Seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, Denise V.; Nunes, O. A. C.; Oliveira, A. C.

    2009-10-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy is introduced as a promising experimental technique to investigate fungus infected Acai ( Euterpe oleracea) seeds. Photoacoustic spectra of healthy and infected Acai seeds with the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were recorded firstly in the modulation frequency range of 5Hz to 700 Hz, while keeping the wavelength of excitation radiation of a Xe arc-lamp constant, to ascertain the depth of penetration of infection within the seed and secondly, at variable wavelength (wavelength scanning) in the interval 250nm to 1,000 nm, while keeping the modulation frequency constant. In the former, the photoacoustic signal strength from the infected seed was found higher than that of the healthy one, and has been associated with the appearance of new biomolecules associated with the pathogen infection. In the latter, characteristics peaks and bands were observed in the range from 650 nm to 900 nm ascribed to organic compounds with carboxylates and amines (functional groups) forming the typical metabolic structures of the fungus.

  8. Antioxidant capacity and other bioactivities of the freeze-dried Amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai).

    PubMed

    Schauss, Alexander G; Wu, Xianli; Prior, Ronald L; Ou, Boxin; Huang, Dejian; Owens, John; Agarwal, Amit; Jensen, Gitte S; Hart, Aaron N; Shanbrom, Edward

    2006-11-01

    The fruit of Euterpe oleraceae, commonly known as acai, has been demonstrated to exhibit significantly high antioxidant capacity in vitro, especially for superoxide and peroxyl scavenging, and, therefore, may have possible health benefits. In this study, the antioxidant capacities of freeze-dried acai fruit pulp/skin powder (OptiAcai) were evaluated by different assays with various free radical sources. It was found to have exceptional activity against superoxide in the superoxide scavenging (SOD) assay, the highest of any food reported to date against the peroxyl radical as measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay with fluorescein as the fluorescent probe (ORACFL), and mild activity against both the peroxynitrite and hydroxyl radical by the peroxynitrite averting capacity (NORAC) and hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) assays, respectively. The SOD of acai was 1614 units/g, an extremely high scavenging capacity for O2*-, by far the highest of any fruit or vegetable tested to date. Total phenolics were also tested as comparison. In the total antioxidant (TAO) assay, antioxidants in acai were differentiated into "slow-acting" and "fast-acting" components. An assay measuring inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in freshly purified human neutrophils showed that antioxidants in acai are able to enter human cells in a fully functional form and to perform an oxygen quenching function at very low doses. Furthermore, other bioactivities related to anti-inflammation and immune functions were also investigated. Acai was found to be a potential cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibitor. It also showed a weak effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide but no effect on either lymphocyte proliferation and phagocytic capacity.

  9. Phytochemical and nutrient composition of the freeze-dried amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai).

    PubMed

    Schauss, Alexander G; Wu, Xianli; Prior, Ronald L; Ou, Boxin; Patel, Dinesh; Huang, Dejian; Kababick, James P

    2006-11-01

    Euterpe oleraceae is a large palm tree indigenous to the Amazon River and its tributaries and estuaries in South America. Its fruit, known as acai, is of great economic value to native people. In this study, a standardized freeze-dried acai fruit pulp/skin powder was used for all analyses and tests. Among many findings, anthocyanins (ACNs), proanthocyanidins (PACs), and other flavonoids were found to be the major phytochemicals. Two ACNs, cyandin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside were found to be predominant ACNs; three others were also found as minor ACNs. The total content of ACNs was measured as 3.1919 mg/g dry weight (DW). Polymers were found to be the major PACs. The concentration of total PACs was calculated as 12.89 mg/g DW. Other flavonoids, namely, homoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, scoparin, and taxifolin deoxyhexose, along with several unknown flavonoids, were also detected. Resveratrol was found but at a very low concentration. In addition, components including fatty acids, amino acids, sterols, minerals, and other nutrients were analyzed and quantified. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid, total monounsaturated fatty acid, and total saturated fatty acids contributed to 11.1%, 60.2%, and 28.7% of total fatty acid. Oleic acid (53.9%) and palmitic acid (26.7%) were found to be the two dominant fatty acids. Nineteen amino acids were found; the total amino acid content was determined to be 7.59% of total weight. The total sterols accounted for 0.048% by weight of powder. The three sterols B-sitosterol, campesterol, and sigmasterol were identified. A complete nutrient analysis is also presented. Microbiological analysis was also performed.

  10. Anthocyanin-rich acai (Euterpe oleracea mart.) fruit pulp fractions attenuate inflammatory stress signaling in mouse brain BV-2 microglial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related increases in oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with loss of cognitive and motor functions. Previous research has shown that supplementation with berry fruits can modulate signaling in primary hippocampal neurons or BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Because of the high polypheno...

  11. An Anthocyanin-Rich Extract of Acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) Increases Stress Resistance and Retards Aging-Related Markers in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Herbenya; Roxo, Mariana; Krstin, Sonja; Röhrig, Teresa; Richling, Elke; Wink, Michael

    2016-02-17

    Acai fruits (Euterpe precatoria) are rich in antioxidant anthocyanins. Acai consumption is believed to have many health benefits; however, relevant detailed scientific investigations are limited. The current study aimed to investigate an anthocyanin-rich extract from E. precatoria fruits (AE) with regard to its antioxidant and antiaging properties using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. AE can protect the worms against oxidative stress and can ameliorate accumulation of reactive oxygen species in vivo. The expression of stress-response genes, such as sod-3::GFP, was upregulated while hsp-16::GFP was down-regulated after AE treatment. Studies with DAF-16/FOXO mutants indicated that some of the antioxidant effects are mediated by this transcription factor. AE can modulate the development of age-related markers, such as pharyngeal pumping. Despite the apparent antioxidant activity, no lifespan-prolonging effect was observed. PMID:26809379

  12. An Anthocyanin-Rich Extract of Acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) Increases Stress Resistance and Retards Aging-Related Markers in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Herbenya; Roxo, Mariana; Krstin, Sonja; Röhrig, Teresa; Richling, Elke; Wink, Michael

    2016-02-17

    Acai fruits (Euterpe precatoria) are rich in antioxidant anthocyanins. Acai consumption is believed to have many health benefits; however, relevant detailed scientific investigations are limited. The current study aimed to investigate an anthocyanin-rich extract from E. precatoria fruits (AE) with regard to its antioxidant and antiaging properties using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. AE can protect the worms against oxidative stress and can ameliorate accumulation of reactive oxygen species in vivo. The expression of stress-response genes, such as sod-3::GFP, was upregulated while hsp-16::GFP was down-regulated after AE treatment. Studies with DAF-16/FOXO mutants indicated that some of the antioxidant effects are mediated by this transcription factor. AE can modulate the development of age-related markers, such as pharyngeal pumping. Despite the apparent antioxidant activity, no lifespan-prolonging effect was observed.

  13. Dietery acai fruit improves cognition in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Açai is a black-purple fruit (genus Euterpe) cultivated in the Amazon delta and in Brazil (Euterpe oleracea Mart.; EO), as well as Bolivia (Euterpe precatoria Mart.; EP). The fruit’s pulp is known to be rich in polyphenolics that may affect cell-to-cell signaling, receptor sensitivity, inflammatory...

  14. Dietary acai fruit improves cognition and mobility in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Açai is a black-purple fruit (genus Euterpe) cultivated in the Amazon delta and in Brazil (Euterpe oleracea Mart. -EO), as well as Bolivia (Euterpe precatoria Mart. - EP), and it is known to be rich in polyphenolics that may affect cell-to-cell signaling, receptor sensitivity, inflammatory enzyme ac...

  15. Modulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, autophagy and expression of Nrf2 in hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats fed with acai-enriched diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acai (Euterpe spp.), an exotic palm fruit, has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants with wide pharmacological and nutritional value. In this study, two different species of acai pulp extracts, naturally grown in two distinct regions of the Amazon, namely, Euterpe oleracea M...

  16. [Determination of β-sitosterol and total sterols content and antioxidant activity of oil in acai (Euterpe oleracea)].

    PubMed

    He, Cheng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Qu, Sheng-Sheng; Li, Jia-Jing; Wang, Lin-Yuan

    2014-12-01

    In order to establish a method for the determination of the sterols of the oil in the freeze-dried acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and to evaluate its antioxidant activities, a saponification/extraction procedure and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method were developed and validated for the analysis of phytosterols in PEE (Petroleum ether extract). Separation was achieved on a Purosper STAR LP C18 column with a binary, gradient solvent system of acetonitrile and isopropanol. Evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) was used to quantify β-sitosterol and the total sterols. Peak identification was verified by retention times and spikes with external standards. Standard curves were constructed (r = 0.999 2) to allow for sample quantification. Recovery of the saponification and extraction was demonstrated via analysis of spiked samples. The highest content of total sterols is β-sitosterol. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated using the total oxyradical scavenging capacity assay (TOSC assay). The result showed that the PEE exhibited significant antioxidant properties, sample concentration and the antioxidant capacity had a certain relevance.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and antioxidant effects after the consumption of anthocyanin-rich acai juice and pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) in human healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; Rios, Jolian; Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra; Pacheco-Palencia, Lisbeth A; Meibohm, Bernd; Talcott, Stephen T; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2008-09-10

    The acai berry is the fruit of the acai palm and is traditionally consumed in Brazil but has gained popularity abroad as a food and functional ingredient, yet little information exists on its health effect in humans. This study was performed as an acute four-way crossover clinical trial with acai pulp and clarified acai juice compared to applesauce and a non-antioxidant beverage as controls. Healthy volunteers (12) were dosed at 7 mL/kg of body weight after a washout phase and overnight fast, and plasma was repeatedly sampled over 12 h and urine over 24 h after consumption. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis of total anthocyanins quantified as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside showed Cmax values of 2321 and 1138 ng/L at t max times of 2.2 and 2.0 h, and AUC last values of 8568 and 3314 ng h L(-1) for pulp and juice, respectively. Nonlinear mixed effect modeling identified dose volume as a significant predictor of relative oral bioavailability in a negative nonlinear relationship for acai pulp and juice. Plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly increased by the acai pulp and applesauce. Individual increases in plasma antioxidant capacity of up to 2.3- and 3-fold for acai juice and pulp, respectively were observed. The antioxidant capacity in urine, generation of reactive oxygen species, and uric acid concentrations in plasma were not significantly altered by the treatments. Results demonstrate the absorption and antioxidant effects of anthocyanins in acai in plasma in an acute human consumption trial.

  18. Dietary supplementation with the polyphenol-rich açaí pulps (Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart.) improves cognition in aged rats and attenuates inflammatory signaling in BV-2 microglial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: The present study was carried out to determine if lyophilized acai fruit pulp (genus, Euterpe), rich in polyphenolics and other bioactive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals, is efficacious in reversing age-related cognitive deficits in aged rats. Methods: The diets of 19-mo...

  19. Functional role of walnuts and acai fruits on brain health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For survival and perpetuity, all plants, including fruit- or vegetable-bearing plants, synthesize an enormous number of secondary chemical compounds, widely known as phytochemicals. A plethora of research suggests that these phytochemicals extend a multitude of health benefits to humans, mainly thro...

  20. Effects of supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kłapcińska, B; Podgórski, T; Szade, B; Tyl, K; Hadzik, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether regular consumption of an acai berry-based juice blend would affect sprint performance and improve blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in junior athletes. Seven junior hurdlers (17.5±1.2 years) taking part in a pre-season conditioning camp were supplemented once a day, for six weeks, with 100 ml of the juice blend. At the start and the end of the camp the athletes performed a 300-m sprint running test on an outdoor track. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after the test and after 1 h of recovery. Blood antioxidant status was evaluated based on activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px], glutathione reductase [GR]), concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione [GSH], uric acid), total plasma polyphenols, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as muscle damage markers. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of the acai berry, the post-treatment changes in lipid profile parameters (triglycerides, cholesterol and its fractions) were analysed. Six weeks’ consumption of acai berry-based juice blend had no effect on sprint performance, but it led to a marked increase in the total antioxidant capacity of plasma, attenuation of the exercise-induced muscle damage, and a substantial improvement of serum lipid profile. These findings strongly support the view of the health benefits of supplementation with the acai berry-based juice blend, mainly attributed to its high total polyphenol content and the related high in vivo antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic activities of this supplement. PMID:26060341

  1. Effects of supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Krępa, E; Kłapcińska, B; Podgórski, T; Szade, B; Tyl, K; Hadzik, A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether regular consumption of an acai berry-based juice blend would affect sprint performance and improve blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in junior athletes. Seven junior hurdlers (17.5±1.2 years) taking part in a pre-season conditioning camp were supplemented once a day, for six weeks, with 100 ml of the juice blend. At the start and the end of the camp the athletes performed a 300-m sprint running test on an outdoor track. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after the test and after 1 h of recovery. Blood antioxidant status was evaluated based on activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px], glutathione reductase [GR]), concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione [GSH], uric acid), total plasma polyphenols, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as muscle damage markers. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of the acai berry, the post-treatment changes in lipid profile parameters (triglycerides, cholesterol and its fractions) were analysed. Six weeks' consumption of acai berry-based juice blend had no effect on sprint performance, but it led to a marked increase in the total antioxidant capacity of plasma, attenuation of the exercise-induced muscle damage, and a substantial improvement of serum lipid profile. These findings strongly support the view of the health benefits of supplementation with the acai berry-based juice blend, mainly attributed to its high total polyphenol content and the related high in vivo antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic activities of this supplement.

  2. Kinetic modeling of anthocyanin degradation and microorganism growth during postharvest storage of açai fruits (Euterpe oleracea).

    PubMed

    Rogez, Hervé; Akwie, Santuscha N L T; Moura, Fábio G; Larondelle, Yvan

    2012-12-01

    The unavoidable damage of açai (Euterpe oleracea) fruits (AF) during picking leads to microbial contamination and anthocyanin degradation, which prejudice the consumed fruit drink. Thirteen lots of AF (24 kg) from different municipal districts of the Pará State (Brazil) were monitored during a 75-h-long storage in the dark at 30 °C for microbial growth, and 7 lots for anthocyanin degradation. On arrival at the laboratory, anthocyanins presented a mean concentration of 828 mg kg(-1) fruits with a standard deviation of 323 mg kg(-1) fruits whereas mean microbial contamination was 2.64 10(6) CFU g(-1) of dry matter for total mesophilic bacteria, 1.98 10(3) MPN g(-1) DM for fecal coliforms, and 1.11 10(5) CFU g(-1) DM for moulds and yeasts. Kinetic growth of the microbes could be fitted to a quadratic equation with an unusual rapid growth during the 1st 24 h. The kinetics of anthocyanin degradation fitted a 1st-order equation. The mean velocity constant of the reaction (k(1)) was of 0.0137 h(-1) and the mean half-life (t(½)) of the anthocyanins was 50 h. These results indicate that the AF simultaneously suffer extensive anthocyanin degradation and explosive microbial growth during the postharvest period needing a special care.

  3. Toxicological evaluation of Euterpe edulis: a potential superfruit to be considered.

    PubMed

    Felzenszwalb, Israel; da Costa Marques, Monica Regina; Mazzei, José L; Aiub, Claudia A F

    2013-08-01

    Superfruits have a high nutritional value due to their richness in nutrients, antioxidants, proven or potential health benefits and taste appeal. However, there are no scientific criteria for defining which fruits are superfruits. In Brazil, several palms have an edible palm heart, the best known and most widely appreciated of which is called Acai (Euterpe oleracea). Euterpe edulis Mart., commonly called jussara, is an evergreen species that grows in the rainforest. Having initially been consumed in the form of juice and pulp, they have since been incorporated as an ingredient in many foods. A risk assessment to identify adverse health effects is a prerequisite for taking forward the development of new drugs, cosmetics and foods. To make a toxicological evaluation of E. edulis, in the present work this prerequisite was met by an interdisciplinary network that performed mass spectroscopy analyses, blood biochemistry, genotoxicity, bacterial reverse mutation and cytotoxicity assays. Positive mutagenicity results were detected for Salmonella typhimurium TA97 at low doses, and positive results were also obtained for the mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus assay, indicating that the pulp of E. edulis contains compounds with the capacity to induce mutagenicity and clastogenic/aneugenic effects.

  4. Restoration of stressor-induced calcium dysregulation and autophagy inhibition by polyphenol-rich acai (Euterpe sps.) fruit pulp extracts in rodent brain cells in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and nucleic acids in brain often causes progressive neuronal degeneration and death which are the focal traits of chronic and acute pathologies in the brain, including those involving cognitive decline. It has been postulated that at least part of the loss of cog...

  5. Karyotype and genome size in Euterpe Mart. (Arecaceae) species.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ludmila Cristina; de Oliveira, Maria do Socorro Padilha; Davide, Lisete Chamma; Torres, Giovana Augusta

    2016-01-01

    Euterpe (Martius, 1823), a genus from Central and South America, has species with high economic importance in Brazil, because of their palm heart and fruits, known as açaí berries. Breeding programs have been conducted to increase yield and establish cultivation systems to replace the extraction of wild material. These programs need basic information about the genome of these species to better explore the available genetic variability. The aim of this study was to compare Euterpe edulis (Martius, 1824), Euterpe oleracea (Martius, 1824) and Euterpe precatoria (Martius, 1842), with regard to karyotype, type of interphase nucleus and nuclear DNA amount. Metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei from root tip meristematic cells were obtained by the squashing technique and solid stained for microscope analysis. The DNA amount was estimated by flow cytometry. There were previous reports on the chromosome number of Euterpe edulis and Euterpe oleracea, but chromosome morphology of these two species and the whole karyotype of Euterpe precatoria are reported for the first time. The species have 2n=36, a number considered as a pleisomorphic feature in Arecoideae since the modern species, according to floral morphology, have the lowest chromosome number (2n=28 and 2n=30). The three Euterpe species also have the same type of interphase nuclei, classified as semi-reticulate. The species differed on karyotypic formulas, on localization of secondary constriction and genome size. The data suggest that the main forces driving Euterpe karyotype evolution were structural rearrangements, such as inversions and translocations that alter chromosome morphology, and either deletion or amplification that led to changes in chromosome size.

  6. Karyotype and genome size in Euterpe Mart. (Arecaceae) species

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ludmila Cristina; de Oliveira, Maria do Socorro Padilha; Davide, Lisete Chamma; Torres, Giovana Augusta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euterpe (Martius, 1823), a genus from Central and South America, has species with high economic importance in Brazil, because of their palm heart and fruits, known as açaí berries. Breeding programs have been conducted to increase yield and establish cultivation systems to replace the extraction of wild material. These programs need basic information about the genome of these species to better explore the available genetic variability. The aim of this study was to compare Euterpe edulis (Martius, 1824), Euterpe oleracea (Martius, 1824) and Euterpe precatoria (Martius, 1842), with regard to karyotype, type of interphase nucleus and nuclear DNA amount. Metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei from root tip meristematic cells were obtained by the squashing technique and solid stained for microscope analysis. The DNA amount was estimated by flow cytometry. There were previous reports on the chromosome number of Euterpe edulis and Euterpe oleracea, but chromosome morphology of these two species and the whole karyotype of Euterpe precatoria are reported for the first time. The species have 2n=36, a number considered as a pleisomorphic feature in Arecoideae since the modern species, according to floral morphology, have the lowest chromosome number (2n=28 and 2n=30). The three Euterpe species also have the same type of interphase nuclei, classified as semi-reticulate. The species differed on karyotypic formulas, on localization of secondary constriction and genome size. The data suggest that the main forces driving Euterpe karyotype evolution were structural rearrangements, such as inversions and translocations that alter chromosome morphology, and either deletion or amplification that led to changes in chromosome size. PMID:27186334

  7. Açai Palm Fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Pulp Improves Survival of Flies on a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoping; Seeberger, Jeanne; Alberico, Thomas; Wang, Chunxu; Wheeler, Charles T.; Schauss, Alexander G.; Zou, Sige

    2010-01-01

    Reducing oxidative damage is thought to be an effective aging intervention. Açai, a fruit indigenous to the Amazon, is rich in phytochemicals that possesses high anti-oxidant activities, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease properties. However, little is known about its potential anti-aging properties especially at the organismal level. Here we evaluated the effect of açai pulp on modulating lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that açai supplementation at 2% in the food increased the lifespan of female flies fed a high fat diet compared to the non-supplemented control. We measured transcript changes induced by açai for age-related genes. Although transcript levels of most genes tested were not altered, açai increased the transcript level of l(2)efl, a small heat-shock-related protein, and two detoxification genes, gstD1 and mtnA, while decreasing the transcript level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck), a key gene involved in gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, açai increased the lifespan of oxidative stressed females caused by sod1 RNAi. This suggests that açai improves survival of flies fed a high fat diet through activation of stress response pathways and suppression of Pepck expression. Açai has the potential to antagonize the detrimental effect of fat in the diet and alleviate oxidative stress in aging. PMID:20080168

  8. Açai palm fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp improves survival of flies on a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoping; Seeberger, Jeanne; Alberico, Thomas; Wang, Chunxu; Wheeler, Charles T; Schauss, Alexander G; Zou, Sige

    2010-03-01

    Reducing oxidative damage is thought to be an effective aging intervention. Açai, a fruit indigenous to the Amazon, is rich in phytochemicals that possesses high anti-oxidant activities, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease properties. However, little is known about its potential anti-aging properties especially at the organismal level. Here we evaluated the effect of açai pulp on modulating lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that açai supplementation at 2% in the food increased the lifespan of female flies fed a high fat diet compared to the non-supplemented control. We measured transcript changes induced by açai for age-related genes. Although transcript levels of most genes tested were not altered, açai increased the transcript level of l(2)efl, a small heat-shock-related protein, and two detoxification genes, GstD1 and MtnA, while decreasing the transcript level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck), a key gene involved in gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, açai increased the lifespan of oxidative stressed females caused by sod1 RNAi. This suggests that açai improves survival of flies fed a high fat diet through activation of stress response pathways and suppression of Pepck expression. Açai has the potential to antagonize the detrimental effect of fat in the diet and alleviate oxidative stress in aging.

  9. Pain Reduction and Improvement in Range of Motion After Daily Consumption of an Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Pulp–Fortified Polyphenolic-Rich Fruit and Berry Juice Blend

    PubMed Central

    Ager, David M.; Redman, Kimberlee A.; Mitzner, Marcie A.; Benson, Kathleen F.; Schauss, Alexander G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Dietary interventions involving antioxidants are of interest for reducing inflammation, improving joint motion, and altering pain perception. We evaluated the effect of oral consumption of a fruit and berry blend on pain and range of motion (ROM). This open-label clinical pilot study involved 14 study participants with limitations in ROM that was associated with pain and affected daily living. Participants included but were not limited to those with age-related osteoarthritis. Study participants consumed 120 mL MonaVie Active® fruit juice, predominantly containing açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and other fruit concentrates, daily for 12 weeks. Study participants were assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks by structured nurse interviews, pain and activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaires, blood samples, and ROM assessment. Pain was scored by using a visual analogue scale. ROM was assessed by using dual digital inclinometry as recommended by American Medical Association guidelines. Consumption of the juice resulted in significant pain reduction, improved ROM measures, and improvement in ADLs. Serum antioxidant status, as monitored by the cell-based antioxidant protection in erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay, was improved within 2 weeks and continued to improve throughout the 12 weeks of study participation (P<.01). The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein was reduced at 12 weeks, but this change did not reach statistical significance. Lipid peroxidation decreased mildly at 12 weeks. The antioxidant status, as measured by the CAP-e bioassay, showed the best correlation with improvements in physical well-being (pain, ROM, and ADL). The significant association among increased antioxidant status, improved ROM, and pain reduction warrants further study. PMID:21470042

  10. Anticonvulsant properties of Euterpe oleracea in mice.

    PubMed

    Souza-Monteiro, José Rogerio; Hamoy, Moisés; Santana-Coelho, Danielle; Arrifano, Gabriela P F; Paraense, Ricardo S O; Costa-Malaquias, Allan; Mendonça, Jackson R; da Silva, Rafael F; Monteiro, Wallena S C; Rogez, Hervé; de Oliveira, Diogo L; do Nascimento, José Luiz M; Crespo-López, Maria Elena

    2015-11-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a highly consumed fruit in Amazon, is from a common palm with remarkable antioxidant properties. Because oxidative stress and seizures are intimately linked, this study investigated the potential neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of commercial clarified açai juice (EO). EO did not alter spontaneous locomotor activity. Four doses of EO were sufficient to increase latencies to both first myoclonic jerk and first generalized tonic-clonic seizure and significantly decrease the total duration of tonic-clonic seizures caused by pentylenetetrazol administration. Also, electrocortical alterations provoked by pentylenetetrazol were prevented, significantly decreasing amplitude of discharges and frequencies above 50 Hz. EO was also able to completely prevent lipid peroxidation in the cerebral cortex, showing a potent direct scavenging property. These results demonstrate for the first time that E. oleracea significantly protects against seizures and seizure-related oxidative stress, indicating an additional protection for humans who consume this fruit.

  11. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTHOCYANINS AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF EUTERPE EDULIS FRUITS: APPLICABILITY ON GENETIC DYSLIPIDEMIA AND HEPATIC STEATOSIS IN MICE.

    PubMed

    Marques Cardoso, Luciana; Dias Novaes, Rômulo; Aparecida de Castro, Cynthia; Azevedo Novello, Alexandre; Vilela Gonçalves, Reggiani; Ricci-Silva, Maria Esther; de Oliveira Ramos, Humberto Josué; Gouveia Peluzio, Maria do Carmo; Viana Leite, João Paulo

    2015-08-01

    El papel de los polifenoles en la prevención de enfermedades crónicas es controvertido. Objetivo: este estudio investigó la composición química y el potencial antioxidante de un extracto del fruto de Euterpe edulis rico en antocianinas (LPEF) y sus efectos en la esteatosis hepática en ratones apoE-/- knockout con dislipidemia. Material y métodos: los ratones fueron divididos en los siguientes grupos; G1 (C57BL/6) con una dieta estándar; G2 (apoE-/-) con dieta estándar; G3 G3 (apoE-/-) con 2% de LPEF; G4 (apoE-/-) con 6% de LPEF; G5 (apoE-/-) con 10% de LPEF y G6 (apoE-/-) con 2% acetato α-tocoferol (α-tocopherol acetate). Después de 75 días de tratamiento, los animales fueron eutanizados. El LPEF contenía un alto nivel de antocianinas monoméricas (301,4 mg/100 g) con notable actividad antioxidante. Resultados: la actividad catalasa fue reducida en los grupos G3, G4, G5 y G6 comparada con G2. La superoxidasa dismutasa solo se redujo en el grupo G4. Los animales de G4, G5 y G6 mostraron bajos niveles de HDL triglicéridos, comparados con G2. La proporción de lípidos en el tejido hepático fue reducida en G4 y G5, comparado con G2, G3 y G6. Conclusión: los resultados indicaron que la pulpa de E. edulis es rica en antocianinas, y que el consumo de LPEF en la dieta puede reducir la severidad de la esteatosis hepática en ratones apoE-/-, un efecto que es potencialmente mediado por la actividad antioxidante de este extracto y la modulación en los niveles séricos de triglicéridos.

  12. Effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on consumer acceptance of fruit juices with different concentrations of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    PubMed

    Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruit juices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruit juices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruit juices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruit juices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruit juices that claim a particular health benefit. PMID:19467277

  13. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of Euterpe oleraceae Mart. (Arecaceae) fruit oil (açaí), in mammalian cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Marques, E S; Froder, J G; Carvalho, J C T; Rosa, P C P; Perazzo, F F; Maistro, E L

    2016-07-01

    E. oleracea is a tropical plant from the Amazon region, with its fruit used for food, and traditionally, as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, for atherosclerotic disease, and has anticancer properties. The oil of the fruit has antidiarrheic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, but without genotoxicity evaluation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of E. oleracea fruit oil (EOO), in rat cells. Male Wistar rats were treated with EOO by gavage at doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, for 14 days, within a 24 h interval. The DNA damage in the leukocytes, liver, bone marrow and testicular cells, was assessed by the comet assay, and the clastogenic/aneugenic effects in the bone marrow cells, by the micronucleus test. Our phytochemicals characterization of the EOO showed the presence of vanillic, palmitic, γ-linolenic, linoleic, oleic, cinnamic, caffeic, protocatechuic, ferulic, syringic acids, and flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol rutinoside as the main constituents. Both cytogenetic tests performed showed that EOO presented no significant genotoxic effects in the analyzed cells, at the three tested doses. These results indicate that, under our experimental conditions, E. oleracea fruit oil did not reveal genetic toxicity in rat cells. PMID:27125964

  14. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of Euterpe oleraceae Mart. (Arecaceae) fruit oil (açaí), in mammalian cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Marques, E S; Froder, J G; Carvalho, J C T; Rosa, P C P; Perazzo, F F; Maistro, E L

    2016-07-01

    E. oleracea is a tropical plant from the Amazon region, with its fruit used for food, and traditionally, as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, for atherosclerotic disease, and has anticancer properties. The oil of the fruit has antidiarrheic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, but without genotoxicity evaluation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of E. oleracea fruit oil (EOO), in rat cells. Male Wistar rats were treated with EOO by gavage at doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, for 14 days, within a 24 h interval. The DNA damage in the leukocytes, liver, bone marrow and testicular cells, was assessed by the comet assay, and the clastogenic/aneugenic effects in the bone marrow cells, by the micronucleus test. Our phytochemicals characterization of the EOO showed the presence of vanillic, palmitic, γ-linolenic, linoleic, oleic, cinnamic, caffeic, protocatechuic, ferulic, syringic acids, and flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol rutinoside as the main constituents. Both cytogenetic tests performed showed that EOO presented no significant genotoxic effects in the analyzed cells, at the three tested doses. These results indicate that, under our experimental conditions, E. oleracea fruit oil did not reveal genetic toxicity in rat cells.

  15. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children.

    PubMed

    Bittman, Mark E; Callahan, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality.

  16. Inhibitory effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. on nitric oxide production and iNOS expression.

    PubMed

    Matheus, Maria Eline; de Oliveira Fernandes, Sidnei Bessa; Silveira, Cristiane Silva; Rodrigues, Verônica Pinto; de Sousa Menezes, Fabio; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2006-09-19

    The palm Euterpe oleracea is a plant of great economic value in Brazil. Although the heart of palm extracted from its trunk is considered a delicacy the world over, its fruits are popular only among Brazilians. In some poor regions of Brazil, there are reports on the popular use of its juice in the treatment of several disorders, mainly those of oxidative onset as cardiovascular ones. Because of its wide utilization; because there are very few scientific studies of this species, and to discover if its use in folk medicine for problems related with oxidation is in fact justifiable, we decided, in this study, to evaluate the effects of Euterpe oleracea flowers, fruits and spikes fractions on: nitric oxide (NO) production, NO scavenger capacity, and on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase enzyme, as well. Results showed that the fractions obtained from fruits were the most potent in inhibiting NO production, followed by those from flowers and spikes. Only in high doses, did some fractions reduce cell viability. Reduction on NO production was not due to NO scavenger activity. These results were accompanied by inhibition of iNOS expression. The more pronounced effect was observed in the fractions in which the concentration of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rhamnoside were higher. To sum up, our results indicate that fractions from Euterpe oleracea inhibits NO production by reducing the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. PMID:16635558

  17. Variability in the antioxidant activity of dietary supplements from pomegranate, milk thistle, green tea, grape seed, goji, and acai: effects of in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Huang, Jianjun; Lee, Ru-Po; Trang, Amy; Nuernberger, Gloria; Heber, David

    2014-05-14

    The antioxidant activity (AA) of fruits and vegetables has been thoroughly investigated but less is known about the AA of dietary supplements (DS). We therefore assessed the AA of three to five DS each from pomegranate, milk thistle, green tea, grapes, goji, and acai using four widely used standard methods. The secondary objective was to determine the effects of in vitro digestion on their AA. The AA of the DS prior to digestion ranked as follows: pomegranate > resveratrol > green tea > grape seed > milk thistle and very low in goji and acai with significant group variability in AA. The AA after in vitro simulated digestion of the mouth, stomach, and small intestine compared to undigested supplement was decreased for green tea and grape seed but increased for pomegranate, resveratrol, milk thistle, goji, and acai to various extents. Although polyphenols provide the major antioxidant potency of the tested supplements, our observations indicate that digestion may alter antioxidant properties depending in part on the variations in polyphenol content.

  18. Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.): a tropical fruit with high levels of essential minerals-especially manganese-and its contribution as a source of natural mineral supplementation.

    PubMed

    da Silva Santos, Vivian; de Almeida Teixeira, Gustavo Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Açaí is a fruit from the Brazilian Amazon region, with an exotic flavor, possessing high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on these properties, the fruit is classified as one of the new "super fruits." The mean daily consumption of açai pulp may reach 300 ml in several Brazilian regions. Further, this fruit is also gaining popularity in Europe and North America. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the levels of some essential minerals in freeze-dried açaí pulp obtained in different Brazilian locations. It was found that açaí pulp is rich in essential minerals (Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn), but the levels of copper (Cu) and especially manganese (Mn) are surprisingly markedly higher than the traditional sources of these elements in the human diet. A daily consumption of 300 ml açaí pulp leads to a Mn daily intake exceeding at least sixfold (14.6 mg on average) the reference daily intake for an adult. Consequently, Mn intake may surpass the permitted daily maximum intake of 11 mg, which leads to a special concern, particularly for children, vegetarians, and individuals with anemia, since iron (Fe) absorption is impaired by Mn. Our findings demonstrate that this fruit is a potential source of several nutrients and a good dietary supplement to resolve malnutrition problems. However, due to the expressive levels of Mn, further studies are necessary to evaluate potential adverse effects associated with açaí consumption. PMID:24555649

  19. Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.): a tropical fruit with high levels of essential minerals-especially manganese-and its contribution as a source of natural mineral supplementation.

    PubMed

    da Silva Santos, Vivian; de Almeida Teixeira, Gustavo Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Açaí is a fruit from the Brazilian Amazon region, with an exotic flavor, possessing high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on these properties, the fruit is classified as one of the new "super fruits." The mean daily consumption of açai pulp may reach 300 ml in several Brazilian regions. Further, this fruit is also gaining popularity in Europe and North America. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the levels of some essential minerals in freeze-dried açaí pulp obtained in different Brazilian locations. It was found that açaí pulp is rich in essential minerals (Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn), but the levels of copper (Cu) and especially manganese (Mn) are surprisingly markedly higher than the traditional sources of these elements in the human diet. A daily consumption of 300 ml açaí pulp leads to a Mn daily intake exceeding at least sixfold (14.6 mg on average) the reference daily intake for an adult. Consequently, Mn intake may surpass the permitted daily maximum intake of 11 mg, which leads to a special concern, particularly for children, vegetarians, and individuals with anemia, since iron (Fe) absorption is impaired by Mn. Our findings demonstrate that this fruit is a potential source of several nutrients and a good dietary supplement to resolve malnutrition problems. However, due to the expressive levels of Mn, further studies are necessary to evaluate potential adverse effects associated with açaí consumption.

  20. Neuroprotective Effects of Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) against Rotenone In Vitro Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Andreazza, Ana Cristina; da Silva, Tatiane Morgana; do Nascimento, Vanusa; Duong, Angela; Ribeiro, Euler Esteves

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric diseases, such as bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ), have a very complex pathophysiology. Several current studies describe an association between psychiatric illness and mitochondrial dysfunction and consequent cellular modifications, including lipid, protein, and DNA damage, caused by cellular oxidative stress. Euterpe oleracea (açaí) is a powerful antioxidant fruit. Açaí is an Amazonian palm fruit primarily found in the lowlands of the Amazonian rainforest, particularly in the floodplains of the Amazon River. Given this proposed association, this study analyzed the potential in vitro neuropharmacological effect of Euterpe oleracea (açaí) extract in the modulation of mitochondrial function and oxidative metabolism. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with rotenone to induce mitochondrial complex I dysfunction and before and after we exposed the cells to açaí extract at 5 μg/mL. Treated and untreated cells were then analyzed by spectrophotometric, fluorescent, immunological, and molecular assays. The results showed that açaí extract can potentially increase protein amount and enzyme activity of mitochondrial complex I, mainly through NDUFS7 and NDUFS8 overexpression. Açaí extract was also able to decrease cell reactive oxygen species levels and lipid peroxidation. We thus suggest açaí as a potential candidate for drug development and a possible alternative BD therapy. PMID:27781077

  1. Cytotoxic effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. in malignant cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Euterpe oleracea Mart., a plant from the Amazon region, is commonly known as açaí or juçara; it has high nutritional value and elevated levels of lipids, proteins, and minerals. Açaí is an abundant and much consumed fruit by the Amazon local population, and studies have demonstrated that it is rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test this plant for anticancer activity in different human malignant cell lines. Methods Cell lines derived from breast and colorectal adenocarcinomas were treated with 10, 20, and 40 μg/mL of bark, seed, and total açaí fruit hydroalcoholic extracts for 24 and 48 h. After treatment, cell viability was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, and cell morphological features were observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The type of cell death was also evaluated. The data were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s or Tukey’s post hoc tests, as appropriate. Results We observed that of all the cell lines tested, MCF-7 was the only line that responded to açaí treatment. The extracts caused significant reduction (p < 0.01) in cell viability and altered cell morphological features by inducing the appearance of autophagic vacuoles, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, increased expression of LC3BII, a protein marker of autophagosome formation, was observed by western blotting. Caspase Glo™ assays and morphologic observations by DAPI nuclear staining and transmission electron microscopy did not indicate any apoptotic events. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that açaí possesses antitumorigenic potential in the MCF-7 cell line. Further studies are needed to identify the compound (s) responsible for this cytotoxic activity and the molecular target in the cell. This discovery of the

  2. Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Garzón, G Astrid; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Gruppen, Harry

    2017-02-15

    Berries of Colombian Euterpe oleracea Mart. were analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC), anthocyanin (ACN) content, and antioxidant activity. Additionally, reversed-phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (RP-UHPLC-PDA) and heated electrospray ionization (HESI) multistage mass spectrometry (MS(n)) were used to determine the composition of phenolic compounds. Anthocyanin content was 0.57±0.39mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/g fresh weight (FW) and TPC was 6.07±2.17mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g FW. The ABTS radical scavenging activity was 3.1±1.3μmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/100g FW, whereas the DPPH value was 2693.1±332.8μmol TE/100g FW. Overall, results show that Colombian açai has a more diverse polyphenolic profile and higher antioxidant activity than Brazilian açai. This information could be useful in authentification procedures to differentiate Brazilian açai from Colombian açai when used as an alternative for the supply of this fruit during the time of shortage in Brazil. PMID:27664647

  3. Genetic structure, mating system, and long-distance gene flow in heart of palm (Euterpe edulis Mart.).

    PubMed

    Gaiotto, F A; Grattapaglia, D; Vencovsky, R

    2003-01-01

    We report a detailed analysis of the population genetic structure, mating system, and gene flow of heart of palm (Euterpe edulis Mart.-Arecaceae) in central Brazil. This palm is considered a keystone species because it supplies fruits for birds and rodents all year and is intensively harvested for culinary purposes. Two populations of this palm tree were examined, using 18 microsatellite loci. The species displays a predominantly outcrossed mating system (tm = 0.94), with a probability of full sibship greater than 70% within open-pollinated families. The following estimates of interpopulation genetic variation were calculated and found significant: FIT = 0.17, FIS = 0.12, FST = 0.06, and RST = 0.07. This low but significant level of interpopulation genetic variation indicates high levels of gene flow. Two adult trees were identified as likely seed parents (P > 99.9%) of juveniles located at a distance of 22 km. Gene flow over such distances has not been reported before for tropical tree species. The establishment and management of in situ genetic reserves or ex situ conservation and breeding populations for E. edulis should contemplate the collection of several hundreds open-pollinated maternal families from relatively few distant populations to maximize the genetic sampling of a larger number of pollen parents. PMID:14557393

  4. Synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects of fruit mixtures on total antioxidant capacities and bioactive compounds in tropical fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Carolina da Silva; Wurlitzer, Nedio Jair; Dionisio, Ana Paula; Lacerda Soares, Marcia Valéria; Rocha Bastos, Maria do Socorro; Elesbão Alves, Ricardo; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work was investigate the synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects of fruit mixtures on total antioxidant capacities and bioactive compounds in tropical fruit juices, and optimize its formulation by the response surface methodology based on the responses: total polyphenols (TP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ascorbic acid content and sensorial acceptance. Camu-camu, acerola and acai were the major factors that influenced the antioxidant potential of the juice; and the yellow mombin showed a positive effect on the acceptance of the tropical juice. It was observed an/antagonistic effect between acerola and camu-camu for the TAC response. The optimum formulation obtained was 20% acerola, 10% camu-camu, 10% yellow mombin, 10% cashew apple and 10% acai, which was responsible for a response of 155.46 mg.100 g(-1) of ascorbic acid, 103.01 mg of GAE.100 g-1 of TP, 10.27 µM Trolox g(-1) of TAC and approximately 6.1 of acceptance. PMID:26817384

  5. The risks of introduction of the Amazonian palm Euterpe oleracea in the Atlantic rainforest.

    PubMed

    Tiberio, F C S; Sampaio-E-Silva, T A; Matos, D M S; Antunes, A Z

    2016-02-01

    The introduction of a species may alter ecological processes of native populations, such as pollination and dispersal patterns, leading to changes in population structure. When the introduced and the native species are congeners, interference in pollination can also lead to hybridization. We aimed to understand the ecological aspects of Euterpe oleracea introduction in the Atlantic forest and the possible consequences for the conservation of the native congener Euterpe edulis. We analysed the population structure of palm populations, including hybrids, and observed the interaction with frugivorous birds of both palm species after E. oleracea introduction. We observed that E. edulis had significantly lower density and a smaller number of seedlings when occurring with E. oleracea. Native and introduced Euterpe species shared nine frugivorous bird species. E. oleracea and hybrids had dispersed outside the original planting area. Consequently, the risks of introduction of E. oleracea may mostly be related to the disruption of interactions between E. edulis and frugivorous birds and the spontaneous production of hybrids. Finally, the cultivation of E. oleracea and hybrids in Atlantic rainforest could affect the conservation of the already endangered E. edulis.

  6. The risks of introduction of the Amazonian palm Euterpe oleracea in the Atlantic rainforest.

    PubMed

    Tiberio, F C S; Sampaio-E-Silva, T A; Matos, D M S; Antunes, A Z

    2016-02-01

    The introduction of a species may alter ecological processes of native populations, such as pollination and dispersal patterns, leading to changes in population structure. When the introduced and the native species are congeners, interference in pollination can also lead to hybridization. We aimed to understand the ecological aspects of Euterpe oleracea introduction in the Atlantic forest and the possible consequences for the conservation of the native congener Euterpe edulis. We analysed the population structure of palm populations, including hybrids, and observed the interaction with frugivorous birds of both palm species after E. oleracea introduction. We observed that E. edulis had significantly lower density and a smaller number of seedlings when occurring with E. oleracea. Native and introduced Euterpe species shared nine frugivorous bird species. E. oleracea and hybrids had dispersed outside the original planting area. Consequently, the risks of introduction of E. oleracea may mostly be related to the disruption of interactions between E. edulis and frugivorous birds and the spontaneous production of hybrids. Finally, the cultivation of E. oleracea and hybrids in Atlantic rainforest could affect the conservation of the already endangered E. edulis. PMID:26909625

  7. Effects of clarification on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant capacity and quality attributes of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Leiliane Teles; de Freitas Cabral, Marília; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; de Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane; de Miranda, Maria Raquel Alcântara; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Gomes, Carmen Luiza

    2014-11-01

    The effects of a clarifying process using pectinases and chitosan on the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant capacity and quality attributes of açaí fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice were evaluated. Clarification of acaí pulp resulted (P ≤ 0.05) in a 50 % loss of total anthocyanin (4.2730 mg/100 mL) and 29 % reduction in antioxidant capacity (33.60 μM FeSO4/g). A high association (P ≤ 0.05) was found between the decrease of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin loss. The use of pectinases associated with chitosan as an aid for clarification of açaí juice proved to be highly effective and resulted in a clear juice with a brighter purple to red color that was free of lipids, insoluble solids, and others substances that cause hazes. The obtained clarified açaí juice is a genuinely high-value anthocyanin-rich product that could be used as colorant and functional ingredient to fruit juices and soft drinks. PMID:26396323

  8. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lage, Nara Nunes; Lopes, Juliana Márcia Macedo; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day) for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG) content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress. PMID:27642496

  9. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lage, Nara Nunes; Lopes, Juliana Márcia Macedo; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day) for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG) content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress.

  10. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Renata Rebeca; de Abreu, Isabel Cristina Mallosto Emerich; Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Lage, Nara Nunes; Lopes, Juliana Márcia Macedo; Silva, Maísa; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day) for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG) content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress. PMID:27642496

  11. Anthocyanins present in selected tropical fruits: acerola, jambolão, jussara, and guajiru.

    PubMed

    de Brito, Edy Sousa; de Araújo, Manuela Cristina Pessanha; Alves, Ricardo Elesbão; Carkeet, Colleen; Clevidence, Beverly A; Novotny, Janet A

    2007-11-14

    Many tropical fruits are rich in anthocyanins, though limited information is available about the characterization and quantification of these anthocyanins. The identification and quantification of anthocyanin pigments in four tropical fruits were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. Fruits studied included acerola (Malphigia emarginata), jussara (Euterpe edulis), jambolão (Syzygium cumini), and guajiru (Chrysobalanus icaco). All four fruits were found to contain anthocyanin pigments. Anthocyanidin backbones included cyanidin, delphinidin, peonidin, pelargonidin, petunidin, and malvidin. Guajiru contained several acylated forms, while acerola, jussara, and jambolão contained only nonacylated glycosides. These results demonstrate that these tropical fruits are rich in anthocyanins and that the anthocyanins are widely ranging in anthocyanidin backbone, glycosylation, and acylation.

  12. THE CONSUMPTION OF ACAI PULP CHANGES THE CONCENTRATIONS OF PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR INHIBITOR-1 AND EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) IN APPARENTLY HEALTHY WOMEN.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Pereira, Izabelle; Moreira Cançado Mascarenhas Pontes, Tereza Cristina; Lima Vieira, Renata Adrielle; de Freitas Folly, Gilce Andrezza; Cacilda Silva, Fernanda; Pereira de Oliveira, Fernando Luiz; Ferreira do Amaral, Joana; Nascimento de Freitas, Renata; Pinheiro Volp, Ana Carolina

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: la obesidad, que se caracteriza por el exceso de adiposidad, se asocia con disfunción endotelial y posible estado inflamatorio con liberación de citoquinas que determinan la función endotelial y pueden desencadenar enfermedades crónicas. El patrón de dieta está asociado con la síntesis de estas citoquinas. Los frutos de el acai, que es rico en flavonoides, tienen un efecto directo y positivo en el control de este proceso inflamatorio a través de los ejercicios de la capacidad antioxidante. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto del consumo de pulpa de acai en los marcadores inflamatorios, las medidas antropométricas, la composición corporal y los parámetros bioquímicos y dietéticos en mujeres sanas. Métodos: cuarenta mujeres fueron divididas en 25 eutróficas y 15 con sobrepeso. Se las adeministró 200 g de pulpa de acai durante 4 semanas. Antes y después de la intervención se evaluaron: medidas antropométricas, composición corporal, marcadores inflamatorios, datos bioquímicos, ingesta dietética y antioxidantes en la dieta. Resultados y discusión: después de la intervención, hubo un aumento significativo de EGF (p = 0,021) y PAI-1 (p = 0,011) en las mujeres con sobrepeso. Por otra parte, en las mujeres eutróficas hubo aumento del peso corporal (p = 0,031), el índice de masa corporal (p = 0,028), el porcentaje de grasa del tronco (p = 0,003) y el espesor del pliegue cutáneo del tríceps (p = 0,046). Sin embargo, el espesor del pliegue cutáneo (p = 0,018) y la grasa corporal total (p = 0,016) se redujeron en las mujeres con sobrepeso. Hubo una reducción de la proteína total (p = 0,049) debida a la disminución de globulina (p = 0,005), pero el estado nutricional se mantuvo en el grupo eutrófico. Conclusión: la ingesta de 200 g de pulpa de acai modula el EGF y PAI-1 de expresión, posiblemente por la modulación del acai en los parámetros de la composición corporal, la dieta, clínicos, bioquímicos e inflamatorios, lo que dio

  13. A Spectral Comparison of the M Asteroid 75 Eurydike and S Asteroid 27 Euterpe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busarev, V. V.

    1996-09-01

    75 Euridyke and 27 Euterpe were observed under small phase angles and air mass differences with the same reference star of solar type (HD11170) in the course of a night. A scanning spectrophotometer operating in the mode of photon counting in the {3380--7617 Angstroms} range with a resolution of {48 Angstroms} mounted on the 1.25-m telescope in Crimea was used. The obtained reflectance spectra are similar in general shapes to those of other asteroids of corresponding classes [1]. So the bodies may have ordinary contents. On the spectra there are the following absorption features exeeded the error limits (RMSD). For 75 Eurydike these are at {5100 Angstroms} ( ~ 10% with a width of ~ {200 Angstroms}) and {6300 Angstroms} ( ~ 8% with a width of ~ {300 Angstroms}). For 27 Euterpe there are {5100 Angstroms} and {5650 Angstroms} (3--4% with widths of {200 Angstroms}), {6000 Angstroms} and {6550 Angstroms} (2--3% with widths of {400--500 Angstroms}) weak absorption bands. The common spectral features on the bodies at {5100 Angstroms} and {5650 Angstroms} may be a result of crystal-field transitions of Fe(2+) in pyroxenes as in lunar those [2]. The specific absorption band for 75 Eurydike at {6300 Angstroms} may be caused by charge transfer transitions Fe(2+) -Fe(3+) in oxidized pyroxenes as on Earth [4]. The features on the 27 Euterpe's spectra at {6000 Angstroms} and {6550 Angstroms} may arise in oxidized Fe-Ni metal and spinel-group minerals as on other S asteroids [3]. The results show that regolithes of both M and S asteroids may contain pyroxenes and Fe-Ni metal including their oxidized states as common factors influencing optical properties of the bodies. REFERENCES: 1. Chapman C. R. and M. J. Gaffey 1979. In: "Asteroids"(T. Gehrels, Ed.), p. 655--687. Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson. 2. Hazen R. M. et al. 1978. In: "Proc. LPSC 9th", p. 2919--2934. 3. Hiroi T. and F. Vilas 1996. "Icarus", V.119, p. 202--208. 4. Wagner J. K. et al. 1987. "Icarus", V.69, p. 14--28.

  14. Effects of Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry preparation on metabolic parameters in a healthy overweight population: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of açai fruit pulp on risk factors for metabolic disorders in overweight subjects. The açaí palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), which is native to South America, produces a small, black-purple fruit which is edible. The fruit has recently become popular as a functional food due to its antioxidant potential. Although several studies have been conducted in vitro and with animals, little is known about the potential health benefits in humans aside from an increase in plasma anti-oxidant capacity. Metabolic syndrome is a condition which is defined by a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and/or type-2 diabetes. Preliminary studies indicate that a reduction in reactive oxygen species can assist in the normalization of the metabolic pathways involved in this syndrome. Methods This was an open label pilot study conducted with 10 overweight adults (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and ≤ 30 kg/m2) who took 100 g açai pulp twice daily for 1 month. The study endpoints included levels of fasting plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, exhaled (breath) nitric oxide metabolites (eNO) and plasma levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). The response of blood glucose, blood pressure and eNO to a standardized meal was determined at baseline and following the 30 day treatment. Results Compared to baseline, there were reductions in fasting glucose and insulin levels following the 30 day treatment (both p < 0.02). There was also a reduction in total cholesterol (p = 0.03), as well as borderline significant reductions in LDL-cholesterol and the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol (both p = 0.051). Compared to baseline, treatment with açai ameliorated the post-prandial increase in plasma glucose following the standardized meal, measured as the area under the curve (p = 0.047). There was no effect on blood pressure, hs-CRP or eNO. Conclusion In this uncontrolled pilot study, consumption

  15. Hydraulic architecture and photoinhibition influence spatial distribution of the arborescent palm Euterpe edulis in subtropical forests.

    PubMed

    Gatti, M Genoveva; Campanello, Paula I; Villagra, Mariana; Montti, Lía; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2014-06-01

    Physiological characteristics of saplings can be considered one of the most basic constraints on species distribution. The shade-tolerant arborescent palm Euterpe edulis Mart. is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. At a local scale, saplings of this species growing in native forests are absent in gaps. We tested the hypothesis whether sensitivity to photoinhibition or hydraulic architecture constrains the distribution of E. edulis saplings in sun-exposed forest environments. Using shade houses and field studies, we evaluated growth, survival, hydraulic traits and the susceptibility of Photosystem II to photoinhibition in E. edulis saplings under different growth irradiances. Survival rates in exposed sites in the field were very low (a median of 7%). All saplings exhibited photoinhibition when exposed to high radiation levels, but acclimation to a high radiation environment increased the rate of recovery. Petiole hydraulic conductivity was similar across treatments regardless of whether it was expressed per petiole cross-sectional area or per leaf area. At the plant level, investment in conductive tissues relative to leaf area (Huber values) increased with increasing irradiance. Under high irradiance conditions, plants experienced leaf water potentials close to the turgor-loss point, and leaf hydraulic conductance decreased by 79% relative to its maximum value. Euterpe edulis saplings were able to adjust their photosynthetic traits to different irradiance conditions, whereas hydraulic characteristics at the leaf level did not change across irradiance treatments. Our results indicate that uncoupling between water demand and supply to leaves apparently associated with high resistances to water flow at leaf insertion points, in addition to small stems with low water storage capacity, weak stomatal control and high vulnerability of leaves to hydraulic dysfunction, are the main ecophysiological constraints that prevent the growth and

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of polyphenolics from açai (Euterpe oleracea Martius) in intestinal myofibroblasts CCD-18Co cells.

    PubMed

    Dias, Manoela Maciel dos Santos; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Noratto, Giuliana; Roque-Andrade, Andrea; Stringheta, Paulo César; Talcott, Stephen; Ramos, Afonso Mota; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2015-10-01

    The demand for tropical fruits high in polyphenolics including açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been increasing based on ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of açai polyphenolics in human colon myofibroblastic CCD-18Co cells to investigate the suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mRNA and protein expression of inflammatory proteins. Non-cytotoxic concentrations of açai extract, 1-5 mg gallic acid equivalent L(-1), were selected. The generation of ROS was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and açai extract partially reversed this effect to 0.53-fold of the LPS-control. Açai extract (5 mg GAE L(-1)) down-regulated LPS-induced mRNA-expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNF-α (to 0.42-fold), cyclooxygenase 2, COX-2 (to 0.61-fold), toll-like receptor-4, TLR-4 (to 0.52-fold), TNF receptor-associated factor 6, TRAF-6 (to 0.64-fold), nuclear factor kappa-B, NF-κB (to 0.76-fold), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, VCAM-1 (to 0.71-fold) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1, ICAM-1 (to 0.68-fold). The protein levels of COX-2, TLR-4, p-NF-κB and ICAM-1 were induced by LPS and the açai extract partially reversed this effect in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest the anti-inflammatory effect of açai polyphenolic extract in intestinal cells are at least in part mediated through the inhibition of ROS and the expression of TLR-4 and NF-κB. Results indicate the potential for açai polyphenolics in the prevention of intestinal inflammation. PMID:26243669

  17. Genetic differentiation of Euterpe edulis Mart. populations estimated by AFLP analysis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, S R; Eloy, N B; Provan, J; Cardoso, M A; Ferreira, P C

    2000-11-01

    Heart-of-palm (Euterpe edulis Mart.) is a wild palm with a wide distribution throughout the Atlantic Rainforest. Populations of E. edulis represent important renewable natural resources but are currently under threat from predatory exploitation. Furthermore, because the species is indigenous to the Atlantic Rainforest, which is located in the most economically developed and populated region of Brazil, social and economic pressures have devastated heart-of-palm forests. In order to estimate the partitioning of genetic variation of endangered E. edulis populations, 429 AFLP markers were used to analyse 150 plants representing 11 populations of the species distribution range. Analysis of the genetic structure of populations carried out using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed moderate genetic variation within populations (57. 4%). Genetic differentiation between populations (FST = 0.426) was positively correlated with geographical distance. These results could be explained by the historical fragmentation of the Atlantic coastal region, together with the life cycle and mating system. The data obtained in this work should have important implications for conservation and future breeding programmes of E. edulis. PMID:11091311

  18. Seed deposition patterns and the survival of seeds and seedlings of the palm Euterpe edulis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizo, Marco A.; Simão, Isaac

    2001-08-01

    The seed deposition pattern created by a seed disperser is one of the components of the efficiency of a species as seed disperser, and ultimately may influence the recruitment of a plant species. In this study, we used the seeds of a bird-dispersed forest palm, Euterpe edulis, to investigate the effects of two distinct seed deposition patterns created by birds that defecate (clumped pattern) and regurgitate seeds (loose-clumped pattern) on the survival of seeds experimentally set in an E. edulis-rich site, and of seedlings grown under shade-house conditions. The study was conducted in the lowland forest of Parque Estadual Intervales, SE Brazil. Clumped and loose-clumped seeds were equally preyed upon by rodents and insects. Although clumped and isolated seedlings had the same root weight after 1 year, the isolated seedlings survived better and presented more developed shoots, suggesting intraspecific competition among clumped seedlings. Our results indicate that animals that deposit E. edulis seeds in faecal clumps (e.g. cracids, tapirs) are less efficient seed dispersers than those that regurgitate seeds individually (e.g. trogons, toucans). Intraspecific competition among seedlings growing from faecal clumps is a likely process preventing the occurrence of clumps of adult palms.

  19. Seed size variation in the palm Euterpe edulis and the effects of seed predators on germination and seedling survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizo, Marco A.; Von Allmen, Christiane; Morellato, L. Patricia C.

    2006-05-01

    Intraspecific variation in seed size is common in wild plant populations and has important consequences for the reproductive success of individual plants. Multiple, often conflicting evolutionary forces mediated by biotic as well as abiotic agents may maintain such a variation. In this paper we assessed seed size variation in a population of the threatened, commercially important palm Euterpe edulis in southeast Brazil. We investigated (i) how this variation affects the probability of attack by vertebrate and invertebrate post-dispersal seed predators, and (ii) if seed size influences the outcome of seeds damaged by beetles in terms of seed germination and early survival of seedlings. Euterpe edulis seeds varied in diameter from 8.3 to 14.1 mm. Neither insects nor rodents selected the seeds they preyed upon based on seed size. Seed germination and total, shoot and root biomasses of one-year seedlings were significantly and positively affected by seed size. Root biomass and seedling survival were negatively affected by seed damage caused by a scolytid beetle ( Coccotrypes palmarum) whose adults bore into seeds to consume part of the endosperm, but do not oviposit on them. Seed size had a marginally significant effect on seedling survival. Therefore, if any advantage is accrued by E. edulis individuals producing large seeds, this is because of greater seed germination success and seedling vigor. If this is so, even a relatively narrow range of variation in seed size as observed in the E. edulis population studied may translate into differential success of individual plants.

  20. Fruit Flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a botanical sense, fruits are the developed part of the seed-containing ovary. Evolutionarily speaking, plants have developed fruit with the goal of attracting insects, birds, reptiles and mammals to spread the seeds. Fruit can be dry such as the pod of a pea, or fleshy such as a peach. As humans...

  1. Post-harvest nutraceutical behaviour during ripening and senescence of 8 highly perishable fruit species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Neves, Leandro Camargo; Tosin, Jéssica Milanez; Benedette, Ronaldo Moreno; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2015-05-01

    The post-harvest nutraceutical characteristics of highly perishable native fruits species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region were studied during 12 day at 15 ± 1 °C and 95 ± 3% RH. Uxi and caja fruit showed climacteric behaviour while caju, açai de terra firme, camu-camu, inajá, murici and araçá-boi were non-climacteric. Soluble solids and sugars increased for climacteric fruit while total acidity remained constant for all fruits. In general, all fruit species had high levels of total phenolics (121-9889 mg GAE 100 g(-1) dry weight pulp), vitamin C (31-1532 mg AA 100 mL(-1) juice) and antioxidant activity (AOX) (75-288 1 μmol Trolox Eq 100 g(-1) dry weight, ORAC value), however, camu-camu, acai and murici were among the highest. All fruits showed an increase in phenolic content (15-82%), a simultaneous decrease in ascorbic acid in both peel (88-98%) and pulp (89-97%), while AOX increased or decreased depending on the fruit species, very likely due to the specific phenolic profile being synthesized. We propose a hypothetical model where ripening/senescence induced a redox homeostasis imbalance which in turn triggered the responses.

  2. Açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) berry extract exerts neuroprotective effects against β-amyloid exposure in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wong, Daphne Yiu San; Musgrave, Ian Francis; Harvey, Benjamin Scott; Smid, Scott Darryl

    2013-11-27

    The native South American palm açaí berry (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) has high polyphenolic and antioxidant levels. This study examined whether açaí berry extract afforded protection against β-amyloid (Aβ)-mediated loss of cell viability and oxidative stress associated with anti-fibrillar effects. PC12 cells were exposed to either Aβ1-42, Aβ25-35 or tert butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), alone or in the presence of açaí extract (0.5-50μg/ml). Thioflavin T (ThT) binding assay and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine effects of açaí extract on Aβ1-42 fibril morphology and compared to açaí phenolics gallic acid, cyanidin rutinoside and cyanidin glucoside. Exposure to Aβ1-42, Aβ25-35 or t-BHP decreased PC12 cell viability. Pretreatment with açaí extract significantly improved cell viability following Aβ1-42 exposure, however Aβ25-35 or t-BHP-mediated viability loss was unaltered. Açaí extract inhibited ThT fluorescence and disrupted Aβ1-42 fibril and aggregate morphology. In comparison with other phenolics, açaí was most effective at inhibiting Aβ1-42 aggregation. Inhibition of β-amyloid aggregation may underlie a neuroprotective effect of açaí.

  3. Genetic diversity and recruitment of the tropical palm, Euterpe edulis Mart., in a natural population from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Conte, R; Nodari, R O; Vencovsky, R; dos Reis, M Sedrez

    2003-10-01

    The genetic diversity and recruitment of plants of heart-of-palm tree (Euterpe edulis Mart.) were investigated in a natural population located in Southern Brazil. Five categories of plants, from seedlings to adults, were analysed using 16 allozymic loci. The results showed an average population level of genetic diversity (He=0.278) greater than the average of plant species already studied. The recruitment process of E. edulis is related to its genetic characteristics. A significant increase in the heterozygote frequency towards the adult stages was observed at three loci (Pgdh-2, G6pdh-1 and Mdh-1). This suggests the possible action of natural selection in promoting such heterozygote increase. In the same way, a linear increase in allele frequencies was observed at four loci (Prx-3, Prx-4, Pgdh-2 and G6pdh-1), indicating that recruitment is also related to a greater survival of individuals that are carriers of certain alleles. The maintenance of high diversity levels, as well as the increase in the heterozygote frequency, are positive aspects for in situ conservation. Furthermore, an increase in heterozygote frequency is favourable to the management of the species, since the maintenance of a stock of reproductive individuals with high heterozygosity levels favours the maintenance of the population dynamic and structure. PMID:14512956

  4. Bamboo thickets alter the demographic structure of Euterpe edulis population: A keystone, threatened palm species of the Atlantic forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rother, Débora Cristina; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro; Pizo, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    The rapid spread of bamboos can strongly affect forest structure by interfering plant regeneration and reducing local biodiversity. Considering that bamboos exert a negative influence on the plant community, our main goal was to investigate how this influence manifests at the population level. We compared the demographic structure of the threatened palm Euterpe edulis between bamboo and non-bamboo dominated patches within the Atlantic forest. In the study site, the native bamboo Guadua tagoara has created a marked patchiness and heterogeneity in the vegetation. Plots were set up randomly in bamboo and non-bamboo patches and the heights of all E. edulis individuals were measured. Data from canopy openness and litter depth were collected for both patches. Greater number of E. edulis was recorded in bamboo patches. However, frequency distribution of the height classes differed between patches revealing a predominance of seedling and sapling I classes in bamboo patches, in comparison to a more evenly distribution of height classes in non-bamboo patches. The canopy in bamboo patches was more open and the litter depth was thicker. Our analyses evidenced G. tagoara is functioning as a demographic bottleneck of natural population of E. edulis by arresting its later stages of regeneration and in high densities that bamboos may limit recruitment of this palm species.

  5. Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Modulates Oxidative Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans by Direct and Indirect Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bonomo, Larissa de Freitas; Silva, David Nunes; Boasquivis, Patrícia Ferreira; Paiva, Franciny Aparecida; Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Martins, Talita Alves Faria; de Jesus Torres, Álvaro Gustavo; de Paula, Igor Thadeu Borges Raposo; Caneschi, Washington Luiz; Jacolot, Philippe; Grossin, Nicolas; Tessier, Frederic J.; Boulanger, Eric; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; de Paula Oliveira, Riva

    2014-01-01

    Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Despite its claimed pharmacological and nutraceutical value, studies regarding the effects of açaí in vivo are limited. In this study, we use the Caenorhabditis elegans model to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant properties of açaí on an organismal level and to examine its mechanism of action. Supplementation with açaí aqueous extract (AAE) increased both oxidative and osmotic stress resistance independently of any effect on reproduction and development. AAE suppressed bacterial growth, but this antimicrobial property did not influence stress resistance. AAE-increased stress resistance was correlated with reduced ROS production, the prevention of sulfhydryl (SH) level reduction and gcs-1 activation under oxidative stress conditions. Our mechanistic studies indicated that AAE promotes oxidative stress resistance by acting through DAF-16 and the osmotic stress response pathway OSR-1/UNC-43/SEK-1. Finally, AAE increased polyglutamine protein aggregation and decreased proteasome activity. Our findings suggest that natural compounds available in AAE can improve the antioxidant status of a whole organism under certain conditions by direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:24594796

  6. Use of the palm Euterpe edulis martius in landscape units managed by migrants of German origin in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People influence their environments through the manipulation of landscapes and species. Human influence on the landscape may lead to the development of differentiated landscape units that originate from past use and may be related to the presence of certain species. This study investigated the presence of the palm Euterpe edulis and its current and past importance in landscape units established by a community of German descendants located in southern Brazil. The objectives of this study were to characterize the use of the species, to identify the importance of E.edulis for the German immigrant community, to identify past and current uses of E.edulis, to describe the historical use of the landscape, and lastly, to identify landscape units in which E.edulis is found. Methods The researched community is composed of people of German descent residing in southern Brazil. A variety of research tools were used to achieve the objectives of the research. Semi-structured interviews and free-listings were conducted in all family units. The interviews focused on groups of people in the community who had current or historical connection with the species. Group workshops and guided tours were conducted to identify different landscape units. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, use-value index, citation frequency, salience index, and informant perception analysis. Results Over the historical period studied, the community demonstrated changes with respect to economic activities. These changes are reflected in the transformation of the landscape. The species E.edulis was and still is very important for people in the community; its importance is reflected in its high use value, citation frequency and salience. The species is found within various landscape units in the community as well as in homegardens and in secondary forests. Conclusions The landscape heterogeneity of this community is influenced by changes in economic activities and by the relationship

  7. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  8. The association between chromaticity, phenolics, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity of frozen fruit pulp in Brazil: an application of chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Ávila, Suelen; Ito, Vivian; Nogueira, Alessandro; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro

    2014-04-01

    A total of 19 Brazilian frozen pulps from the following fruits: açai (Euterpe oleracea), blackberry (Rubus sp.), cajá (Spondias mombin), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), coconut (Cocos nucifera), grape (Vitis sp.), graviola (Annona muricata), guava (Psidium guajava), papaya (Carica papaya), peach (Prunus persica), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pineapple and mint (A. comosus and Mentha spicata), red fruits (Rubus sp. and Fragaria sp.), seriguela (Spondias purpurea), strawberry (Fragaria sp.), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), umbu (Spondias tuberosa), and yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) were analyzed in terms of chromaticity, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, which showed significant (P < 0.01) correlation with total phenolic compounds (r = 0.88 and 0.70, respectively), total flavonoids (r = 0.63 and 0.81, respectively), and total monomeric anthocyanins (r = 0.59 and 0.73, respectively). PCA explained 74.82% of total variance of data, and the separation into 3 groups in a scatter plot was verified. Three clusters also suggested by HCA, corroborated with PCA, in which cluster 3 was formed by strawberry, red fruits, blackberry, açaí, and grape pulps. This cluster showed the highest contents of total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity.

  9. The association between chromaticity, phenolics, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity of frozen fruit pulp in Brazil: an application of chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Ávila, Suelen; Ito, Vivian; Nogueira, Alessandro; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro

    2014-04-01

    A total of 19 Brazilian frozen pulps from the following fruits: açai (Euterpe oleracea), blackberry (Rubus sp.), cajá (Spondias mombin), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), coconut (Cocos nucifera), grape (Vitis sp.), graviola (Annona muricata), guava (Psidium guajava), papaya (Carica papaya), peach (Prunus persica), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pineapple and mint (A. comosus and Mentha spicata), red fruits (Rubus sp. and Fragaria sp.), seriguela (Spondias purpurea), strawberry (Fragaria sp.), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), umbu (Spondias tuberosa), and yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) were analyzed in terms of chromaticity, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, which showed significant (P < 0.01) correlation with total phenolic compounds (r = 0.88 and 0.70, respectively), total flavonoids (r = 0.63 and 0.81, respectively), and total monomeric anthocyanins (r = 0.59 and 0.73, respectively). PCA explained 74.82% of total variance of data, and the separation into 3 groups in a scatter plot was verified. Three clusters also suggested by HCA, corroborated with PCA, in which cluster 3 was formed by strawberry, red fruits, blackberry, açaí, and grape pulps. This cluster showed the highest contents of total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity. PMID:24547813

  10. Oral treatment with Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) extract improves cardiac dysfunction and exercise intolerance in rats subjected to myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart., popularly known as “açaí”, on rats subjected to myocardial infarction (MI). Methods Hydroalcoholic extracts of açaí were obtained from a decoction of the seeds. Two male Wistar rat groups were delineated: 1) the sham-operated group (control, n = 6), with no surgical amendment, and 2) the MI group (n = 12), in which the anterior descendent coronary artery was occluded during surgery. MI group was divided into two subgroups, in which rats were either treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Euterpe oleracea seeds (100 mg/kg/day p.o.) or received no treatment. Treatment began on the day of surgery, and lasted 4 weeks. Subsequently, rats were subject to an exercise test protocol, hemodynamic evaluation, and histological analysis of the left ventricle. Groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s test. Results The total running distance of sham rats was 1339.0 ± 276.6 m, MI rats was 177.6 ± 15.8 m (P < 0.05), and MI-açaí rats was 969.9 ± 362.2 m. Systolic arterial pressure was significantly decreased in MI rats (86.88 ± 4.62 mmHg) compared to sham rats (115.30 ± 7.24 mmHg; P < 0.05). Açaí treatment prevented a reduction in systolic arterial pressure (130.00 ± 8.16 mmHg) compared to MI rats (P < 0.05). Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure was significantly augmented in MI rats (17.62 ± 1.21 mmHg) compared to sham rats (4.15 ± 1.60 mmHg; P < 0.05), but was 3.69 ± 2.69 mmHg in açaí-treated rats (P < 0.05 vs. MI). The LV relaxation rate (-dp/dt) was reduced in MI rats compared to the sham group, whereas açaí treatment prevented this reduction. Açaí treatment prevented cardiac hypertrophy and LV fibrosis in MI rats. Conclusions Euterpe oleracea treatment of MI rats prevented the development of exercise intolerance, cardiac

  11. How Do Fruits Ripen?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

  12. Consumption of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) functional beverage reduces muscle stress and improves effort tolerance in elite athletes: a randomized controlled intervention study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Peixoto, Jacqueline; Moura, Mirian Ribeiro Leite; Cunha, Felipe Amorim; Lollo, Pablo Christiano B; Monteiro, Walace David; Carvalho, Lucia Maria Jaeger de; Farinatti, Paulo de Tarso Veras

    2015-07-01

    The study analyzed the effect of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) functional beverage (AB) on muscle and oxidative stress markers, cardiorespiratory responses, perceived exertion, and time-to-exhaustion during maximal treadmill running. The beverage was developed as an ergogenic aid for athletes and contained 27.6 mg of anthocyanins per dose. Fourteen athletes performed 3 exercise tests: a ramp-incremental maximal exercise test and 2 maximal exercise bouts performed in 2 conditions (AB and without AB (control)) at 90% maximal oxygen uptake. Blood was collected at baseline and after maximal exercise in both conditions to determine biomarkers. AB increased time to exhaustion during short-term high-intensity exercise (mean difference: 69 s, 95% confidence interval = -296 s to 159 s, t = 2.2, p = 0.045), attenuating the metabolic stress induced by exercise (p < 0.05). AB also reduced perceived exertion and enhanced cardiorespiratory responses (p < 0.05). The AB may be a useful and practical ergogenic aid to enhance performance during high-intensity training. PMID:26140415

  13. Pro-apoptotic activities of polyphenolics from açai (Euterpe oleracea Martius) in human SW-480 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dias, Manoela Maciel dos Santos; Noratto, Giuliana; Martino, Hercia Stampini Duarte; Arbizu, Shirley; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Talcott, Stephen; Ramos, Afonso Mota; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the cell growth inhibition activity of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) polyphenolic extract against colon cancer HT-29 and SW-480 cells and the nonmalignant CCD-18Co colon fibroblast cells. Results showed that açai polyphenolic extract (5-20 mg/L) inhibited preferentially the growth of SW-480 cells with no toxicity in CCD-18Co cells, and this was accompanied by reduction of H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The mechanisms involved in SW-480 cell growth-inhibition by açai polyphenolic extract included the downregulation of NF-κB proinflammatory transcription factor and the nuclear factor-kappa B targets intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Furthermore, prooncogenic specificity proteins (Sp) were downregulated as well as Sp-targets Bcl-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and survivin. This was accompanied by activation of mitochondrial proapoptotic pathway involving increase of cytochrome c, cleavage of caspase-3, and decrease of PARP-1. Results strongly suggest that açai polyphenolic extract has antiinflammatory and cytotoxic activities in colon cancer cells and can be effective as natural colon cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:25329001

  14. Consumption of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) functional beverage reduces muscle stress and improves effort tolerance in elite athletes: a randomized controlled intervention study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Peixoto, Jacqueline; Moura, Mirian Ribeiro Leite; Cunha, Felipe Amorim; Lollo, Pablo Christiano B; Monteiro, Walace David; Carvalho, Lucia Maria Jaeger de; Farinatti, Paulo de Tarso Veras

    2015-07-01

    The study analyzed the effect of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) functional beverage (AB) on muscle and oxidative stress markers, cardiorespiratory responses, perceived exertion, and time-to-exhaustion during maximal treadmill running. The beverage was developed as an ergogenic aid for athletes and contained 27.6 mg of anthocyanins per dose. Fourteen athletes performed 3 exercise tests: a ramp-incremental maximal exercise test and 2 maximal exercise bouts performed in 2 conditions (AB and without AB (control)) at 90% maximal oxygen uptake. Blood was collected at baseline and after maximal exercise in both conditions to determine biomarkers. AB increased time to exhaustion during short-term high-intensity exercise (mean difference: 69 s, 95% confidence interval = -296 s to 159 s, t = 2.2, p = 0.045), attenuating the metabolic stress induced by exercise (p < 0.05). AB also reduced perceived exertion and enhanced cardiorespiratory responses (p < 0.05). The AB may be a useful and practical ergogenic aid to enhance performance during high-intensity training.

  15. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities of an antioxidant-rich fruit and berry juice blend. Results of a pilot and randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Gitte S; Wu, Xianli; Patterson, Kelly M; Barnes, Janelle; Carter, Steve G; Scherwitz, Larry; Beaman, Robert; Endres, John R; Schauss, Alexander G

    2008-09-24

    This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a juice blend (JB), MonaVie Active, containing a mixture of fruits and berries with known antioxidant activity, including acai, a palm fruit, as the predominant ingredient. The phytochemical antioxidants in the JB are primarily in the form of anthocyanins, predominantly cyanidin 3-rutoside, cyanidin 3-diglycoside, and cyanidin 3-glucoside. The cell-based antioxidant protection of erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay demonstrated that antioxidants in the JB penetrated and protected cells from oxidative damage ( p < 0.001), whereas polymorphonuclear cells showed reduced formation of reactive oxygen species ( p < 0.003) and reduced migration toward three different pro-inflammatory chemoattractants: fmlp ( p < 0.001), leukotriene B4 ( p < 0.05), and IL-8 ( p < 0.03). A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with 12 healthy subjects examined the JB's antioxidant activity in vivo. Blood samples at baseline, 1 h, and 2 h following consumption of the JB or placebo were tested for antioxidant capacity using several antioxidant assays and the TBARS assay, a measure of lipid peroxidation. A within subject comparison showed an increase in serum antioxidants at 1 h ( p < 0.03) and 2 h ( p < 0.015), as well as inhibition of lipid peroxidation at 2 h ( p < 0.01) postconsumption.

  16. Preserving Fresh Fruit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Geo-Centers, Inc. has developed an Ethlyene Monitoring and Control System through an SBIR contract with Kennedy Space Center. As plants grow, they produce by products of ethylene and ammonia which are harmful to plant development. The system provides optimal exposure of fruit to ethylene since the proper balance in ethylene is necessary to prevent fruit loss. It can be used to monitor the de-greening process of citrus fruits, in particular.

  17. Inhibitory effect of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp on IgE-mediated mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Tomoko; Ishiguro, Nahoko; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao; Hori-Tamura, Naoko

    2011-05-25

    The palm fruit açaí is known to have potential health benefits due to its antioxidant scavenging capacities. Pretreatment of IgE-sensitized mouse primary cultured mast cells with açaí pulp resulted in the dramatic suppression of antigen-induced degranulation in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, açaí suppressed IgE-mediated degranulation and transcription of the cytokine genes from a cultured mast cell line of rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Açaí could selectively inhibit FcεRI signaling pathways. Furthermore, the FcεRI-mediated complementary signaling pathway was also suppressed by açaí. These results demonstrate that açaí is a potent inhibitor of IgE-mediated mast cell activation.

  18. Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Small Fruit in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is a tephritid pest that became established in Florida following introduction in 1965. Populations of this fruit fly also occur in Puerto Rico and Cuba, ...

  19. Seedless fruit production by hormonal regulation of fruit set.

    PubMed

    Pandolfini, Tiziana

    2009-02-01

    Seed and fruit development are intimately related processes controlled by internal signals and environmental cues. The absence of seeds is usually appreciated by consumers and producers because it increases fruit quality and fruit shelf-life. One method to produce seedless fruit is to develop plants able to produce fruits independently from pollination and fertilization of the ovules. The onset of fruit growth is under the control of phytohormones. Recent genomic studies have greatly contributed to elucidate the role of phytohormones in regulating fruit initiation, providing at the same time genetic methods for introducing seedlessness in horticultural plants. PMID:22253976

  20. Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and syner...

  1. Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synerg...

  2. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, ...

  3. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School.

    PubMed

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find that the fraction of students eating a full serving of whole fruit increased from 4.3% to 45.1%. As such, school districts should consider offering fruit smoothies as part of a set of interventions designed to increase fruit consumption at school.

  4. Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... at breakfast At breakfast, top your cereal with bananas, peaches, or strawberries; add blueberries to pancakes; drink ... fruit at lunch At lunch, pack a tangerine, banana, or grapes to eat, or choose fruits from ...

  5. Palms versus trees: water use characteristics of native fruit-bearing plant species in the Central Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunert, N.; Barros, P.; Higuchi, N.

    2012-12-01

    Native fruiting plants are widely cultivated in the Amazon but only little information on their water use characteristics can be found in the literature. Due to the growing local consumption and the increasing popularity for new "exotic" fruits all over Brazil and worldwide, additional new plantations cultivating such fruit-bearing species might be established in the Amazon in the future. These new plantations will affect the water table of the cultivated areas, however, the impact of these changes on the regional hydrology are not known. We, therefore, decided to study plant water use characteristics of two native fruit plants commonly occurring in the Amazon region, a tree species (Cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum, (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum., Malvaceae) and a palm species (Açai, Euterpe oleraceae Mart., Arecaceae). This study was conducted in a fruit plantation close to the city of Manaus, in the Central Amazon, Brazil. The objectives of our study were 1) to compare variables controlling plant water use and 2) to identify differences in water use between woody monocot and dicot plant species. We chose three representative individuals with well-sun-exposed crowns for each species, which were equipped with Granier-type thermal dissipation probes to measure sap flux density continuously for six weeks from August 1st 2011 until September 6th 2011. We used a simple sap flux model with two environmental variables, photosynthetic photon flux density and vapor pressure deficit, to compare sap flux densities between species. We achieved a good model fit and modeled sap flux densities corresponded very well with the actual measured values. No significant differences among species in sap flux densities were indicated by the model. Overall, palms had a 3.5 fold higher water consumption compared to trees with similar diameter. Water use scaled independent from species with the size of the conductive xylem area (r2 = 0.85), so that the higher water use of the palms was

  6. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find…

  7. Fractions through Fruit Salad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Lisa

    1987-01-01

    The mathematics concept of fractions was taught to a group of learning disabled, dyslexic, and multiply handicapped students (15-20 years old) by preparing a fruit salad. Enthusiastic student participation and enhanced knowledge illustrated the effectiveness of employing several sensory modes in learning activities. (CB)

  8. Emerging fruit crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...

  9. Parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Gorguet, B; van Heusden, A W; Lindhout, P

    2005-03-01

    Parthenocarpic fruit development is a very attractive trait for growers and consumers. In tomato, three main sources of facultative parthenocarpy, pat, pat-2, pat-3/pat-4, are known to have potential applications in agriculture. The parthenocarpic fruit development in these lines is triggered by a deregulation of the hormonal balance in some specific tissues. Auxins and gibberellins are considered as the key elements in parthenocarpic fruit development of those lines. An increased level of these hormones in the ovary can substitute for pollination and trigger fruit development. This has opened up genetic engineering approaches for parthenocarpy that have given promising results, both in quality and quantity of seedless fruit production. PMID:15822008

  10. The control of polyphenol oxidase activity in fruits and vegetables. A study of the interactions between the chemical compounds used and heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Almeida, M E; Nogueira, J N

    1995-04-01

    Objective of this research was to find alternative methods for the control of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in fruits and vegetables with the purpose of reducing or eliminating the use of SO2 for this purpose. Interactions between the use of ascorbic acid, citric acid, EDTA, sodium metabisulphite and heat treatment (70 degrees C for 2 min) in the control of PPO activity were studied in avocado (var. Fortuna), banana (var. Nanica), apple (var. Ana, Fuji, Gala & Golden), pear (var. D'Agua), peach (var. Réal), potato (var. Bintje), eggplant (var. Super F100), mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and hearts-of-palm (Euterpe edulis Mart). The results demonstrated that PPO of avocado and eggplant was most resistant to inhibition by the methods used. The least efficient method tested for the control of PPO was the addition of ascorbic acid and EDTA, while the most efficient methods investigated included the use of ascorbic acid, citric acid, sodium metabisulphite and heat treatment. The results indicated that, with the exception of PPO from avocado, the most adequate alternative method to substitute for the use of SO2 in the control of PPO was a combination of ascorbic acid, citric acid and heat treatment. PMID:7659702

  11. Authentication of Punica granatum L.: Development of SCAR markers for the detection of 10 fruits potentially used in economically motivated adulteration.

    PubMed

    Marieschi, Matteo; Torelli, Anna; Beghé, Deborah; Bruni, Renato

    2016-07-01

    The large commercial success of pomegranate increase the likelihood of economically motivated adulteration (EMA), which has been gradually spotted with the undeclared addition of anthocyanin-rich plants or cheaper fruit juices used as bulking and diluting agents. A method based on Sequence-Characterized Amplified Regions (SCARs) was developed to detect the presence of Aristotelia chilensis, Aronia melanocarpa, Dioscorea alata, Euterpe oleracea, Malus×domestica, Morus nigra, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vitis vinifera as bulking agents in Punica granatum. The method enabled the unequivocal detection of up to 1% of each adulterant, allowing the preemptive rejection of suspect samples. The recourse to such method may reduce the number of samples to be subjected to further phytochemical analyses when multiple batches have to be evaluated in a short time. Vice versa, it allows the cross-check of suspect batches previously tested only for their anthocyanin profile. The dimension of the amplicons is suitable for the analysis of degraded DNA obtained from stored and processed commercial material. Proper SCAR markers may represent a fast, sensitive, reliable and low-cost screening method for the authentication of processed commercial pomegranate material. PMID:26920316

  12. Authentication of Punica granatum L.: Development of SCAR markers for the detection of 10 fruits potentially used in economically motivated adulteration.

    PubMed

    Marieschi, Matteo; Torelli, Anna; Beghé, Deborah; Bruni, Renato

    2016-07-01

    The large commercial success of pomegranate increase the likelihood of economically motivated adulteration (EMA), which has been gradually spotted with the undeclared addition of anthocyanin-rich plants or cheaper fruit juices used as bulking and diluting agents. A method based on Sequence-Characterized Amplified Regions (SCARs) was developed to detect the presence of Aristotelia chilensis, Aronia melanocarpa, Dioscorea alata, Euterpe oleracea, Malus×domestica, Morus nigra, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vitis vinifera as bulking agents in Punica granatum. The method enabled the unequivocal detection of up to 1% of each adulterant, allowing the preemptive rejection of suspect samples. The recourse to such method may reduce the number of samples to be subjected to further phytochemical analyses when multiple batches have to be evaluated in a short time. Vice versa, it allows the cross-check of suspect batches previously tested only for their anthocyanin profile. The dimension of the amplicons is suitable for the analysis of degraded DNA obtained from stored and processed commercial material. Proper SCAR markers may represent a fast, sensitive, reliable and low-cost screening method for the authentication of processed commercial pomegranate material.

  13. Microbial safety of tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Strawn, Laura K; Schneider, Keith R; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2011-02-01

    There are approximately 140 million tons of over 3,000 types of tropical fruits produced annually worldwide. Tropical fruits, once unfamiliar and rare to the temperate market, are now gaining widespread acceptance. Tropical fruits are found in a variety of forms, including whole, fresh cut, dried, juice blends, frozen, pulp, and nectars in markets around the world. Documented outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with tropical fruits have occurred. Norovirus and Salmonella are the leading viral and bacterial pathogens, respectively, documented to have caused outbreaks of infections associated with consumption of tropical fruits. Sources of contamination of tropical fruit have been identified in the production environment and postharvest handling, primarily related to sanitation issues. Limited data exist on the specific route of transmission from these sources. Research on the microbial safety of tropical fruits is minimal; with the growing market for tropical fruit expected to increase by 33% in 2010 this research area needs to be addressed. The aim of this review is to discuss the foodborne pathogen outbreaks associated tropical fruit consumption, research previously completed on pathogen behavior on tropical fruits, preventive strategies for pathogen contamination, and research needs.

  14. Dried fruit and dental health.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Michèle Jeanne

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature has found that the common perceptions that dried fruits are "sticky", adhere to teeth, and are detrimental to dental health on account of their sugar content are based on weak evidence. There is a lack of good quality scientific data to support restrictive advice for dried fruit intake on the basis of dental health parameters and further research is required. A number of potentially positive attributes for dental health, such as the need to chew dried fruits which encourages salivary flow, and the presence of anti-microbial compounds and of sorbitol, also require investigation to establish the extent of their effects and whether they balance against any potentially negative attributes of dried fruit. Advice on dried fruit consumption should also take account of the nutritional benefits of dried fruit, being high in fibre, low in fat and containing useful levels of micronutrients.

  15. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  16. Deconstructing a fruit serving: comparing the antioxidant density of select whole fruit and 100% fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Kristi Michele; Murray, Elizabeth

    2013-10-01

    Research suggests phytonutrients, specifically phenolic compounds, within fruit may be responsible for the putatively positive antioxidant benefits derived from fruit. Given the prominence of fruit juice in the American diet, the purpose of this research was to assess the antioxidant density of fresh fruit and 100% fruit juice for five commonly consumed fruits and juices and to compare the adequacy of 100% juice as a dietary equivalent to whole fruit in providing beneficial antioxidants. Antioxidant density was measured using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method on six samples assayed in triplicate for each fruit (grape, apple, orange, grapefruit, pineapple), name-brand 100% juice, and store-brand 100% juice. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference or Student t test were used to assess significance (P<0.05). Antioxidant density (mmol TE/100 g) of apple, orange, and grapefruit was 23% to 54% higher than the mean antioxidant density of name-brand and store-brand juices for each fruit; however, only apple and grapefruit exhibited significantly greater (P<0.05) antioxidant density than either of their name-brand or store-brand juices. In contrast, the mean antioxidant density of name-brand grape and pineapple juice was higher than fresh grape or pineapple fruit; however, both fresh grapes and commercial grape juice contained significantly more (P<0.05) antioxidants than store-brand grape juice. Regardless of the convenience of fruit juice, results support the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for increasing fruit servings in the whole fruit form due to their provision of beneficial antioxidants and fiber with approximately 35% less sugar. PMID:23810279

  17. [Dried fruit as sugar substitute?].

    PubMed

    Strübig, W; Gülzow, H J

    1989-09-01

    Alternative foodstuffs restrict the usage of household sugar and instead recommend sweet honey or dried fruits; in popular informative magazines raisins and dried fruit are even described as "healthy snacks". In this study, with the help of sugar clearance and lactic acid measurements, the cariogenic potential of dried fruits is to be better estimated. The results clearly show that the alternative recommendations do not promote healthy teeth. The cariogenic potential of the named foodstuffs is comparable to sucrose containing products. PMID:2635063

  18. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently. PMID:26706059

  19. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently.

  20. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the fruit juice ingredient or combination of fruit juice ingredients is extracted from apple... made from a mixture of one or a permitted combination of the fruit juice ingredients specified in... essence accompanying any optional fruit ingredient. (b)(1) Each of the fruit juice ingredients referred...

  1. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the fruit juice ingredient or combination of fruit juice ingredients is extracted from apple... made from a mixture of one or a permitted combination of the fruit juice ingredients specified in... essence accompanying any optional fruit ingredient. (b)(1) Each of the fruit juice ingredients referred...

  2. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the fruit juice ingredient or combination of fruit juice ingredients is extracted from apple... made from a mixture of one or a permitted combination of the fruit juice ingredients specified in... essence accompanying any optional fruit ingredient. (b)(1) Each of the fruit juice ingredients referred...

  3. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the fruit juice ingredient or combination of fruit juice ingredients is extracted from apple... made from a mixture of one or a permitted combination of the fruit juice ingredients specified in... essence accompanying any optional fruit ingredient. (b)(1) Each of the fruit juice ingredients referred...

  4. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the fruit juice ingredient or combination of fruit juice ingredients is extracted from apple... made from a mixture of one or a permitted combination of the fruit juice ingredients specified in... essence accompanying any optional fruit ingredient. (b)(1) Each of the fruit juice ingredients referred...

  5. Fruits of neutron research

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, C.

    1994-12-31

    Car windshields that don`t break during accidents and jets that fly longer without making a refueling stop. Compact discs, credit cards, and pocket calculators. Refrigerator magnets and automatic car window openers. Beach shoes, food packaging, and bulletproof vests made of tough plastics. The quality and range of consumer products have improved steadily since the 1970s. One of the reasons: neutron research. Industries, employing neutron scattering techniques, to study materials properties, to act as diagnostics in tracing system performance, or as sources for radioactive isotopes used in medical fields for diagnostics or treatment, have all benefited from the fruits of advanced work with neutron sources.

  6. Anthocyanins Present in Some Tropical Fruits.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many tropical fruits are rich in anthocyanins, though limited information is available about the characterization and quantification of these anthocyanins. The identification of anthocyanin pigments in four tropical fruits was determined by ion trap mass spectrometry. Fruits studied included acero...

  7. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  8. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(∗); (∗)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented.

  9. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D; Burton, Rachel A; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  10. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Burton, Rachel A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  11. Gibberellin metabolism in isolated pea fruit tissue and intact fruits

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, S.; Brenner, M.L. )

    1989-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) have been shown by others to be required for normal development of pea fruit. Whether the pericarp of the developing pea fruit produces GAs in situ is not known. To determine if the pericarp has the capacity to produce GAs during fruit growth, the metabolism of the first two committed GAs in the biosynthetic pathway, ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde and ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was examined in tissue obtained from pollinated, parthenocarpic, and control fruit over 4 days from treatment. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde was converted primarily to conjugates, including ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde conjugate. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was converted to ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53} in all tissue, but by day 4 only tissue from pollinated or parthenocarpic fruits showed sustained formation of ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53}. When ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} is applied to 4-day-old fruits attached to the plants, the major product obtained after 24 hours is ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 20} (as identified by GC-MS). No transport to the developing seed was observed. These results indicate that the elongating fruit tissue has the capacity to produce GAs.

  12. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  13. Folate biofortification of tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Díaz de la Garza, Rocío I; Gregory, Jesse F; Hanson, Andrew D

    2007-03-01

    Folate deficiency leads to neural tube defects and other human diseases, and is a global health problem. Because plants are major folate sources for humans, we have sought to enhance plant folate levels (biofortification). Folates are synthesized from pteridine, p-aminobenzoate (PABA), and glutamate precursors. Previously, we increased pteridine production in tomato fruit up to 140-fold by overexpressing GTP cyclohydrolase I, the first enzyme of pteridine synthesis. This strategy increased folate levels 2-fold, but engineered fruit were PABA-depleted. We report here the engineering of fruit-specific overexpression of aminodeoxychorismate synthase, which catalyzes the first step of PABA synthesis. The resulting fruit contained an average of 19-fold more PABA than controls. When transgenic PABA- and pteridine-overproduction traits were combined by crossing, vine-ripened fruit accumulated up to 25-fold more folate than controls. Folate accumulation was almost as high (up to 15-fold) in fruit harvested green and ripened by ethylene-gassing, as occurs in commerce. The accumulated folates showed normal proportions of one-carbon forms, with 5-methyltetrahydrofolate the most abundant, but were less extensively polyglutamylated than controls. Folate concentrations in developing fruit did not change in controls, but increased continuously throughout ripening in transgenic fruit. Pteridine and PABA levels in transgenic fruit were >20-fold higher than in controls, but the pathway intermediates dihydropteroate and dihydrofolate did not accumulate, pointing to a flux constraint at the dihydropteroate synthesis step. The folate levels we achieved provide the complete adult daily requirement in less than one standard serving.

  14. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  15. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., seeds, pits, and cores: Factor Referred to in Paragraph (d)(2) of This Section Name of fruit Apple 7.5...) Flavoring (other than artificial flavoring). (4) Salt. (5) Acidifying agents. (6) Fruit juice or diluted fruit juice or concentrated fruit juice, in a quantity not less than one-half the weight of the...

  16. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., seeds, pits, and cores: Factor Referred to in Paragraph (d)(2) of This Section Name of fruit Apple 7.5...) Flavoring (other than artificial flavoring). (4) Salt. (5) Acidifying agents. (6) Fruit juice or diluted fruit juice or concentrated fruit juice, in a quantity not less than one-half the weight of the...

  17. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., seeds, pits, and cores: Factor Referred to in Paragraph (d)(2) of This Section Name of fruit Apple 7.5...) Flavoring (other than artificial flavoring). (4) Salt. (5) Acidifying agents. (6) Fruit juice or diluted fruit juice or concentrated fruit juice, in a quantity not less than one-half the weight of the...

  18. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., seeds, pits, and cores: Factor Referred to in Paragraph (d)(2) of This Section Name of fruit Apple 7.5...) Flavoring (other than artificial flavoring). (4) Salt. (5) Acidifying agents. (6) Fruit juice or diluted fruit juice or concentrated fruit juice, in a quantity not less than one-half the weight of the...

  19. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., seeds, pits, and cores: Factor Referred to in Paragraph (d)(2) of This Section Name of fruit Apple 7.5...) Flavoring (other than artificial flavoring). (4) Salt. (5) Acidifying agents. (6) Fruit juice or diluted fruit juice or concentrated fruit juice, in a quantity not less than one-half the weight of the...

  20. Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Veggies and Fruits Print Share 10 TIPS NUTRITION EDUCATION SERIES Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits 10 tips for affordable vegetables and fruits It is possible to fit vegetables and fruits into any budget. Making nutritious choices does not have to hurt ...

  1. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both...

  2. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both...

  3. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  4. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  5. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both...

  6. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  7. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both...

  8. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  9. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both...

  10. Glucides of Cnidium monnieri fruit.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, J; Ishikawa, T; Aoki, Y

    2001-10-01

    From the fruit of Cnidium monnieri Cusson (Umbelliferae), two glucides were isolated together with other known glucides. Their structures were clarified as glycerol 2-O-alpha-L-fucopyranoside and D-quinovitol (6-deoxy-D-glucitol), respectively.

  11. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  12. Freeze-frame fruit selection by birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Mercedes S.

    2008-01-01

    The choice of fruits by an avian frugivore is affected by choices it makes at multiple hierarchical levels (e.g., species of fruit, individual tree, individual fruit). Factors that influence those choices vary among levels in the hierarchy and include characteristics of the environment, the tree, and the fruit itself. Feeding experiments with wild-caught birds were conducted at El Tirol, Departamento de Itapua, Paraguay to test whether birds were selecting among individual fruits based on fruit size. Feeding on larger fruits, which have proportionally more pulp, is generally more efficient than feeding on small fruits. In trials (n = 56) with seven species of birds in four families, birds selected larger fruits 86% of the time. However, in only six instances were size differences significant, which is likely a reflection of small sample sizes.

  13. Trace elements in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Bragança, Victor Luiz Cordoba; Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Z

    2012-05-01

    Fruit juices are widely consumed in tropical countries as part of habitual diet. The concentrations of several minerals in these beverages were evaluated. Four commercially available brands of juices were analyzed for cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, iron, chromium, manganese, and molybdenum. The levels ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg/L for copper, from 0.05 to 0.23 mg/L for zinc, from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L for aluminum, from 0.02 to 0.45 mg/L for iron, and from 0.01 to 0.22 mg/L for manganese. The levels of cadmium, lead, and chromium in all samples were very low or undetectable. The metal contents of fruit juices depend on a number of factors, including the soil composition, the external conditions during fruit growing and fruit harvesting, as well as on details of the fruit juice manufacturing processes employed. The concentrations of none of the metals in juice samples analyzed exceeded the limits imposed by local legislation.

  14. Processing of fresh palm fruits using microwaves.

    PubMed

    Chow, Mee Chin; Ma, Ah Ngan

    2007-01-01

    Microwave heating was determined in this study to be suitable for the detachment and drying of palm fruits from whole bunches, cut bunches and spikelets. Microwave treatment of the palm fruits was able to attain the objectives of conventional fresh palm fruits sterilization processeses such as fruit softening, nut conditioning and halting of enzymatic lipolysis. Palm oil and kernel oil solvent extracted respectively from the microwave treated whole fruits and kernel were found to have a good quality of low free fatty acid content. This technology, together with the solvent extraction of the dehydrated fruits, may have the potential to be a continuous, dry and clean technology for palm oil milling.

  15. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-04

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  16. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  17. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  18. Molecular regulation of fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Sonia; Scossa, Federico; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2013-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process that coincides with seed maturation. The ripening process is regulated by thousands of genes that control progressive softening and/or lignification of pericarp layers, accumulation of sugars, acids, pigments, and release of volatiles. Key to crop improvement is a deeper understanding of the processes underlying fruit ripening. In tomato, mutations blocking the transition to ripe fruits have provided insights into the role of ethylene and its associated molecular networks involved in the control of ripening. However, the role of other plant hormones is still poorly understood. In this review, we describe how plant hormones, transcription factors, and epigenetic changes are intimately related to provide a tight control of the ripening process. Recent findings from comparative genomics and system biology approaches are discussed. PMID:23785378

  19. Phloem unloading in tomato fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Damon, S.; Hewitt, J.; Bennett, A.B.

    1986-04-01

    To begin to identify those processes that contribute to the regulation of photosynthate partitioning in tomato fruit the path of phloem unloading in this tissue has been characterized. Assymetrically labelled sucrose (/sup 3/H-fructosyl sucrose) was applied to source leaves. Following translocation to the fruit the apoplast was sampled. The appearance of assymetric sucrose and /sup 3/H-fructose in the apoplast indicates that phloem unloading is apoplastic and that extracellular invertase is active. Estimation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations in the apoplast were 1 mM, 40 mM, and 40 mM, respectively. Rates of uptake of sucrose, 1-fluorosucrose, glucose, and fructose across the plasma membrane were similar and non-saturating at physiological concentrations. These results suggest that, although extracellular invertase is present, sucrose hydrolysis is not required for uptake into tomato fruit pericarp cells. 1-fluorosucrose is used to investigate the role of sucrose synthase in hydrolysis of imported photosynthate.

  20. Fruit biomechanics based on anatomy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiguo; Yang, Hongling; Li, Pingping; Liu, Jizhan; Wang, Jizhang; Xu, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Fruit biomechanics is needed for quality determination, multiscale modelling and engineering design of fruit processes and equipments. However, these determined fruit biomechanics data often have obvious differences for the same fruit or tissue. In order to investigate it, the fruit biomechanics based on anatomy was reviewed in this paper. First, the anatomical characteristics of fruit biomaterials were described at the macroscopic `tissue' level and microscopic `cellular' level. Subsequently, the factors affecting fruit biomechanics based on anatomy and the relationships between fruit biomechanics, texture and mechanical damage were summarised according to the published literature. Fruit biomechanics is mainly affected by size, number and arrangement of cells, quantity and volume of intracellular spaces, structure, thickness, chemical composition and permeability of cell walls, and pectin degradation level and turgor pressure within cells based on microanatomy. Four test methods and partial determined results of fruit biomechanics were listed and reviewed. The determined mechanical properties data of fruit are only approximate values by using the existing four test methods, owing to the fruit biomaterials being non-homogeneous and living. Lastly, further aspects for research on fruit biomechanics were proposed for the future.

  1. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product of the following... as recommended by the committee and approved by the Secretary; and (c) All varieties of pears...

  2. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough to imagine a ...

  3. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases. Also in…

  4. EVAPORATION OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

    PubMed Central

    Cruess, W. V.

    1921-01-01

    More and more the world is utilizing dried fruits and vegetables, the war having given impetus to the preparation of the latter. Here are plain statements of processes and values deduced from scientific institution investigations. Evaporation is in its infancy while sun drying is very ancient. Evaporated products are better looking but more costly. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:18010426

  5. Developing disease resistant stone fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stone fruit (Prunus spp.) (peach, nectarine, plum, apricot, cherry) and almonds are susceptible to a number of pathogens. These pathogens can cause extensive losses in the field, during transport and storage, and in the market. Breeding for disease resistance requires an extensive knowledge of the...

  6. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alco...

  7. Acylphloroglucinol biosynthesis in strawberry fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry, Fragaria ×ananassa, we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native strawberr...

  8. Rubus fruit myths vs. reality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This factsheet corrects several popular media inaccuracies about Rubus fruit. Supplying the public with scientific facts is part of our continued efforts to assist consumers in making sound health conscious decisions. This project was partially funded by a Specialty Crop Research Initiative grant fr...

  9. Increasing tomato fruit quality by enhancing fruit chloroplast function. A double-edged sword?

    PubMed

    Cocaliadis, Maria Florencia; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Pons, Clara; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Fruits are generally regarded as photosynthate sinks as they rely on energy provided by sugars transported from leaves to carry out the highly demanding processes of development and ripening; eventually these imported photosynthates also contribute to the fruit organoleptic properties. Three recent reports have revealed, however, that transcriptional factors enhancing chloroplast development in fruit may result in higher contents not only of tomato fruit-specialized metabolites but also of sugars. In addition to suggesting new ways to improve fruit quality by fortifying fruit chloroplasts and plastids, these results prompted us to re-evaluate the importance of the contribution of chloroplasts/photosynthesis to fruit development and ripening.

  10. Acylphloroglucinol Biosynthesis in Strawberry Fruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Chuankui; Ring, Ludwig; Hoffmann, Thomas; Huang, Fong-Chin; Slovin, Janet; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-11-01

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native Fragaria spp. fruit metabolites whose levels were differently regulated in the transgenic fruits. The biosynthesis of the APG aglycones was investigated by examination of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant Fragaria vesca chalcone synthase (FvCHS) proteins. CHS is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis during ripening. The F. vesca enzymes readily catalyzed the condensation of two intermediates in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, isovaleryl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and isobutyryl-CoA, with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form phlorisovalerophenone and phlorisobutyrophenone, respectively, and formed naringenin chalcone when 4-coumaroyl-CoA was used as starter molecule. Isovaleryl-CoA was the preferred starter substrate of FvCHS2-1. Suppression of CHS activity in both transient and stable CHS-silenced fruit resulted in a substantial decrease of APG glucosides and anthocyanins and enhanced levels of volatiles derived from branched-chain amino acids. The proposed APG pathway was confirmed by feeding isotopically labeled amino acids. Thus, Fragaria spp. plants have the capacity to synthesize pharmaceutically important APGs using dual functional CHS/(phloriso)valerophenone synthases that are expressed during fruit ripening. Duplication and adaptive evolution of CHS is the most probable scenario and might be generally applicable to other plants. The results highlight that important promiscuous gene function may be missed when annotation relies solely on in silico analysis. PMID:26169681

  11. Acylphloroglucinol Biosynthesis in Strawberry Fruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Chuankui; Ring, Ludwig; Hoffmann, Thomas; Huang, Fong-Chin; Slovin, Janet; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-11-01

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native Fragaria spp. fruit metabolites whose levels were differently regulated in the transgenic fruits. The biosynthesis of the APG aglycones was investigated by examination of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant Fragaria vesca chalcone synthase (FvCHS) proteins. CHS is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis during ripening. The F. vesca enzymes readily catalyzed the condensation of two intermediates in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, isovaleryl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and isobutyryl-CoA, with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form phlorisovalerophenone and phlorisobutyrophenone, respectively, and formed naringenin chalcone when 4-coumaroyl-CoA was used as starter molecule. Isovaleryl-CoA was the preferred starter substrate of FvCHS2-1. Suppression of CHS activity in both transient and stable CHS-silenced fruit resulted in a substantial decrease of APG glucosides and anthocyanins and enhanced levels of volatiles derived from branched-chain amino acids. The proposed APG pathway was confirmed by feeding isotopically labeled amino acids. Thus, Fragaria spp. plants have the capacity to synthesize pharmaceutically important APGs using dual functional CHS/(phloriso)valerophenone synthases that are expressed during fruit ripening. Duplication and adaptive evolution of CHS is the most probable scenario and might be generally applicable to other plants. The results highlight that important promiscuous gene function may be missed when annotation relies solely on in silico analysis.

  12. Potential heat treatments for quarantine security of exotic tropical fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential heat treatments (HT) were developed to control fruit flies in selected tropical fruits (avocado, guava, longan, passion fruit, and persimmon). Hawaii has three fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), oriental fruit fly, and melon fly. Previous r...

  13. Testing fruit quality by photoacoustic spectroscopy assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, C.; Dumitras, D. C.; Patachia, M.; Banita, S.

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis that raspberry and strawberry fruits from nonorganic farming release more ethylene gas compounds compared to organic ones. At the same time, the experiments focused on evaluation of the potential and capabilities of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) method in the assessment of fruit quality related to the effects of nitrogen. Ethylene gas can be harmful and carcinogenic, because it can accelerate the natural ripening process of physiologically mature fruits and makes the fruits more consistent in size. With the advantages of LPAS, we demonstrate that the concentration of ethylene from nonorganic raspberry and strawberry fruits is greater than from organic ones.

  14. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  15. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    PubMed

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs.

  16. The role of fruit in the diet.

    PubMed

    Fulker, M J

    2001-01-01

    Data on the production and consumption of fruit are reviewed in the context of modelling the transfer of radionuclides to fruit, and the assessment of the consequent risks to the consumers. Mean consumption rates vary widely from country to country, from 150 g per day fresh weight to about 500 g per day. Consumption also varies with age, socio-economic class, and climate. In some countries there is a trend towards increased consumption of fruit, associated with a growing interest in a healthy diet, and these trends have been associated with changes in the incidence of cardio-vascular diseases and some forms of cancer. Assessment of the effects of radionuclides in fruit needs to take into account the use of wild growing fruits, the increasing trade in fruit between countries, and the contribution from natural radionuclides in fruit.

  17. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin

    2016-09-01

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed, their anthocyanin profiles (based on high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] separation) indicated if products' fruit origin listings were authentic. Over 30% of the Vaccinium fruit (cranberry, lingonberry, bilberry, and blueberry; 14 of 45) products available as dietary supplements did not contain the fruit listed as ingredients. Six supplements contained no anthocyanins. Five others had contents differing from labeled fruit (e.g., bilberry capsules containing Andean blueberry fruit). Of the samples that did contain the specified fruit (n = 27), anthocyanin content ranged from 0.04 to 14.37 mg per capsule, tablet, or teaspoon (5 g). Approaches to utilizing anthocyanins in assessment of sample authenticity, and a discussion of the challenges with anthocyanin profiles in quality control are both presented. PMID:27625778

  18. Ethanol in Olive Fruit. Changes during Ripening.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Gabriel; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio; Sanchez-Ortiz, Araceli

    2015-06-10

    Ethanol is one of the precursors of ethyl esters, the virgin olive oil quality parameter for the "extra" category recently adopted by the European Union and International Olive Oil Council. Although ethyl ester content has great importance for virgin olive oil classification, the origin of ethanol is not clear. A possible source of ethanol may be the olive fruit itself while it remains on the tree. Variation of fruit ethanol content during ripening was studied for three different olive cultivars: 'Picual', 'Hojiblanca', and 'Arbequina'. Ethanol was measured in fruit homogenates by HS-SPME-GC-FID. The ethanol content varied between 0.56 and 58 mg/kg. 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the highest ethanol concentration. For all of the cultivars, ethanol content of fruit increased during the ripening process, although a clear cultivar-dependent effect was observed because 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the most significant raise. Therefore, results indicated that ethanol can be accumulated during fruit maturation on the olive tree.

  19. Characterisation of Jack fruit lectin.

    PubMed

    Arslan, M I; Chulavatnatol, M

    2000-04-01

    Jack fruit (Artocarpus Heterophyllus) seed extract contains a lectin termed Jack fruit lectin (JFL) which possesses diversed biological properties. A detailed analysis of its properties has been lacking. The present investigation was initiated to study the detail properties of JFL. After extraction and purification on affigel galactosamine-agarose column, JFL was subjected to ND-PAGE. Several different charged species from ND-PAGE upon SDS-PAGE gave rise to two dissimilar trimeric subunit at 12.5 and 15.0 KDa and retain biological activity. It was possible to elute the subunit bands separately from polyacrylamide gel to investigate their biological activity. Each subunit was found to be retained the lectin activity. Agglutinating activity of smaller subunit was found to be more, may be due to the greater amount of the subunit. This also suggests that each unit of trimeric JFL have similar lectin activity.

  20. Proteomics in the fruit tree science arena: new insights into fruit defense, development, and ripening.

    PubMed

    Molassiotis, Athanassios; Tanou, Georgia; Filippou, Panagiota; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2013-06-01

    Fruit tree crops are agricultural commodities of high economic importance, while fruits also represent one of the most vital components of the human diet. Therefore, a great effort has been made to understand the molecular mechanisms covering fundamental biological processes in fruit tree physiology and fruit biology. Thanks to the development of cutting-edge "omics" technologies such as proteomic analysis, scientists now have powerful tools to support traditional fruit tree research. Such proteomic analyses are establishing high-density 2DE reference maps and peptide mass fingerprint databases that can lead fruit science into a new postgenomic research era. Here, an overview of the application of proteomics in key aspects of fruit tree physiology as well as in fruit biology, including defense responses to abiotic and biotic stress factors, is presented. A panoramic view of ripening-related proteins is also discussed, as an example of proteomic application in fruit science.

  1. [Effects of fruit bag color on the microenvironment, yield and quality of tomato fruits].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Fang-sheng; Xu, Kun; Xu, Ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to clarify the ecological and biological effects of fruit bagging, tomato variety JYK was taken as the test material to study the changes of the microenvironment in different color fruit bags and the effects of these changes on the fruit development, yield and quality, with the treatment without fruit bagging as the control (CK). The results showed that bagging with different color fruit bags had positive effects in decreasing the light intensity of the microenvironment and increasing its temperature and humidity, and thus, increased the single fruit mass and promoted the harvest stage advanced. Black bag had the best effects in increasing microenvironment temperature and fruit mass, with the single fruit mass increased by 27.2% and the harvest period shortened by 10 days, compared with CK. The fruit maturation period in colorless bag, blue bag and red bag was shortened by 8, 3 and 2 days, and the single mass was increased by 11.8%, 6.4% and 4.8%, respectively. Moreover, the coloring and lycopene content of the fruits with different color bags bagging were improved, but the fruit rigidity and fruit soluble solid, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents were decreased. Therefore, bagging with different color bags could improve the yield of tomato fruits, but decrease the fruit nutritional quality.

  2. Carbohydrate control over carotenoid build-up is conditional on fruit ontogeny in clementine fruits.

    PubMed

    Poiroux-Gonord, Florine; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Poggi, Isabelle; Urban, Laurent

    2013-04-01

    The final contents of primary and secondary metabolites of the ripe fruit depend on metabolic processes that are tightly regulated during fruit ontogeny. Carbohydrate supply during fruit development is known to influence these processes but, with respect to secondary metabolites, we do not really know whether this influence is direct or indirect. Here, we hypothesized that the sensitivity of clementine fruit metabolism to carbohydrate supply was conditional on fruit developmental stage. We applied treatments increasing fruit load reversibly or irreversibly at three key stages of clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.) fruit development: early after cell division, at the onset of fruit coloration (color break) and near maturity. The highest fruit load obtained by early defoliation (irreversible) had the highest impact on fruit growth, maturity and metabolism, followed by the highest fruit load obtained by early shading (reversible). Final fruit size decreased by 21 and 18% in these early irreversible and reversible treatments, respectively. Soluble sugars decreased by 18% in the early irreversible treatment, whereas organic acids increased by 46 and 29% in these early irreversible and reversible treatments, respectively. Interestingly, total carotenoids increased by 50 and 18%, respectively. Changes in leaf starch content and photosynthesis supported that these early treatments triggered a carbon starvation in the young fruits, with irreversible effects. Furthermore, our observations on the early treatments challenge the common view that carbohydrate supply influences positively carotenoid accumulation in fruits. We propose that early carbon starvation irreversibly promotes carotenoid accumulation.

  3. Why fruits go to the dark side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, H. Martin

    2011-11-01

    The colours of fleshy fruits are usually attributed to attract seed dispersers to the plant. A cursory look at the gaudy colours of fleshy fruits on offer in a local fruit stall gives the impression that plants use primarily bright colours to attract fruit consumer. This impression is misleading; many small fruits 'go to the dark side' and become dark purple or black when ripe. Intermingled in foliage, these colours, which are produced by anthocyanins, can be fairly inconspicuous and are thus not easily reconciled with a signalling function to attract seed dispersers. In this review I therefore discuss complementary hypotheses on the function and evolution of fruit colouration. First, I focus on the evidence that fruit colours indeed function as signals to attract seed dispersers. I then show that anthocyanins, the most prevalent fruit pigments, are important dietary antioxidants that can be selected by blackcaps ( Sylvia atricapilla) which are important avian seed dispersers of many European plants. Moreover, the consumption of anthocyanins increases the likelihood that blackcaps mount an immune response during immune challenges. As a next step, I review evidence that anthocyanins accumulate in fruit skin in response to abiotic factors, in particular high illumination coupled with low temperature favour the increase of anthocyanins. Finally, I show that anthocyanins can also be selected for by fruit antagonists, consumers that do not disperse seeds. In particular, high contents of anthocyanins strongly reduce fungal growth in fruit tissue. Taken together, there are various selective pressures which likely influence fruit colour evolution. Currently, the relative importance of each of these selective agents is unknown. There is consequently a need to develop a more encompassing framework on fruit colour evolution.

  4. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    PubMed

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  5. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine

    PubMed Central

    Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  6. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    PubMed

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  7. Molecular regulation of seed and fruit set.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yong-Ling; Patrick, John W; Bouzayen, Mondher; Osorio, Sonia; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2012-11-01

    Seed and fruit set are established during and soon after fertilization and determine seed and fruit number, their final size and, hence, yield potential. These processes are highly sensitive to biotic and abiotic stresses, which often lead to seed and fruit abortion. Here, we review the regulation of assimilate partitioning, including the potential roles of recently identified sucrose efflux transporters in seed and fruit set and examine the similarities of sucrose import and hydrolysis for both pollen and ovary sinks, and similar causes of abortion. We also discuss the molecular origins of parthenocarpy and the central roles of auxins and gibberellins in fruit set. The recently completed strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genomes have added to the existing crop databases, and new models are starting to be used in fruit and seed set studies. PMID:22776090

  8. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  9. Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops.

    PubMed

    Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda; Sargent, Daniel James; Velasco, Riccardo; Maffei, Massimo E; Malnoy, Mickael

    2015-02-01

    The availability of genome sequences for many fruit crops has redefined the boundaries of genetic engineering and genetically modified (GM) crop plants. However commercialization of GM crops is hindered by numerous regulatory and social hurdles. Here, we focus on recently developed genome-editing tools for fruit crop improvement and their importance from the consumer perspective. Challenges and opportunities for the deployment of new genome-editing tools for fruit plants are also discussed. PMID:25129425

  10. Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops.

    PubMed

    Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda; Sargent, Daniel James; Velasco, Riccardo; Maffei, Massimo E; Malnoy, Mickael

    2015-02-01

    The availability of genome sequences for many fruit crops has redefined the boundaries of genetic engineering and genetically modified (GM) crop plants. However commercialization of GM crops is hindered by numerous regulatory and social hurdles. Here, we focus on recently developed genome-editing tools for fruit crop improvement and their importance from the consumer perspective. Challenges and opportunities for the deployment of new genome-editing tools for fruit plants are also discussed.

  11. Carbon allocation during fruiting in Rubus chamaemorus

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, R.; Otrysko, B.; Catford, J.-G.; Lapointe, L.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Rubus chamaemorus (cloudberry) is a herbaceous clonal peatland plant that produces an extensive underground rhizome system with distant ramets. Most of these ramets are non-floral. The main objectives of this study were to determine: (a) if plant growth was source limited in cloudberry; (b) if the non-floral ramets translocated carbon (C) to the fruit; and (c) if there was competition between fruit, leaves and rhizomes for C during fruit development. Methods Floral and non-floral ramet activities were monitored during the period of flower and fruit development using three approaches: gas exchange measurements, 14CO2 labelling and dry mass accumulation in the different organs. Source and sink activity were manipulated by eliminating leaves or flowers or by reducing rhizome length. Key Results Photosynthetic rates were lower in floral than in deflowered ramets. Autoradiographs and 14C labelling data clearly indicated that fruit is a very strong sink for the floral ramet, whereas non-floral ramets translocated C toward the rhizome but not toward floral ramets. Nevertheless, rhizomes received some C from the floral ramet throughout the fruiting period. Ramets with shorter rhizomes produced smaller leaves and smaller fruits, and defoliated ramets produced very small fruits. Conclusions Plant growth appears to be source-limited in cloudberry since a reduction in sink strength did not induce a reduction in photosynthetic activity. Non-floral ramets did not participate directly to fruit development. Developing leaves appear to compete with the developing fruit but the intensity of this competition could vary with the specific timing of the two organs. The rhizome appears to act both as a source but also potentially as a sink during fruit development. Further studies are needed to characterize better the complex role played by the rhizome in fruit C nutrition. PMID:19520701

  12. Unraveling the signal scenario of fruit set.

    PubMed

    Sotelo-Silveira, Mariana; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; de Folter, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    Long-term goals to impact or modify fruit quality and yield have been the target of researchers for many years. Different approaches such as traditional breeding,mutation breeding, and transgenic approaches have revealed a regulatory network where several hormones concur in a complex way to regulate fruit set and development,and these networks are shared in some way among species with different kinds of fruits. Understanding the molecular and biochemical networks of fruit set and development could be very useful for breeders to meet the current and future challenges of agricultural problems. PMID:24659051

  13. Multiscale Biomechanics of Tomato Fruits: A Review.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiguo; Thomas, Colin

    2016-05-18

    Bruising and other mechanical damage to fruit caused by external forces during and postharvesting is manifested at the macroscale but is ultimately the result of failure of cells at the microscale. However, fruits have internal structures and cells from different tissue types react differently to application of an external force. Not much is known about the effects of such forces on single cells within tissues and one reason for this is the lack of multiscale models linking macro- (organ or whole fruit), meso- (tissue), and micro- (cell) mechanics. This review concerns tomato fruits specifically as this is an important crop and is an excellent exemplar of past and proposed research in this field. The first consideration is the multiscale anatomy of tomato fruits that provides the basis for mechanical modeling. The literature on experimental methods for studying multiscale mechanics of fruit is then reviewed, as are recent results from using those methods. Finally, future research directions are discussed, in particular the combination of work over all scales. It is clear that a bottom-up approach incorporating single-cell mechanics in finite element models of whole fruit assumed to have internal structures is a promising way forward for tomato fruits but further method developments may be needed for these and other fruits and vegetables, in particular recovery of representative single cells from tissues for mechanical characterization.

  14. Mechanics of plant fruit hooks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Gorb, Stanislav N; Gorb, Elena; Pugno, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    Hook-like surface structures, observed in some plant species, play an important role in the process of plant growth and seed dispersal. In this study, we developed an elastic model and further used it to investigate the mechanical behaviour of fruit hooks in four plant species, previously measured in an experimental study. Based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, the force-displacement relationship is derived, and its Young's modulus is obtained. The result agrees well with the experimental data. The model aids in understanding the mechanics of hooks, and could be used in the development of new bioinspired Velcro-like materials. PMID:23365190

  15. How microRNA172 affects fruit growth in different species is dependent on fruit type.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jia-Long; Tomes, Sumathi; Xu, Juan; Gleave, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    microRNA172 (miR172) expression has been shown to have a positive effect on Arabidopsis fruit (siliques) growth. In contrast, over-expression of miR172 has a negative influence on fruit growth in apple, resulting in a dramatic reduction in fruit size. This negative influence is supported by the results of analyzing a transposable element (TE) insertional allele of a MIR172 gene that has reduced expression of the miRNA and is associated with an increase in fruit size. Arabidopsis siliques are a dry fruit derived from ovary tissues, whereas apple is a fleshy pome fruit derived mostly from hypanthium tissues. A model has been developed to explain the contrasting impact of miR172 expression in these two plant species based on the differences in their fruit structure. Transgenic apple plants with extremely high levels of miR172 overexpression produced flowers consisting of carpel tissues only, which failed to produce fruit. By comparison, in tomato, a fleshy berry fruit derived from the ovary, high level over-expression of the same miR172 resulted in carpel-only flowers which developed into parthenocarpic fruit. These results further indicate that the influence of miR172 on fruit growth in different plant species depends on its fruit type. PMID:26926448

  16. How microRNA172 affects fruit growth in different species is dependent on fruit type

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jia-Long; Tomes, Sumathi; Xu, Juan; Gleave, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT microRNA172 (miR172) expression has been shown to have a positive effect on Arabidopsis fruit (siliques) growth. In contrast, over-expression of miR172 has a negative influence on fruit growth in apple, resulting in a dramatic reduction in fruit size. This negative influence is supported by the results of analyzing a transposable element (TE) insertional allele of a MIR172 gene that has reduced expression of the miRNA and is associated with an increase in fruit size. Arabidopsis siliques are a dry fruit derived from ovary tissues, whereas apple is a fleshy pome fruit derived mostly from hypanthium tissues. A model has been developed to explain the contrasting impact of miR172 expression in these two plant species based on the differences in their fruit structure. Transgenic apple plants with extremely high levels of miR172 overexpression produced flowers consisting of carpel tissues only, which failed to produce fruit. By comparison, in tomato, a fleshy berry fruit derived from the ovary, high level over-expression of the same miR172 resulted in carpel-only flowers which developed into parthenocarpic fruit. These results further indicate that the influence of miR172 on fruit growth in different plant species depends on its fruit type. PMID:26926448

  17. Yield and fruit quality traits of dragon fruit lines and cultivars grown in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dragon fruit or pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus and Selenicereus megalanthus) is a member of the Cactaceae family and native to the tropical forest regions of Mexico, Central, and South America. The fruit was practically unknown 15 years ago but it occupies a growing niche in Europe’s exotic fruit mar...

  18. Seed germination and seedling fitness in Mesua ferrea L. in relation to fruit size and seed number per fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Latif; Bhuyan, Putul; Shankar, Uma; Todaria, Nagendra P.

    1999-11-01

    Effect of fruit size and seediness (seed number per fruit) was examined on germination and early growth of seedlings in Mesua ferrea L. Fruiting incidence (number of fruited trees in a population) and fruit loading (number of fruits per tree) vary from one year to the other, and were greater in 1997 than in 1998. Seeds from large fruits (> 40 g) are preferred for forestry plantations and those from small fruits (< 40 g) are discarded, despite a greater proportion of small fruits (63.2 %) than large fruits (36.8 %). A fruit, large or small in size, may contain one, two, three or four seeds. The germination percentage of seeds increased from 1-seeded through 4-seeded fruits both in laboratory and greenhouse conditions, and both in case of large and small fruits. Conversely, the mean seed weight and germination time decreased along this gradient, i.e. seeds from 1-seeded fruits were the heaviest and required maximum time for germination, and the seeds from 4-seeded fruits were the lightest and required minimum time for germination. The seeds from small fruits were lighter in weight, achieved lower germination percentages and required greater germination time than the seeds from large fruits in all four seeded categories. Seedlings from seeds from 1-seeded fruits survived better and with stronger vigour after 1 year of growth than seedlings from 2-, 3- and 4-seeded fruits. Further, seedling survival and vigour were greater for seeds from large rather than small fruits.

  19. "FruitZotic": A Sensory Approach to Introducing Preschoolers to Fresh Exotic Fruits at Head Start Locations in Western Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannan, Srimathi; Smith, Rebecca; Foley, Christine; Del Sole, Sarah; White, Alissa; Sheldon, Lisa A.; Mietlcki-Floyd, Shirley; Severin, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    FruitZotic incorporated fruit stories (exotic-fruits-literacy), a "See, Smell, Hear, Touch and Taste" (sensory) segment and a question-prompted discussion. Three take-home components incorporating the exotic fruits were: Coloring Activity, Recipes, and Fact Sheets. Sensory based nutrition education can increase familiarity with exotic fruits among…

  20. Fruit ripening phenomena--an overview.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, V; Prabha, T N; Tharanathan, R N

    2007-01-01

    Fruits constitute a commercially important and nutritionally indispensable food commodity. Being a part of a balanced diet, fruits play a vital role in human nutrition by supplying the necessary growth regulating factors essential for maintaining normal health. Fruits are widely distributed in nature. One of the limiting factors that influence their economic value is the relatively short ripening period and reduced post-harvest life. Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated, genetically programmed, and an irreversible phenomenon involving a series of physiological, biochemical, and organoleptic changes, that finally leads to the development of a soft edible ripe fruit with desirable quality attributes. Excessive textural softening during ripening leads to adverse effects/spoilage upon storage. Carbohydrates play a major role in the ripening process, by way of depolymerization leading to decreased molecular size with concomitant increase in the levels of ripening inducing specific enzymes, whose target differ from fruit to fruit. The major classes of cell wall polysaccharides that undergo modifications during ripening are starch, pectins, cellulose, and hemicelluloses. Pectins are the common and major components of primary cell wall and middle lamella, contributing to the texture and quality of fruits. Their degradation during ripening seems to be responsible for tissue softening of a number of fruits. Structurally pectins are a diverse group of heteropolysaccharides containing partially methylated D-galacturonic acid residues with side chain appendages of several neutral polysaccharides. The degree of polymerization/esterification and the proportion of neutral sugar residues/side chains are the principal factors contributing to their (micro-) heterogeneity. Pectin degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, lyase, and rhamnogalacturonase are the most implicated in fruit-tissue softening. Recent advances in molecular biology have provided a

  1. Fruit polyphenols, immunity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    González-Gallego, Javier; García-Mediavilla, M Victoria; Sánchez-Campos, Sonia; Tuñón, María J

    2010-10-01

    Flavonoids are a large class of naturally occurring compounds widely present in fruits, vegetables and beverages derived from plants. These molecules have been reported to possess a wide range of activities in the prevention of common diseases, including CHD, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, gastrointestinal disorders and others. The effects appear to be related to the various biological/pharmacological activities of flavonoids. A large number of publications suggest immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of these compounds. However, almost all studies are in vitro studies with limited research on animal models and scarce data from human studies. The majority of in vitro research has been carried out with single flavonoids, generally aglycones, at rather supraphysiological concentrations. Few studies have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of physiologically attainable flavonoid concentrations in healthy subjects, and more epidemiological studies and prospective randomised trials are still required. This review summarises evidence for the effects of fruit and tea flavonoids and their metabolites in inflammation and immunity. Mechanisms of effect are discussed, including those on enzyme function and regulation of gene and protein expression. Animal work is included, and evidence from epidemiological studies and human intervention trials is reviewed. Biological relevance and functional benefits of the reported effects, such as resistance to infection or exercise performance, are also discussed.

  2. 76 FR 37312 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... programs to better meet the fruit and vegetable industry's needs. USDA also seeks nominations of... industry's needs. The Deputy Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service's Fruit and Vegetable...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory...

  3. A fruitful endeavor: modeling ALS in the fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Casci, Ian; Pandey, Udai Bhan

    2015-05-14

    For over a century Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, has been instrumental in genetics research and disease modeling. In more recent years, it has been a powerful tool for modeling and studying neurodegenerative diseases, including the devastating and fatal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The success of this model organism in ALS research comes from the availability of tools to manipulate gene/protein expression in a number of desired cell-types, and the subsequent recapitulation of cellular and molecular phenotypic features of the disease. Several Drosophila models have now been developed for studying the roles of ALS-associated genes in disease pathogenesis that allowed us to understand the molecular pathways that lead to motor neuron degeneration in ALS patients. Our primary goal in this review is to highlight the lessons we have learned using Drosophila models pertaining to ALS research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ALS complex pathogenesis.

  4. A Fruitful Endeavor: Modeling ALS in the Fruit Fly

    PubMed Central

    Casci, Ian; Pandey, Udai Bhan

    2014-01-01

    For over a century Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, has been instrumental in genetics research and disease modeling. In more recent years, it has been a powerful tool for modeling and studying neurodegenerative diseases, including the devastating and fatal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The success of this model organism in ALS research comes from the availability of tools to manipulate gene/protein expression in a number of desired cell-types, and the subsequent recapitulation of cellular and molecular phenotypic features of the disease. Several Drosophila models have now been developed for studying the roles of ALS-associated genes in disease pathogenesis that allowed us to understand the molecular pathways that lead to motor neuron degeneration in ALS patients. Our primary goal in this review is to highlight the lessons we have learned using Drosophila models pertaining to ALS research. PMID:25289585

  5. A Study of Germination Inhibition in Fruits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, John

    1982-01-01

    Describes a method for the extraction and bioassay of natural germination inhibitors, requiring only inexpensive equipment and minimal experimental skill. The method has been used to demonstrate qualitative/quantitative differences in germination inhibitor levels in a variety of different fruits or in different tissues within a single fruit.…

  6. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microarray and Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruit, a...

  7. Dispersers shape fruit diversity in Ficus (Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lomáscolo, Silvia B.; Levey, Douglas J.; Kimball, Rebecca T.; Bolker, Benjamin M.; Alborn, Hans T.

    2010-01-01

    Seed dispersal by vertebrates is one of the most common and important plant–animal mutualisms, involving an enormous diversity of fruiting plants and frugivorous animals. Even though plant reproduction depends largely on seed dispersal, evolutionary ecologists have been unable to link co-occurring traits in fruits with differences in behavior, physiology, and morphology of fruit-eating vertebrates. Hence, the origin and maintenance of fruit diversity remains largely unexplained. Using a multivariate phylogenetic comparative test with unbiased estimates of odor and color in figs, we demonstrate that fruit traits evolve in concert and as predicted by differences in the behavior, physiology (perceptive ability) and morphology of their frugivorous seed dispersers. The correlated evolution of traits results in the convergence of general appearance of fruits in species that share disperser types. Observations at fruiting trees independently confirmed that differences in fig traits predict differences in dispersers. Taken together, these results demonstrate that differences among frugivores have shaped the evolution of fruit traits. More broadly, our results underscore the importance of mutualisms in both generating and maintaining biodiversity. PMID:20679219

  8. Fruits, vegetables and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Dauchet, Luc; Amouyel, Philippe; Dallongeville, Jean

    2009-09-01

    Diet plays an important part in the maintenance of optimal cardiovascular health. This Review summarizes the evidence for a relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and the occurrence of coronary heart disease. This evidence is based on observational cohort studies, nutrition prevention trials with fruit and vegetables, and investigations of the effects of fruit and vegetables on cardiovascular risk factors. Most of the evidence supporting a cardioprotective effect comes from observational epidemiological studies; these studies have reported either weak or nonsignificant associations. Controlled nutritional prevention trials are scarce and the existing data do not show any clear protective effects of fruit and vegetables on coronary heart disease. Under rigorously controlled experimental conditions, fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a decrease in blood pressure, which is an important cardiovascular risk factor. However, the effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma lipid levels, diabetes, and body weight have not yet been thoroughly explored. Finally, the hypothesis that nutrients in fruit and vegetables have a protective role in reducing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and preventing complications of atherosclerosis has not been tested in prevention trials. Evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease remains scarce thus far.

  9. Tephritid fruit fly transgenesis and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most serious agricultural pests in the world, owing in large part to those species having broad host ranges including hundreds of fruits and vegetables. They are the largest group of insects subject to population control by a biologically-based systems, most notab...

  10. Paradoxical Effects of Fruit on Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Satya P.; Chung, Hea J.; Kim, Hyeon J.; Hong, Seong T.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is exponentially increasing regardless of its preventable characteristics. The current measures for preventing obesity have failed to address the severity and prevalence of obesity, so alternative approaches based on nutritional and diet changes are attracting attention for the treatment of obesity. Fruit contains large amounts of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc.), which are well known to induce obesity. Thus, considering the amount of simple sugars found in fruit, it is reasonable to expect that their consumption should contribute to obesity rather than weight reduction. However, epidemiological research has consistently shown that most types of fruit have anti-obesity effects. Thus, due to their anti-obesity effects as well as their vitamin and mineral contents, health organizations are suggesting the consumption of fruit for weight reduction purposes. These contradictory characteristics of fruit with respect to human body weight management motivated us to study previous research to understand the contribution of different types of fruit to weight management. In this review article, we analyze and discuss the relationships between fruit and their anti-obesity effects based on numerous possible underlying mechanisms, and we conclude that each type of fruit has different effects on body weight. PMID:27754404

  11. Antimicrobial packaging for fresh-cut fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh-cut fruits are minimally processed produce which are consumed directly at their fresh stage without any further kill step. Microbiological quality and safety are major challenges to fresh-cut fruits. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the innovative food packaging systems that is able to kill o...

  12. Apple function genomics: from fruit to root

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genotype-specific fruit ripening patterns of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) are closely associated with the at-harvest quality and the post-harvest storability. To elucidate the molecular networks and identify the key genes regulating apple fruit maturation and ripening processes, large-scale ...

  13. Dispersers shape fruit diversity in Ficus (Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Lomáscolo, Silvia B; Levey, Douglas J; Kimball, Rebecca T; Bolker, Benjamin M; Alborn, Hans T

    2010-08-17

    Seed dispersal by vertebrates is one of the most common and important plant-animal mutualisms, involving an enormous diversity of fruiting plants and frugivorous animals. Even though plant reproduction depends largely on seed dispersal, evolutionary ecologists have been unable to link co-occurring traits in fruits with differences in behavior, physiology, and morphology of fruit-eating vertebrates. Hence, the origin and maintenance of fruit diversity remains largely unexplained. Using a multivariate phylogenetic comparative test with unbiased estimates of odor and color in figs, we demonstrate that fruit traits evolve in concert and as predicted by differences in the behavior, physiology (perceptive ability) and morphology of their frugivorous seed dispersers. The correlated evolution of traits results in the convergence of general appearance of fruits in species that share disperser types. Observations at fruiting trees independently confirmed that differences in fig traits predict differences in dispersers. Taken together, these results demonstrate that differences among frugivores have shaped the evolution of fruit traits. More broadly, our results underscore the importance of mutualisms in both generating and maintaining biodiversity.

  14. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  15. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  16. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  17. Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

  18. Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

    1987-04-01

    Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A)/sup +/ RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L-/sup 35/S-methionine. The /sup 35/S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues.

  19. Influence of branch autonomy on fruit, scaffold, trunk and root growth during stage III of peach fruit development.

    PubMed

    Marsal, Jordi; Basile, Boris; Solari, Luis; DeJong, Theodore M

    2003-04-01

    We studied the influence of branch autonomy on the growth of reproductive and vegetative organs by establishing different patterns of fruit distribution within and between large branch units (scaffolds) in mature peach trees (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cv. 'Elegant Lady'). Different patterns of fruit distribution were established by defruiting either whole scaffolds (uneven fruit distribution between scaffolds; US) or several selected hangers (small fruiting branches) per tree (uneven fruit distribution between hangers; UH). The effects of these patterns were compared with the effects of an even fruit distribution treatment (EVEN) in which fruits were thinned to achieve maximum uniformity of fruit distribution within the canopy. The desired fruit loads were obtained by differentially thinning the remaining bearing parts. On a tree basis, the response of mean fruit mass to fruit load was strongly affected by fruit distribution. The steepest mean fruit mass to fruit load relationship was found in US trees, whereas the relationship in UH trees was intermediate between the US and EVEN trees. On a scaffold basis, differences in fruit size between EVEN and US trees with similar fruit loads, though statistically significant, were relatively small, indicating that scaffolds were almost totally autonomous with respect to dry matter partitioning to fruit during the final stage of peach fruit growth. Hangers also appeared to exhibit significant autonomy with respect to the distribution of dry matter during the final phase of fruit growth. Branch autonomy was evident in scaffold growth: defruited scaffolds in the US treatment grew more than fruited scaffolds, and fruit distribution treatments had little impact on scaffold cross-sectional area on a tree basis. On the other hand, as observed for fruit growth, branch autonomy did not appear to be complete because the fruited scaffolds grew more in US trees than in EVEN trees under heavy cropping conditions. However, the effect of

  20. Novel trends to revolutionize preservation and packaging of fruits/fruit products: microbiological and nanotechnological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Anu; Parshad, Vir R

    2015-01-01

    Fruit preservation and packaging have been practiced since ages to maintain the constant supply of seasonal fruits over lengthened periods round the year. However, health and safety issues have attracted attention in recent decades. The safety and quality assurance of packaged fruits/fruit products are vital concerns in present day world-wide-integrated food supply chains. The growing demand of minimally or unprocessed packaged fruits has further aggravated the safety concerns which fuelled in extensive research with objectives to develop novel techniques of food processing, preservation, and packaging as well as for rapid, accurate, and early detection of contaminant products/microbes. Nevertheless, fruits and fruit-based products have yet to observe a panoramic introduction. Tropics and subtropics are the stellar producers of a variety of fruits; majority if not all is perishable and prone to postharvest decay. This evoked the opportunity to critically review the global scenario of emerging and novel techniques for fruit preservation and packaging, hence providing insight for their future implementation. This review would survey key nanotechnology innovations applied in preservation, packaging, safety, and storage of fruits and fruit-based products. The challenges and pros and cons of wider application of these innovative techniques, their commercial potential, and consumer acceptability have also been discussed.

  1. Greater variety of fruit served in a four-course snack increases fruit consumption.

    PubMed

    Raynor, Hollie A; Osterholt, Kathrin M

    2012-12-01

    Greater variety of energy-dense foods increases intake in meals composed of several courses. Little research has examined the effect of variety in low-energy-dense foods (i.e., fruits and vegetables). This study examined the effect of fruit variety on fruit intake during a four-course snack. Twenty unrestrained eaters (50% female, 100% White and Non-Hispanic, aged 26.5±8.1years, with a body mass index [BMI] of 22.9±3.0kg/m) completed two, counter-balanced sessions, VARIETY and NON-VARIETY. In VARIETY, participants received four highly-liked fruits over 4, 7-min courses, while in NON-VARIETY participants received their most highly-liked fruit (fruit 1) for each of the four courses, to consume ad libitum. Intake, grams and energy, in each course was measured. Changes in pleasantness for each of the four fruits, with measures taken prior to course 1 and at the completion of course 4, were calculated. Greater intake (grams and energy) occurred in course 4 in VARIETY as compared to NON-VARIETY. Changes in pleasantness for fruit 1 were significantly different between the sessions, with NON-VARIETY decreasing more so than VARIETY. These results indicate that greater fruit variety increased fruit consumption in the last course, which may be due to differential changes in fruit pleasantness.

  2. Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis During Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Lado, Joanna; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Rodrigo, María Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are recognized as the main pigments in most fruit crops, providing colours that range from yellow and pink to deep orange and red. Moreover, the edible portion of widely consumed fruits or their derived products represent a major dietary source of carotenoids for animals and humans. Therefore, these pigments are crucial compounds contributing to fruit aesthetic and nutritional quality but may also have protecting and ecophysiological functions in coloured fruits. Among plant organs, fruits display one of the most heterogeneous carotenoids patterns in terms of diversity and abundance. In this chapter a comprehensive list of the carotenoid content and profile in the most commonly cultivated fleshy fruits is reported. The proposed fruit classification systems attending to carotenoid composition are revised and discussed. The regulation of carotenoids in fruits can be rather complex due to the dramatic changes in content and composition during ripening, which are also dependent on the fruit tissue and the developmental stage. In addition, carotenoid accumulation is a dynamic process, associated with the development of chromoplasts during ripening. As a general rule, carotenoid accumulation is highly controlled at the transcriptional level of the structural and accessory proteins of the biosynthetic and degradation pathways, but other mechanisms such as post-transcriptional modifications or the development of sink structures have been recently revealed as crucial factors in determining the levels and stability of these pigments. In this chapter common key metabolic reactions regulating carotenoid composition in fruit tissues are described in addition to others that are restricted to certain species and generate unique carotenoids patterns. The existence of fruit-specific isoforms for key steps such as the phytoene synthase, lycopene β-cyclases or catabolic carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases has allowed an independent regulation of the pathway in fruit tissues

  3. Volatile host fruit odors as attractants for the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Cornelius, M L; Duan, J J; Messing, R H

    2000-02-01

    We examined the responses of oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, to the odors of different stages and types of fruit presented on potted trees in a field cage. Females were most attracted to odors of soft, ripe fruit. Odors of common guava were more attractive to females than papaya and starfruit, and equally as attractive as strawberry guava, orange, and mango. In field tests, McPhail traps baited with mango, common guava, and orange captured equal numbers of females. Traps baited with mango were compared with 2 commercially available fruit fly traps. McPhail traps baited with mango captured more females than visual fruit-mimicking sticky traps (Ladd traps) and equal numbers of females as McPhail traps baited with protein odors. Results from this study indicate that host fruit volatiles could be used as lures for capturing oriental fruit flies in orchards.

  4. Fruit growth-related genes in tomato.

    PubMed

    Azzi, Lamia; Deluche, Cynthia; Gévaudant, Frédéric; Frangne, Nathalie; Delmas, Frédéric; Hernould, Michel; Chevalier, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) represents a model species for all fleshy fruits due to its biological cycle and the availability of numerous genetic and molecular resources. Its importance in human nutrition has made it one of the most valuable worldwide commodities. Tomato fruit size results from the combination of cell number and cell size, which are determined by both cell division and expansion. As fruit growth is mainly driven by cell expansion, cells from the (fleshy) pericarp tissue become highly polyploid according to the endoreduplication process, reaching a DNA content rarely encountered in other plant species (between 2C and 512C). Both cell division and cell expansion are under the control of complex interactions between hormone signalling and carbon partitioning, which establish crucial determinants of the quality of ripe fruit, such as the final size, weight, and shape, and organoleptic and nutritional traits. This review describes the genes known to contribute to fruit growth in tomato.

  5. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Key, T J

    2011-01-01

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes.

  6. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Key, T J

    2011-01-01

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes. PMID:21119663

  7. A multilevel analysis of fruit growth of two tomato cultivars in response to fruit temperature.

    PubMed

    Okello, Robert C O; de Visser, Pieter H B; Heuvelink, Ep; Lammers, Michiel; de Maagd, Ruud A; Struik, Paul C; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2015-03-01

    Fruit phenotype is a resultant of inherent genetic potential in interaction with impact of environment experienced during crop and fruit growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic and physiological basis for the difference in fruit size between a small ('Brioso') and intermediate ('Cappricia') sized tomato cultivar exposed to different fruit temperatures. It was hypothesized that fruit heating enhances expression of cell cycle and expansion genes, rates of carbon import, cell division and expansion, and shortens growth duration, whereas increase in cell number intensifies competition for assimilates among cells. Unlike previous studies in which whole-plant and fruit responses cannot be separated, we investigated the temperature response by varying fruit temperature using climate-controlled cuvettes, while keeping plant temperature the same. Fruit phenotype was assessed at different levels of aggregation (whole fruit, cell and gene) between anthesis and breaker stage. We showed that: (1) final fruit fresh weight was larger in 'Cappricia' owing to more and larger pericarp cells, (2) heated fruits were smaller because their mesocarp cells were smaller than those of control fruits and (3) no significant differences in pericarp carbohydrate concentration were detected between heated and control fruits nor between cultivars at breaker stage. At the gene level, expression of cell division promoters (CDKB2, CycA1 and E2Fe-like) was higher while that of the inhibitory fw2.2 was lower in 'Cappricia'. Fruit heating increased expression of fw2.2 and three cell division promoters (CDKB1, CDKB2 and CycA1). Expression of cell expansion genes did not corroborate cell size observations. PMID:24957883

  8. A multilevel analysis of fruit growth of two tomato cultivars in response to fruit temperature.

    PubMed

    Okello, Robert C O; de Visser, Pieter H B; Heuvelink, Ep; Lammers, Michiel; de Maagd, Ruud A; Struik, Paul C; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2015-03-01

    Fruit phenotype is a resultant of inherent genetic potential in interaction with impact of environment experienced during crop and fruit growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic and physiological basis for the difference in fruit size between a small ('Brioso') and intermediate ('Cappricia') sized tomato cultivar exposed to different fruit temperatures. It was hypothesized that fruit heating enhances expression of cell cycle and expansion genes, rates of carbon import, cell division and expansion, and shortens growth duration, whereas increase in cell number intensifies competition for assimilates among cells. Unlike previous studies in which whole-plant and fruit responses cannot be separated, we investigated the temperature response by varying fruit temperature using climate-controlled cuvettes, while keeping plant temperature the same. Fruit phenotype was assessed at different levels of aggregation (whole fruit, cell and gene) between anthesis and breaker stage. We showed that: (1) final fruit fresh weight was larger in 'Cappricia' owing to more and larger pericarp cells, (2) heated fruits were smaller because their mesocarp cells were smaller than those of control fruits and (3) no significant differences in pericarp carbohydrate concentration were detected between heated and control fruits nor between cultivars at breaker stage. At the gene level, expression of cell division promoters (CDKB2, CycA1 and E2Fe-like) was higher while that of the inhibitory fw2.2 was lower in 'Cappricia'. Fruit heating increased expression of fw2.2 and three cell division promoters (CDKB1, CDKB2 and CycA1). Expression of cell expansion genes did not corroborate cell size observations.

  9. Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, Yew-Ai

    2003-01-01

    The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health.

  10. Model-assisted analysis of spatial and temporal variations in fruit temperature and transpiration highlighting the role of fruit development.

    PubMed

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Saudreau, Marc; Joas, Jacques; Génard, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology.

  11. Model-Assisted Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Variations in Fruit Temperature and Transpiration Highlighting the Role of Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Saudreau, Marc; Joas, Jacques; Génard, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology. PMID:24663687

  12. [Effects of GA, and CPPU on grape fruit adjacent leaf photosynthesis and fruit quality].

    PubMed

    Xin, Shou-peng; Liu, Shuai; Yu, Yang; Nie, Song-qing; Gao, Zhi-hong; Tao, Jian-min

    2015-06-01

    Taken the grape cultivar 'Shine Muscat' as the material, the effect of the combination of GA3 and CPPU on the light-response curves in the fruit adjacent leaves and fruit quality were investigated two weeks after blossoming. The results showed that non-rectangular hyperbolic model was more suitable for grape fruit adjacent leaf light response curve-fitting. Pn and g(s) of fruit adjacent leaves among all treatments increased with the increasing light intensity under the combination treat-ments of 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 and 5, 10, 15, 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU, respectively, but Ci decreased. Fruit quality increased with the increasing CPPU concentration under the combination treatments of 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 and 5, 10, 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU, respectively. Grape fruit adjacent leaf photosynthesis under the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was higher than the other treatments. The fruit quality under the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was lower than the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment. It indicated that reasonable CPPU treatment concentration could improve fruit adjacent leaf photosynthetic ability and fruit quality. Too high concentration made the fruit quality lower instead. The 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was most appropriate in two weeks after blossoming. PMID:26572037

  13. [Effects of GA, and CPPU on grape fruit adjacent leaf photosynthesis and fruit quality].

    PubMed

    Xin, Shou-peng; Liu, Shuai; Yu, Yang; Nie, Song-qing; Gao, Zhi-hong; Tao, Jian-min

    2015-06-01

    Taken the grape cultivar 'Shine Muscat' as the material, the effect of the combination of GA3 and CPPU on the light-response curves in the fruit adjacent leaves and fruit quality were investigated two weeks after blossoming. The results showed that non-rectangular hyperbolic model was more suitable for grape fruit adjacent leaf light response curve-fitting. Pn and g(s) of fruit adjacent leaves among all treatments increased with the increasing light intensity under the combination treat-ments of 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 and 5, 10, 15, 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU, respectively, but Ci decreased. Fruit quality increased with the increasing CPPU concentration under the combination treatments of 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 and 5, 10, 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU, respectively. Grape fruit adjacent leaf photosynthesis under the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was higher than the other treatments. The fruit quality under the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was lower than the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment. It indicated that reasonable CPPU treatment concentration could improve fruit adjacent leaf photosynthetic ability and fruit quality. Too high concentration made the fruit quality lower instead. The 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was most appropriate in two weeks after blossoming.

  14. Fruit evolution and diversification in campanulid angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Donoghue, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    With increases in both the size and scope of phylogenetic trees, we are afforded a renewed opportunity to address long-standing comparative questions, such as whether particular fruit characters account for much of the variation in diversity among flowering plant clades. Studies to date have reported conflicting results, largely as a consequence of taxonomic scale and a reliance on potentially conservative statistical measures. Here we examine a larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer the rates of character transitions among the major fruit types, emphasizing the evolution of the achene fruits that are most frequently observed within the group. Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated bearing capsules, and that all subsequent fruit diversity was derived from various modifications of this dry fruit type. We also found that the preponderance of lineages bearing achenes is a consequence of not only being a fruit type that is somewhat irreversible once it evolves, but one that also seems to have a positive association with diversification rates. Although these results imply the achene fruit type is a significant correlate of diversity patterns observed across campanulids, we conclude that it remains difficult to confidently and directly view this character state as the actual cause of increased diversification rates.

  15. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, K A; Potter, J D

    1996-10-01

    In this review of the scientific literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer, results from 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies are summarized. The evidence for a protective effect of greater vegetable and fruit consumption is consistent for cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon. The types of vegetables or fruit that most often appear to be protective against cancer are raw vegetables, followed by allium vegetables, carrots, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and tomatoes. Substances present in vegetables and fruit that may help protect against cancer, and their mechanisms, are also briefly reviewed; these include dithiolthiones, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, allium compounds, isoflavones, protease inhibitors, saponins, phytosterols, inositol hexaphosphate, vitamin C, D-limonene, lutein, folic acid, beta carotene, lycopene, selenium, vitamin E, flavonoids, and dietary fiber. Current US vegetable and fruit intake, which averages about 3.4 servings per day, is discussed, as are possible noncancer-related effects of increased vegetable and fruit consumption, including benefits against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity, diverticulosis, and cataracts. Suggestions for dietitians to use in counseling persons toward increasing vegetable and fruit intake are presented.

  16. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  17. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F.; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding. PMID:27069395

  18. Fine-tuning the fruit-tracking hypothesis: spatiotemporal links between fruit availability and fruit consumption by birds in Andean mountain forests.

    PubMed

    Blendinger, Pedro G; Ruggera, Román A; Núñez Montellano, M Gabriela; Macchi, Leandro; Zelaya, Patricia V; Álvarez, M Eva; Martín, Eduardo; Acosta, Oriana Osinaga; Sánchez, Rocío; Haedo, Josefina; Boots, Mike

    2012-11-01

    1. The fruit-tracking hypothesis predicts spatiotemporal links between changes in the abundance of fruit-eating birds and the abundance of their fleshy-fruit resources. 2. While the spatial scale of plant-frugivore interactions has been explored to understand mismatches between observed and expected fruit-frugivore patterns, methodological issues such as the consequences of measuring fruit and frugivore abundance rather than fruit availability and fruit consumption have not been evaluated. 3. Here, we explored whether predicted fruit-frugivore spatiotemporal links can be captured with higher accuracy by proximate measurements of interaction strength. We used a 6-ha grided plot in an Andean subtropical forest to study the link between (i) fruit and fruit-eating bird abundances; (ii) fruit availability and frequency of fruit consumption; and (iii) covariation between frugivore abundance and frequency of frugivory. We evaluated these links for the entire frugivore assemblage and for the four most important species using data gathered bimonthly along a 2-year period. 4. Fleshy-fruit availability and abundance varied sharply temporally and were patchily distributed in mosaics that differed in fruit quantity. Fruit availability and abundance also varied along spatial gradients extended over the whole study plot. We found a strong response of the entire frugivorous bird assemblage to fruit availability over time, and a weakly significant relationship over space at the local scale. The main frugivore species widely differed in their responses to changes in fruit abundance in such a way that response at the assemblage level cannot be seen as the sum of individual responses of each species. Our results suggest that fruit tracking in frugivorous-insectivorous birds may be largely explained by species-specific responses to changes in the availability of fruits and alternative resources. 5. In agreement with our prediction, more accurate measurements of interaction strength

  19. [Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) toxic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Signaté, A; Olindo, S; Chausson, N; Cassinoto, C; Edimo Nana, M; Saint Vil, M; Cabre, P; Smadja, D

    2009-03-01

    Ingestion of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) can induce severe intoxication in subjects with chronic renal failure. Oxalate plays a key role in the neurotoxicity of star fruit. We report the cases of two patients with unknown chronic renal insufficiency who developed severe encephalopathy after ingestion of star fruit. The two patients developed intractable hiccups, vomiting, impaired consciousness and status epilepticus. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging showed cortical and thalamic hyperintense lesions related to epileptic status. They improved after being submitted to continuous hemofiltration which constitutes the most effective treatment during the acute phase.

  20. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part V. Temperate fruits: pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of temperate fruits, i.e., apple, pear, peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, plum, strawberry, bilberry, cranberry, raspberry, and black currant, is reviewed. Changes in fruit metabolism, chemical composition, texture, and organoleptic quality attributes are discussed with reference to the irradiation dose. The feasibility of using radiation either alone or in conjunction with heat treatment, refrigeration, and controlled atmospheres (CA) for the control of storage decay caused by fungal pathogens is considered. Areas of further research are suggested before irradiation could be considered for practical application in some of these temperate fruits. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation for disinfestation of certain pome and stone fruits and the prospects for the commercial utilization of irradiation for improving the market life of strawberries are discussed. 156 references.

  1. There's more than one way to skin a fruit: formation and functions of fruit cuticles.

    PubMed

    Martin, Laetitia B B; Rose, Jocelyn K C

    2014-08-01

    As with all aerial plant organs, fleshy fruits are encased in a hydrophobic cuticle that must fulfil multiple functions, including limiting desiccation and preventing microbial infection, which in the case of fruits maintains palatability and promotes seed dispersal. Fruit cuticles have many features in common with those of vegetative organs, but also have unique characteristics, including the fact that they are often astomatous, thicker than those of most leaves, and can be relatively easily isolated. These attributes provide a valuable experimental system to address questions related to cuticle structure, function, and the relationships between composition, architecture, permeability, and biomechanical properties. Here we provide an overview of insights into cuticle biology that have resulted from studies of those of fleshy fruits, as well as the diversity and dynamic nature of fruit cuticle composition and architecture, the environmental factors that influence those features, and the roles that they play in fruit ontogeny.

  2. Gravitropic bending of fruit bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, Bertold

    Fruit bodies of basidiomycetes exhibit a unique mechanism of gravitropic bending, related to their specific architecture. The gravisensitive region of the stipe directly below the cap coincides with the bending zone. The hyphae of this region are equipped with the ability to generate positional information and translate it into differential growth. A model is introduced with the fundamental characteristics of agent-based modeling as it is applied in robotics and artificial intelligence. The hyphae are equivalent to autonomous decision-making agents on the basis of a simple set of rules. Repetitive interactions between the agents, i.e. the hyphae, permit the correct adjustment of the fruit body independent from its relative position in space. This model is based on the following structural as well as biochemical data derived from the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes. A statolith-mediated mechanism in each individual hypha of the gravisensitive region accounts for graviperception. Cell nuclei with a density of 1.22 g cm-3 are considered the most likely candidates for gravity-induced sedimentation (statoliths). The number of nuclei in this zone is increased from 2 to up to 10 individual nuclei within each hyphal compartment. The nuclei are suspended in a web of actin filaments anchored in the plasma membrane. Any shift from the vertical position is converted into a change in the gravitational pull exerted on the plasma membrane. This leads to a functional distinction of the upper and lower flanks of each hypha. Each hypha is equipped with the ability to generate and amplify a positional signal perpendicular to the axis of the gravisensitive zone. This signal coordinates different hyphal extension of the upper and lower flank of the stipe: upper flank hyphae grow slower than lower flank hyphae. Hyphal growth requires continued turgor pressure and depends on the expansion of the vacuolar compartment. This vacuolation is conspicuously increased in lower flank

  3. Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2009, Trichoderma rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreening with 5...

  4. Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2009, brown rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreened with 5 ppm et...

  5. 7 CFR 1416.402 - Eligible fruit and vegetable producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. 1416.402... DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.402 Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. (a) Producers of fruits and vegetables utilizing “plasticulture”, and “other than...

  6. 7 CFR 1416.402 - Eligible fruit and vegetable producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. 1416.402... DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.402 Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. (a) Producers of fruits and vegetables utilizing “plasticulture”, and “other than...

  7. 7 CFR 1416.402 - Eligible fruit and vegetable producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. 1416.402... DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.402 Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. (a) Producers of fruits and vegetables utilizing “plasticulture”, and “other than...

  8. 7 CFR 1416.402 - Eligible fruit and vegetable producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. 1416.402... DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.402 Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. (a) Producers of fruits and vegetables utilizing “plasticulture”, and “other than...

  9. 7 CFR 1416.402 - Eligible fruit and vegetable producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. 1416.402... DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.402 Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. (a) Producers of fruits and vegetables utilizing “plasticulture”, and “other than...

  10. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  11. 7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... varieties of the following types of citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, commonly called “oranges”; (b) Citrus paradisi, MacFadyen, commonly called “grapefruit”; (c) Citrus...

  12. 7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... varieties of the following types of citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, commonly called “oranges”; (b) Citrus paradisi, MacFadyen, commonly called “grapefruit”; (c) Citrus...

  13. 7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... varieties of the following types of citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, commonly called “oranges”; (b) Citrus paradisi, MacFadyen, commonly called “grapefruit”; (c) Citrus...

  14. 7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... varieties of the following types of citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, commonly called “oranges”; (b) Citrus paradisi, MacFadyen, commonly called “grapefruit”; (c) Citrus...

  15. 7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... varieties of the following types of citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, commonly called “oranges”; (b) Citrus paradisi, MacFadyen, commonly called “grapefruit”; (c) Citrus...

  16. Fruit removal rate depends on neighborhood fruit density, frugivore abundance, and spatial context.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam D; McWilliams, Scott R

    2014-03-01

    Fleshy-fruited plants depend fundamentally on interactions with frugivores for effective seed dispersal. Recent models of frugivory within spatially explicit networks make two general predictions regarding these interactions: rate of fruit removal increases (i.e., is facilitated) as densities of conspecific neighborhood fruits increase, and fruit removal rate varies positively with frugivore abundance. We conducted a field experiment that constitutes the first empirical and simultaneous test of these two primary predictions. We manipulated neighborhood abundances of arrowwood (Viburnum recognitum and Viburnum dentatum) fruits in southern New England's maritime shrub community and monitored removal rates by autumn-migrating birds. Focal arrowwood plants in neighborhoods with high conspecific fruit density sustained moderately decreased fruit removal rates (i.e., competition) relative to those in low-density neighborhoods, a result that agrees with most field research to date but contrasts with theoretical expectation. We suggest the spatial contexts that favor competition (i.e., high-abundance neighborhoods and highly aggregated landscapes) are considerably more common than the relatively uniform, low-aggregation fruiting landscapes that promote facilitation. Patterns of arrowwood removal by avian frugivores generally varied positively with, and apparently in response to, seasonal changes in migratory frugivore abundance. However, we suggest that dense stands of arrowwood concentrated frugivore activity at the neighborhood scale, thus counteracting geographic patterns of frugivore abundance. Our results underscore the importance of considering spatial context (e.g., fruit distribution and aggregation, frugivory hubs) in plant-avian frugivore interactions.

  17. Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Background Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies. Conclusions/Significance This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process. PMID:23349718

  18. Proteomic analysis of apricot fruit during ripening.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Arena, Simona; Rocco, Mariapina; Verrillo, Francesca; Novi, Gianfranco; Viscosi, Vincenzo; Marra, Mauro; Scaloni, Andrea

    2013-01-14

    Ripening of climacteric fruits involves a complex network of biochemical and metabolic changes that make them palatable and rich in nutritional and health-beneficial compounds. Since fruit maturation has a profound impact on human nutrition, it has been recently the object of increasing research activity by holistic approaches, especially on model species. Here we report on the original proteomic characterization of ripening in apricot, a widely cultivated species of temperate zones appreciated for its taste and aromas, whose cultivation is yet hampered by specific limitations. Fruits of Prunus armeniaca cv. Vesuviana were harvested at three ripening stages and proteins extracted and resolved by 1D and 2D electrophoresis. Whole lanes from 1D gels were subjected to shot-gun analysis that identified 245 gene products, showing preliminary qualitative differences between maturation stages. In parallel, differential analysis of 2D proteomic maps highlighted 106 spots as differentially represented among variably ripen fruits. Most of these were further identified by means of MALDI-TOF-PMF and nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS as enzymes involved in main biochemical processes influencing metabolic/structural changes occurring during maturation, i.e. organic acids, carbohydrates and energy metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, cell wall restructuring and stress response, or as protein species linkable to peculiar fruit organoleptic characteristics. In addition to originally present preliminary information on the main biochemical changes that characterize apricot ripening, this study also provides indications for future marker-assisted selection breeding programs aimed to ameliorate fruit quality.

  19. Psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Brug, J; Lechner, L; De Vries, H

    1995-12-01

    Psychosocial correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption were studied in an adult Dutch population (n = 367) based on the ASE model of attitudes, social influence and self-efficacy. Attitudes were a summation of beliefs about taste, different health consequences, and costs in time and money. Social influences were measured through the social stimulation respondents expected to get from important others to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables and by asking the subjects about the behaviour of important others. Self-efficacy reflected the respondents' ability to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables in various situations. Self-efficacy and attitudes were consistently and significantly associated with consumption of boiled or otherwise heated vegetables, of salads, and of fruit. Furthermore, respondents reporting low consumption of these food groups had lower self-efficacy expectations and less positive attitudes than subjects with relatively high consumption of fruit and vegetables. It is concluded that nutrition education aimed at stimulating fruit and vegetable consumption should focus especially on changing attitudes and self efficacy expectations.

  20. Fruit flesh betacyanin pigments in hylocereus cacti.

    PubMed

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Mizrahi, Yosef

    2002-10-01

    Determination of profiles and total contents of betacyanins in cactus fruits of Hylocereus species using chromatographic and spectrophotometric method is described. The investigated species were H. polyrhizus, H. purpusii, H. costaricensis, H. sp. 487 (all red-flesh species and hybrids made among them), and the white- or red-flesh species H. undatus. Hybrids included hybrid 1 (H. undatus white-flesh clone and H. sp. 487), hybrid 35 (H. sp. 487 and H. polyrhizus), and the reciprocal hybrid hybrid 95 (H. polyrhizus and H. sp. 487). Fruits of H. polyrhizus exhibited the highest relative concentration (expressed as percentage of the total HPLC peak area) of hylocerenin, a recently discovered pigment, and a high relative concentration of phyllocactin. Hylocerenin and isohylocerenin, present in fruits at relative concentrations of 11.7 and 5.8%, respectively, are probably responsible for the fluorescent color of the fruit pulp. H. costaricensis fruits have a much higher content of phyllocactin (63.9%), which is almost 4 times higher than the betanin content. These differences in pigment concentrations might explain the differences in red hues of the flesh of these fruits. PMID:12358484

  1. Fruit flesh betacyanin pigments in hylocereus cacti.

    PubMed

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Mizrahi, Yosef

    2002-10-01

    Determination of profiles and total contents of betacyanins in cactus fruits of Hylocereus species using chromatographic and spectrophotometric method is described. The investigated species were H. polyrhizus, H. purpusii, H. costaricensis, H. sp. 487 (all red-flesh species and hybrids made among them), and the white- or red-flesh species H. undatus. Hybrids included hybrid 1 (H. undatus white-flesh clone and H. sp. 487), hybrid 35 (H. sp. 487 and H. polyrhizus), and the reciprocal hybrid hybrid 95 (H. polyrhizus and H. sp. 487). Fruits of H. polyrhizus exhibited the highest relative concentration (expressed as percentage of the total HPLC peak area) of hylocerenin, a recently discovered pigment, and a high relative concentration of phyllocactin. Hylocerenin and isohylocerenin, present in fruits at relative concentrations of 11.7 and 5.8%, respectively, are probably responsible for the fluorescent color of the fruit pulp. H. costaricensis fruits have a much higher content of phyllocactin (63.9%), which is almost 4 times higher than the betanin content. These differences in pigment concentrations might explain the differences in red hues of the flesh of these fruits.

  2. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ..., 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 18419-18421, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0127) a proposal... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit...

  3. Molecular dissection of the role of auxin in fruit initiation.

    PubMed

    Pandolfini, Tiziana; Molesini, Barbara; Spena, Angelo

    2007-08-01

    Fruit set and growth usually requires fertilization. Fruit set and development without fertilization is called parthenocarpy. Feeding auxin to virgin flowers induces fruit development without fertilization. Recent studies by Hua Wang et al. and Marc Goetz et al. have identified molecular events leading to fruit initiation in the absence of fertilization, showing that parthenocarpy can be achieved by altering different steps of the auxin signaling pathway. Thus, independent evidence indicates that auxin plays a key role in fruit initiation. PMID:17629541

  4. Do Small Canopy Gaps Created by Japanese Black Bears Facilitate Fruiting of Fleshy-Fruited Plants?

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kaori; Washitani, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    Japanese black bears often break branches when climbing trees and feeding on fruit in canopies, thereby creating small canopy gaps. However, the role of black bear-created canopy gaps has not been evaluated in the context of multiple forest dynamics. Our hypothesis was that small canopy gaps created by black bears improve light conditions, which facilitates fruiting of adult fleshy-fruited plants located beneath the gaps, and also that this chain interaction depends on interactions among the size of gaps, improved light conditions, forest layers, and life form of plants. The rPPFD, size of black bear-created canopy gaps, and fruiting/non-fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants were investigated in five forest layers beneath black-bear-created canopy gaps and closed canopies of Mongolian oak (Quercus crispula). We found that light conditions improved beneath black bear-disturbed trees with canopy gaps of large size, and the effect of improvement of light conditions was reduced with descending forest layers. Fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants, especially woody lianas and trees, was facilitated by the improvement of light conditions accompanied by an increase in the size of black-bear-created gaps. Data from this study revealed that canopy disturbance by black bears was key for improving light conditions and accelerating fruiting of fleshy-fruited trees and woody lianas in the canopy layers in particular. Therefore, our hypothesis was mostly supported. Our results provide evidence that Japanese black bears have high potential as ecosystem engineers that increase the availability of resources (light and fruit in this study) to other species by causing physical state changes in biotic materials (branches of Q. crispula in this study). PMID:26207908

  5. Do Small Canopy Gaps Created by Japanese Black Bears Facilitate Fruiting of Fleshy-Fruited Plants?

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kaori; Washitani, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    Japanese black bears often break branches when climbing trees and feeding on fruit in canopies, thereby creating small canopy gaps. However, the role of black bear-created canopy gaps has not been evaluated in the context of multiple forest dynamics. Our hypothesis was that small canopy gaps created by black bears improve light conditions, which facilitates fruiting of adult fleshy-fruited plants located beneath the gaps, and also that this chain interaction depends on interactions among the size of gaps, improved light conditions, forest layers, and life form of plants. The rPPFD, size of black bear-created canopy gaps, and fruiting/non-fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants were investigated in five forest layers beneath black-bear-created canopy gaps and closed canopies of Mongolian oak (Quercus crispula). We found that light conditions improved beneath black bear-disturbed trees with canopy gaps of large size, and the effect of improvement of light conditions was reduced with descending forest layers. Fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants, especially woody lianas and trees, was facilitated by the improvement of light conditions accompanied by an increase in the size of black-bear-created gaps. Data from this study revealed that canopy disturbance by black bears was key for improving light conditions and accelerating fruiting of fleshy-fruited trees and woody lianas in the canopy layers in particular. Therefore, our hypothesis was mostly supported. Our results provide evidence that Japanese black bears have high potential as ecosystem engineers that increase the availability of resources (light and fruit in this study) to other species by causing physical state changes in biotic materials (branches of Q. crispula in this study).

  6. Fleshy-fruits phenology: temporal variability on quantity and quality of animal-dispersed fruits in a cerrado-savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Camargo, Maria Gabriela G.; Cazetta, Eliana; Schaefer, Martin; Morellato, L. Patrícia C.

    2014-05-01

    Time and quantity and quality of fruits and seeds produced are limiting factors for the recruitment of new individuals and maintenance plant species. Furthermore, species that produced fruits dispersed by animals have an important role as a source of food for different groups of animals and relay on them to dispersed their seeds. In most of the Brazilian cerrado-savanna, as in others tropical vegetations, there is a predominance of animal-dispersed species, however there is a lack of information about fruit production and its availability over time on tropical savannas. Beyond the comprehension of fruiting patterns and their relation to biotic and abiotic factors, the fruit production over time can be associated with data on fruit quality such as the fruit color and nutritional content. Those combined informations allow us to evaluate the quantity and quality of resources available in a plant community for frugivores and seed predators. For a cerrado-savanna woody community in southeastern Brazil, subjected to a marked seasonal climate, we intended to describe: (i) fruit availability over time (in number and biomass); (ii) nutritional content; and (ii) fruit color patterns over a year. We counted fortnightly the number of ripe fruits and estimated fruit biomass over a year. For the nutritional content, we evaluated the percentage of protein, lipids and carbohydrates in the pulp or aril of fleshy-fruits. We classified fruit colors in red, black, yellow, dark-red, blue and multicolored (when the fruit display is composed by a combination of two non-green colors or more). We observed a period of the highest fruit production in the wet season, with two peaks of production, and a decline in the dry season, a possible period of scarcity. As expected, fruit nutritional content followed mainly the fruiting pattern in biomass. For lipids there was a different seasonal pattern in which lipid-rich fruits were produced mainly at the end of the wet season while fruits with less

  7. Fruit Consumption by Youth in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Kirsten A.; Rossen, Lauren M.; Nielsen, Samara Joy; Branum, Amy M; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the contribution of whole fruit, including discrete types of fruit, to total fruit consumption and to investigate differences in consumption by socio-demographic characteristics. Methods We analyzed data from 3129 youth aged 2–19 years, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012. Using the Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) and the What We Eat in America 150 food groups (WWEIA 150), we calculated the contribution of whole fruit, 100% fruit juices, mixed fruit dishes, and 12 discrete fruit and fruit juices to total fruit consumption. We examined differences by age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and poverty status. Results Nearly 90% of total fruit intake came from whole fruits (53%) and 100% fruit juices (34%) among youth aged 2–19 y. Apples, apple juice, citrus juice and bananas were responsible for almost half of total fruit consumption. Apples accounted for 18.9% of fruit intake. Differences by age were predominantly between youth aged 2–5 y and 6–11 y. For example, apples contributed a larger percentage of total fruit intake among youth 6–11 y (22.4%) than among youth 2–5 y (14.6%), but apple juice contributed a smaller percentage (8.8% v 16.8%), p<0.05. There were race/Hispanic origin differences in intake of citrus fruits, berries, melons, dried fruit, and citrus juices and other fruit juices. Conclusion These findings provide insight into what fruits U.S. youth are consuming and demographic factors that may influence consumption. PMID:26391940

  8. Residential composting of infested fruit: A potential pathway for spread of Anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composting of plant waste is a beneficial practice commonly used by American gardeners, but disposal of infested fruit directly into the environment creates a potential pathway for introduction of insect pests. This study was designed to estimate the likelihood of entry of exotic fruit flies (Tephr...

  9. Hot Water Immersion Quarantine Treatment Against Mediterranean Fruit Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Eggs and Larvae in Litchi and Longan Fruits Exported from Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immersion of litchi fruit in 49ºC water for 20 min followed by hydrocooling in ambient (24 ± 4ºC) temperature water for 20 min was tested as a quarantine treatment against potential infestations of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (...

  10. The positive effect of skin transpiration in peach fruit growth.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Brunella; Manfrini, Luigi; Losciale, Pasquale; Zibordi, Marco; Corelli-Grappadelli, Luca

    2010-09-01

    The effect of fruit transpiration on the mechanisms driving peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) daily growth was investigated. In peach, fruit water losses increase during the season and might play a key role in determining fruit growth. Skin transpiration was reduced during the cell expansion stage by enclosing fruit in plastic bags fitted with holes. In the first year, diameter changes of bagged and control fruit were precisely monitored for 15 days, and percentage dry matter and soluble solids content were determined during the experiment and at harvest. In the second year, midday fruit water potential, daily patterns of fruit growth and of vascular and transpiration flows were monitored. Bagging reduced fruit daily growth on some days, and negatively affected both fruit dry matter percentage and soluble solids content. Fruit transpiration rate was reduced during the midday hours, thus increasing midday fruit water potential and lowering xylem inflows. In accordance with the Münch hypothesis on traslocation, these conditions likely decreased the necessary gradient needed for the transport of phloem sap to sink organs, as in the afternoon, bagged fruit showed lower phloem inflows. These data suggest that skin transpiration in peach has a positive effect on fruit growth, as it enhances fruit phloem import.

  11. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  12. Dried fruits quality assessment by hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serranti, Silvia; Gargiulo, Aldo; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    Dried fruits products present different market values according to their quality. Such a quality is usually quantified in terms of freshness of the products, as well as presence of contaminants (pieces of shell, husk, and small stones), defects, mould and decays. The combination of these parameters, in terms of relative presence, represent a fundamental set of attributes conditioning dried fruits humans-senses-detectable-attributes (visual appearance, organolectic properties, etc.) and their overall quality in terms of marketable products. Sorting-selection strategies exist but sometimes they fail when a higher degree of detection is required especially if addressed to discriminate between dried fruits of relatively small dimensions and when aiming to perform an "early detection" of pathogen agents responsible of future moulds and decays development. Surface characteristics of dried fruits can be investigated by hyperspectral imaging (HSI). In this paper, specific and "ad hoc" applications addressed to propose quality detection logics, adopting a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) based approach, are described, compared and critically evaluated. Reflectance spectra of selected dried fruits (hazelnuts) of different quality and characterized by the presence of different contaminants and defects have been acquired by a laboratory device equipped with two HSI systems working in two different spectral ranges: visible-near infrared field (400-1000 nm) and near infrared field (1000-1700 nm). The spectra have been processed and results evaluated adopting both a simple and fast wavelength band ratio approach and a more sophisticated classification logic based on principal component (PCA) analysis.

  13. A brief history of fruits and frugivores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Theodore H.; John Kress, W.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we briefly review the evolutionary history of the mutualistic interaction between angiosperms that produce fleshy fruits and their major consumers: frugivorous birds and mammals. Fleshy fruits eaten by these vertebrates are widely distributed throughout angiosperm phylogeny. Similarly, a frugivorous diet has evolved independently many times in birds and mammals. Bird dispersal is more common than mammal-dispersal in all lineages of angiosperms, and we suggest that the evolution of bird fruits may have facilitated the evolution of frugivory in primates. The diets of fruit-eating bats overlap less with those of other kinds of frugivorous vertebrates. With a few exceptions, most families producing vertebrate-dispersed fruit appeared substantially earlier in earth history than families of their vertebrate consumers. It is likely that major radiations of these plants and animals have occurred in the past 30 Ma, in part driven by geological changes and also by the foraging behavior of frugivores in topographically complex landscapes. Overall, this mutualistic interaction has had many evolutionary and ecological consequences for tropical plants and animals for most of the Cenozoic Era. Loss of frugivores and their dispersal services will have a strong negative impact on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of tropical and subtropical communities.

  14. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; Chu, Yi-Fang; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2002-12-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, especially phenolics, in fruits and vegetables are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds for the health benefits. However, the phenolic contents and their antioxidant activities in fruits and vegetables were underestimated in the literature, because bound phenolics were not included. This study was designed to investigate the profiles of total phenolics, including both soluble free and bound forms in common fruits, by applying solvent extraction, base digestion, and solid-phase extraction methods. Cranberry had the highest total phenolic content, followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, pineapple, banana, peach, lemon, orange, pear, and grapefruit. Total antioxidant activity was measured using the TOSC assay. Cranberry had the highest total antioxidant activity (177.0 +/- 4.3 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of fruit), followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, peach, lemon, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit, and pineapple. Antiproliferation activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver-cancer cells, and cranberry showed the highest inhibitory effect with an EC(50) of 14.5 +/- 0.5 mg/mL, followed by lemon, apple, strawberry, red grape, banana, grapefruit, and peach. A bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion.

  15. Parenting style and adolescent fruit consumption.

    PubMed

    Kremers, Stef P J; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2003-08-01

    The importance of the social environment for dietary behaviour has been highlighted in the past decade. A type of environmental influence that has received increasing research attention in recent years is the influence that parents can have on their children's dietary behaviour through food-related parenting practices. Much of the work done so far, however, has reported inconsistent findings and poorly understood mechanisms of influence. The present study aimed to explore the possible environmental influence of general parenting style on adolescent food choice patterns. Data were collected at schools (N=643; mean age 16.5 years), using self-administered questionnaires on parenting style, fruit intake behaviour and fruit-specific cognitions. Consistent and theoretically predictable differences were found between adolescents who described their parents as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent or neglectful. Fruit consumption and fruit-specific cognitions were most favourable among adolescents who were being raised with an authoritative parenting style. Children of parents with indulgent parenting styles consumed more fruit than adolescents from authoritarian or neglectful homes. Consequences of these results for the interpretation of earlier studies on the influence of parenting practices are discussed, and a research model is proposed for future studies of parental influences on adolescent dietary behaviours. PMID:12880620

  16. Proteomic responses of fruits to environmental stresses

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Zhulong

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are extremely susceptible to decay and easily lose commercial value after harvest. Different strategies have been developed to control postharvest decay and prevent quality deterioration during postharvest storage, including cold storage, controlled atmosphere (CA), and application of biotic and abiotic stimulus. In this review, mechanisms related to protein level responses of host side and pathogen side were characterized. Protein extraction protocols have been successfully developed for recalcitrant, low protein content fruit tissues. Comparative proteome profiling and functional analysis revealed that defense related proteins, energy metabolism, and antioxidant pathway played important roles in fruits in response to storage conditions and exogenous elicitor treatments. Secretome of pathogenic fungi has been well-investigated and the results indicated that hydrolytic enzymes were the key virulent factors for the pathogen infection. These protein level changes shed new light on interaction among fruits, pathogens, and environmental conditions. Potential postharvest strategies to reduce risk of fruit decay were further proposed based on currently available proteomic data. PMID:23335934

  17. Interconnected Cavernous Structure of Bacterial Fruiting Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Cameron W.; Du, Huijing; Xu, Zhiliang; Kaiser, Dale; Aranson, Igor; Alber, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The formation of spore-filled fruiting bodies by myxobacteria is a fascinating case of multicellular self-organization by bacteria. The organization of Myxococcus xanthus into fruiting bodies has long been studied not only as an important example of collective motion of bacteria, but also as a simplified model for developmental morphogenesis. Sporulation within the nascent fruiting body requires signaling between moving cells in order that the rod-shaped self-propelled cells differentiate into spores at the appropriate time. Probing the three-dimensional structure of myxobacteria fruiting bodies has previously presented a challenge due to limitations of different imaging methods. A new technique using Infrared Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) revealed previously unknown details of the internal structure of M. xanthus fruiting bodies consisting of interconnected pockets of relative high and low spore density regions. To make sense of the experimentally observed structure, modeling and computer simulations were used to test a hypothesized mechanism that could produce high-density pockets of spores. The mechanism consists of self-propelled cells aligning with each other and signaling by end-to-end contact to coordinate the process of differentiation resulting in a pattern of clusters observed in the experiment. The integration of novel OCT experimental techniques with computational simulations can provide new insight into the mechanisms that can give rise to the pattern formation seen in other biological systems such as dictyostelids, social amoeba known to form multicellular aggregates observed as slugs under starvation conditions. PMID:23300427

  18. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  19. Biological control of postharvest diseases of fruits.

    PubMed

    Janisiewicz, Wojciech J; Korsten, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Losses from postharvest fruit diseases range from 1 to 20 percent in the United States, depending on the commodity. The application of fungicides to fruits after harvest to reduce decay has been increasingly curtailed by the development of pathogen resistance to many key fungicides, the lack of replacement fungicides, negative public perception regarding the safety of pesticides and consequent restrictions on fungicide use. Biological control of postharvest diseases (BCPD) has emerged as an effective alternative. Because wound-invading necrotrophic pathogens are vulnerable to biocontrol, antagonists can be applied directly to the targeted area (fruit wounds), and a single application using existing delivery systems (drenches, line sprayers, on-line dips) can significantly reduce fruit decays. The pioneering biocontrol products BioSave and Aspire were registered by EPA in 1995 for control of postharvest rots of pome and citrus fruit, respectively, and are commercially available. The limitations of these biocontrol products can be addressed by enhancing biocontrol through manipulation of the environment, using mixtures of beneficial organisms, physiological and genetic enhancement of the biocontrol mechanisms, manipulation of formulations, and integration of biocontrol with other alternative methods that alone do not provide adequate protection but in combination with biocontrol provide additive or synergistic effects.

  20. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyushu to Taiwan, are at the northern limits for tropical fruit production without artificial heating. In this review, we describe the current status of tropical fruit breeding, genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of three main tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, and papaya) that are cultivated and consumed in Japan. More than ten new elite cultivars of pineapple have been released with improved fruit quality and suitability for consumption as fresh fruit. New challenges and perspectives for obtaining high fruit quality are discussed in the context of breeding programs for pineapple.

  1. Genetic diversity analysis of fruit characteristics of hawthorn germplasm.

    PubMed

    Su, K; Guo, Y S; Wang, G; Zhao, Y H; Dong, W X

    2015-12-07

    One hundred and six accessions of hawthorn intraspecific resources, from the National Germplasm Repository at Shenyang, were subjected to genetic diversity and principal component analysis based on evaluation data of 15 fruit traits. Results showed that the genetic diversity of hawthorn fruit traits varied. Among the 15 traits, the fruit shape variable coefficient had the most obvious evaluation, followed by fruit surface state, dot color, taste, weight of single fruit, sepal posture, peduncle form, and metula traits. These are the primary traits by which hawthorn could be classified in the future. The principal component demonstrated that these traits are the most influential factors of hawthorn fruit characteristics.

  2. Fruit juice malabsorption: not only fructose.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, J H; van den Aker, J H; Hartemink, R; Kneepkens, C M

    1995-11-01

    Malabsorption of free fructose, when ingested in excess over glucose, is considered a significant factor in apple juice induced diarrhoea. Absorption of the carbohydrates in fruit juices was investigated by means of the hydrogen breath test in 15 healthy children aged 2.2-6.4 years, consuming 15 ml kg-1 of each juice with a maximum of 375 ml. Incomplete absorption was found following the ingestion of apple juice (5/5), grape juice (10/10) and bilberry juice (8/10), although the last two contain equivalent concentrations of fructose and glucose. When the same tests were repeated after yeast treatment of the juices, which leads to major reductions in fructose and glucose contents, malabsorption was found to persist. No symptoms were observed following any of the tests. Our results suggest a significant role for other carbohydrates than fructose, possibly those originating from the fruit skin, with respect to fruit juice-induced breath hydrogen excretion.

  3. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  4. Native fruit tree genetic resources in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of climate, from subarctic to subtropical, and the complex geological history of Japan have produced a rich biodiversity. The flora includes several hundred species of native woody plants with edible fleshy fruits or nuts. People have eaten them from prehistoric times until about a half century ago. In Hokkaidō and the Ryūkyū Islands nut species had an important role in the diet, but fleshy fruits were also eaten until recently. Only Castanea crenata and a few minor species became domesticated as edible fruit trees in pre-modern times. Recently, Vitis coignetiae, Lonicera caerulea, Akebia quinata, Akebia trifoliata, Stauntonia hexaphylla, and Actinidia arguta have entered small-scale cultivation. The conservation of the germplasm of many of these native species, both in situ and ex situ, is precarious. PMID:27069393

  5. Native fruit tree genetic resources in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of climate, from subarctic to subtropical, and the complex geological history of Japan have produced a rich biodiversity. The flora includes several hundred species of native woody plants with edible fleshy fruits or nuts. People have eaten them from prehistoric times until about a half century ago. In Hokkaidō and the Ryūkyū Islands nut species had an important role in the diet, but fleshy fruits were also eaten until recently. Only Castanea crenata and a few minor species became domesticated as edible fruit trees in pre-modern times. Recently, Vitis coignetiae, Lonicera caerulea, Akebia quinata, Akebia trifoliata, Stauntonia hexaphylla, and Actinidia arguta have entered small-scale cultivation. The conservation of the germplasm of many of these native species, both in situ and ex situ, is precarious. PMID:27069393

  6. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    PubMed

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  7. Increases in fruit intakes in older low consumers of fruit following two community-based repeated exposure interventions.

    PubMed

    Appleton, K M

    2013-03-14

    The present study investigated the value of two repeated exposure interventions for increasing intakes of fruit in older people. A total of ninety-five participants (aged 65 years and over) were randomised to receive either one (E1), five (E5) or five plus (E5+) exposures to fruit over a 5-week period. Fruit exposures occurred in community-based church and social groups, through fruit-tasting sessions involving familiar fruits and novel fruit products and dishes (E1, E5, E5+), and through fruit provision (E5+). Daily intakes of fruit and vegetables were assessed before and after all interventions. Liking for all fruits was also measured during repeated exposure (E5, E5+). In low consumers of fruit (one portion/d or less), fruit intakes increased significantly in the repeated exposure groups (E5, E5+) (t(30) = 5·79, P< 0·01), but did not change in the E1 group (t(16) = 0·29, P= 0·78). No differences were found between E5 and E5+ groups (F(3,87) = 1·22, P= 0·31). Similar effects were also found in fruit and vegetable intakes. No effects were found in other participants. Also, no changes in liking were found. These findings suggest that compared to single exposure, repeated exposure to fruit via fruit-tasting sessions once per week for 5 weeks in a community setting significantly improved fruit intakes, and fruit and vegetable intakes in older low consumers of fruit, although no benefits of additional fruit provision were found. Repeated exposure was also easy to implement, of low cost and enjoyable.

  8. Gene regulation in parthenocarpic tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L; Reagan, Russell L; Chen, Ying; Tricoli, David; Fiehn, Oliver; Rocke, David M; Gasser, Charles S; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2009-01-01

    Parthenocarpy is potentially a desirable trait for many commercially grown fruits if undesirable changes to structure, flavour, or nutrition can be avoided. Parthenocarpic transgenic tomato plants (cv MicroTom) were obtained by the regulation of genes for auxin synthesis (iaaM) or responsiveness (rolB) driven by DefH9 or the INNER NO OUTER (INO) promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana. Fruits at a breaker stage were analysed at a transcriptomic and metabolomic level using microarrays, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a Pegasus III TOF (time of flight) mass spectrometer. Although differences were observed in the shape of fully ripe fruits, no clear correlation could be made between the number of seeds, transgene, and fruit size. Expression of auxin synthesis or responsiveness genes by both of these promoters produced seedless parthenocarpic fruits. Eighty-three percent of the genes measured showed no significant differences in expression due to parthenocarpy. The remaining 17% with significant variation (P <0.05) (1748 genes) were studied by assigning a predicted function (when known) based on BLAST to the TAIR database. Among them several genes belong to cell wall, hormone metabolism and response (auxin in particular), and metabolism of sugars and lipids. Up-regulation of lipid transfer proteins and differential expression of several indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)- and ethylene-associated genes were observed in transgenic parthenocarpic fruits. Despite differences in several fatty acids, amino acids, and other metabolites, the fundamental metabolic profile remains unchanged. This work showed that parthenocarpy with ovule-specific alteration of auxin synthesis or response driven by the INO promoter could be effectively applied where such changes are commercially desirable. PMID:19700496

  9. [Determination and the hygienic-toxicologic significance of patulin in fruit and fruit products].

    PubMed

    Fritz, W; Buthig, C; Engst, R

    1979-01-01

    The combination of extracting, chromatographic and fluorescence densitometric steps permits to determine patulin in fruits and fruit products with great precision and sensitivity. The limit of detection is 10 microgram/kg; the recovery rates range from 86 to 92% with a variation coefficient lying between 5.6 and 13.6%. Interferences due to patulin-simulating substances are widely excluded. Patulin concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 42 mg/kg were found in the brown-rotten portions of apples. Juices domestically prepared from healthy fruits and fruits rid of rotten portions, respectively, contained no patulin. On the contrary, patulin concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.3 mg/l were observed in commercial apple juices. As to products with subsequent mould infection, patulin values up to 50 mg/l were found in apple juices, and up to 0.4 mg/kg in peach preserves. In a further 24 commercial fruit and vegetable juices, patulin was not detectable even not in cider, in cereals which had gone mouldy spontaneously, and in bread samples. The fruits and fruit products were analysed not only for patulin, but also for aflatoxin and ochratoxin; the latter two, however, were found in none of the samples examined. The possibilities of manufacturing patulin-free products are discussed.

  10. What controls fleshy fruit acidity? A review of malate and citrate accumulation in fruit cells.

    PubMed

    Etienne, A; Génard, M; Lobit, P; Mbeguié-A-Mbéguié, D; Bugaud, C

    2013-04-01

    Fleshy fruit acidity is an important component of fruit organoleptic quality and is mainly due to the presence of malic and citric acids, the main organic acids found in most ripe fruits. The accumulation of these two acids in fruit cells is the result of several interlinked processes that take place in different compartments of the cell and appear to be under the control of many factors. This review combines analyses of transcriptomic, metabolomic, and proteomic data, and fruit process-based simulation models of the accumulation of citric and malic acids, to further our understanding of the physiological mechanisms likely to control the accumulation of these two acids during fruit development. The effects of agro-environmental factors, such as the source:sink ratio, water supply, mineral nutrition, and temperature, on citric and malic acid accumulation in fruit cells have been reported in several agronomic studies. This review sheds light on the interactions between these factors and the metabolism and storage of organic acids in the cell.

  11. DeepFruits: A Fruit Detection System Using Deep Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Sa, Inkyu; Ge, Zongyuan; Dayoub, Feras; Upcroft, Ben; Perez, Tristan; McCool, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to fruit detection using deep convolutional neural networks. The aim is to build an accurate, fast and reliable fruit detection system, which is a vital element of an autonomous agricultural robotic platform; it is a key element for fruit yield estimation and automated harvesting. Recent work in deep neural networks has led to the development of a state-of-the-art object detector termed Faster Region-based CNN (Faster R-CNN). We adapt this model, through transfer learning, for the task of fruit detection using imagery obtained from two modalities: colour (RGB) and Near-Infrared (NIR). Early and late fusion methods are explored for combining the multi-modal (RGB and NIR) information. This leads to a novel multi-modal Faster R-CNN model, which achieves state-of-the-art results compared to prior work with the F1 score, which takes into account both precision and recall performances improving from 0 . 807 to 0 . 838 for the detection of sweet pepper. In addition to improved accuracy, this approach is also much quicker to deploy for new fruits, as it requires bounding box annotation rather than pixel-level annotation (annotating bounding boxes is approximately an order of magnitude quicker to perform). The model is retrained to perform the detection of seven fruits, with the entire process taking four hours to annotate and train the new model per fruit.

  12. DeepFruits: A Fruit Detection System Using Deep Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Sa, Inkyu; Ge, Zongyuan; Dayoub, Feras; Upcroft, Ben; Perez, Tristan; McCool, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to fruit detection using deep convolutional neural networks. The aim is to build an accurate, fast and reliable fruit detection system, which is a vital element of an autonomous agricultural robotic platform; it is a key element for fruit yield estimation and automated harvesting. Recent work in deep neural networks has led to the development of a state-of-the-art object detector termed Faster Region-based CNN (Faster R-CNN). We adapt this model, through transfer learning, for the task of fruit detection using imagery obtained from two modalities: colour (RGB) and Near-Infrared (NIR). Early and late fusion methods are explored for combining the multi-modal (RGB and NIR) information. This leads to a novel multi-modal Faster R-CNN model, which achieves state-of-the-art results compared to prior work with the F1 score, which takes into account both precision and recall performances improving from 0 . 807 to 0 . 838 for the detection of sweet pepper. In addition to improved accuracy, this approach is also much quicker to deploy for new fruits, as it requires bounding box annotation rather than pixel-level annotation (annotating bounding boxes is approximately an order of magnitude quicker to perform). The model is retrained to perform the detection of seven fruits, with the entire process taking four hours to annotate and train the new model per fruit. PMID:27527168

  13. DeepFruits: A Fruit Detection System Using Deep Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sa, Inkyu; Ge, Zongyuan; Dayoub, Feras; Upcroft, Ben; Perez, Tristan; McCool, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to fruit detection using deep convolutional neural networks. The aim is to build an accurate, fast and reliable fruit detection system, which is a vital element of an autonomous agricultural robotic platform; it is a key element for fruit yield estimation and automated harvesting. Recent work in deep neural networks has led to the development of a state-of-the-art object detector termed Faster Region-based CNN (Faster R-CNN). We adapt this model, through transfer learning, for the task of fruit detection using imagery obtained from two modalities: colour (RGB) and Near-Infrared (NIR). Early and late fusion methods are explored for combining the multi-modal (RGB and NIR) information. This leads to a novel multi-modal Faster R-CNN model, which achieves state-of-the-art results compared to prior work with the F1 score, which takes into account both precision and recall performances improving from 0.807 to 0.838 for the detection of sweet pepper. In addition to improved accuracy, this approach is also much quicker to deploy for new fruits, as it requires bounding box annotation rather than pixel-level annotation (annotating bounding boxes is approximately an order of magnitude quicker to perform). The model is retrained to perform the detection of seven fruits, with the entire process taking four hours to annotate and train the new model per fruit. PMID:27527168

  14. Fruit and Food Eponyms in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Nidhi; Jindal, Pooja; Kumar, Jeevan; Gupta, Sanjeev; Jain, VK

    2015-01-01

    Dermatology world is brimming with myriad of interesting clinical conditions, signs and syndromes. It is infinite, which has systemic clinical connotations too. Complicated pronunciations of diagnosis have always placed residents in an intricate state. Each one is trying his best to make this cumbersome subject comparatively more acceptable and convenient. The present paper is an attempt to further simplify the subject by correlating difficult conditions with commonly used and seen things such as fruit and food. A total of 45 dermatological conditions were found to be based on fruit and food eponyms. For example, strawberries can remind us of strawberry gums of Wegener's granulomatosis and strawberry nevus. PMID:25814737

  15. Gibberellins control fruit patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Girin, Thomas; Sorefan, Karim; Fuentes, Sara; Wood, Thomas A.; Lawrenson, Tom; Sablowski, Robert; Østergaard, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The Arabidopsis basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) proteins INDEHISCENT (IND) and ALCATRAZ (ALC) specify tissues required for fruit opening that have major roles in seed dispersal and plant domestication. Here, we show that synthesis of the phytohormone gibberellin is a direct and necessary target of IND, and that ALC interacts directly with DELLA repressors, which antagonize ALC function but are destabilized by gibberellin. Thus, the gibberellin/DELLA pathway has a key role in patterning the Arabidopsis fruit, and the interaction between DELLA and bHLH proteins, previously shown to connect gibberellin and light responses, is a versatile regulatory module also used in tissue patterning. PMID:20889713

  16. Gibberellins control fruit patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Girin, Thomas; Sorefan, Karim; Fuentes, Sara; Wood, Thomas A; Lawrenson, Tom; Sablowski, Robert; Østergaard, Lars

    2010-10-01

    The Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins INDEHISCENT (IND) and ALCATRAZ (ALC) specify tissues required for fruit opening that have major roles in seed dispersal and plant domestication. Here, we show that synthesis of the phytohormone gibberellin is a direct and necessary target of IND, and that ALC interacts directly with DELLA repressors, which antagonize ALC function but are destabilized by gibberellin. Thus, the gibberellin/DELLA pathway has a key role in patterning the Arabidopsis fruit, and the interaction between DELLA and bHLH proteins, previously shown to connect gibberellin and light responses, is a versatile regulatory module also used in tissue patterning. PMID:20889713

  17. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica) progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a valuable tool for dissecting the

  18. Liven Up Your Meals with Vegetables and Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... creative with your baked goods. Add apples, bananas, blueberries, or pears to your favorite muffin recipe for ... a tasty fruit smoothie . For dessert, blend strawberries, blueberries, or raspberries with frozen bananas and 100% fruit ...

  19. Mechanisms for the influence of citrus rootstocks on fruit size.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangyu; Li, Juan; Huang, Min; Chen, Jiezhong

    2015-03-18

    To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on fruit size, we performed a comparative analysis of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto two rootstocks. The results demonstrated that trees grafted onto Canton lemon produced larger fruits through an enhancement of cell expansion in the ripening period. The difference in fruit size may be due to greater auxin levels in fruits from trees on Canton lemon, and different auxin levels may be produced by parent trees as the result of AUX1 upregulation. Rootstocks also modulate auxin signaling by affecting the transcription of several auxin response factor genes. There were higher abscisic acid concentrations in fruits of 'Shatangju'/Trifoliate orange, resulting in an inhibition of fruit growth and cell expansion through suppression of the synthesis of growth promoting hormones. Furthermore, expansins may be involved in the regulation of final fruit size by influencing cell expansion. Multiple pathways likely exist in citrus rootstocks that regulate fruit size.

  20. GENERAL VIEW OF DEHYDRATER (STRUCTURE 12), SHED (STRUCTURE 18), FRUIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF DEHYDRATER (STRUCTURE 12), SHED (STRUCTURE 18), FRUIT TRAY STORAGE ROOM (STRUCTURE 11), WITH FRUIT DRYING AREA AND TRAM TRACKS IN FOREGROUND, FROM NORTHWEST - Stevens Ranch Complex, State Route 101, Coyote, Santa Clara County, CA

  1. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing.

    PubMed

    Seal, Dakshina R; Martin, Cliff G

    2016-03-04

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin "Habanero" was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars "SY" and "SR" were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation.

  2. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing

    PubMed Central

    Seal, Dakshina R.; Martin, Cliff G.

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin “Habanero” was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars “SY” and “SR” were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation. PMID:26959066

  3. Simultaneous transcriptome analysis of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and tomato fruit pathosystem reveals novel fungal pathogenicity and fruit defense strategies.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Noam; Friedlander, Gilgi; Ment, Dana; Prusky, Dov; Fluhr, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides breaches the fruit cuticle but remains quiescent until fruit ripening signals a switch to necrotrophy, culminating in devastating anthracnose disease. There is a need to understand the distinct fungal arms strategy and the simultaneous fruit response. Transcriptome analysis of fungal-fruit interactions was carried out concurrently in the appressoria, quiescent and necrotrophic stages. Conidia germinating on unripe fruit cuticle showed stage-specific transcription that was accompanied by massive fruit defense responses. The subsequent quiescent stage showed the development of dendritic-like structures and swollen hyphae within the fruit epidermis. The quiescent fungal transcriptome was characterized by activation of chromatin remodeling genes and unsuspected environmental alkalization. Fruit response was portrayed by continued highly integrated massive up-regulation of defense genes. During cuticle infection of green or ripe fruit, fungi recapitulate the same developmental stages but with differing quiescent time spans. The necrotrophic stage showed a dramatic shift in fungal metabolism and up-regulation of pathogenicity factors. Fruit response to necrotrophy showed activation of the salicylic acid pathway, climaxing in cell death. Transcriptome analysis of C. gloeosporioides infection of fruit reveals its distinct stage-specific lifestyle and the concurrent changing fruit response, deepening our perception of the unfolding fungal-fruit arms and defenses race.

  4. Seed Dispersal Anachronisms: Rethinking the Fruits Extinct Megafauna Ate

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Paulo R.; Galetti, Mauro; Jordano, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Background Some neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals >103 kg), yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10–15 Kyr BP. Anachronic dispersal systems are best explained by interactions with extinct animals and show impaired dispersal resulting in altered seed dispersal dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings We introduce an operational definition of megafaunal fruits and perform a comparative analysis of 103 Neotropical fruit species fitting this dispersal mode. We define two megafaunal fruit types based on previous analyses of elephant fruits: fruits 4–10 cm in diameter with up to five large seeds, and fruits >10 cm diameter with numerous small seeds. Megafaunal fruits are well represented in unrelated families such as Sapotaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae, Caryocaraceae, and Arecaceae and combine an overbuilt design (large fruit mass and size) with either a single or few (<3 seeds) extremely large seeds or many small seeds (usually >100 seeds). Within-family and within-genus contrasts between megafaunal and non-megafaunal groups of species indicate a marked difference in fruit diameter and fruit mass but less so for individual seed mass, with a significant trend for megafaunal fruits to have larger seeds and seediness. Conclusions/Significance Megafaunal fruits allow plants to circumvent the trade-off between seed size and dispersal by relying on frugivores able to disperse enormous seed loads over long-distances. Present-day seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents, introduced livestock, runoff, flooding, gravity, and human-mediated dispersal allowed survival of megafauna-dependent fruit species after extinction of the major seed dispersers. Megafauna extinction had several potential consequences, such as a scale shift reducing the seed dispersal distances, increasingly clumped spatial patterns, reduced geographic ranges and limited genetic

  5. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.

  6. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins. PMID:24261535

  7. Chemical constituents from Myristica fragrans fruit.

    PubMed

    Francis, K Sajin; Suresh, Eringathodi; Nair, Mangalam S

    2014-01-01

    A neolignan, erythrosurinamensin and a diaryl phenyl propanoid, virolane were isolated from Myristica fragrans for the first time. Apart from these two, previously known steroids, other lignans and neolignans were isolated from the fruit pericarp of M. fragrans. The structures of the compounds were identified by employing various spectroscopic methods.

  8. microRNA regulation of fruit growth.

    PubMed

    José Ripoll, Juan; Bailey, Lindsay J; Mai, Quynh-Anh; Wu, Scott L; Hon, Cindy T; Chapman, Elisabeth J; Ditta, Gary S; Estelle, Mark; Yanofsky, Martin F

    2015-01-01

    Growth is a major factor in plant organ morphogenesis and is influenced by exogenous and endogenous signals including hormones. Although recent studies have identified regulatory pathways for the control of growth during vegetative development, there is little mechanistic understanding of how growth is controlled during the reproductive phase. Using Arabidopsis fruit morphogenesis as a platform for our studies, we show that the microRNA miR172 is critical for fruit growth, as the growth of fruit is blocked when miR172 activity is compromised. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the FRUITFULL (FUL) MADS-domain protein and Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) directly activating the expression of a miR172-encoding gene to promote fruit valve growth. We have also revealed that MADS-domain (such as FUL) and ARF proteins directly associate in planta. This study defines a novel and conserved microRNA-dependent regulatory module integrating developmental and hormone signalling pathways in the control of plant growth. PMID:27247036

  9. Expression and Polymorphism of Watermelon Fruit ESTs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 8,000 ESTs were generated for watermelon and were assembled into 4,700 EST-unigenes (http://www.icugi.org). Microarray and Real-Time PCR analyses were used to examine differential expression of 832 of these EST-unigenes in developing and ripening watermelon fruit. RNA was isolated from waterm...

  10. Dispersers shape fruit diversity in Ficus (Moraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dispersal by vertebrates is one of the most common and important plant-animal mutualisms, involving an enormous diversity of fruiting plants and frugivorous vertebrates. Even though plant reproduction largely depends on seed dispersal, evolutionary ecologists have been unable to link co-occurr...

  11. Dehulling of coriander fruit before oil extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as fresh green herb, spice or for its essential oil. The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of crushed fruit and the residue is utilized as feed or processed further to recover the triglyceride. The triglyc...

  12. Quality evaluation of fruit by hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter presents new applications of hyperspectral imaging for measuring the optical properties of fruits and assessing their quality attributes. A brief overview is given of current techniques for measuring optical properties of turbid and opaque biological materials. Then a detailed descripti...

  13. Fruit and vegetable films and uses thereof

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present invention is directed to monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer films made from fruit, vegetable or a combination thereof, which films have the thinness, strength, flexibility and crispness to serve as alternates or substitutes for seaweed-based films such as nori, while providing nutrition ...

  14. The Fruit Group. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of using the Food Guide Pyramid and eating plenty of servings of fruit. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and…

  15. Harvesting the High-Hanging Fruit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenton, Jay D.

    2014-01-01

    For many years, higher education institutions have been harvesting the low-hanging fruit when it comes to budget reductions and adjustments. Easier changes have often been made--such as cutting administration, using more adjunct faculty, contracting out inefficient or non effective auxiliary operations and so forth. Until recently such strategies,…

  16. Liquid Larval Diet for Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly liquid larvae diet has been developed for rearing Bactrocera dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in small and large scales and is ready for technology transfer into factory scale. The most appropriate rearing conditions using liquid diet up-to-date have been identified as follows: (1) basic diet fo...

  17. microRNA regulation of fruit growth.

    PubMed

    José Ripoll, Juan; Bailey, Lindsay J; Mai, Quynh-Anh; Wu, Scott L; Hon, Cindy T; Chapman, Elisabeth J; Ditta, Gary S; Estelle, Mark; Yanofsky, Martin F

    2015-03-30

    Growth is a major factor in plant organ morphogenesis and is influenced by exogenous and endogenous signals including hormones. Although recent studies have identified regulatory pathways for the control of growth during vegetative development, there is little mechanistic understanding of how growth is controlled during the reproductive phase. Using Arabidopsis fruit morphogenesis as a platform for our studies, we show that the microRNA miR172 is critical for fruit growth, as the growth of fruit is blocked when miR172 activity is compromised. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the FRUITFULL (FUL) MADS-domain protein and Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) directly activating the expression of a miR172-encoding gene to promote fruit valve growth. We have also revealed that MADS-domain (such as FUL) and ARF proteins directly associate in planta. This study defines a novel and conserved microRNA-dependent regulatory module integrating developmental and hormone signalling pathways in the control of plant growth.

  18. Coatings for fresh fruits and vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coatings (waxes) are applied to apples, citrus, stone fruits, avocados, tomatoes and cucumbers prior to marketing in order to reduce water loss and shrinkage, create a modified atmosphere inside the produce, slow down senescence and ageing, impart shine, and allow for better quality and marketing pr...

  19. The flavor of pomegranate fruit: a review.

    PubMed

    Mayuoni-Kirshinbaum, Lina; Porat, Ron

    2014-01-15

    Despite the increasing commercial importance of pomegranate, especially because of its recently discovered health-promoting benefits, relatively little is yet known regarding its sensory quality and flavor preferences, or about the biochemical constituents that determine its sensory characteristics. The perceived flavor of pomegranate fruit results from the combination of various taste, aroma and mouthfeel sensations. The taste is governed mainly by the presence of sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (primarily citric and malic acids). The aroma evolves from the presence of dozens of volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and terpenes, which provide a mixture of various 'green', 'woody', 'earthy', 'fruity', 'floral', 'sweet' and 'musty' notes. In addition, the sensory satisfaction during the eating of pomegranate arils is complemented by various mouthfeel sensations, including seed hardness and astringency sensations. In the present review we will describe the sensory quality and flavor preferences of pomegranate fruit, including the genetic diversity in flavor characteristics among distinct varieties. In addition, we will describe the dynamic changes that occur in fruit flavor during fruit ripening and postharvest storage.

  20. Fruit and Nut Production. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials required to teach the fruit and nut production component of a competency-based horticulture course that is intended to provide students with technical skills and the basic business skills to run a successful operation or be a productive employee. The following topics are covered in the 12…

  1. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA... kinds of trees: (a) All varieties of peaches grown in the production area; (b) All hybrids grown in the production area exhibiting the characteristics of a peach and subject to cultural practices common to...

  2. Fruit, vegetable, and grain processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, R.M.; Soderquist, M.R.

    1980-06-01

    This is a literature review of fruit, vegetable and grain processing wastes. The factors affecting water usage and methods of conservation were examined. Various processes were investigated which included the pulp recovery from caustic peeled tomato skin, the dewatering of citrus, washing leafy vegetables with recycled process water and the potato processing industry.

  3. NRCS-EQIP Tree Fruit IPM Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2008, the WVU Extension Service partnered with the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to develop and implement a cost-share IPM program for the commercial tree fruit growers in West Virginia. Fifty percent of implementation costs were paid by NRCS through the Environmental Quality Ince...

  4. Chemical constituents from Myristica fragrans fruit.

    PubMed

    Francis, K Sajin; Suresh, Eringathodi; Nair, Mangalam S

    2014-01-01

    A neolignan, erythrosurinamensin and a diaryl phenyl propanoid, virolane were isolated from Myristica fragrans for the first time. Apart from these two, previously known steroids, other lignans and neolignans were isolated from the fruit pericarp of M. fragrans. The structures of the compounds were identified by employing various spectroscopic methods. PMID:25011059

  5. Berry fruit enhances beneficial signaling in brain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased lifespans have led to population aging and brought attention to healthcare concerns associated with old age. A growing body of pre-clinical and clinical research has identified neurological benefits associated with the consumption of berry fruits. In addition to their now well-known antio...

  6. Still Life with Fruit and Seashell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gojeski, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Henri Matisse's painting, "Sideboard," opens the door to the author's first-grade students' lesson on still life. This lesson is about the process of designing, the act of making decisions, and the knowledge of one's own preferences. In this article, the author describes how the students made still life with fruit and seashells.

  7. Pattern of Variation of Fruit Traits and Phenol Content in Olive Fruits from Six Different Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, olive fruits from six cultivars grown under similar agronomical and environmental conditions were collected at four different times during fruit ripening. Some agronomical traits were determined, and general increases in the size of the fruit and oil contents were recorded for all cultivars. The phenolic fraction in fruits was also identified and quantified during the same period using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. Thus, a total of 57 phenolic compounds were determined, and qualitative and quantitative differences among cultivars and also among sampling times were observed. In contrast to the agronomical traits, a general decrease of total phenolic compounds was observed, characterized by a domination of secoiridoids at the beginning of ripening and by a domination of simple phenols and flavonoids in the end. This is the first time that four of the six cultivars have been studied regarding phenolic compounds evolution during ripening.

  8. Apple fruit responses following exposure to nitric oxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exogenous nitric oxide (.NO) applied as gas or generated from .NO releasing compounds has physiological activity in cut apple fruit tissues. Studies were conducted to characterize .NO production by whole fruit as well as to assess responses of whole fruit to exogenous .NO. .NO and ethylene product...

  9. Register of new fruit and nut varieties list 48

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world, with particular attention to cultivars from North America. In the 48th edition, one newly released apricot cultivar is described in terms of its origin, important fruit ...

  10. Parent outcome expectancies for purchasing fruit and vegetables: a validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To validate four scales – outcome expectancies for purchasing fruit and for purchasing vegetables, and comparative outcome expectancies for purchasing fresh fruit and for purchasing fresh vegetables versus other forms of fruit and vegetables (F&V). Design: Survey instruments were administ...

  11. Blackberry fruit quality components, composition, and potential health benefits.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberries have long been a popular small fruit. Their chemical composition data was assembled for this invited book chapter. Briefly, primary and secondary metabolites important to blackberry fruit quality were summarized. Metabolites are involved in many critical aspects of fruit quality includi...

  12. State Indicator Report on Fruits and Vegetables, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "State Indicator Report on Fruits and Vegetables, 2009" provides for the first time information on fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and policy and environmental support within each state. Fruits and vegetables, as part of a healthy diet, are important for optimal child growth, weight management, and chronic disease prevention. Supporting…

  13. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, list 47: Strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  14. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, list 48: strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  15. 75 FR 8038 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... to meet the fruit and vegetable industry's needs. This notice sets forth the schedule and location... can tailor its programs to meet the fruit and vegetable industry's needs. Equal opportunity practices... Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee AGENCY: Agricultural...

  16. 76 FR 5779 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... to meet the fruit and vegetable industry's needs. This notice sets forth the schedule and location... the fruit and vegetable industry's needs. The Committee was re- chartered March 31, 2009 with new... Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee AGENCY: Agricultural...

  17. 75 FR 47535 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... to meet the fruit and vegetable industry's needs. This notice sets forth the schedule and location... the fruit and vegetable industry's needs. The Committee was re- chartered March 31, 2009 with new... Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee AGENCY: Agricultural...

  18. Gene expression profiles of auxin metabolism in maturing apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation exists among apple genotypes in fruit maturation and ripening patterns that influences at-harvest fruit firmness and postharvest storability. Based on the results from our previous large-scale transcriptome profiling on apple fruit maturation and well-documented auxin-ethylene crosstalk, t...

  19. Free School Fruit--Sustained Effect 1 Year Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bere, E.; Veierod, M. B.; Bjelland, M.; Klepp, K.-I.

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the effect of a school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a subscription to the Norwegian School Fruit Programme at no parental cost, and the Fruit and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) educational programme, both delivered in the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly chosen schools received the…

  20. Ultraviolet radiation effects on fruit surface respiration and chlorophyll fluorescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-value fruit crops are exposed to a range of environmental conditions that can reduce fruit quality. Solar injury (SI) or sunburn is a common disorder in tropical, subtropical and temperate climates and is related to: 1) high fruit surface temperature, 2) high visible light intensity, and 3) ul...

  1. I Have Braces: How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cuts? I Have Braces. How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies? KidsHealth > For Teens > I Have Braces. How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies? Print A A A Text Size ... weight. I read about eating 5 servings of fruits and veggies a day. But I can't ...

  2. Improve California trap programs for detection of fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are >160,000 federal and state fruit fly detection traps deployed in southern and western U.S. States and Puerto Rico. In California alone, >100,000 traps are deployed and maintained just for exotic fruit flies detection. Fruit fly detection and eradication requires deployment of large numbers...

  3. 7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906.41... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments....

  4. 7 CFR 905.80 - Fruit not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit not subject to regulation. 905.80 Section 905.80... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.80 Fruit...

  5. 7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906.41... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments....

  6. 7 CFR 905.80 - Fruit not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit not subject to regulation. 905.80 Section 905.80... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.80 Fruit...

  7. 7 CFR 905.80 - Fruit not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit not subject to regulation. 905.80 Section 905.80... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.80 Fruit...

  8. 7 CFR 905.80 - Fruit not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit not subject to regulation. 905.80 Section 905.80... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.80 Fruit...

  9. 7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into the...

  10. 7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into the...

  11. 7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into the...

  12. 7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906.41... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments....

  13. 7 CFR 905.80 - Fruit not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit not subject to regulation. 905.80 Section 905.80... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.80 Fruit...

  14. 7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906.41... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments....

  15. 7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into the...

  16. 7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906.41... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments....

  17. Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary

    2010-01-27

    More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons. PMID:20030384

  18. Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary

    2010-01-27

    More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons.

  19. The making of a bell pepper-shaped tomato fruit: identification of loci controlling fruit morphology in Yellow Stuffer tomato.

    PubMed

    van der Knaap, E; Tanksley, S D

    2003-06-01

    The heirloom tomato cultivar Yellow Stuffer produces fruit that are similar in shape and structure to fruit produced by the bell pepper varieties of garden pepper. To determine the genetic basis of this extreme fruit type in tomato, quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed on an F(2) population derived from a cross between Yellow Stuffer and the related species, Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium, which produces a small, round fruit typical of most wild species. F(2) plants were analyzed for both fruit size and the degree to which their fruit resembled the bell pepper. Three QTL were determined to influence bell pepper shape and seven QTL influenced fruit mass. The map positions of all three bell shape and six out of seven fruit size QTL appear to be allelic to components of fruit morphology analyzed in this population and to major fruit morphology QTL reported previously, adding support to the hypothesis that the majority of fruit size and shape variation in cultivated tomato is attributable to allelic variation at a limited number of loci. However, novel loci controlling components of fruit morphology, such as elongated fruit shape, bumpiness, number of seed per fruit and flowers per inflorescence were identified in this study as well. The three bell shape loci involved are: bell2.1, bell2.2 and bell8.1, and appear to correspond to locule number2.1 ( lcn2.1) and fruit weight 2.2 ( fw2.2) and fruit shape 8.1 ( fs8.1), respectively. The Yellow Stuffer alleles at lcn2.1 and fw2.2 increase locule number and fruit size, respectively, hence contributing to the overall bell pepper shape. The Yellow Stuffer allele at fs8.1 causes convex locule walls, giving the extended, bumpy shape characteristic of bell peppers. In addition, most fruit size QTL correspond to loci controlling number of flowers per inflorescence and/or stem-end blockiness. Comparisons among previously identified fruit morphology loci in tomato, eggplant and pepper suggest that loci affecting

  20. Exposure to captan in fruit growing.

    PubMed

    de Cock, J; Heederik, D; Kromhout, H; Boleij, J S; Hoek, F; Wegh, H; Tjoe Ny, E

    1998-03-01

    This study characterized occupational exposure to pesticides in fruit growing in The Netherlands to assess determinants of exposure. Large-scale exposure surveys were carried out during application of pesticides and during reentry activities. Data on contamination inside the fruit growers' homes were obtained, and total potential exposure for the fruit grower and his family during the growing and harvesting season was estimated. Repeated measurements on the same subject were collected to study components of exposure variability. Relative contribution of the respiratory route and different skin sites to total exposure were assessed. Captan was used as a marker for exposure. Inhalable dust exposure was measured with a personal monitor and potential dermal exposure with skin pads and hand rinsing. Dislodgeable foliar residue was measured by taking leaf punches. For respiratory exposure and potential dermal exposure, differences were observed between several tasks. Workers were categorized according to tasks performed depending on the exposure measure(s) (e.g., hands, forehead, inhalable dust) considered relevant for a specific study purpose. In general, within-worker variability of all exposure measurements was larger than between-worker variability. Variability in dermal exposure on the same body location was small relative to variability between different body locations. Differences in total exposure, including exposure inside the home, between the fruit grower and the son were small. Exposure of the wife was two to three times lower than for the fruit grower and the son. As exposure per unit of time was in the same order of magnitude for different tasks, individual time spent on these tasks is crucial for estimating total potential exposure. Repeated measurements are necessary to estimate individual exposure accurately because of the large within-worker variability.

  1. Yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with fruits and blossoms of different fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana; Vránová, Dana; Sláviková, Elena

    2012-12-01

    Yeasts are common inhabitants of the phyllosphere, but our knowledge of their diversity in various plant organs is still limited. This study focused on the diversity of yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with matured fruits and fully open blossoms of apple, plum, and pear trees, during 2 consecutive years at 3 localities in southwest Slovakia. The occurrence of yeasts and yeast-like organisms in fruit samples was 2½ times higher and the yeast community more diverse than that in blossom samples. Only 2 species (Aureobasidium pullulans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) occurred regularly in the blossom samples, whereas Galactomyces candidus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, M. pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the most frequently isolated species from the fruit samples. The ratio of the number of samples where only individual species were present to the number of samples where 2 or more species were found (consortium) was counted. The occurrence of individual species in comparison with consortia was much higher in blossom samples than in fruit samples. In the latter, consortia predominated. Aureobasidium pullulans, M. pulcherrima, and S. cerevisiae, isolated from both the fruits and blossoms, can be considered as resident yeast species of various fruit tree species cultivated in southwest Slovakia localities. PMID:23210991

  2. Yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with fruits and blossoms of different fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana; Vránová, Dana; Sláviková, Elena

    2012-12-01

    Yeasts are common inhabitants of the phyllosphere, but our knowledge of their diversity in various plant organs is still limited. This study focused on the diversity of yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with matured fruits and fully open blossoms of apple, plum, and pear trees, during 2 consecutive years at 3 localities in southwest Slovakia. The occurrence of yeasts and yeast-like organisms in fruit samples was 2½ times higher and the yeast community more diverse than that in blossom samples. Only 2 species (Aureobasidium pullulans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) occurred regularly in the blossom samples, whereas Galactomyces candidus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, M. pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the most frequently isolated species from the fruit samples. The ratio of the number of samples where only individual species were present to the number of samples where 2 or more species were found (consortium) was counted. The occurrence of individual species in comparison with consortia was much higher in blossom samples than in fruit samples. In the latter, consortia predominated. Aureobasidium pullulans, M. pulcherrima, and S. cerevisiae, isolated from both the fruits and blossoms, can be considered as resident yeast species of various fruit tree species cultivated in southwest Slovakia localities.

  3. Beta-carotene content of postharvest orange-fleshed muskmelon fruit: effect of cultivar, growing location and fruit size.

    PubMed

    Lester, G E; Eischen, F

    1996-04-01

    The influence of two growing locations (soil types), six fruit sizes, and two years on the postharvest Beta-carotene content of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud.) fruit was studied with two different cultivars. Fully abscised commercial size fruit: 9, 12, 15, 18, 23, and 30 (fruit/0.04 M3 shipping box) had highly variable Beta-carotene contents (5.3 to 33.8 micrograms/g fresh weight) that varied by size class, soil type and cultivar. Beta-carotene content increased with fruit size up to a maximum, though fruit size continued to increase. Find sandy loam soil produced fruit with less Beta-carotene content than silty clay loam soil. The cultivar Primo contained higher Beta-carotene content levels than cultivar Cruiser. Mesocarp percent moisture content for both 'Cruiser' and 'Primo' at both locations by fruit size was not significantly correlated (r = 0.40) with Beta-carotene content. Indicating fruit cell dilution may not contribute to the differences in Beta-carotene content in different fruit size classes. Beta-carotene content of size class '18' fruit from six cultivars grown on the silty clay loam soil for two consecutive years, showed a year, and year by cultivar effect for some cultivars. Whereas, some cultivars did not differ in Beta-carotene content between the two years. This indicates a potential for controlling Beta-carotene content of muskmelon fruit at a constant, high level by careful selection of production cultivar.

  4. Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

  5. Rapid and recent changes in fungal fruiting patterns.

    PubMed

    Gange, A C; Gange, E G; Sparks, T H; Boddy, L

    2007-04-01

    Information on responses of higher organisms to climate change is dominated by events in spring. Far less is known about autumnal events and virtually nothing about communities of microorganisms. We analyzed autumnal fruiting patterns of macrofungi over the past 56 years and found that average first fruiting date of 315 species is earlier, while last fruiting date is later. Fruiting of mycorrhizal species that associate with both deciduous and coniferous trees is delayed in deciduous, but not in coniferous, forests. Many species are now fruiting twice a year, indicating increased mycelial activity and possibly greater decay rates in ecosystems.

  6. Quantification Model for Estimating Temperature Field Distributions of Apple Fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Yang, Le; Zhao, Huizhong; Zhang, Leijie; Zhong, Zhiyou; Liu, Yanling; Chen, Jianhua

    A quantification model of transient heat conduction was provided to simulate apple fruit temperature distribution in the cooling process. The model was based on the energy variation of apple fruit of different points. It took into account, heat exchange of representative elemental volume, metabolism heat and external heat. The following conclusions could be obtained: first, the quantification model can satisfactorily describe the tendency of apple fruit temperature distribution in the cooling process. Then there was obvious difference between apple fruit temperature and environment temperature. Compared to the change of environment temperature, a long hysteresis phenomenon happened to the temperature of apple fruit body. That is to say, there was a significant temperature change of apple fruit body in a period of time after environment temperature dropping. And then the change of temerature of apple fruit body in the cooling process became slower and slower. This can explain the time delay phenomenon of biology. After that, the temperature differences of every layer increased from centre to surface of apple fruit gradually. That is to say, the minimum temperature differences closed to centre of apple fruit body and the maximum temperature differences closed to the surface of apple fruit body. Finally, the temperature of every part of apple fruit body will tend to consistent and be near to the environment temperature in the cooling process. It was related to the metabolism heat of plant body at any time.

  7. What causes size coupling in fruit--frugivore interaction webs?

    PubMed

    Burns, K C

    2013-02-01

    The simplest and arguably the most ubiquitous pattern in seed dispersal mutualisms is size coupling: large frugivores tend to consume larger fruits and small frugivores tend to consume smaller fruits. Despite the simplicity of this pattern, the potential mechanisms responsible for fruit--frugivore size coupling are mechanistically divergent and poorly resolved. Size coupling could arise deterministically, if large frugivores actively seek out larger fruits to maximize their foraging efficiency. Alternatively, size coupling could also arise passively, if frugivores forage randomly, but are able to consume only those fruit species that are smaller than their gape width. I observed birds forage for fruits in a New Zealand forest reserve at approximately five-day intervals for six years to test for fruit--frugivore size coupling. I then derived a suite of network analyses to establish whether fruit--frugivore size coupling was best explained by active or passive foraging by frugivores. Results showed a strikingly strong pattern in size coupling; the average size of fruits consumed by each frugivore species increased with their maximum gape width. Simulation analyses revealed that over 70% of variation in interaction frequencies in the observed fruit-frugivore web could be explained by a size-constrained, passive, foraging model. Foraging models in which birds foraged actively for different-sized fruits to improve their foraging efficiency performed more poorly. Results were therefore consistent with the hypothesis that apparently nonrandom patterns in seed dispersal mutualisms can sometimes arise from simple stochastic processes.

  8. Early anther ablation triggers parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Medina, Mónica; Roque, Edelín; Pineda, Benito; Cañas, Luis; Rodriguez-Concepción, Manuel; Beltrán, José Pío; Gómez-Mena, Concepción

    2013-08-01

    Fruit set and fruit development in tomato is largely affected by changes in environmental conditions, therefore autonomous fruit set independent of fertilization is a highly desirable trait in tomato. Here, we report the production and characterization of male-sterile transgenic plants that produce parthenocarpic fruits in two tomato cultivars (Micro-Tom and Moneymaker). We generated male-sterility using the cytotoxic gene barnase targeted to the anthers with the PsEND1 anther-specific promoter. The ovaries of these plants grew in the absence of fertilization producing seedless, parthenocarpic fruits. Early anther ablation is essential to trigger the developing of the transgenic ovaries into fruits, in the absence of the signals usually generated during pollination and fertilization. Ovaries are fully functional and can be manually pollinated to obtain seeds. The transgenic plants obtained in the commercial cultivar Moneymaker show that the parthenocarpic development of the fruit does not have negative consequences in fruit quality. Throughout metabolomic analyses of the tomato fruits, we have identified two elite lines which showed increased levels of several health promoting metabolites and volatile compounds. Thus, early anther ablation can be considered a useful tool to promote fruit set and to obtain seedless and good quality fruits in tomato plants. These plants are also useful parental lines to be used in hybrid breeding approaches. PMID:23581527

  9. Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

    2013-08-15

    Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed.

  10. Early anther ablation triggers parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Medina, Mónica; Roque, Edelín; Pineda, Benito; Cañas, Luis; Rodriguez-Concepción, Manuel; Beltrán, José Pío; Gómez-Mena, Concepción

    2013-08-01

    Fruit set and fruit development in tomato is largely affected by changes in environmental conditions, therefore autonomous fruit set independent of fertilization is a highly desirable trait in tomato. Here, we report the production and characterization of male-sterile transgenic plants that produce parthenocarpic fruits in two tomato cultivars (Micro-Tom and Moneymaker). We generated male-sterility using the cytotoxic gene barnase targeted to the anthers with the PsEND1 anther-specific promoter. The ovaries of these plants grew in the absence of fertilization producing seedless, parthenocarpic fruits. Early anther ablation is essential to trigger the developing of the transgenic ovaries into fruits, in the absence of the signals usually generated during pollination and fertilization. Ovaries are fully functional and can be manually pollinated to obtain seeds. The transgenic plants obtained in the commercial cultivar Moneymaker show that the parthenocarpic development of the fruit does not have negative consequences in fruit quality. Throughout metabolomic analyses of the tomato fruits, we have identified two elite lines which showed increased levels of several health promoting metabolites and volatile compounds. Thus, early anther ablation can be considered a useful tool to promote fruit set and to obtain seedless and good quality fruits in tomato plants. These plants are also useful parental lines to be used in hybrid breeding approaches.

  11. Evaluations of the health benefits of eating more fruit depend on the amount of fruit previously eaten, variety, and timing.

    PubMed

    Burns, Rachel J; Rothman, Alexander J

    2016-10-01

    Though research has demonstrated that people generally perceive fruits to be healthy foods, little is known about how people think about the health benefits associated with eating increasing quantities of fruit. The purpose of this paper is to examine how evaluations of healthiness change as participants consider eating increasing quantities of fruit, and to explore how additional contextual features (i.e., variety and timing) can be leveraged to improve evaluations. In two within-subjects experiments, participants rated how good or bad for one's health it would be to eat increasing quantities of either the same fruit or a variety of fruits. In study 1, all participants were instructed to imagine eating the fruit over the course of the day. In study 2, the temporal distribution of the fruit (throughout the day, during a single meal) was manipulated. In general, both studies demonstrated that evaluations of overall healthiness for eating increasing quantities of the same fruit tended to diminish beyond two pieces of fruit, whereas the overall healthiness of eating increasing quantities of a variety of fruit remained stable. Study 2 demonstrated that evaluations of healthiness increased as additional fruit was considered when a variety of fruit was imagined to be eaten throughout the day. Thus, the health benefits that people assign to eating increasing quantities of fruit seem to increase, but only if eating a variety of fruits throughout the day is considered. This study suggests that evaluations of the healthiness of fruit are not made in isolation; evaluations of healthiness are contextualized by what has been eaten previously and when it was eaten.

  12. Evaluations of the health benefits of eating more fruit depend on the amount of fruit previously eaten, variety, and timing.

    PubMed

    Burns, Rachel J; Rothman, Alexander J

    2016-10-01

    Though research has demonstrated that people generally perceive fruits to be healthy foods, little is known about how people think about the health benefits associated with eating increasing quantities of fruit. The purpose of this paper is to examine how evaluations of healthiness change as participants consider eating increasing quantities of fruit, and to explore how additional contextual features (i.e., variety and timing) can be leveraged to improve evaluations. In two within-subjects experiments, participants rated how good or bad for one's health it would be to eat increasing quantities of either the same fruit or a variety of fruits. In study 1, all participants were instructed to imagine eating the fruit over the course of the day. In study 2, the temporal distribution of the fruit (throughout the day, during a single meal) was manipulated. In general, both studies demonstrated that evaluations of overall healthiness for eating increasing quantities of the same fruit tended to diminish beyond two pieces of fruit, whereas the overall healthiness of eating increasing quantities of a variety of fruit remained stable. Study 2 demonstrated that evaluations of healthiness increased as additional fruit was considered when a variety of fruit was imagined to be eaten throughout the day. Thus, the health benefits that people assign to eating increasing quantities of fruit seem to increase, but only if eating a variety of fruits throughout the day is considered. This study suggests that evaluations of the healthiness of fruit are not made in isolation; evaluations of healthiness are contextualized by what has been eaten previously and when it was eaten. PMID:27311377

  13. Effects of fruit pre-harvest bagging on fruit quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu).

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Jia, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the effects of pre-harvest bagging on fruit ripening and quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu). Young fruits, at 50 days after full bloom (DAFB), were covered with bags made of single-, double-, and triple-layers of orange paper bag with 27.0%, 13.9% and 8.2% sunlight transmission, respectively. Ethylene production and respiration rate were measured, and fruit quality was analyzed at 111, 114, 117, 120 (firm-ripe stage) and 124 DAFB (full-ripe stage). Single- and triple-layer bagged fruits had higher ethylene production rates than double-layer bagged and un-bagged fruits. The skin of un-bagged fruit had higher brightness (L-value) but smaller hue angle (h degrees) at the full-ripe stage compared with that of bagged fruit. Flesh firmness of un-bagged fruit was higher than that of bagged fruit until the firm-ripe stage, although triple-layer bagged fruit had higher firmness than un-bagged fruit at the full-ripe stage. Total soluble solids in juice of single-layer bagged fruit were a little higher than those of other treated fruits at the full-ripe stage. Single-layer bagged fruit showed the highest level of gamma-decalactone, a main characteristic aroma of peach and total lactones at the firm-ripe and full-ripe stages. It was concluded that 'Hujingmilu' peach had high quality with abundant aromas when the fruits were bagged with single-layer orange paper bags at 50 DAFB. The biosynthesis of gamma-decalactone and other aromas may be affected by light to some extent.

  14. Total folate: diversity within fruit varieties commonly consumed in India.

    PubMed

    Akilanathan, Lalitha; Vishnumohan, Shyamala; Arcot, Jayashree; Uthira, Leelakrishnan; Ramachandran, Sheela

    2010-08-01

    Folate concentrations in selected fruits were measured using the trienzyme extraction and microbiological assay with Lactobacillus casei (subsp. Rhamnosus) as an assay organism. Fruits were purchased from different retail outlets at Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India and were analyzed for total folate content. The folate content in all fruits varied considerably on a fresh weight basis from 10 to 328 microg/100 g, with tropical fruits ranging between 10 and 211 microg/100 g, temperate fruits from 11 to 328 microg/100 g, and the subtropical fruits in the range of 9-237 microg/100 g. Amongst all fruits, plum had the highest content of folate (328 microg/100 g). Data analyzed will assist dietary studies to estimate and evaluate the adequacy of folate intakes of the population, to formulate experimental diets for folate bioavailability studies, and to revise dietary recommendations for the population. In addition, the data will assist the health authorities in planning and executing strategies for intervention programs.

  15. The role of auxin and gibberellin in tomato fruit set.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Maaike; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H

    2009-01-01

    The initiation of tomato fruit growth, fruit set, is very sensitive to environmental conditions. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanisms that regulate this process can facilitate the production of this agriculturally valuable fruit crop. Over the years, it has been well established that tomato fruit set depends on successful pollination and fertilization, which trigger the fruit developmental programme through the activation of the auxin and gibberellin signalling pathways. However, the exact role of each of these two hormones is still poorly understood, probably because only few of the signalling components involved have been identified so far. Recent research on fruit set induced by hormone applications has led to new insights into hormone biosynthesis and signalling. The aim of this review is to consolidate the current knowledge on the role of auxin and gibberellin in tomato fruit set. PMID:19321650

  16. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-10-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose-response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6-227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level.

  17. Why don't poor men eat fruit? Socioeconomic differences in motivations for fruit consumption☆

    PubMed Central

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo; Ng, Yin-Lam; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have less healthy diets than those of higher SES. This study aimed to assess whether differences in motivations for particular foods might contribute to socioeconomic differences in consumption. Methods: Participants (n = 732) rated their frequency of consumption and explicit liking of fruit, cake and cheese. They reported eating motivations (e.g., health, hunger, price) and related attributes of the investigated foods (healthiness, expected satiety, value for money). Participants were randomly assigned to an implicit liking task (Single Category Implicit Association Task) for one food category. Analyses were conducted separately for different SES measures (income, education, occupational group). Results: Lower SES and male participants reported eating less fruit, but no SES differences were found for cheese or cake. Analyses therefore focused on fruit. In implicit liking analyses, results (for income and education) reflected patterning in consumption, with lower SES and male participants liking fruit less. In explicit liking analyses, no differences were found by SES. Higher SES participants (all indicators) were more likely to report health and weight control and less likely report price as motivators of food choices. For perceptions of fruit, no SES-based differences were found in healthiness whilst significant interactions (but not main effects) were found (for income and education) for expected satiety and value for money. Neither liking nor perceptions of fruit were found to mediate the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit consumption. Conclusions: There is evidence for social patterning in food motivation, but differences are modified by the choice of implicit or explicit measures. Further work should clarify the extent to which these motivations may be contributing to the social and gender patterning in diet. PMID:25451584

  18. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult.

  19. Estimating Orientation of Flying Fruit Flies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xi En; Wang, Shuo Hong; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The recently growing interest in studying flight behaviours of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has highlighted the need for developing tools that acquire quantitative motion data. Despite recent advance of video tracking systems, acquiring a flying fly's orientation remains a challenge for these tools. In this paper, we present a novel method for estimating individual flying fly's orientation using image cues. Thanks to the line reconstruction algorithm in computer vision field, this work can thereby focus on the practical detail of implementation and evaluation of the orientation estimation algorithm. The orientation estimation algorithm can be incorporated into tracking algorithms. We rigorously evaluated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm by running experiments both on simulation data and on real-world data. This work complements methods for studying the fruit fly's flight behaviours in a three-dimensional environment.

  20. Estimating Orientation of Flying Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xi En; Wang, Shuo Hong; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The recently growing interest in studying flight behaviours of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has highlighted the need for developing tools that acquire quantitative motion data. Despite recent advance of video tracking systems, acquiring a flying fly’s orientation remains a challenge for these tools. In this paper, we present a novel method for estimating individual flying fly’s orientation using image cues. Thanks to the line reconstruction algorithm in computer vision field, this work can thereby focus on the practical detail of implementation and evaluation of the orientation estimation algorithm. The orientation estimation algorithm can be incorporated into tracking algorithms. We rigorously evaluated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm by running experiments both on simulation data and on real-world data. This work complements methods for studying the fruit fly’s flight behaviours in a three-dimensional environment. PMID:26173128

  1. [Radionuclide accumulation in fruit bodies of macromycetes].

    PubMed

    Fedorov, V N; Eliashevich, N V

    2000-01-01

    Coefficients of 137Cs accumulation and 90Sr were determined in macromycetes of different trophic groups (137Cs in 43 species and 90Sr in 19 species) in the conditions of droughty year (1992). Their variability in forest formations was determined in the period from 1992 to 1998. In the year with increased atmospheric humidity (1998), two-fold rise of 137Cs accumulation in fruit bodies was registered on average. The pollution of Boletus edulis correlates with photosynthetically active part of Betula pendula and Pinus silvestris closer than with soil pollution. This shows the possibility to indicate the pollution of short-living fruit bodies of fungi by the pollution of plants-symbiotrophs. PMID:11155341

  2. Scents boost preference for novel fruits.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuki; Sasaki, Kyoshiro; Kunieda, Satomi; Wada, Yuji

    2014-10-01

    When faced with a novel food, multisensory information that includes appearance and smell is a very important cue for preference, categorization, and the decision of whether or not to eat it. We elucidated whether olfactory information leads to biased visual categorization of and preference for fruits, even when odors are presented subliminally. We employed morphed images of strawberries and tomatoes combined with their corresponding odorants as stimuli. Participants were asked to categorize the images into either of two categories, to evaluate their preference for each visual image, and to judge the presence/absence of the odor. Results demonstrated that visual categorization was not affected by the odor manipulation; however, preference for uncategorizable images increased when odors were presented regardless of the participant's awareness of the odor. Our findings suggest that visual preference for novel fruits is based on both conscious and unconscious olfactory processing regarding edibility. PMID:24933686

  3. [Radionuclide accumulation in fruit bodies of macromycetes].

    PubMed

    Fedorov, V N; Eliashevich, N V

    2000-01-01

    Coefficients of 137Cs accumulation and 90Sr were determined in macromycetes of different trophic groups (137Cs in 43 species and 90Sr in 19 species) in the conditions of droughty year (1992). Their variability in forest formations was determined in the period from 1992 to 1998. In the year with increased atmospheric humidity (1998), two-fold rise of 137Cs accumulation in fruit bodies was registered on average. The pollution of Boletus edulis correlates with photosynthetically active part of Betula pendula and Pinus silvestris closer than with soil pollution. This shows the possibility to indicate the pollution of short-living fruit bodies of fungi by the pollution of plants-symbiotrophs.

  4. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in relation to region, trap type, season, and availability of fruit.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Miller, Gina T; Stewart-Leslie, Judy; Rice, Richard E; Phillips, Phil A

    2006-12-01

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), was monitored with adult captures by season and trap type, and was related to fruit volume and nonharvested fruit to elucidate the occurrence of the newly introduced pest in California. The highest numbers of adults captured in ChamP traps in olive trees, Olea europaea, were in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Comparisons of trap types showed that the number of olive fruit fly adults captured in Pherocon AM traps in a commercial orchard was significantly greater than in ChamP traps. A significantly greater number of females were captured in Pherocon AM traps with bait packets and pheromone lures than traps with pheromone lures alone, while a significantly greater number of adults and males were captured in traps with pheromone lures alone. Significantly more adults were captured in ChamP traps with bait packets and pheromone lures versus traps with bait packets alone. Fruit volume increased by four times from mid-June to mid-November. Olive fruit fly was found to oviposit on small olive fruit <1 cm3 shortly after fruit set, the maximum number of ovipositional sites per fruit occurred in October, and the greatest number of pupae and adults were reared from fruit collected in September and October. The highest numbers of pupae were collected from nonharvested fruit in March when high numbers of adults were captured in the same orchard.

  5. Host range and distribution of fruit-infesting pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) in selected areas of Central Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwatawala, M W; De Meyer, M; Makundi, R H; Maerere, A P

    2009-12-01

    The host range of major fruit fly pests in Central Tanzania was evaluated from October 2004 to October 2006. Samples of 48 potential hosts were collected and incubated for fruit fly emergence. Bactrocera invadens was the dominant species in incidence expressed as the ratio of infested to total number samples collected, as well as infestation rate, expressed as number of flies emerging per unit weight. Eight new host fruits are reported. Infestation by native pests, such as Ceratitis capitata and C. cosyra, was minor compared to B. invadens. Ceratitis rosa was the dominant species in temperate fruits, and Cucurbitaceae were mainly infested by Bactrocera cucurbitae, a specialized cucurbit feeder. Among commercial fruits, high infestation incidences were observed in mango and guava, but they decreased throughout the fruiting season. Low infestation rates were observed in all Citrus species and in avocado, indicating these fruits as poor hosts for the studied fruit fly pests in this region. Widespread availability and abundance of fruit species studied here ensures year-round breeding of B. invadens. Seasonal infestation differs, with mango being the most important host in October to January, while guava being important from February to August. Tropical almond showed very high incidence and infestation rate for B. invadens and might act as an important reservoir host, bridging the fruiting seasons of mango and guava. Soursop acts as an important host for C. cosyra after the mango season. Ceratitis capitata is a pest of minor importance of the commercial fruits studied in this region. PMID:19323850

  6. Plastid Proteomic Analysis in Tomato Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Takanori; Dohra, Hideo; Ito, Yumihiko; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Marina; Kamiya, Shiori; Kato, Masaya; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Fukao, Yoichiro; Kobayashi, Megumi; Nagata, Noriko; Motohashi, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the mechanism of plastid differentiation from chloroplast to chromoplast, we examined proteome and plastid changes over four distinct developmental stages of ‘Micro-Tom’ fruit. Additionally, to discover more about the relationship between fruit color and plastid differentiation, we also analyzed and compared ‘Micro-Tom’ results with those from two other varieties, ‘Black’ and ‘White Beauty’. We confirmed that proteins related to photosynthesis remain through the orange maturity stage of ‘Micro-Tom’, and also learned that thylakoids no longer exist at this stage. These results suggest that at a minimum there are changes in plastid morphology occurring before all related proteins change. We also compared ‘Micro-Tom’ fruits with ‘Black’ and ‘White Beauty’ using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. We found a decrease of CHRC (plastid-lipid-associated protein) and HrBP1 (harpin binding protein-1) in the ‘Black’ and ‘White Beauty’ varieties. CHRC is involved in carotenoid accumulation and stabilization. HrBP1 in Arabidopsis has a sequence similar to proteins in the PAP/fibrillin family. These proteins have characteristics and functions similar to lipocalin, an example of which is the transport of hydrophobic molecules. We detected spots of TIL (temperature-induced lipocalin) in 2D-PAGE results, however the number of spots and their isoelectric points differed between ‘Micro-Tom’ and ‘Black’/‘White Beauty’. Lipocalin has various functions including those related to environmental stress response, apoptosis induction, membrane formation and fixation, regulation of immune response, cell growth, and metabolism adjustment. Lipocalin related proteins such as TIL and HrBP1 could be related to the accumulation of carotenoids, fruit color and the differentiation of chromoplast. PMID:26371478

  7. Electron spin resonance identification of irradiated fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffi, Jacques J.; Agnel, Jean-Pierre L.

    The electron spin resonance spectrum of achenes, pips, stalks and stones from irradiated fruits (strawberry, raspberry, red currant, bilberry, apple, pear, fig, french prune, kiwi, water-melon and cherry) always displays, just after γ-treatment, a weak triplet ( aH≈30 G) due to a cellulose radical; its left line (lower field) can be used as an identification test of irradiation, at least for strawberries, rapsberries, red currants or bilberries irradiated in order to improve their storage time.

  8. [Fruits and vegetables: can they be dangerous?].

    PubMed

    Pasquier, M; Dami, F; Yersin, B

    2013-08-14

    Fruits, vegetables and spices are found in our everyday food consumption. However, some contain potentially toxic substances, particularly when consumed in large amounts. These risks may be greater for certain susceptible individuals and may depend on how the ingredients are prepared. Food poisoning is generally speaking self-limiting, but may be life threatening. This article discusses the possible toxic effects of certain common foodstuffs, as described in the current medical literature.

  9. Phytoconstituents from Vitex agnus-castus fruits

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shao-Nong; Friesen, J. Brent; Webster, Donna; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B.; Wang, Z. Jim; Fong, Harry H.S.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2011-01-01

    A new labdane-diterpene, viteagnusin I (1), together with 23 known phytoconstituents were isolated from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L, and their structures characterized by spectroscopic method (NMR and MS). The known compounds include ten flavonoids, five terpenoids, three neolignans, and four phenolic compounds, as well as one glyceride. Biological evaluation identified apigenin, 3-methylkaempferol, luteolin, and casticin as weak ligands of delta and mu opioid receptors, exhibiting dose-dependent receptor binding. PMID:21163339

  10. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects after acute and subacute treatments with açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) on mice using the erythrocytes micronucleus test and the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Juliana Carvalho; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Aissa, Alexandre Ferro; Darin, Joana D'arc Castania; De Rosso, Veridiana Vera; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Bianchi, Maria de Lourdes Pires

    2010-01-01

    Açai, the fruit of a palm native to the Amazonian basin, is widely distributed in northern South America, where it has considerable economic importance. Whereas individual polyphenolics compounds in açai have been extensively evaluated, studies of the intact fruit and its biological properties are lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo genotoxicity of açai and its possible antigenotoxicity on doxorubicin (DXR)-induced DNA damage. The açai pulp doses selected were 3.33, 10.0 and 16.67g/kg b.w. administered by gavage alone or prior to DXR (16mg/kg b.w.) administered by intraperitoneal injection. Swiss albino mice were distributed in eight groups for acute treatment with açai pulp (24h) and eight groups for subacute treatment (daily for 14 consecutive days) before euthanasia. The negative control groups were treated in a similar way. The results of chemical analysis suggested the presence of carotenoids, anthocyanins, phenolic, and flavonoids in açai pulp. The endpoints analyzed were micronucleus induction in bone marrow and peripheral blood cells polychromatic erythrocytes, and DNA damage in peripheral blood, liver and kidney cells assessed using the alkaline (pH >13) comet assay. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between the negative control and the groups treated with the three doses of açai pulp alone in all endpoints analyzed, demonstrating the absence of genotoxic effects. The protective effects of açai pulp were observed in both acute and subacute treatments, when administered prior to DXR. In general, subacute treatment provided greater efficiency in protecting against DXR-induced DNA damage in liver and kidney cells. These protective effects can be explained as the result of the phytochemicals present in açai pulp. These results will be applied to the developmental of food with functional characteristics, as well as to explore the characteristics of açai as a health promoter.

  11. Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

  12. Pesticide residues survey in citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Ortelli, Didier; Edder, Patrick; Corvi, Claude

    2005-05-01

    The use of pesticides is widespread in citrus fruits production for pre- and post-harvest protection and many chemical substances may be applied in order to control undesirable moulds or insects. A survey was carried out to evaluate levels of pesticide residues in citrus fruits. Two multiresidue analytical methods were used to screen samples for more than 200 different fungicides, insecticides and acaricides. A total of 240 samples of citrus fruits including lemon, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lime, pomelo and kumquat were taken in various markets in the Geneva area during the year 2003. Ninety-five percent of the 164 samples issued from classical agriculture contained pesticides and 38 different compounds have been identified. This high percentage of positive samples was mainly due to the presence of two post-harvest fungicides, imazalil and thiabendazole, detected in 70% and 36% of samples respectively. Only three samples exceeded the Swiss maximum residue limits (MRLs). Fifty-three samples sold with the written indication "without post-harvest treatment" were also controlled. Among theses samples, three exceeded the Swiss MRLs for penconazole or chlorpyrifos and 18 (34%) did not respect the written indication since we found large amounts of post-harvest fungicides. Finally, 23 samples coming from certified organic production were analysed. Among theses samples, three contained small amounts of pesticides and the others were pesticides free.

  13. Ethylene detection in fruit supply chains

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, S.; Schmitt, K.; Blanke, M.; Bauersfeld, M. L.; Wöllenstein, J.; Lang, W.

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene is a gaseous ripening phytohormone of fruits and plants. Presently, ethylene is primarily measured with stationary equipment in laboratories. Applying in situ measurement at the point of natural ethylene generation has been hampered by the lack of portable units designed to detect ethylene at necessary resolutions of a few parts per billion. Moreover, high humidity inside controlled atmosphere stores or containers complicates the realization of gas sensing systems that are sufficiently sensitive, reliable, robust and cost efficient. In particular, three measurement principles have shown promising potential for fruit supply chains and were used to develop independent mobile devices: non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy, miniaturized gas chromatography and electrochemical measurement. In this paper, the measurement systems for ethylene are compared with regard to the needs in fruit logistics; i.e. sensitivity, selectivity, long-term stability, facilitation of automated measurement and suitability for mobile application. Resolutions of 20–10 ppb can be achieved in mobile applications with state-of-the-art equipment, operating with the three methods described in the following. The prices of these systems are in a range below €10 000. PMID:24797138

  14. Light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits

    PubMed Central

    Zoratti, Laura; Karppinen, Katja; Luengo Escobar, Ana; Häggman, Hely; Jaakola, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Light is one of the most important environmental factors affecting flavonoid biosynthesis in plants. The absolute dependency of light to the plant development has driven evolvement of sophisticated mechanisms to sense and transduce multiple aspects of the light signal. Light effects can be categorized in photoperiod (duration), intensity (quantity), direction and quality (wavelength) including UV-light. Recently, new information has been achieved on the regulation of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits, in which flavonoids have a major contribution on quality. This review focuses on the effects of the different light conditions on the control of flavonoid biosynthesis in fruit producing plants. An overview of the currently known mechanisms of the light-controlled flavonoid accumulation is provided. R2R3 MYB transcription factors are known to regulate by differential expression the biosynthesis of distinct flavonoids in response to specific light wavelengths. Despite recent advances, many gaps remain to be understood in the mechanisms of the transduction pathway of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis. A better knowledge on these regulatory mechanisms is likely to be useful for breeding programs aiming to modify fruit flavonoid pattern. PMID:25346743

  15. Biotechnology of temperate fruit trees and grapevines.

    PubMed

    Laimer, Margit; Mendonça, Duarte; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Marzban, Gorji; Leopold, Stephan; Khan, Mahmood; Balla, Ildiko; Katinger, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Challenges concerning fruit trees and grapevines as long lived woody perennial crops require adapted biotechnological approaches, if solutions are to be found within a reasonable time frame. These challenges are represented by the need for correct identification of genetic resources, with the foreseen use either in conservation or in breeding programmes. Molecular markers provide most accurate information and will be the major solution for questions about plant breeders rights. Providing healthy planting material and rapid detection of newly introduced pathogens by reliable methods involving serological and molecular biological tools will be a future challenge of increases importance, given the fact that plant material travels freely in the entire European Union. But also new breeding goals and transgenic solutions are part of the biotechnological benefits, e.g. resistance against biotic and abiotic stress factors, modified growth habits, modified nutritional properties and altered processing and storage qualities. The successful characterization of transgenic grapevines and stone fruit trees carrying genes of viral origin in different vectors constructed under ecological consideration, will be presented. Beyond technical feasibility, efficiency of resistance, environmental safety and Intellectual Property Rights, also public acceptance needs consideration and has been addressed in a specific project. The molecular determination of internal quality parameters of food can also be addressed by the use of biotechnological tools. Patient independent detection tools for apple allergens have been developed and should allow to compare fruits from different production systems, sites, and genotypes for their content of health threatening compounds.

  16. A comprehensive survey of fruit grading systems for tropical fruits of Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Khoje, Suchitra A; Bodhe, S K

    2015-01-01

    It is said that the backbone of Indian economy is agriculture. The contribution of the agriculture sector to the national GDP (Gross Domestic Products) was 14.6% in the year 2010. To attain a growth rate equivalent to that of industry (viz., about 9%), it is highly mandatory for Indian agriculture to modernize and use automation at various stages of cultivation and post-harvesting techniques. The use of computers in assessing the quality of fruits is one of the major activities in post-harvesting technology. As of now, this assessment is majorly done manually, except for a few fruits. Currently, the fruit quality assessment by machine vision in India is still at research level. Major research has been carried out in countries like China, Malaysia, UK, and Netherlands. To suit the Indian market and psychology of Indian farmers, it is necessary to develop indigenous technology. This paper is the first step toward evaluating the research carried out by the research community all over world for tropical fruits. For the purpose of survey, we have concentrated on the tropical fruits of the state of Maharashtra, while keeping in focus of the review image processing algorithms. PMID:24915312

  17. Spotting fruit versus picking fruit as the selective advantage of human colour vision.

    PubMed

    Bompas, Aline; Kendall, Grace; Sumner, Petroc

    2013-01-01

    The spatiochromatic properties of the red-green dimension of human colour vision appear to be optimized for picking fruit in leaves at about arms' reach. However, other evidence suggests that the task of spotting fruit from a distance might be more important. This discrepancy may arise because the task a system (e.g. human trichromacy) is best at is not necessarily the same task where the largest advantage occurs over the evolutionary alternatives (dichromacy or anomalous trichromacy). We tested human dichromats, anomalous trichromats and "normal" trichromats in a naturalistic visual search task in which they had to find fruit pieces in a bush at 1, 4, 8 or 12 m viewing distance. We found that the largest advantage (in terms of either performance ratio or performance difference) of normal trichromacy over both types of colour deficiency was for the largest viewing distance. We infer that in the evolution of human colour vision, spotting fruit from a distance was a more important selective advantage than picking fruit at arms' reach.

  18. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima’D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future. PMID:27077652

  19. A comprehensive survey of fruit grading systems for tropical fruits of Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Khoje, Suchitra A; Bodhe, S K

    2015-01-01

    It is said that the backbone of Indian economy is agriculture. The contribution of the agriculture sector to the national GDP (Gross Domestic Products) was 14.6% in the year 2010. To attain a growth rate equivalent to that of industry (viz., about 9%), it is highly mandatory for Indian agriculture to modernize and use automation at various stages of cultivation and post-harvesting techniques. The use of computers in assessing the quality of fruits is one of the major activities in post-harvesting technology. As of now, this assessment is majorly done manually, except for a few fruits. Currently, the fruit quality assessment by machine vision in India is still at research level. Major research has been carried out in countries like China, Malaysia, UK, and Netherlands. To suit the Indian market and psychology of Indian farmers, it is necessary to develop indigenous technology. This paper is the first step toward evaluating the research carried out by the research community all over world for tropical fruits. For the purpose of survey, we have concentrated on the tropical fruits of the state of Maharashtra, while keeping in focus of the review image processing algorithms.

  20. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  1. Yucca brevifolia fruit production, predispersal seed predation, and fruit removal by rodents during two years of contrasting reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borchert, Mark I.; DeFalco, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The distribution of Yucca brevifolia, a keystone species of the Mojave Desert, may contract with climate change, yet reproduction and dispersal are poorly understood. We tracked reproduction, seed predation, and fruit dispersal for two years and discuss whether Y. brevifolia is a masting species. METHODS: Fruit maturation, seed predation (larval yucca moths), and fruit dispersal (rodents) were monitored on a random sample of panicles during 2013 and 2014, which were years of high and low reproduction, respectively. Fates of fruits placed on the ground and in canopies were also tracked. Rodents were live-trapped to assess abundance and species composition. KEY RESULTS: In 2013, 66% of inflorescences produced fruit of which 53% escaped larval predation; 19.5% of seeds were destroyed in infested fruits. Total seed production was estimated to be >100 times greater in 2013 than 2014. One-third of the fruit crop fell to the ground and was removed by rodents over the course of 120 d. After ground fruits became scarce, rodents exploited canopy fruits. Rodent numbers were low in 2013, so fruits remained in canopies for 370 d. In 2014, fruit production was approximately 20% lower. Larvae infested the majority of fruits, and almost twice the number of seeds were damaged. Fruits were exploited by rodents within 65 d. CONCLUSIONS: High fertilization, prolific seed production, and low predispersal predation in 2013 suggests that pollinator attraction and satiation of seed predators influence masting in Y. brevifolia. Abundant, prolonged fruit availability to seed-dispersing rodents likely extends recruitment opportunities during mast years.

  2. Jussara (Euterpe edulis Mart.) Supplementation during Pregnancy and Lactation Modulates the Gene and Protein Expression of Inflammation Biomarkers Induced by trans-Fatty Acids in the Colon of Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Almeida Morais, Carina; Oyama, Lila Missae; de Oliveira, Juliana Lopez; Carvalho Garcia, Márcia; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera; Sousa Mendes Amigo, Laís; do Nascimento, Claudia Maria Oller; Pisani, Luciana Pellegrini

    2014-01-01

    Maternal intake of trans-fatty acids (TFAs) in the perinatal period triggers a proinflammatory state in offspring. Anthocyanins contained in fruit are promising modulators of inflammation. This study investigated the effect of Jussara supplementation in the maternal diet on the proinflammatory state of the colon in offspring exposed to perinatal TFAs. On the first day of pregnancy rats were divided into four groups: control diet (C), control diet with 0.5% Jussara supplementation (CJ), diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat, rich in TFAs (T), or T diet supplemented with 0.5% Jussara (TJ) during pregnancy and lactation. We showed that Jussara supplementation in maternal diet (CJ and TJ groups) reduced carcass lipid/protein ratios, serum lipids, glucose, IL-6, TNF-α, gene expression of IL-6R, TNF-αR (P < 0.05), TLR-4 (P < 0.01), and increase Lactobacillus spp. (P < 0.05) in the colon of offspring compared to the T group. The IL-10 (P = 0.035) and IL-10/TNF-α ratio (P < 0.01) was higher in the CJ group than in the T group. The 0.5% Jussara supplementation reverses the adverse effects of perinatal TFAs, improving lipid profiles, glucose levels, body composition, and gut microbiota and reducing low-grade inflammation in the colon of 21-day-old offspring, and could contribute to reducing chronic disease development. PMID:25276060

  3. Warming-induced shift in European mushroom fruiting phenology.

    PubMed

    Kauserud, Håvard; Heegaard, Einar; Büntgen, Ulf; Halvorsen, Rune; Egli, Simon; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Dämon, Wolfgang; Sparks, Tim; Nordén, Jenni; Høiland, Klaus; Kirk, Paul; Semenov, Mikhail; Boddy, Lynne; Stenseth, Nils C

    2012-09-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, fungi are the major agents of decomposition processes and nutrient cycling and of plant nutrient uptake. Hence, they have a vital impact on ecosystem processes and the terrestrial carbon cycle. Changes in productivity and phenology of fungal fruit bodies can give clues to changes in fungal activity, but understanding these changes in relation to a changing climate is a pending challenge among ecologists. Here we report on phenological changes in fungal fruiting in Europe over the past four decades. Analyses of 746,297 dated and geo-referenced mushroom records of 486 autumnal fruiting species from Austria, Norway, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom revealed a widening of the annual fruiting season in all countries during the period 1970-2007. The mean annual day of fruiting has become later in all countries. However, the interspecific variation in phenological responses was high. Most species moved toward a later ending of their annual fruiting period, a trend that was particularly strong in the United Kingdom, which may reflect regional variation in climate change and its effects. Fruiting of both saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi now continues later in the year, but mycorrhizal fungi generally have a more compressed season than saprotrophs. This difference is probably due to the fruiting of mycorrhizal fungi partly depending on cues from the host plant. Extension of the European fungal fruiting season parallels an extended vegetation season in Europe. Changes in fruiting phenology imply changes in mycelia activity, with implications for ecosystem function. PMID:22908273

  4. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases. PMID:24188234

  5. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases.

  6. [Effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) on the plant growth, fruit yield, and fruit quality of cucumber under salt stress].

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Guo, Shi-Rong; He, Chao-Xing; Yan, Yan; Yu, Xian-Chang

    2012-01-01

    By adopting organic substrate culture, and salt-sensitive cucumber variety 'Jinchun No. 2' was used as test material, this paper studied the effects of inoculating arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) on the plant growth, fruit yield, and fruit quality of cucumber under salt stress. AMF-inoculation could effectively promote the plant growth and nutrient uptake, and improve the fruit yield and fruit nutrient quality, compared with ordinary cultivation. Under salt stress, the plant growth was inhibited, and the plant N, P, K, Cu, and Zn contents and K+/Na+ ratio, fruit yield, and fruit soluble protein, total sugar, vitamin C, and nitrate contents decreased, while inoculation with AMF could mitigate the inhibitory effect of salt stress on the plant growth, made the plant N, P, K, Cu, and Zn contents increased by 7.3%, 11.7%, 28.2%, 13.5%, and 9.9%, respectively, and made the plant K+/Na+ ratio, fruit yield, and fruit soluble protein, total sugar, and vitamin C contents have an obvious increase and the fruit nitrate content have a significant decrease. It was suggested that AMF could promote the plant growth and nutrient uptake of cucumber under salt stress, increase the plant salt-tolerance, and improve the fruit yield and its nutrient quality.

  7. Impact of soil management practices on yield, fruit quality, and antioxidant contents of pepper at four stages of fruit development.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2014-01-01

    Peppers, a significant component of the human diet in many regions of the world, provide vitamins A (β-carotene) and C, and are also a source of many other antioxidants such as capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and phenols. Enhancing the concentration of antioxidants in plants grown in soil amended with recycled waste has not been completely investigated. Changes in pepper antioxidant content in relation to soil amendments and fruit development were investigated. The main objectives of this investigation were to: (i) quantify concentrations of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, phenols, and soluble sugars in the fruits of Capsicum annuum L. (cv. Xcatic) grown under four soil management practices: yard waste (YW), sewage sludge (SS), chicken manure (CM), and no-much (NM) bare soil and (ii) monitor antioxidant concentrations in fruits of plants grown under these practices and during fruit ripening from green into red mature fruits. Total marketable pepper yield was increased by 34% and 15% in SS and CM treatments, respectively, compared to NM bare soil; whereas, the number of culls (fruits that fail to meet the requirements of foregoing grades) was lower in YW compared to SS and CM treatments. Regardless of fruit color, pepper fruits from YW amended soil contained the greatest concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. When different colored pepper fruits (green, yellow, orange, and red) were analyzed, orange and red contained the greatest β-carotene and sugar contents; whereas, green fruits contained the greatest concentrations of total phenols and ascorbic acid.

  8. Assessing the Impact of Deforestation of the Atlantic Rainforest on Ant-Fruit Interactions: A Field Experiment Using Synthetic Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Bieber, Ana Gabriela D.; Silva, Paulo S. D.; Sendoya, Sebastián F.; Oliveira, Paulo S.

    2014-01-01

    Ants frequently interact with fleshy fruits on the ground of tropical forests. This interaction is regarded as mutualistic because seeds benefit from enhanced germination and dispersal to nutrient-rich microsites, whereas ants benefit from consuming the nutritious pulp/aril. Considering that the process of deforestation affects many attributes of the ecosystem such as species abundance and composition, and interspecific interactions, we asked whether the interaction between ants and fallen fleshy fruits in the Brazilian Atlantic forest differs between human-created fragments and undisturbed forests. We controlled diaspore type and quantity by using synthetic fruits (a plastic ‘seed’ covered by a lipid-rich ‘pulp’), which were comparable to lipid-rich fruits. Eight independent areas (four undisturbed forests, and four disturbed forest fragments) were used in the field experiment, in which we recorded the attracted ant species, ant behaviour, and fruit removal distance. Fruits in undisturbed forest sites attracted a higher number of species than those in disturbed forests. Moreover, the occurrence of large, fruit-carrying ponerine ants (Pachycondyla, Odontomachus; 1.1 to 1.4 cm) was higher in undisturbed forests. Large species (≥3 mm) of Pheidole (Myrmicinae), also able to remove fruits, did not differ between forest types. Following these changes in species occurrence, fruit displacement was more frequent in undisturbed than in disturbed forests. Moreover, displacement distances were also greater in the undisturbed forests. Our data suggest that fallen fleshy fruits interacting with ants face different fates depending on the conservation status of the forest. Together with the severe loss of their primary dispersers in human-disturbed tropical forest sites, vertebrate-dispersed fruits may also be deprived of potential ant-derived benefits in these habitats due to shifts in the composition of interacting ant species. Our data illustrate the use of synthetic

  9. Assessing the impact of deforestation of the Atlantic rainforest on ant-fruit interactions: a field experiment using synthetic fruits.

    PubMed

    Bieber, Ana Gabriela D; Silva, Paulo S D; Sendoya, Sebastián F; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2014-01-01

    Ants frequently interact with fleshy fruits on the ground of tropical forests. This interaction is regarded as mutualistic because seeds benefit from enhanced germination and dispersal to nutrient-rich microsites, whereas ants benefit from consuming the nutritious pulp/aril. Considering that the process of deforestation affects many attributes of the ecosystem such as species abundance and composition, and interspecific interactions, we asked whether the interaction between ants and fallen fleshy fruits in the Brazilian Atlantic forest differs between human-created fragments and undisturbed forests. We controlled diaspore type and quantity by using synthetic fruits (a plastic 'seed' covered by a lipid-rich 'pulp'), which were comparable to lipid-rich fruits. Eight independent areas (four undisturbed forests, and four disturbed forest fragments) were used in the field experiment, in which we recorded the attracted ant species, ant behaviour, and fruit removal distance. Fruits in undisturbed forest sites attracted a higher number of species than those in disturbed forests. Moreover, the occurrence of large, fruit-carrying ponerine ants (Pachycondyla, Odontomachus; 1.1 to 1.4 cm) was higher in undisturbed forests. Large species (≥3 mm) of Pheidole (Myrmicinae), also able to remove fruits, did not differ between forest types. Following these changes in species occurrence, fruit displacement was more frequent in undisturbed than in disturbed forests. Moreover, displacement distances were also greater in the undisturbed forests. Our data suggest that fallen fleshy fruits interacting with ants face different fates depending on the conservation status of the forest. Together with the severe loss of their primary dispersers in human-disturbed tropical forest sites, vertebrate-dispersed fruits may also be deprived of potential ant-derived benefits in these habitats due to shifts in the composition of interacting ant species. Our data illustrate the use of synthetic fruits

  10. Mitigation of effects of extreme drought during stage III of peach fruit development by summer pruning and fruit thinning.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Gerardo; Mata, Mercè; Arbones, Amadeu; Solans, Josep R; Girona, Joan; Marsal, Jordi

    2006-04-01

    A water deficit during stage III of fruit growth was established with the aim of determining if it is possible to achieve an improvement in tree water status by summer pruning and fruit thinning. The experiment was set up as a randomized block split-plot design across trials (irrigation) where pruning was assigned to the main plot and fruit thinning to the sub-plots. The irrigation treatments were (1) standard full irrigation (FI), and (2) suppression of irrigation during stage III of fruit growth until leaves visibly withered (LWI); the pruning treatments were (1) experimental summer pruning (EP), and (2) standard summer pruning (CP); and three fruit thinning intensities were applied to facilitate analysis of the effects of the treatments in relation to fruit load. Changes in amount of light intercepted and in tree stem water potential (Psi stem) were evaluated. The EP treatment reduced the amount of light intercepted by the tree. In the FI treatment, there was a significant reduction in fruit growth measured as both water accumulation and dry mass accumulation. Under FI conditions, reductions in fruit load as a result of EP were not accompanied by a significant improvement in Psi stem. In the LWI treatment, EP produced a significant improvement of 0.17 MPa in Psi stem, but there was no improvement in fruit growth compared with CP trees. A reduction in fruit load from 350 (commercial load) to 150 per tree significantly improved Psi stem by 0.3 MPa at the end of stage III of fruit growth. These results indicate that improvements in water status in response to pruning may be insufficient to promote fruit growth if the pruned trees are unable to provide an adequate supply of assimilates to the developing fruits.

  11. Genotype effects on internal gas gradients in apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Ho, Q Tri; Verboven, Pieter; Verlinden, Bert E; Schenk, Ann; Delele, Mulugeta A; Rolletschek, Hardy; Vercammen, Jef; Nicolaï, Bart M

    2010-06-01

    A permeation-diffusion-reaction model was applied to study gas exchange of apple fruit (Kanzi, Jonagold, and Braeburn) as effected by morphology and respiratory metabolism. The gas exchange properties and respiration parameters of the fruit organ tissues were measured. The actual internal tissue geometry of the fruit was reconstructed from digital fruit images and the model was solved over this geometry using the finite element method. The model was validated based on measurements of internal gas concentrations and the gas flux of the fruit to its environment. Both measurements and an in silico study revealed that gradients of metabolic gases exist in apple fruit, depending on diffusion properties and respiration of the different cultivars. Macroscale simulation confirmed that Jonagold has large potential for controlled atmosphere (CA) storage while low diffusion properties of cortex tissue in Braeburn indicated a risk of storage disorder development. Kanzi had less O(2) anoxia at CA storage compared with Braeburn.

  12. Postharvest physiology and technology of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Pareek, Sunil; Benkeblia, Noureddine; Janick, Jules; Cao, Shifeng; Yahia, Elhadi M

    2014-06-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is a subtropical evergreen tree whose fruit is consumed both fresh and processed. Loquat fruit is a good source of minerals and carotenoids, while the kernel is rich in protein and carbohydrates. It has been considered a non-climacteric fruit, but there is evidence that some cultivars have a ripening pattern similar to that of climacteric fruits. The fruit has a short postharvest life at ambient temperatures and is susceptible to physical and mechanical damage, loss of moisture and nutrients, and decay. Low-temperature storage extends the shelf life of loquat fruit, but some cultivars are severely affected by chilling injury and flesh browning during cold storage. Purple spot, browning and leatheriness are major postharvest disorders. The shelf life of loquat can be extended by modified or controlled atmosphere storage as well as by postharvest treatment with 1-methyl cyclopropene or methyl jasmonate.

  13. Avocado fruit protoplasts: a cellular model system for ripening studies.

    PubMed

    Percival, F W; Cass, L G; Bozak, K R; Christoffersen, R E

    1991-12-01

    Mesocarp protoplasts were isolated from mature avocado fruits (Persea americana cv. Hass) at varying stages of propylene-induced ripening. Qualitative changes in the pattern of radiolabel incorporation into polypeptides were observed in cells derived from fruit at the different stages. Many of these differences correlate with those observed during radiolabeling of polypeptides from fresh tissue slices prepared from unripe and ripe fruit. Protoplasts isolated from fruit treated with propylene for one day or more were shown to synthesize cellulase (endo-ß-1,4-glucanase) antigen, similar to the intact propylene-treated fruit. These results suggest that the isolated protoplasts retain at least some biochemical characteristics of the parent tissue. The cells may also be used in transient gene expression assays. Protoplasts isolated from preclimacteric and climacteric fruit were equally competent in expressing a chimeric test gene, composed of the CaMV 35S RNA promoter fused to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, which was introduced by electroporation.

  14. Squeezing Fact from Fiction about 100% Fruit Juice123

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

  15. Optical and mechanical nondestructive tests for measuring tomato fruit firmness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivel-Chávez, Ricardo A.; Garnica-Romo, M. G.; Arroyo-Correa, Gabriel; Aranda-Sánchez, Jorge I.

    2011-08-01

    Ripening is one of the most important processes to occur in fruits which involve changes in color, flavor, and texture. An important goal in quality control of fruits is to substitute traditional sensory testing methods with reliable nondestructive tests (NDT). In this work we study the firmness of tomato fruits by using optical and mechanical NDT. Optical and mechanical parameters, measured along the tomato shelf life, are shown.

  16. Quantitative analysis of mycoflora on commercial domestic fruits in Japan.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Maiko; Tsutsumi, Fumiyuki; Konuma, Rumi; Lee, Ken-Ichi; Kawarada, Kensuke; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kumagai, Susumu; Takatori, Kosuke; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2011-09-01

    A comprehensive and quantitative analysis of the mycoflora on the surface of commercial fruit was performed. Nine kinds of fruits grown in Japan were tested. Overall fungal counts on the fruits ranged from 3.1 to 6.5 log CFU/g. The mean percentages of the total yeast counts were higher than those of molds in samples of apples, Japanese pears, and strawberries, ranging from 58.5 to 67.0%, and were lower than those of molds in samples of the other six fruits, ranging from 9.8 to 48.3%. Cladosporium was the most frequent fungus and was found in samples of all nine types of fruits, followed by Penicillium found in eight types of fruits. The fungi with the highest total counts in samples of the various fruits were Acremonium in cantaloupe melons (47.6% of the total fungal count), Aspergillus in grapes (32.2%), Aureobasidium in apples (21.3%), blueberries (63.6%), and peaches (33.6%), Cladosporium in strawberries (38.4%), Cryptococcus in Japanese pears (37.6%), Penicillium in mandarins (22.3%), and Sporobolomyces in lemons (26.9%). These results demonstrated that the mycoflora on the surfaces of these fruits mainly consists of common pre- and postharvest inhabitants of the plants or in the environment; fungi that produce mycotoxins or cause market diseases were not prominent in the mycoflora of healthy fruits. These findings suggest fruits should be handled carefully with consideration given to fungal contaminants, including nonpathogenic fungi, to control the quality of fruits and processed fruit products. PMID:21902918

  17. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations.

  18. Fruit juice consumption by infants and children: a review.

    PubMed

    Dennison, B A

    1996-10-01

    The pattern of fruit juice consumption has changed over time. Fifty years ago, orange juice was the major juice produced and it was consumed primarily to prevent scurvy. Now, apple juice is the juice of choice for the under 5 age group. While fruit juice is a healthy, low-fat, nutritious beverage, there have been some health concerns regarding juice consumption. Nursing bottle caries have long been recognized as a consequence of feeding juice in bottles, using the bottle as a pacifier, and prolonged bottle feeding. Non-specific chronic diarrhea or "toddler's" diarrhea has been associated with juice consumption, especially juices high in sorbitol and those with a high fructose to glucose ratio. This relates to carbohydrate malabsorption, which varies by the type, concentration, and mixture of sugars present in different fruit juices. Fruit juice consumption by preschoolers has recently increased from 3.2 to about 5.5 fl oz/day. Consumption of fruit juice helps fulfill the recommendation to eat more fruits and vegetables, with fruit juice accounting for 50% of all fruit servings consumed by children, aged 2 through 18 years, and 1/3 of all fruits and vegetables consumed by preschoolers. Concomitant with the increase in fruit juice consumption has been a decline in milk intake. This is concerning as milk is the major source of calcium in the diet, and at present, only 50% of children, aged 1 through 5 years, meet the RDA for calcium. Studies of newborn infants and preschool-aged children have demonstrated a preference for sweet-tasting foods and beverages. Thus, it is not surprising that some children, if given the opportunity, might consume more fruit juice than is considered optimal. Eleven percent of healthy preschoolers consumed > or = 12 fl oz/day of fruit juice, which is considered excessive. Excess fruit juice consumption has been reported as a contributing factor in some children with nonorganic failure to thrive and in some children with decreased stature. In

  19. An overview of fruit allergy and the causative allergens.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A K G; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-11-01

    Plant allergens, being one of the most widespread allergenic substances, are hard to avoid. Hence, their identification and characterization are of prime importance for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy. The reported allergies to fruits mainly evoke oral allergy syndrome caused by the presence of cross-reactive IgE to certain pollens and thus, allergy to fruits has also been linked to particular pollens. Many fruit allergies are being studied for their causative allergens, and are being characterized. Some tropical or exotic fruits are responsible for region-specific allergies for which only limited information is available, and generally lack allergen characterization. From a survey of the literature on fruit allergy, it is clear that some common fruits (apple, peach, musk melon, kiwi fruit, cherry, grape, strawberry, banana, custard apple, mango and pomegranate) and their allergens appear to be at the center of current research on food allergy. The present review focuses on common fruits reported as allergenic and their identified allergens; a brief description of allergens from six rare/tropical fruits is also covered.

  20. 76 FR 81401 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ...). Flower caterpillar (Phycita leucomilta). Scales Red wax scale (Ceroplastes rubens). Green scale (Coccus... fruit borer, the moth Cateremna quadriguttella, bright cornelian, dull cornelian, and flower...

  1. Research of pesticide residues on fruit by terahertz spectroscopy technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yehao; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Huali

    2011-11-01

    Pesticide residues on the fruit skin are measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in 0.2-1.3THz. Pesticide is mainly residues for fruit, which threatens health of human, so the research about the fruit residues is absolutely important. In the experiment, a kind of pesticide carbendazim, orange, and the mixture of them are measured by THz-TDS, and then calculate absorption spectrums through Fourier transform and Fresnel formula. Experiment results indicate that THz-TDS is an effective tool for the measurement of pesticide residues on the fruit skin.

  2. NADP-dehydrogenases from pepper fruits: effect of maturation.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Rosa M; Bonilla-Valverde, Daniel; del Río, Luis A; Palma, José M; Corpas, Francisco J

    2009-02-01

    NADPH is an important molecule in the redox balance of the cell. Pepper fruits are the second worldwide consumable vegetables and exhibit different phenotypes after maturation. In this paper, two pepper cultivars were studied: Vergasa whose fruits shift from green to red after maturation, and Biela that shifts to yellow. Using fresh fruits from the same plants of the two cultivars at distinct maturation stages, the activity and gene expression of the main NADPH-generating dehydrogenases was studied. The activity analysis of the main NADP-dehydrogenases, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) and NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), showed that, except for the G6PDH, all the activities were enhanced (54-100%) in the mature pepper fruits from both cultivars (red or yellow) with respect to green pepper fruits. The content of NADPH and NADP in the mature fruits of both cultivars showed a noteworthy increase with respect to green fruits. For the transcript analysis, a partial cDNA of each NADP-dehydrogenase was obtained, and the NADP-ME was the only NADP-dehydrogenase that showed a significant induction. The increase in the content of NADPH in mature fruits because of the enhanced activity of NADP-dehydrogenases suggests that these NADPH-generating enzymes could be involved in the maturation of pepper fruits.

  3. An overview of fruit allergy and the causative allergens.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A K G; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-11-01

    Plant allergens, being one of the most widespread allergenic substances, are hard to avoid. Hence, their identification and characterization are of prime importance for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy. The reported allergies to fruits mainly evoke oral allergy syndrome caused by the presence of cross-reactive IgE to certain pollens and thus, allergy to fruits has also been linked to particular pollens. Many fruit allergies are being studied for their causative allergens, and are being characterized. Some tropical or exotic fruits are responsible for region-specific allergies for which only limited information is available, and generally lack allergen characterization. From a survey of the literature on fruit allergy, it is clear that some common fruits (apple, peach, musk melon, kiwi fruit, cherry, grape, strawberry, banana, custard apple, mango and pomegranate) and their allergens appear to be at the center of current research on food allergy. The present review focuses on common fruits reported as allergenic and their identified allergens; a brief description of allergens from six rare/tropical fruits is also covered. PMID:26549334

  4. Opalescent and cloudy fruit juices: formation and particle stability.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Tom

    2002-07-01

    Cloudy fruit juices, particularly from tropical fruit, are becoming a fast-growing part of the fruit juice sector. The classification of cloud as coarse and fine clouds by centrifugation and composition of cloud from apple, pineapple, orange, guava, and lemon juice are described. Fine particulate is shown to be the true stable cloud and to contain considerable protein, carbohydrate, and lipid components. Often, tannin is present as well. The fine cloud probably arises from cell membranes and appears not to be simply cell debris. Factors relating to the stability of fruit juice cloud, including particle sizes, size distribution, and density, are described and discussed. Factors promoting stable cloud in juice are presented.

  5. Non-climacteric ripening and sorbitol homeostasis in plum fruits.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Farcuh, Macarena; Cohen, Yuval; Crisosto, Carlos; Sadka, Avi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    During ripening fruits undergo several physiological and biochemical modifications that influence quality-related properties, such as texture, color, aroma and taste. We studied the differences in ethylene and sugar metabolism between two genetically related Japanese plum cultivars with contrasting ripening behaviors. 'Santa Rosa' (SR) behaved as a typical climacteric fruit, while the bud sport mutant 'Sweet Miriam' (SM) displayed a non-climacteric ripening pattern. SM fruit displayed a delayed ripening that lasted 120 days longer than that of the climacteric fruit. At the full-ripe stage, both cultivars reached similar final size and weight but the non-climacteric fruits were firmer than the climacteric fruits. Fully ripe non-climacteric plum fruits, showed an accumulation of sorbitol that was 2.5 times higher than that of climacteric fruits, and the increase in sorbitol were also paralleled to an increase in sucrose catabolism. These changes were highly correlated with decreased activity and expression of NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase and sorbitol oxidase and increased sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, suggesting an enhanced sorbitol synthesis in non-climacteric fruits.

  6. Forest Fruit Production Is Higher on Sumatra Than on Borneo

    PubMed Central

    Wich, Serge A.; Vogel, Erin R.; Larsen, Michael D.; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Leighton, Mark; Yeager, Carey P.; Brearley, Francis Q.; van Schaik, Carel P.; Marshall, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Various studies have shown that the population densities of a number of forest vertebrates, such as orangutans, are higher on Sumatra than Borneo, and that several species exhibit smaller body sizes on Borneo than Sumatra and mainland Southeast Asia. It has been suggested that differences in forest fruit productivity between the islands can explain these patterns. Here we present a large-scale comparison of forest fruit production between the islands to test this hypothesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on fruit production were collated from Sumatran and Bornean sites. At six sites we assessed fruit production in three forest types: riverine, peat swamp and dryland forests. We compared fruit production using time-series models during different periods of overall fruit production and in different tree size classes. We examined overall island differences and differences specifically for fruiting period and tree size class. The results of these analyses indicate that overall the Sumatran forests are more productive than those on Borneo. This difference remains when each of the three forest types (dryland, riverine, and peat) are examined separately. The difference also holds over most tree sizes and fruiting periods. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that forest fruit productivity is higher on Sumatra than Borneo. This difference is most likely the result of the overall younger and more volcanic soils on Sumatra than Borneo. These results contribute to our understanding of the determinants of faunal density and the evolution of body size on both islands. PMID:21738627

  7. Cytokinin Activity in Avocado Seeds during Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, A; Gazit, S

    1970-08-01

    The soybean callus bioassay was used to determine levels of cytokinin activity in avocado (Persea americana) seeds.In the embryo, levels are high during the early stages of development, but diminish as the fruit grows. The level of cytokinin activity in the endosperm is very high throughout the period that this tissue exists. The seed coats have very high activity levels while the fruit is young, reaching values comparable with those found in the endosperm. The activity level falls as the rate of fruit growth slows down and disappears completely by the time the seed coats shrivel at approximately the same time the fruit reaches "horticultural maturity".

  8. The isolation of RNA from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruit.

    PubMed

    Jones, C S; Iannetta, P P; Woodhead, M; Davies, H V; McNicol, R J; Taylor, M A

    1997-12-01

    Previous attempts to extract high-quality, total RNA from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruits using published protocols have proven to be unsuccessful. Even the use of protocols developed for the extraction of RNA from other fruit tissue has resulted in low yields (1) or the isolation of degraded RNA (2). Here, we report on the development of a quick and simple method of extracting total RNA from raspberry fruit. Using this method, high yields of good quality, undegraded RNA were obtained from fruit at all stages of ripening. The RNA is of sufficient quality for northern analysis and cDNA library construction.

  9. 4. View facing southwest showing the Silvertop Diner, Providence Fruit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View facing southwest showing the Silvertop Diner, Providence Fruit & Produce Building, and Merchants' Cold Storage Warehouse. - Provisions Warehouse Historic District, Kinsley & Harris Avenues, Providence, Providence County, RI

  10. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department...

  11. Increasing portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school lunch program can increase fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nicole; Reicks, Marla; Redden, Joseph P; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Vickers, Zata

    2015-08-01

    Increasing portion size can increase children's consumption of food. The goal of this study was to determine whether increasing the portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school cafeteria environment would increase children's consumption of them. We measured each child's consumption of the fruit and vegetables served in a cafeteria line on a control day (normal cafeteria procedures) and on two intervention days. When we increased the portion size of 3 of the 4 fruits and vegetables by about 50%, children who took those foods increased their consumption of them. Although this was an effective strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among students who took those foods, many children chose not to take any fruits or vegetables. Further efforts are needed to increase children's selection and consumption of fruits and vegetables in an environment of competing foods of higher palatability.

  12. Increasing portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school lunch program can increase fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nicole; Reicks, Marla; Redden, Joseph P; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Vickers, Zata

    2015-08-01

    Increasing portion size can increase children's consumption of food. The goal of this study was to determine whether increasing the portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school cafeteria environment would increase children's consumption of them. We measured each child's consumption of the fruit and vegetables served in a cafeteria line on a control day (normal cafeteria procedures) and on two intervention days. When we increased the portion size of 3 of the 4 fruits and vegetables by about 50%, children who took those foods increased their consumption of them. Although this was an effective strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among students who took those foods, many children chose not to take any fruits or vegetables. Further efforts are needed to increase children's selection and consumption of fruits and vegetables in an environment of competing foods of higher palatability. PMID:25958117

  13. Inhibitors of platelet lipoxygenase from Ponkan fruit.

    PubMed

    Nogata, Y; Sekiya, K; Ohta, H; Kusumoto, K; Ishizu, T

    2001-04-01

    An activity-guided separation for inhibitors of rat platelet 12-lipoxygenase led to the isolation of two compounds, 4-O-feruloyl-5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (IC50; 5.5 microM) and methyl 4-O-feruloyl-5-O-caffeoylquinate (IC50; 1.9 microM) from the peel of Ponkan fruit (Citrus reticulata). The complete structure of each phenolic ester was determined by NMR spectroscopy [1H and 13C NMR spectra, 1H-1H correlation spectroscopy (COSY), 1H-detected heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC), and heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC) spectroscopies] and other spectral methods. PMID:11314960

  14. Triterpenoids from the fruit of Schisandra glaucescens.

    PubMed

    Yu, Heng-Yi; Li, Juan; Liu, Ye; Wu, Wen-Ming; Ruan, Han-Li

    2016-09-01

    Five new triterpenoids, named schiglausins P-T (1-5), together with twelve known analogues (6-17), were isolated from the fruit of Schisandra glaucescens Diels. Their structures were determined by various spectroscopic methods, including HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectra and CD experiment. Additionally, all these compounds were tested for their cytotoxicities against B16 mouse melanoma cell line. Compounds 8, 11, 14, and 15 exhibited moderate anti-proliferative effects against B16 cells with IC50 values ranging from 3.64 to 27.00μM. PMID:27425445

  15. Ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit.

    PubMed

    Digiacomo, Fabio; Girelli, Gabriele; Aor, Bruno; Marchioretti, Caterina; Pedrotti, Michele; Perli, Thomas; Tonon, Emil; Valentini, Viola; Avi, Damiano; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Dorigato, Andrea; Torre, Paola; Jousson, Olivier; Mansy, Sheref S; Del Bianco, Cristina

    2014-12-19

    Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered E. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae. EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples.

  16. Fruit specific variability in capsaicinoid accumulation and transcription of structural and regulatory genes in Capsicum fruit.

    PubMed

    Keyhaninejad, Neda; Curry, Jeanne; Romero, Joslynn; O'Connell, Mary A

    2014-02-01

    Accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissue of ripening chile (Capsicum spp.) fruit follows the coordinated expression of multiple biosynthetic enzymes producing the substrates for capsaicin synthase. Transcription factors are likely agents to regulate expression of these biosynthetic genes. Placental RNAs from habanero fruit (Capsicum chinense) were screened for expression of candidate transcription factors; with two candidate genes identified, both in the ERF family of transcription factors. Characterization of these transcription factors, Erf and Jerf, in nine chile cultivars with distinct capsaicinoid contents demonstrated a correlation of expression with pungency. Amino acid variants were observed in both ERF and JERF from different chile cultivars; none of these changes involved the DNA binding domains. Little to no transcription of Erf was detected in non-pungent Capsium annuum or C. chinense mutants. This correlation was characterized at an individual fruit level in a set of jalapeño (C. annuum) lines again with distinct and variable capsaicinoid contents. Both Erf and Jerf are expressed early in fruit development, 16-20 days post-anthesis, at times prior to the accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissues. These data support the hypothesis that these two members of the complex ERF family participate in regulation of the pungency phenotype in chile.

  17. Fruit age and development of Phytophthora fruit rot on resistant and susceptible watermelon lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast U.S. and has resulted in severe losses to watermelon growers especially in GA, SC, and NC. We recently released four germplasm lines (USVL203-PFR, USVL020-PFR, USVL782-PFR,...

  18. 77 FR 71746 - Artificially Sweetened Fruit Jelly and Artificially Sweetened Fruit Preserves and Jams; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... fruit preserves and jams (artificially sweetened preserves and jams) (21 CFR 150.161) (24 FR 8896... for their use in food labeling (58 FR 2302; January 6, 1993). FDA also prescribed at the same time in... a traditional standardized food term (58 FR 2431; January 6, 1993). A nutrient content claim...

  19. Exporting fruit from low fruit fly prevalence zones with a multiple mitigation systems approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the increase emphasis on trade of fresh fruits and vegetables worldwide, systems approaches have become part of an international effort to reduce risk of establishing new pests while providing a biological basis to risk assessment. Areawide pest management programs have been shown to be success...

  20. Survival of salmonella on dried fruits and in aqueous dried fruit homogenates as affected by temperature.

    PubMed

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

    2014-07-01

    A study was done to determine the ability of Salmonella to survive on dried cranberries, raisins, and strawberries and in date paste, as affected by storage temperature. Acid-adapted Salmonella, initially at 6.57 to 7.01 log CFU/g, was recovered from mist-inoculated cranberries (water activity [aw] 0.47) and raisins (aw 0.46) stored at 25°C for 21 days but not 42 days, strawberries (aw 0.21) for 42 days but not 84 days, and date paste (aw 0.69) for 84 days but not 126 days. In contrast, the pathogen was detected in strawberries stored at 4°C for 182 days (6 months) but not 242 days (8 months) and in cranberries, date paste, and raisins stored for 242 days. Surface-grown cells survived longer than broth-grown cells in date paste. The order of rate of inactivation at 4°C was cranberry > strawberry > raisin > date paste. Initially at 2.18 to 3.35 log CFU/g, inactivation of Salmonella on dry (sand)&ndash inoculated fruits followed trends similar to those for mist-inoculated fruits. Survival of Salmonella in aqueous homogenates of dried fruits as affected by fruit concentration and temperature was also studied. Growth was not observed in 10% (aw 0.995 to 0.999) and 50% (aw 0.955 to 0.962) homogenates of the four fruits held at 4°C, 50% homogenates at 25°C, and 10% cranberry and strawberry homogenates at 25°C. Growth of the pathogen in 10% date paste and raisin homogenates stored at 25°C was followed by rapid inactivation. Results of these studies suggest the need to subject dried fruits that may be contaminated with Salmonella to a lethal process and prevent postprocess contamination before they are eaten out-of-hand or used as ingredients in ready-to-eat foods. Observations showing that Salmonella can grow in aqueous homogenates of date paste and raisins emphasize the importance of minimizing contact of these fruits with high-moisture environments during handling and storage.

  1. The effects of fruit juices and fruits on the absorption of iron from a rice meal.

    PubMed

    Ballot, D; Baynes, R D; Bothwell, T H; Gillooly, M; MacFarlane, B J; MacPhail, A P; Lyons, G; Derman, D P; Bezwoda, W R; Torrance, J D

    1987-05-01

    The effects of the chemical composition of fruit juices and fruit on the absorption of iron from a rice (Oryza sativa) meal were measured in 234 parous Indian women, using the erythrocyte utilization of radioactive Fe method. The corrected geometric mean Fe absorptions with different juices varied between 0.040 and 0.129, with the variation correlating closely with the ascorbic acid contents of the juices (rs 0.838, P less than 0.01). Ascorbic acid was not the only organic acid responsible for the promoting effects of citrus fruit juices on Fe absorption. Fe absorption from laboratory 'orange juice' (100 ml water, 33 mg ascorbic acid and 750 mg citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml water and 33 mg ascorbic acid alone (0.097 and 0.059 respectively), while Fe absorption from 100 ml orange juice (28 mg ascorbic acid) was better than that from 100 ml water containing the same amount of ascorbic acid (0.139 and 0.098 respectively). Finally, Fe absorption from laboratory 'lemon juice' (100 ml orange juice and 4 g citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml orange juice (0.226 and 0.166 respectively). The corrected geometric mean Fe absorption from the rice meal was 0.025. Several fruits had little or no effect on Fe absorption from the meal (0.013-0.024). These included grape (Vitis vinifera), peach (Prunus persica), apple (Malus sylvestris) and avocado pear (Persea americana). Fruit with a mild to moderate enhancing effect on Fe absorption (0.031-0.088) included strawberry (Fragaria sp.) (uncorrected values), plum (Prunus domestica), rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum), banana (Musa cavendishii), mango (Mangifera indica), pear (Pyrus communis), cantaloup (Cucumis melo) and pineapple (Ananas comosus) (uncorrected values). Guava (Psidium guajava) and pawpaw (Carica papaya) markedly increased Fe absorption (0.126-0.293). There was a close correlation between Fe absorption and the ascorbic acid content of the fruits tested (rs 0.738, P less

  2. Ethylene Biosynthesis in Detached Young Persimmon Fruit Is Initiated in Calyx and Modulated by Water Loss from the Fruit1

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryohei; Ogura, Emi; Kubo, Yasutaka; Inaba, Akitsugu

    2003-01-01

    Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit are usually classified as climacteric fruit; however, unlike typical climacteric fruits, persimmon fruit exhibit a unique characteristic in that the younger the stage of fruit detached, the greater the level of ethylene produced. To investigate ethylene induction mechanisms in detached young persimmon fruit, we cloned three cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (DK-ACS1, 2, and -3) and two encoding ACC oxidase (DK-ACO1 and -2) genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and we analyzed their expression in various fruit tissues. Ethylene production was induced within a few days of detachment in all fruit tissues tested, accompanied by temporally and spatially coordinated expression of all the DK-ACS and DK-ACO genes. In all tissues except the calyx, treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, suppressed ethylene production and ethylene biosynthesis-related gene expression. In the calyx, one ACC synthase gene (DK-ACS2) exhibited increased mRNA accumulation accompanied by a large quantity of ethylene production, and treatment of the fruit with 1-methylcyclopropene did not prevent either the accumulation of DK-ACS2 transcripts or ethylene induction. Furthermore, the alleviation of water loss from the fruit significantly delayed the onset of ethylene production and the expression of DK-ACS2 in the calyx. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in detached young persimmon fruit is initially induced in calyx and is modulated by water loss through transcriptional activation of DK-ACS2. The ethylene produced in the calyx subsequently diffuses to other fruit tissues and acts as a secondary signal that stimulates autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis in these tissues, leading to a burst of ethylene production. PMID:12529535

  3. Yeast profilin complements profilin deficiency in transgenic tomato fruits and allows development of hypoallergenic tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Le, Lien Q; Mahler, Vera; Scheurer, Stephan; Foetisch, Kay; Braun, Yvonne; Weigand, Daniela; Enrique, Ernesto; Lidholm, Jonas; Paulus, Kathrin E; Sonnewald, Sophia; Vieths, Stefan; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2010-12-01

    Gene silencing of Lyc e 1 leads to reduced allergenicity of tomato fruits but impaired growth of transgenic tomato plants. The aim of the study was to restore growth of Lyc e 1-deficient tomato plants while retaining reduced allergenicity by simultaneous complementation of profilin deficiency by expression of nonallergenic yeast profilin. Transgenic plants were generated and tested by RT-PCR and immunoblotting; allergenicity of yeast profilin and transgenic fruits was investigated by IgE binding, basophil activation, and skin-prick tests. Lyc e 1 content of transgenic tomato fruits was <5% of that of wild-type plants, causing significantly reduced IgE antibody binding. Simultaneous coexpression of yeast profilin restored growth and biomass production almost to wild-type levels. Yeast profilin, sharing 32.6% amino acid sequence identity with Lyc e 1, displayed low IgE-binding capacity and allergenic potency. Among 16 tomato-allergic patients preselected for sensitization to Lyc e 1, none showed significant reactivity to yeast profilin. Yeast profilin did not induce mediator release, and coexpression of yeast profilin did not enhance the allergenicity of Lyc e 1-reduced fruits. Simultanous coexpression of yeast profilin allows silencing of tomato profilin and generation of viable plants with Lyc e 1-deficient tomato fruits. Therefore, a novel approach to allergen avoidance, genetically modified foods with reduced allergen accumulation, can be generated even if the allergen fulfills an essential cellular function in the plant. In summary, our findings of efficiently complementing profilin-deficient tomato plants by coexpression of low allergenic yeast profilin demonstrate the feasibility of creating low-allergenic food even if the allergen fulfills essential cellular functions.

  4. Involvement of ethylene biosynthesis and signalling in fruit set and early fruit development in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We have identified a kind of parthenocarpy in zucchini squash which is associated with an incomplete andromonoecy, i.e. a partial conversion of female into bisexual flowers. Given that andromonoecy in this and other cucurbit species is caused by a reduction of ethylene production in the female flower, the associated parthenocarpic development of the fruit suggested the involvement of ethylene in fruit set and early fruit development. Results We have compared the production of ethylene as well as the expression of 13 ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes in pollinated and unpollinated ovaries/fruits of two cultivars, one of which is parthenocarpic (Cavili), while the other is non-parthenocarpic (Tosca). In the latter, unpollinated ovaries show an induction of ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signal transduction pathway genes three days after anthesis, which is concomitant with the initiation of fruit abortion and senescence. Fruit set and early fruit development in pollinated flowers of both cultivars and unpollinated flowers of Cavili is coupled with low ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, which would also explain the partial andromonoecy in the parthenocarpic genotype. The reduction of ethylene production in the ovary cosegregates with parthenocarpy and partial andromonoecy in the selfing progeny of Cavili. Moreover, the induction of ethylene in anthesis (by ethephon treatments) reduced the percentage of bisexual parthenocarpic flowers in Cavili, while the inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis or response (by AVG and STS treatments) induces not only andromonoecy but also the parthenocarpic development of the fruit in both cultivars. Conclusions Results demonstrate that a reduction of ethylene production or signalling in the zucchini flower is able to induce fruit set and early fruit development, and therefore that ethylene is actively involved in fruit set and early fruit development. Auxin and TIBA treatments, inducing fruit set and early fruit

  5. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Climacteric Fruit of Chinese Pear (Pyrus ussuriensis) Reveals New Insights into Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Dongmei; Jiang, Zhongyu; Wei, Yun; Li, Juncai; Wang, Aide

    2014-01-01

    The fruit of Pyrus ussuriensis is typically climacteric. During ripening, the fruits produce a large amount of ethylene, and their firmness drops rapidly. Although the molecular basis of climacteric fruit ripening has been studied in depth, some aspects remain unclear. Here, we compared the transcriptomes of pre- and post-climacteric fruits of Chinese pear (P. ussuriensis c.v. Nanguo) using RNA-seq. In total, 3,279 unigenes were differentially expressed between the pre- and post-climacteric fruits. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were subjected to Gene Ontology analysis, and 31 categories were significantly enriched in the groups ‘biological process’, ‘molecular function’ and ‘cellular component’. The DEGs included genes related to plant hormones, such as ethylene, ABA, auxin, GA and brassinosteroid, and transcription factors, such as MADS, NAC, WRKY and HSF. Moreover, genes encoding enzymes related to DNA methylation, cytoskeletal proteins and heat shock proteins (HSPs) showed differential expression between the pre- and post-climacteric fruits. Select DEGs were subjected to further analysis using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the results were consistent with those of RNA-seq. Our data suggest that in addition to ethylene, other hormones play important roles in regulating fruit ripening and may interact with ethylene signaling during this process. DNA methylation-related methyltransferase and cytoskeletal protein genes are also involved in fruit ripening. Our results provide useful information for future research on pear fruit ripening. PMID:25215597

  6. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Pagadala Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi; Aurade, Ravindra Mahadappa; Kempraj, Vivek; Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of 'natural plant defenses' by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis. PMID:26422203

  7. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Pagadala Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi; Aurade, Ravindra Mahadappa; Kempraj, Vivek; Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of 'natural plant defenses' by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis.

  8. Changing how I feel about the food: experimentally manipulated affective associations with fruits change fruit choice behaviors.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Erin M; Kiviniemi, Marc T

    2014-04-01

    Fewer than half of Americans meet current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. The behavioral affective associations model posits that feelings and emotions associated with a behavior are a proximal influence on decision making. Cross-sectional evidence supports the model and suggests that affective associations predict fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to test whether a causal relation exists between affective associations about fruits and future fruit consumption behavior, as measured by a snack selection task. Following a baseline assessment of cognitive and affective variables, participants' (N = 161) affective associations about fruits were experimentally manipulated with an implicit priming paradigm. Images of fruits were repeatedly paired with positive, negative, or neutral affective stimuli. The key outcome measure was a behavioral choice task in which participants chose between fruit and a granola bar. Participants in the positive prime condition were three times more likely than those in the negative condition to select a piece of fruit over the granola bar alternative in the snack selection task. They were also twice as likely as those in the neutral condition to select fruit. There were no changes in self-reported affective associations or cognitive beliefs. These findings provide further evidence of the implicit and direct influence of affective associations on behavior, suggesting the need to both incorporate the role of affect in health decision making models, as well as the potential utility of intervention strategies targeting affective associations with health-related behaviors.

  9. Changing how I feel about the food: experimentally manipulated affective associations with fruits change fruit choice behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Kiviniemi, Marc T.

    2013-01-01

    Fewer than half of Americans meet current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. The behavioral affective associations model posits that feelings and emotions associated with a behavior are a proximal influence on decision making. Cross-sectional evidence supports the model and suggests that affective associations predict fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to test whether a causal relation exists between affective associations about fruits and future fruit consumption behavior, as measured by a snack selection task. Following a baseline assessment of cognitive and affective variables, participants’ (N = 161) affective associations about fruits were experimentally manipulated with an implicit priming paradigm. Images of fruits were repeatedly paired with positive, negative, or neutral affective stimuli. The key outcome measure was a behavioral choice task in which participants chose between fruit and a granola bar. Participants in the positive prime condition were three times more likely than those in the negative condition to select a piece of fruit over the granola bar alternative in the snack selection task. They were also twice as likely as those in the neutral condition to select fruit. There were no changes in self-reported affective associations or cognitive beliefs. These findings provide further evidence of the implicit and direct influence of affective associations on behavior, suggesting the need to both incorporate the role of affect in health decision making models, as well as the potential utility of intervention strategies targeting affective associations with health-related behaviors. PMID:23299831

  10. Comparative transcriptome analysis of climacteric fruit of Chinese pear (Pyrus ussuriensis) reveals new insights into fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guohui; Li, Tong; Li, Xinyue; Tan, Dongmei; Jiang, Zhongyu; Wei, Yun; Li, Juncai; Wang, Aide

    2014-01-01

    The fruit of Pyrus ussuriensis is typically climacteric. During ripening, the fruits produce a large amount of ethylene, and their firmness drops rapidly. Although the molecular basis of climacteric fruit ripening has been studied in depth, some aspects remain unclear. Here, we compared the transcriptomes of pre- and post-climacteric fruits of Chinese pear (P. ussuriensis c.v. Nanguo) using RNA-seq. In total, 3,279 unigenes were differentially expressed between the pre- and post-climacteric fruits. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were subjected to Gene Ontology analysis, and 31 categories were significantly enriched in the groups 'biological process', 'molecular function' and 'cellular component'. The DEGs included genes related to plant hormones, such as ethylene, ABA, auxin, GA and brassinosteroid, and transcription factors, such as MADS, NAC, WRKY and HSF. Moreover, genes encoding enzymes related to DNA methylation, cytoskeletal proteins and heat shock proteins (HSPs) showed differential expression between the pre- and post-climacteric fruits. Select DEGs were subjected to further analysis using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the results were consistent with those of RNA-seq. Our data suggest that in addition to ethylene, other hormones play important roles in regulating fruit ripening and may interact with ethylene signaling during this process. DNA methylation-related methyltransferase and cytoskeletal protein genes are also involved in fruit ripening. Our results provide useful information for future research on pear fruit ripening.

  11. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyushu to Taiwan, are at the northern limits for tropical fruit production without artificial heating. In this review, we describe the current status of tropical fruit breeding, genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of three main tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, and papaya) that are cultivated and consumed in Japan. More than ten new elite cultivars of pineapple have been released with improved fruit quality and suitability for consumption as fresh fruit. New challenges and perspectives for obtaining high fruit quality are discussed in the context of breeding programs for pineapple. PMID:27069392

  12. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyushu to Taiwan, are at the northern limits for tropical fruit production without artificial heating. In this review, we describe the current status of tropical fruit breeding, genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of three main tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, and papaya) that are cultivated and consumed in Japan. More than ten new elite cultivars of pineapple have been released with improved fruit quality and suitability for consumption as fresh fruit. New challenges and perspectives for obtaining high fruit quality are discussed in the context of breeding programs for pineapple. PMID:27069392

  13. 'Movers and shakers' in the regulation of fruit ripening: a cross-dissection of climacteric versus non-climacteric fruit.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Sam; Figueroa, Carlos R; Nair, Helen

    2014-09-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex and highly coordinated developmental process involving the expression of many ripening-related genes under the control of a network of signalling pathways. The hormonal control of climacteric fruit ripening, especially ethylene perception and signalling transduction in tomato has been well characterized. Additionally, great strides have been made in understanding some of the major regulatory switches (transcription factors such as RIPENING-INHIBITOR and other transcriptional regulators such as COLOURLESS NON-RIPENING, TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs), that are involved in tomato fruit ripening. In contrast, the regulatory network related to non-climacteric fruit ripening remains poorly understood. However, some of the most recent breakthrough research data have provided several lines of evidences for abscisic acid- and sucrose-mediated ripening of strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit model. In this review, we discuss the most recent research findings concerning the hormonal regulation of fleshy fruit ripening and their cross-talk and the future challenges taking tomato as a climacteric fruit model and strawberry as a non-climacteric fruit model. We also highlight the possible contribution of epigenetic changes including the role of plant microRNAs, which is opening new avenues and great possibilities in the fields of fruit-ripening research and postharvest biology.

  14. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of ‘natural plant defenses’ by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis. PMID:26422203

  15. Mediterranean fruit fly as a potential vector of bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sela, Shlomo; Nestel, David; Pinto, Riky; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Bar-Joseph, Moshe

    2005-07-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) is a cosmopolitan pest of hundreds of species of commercial and wild fruits. It is considered a major economic pest of commercial fruits in the world. Adult Mediterranean fruit flies feed on all sorts of protein sources, including animal excreta, in order to develop eggs. After reaching sexual maturity and copulating, female flies lay eggs in fruit by puncturing the skin with their ovipositors and injecting batches of eggs into the wounds. In view of the increase in food-borne illnesses associated with consumption of fresh produce and unpasteurized fruit juices, we investigated the potential of Mediterranean fruit fly to serve as a vector for transmission of human pathogens to fruits. Addition of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Escherichia coli to a Mediterranean fruit fly feeding solution resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the fly's bacterial load. Flies exposed to fecal material enriched with GFP-tagged E. coli were similarly contaminated and were capable of transmitting E. coli to intact apples in a cage model system. Washing contaminated apples with tap water did not eliminate the E. coli. Flies inoculated with E. coli harbored the bacteria for up to 7 days following contamination. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the majority of fluorescent bacteria were confined along the pseudotrachea in the labelum edge of the fly proboscis. Wild flies captured at various geographic locations were found to carry coliforms, and in some cases presumptive identification of E. coli was made. These findings support the hypothesis that the common Mediterranean fruit fly is a potential vector of human pathogens to fruits. PMID:16000820

  16. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in ripening pineapple fruits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical fruit crop of significant commercial importance. Although the physiological changes that occur during pineapple fruit development have been well characterized, little is known about the molecular events that occur during the fruit ripening process. Understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening will aid the development of new varieties via molecular breeding or genetic modification. In this study we developed a 9277 element pineapple microarray and used it to profile gene expression changes that occur during pineapple fruit ripening. Results Microarray analyses identified 271 unique cDNAs differentially expressed at least 1.5-fold between the mature green and mature yellow stages of pineapple fruit ripening. Among these 271 sequences, 184 share significant homology with genes encoding proteins of known function, 53 share homology with genes encoding proteins of unknown function and 34 share no significant homology with any database accession. Of the 237 pineapple sequences with homologs, 160 were up-regulated and 77 were down-regulated during pineapple fruit ripening. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) analysis of all 237 sequences with homologs revealed confident enrichment scores for redox activity, organic acid metabolism, metalloenzyme activity, glycolysis, vitamin C biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and cysteine peptidase activity, indicating the functional significance and importance of these processes and pathways during pineapple fruit development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for nine out of ten genes tested. Conclusions This is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study undertaken in pineapple. Our bioinformatic analyses of the transcript profiles have identified a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in the pineapple fruit ripening process. This study extends our knowledge of the

  17. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p <0.01), central pulse pressure (F (2, 134) = 4.16, p <0.05), central augmentation pressure (F (2, 134) = 5.98, p <0.01) and central augmentation index (F (2, 134) = 3.29, p <0.05) as well as lower pulse pressure amplification (F (2, 134) = 4.36, p <0.05). There were no differences in brachial BP. Central systolic BP was 3-4 mmHg higher for those who consumed fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs.

  18. Fresh fruit: microstructure, texture, and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Delilah F.; Imam, Syed H.; Orts, William J.; Glenn, Gregory M.

    2009-05-01

    Fresh-cut produce has a huge following in today's supermarkets. The trend follows the need to decrease preparation time as well as the desire to follow the current health guidelines for consumption of more whole "heart-healthy" foods. Additionally, consumers are able to enjoy a variety of fresh produce regardless of the local season because produce is now shipped world-wide. However, most fruits decompose rapidly once their natural packaging has been disrupted by cutting. In addition, some intact fruits have limited shelf-life which, in turn, limits shipping and storage. Therefore, a basic understanding of how produce microstructure relates to texture and how microstructure changes as quality deteriorates is needed to ensure the best quality in the both the fresh-cut and the fresh produce markets. Similarities between different types of produce include desiccation intolerance which produces wrinkling of the outer layers, cracking of the cuticle and increased susceptibility to pathogen invasion. Specific examples of fresh produce and their corresponding ripening and storage issues, and degradation are shown in scanning electron micrographs.

  19. How to catch a falling fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marantan, Andrew; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2015-03-01

    A variety of fish engage in complex hunting behaviors involving catching airborne prey falling to the surface of the water. In principle this requires that the fish develop internal models describing both the falling prey and its own motion relative to that prey. However learning such models is complicated by the fact that the fish must also account for noise in optical measurements and the refraction occurring at the air/water interface. Inspired by experimental observations, we describe how one such species (Brycon guatemalensis) might feasibly overcome these obstacles and learn a model accurate enough to catch falling fruit. Instead of learning a model for how the fruit falls and a model for how it moves in the water and a model accounting for refraction, we argue that the fish could instead learn one approximate linear model relating a set of measured inputs to a set of measured outputs valid in a limited domain of initial conditions. The fish could then make its control decisions based on the outcome predicted by this combined linear model. We also discuss how the fish can leverage neural transformations of raw data to learn a model with a larger domain of validity and yet more sensitive to noise due to nontrivial Jacobians arising from the neural transformations.

  20. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective.

    PubMed

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in 'omics' sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  1. Air volume measurement of 'Braeburn' apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Drazeta, Lazar; Lang, Alexander; Hall, Alistair J; Volz, Richard K; Jameson, Paula E

    2004-05-01

    The radial disposition of air in the flesh of fruit of Malus domestica Borkh., cv 'Braeburn' was investigated using a gravimetric technique based on Archimedes' principle. Intercellular air volume was measured by weighing a small tissue sample under water before and after vacuum infiltration to remove the air. In a separate procedure, the volume of the same sample was measured by recording the buoyant upthrust experienced by it when fully immersed in water. The method underestimates tissue air volume due to a slight invasion of the intercellular air spaces around the edges of the sample when it is immersed in water. To correct for this error, an adjustment factor was made based upon an analysis of a series of measurements of air volume in samples of different dimensions. In 'Braeburn' there is a gradient of declining air content from just beneath the skin to the centre of the fruit with a sharp discontinuity at the core line. Cell shape and cell packing were observed in the surface layers of freshly excised and stained flesh samples using a dissecting microscope coupled to a video camera and a PC running proprietary software. Tissue organization changed with distance below the skin. It is speculated that reduced internal gas movement, due to the tightly packed tissue of 'Braeburn' and to the potential diffusion barrier at the core line between the cortex and the pith, may increase susceptibility of the flesh to disorders associated with tissue browning and breakdown. PMID:15047764

  2. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in ‘omics’ sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  3. Polyphenol oxidase and its relationship with oleuropein concentration in fruits and leaves of olive (Olea europaea) cv. 'Picual' trees during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Ortega-García, Francisca; Blanco, Santos; Peinado, M Angeles; Peragón, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Oleuropein, the main phenolic compound of olive fruit, has important antioxidant properties that are responsible for some of the nutritional properties of fruits and the defence mechanism of leaves. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity changes during fruit ripening in many plants. We studied the kinetics and molecular properties of PPO in fruits and leaves of olive (Olea europaea L.) cv. 'Picual' trees and the relationship between PPO and oleuropein concentration during fruit ripening. Polyphenol oxidase showed hyperbolic kinetics in fruits and leaves. Significant increases in PPO specific activity, V(max), K(m )and catalytic efficiency occurred during fruit ripening. Based on SDS-PAGE under partially denaturing conditions and in-gel staining with DL-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, PPO activity was found in one major protein of 55 and 50 kDA in fruits and leaves, respectively. During the last stages of fruit maturation, a second 36 kDa protein was observed in fruits but not in leaves, indicating that this protein could serve as a marker of the final phase of fruit maturation. Under fully denaturing conditions, only one 27.7 kDa immunoreactive band was detected in fruits. Both the amount of PPO activity and the amount of PPO protein increased significantly during fruit maturation. Immunohistochemical studies indicated that PPO is located in the epidermis, parenchyma and companion vascular cells of leaves as well as in the epidermis of fruit. During fruit maturation, oleuropein concentration measured by HPLC significantly decreased in fruits and increased in leaves.

  4. Successful Utilization of the Area-Wide Approach for Management of Fruit Flies in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and the so-called Malaysian (solenaceous) fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel), have accidentally become established in Hawaii, and attack mor...

  5. Studies on water transport through the sweet cherry fruit surface: III. Conductance of the cuticle in relation to fruit size.

    PubMed

    Knoche, Moritz; Peschel, Stefanie; Hinz, Matthias

    2002-03-01

    Rain-cracking of sweet cherry fruit has been related to water absorption through the fruit surface and large fruit has been reported to be more susceptible to cracking than small fruit. Therefore, the effect of fruit size on water conductance of the cuticular membrane (CM) of exocarp segments excised from cheek, suture or stylar end region of mature sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. cv. Sam) was investigated. Segments consisting of epidermis, hypodermis and several layers of mesocarp cells were mounted in diffusion cells filled with deionized water. Mass loss due to transpiration was monitored gravimetrically during an 8-h incubation period (25 +/- 2 degrees C) over dry silica in the dark. Conductance was calculated from the amount of water transpired per unit surface area and time divided by the difference in water vapour concentration across the segment. For an average size cv. Sam sweet cherry CM conductance was 1.06 x 10-4, 0.91 x 10-4 and 2.09 x 10-4 m s-1 in cheek, suture and stylar end region, respectively. Fruit size had no significant effect on conductance in cheek or suture regions, but for the stylar end region conductance was positively related to fruit size. Stomatal density in the cheek, but not the suture or stylar end region increased as fruit size increased. The area of the stylar scar was positively related to fruit size. Conductance of the stylar scar averaged 37.6 +/- 4.0 x 10-4 m s-1 and was 54-fold higher than that of the CM between stomata in the cheek region (mean 0.69 x 10-4 m s-1). Conductance calculated on a whole fruit basis is estimated to increase by 108% as fruit size increases from 6 to 12 g. Increased conductance on a whole fruit basis may be attributed to increased fruit surface area and increased conductance per unit fruit surface area, particularly in the stylar end region. PMID:12060264

  6. Fruit body formation on silkworm by Cordyceps militaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Injection inoculation protocols for fruit body formation of Cordyceps militaris were investigated to improve the incidence of infection in the silkworm species Bombyx mori. Injection, with suspensions of C. militaris hyphal bodies into living silkworm pupae, was used to test for fruit body productio...

  7. Optimization of lychee and longan flowering and fruiting in Hawaii.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new management method was developed for consistent flowering and fruiting of ‘Kaimana’ lychee at the Inconsistent or lack of flower and fruit production in germplasm accessions is a major obstacle in the evaluation, characterization and documentation of germplasm accessions and limits the genetic...

  8. Population Structure of the North American Cranberry Fruit Rot Complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cranberry fruit rot is caused by a complex of pathogenic fungi. Variation in the populations within this complex from region to region could delay identification of the causal agents(s) and complicate management strategies. Our objective was to assess genetic variation within the four major fruit ro...

  9. High light decreases xylem contribution to fruit growth in tomato.

    PubMed

    Hanssens, Jochen; DE Swaef, Tom; Steppe, Kathy

    2015-03-01

    Recently, contradicting evidence has been reported on the contribution of xylem and phloem influx into tomato fruits, urging the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in fruit growth. So far, little research has been performed on quantifying the effect of light intensity on the different contributors to the fruit water balance. However, as light intensity affects both transpiration and photosynthesis, it might be expected to induce important changes in the fruit water balance. In this study, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were grown in light and shade conditions and the fruit water balance was studied by measuring fruit growth of girdled and intact fruits with linear variable displacement transducers combined with a model-based approach. Results indicated that the relative xylem contribution significantly increased when shading lowered light intensity. This resulted from both a higher xylem influx and a lower phloem influx during the daytime. Plants from the shade treatment were able to maintain a stronger gradient in total water potential between stem and fruits during daytime, thereby promoting xylem influx. It appeared that the xylem pathway was still functional at 35 days after anthesis and that relative xylem contribution was strongly affected by environmental conditions.

  10. Characterization and manipulation of fruit susceptibility to Drosophila suzukii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is an economic pest of small fruits and cherries that attacks intact ripening fruits. Host susceptibility is influenced by characteristics such as flesh firmness, penetration force of the skin, total soluble solids (TSS, also known as °Brix) and pH. Improved knowledge ...

  11. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality.

    PubMed

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC(50) value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment. PMID:25348886

  12. Pre-harvest muskmelon fruit cracking: causes and potential remedies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit cracking is a serious disorder that causes a major loss of marketable yield and revenue in the muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit industry. The physiological and environmental factors causing cracking are poorly understood. Although generally considered a physiological disorder caused by fluctu...

  13. Register of new fruit and nut varieties list 47

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world, with particular attention to cultivars from North America. In the 47th edition, one newly released apricot cultivar and five pubescent-skinned Prunophora hybrids are des...

  14. Register of new fruit and nut varieties list 46

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world, with particular attention to cultivars from North America. In the 46th edition, 5 newly released apricot cultivars and 3 pubescent-skinned Prunophora hybrids are descr...

  15. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC50 value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  16. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality.

    PubMed

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC(50) value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  17. Large-scale patterns of fruiting seasonality across the Neotropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Irene; Peres, Carlos A.; Morellato, L. Patrícia C.

    2014-05-01

    Organisms have different phases during their life cycles and their timing of occurrence is affected by a combination of both abiotic and biotic factors. In the case of plants, the timing of fruiting is very sensitive to environmental factors and subjected to a variable degree of seasonality (i.e. intra-annual changes), but we still lack of a clearer understanding of the triggers of their phenology over large geographic scales. This is particularly true for the tropics, where the high diversity of species magnifies the spectrum of phenological patterns. It has been pointed out that fruit production in the tropics is predominantly aseasonal, favoring that frugivore animals get resources all over the year. We present here the results of an extensive review of fruiting phenology all over the Neotropics based upon more than 200 datasets collected in different vegetation types, combining both published and unpublished data. Contrary to the hypothesis that fruiting in the tropics is commonly aseasonal, our results showed a marked seasonality for the majority of vegetation types, although there was a high degree of variability in fruiting patterns. Ongoing research is elucidating the latitudinal correlation of fruiting seasonality with climatic variables such as rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration, irradiance or daylength. The detection of the periods of fruits scarcity and abundance has a capital importance for the conservation of frugivore animals. A better understanding of the correlates between fruiting seasonality and climate helps in the forecasting of species' phenological responses to ongoing climate change

  18. Fruit Fly Liquid Larval Diet Technology Transfer and Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since October 2006, USDA-ARS has been implementing a fruit fly liquid larval diet technology transfer, which has proceeded according to the following steps: (1) Recruitment of interested groups through request; (2) Establishment of the Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) with ARS; (3) Fruit fly liquid...

  19. Few Associations between Income and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, Amanda L.; Fisk, Paul S.; Brunt, Ardith; Rhee, Yeong S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between income and the consumption of fruits and vegetables using the poverty income ratio (PIR). Design: Association between PIR and intake of fruits and vegetables combined. The PIR was divided into 5 groups ranging from less than poverty threshold (PT) to greater than or equal to 400% PT. Participants:…

  20. FaPYR1 is involved in strawberry fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Chai, Ye-Mao; Jia, Hai-Feng; Li, Chun-Li; Dong, Qing-Hua; Shen, Yuan-Yue

    2011-10-01

    Although the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to play a role in the ripening of non-climatic fruit, direct genetic/molecular evidence is lacking. In the present study, a strawberry gene homologous to the Arabidopsis ABA receptor gene PYR1, named FaPYR1, was isolated and characterized. The 627 bp cDNA includes an intact open reading frame that encodes a deduced protein of 208 amino acids, in which putative conserved domains were detected by homology analysis. Using tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), the FaPYR1 gene was silenced in strawberry fruit. Down-regulation of the FaPYR1 gene not only significantly delayed fruit ripening, but also markedly altered ABA content, ABA sensitivity, and a set of ABA-responsive gene transcripts, including ABI1 and SnRK2. Furthermore, the loss of red colouring in FaPYR1 RNAi (RNA interference) fruits could not be rescued by exogenously applied ABA, which could promote the ripening of wild-type fruits. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the putative ABA receptor FaPYR1 acts as a positive regulator in strawberry fruit ripening. It was also revealed that the application of the VIGS technique in strawberry fruit could be used as a novel tool for studying strawberry fruit development.

  1. U.S. Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Katharine C.; And Others

    Because of shifts in consumer tastes and preferences, demographics, technology, government regulation, and the expanding interdependence of world markets, the United States fruit and vegetable processing industries must operate in a constantly changing and uncertain economic environment. U.S. per capita use of processed fruits and vegetables is…

  2. Anaphylaxis and generalized urticaria from eating Chinese bayberry fruit*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui-ying; Gao, Zhong-shan; Yang, Zhao-wei; Shao, Jing-xin; Zhao, Xiu-zhen; Dai, Yu; Van Ree, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Chinese bayberry myrica rubra is a very popular fruit in southeastern China. In spite of its wide consumption, no allergies to this fruit have been reported previously. Here we report on a 40-year-old woman suffering from anaphylaxis to Chinese bayberry fruit. Prick-prick skin tests revealed strong reactions to fresh Chinese bayberry fruits as well as to peach, and weaker reactions to some other fruits including apple, melon, and banana. ImmunoCAP analysis revealed identical titers of specific IgE (4.3 kUA/L) to peach extract and its lipid transfer protein (LTP, rPru p 3), which was confirmed by detection of a 9 kD band following immunoblotting. Immunoblot analysis with Chinese bayberry extract gave bands of 22, 45, and 90 kD, but no 9 kD band was recognized. There was also no evidence of LTP recognition for loquat (36 kD) or melon (24 kD). This first report of a severe allergic reaction to Chinese bayberry fruit in a patient with LTP-mediated peach allergy indicates that other as yet unidentified non-pollen related fruit allergens are involved in this new severe fruit allergy. PMID:23024053

  3. A Continuum Model for Metabolic Gas Exchange in Pear Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Q. Tri; Verboven, Pieter; Verlinden, Bert E.; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Vandewalle, Stefan; Nicolaï, Bart M.

    2008-01-01

    Exchange of O2 and CO2 of plants with their environment is essential for metabolic processes such as photosynthesis and respiration. In some fruits such as pears, which are typically stored under a controlled atmosphere with reduced O2 and increased CO2 levels to extend their commercial storage life, anoxia may occur, eventually leading to physiological disorders. In this manuscript we have developed a mathematical model to predict the internal gas concentrations, including permeation, diffusion, and respiration and fermentation kinetics. Pear fruit has been selected as a case study. The model has been used to perform in silico experiments to evaluate the effect of, for example, fruit size or ambient gas concentration on internal O2 and CO2 levels. The model incorporates the actual shape of the fruit and was solved using fluid dynamics software. Environmental conditions such as temperature and gas composition have a large effect on the internal distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide in fruit. Also, the fruit size has a considerable effect on local metabolic gas concentrations; hence, depending on the size, local anaerobic conditions may result, which eventually may lead to physiological disorders. The model developed in this manuscript is to our knowledge the most comprehensive model to date to simulate gas exchange in plant tissue. It can be used to evaluate the effect of environmental stresses on fruit via in silico experiments and may lead to commercial applications involving long-term storage of fruit under controlled atmospheres. PMID:18369422

  4. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48 - Blackberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars is a listing of cultivars that have been released from around the world. List 48 reports on the releases for 24 crops from. The blackberry section gives a description of the origin, and the fruit and plant characteristics for the following cultivars: Amar...

  5. 7 CFR 906.123 - Fruit for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... issued thereunder (7 CFR part 46) when buying Texas oranges and grapefruit for processing; (6) A... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit for processing. 906.123 Section 906.123... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN...

  6. 7 CFR 906.123 - Fruit for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... issued thereunder (7 CFR part 46) when buying Texas oranges and grapefruit for processing; (6) A... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit for processing. 906.123 Section 906.123... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN...

  7. 7 CFR 906.123 - Fruit for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... issued thereunder (7 CFR part 46) when buying Texas oranges and grapefruit for processing; (6) A... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit for processing. 906.123 Section 906.123... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN...

  8. Multiplex PCR in determination of Opiinae parasitoids of fruit flies, Bactrocera sp., infesting star fruit and guava.

    PubMed

    Shariff, S; Ibrahim, N J; Md-Zain, B M; Idris, A B; Suhana, Y; Roff, M N; Yaakop, S

    2014-01-23

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs.

  9. Multiplex PCR in Determination of Opiinae Parasitoids of Fruit Flies, Bactrocera sp., Infesting Star Fruit and Guava

    PubMed Central

    Shariff, S.; Ibrahim, N. J.; Md-Zain, B. M.; Idris, A. B.; Suhana, Y.; Roff, M. N.; Yaakop, S.

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs. PMID

  10. Fruit and vegetable intake among older adults: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Nicklett, Emily J; Kadell, Andria R

    2013-08-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the world population. Older adults are also at heightened risk of chronic conditions (such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer) and specific geriatric conditions (such as cognitive impairment, frailty, and falls). Research studies have examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and subsequent health outcomes and the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in the U.S. population. However, relatively few studies have specifically examined health impacts and correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among older adults, who have unique biophysical and socioeconomic circumstances. Evidence is reviewed to (1) describe findings related to consumption and chronic, geriatric, and other health outcomes among older adults and (2) describe patterns in fruit and vegetable consumption among older adults and how these patterns vary within and among populations. This review addresses specific barriers faced by older adults in obtaining and consuming fruits and vegetables in community settings. Recommendations for practice and policy are discussed.

  11. Distribution and in vitro Fruiting of Cordyceps militaris in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Won-Ho; Choi, Seong-Keun; Lee, Je-O; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2005-12-01

    Cordyceps militaris specimens were continuously collected by Entomopathogenic Fungal Culture Collection (EFCC), Kangwon National University from different mountains, national parks and recreation parks of Korea from 1986 to 2002, mainly from late May to October of each year. Dry specimens of C. militaris along with their isolates have been preserved in EFCC. Fruiting of C. militaris was induced from single ascospore isolates as well as their combinations in brown rice medium. Fruiting experiments showed that combinations of single ascospore isolates produced fertile fruiting bodies, but single isolates could not produce any fruiting bodies. It was shown that two isolates of the opposite mating types were required to produce fertile stromata. However, combinations of the same mating type isolates produced no fruiting body, showing that C. militaris is a bipolar, heterothallic fungus.

  12. Potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Shen, Chen; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Kuang, Ru-Dan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Zeng, Li-Shan; Gao, Li-Li; Lin, Xi; Xie, Jie-Feng; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  13. Potential of Fruit Wastes as Natural Resources of Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Shen, Chen; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Kuang, Ru-Dan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Zeng, Li-Shan; Gao, Li-Li; Lin, Xi; Xie, Jie-Feng; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:22942704

  14. Omics studies of citrus, grape and rosaceae fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Shiratake, Katsuhiro; Suzuki, Mami

    2016-01-01

    Recent advance of bioinformatics and analytical apparatuses such as next generation DNA sequencer (NGS) and mass spectrometer (MS) has brought a big wave of comprehensive study to biology. Comprehensive study targeting all genes, transcripts (RNAs), proteins, metabolites, hormones, ions or phenotypes is called genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, hormonomics, ionomics or phenomics, respectively. These omics are powerful approaches to identify key genes for important traits, to clarify events of physiological mechanisms and to reveal unknown metabolic pathways in crops. Recently, the use of omics approach has increased dramatically in fruit tree research. Although the most reported omics studies on fruit trees are transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, and a few is reported on hormonomics and ionomics. In this article, we reviewed recent omics studies of major fruit trees, i.e. citrus, grapevine and rosaceae fruit trees. The effectiveness and prospects of omics in fruit tree research will as well be highlighted. PMID:27069397

  15. [Star fruit as a cause of acute kidney injury].

    PubMed

    Scaranello, Karilla Lany; Alvares, Valeria Regina de Cristo; Carneiro, Daniely Maria Queiroz; Barros, Flávio Henrique Soares; Gentil, Thais Marques Sanches; Thomaz, Myriam José; Pereira, Benedito Jorge; Pereira, Mariana Batista; Leme, Graziella Malzoni; Diz, Mary Carla Esteves; Laranja, Sandra Maria Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    The star fruit belongs to the family Oxalidacea, species Averrhoa carambola. It is rich in minerals, vitamin A, C, B complex vitamins and oxalic acid. Recent studies show that the toxicity of the fruit differs between the patients and may be explained by single biological responses, age, and the intake quantity of the neurotoxin in each fruit in addition to glomerular filtration rate given by each patient. Additionally, the nephrotoxicity caused by the fruit is dose-dependent and may lead to the deposition of crystals of calcium oxalate intratubular, as well as by direct injury to the renal tubular epithelium, leading to apoptosis of the same. We report the case of a patient who after ingestion of the juice and fresh fruit, developed acute renal failure requiring dialysis, evolving with favourable outcome and recovery of renal function.

  16. Physiological aspects of fruit ripening: the mitochondrial connection.

    PubMed

    Perotti, Valeria E; Moreno, Alejandra S; Podestá, Florencio E

    2014-07-01

    Fruit ripening is a genetically programmed process which leads to an assortment of physiological and metabolic changes that irreversibly alter its characteristics. Depending on the species, fruit maturation can be either climacteric or non-climacteric. In both cases there is a metabolic shift from normal development conditions toward the fully mature state, but climacteric fruit is characterized by a sharp increase in respiration. In non-climacteric fruit, that generally does not display this feature, respiration changes can be affected by processes related to postharvest storage. This review describes some of the many ways in which mitochondrial metabolism is implicated in this crucial reproductive stage, such as the connection between ethylene production and respiration rate, the involvement of alternative oxidase (AOX) and plant uncoupling mitochondrial protein (PUMP) during the ripening and the common alterations of this organelle in fruits affected by different stress conditions.

  17. Omics studies of citrus, grape and rosaceae fruit trees

    PubMed Central

    Shiratake, Katsuhiro; Suzuki, Mami

    2016-01-01

    Recent advance of bioinformatics and analytical apparatuses such as next generation DNA sequencer (NGS) and mass spectrometer (MS) has brought a big wave of comprehensive study to biology. Comprehensive study targeting all genes, transcripts (RNAs), proteins, metabolites, hormones, ions or phenotypes is called genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, hormonomics, ionomics or phenomics, respectively. These omics are powerful approaches to identify key genes for important traits, to clarify events of physiological mechanisms and to reveal unknown metabolic pathways in crops. Recently, the use of omics approach has increased dramatically in fruit tree research. Although the most reported omics studies on fruit trees are transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, and a few is reported on hormonomics and ionomics. In this article, we reviewed recent omics studies of major fruit trees, i.e. citrus, grapevine and rosaceae fruit trees. The effectiveness and prospects of omics in fruit tree research will as well be highlighted. PMID:27069397

  18. Dissipation and residue of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weijun; Jiao, Bining; Su, Xuesu; Zhao, Qiyang; Qin, Dongmei; Wang, Chengqiu

    2013-06-01

    Field trials were carried out in three provinces of China to study the dissipation and residue of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits. The results had shown that the degradation rate of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits followed the first-order kinetics equation C = A∙eBt. The half-lives of forchlorfenuron were 15.8-23.0 days, the final residues of forchlorfenuron in pulp were all ≤0.002 mg/kg, and most of the residues were concentrated in the peel. The risk assessment revealed that no significant potential health risk would be induced by forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits. Therefore, it could be safe to apply forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits, and the results of this study could also be regarded as a reference to the setting of maximum residue limit for forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits in China.

  19. Omics studies of citrus, grape and rosaceae fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Shiratake, Katsuhiro; Suzuki, Mami

    2016-01-01

    Recent advance of bioinformatics and analytical apparatuses such as next generation DNA sequencer (NGS) and mass spectrometer (MS) has brought a big wave of comprehensive study to biology. Comprehensive study targeting all genes, transcripts (RNAs), proteins, metabolites, hormones, ions or phenotypes is called genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, hormonomics, ionomics or phenomics, respectively. These omics are powerful approaches to identify key genes for important traits, to clarify events of physiological mechanisms and to reveal unknown metabolic pathways in crops. Recently, the use of omics approach has increased dramatically in fruit tree research. Although the most reported omics studies on fruit trees are transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, and a few is reported on hormonomics and ionomics. In this article, we reviewed recent omics studies of major fruit trees, i.e. citrus, grapevine and rosaceae fruit trees. The effectiveness and prospects of omics in fruit tree research will as well be highlighted.

  20. Physical and chemical properties of pomegranate fruit accessions from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Radunić, Mira; Jukić Špika, Maja; Goreta Ban, Smiljana; Gadže, Jelena; Díaz-Pérez, Juan Carlos; MacLean, Dan

    2015-06-15

    The objective was to evaluate physical and chemical properties of eight pomegranate accessions (seven cultivars and one wild genotype) collected from the Mediterranean region of Croatia. Accessions showed high variability in fruit weight and size, calyx and peel properties, number of arils per fruit, total aril weight, and aril and juice yield. Variables that define sweet taste, such as low total acidity (TA; 0.37-0.59%), high total soluble solids content (TSS; 12.5-15.0%) and their ratio (TSS/TA) were evaluated, and results generally aligned with sweetness classifications of the fruit. Pomegranate fruit had a high variability in total phenolic content (1985.6-2948.7 mg/L). HPLC-MALDI-TOF/MS analysis showed that accessions with dark red arils had the highest total anthocyanin content, with cyanidin 3-glucoside as the most abundant compound. Principal component analysis revealed great differences in fruit physical characteristics and chemical composition among pomegranate accessions.

  1. Expression of ethylene response genes during persimmon fruit astringency removal.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xue-ren; Shi, Yan-na; Min, Ting; Luo, Zheng-rong; Yao, Yun-Cong; Xu, Qian; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kun-song

    2012-05-01

    Thirteen ethylene signaling related genes were isolated and studied during ripening of non-astringent 'Yangfeng' and astringent 'Mopan' persimmon fruit. Some of these genes were characterized as ethylene responsive. Treatments, including ethylene and CO(2), had different effects on persimmon ripening, but overlapping roles in astringency removal, such as increasing the reduction in levels of soluble tannins. DkERS1, DkETR2, and DkERF8, may participate in persimmon fruit ripening and softening. The expression patterns of DkETR2, DkERF4, and DkERF5 had significant correlations with decreases in soluble tannins in 'Mopan' persimmon fruit, suggesting that these genes might be key components in persimmon fruit astringency removal and be the linkage between different treatments, while DkERF1 and DkERF6 may be specifically involved in CO(2) induced astringency removal. The possible roles of ethylene signaling genes in persimmon fruit astringency removal are discussed.

  2. Physical and chemical properties of pomegranate fruit accessions from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Radunić, Mira; Jukić Špika, Maja; Goreta Ban, Smiljana; Gadže, Jelena; Díaz-Pérez, Juan Carlos; MacLean, Dan

    2015-06-15

    The objective was to evaluate physical and chemical properties of eight pomegranate accessions (seven cultivars and one wild genotype) collected from the Mediterranean region of Croatia. Accessions showed high variability in fruit weight and size, calyx and peel properties, number of arils per fruit, total aril weight, and aril and juice yield. Variables that define sweet taste, such as low total acidity (TA; 0.37-0.59%), high total soluble solids content (TSS; 12.5-15.0%) and their ratio (TSS/TA) were evaluated, and results generally aligned with sweetness classifications of the fruit. Pomegranate fruit had a high variability in total phenolic content (1985.6-2948.7 mg/L). HPLC-MALDI-TOF/MS analysis showed that accessions with dark red arils had the highest total anthocyanin content, with cyanidin 3-glucoside as the most abundant compound. Principal component analysis revealed great differences in fruit physical characteristics and chemical composition among pomegranate accessions. PMID:25660857

  3. Design of a small fruit drier using geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1996-02-01

    A fruit drier was originally proposed for a project at the Los Azufres geothermal field in Mexico. Since the drier was to be used in a demonstration project to interest local fruit growers and processors, the size was minimal to expedite construction and minimize cost. The design was based on preliminary work reported by Herman Guillen. The design is described here, as it can be adapted to many small or experimental situations. The actual design will handle about 900 kg (2000 lbs) of fruit (wet) per drying cycle. Cutting, storing and packaging of the fruit should be done on site in a separate building. A cold-storage facility may be designed to keep fresh fruit when harvest exceeds the capacity of the drier.

  4. The fruit of Bursera: structure, maturation and parthenocarpy

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Ordoñez, María F.; Arizmendi, M. del Coro; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The deterioration of seasonally tropical dry forests will stop with the implementation of management plans for this ecosystem. To develop these plans, we require information regarding aspects such as germination and the presence of ‘empty seeds’ of representative species—like, for example, Bursera, a genus with a high number of endemic species of the Mesoamerican Hotspot—that would enable us to propagate its species. The main purpose of this study is to describe the phenological and structural characteristics of fruits of 12 Bursera species and provide useful data for future studies on germination and seed dispersal, and to acquire new and useful information to understand the phylogenetic relationships of the Burseraceae family. Methodology We described the phenology of fruit ripening in 12 species of Bursera. Fruits were collected from the study sites in three different stages of development. The histochemical and anatomical characteristics of fruits of all species were described with the use of inclusion techniques and scanning microscopy. Principal results There is a time gap between the development of the ovary and the development of the ovule in the 12 studied species. The exposed pseudoaril during the dispersion stage is an indicator of the seed's maturity and the fruit's viability. The Bursera fruit shows the same structural pattern as that of Commiphora, as well as many similarities with species of the Anacardiaceae family. All species develop parthenocarpic fruits that retain the structural characteristics of the immature fruits: soft tissues rich in nitrogen compounds and few chemical and physical defences. Insects were found mainly inside the parthenocarpic fruits in eight species of Bursera. Conclusions The dispersion unit in Bursera consists of a seed, a lignified endocarp that protects the seed, and a pseudoaril that helps attract seed dispersers. The production of parthenocarpic fruits is energy saving; however, it is

  5. Adults Meeting Fruit and Vegetable Intake Recommendations - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Moore, Latetia V; Thompson, Frances E

    2015-07-10

    Eating more fruits and vegetables adds nutrients to diets, reduces the risk for heart disease, stroke, and some cancers, and helps manage body weight when consumed in place of more energy-dense foods. Adults who engage in <30 minutes of moderate physical activity daily should consume 1.5-2.0 cup equivalents of fruit and 2-3 cups of vegetables daily.* However, during 2007-2010, half of the total U.S. population consumed <1 cup of fruit and <1.5 cups of vegetables daily; 76% did not meet fruit intake recommendations, and 87% did not meet vegetable intake recommendations. Although national estimates indicate low fruit and vegetable consumption, substantial variation by state has been observed (3). Fruit and vegetable intake information from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is the sole source of dietary surveillance information for most states, but frequency of intake captured by BRFSS is not directly comparable to federal intake recommendations, which are expressed in cup equivalents. CDC analyzed median daily frequency of fruit and vegetable intake based on 2013 BRFSS data for the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and applied newly developed prediction equations to BRFSS to calculate the percentage of each state's population meeting fruit and vegetable intake recommendations. Overall, 13.1% of respondents met fruit intake recommendations, ranging from 7.5% in Tennessee to 17.7% in California, and 8.9% met vegetable recommendations, ranging from 5.5% in Mississippi to 13.0% in California. Substantial new efforts are needed to build consumer demand for fruits and vegetables through competitive pricing, placement, and promotion in child care, schools, grocery stores, communities, and worksites.

  6. Correlates of fruit and vegetable intakes in US children.

    PubMed

    Lorson, Barbara A; Melgar-Quinonez, Hugo R; Taylor, Christopher A

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the quality of the current intakes of fruits and vegetables compared to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans in US children and adolescents and identify factors related to low fruit and vegetable intake. This descriptive study examined differences in fruit and vegetable intakes by age, sex, ethnicity, poverty level, body mass index, and food security status utilizing data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Six thousand five hundred thirteen children and adolescents ages 2 to 18 years, who were respondents to the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean fruit and vegetable intakes were computed using 24-hour recalls for individuals and compared using analysis of variance. Leading contributors to fruit and vegetable intake were identified using frequency analysis. Children aged 2 to 5 years had significantly higher total fruit and juice intakes than 6- to 11- and 12- to 18-year-olds. Total vegetable and french fry intake was significantly higher among 12- to 18-year-old adolescents. Regarding sex differences, boys consumed significantly more fruit juice and french fries than girls. In addition, non-Hispanic African-American children and adolescents consumed significantly more dark-green vegetables and fewer mean deep-yellow vegetables than Mexican-American and non-Hispanic white children and adolescents. Total fruit consumption also differed significantly among race/ethnicities and household income. Children and adolescents most at risk for higher intakes of energy-dense fruits and vegetables (fruit juice and french fries) were generally boys, and adolescents, at risk for overweight or overweight and living in households below 350% of the poverty level.

  7. Determination of oryzalin in water, citrus fruits, and stone fruits by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    West, Sheldon D; Hastings, Michael J; Shackelford, Darcy D; Dial, George E

    2004-09-22

    A new methodology is described for rapidly determining the herbicide oryzalin in water, citrus fruits, and stone fruits by liquid chromatography with negative ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Oryzalin is extracted from water using a polymeric sorbent solid phase extraction (SPE) column and from fruit using methanol. The water samples require no further purification, but an aliquot of the fruit sample extracts is diluted with water and purified using a polymeric 96 well SPE plate. Purified extracts are concentrated prior to determination by LC/MS/MS at m/z 345 (Q1) and m/z 281 (Q3) using an external standard for calibration. The validated limits of quantitation were 0.05 microg/L in water (drinking water, surface water, and groundwater) and 0.01 microg/g in citrus fruits (oranges and lemons) and stone fruits (peaches and cherries). Recoveries averaged 102% for water samples and 85-89% for the various types of fruit samples. For all fortification levels combined, the relative standard deviations ranged from 4 to 6% for water and from 2 to 4% for fruit.

  8. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During postharvest storage, pepper (Capsicum sp.) fruit commonly wilts (or shrivels) early because of rapid water loss combined with the hollow fruit’s limited water storage capacity, a condition that greatly reduces its shelf-life and market value. To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid comp...

  9. Determination of oryzalin in water, citrus fruits, and stone fruits by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    West, Sheldon D; Hastings, Michael J; Shackelford, Darcy D; Dial, George E

    2004-09-22

    A new methodology is described for rapidly determining the herbicide oryzalin in water, citrus fruits, and stone fruits by liquid chromatography with negative ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Oryzalin is extracted from water using a polymeric sorbent solid phase extraction (SPE) column and from fruit using methanol. The water samples require no further purification, but an aliquot of the fruit sample extracts is diluted with water and purified using a polymeric 96 well SPE plate. Purified extracts are concentrated prior to determination by LC/MS/MS at m/z 345 (Q1) and m/z 281 (Q3) using an external standard for calibration. The validated limits of quantitation were 0.05 microg/L in water (drinking water, surface water, and groundwater) and 0.01 microg/g in citrus fruits (oranges and lemons) and stone fruits (peaches and cherries). Recoveries averaged 102% for water samples and 85-89% for the various types of fruit samples. For all fortification levels combined, the relative standard deviations ranged from 4 to 6% for water and from 2 to 4% for fruit. PMID:15366820

  10. Effectiveness of a sprayable male annihilation treatment with a biopesticide against fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) attacking tropical fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SPLAT-MAT Spinosad ME(aka STATIC Spinosad ME),an "attract and kill" sprayable biopesticide, was evaluated as an area wide suppression treatment against Bactrocera carambolae(Drew & Hancock),carambola fruit fly, in Brazil and Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel),oriental fruit fly, in Hawaii. In Brazil, a sin...

  11. Replacing 100% fruit juice with whole fruit results in a trade off of nutrient in the diets of children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of replacing 100% fruit juice (FJ) with whole fruit (WF) on nutrient intake and adequacy in children's diets is unclear. The objective of this study was to model the effect of replacing FJ with WF in children's diets. Data from children 2-18 years of age (n=6,090) participating in the Na...

  12. Fruit illumination stimulates cell division but has no detectable effect on fruit size in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Okello, Robert C O; Heuvelink, Ep; de Visser, Pieter H B; Lammers, Michiel; de Maagd, Ruud A; Marcelis, Leo F M; Struik, Paul C

    2015-05-01

    Light affects plant growth through assimilate availability and signals regulating development. The effects of light on growth of tomato fruit were studied using cuvettes with light-emitting diodes providing white, red or blue light to individual tomato trusses for different periods during daytime. Hypotheses tested were as follows: (1) light-grown fruits have stronger assimilate sinks than dark-grown fruits, and (2) responses depend on light treatment provided, and fruit development stage. Seven light treatments [dark, 12-h white, 24-h white, 24-h red and 24-h blue light, dark in the first 24 days after anthesis (DAA) followed by 24-h white light until breaker stage, and its reverse] were applied. Observations were made between anthesis and breaker stage at fruit, cell and gene levels. Fruit size and carbohydrate content did not respond to light treatments while cell division was strongly stimulated at the expense of cell expansion by light. The effects of light on cell number and volume were independent of the combination of light color and intensity. Increased cell division and decreased cell volume when fruits were grown in the presence of light were not clearly corroborated by the expression pattern of promoters and inhibitors of cell division and expansion analyzed in this study, implying a strong effect of posttranscriptional regulation. Results suggest the existence of a complex homeostatic regulatory system for fruit growth in which reduced cell division is compensated by enhanced cell expansion. PMID:25220433

  13. Correlation of Diplodia (Lasiodiplodia theobromae) infection, huanglongbing, ethylene production, fruit removal force and pre-harvest fruit drop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One symptom of citrus huanglongbing (HLB) disease is excessive pre-harvest fruit drop. As the severity of HLB has progressed through commercial citrus groves in Florida, pre-harvest fruit drop has increased, resulting in significant loss of yield. A greater incidence of Diplodia infection was recent...

  14. Enlargement of cultivated olive fruit reduces the efficiency of the larval olive fruit fly parasitoid Psyttalia concolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated olive fruit are greatly enlarged as a result of domestication. In this study, we examined the effects of fruit size within a cultivar (Sevillano) and across four different-sized cultivars (in order of decreasing size: Sevillano, Ascolano, Manzanillo, and Mission) grown in California on th...

  15. Effect of Fresh Fruit Availability at Worksites on the Fruit and Vegetable Consumption of Low-Wage Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Desiree; Gonzaga, Gian; Sugerman, Sharon; Francis, Dona; Cook, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of fresh fruit availability at worksites on the fruit and vegetable consumption and related psychosocial determinants of low-wage employees. Design: A prospective, randomized block experimental design. Setting: Seven apparel manufacturing and 2 food processing worksites. Participants: A convenience sample of 391…

  16. Mating-induced recombination in fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Priest, Nicholas K; Roach, Deborah A; Galloway, Laura F

    2007-01-01

    In traditional deterministic models the conditions for the evolution of sex and sexual behavior are limited because their benefits are context dependent. In novel and adverse environments both multiple mating and recombination can help generate gene combinations that allow for rapid adaptation. Mating frequency often increases in conditions in which recombination might be beneficial; therefore, increased sexual behavior might evolve to act as a cue that stimulates recombination. We conducted two experiments in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, using linked phenotypic markers to determine how recent bouts of additional mating affect female recombination rate. The first experiment examined the effect of additional mating, mating history, and age on female recombination rate. The second experiment assessed the effect of recent mating events on recombination rate. Together, the experiments suggest that each additional bout of mating temporarily increases female recombination rate. These findings imply that the conditions favoring the evolution of sexual reproduction and multiple mating behaviors are broader than currently appreciated.

  17. Occurrence of patulin in fruit and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Frank, H K

    1977-01-01

    In different varieties of apples and pears suffering from brown rot, patulin was found in about 50 p. 100 of samples investigated (about 120). Patulin levels as high as 1 g/kg rotten material were found 2-3 days after the fruit was removed from the cold store where it had been stored for 5 months. A significant diffusion into the healthy plant tissue was not observed in apples, but in peaches, tomatoes and pears. Vegetable products with natural patulin content: apples, pears, peaches, apricots, bananas, pine apples, grapes. After inoculation with Penicillium expansum, P. urticae or Byssochlamys nivea, patulin was also found in greengages, strawberries, honeydew melons, red and green paprika, tomatoes, cucumbers and carrots. The artificial infection failed in celeriac, kohlrabi, cauliflower, red cabbage, radish, horseradish, onions, squash (zuccini), potatoes and egg plants. The author further investigated the patulin synthesis as a function of the temperature as well as its oxygen requirement in various mold species and strains.

  18. Diarylheptanoids and phenylphenalenones from Musa itinerans fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qian-Yun; Yang, Fu-Mei; Gu, Wei; Yang, Jun; Niu, Hong-Mei; Wang, Yue-Hu; Long, Chun-Lin

    2014-07-01

    Two diarylheptanoids, musaitinerins A and B, one heterodimeric phenylphenalenone musaitinerone and four known phenylphenalenones, identified as 4-hydroxy-2-methoxy-9-phenyl-1H-phenalen-1-one, musanolone E, hydroxyanigorufone and irenolone were isolated from the fruits of Musa itinerans Cheesm. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic analyses. The antimicrobial activity of these compounds was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans; the cytotoxic activity of these compounds was also evaluated against human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia (K562) and human alveolar carcinoma epithelial (A549) cell lines, respectively. Musaitinerone and musanolone E exhibited weak effects against the A549 cell line, as compared with adriamycin. However, these two compounds did not exhibit any growth inhibition against K562 cells, S. aureus, E. coli or C. albicans. The other compounds were inactive against all of the tested cell lines and microorganisms, even at concentrations as high as 50 μM.

  19. Gene expression during fruit ripening in avocado.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, R E; Warm, E; Laties, G G

    1982-06-01

    The poly(A) (+)RNA populations from avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill cv. Hass) at four stages of ripening were isolated by two cycles of oligo-dT-cellulose chromatography and examined by invitro translation, using the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system, followed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (isoelectric focusing followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) of the resulting translation products. Three mRNAs increased dramatically with the climacteric rise in respiration and ethylene production. The molecular weights of the corresponding translation products from the ripening-related mRNAs are 80,000, 36,000, and 16,500. These results indicate that ripening may be linked to the expression of specific genes.

  20. Antiproliferative effect of Angelica archangelica fruits.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, Steinthor; Ogmundsdottir, Helga M; Gudbjarnason, Sigmundur

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the antiproliferative effect of a tincture from fruits of Angelica archangelica and the active components using the human pancreas cancer cell line PANC-1 as a model. Significant dose-dependent antiproliferative activity was observed in the tincture with an EC50 value of 28.6 microg/ml. Strong antiproliferative activity resulted from the two most abundant furanocoumarins in the tincture, imperatorin and xanthotoxin. The contribution of terpenes to this activity was insignificant. Imperatorin and xanthotoxin proved to be highly antiproliferative, with EC50 values of 2.7 microg/ml and 3.7 microg/ml, respectively, equivalent to 10 and 17 microM. The results indicate that furanocoumarins account for most of the antiproliferative activity of the tincture. PMID:15813373