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Sample records for acai fruit euterpe

  1. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea mart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as "acai" found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has received c...

  2. Antioxidant capacities of seven flavonoid compounds isolated from pulp of acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pulp of açai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been demonstrated to exhibit extremely high antioxidant capacity. Seven major flavonoids were isolated from freeze-dried acai pulp by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated as orientin (1), homoorientin (2), vitexin (3), ...

  3. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea Mart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as “açai” found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and their phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has rece...

  4. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of acai (euterpe precatoria) fruit pulp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Euterpe precatoria (EP), a species bearing the common name “acai”, has been rarely studied for potential health-related properties. One recent study revealed that fruit pulp of EP contained similar polyphenolic profiles but in higher concentrations than that of another well-studied “acai” Euterpe ol...

  5. Phytochemical and nutrient composition of the freeze-dried amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Euterpe oleraceae is a large palm tree indigenous to the Amazon River and its tributaries and estuaries in South America. Its fruit, known as acai, is of great economic value to native people. In this study, a standardized freeze-dried acai fruit pulp/skin powder was used for all analyses and tests....

  6. Antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoid compounds isolated from acai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been demonstrated to exhibit extremely high antioxidant capacity. Seven major flavonoids were isolated from freeze-dried acai pulp by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated as orientin (1), homoorientin (2), vitexin (3), luteolin (4)...

  7. Acai

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov Key References Acai. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on April 19, 2011. Acai (Euterpe oleracea) . Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on April ...

  8. Antioxidant capacity and other bioactivities of the freeze-dried Amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fruit of Euterpe oleraceae, commonly known as acai, has been demonstrated to exhibit significantly high antioxidant capacity in vitro, especially for superoxide and peroxyl scavenging, and, therefore, may have possible health benefits. In this study, the antioxidant capacities of freeze-dried ac...

  9. Photoacoustic Study of Fungal Disease of Acai ( Euterpe oleracea) Seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, Denise V.; Nunes, O. A. C.; Oliveira, A. C.

    2009-10-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy is introduced as a promising experimental technique to investigate fungus infected Acai ( Euterpe oleracea) seeds. Photoacoustic spectra of healthy and infected Acai seeds with the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were recorded firstly in the modulation frequency range of 5Hz to 700 Hz, while keeping the wavelength of excitation radiation of a Xe arc-lamp constant, to ascertain the depth of penetration of infection within the seed and secondly, at variable wavelength (wavelength scanning) in the interval 250nm to 1,000 nm, while keeping the modulation frequency constant. In the former, the photoacoustic signal strength from the infected seed was found higher than that of the healthy one, and has been associated with the appearance of new biomolecules associated with the pathogen infection. In the latter, characteristics peaks and bands were observed in the range from 650 nm to 900 nm ascribed to organic compounds with carboxylates and amines (functional groups) forming the typical metabolic structures of the fungus.

  10. Antioxidant capacity and other bioactivities of the freeze-dried Amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai).

    PubMed

    Schauss, Alexander G; Wu, Xianli; Prior, Ronald L; Ou, Boxin; Huang, Dejian; Owens, John; Agarwal, Amit; Jensen, Gitte S; Hart, Aaron N; Shanbrom, Edward

    2006-11-01

    The fruit of Euterpe oleraceae, commonly known as acai, has been demonstrated to exhibit significantly high antioxidant capacity in vitro, especially for superoxide and peroxyl scavenging, and, therefore, may have possible health benefits. In this study, the antioxidant capacities of freeze-dried acai fruit pulp/skin powder (OptiAcai) were evaluated by different assays with various free radical sources. It was found to have exceptional activity against superoxide in the superoxide scavenging (SOD) assay, the highest of any food reported to date against the peroxyl radical as measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay with fluorescein as the fluorescent probe (ORACFL), and mild activity against both the peroxynitrite and hydroxyl radical by the peroxynitrite averting capacity (NORAC) and hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) assays, respectively. The SOD of acai was 1614 units/g, an extremely high scavenging capacity for O2*-, by far the highest of any fruit or vegetable tested to date. Total phenolics were also tested as comparison. In the total antioxidant (TAO) assay, antioxidants in acai were differentiated into "slow-acting" and "fast-acting" components. An assay measuring inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in freshly purified human neutrophils showed that antioxidants in acai are able to enter human cells in a fully functional form and to perform an oxygen quenching function at very low doses. Furthermore, other bioactivities related to anti-inflammation and immune functions were also investigated. Acai was found to be a potential cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibitor. It also showed a weak effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide but no effect on either lymphocyte proliferation and phagocytic capacity. PMID:17061840

  11. Flavonoids from acai (euterpe oleracea mart.) Pulp and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five flavonoids, (2S,3S)-dihyrokaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (1) and its isomer (2R,3R)-dihydrokaempferol 3-O-'-D-glucoside (2) , isovitexin (3), velutin (4) and 5,4'-dihydroxy-7,3',5'-trimethoxyflavone (5), were isolated from acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp. The structures of these compounds ...

  12. Phytochemical and nutrient composition of the freeze-dried amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai).

    PubMed

    Schauss, Alexander G; Wu, Xianli; Prior, Ronald L; Ou, Boxin; Patel, Dinesh; Huang, Dejian; Kababick, James P

    2006-11-01

    Euterpe oleraceae is a large palm tree indigenous to the Amazon River and its tributaries and estuaries in South America. Its fruit, known as acai, is of great economic value to native people. In this study, a standardized freeze-dried acai fruit pulp/skin powder was used for all analyses and tests. Among many findings, anthocyanins (ACNs), proanthocyanidins (PACs), and other flavonoids were found to be the major phytochemicals. Two ACNs, cyandin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside were found to be predominant ACNs; three others were also found as minor ACNs. The total content of ACNs was measured as 3.1919 mg/g dry weight (DW). Polymers were found to be the major PACs. The concentration of total PACs was calculated as 12.89 mg/g DW. Other flavonoids, namely, homoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, scoparin, and taxifolin deoxyhexose, along with several unknown flavonoids, were also detected. Resveratrol was found but at a very low concentration. In addition, components including fatty acids, amino acids, sterols, minerals, and other nutrients were analyzed and quantified. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid, total monounsaturated fatty acid, and total saturated fatty acids contributed to 11.1%, 60.2%, and 28.7% of total fatty acid. Oleic acid (53.9%) and palmitic acid (26.7%) were found to be the two dominant fatty acids. Nineteen amino acids were found; the total amino acid content was determined to be 7.59% of total weight. The total sterols accounted for 0.048% by weight of powder. The three sterols B-sitosterol, campesterol, and sigmasterol were identified. A complete nutrient analysis is also presented. Microbiological analysis was also performed. PMID:17061839

  13. Anthocyanin-rich acai (Euterpe oleracea mart.) fruit pulp fractions attenuate inflammatory stress signaling in mouse brain BV-2 microglial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related increases in oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with loss of cognitive and motor functions. Previous research has shown that supplementation with berry fruits can modulate signaling in primary hippocampal neurons or BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Because of the high polypheno...

  14. An Anthocyanin-Rich Extract of Acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) Increases Stress Resistance and Retards Aging-Related Markers in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Herbenya; Roxo, Mariana; Krstin, Sonja; Röhrig, Teresa; Richling, Elke; Wink, Michael

    2016-02-17

    Acai fruits (Euterpe precatoria) are rich in antioxidant anthocyanins. Acai consumption is believed to have many health benefits; however, relevant detailed scientific investigations are limited. The current study aimed to investigate an anthocyanin-rich extract from E. precatoria fruits (AE) with regard to its antioxidant and antiaging properties using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. AE can protect the worms against oxidative stress and can ameliorate accumulation of reactive oxygen species in vivo. The expression of stress-response genes, such as sod-3::GFP, was upregulated while hsp-16::GFP was down-regulated after AE treatment. Studies with DAF-16/FOXO mutants indicated that some of the antioxidant effects are mediated by this transcription factor. AE can modulate the development of age-related markers, such as pharyngeal pumping. Despite the apparent antioxidant activity, no lifespan-prolonging effect was observed. PMID:26809379

  15. Dietary acai fruit improves cognition and mobility in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Açai is a black-purple fruit (genus Euterpe) cultivated in the Amazon delta and in Brazil (Euterpe oleracea Mart. -EO), as well as Bolivia (Euterpe precatoria Mart. - EP), and it is known to be rich in polyphenolics that may affect cell-to-cell signaling, receptor sensitivity, inflammatory enzyme ac...

  16. Dietery acai fruit improves cognition in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Açai is a black-purple fruit (genus Euterpe) cultivated in the Amazon delta and in Brazil (Euterpe oleracea Mart.; EO), as well as Bolivia (Euterpe precatoria Mart.; EP). The fruit’s pulp is known to be rich in polyphenolics that may affect cell-to-cell signaling, receptor sensitivity, inflammatory...

  17. Acai Juice Attenuates Atherosclerosis Through Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in ApoE Deficient Mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been shown to exhibit extremely high antioxidant capacity. Antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory effects of acai pulp or acai juices have been studied in human, animal and cell culture models. However, their potential effects on atheroscl...

  18. [Determination of β-sitosterol and total sterols content and antioxidant activity of oil in acai (Euterpe oleracea)].

    PubMed

    He, Cheng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Qu, Sheng-Sheng; Li, Jia-Jing; Wang, Lin-Yuan

    2014-12-01

    In order to establish a method for the determination of the sterols of the oil in the freeze-dried acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and to evaluate its antioxidant activities, a saponification/extraction procedure and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method were developed and validated for the analysis of phytosterols in PEE (Petroleum ether extract). Separation was achieved on a Purosper STAR LP C18 column with a binary, gradient solvent system of acetonitrile and isopropanol. Evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) was used to quantify β-sitosterol and the total sterols. Peak identification was verified by retention times and spikes with external standards. Standard curves were constructed (r = 0.999 2) to allow for sample quantification. Recovery of the saponification and extraction was demonstrated via analysis of spiked samples. The highest content of total sterols is β-sitosterol. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated using the total oxyradical scavenging capacity assay (TOSC assay). The result showed that the PEE exhibited significant antioxidant properties, sample concentration and the antioxidant capacity had a certain relevance. PMID:25911812

  19. Pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and antioxidant effects after the consumption of anthocyanin-rich acai juice and pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) in human healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; Rios, Jolian; Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra; Pacheco-Palencia, Lisbeth A; Meibohm, Bernd; Talcott, Stephen T; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2008-09-10

    The acai berry is the fruit of the acai palm and is traditionally consumed in Brazil but has gained popularity abroad as a food and functional ingredient, yet little information exists on its health effect in humans. This study was performed as an acute four-way crossover clinical trial with acai pulp and clarified acai juice compared to applesauce and a non-antioxidant beverage as controls. Healthy volunteers (12) were dosed at 7 mL/kg of body weight after a washout phase and overnight fast, and plasma was repeatedly sampled over 12 h and urine over 24 h after consumption. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis of total anthocyanins quantified as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside showed Cmax values of 2321 and 1138 ng/L at t max times of 2.2 and 2.0 h, and AUC last values of 8568 and 3314 ng h L(-1) for pulp and juice, respectively. Nonlinear mixed effect modeling identified dose volume as a significant predictor of relative oral bioavailability in a negative nonlinear relationship for acai pulp and juice. Plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly increased by the acai pulp and applesauce. Individual increases in plasma antioxidant capacity of up to 2.3- and 3-fold for acai juice and pulp, respectively were observed. The antioxidant capacity in urine, generation of reactive oxygen species, and uric acid concentrations in plasma were not significantly altered by the treatments. Results demonstrate the absorption and antioxidant effects of anthocyanins in acai in plasma in an acute human consumption trial. PMID:18693743

  20. Protein profiling of paraquat-exposed rat lungs following treatment with Acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry extract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Sik; Jung, Hana; Zerin, Tamanna; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2013-03-01

    Paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium chloride, PQ) is a non-selective herbicide, and PQ poisoning by accidental or intentional ingestion is a cause of numerous fatalities around the world every year. Although a great deal of research has been conducted into the development of an acceptable treatment for PQ poisoning, no effective guidelines for patients have been developed thus far. Acai berry extract and juice have been highlighted in this regard, due to their observed antioxidant effects in various diseases. Furthermore, the acai berry has been used in dietary supplements, as it contains a variety of nutrients, including proteins, lipids, vitamins A, C and E and polyphenols. In this study, we conducted proteomic analysis of PQ-poisoned rat lungs to evaluate the changes in protein expression induced by PQ and to identify any protective effects of acai berry on the PQ poisoning. Our data revealed that the expression of the calcium signaling-related proteins calcium binding protein 1 (CaBP1), FK506 binding protein 4 (FKBP4), S100A6 and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (Sparc, also known as osteonectin) were induced by PQ treatment and downregulated by acai berry treatment. However, the levels of protein kinase C substrate 80K-H were shown to be downregulated as the result of PQ treatment. Our results indicated that these proteins may function as biomarkers for acute poisoning by PQ exposure. Further studies may be necessary to understand their clinical relevance with regard to PQ poisoning. PMID:23291665

  1. The acai flavonoid velutin is a potent anti-inflammatory agent: Blockade of LPS-mediated TNF-alpha and IL-6 production through inhibiting NF-kappa B activation and MAPK pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown that some flavonoids are modulators for pro-inflammatory cytokine production. In this study, velutin, an unique flavone isolated from the pulp of acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), was examined for its effects in reducing lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytoki...

  2. Acai fruit improves motor and cognitive function in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on motor and cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and ne...

  3. Functional role of walnuts and acai fruits on brain health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For survival and perpetuity, all plants, including fruit- or vegetable-bearing plants, synthesize an enormous number of secondary chemical compounds, widely known as phytochemicals. A plethora of research suggests that these phytochemicals extend a multitude of health benefits to humans, mainly thro...

  4. Antioxidant neolignan and phenolic glucosides from the fruit of Euterpe oleracea.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Shabana I; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Yang; Ali, Zulfiqar; Li, Xing-Cong; Zhang, Shui-han; Cai, Xiong; Huang, Hui-yong; Wang, Wei; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-12-01

    Three new glucosides, namely, (-)-7R8S-7',8'-dihydroxy-dihydrodehydroconiferyl alcohol-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (+)-7S8R-7',8'-dihydroxy-dihydrodehydroconiferyl alcohol-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) and 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenyl 1-O-[6-(hydrogen 3-hydroxy-3-methylpentanedioate)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), along with 6 known compounds were isolated from the fruit of Euterpe oleracea Mart. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic analyses including NMR, HR-ESI-MS and CD. All the isolated compounds demonstrated significant antioxidant activity and 2 displayed moderate cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells. PMID:25284430

  5. Effects of supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Krępa, E; Kłapcińska, B; Podgórski, T; Szade, B; Tyl, K; Hadzik, A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether regular consumption of an acai berry-based juice blend would affect sprint performance and improve blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in junior athletes. Seven junior hurdlers (17.5±1.2 years) taking part in a pre-season conditioning camp were supplemented once a day, for six weeks, with 100 ml of the juice blend. At the start and the end of the camp the athletes performed a 300-m sprint running test on an outdoor track. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after the test and after 1 h of recovery. Blood antioxidant status was evaluated based on activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px], glutathione reductase [GR]), concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione [GSH], uric acid), total plasma polyphenols, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as muscle damage markers. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of the acai berry, the post-treatment changes in lipid profile parameters (triglycerides, cholesterol and its fractions) were analysed. Six weeks' consumption of acai berry-based juice blend had no effect on sprint performance, but it led to a marked increase in the total antioxidant capacity of plasma, attenuation of the exercise-induced muscle damage, and a substantial improvement of serum lipid profile. These findings strongly support the view of the health benefits of supplementation with the acai berry-based juice blend, mainly attributed to its high total polyphenol content and the related high in vivo antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic activities of this supplement. PMID:26060341

  6. Effects of supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kłapcińska, B; Podgórski, T; Szade, B; Tyl, K; Hadzik, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether regular consumption of an acai berry-based juice blend would affect sprint performance and improve blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in junior athletes. Seven junior hurdlers (17.5±1.2 years) taking part in a pre-season conditioning camp were supplemented once a day, for six weeks, with 100 ml of the juice blend. At the start and the end of the camp the athletes performed a 300-m sprint running test on an outdoor track. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after the test and after 1 h of recovery. Blood antioxidant status was evaluated based on activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px], glutathione reductase [GR]), concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione [GSH], uric acid), total plasma polyphenols, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as muscle damage markers. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of the acai berry, the post-treatment changes in lipid profile parameters (triglycerides, cholesterol and its fractions) were analysed. Six weeks’ consumption of acai berry-based juice blend had no effect on sprint performance, but it led to a marked increase in the total antioxidant capacity of plasma, attenuation of the exercise-induced muscle damage, and a substantial improvement of serum lipid profile. These findings strongly support the view of the health benefits of supplementation with the acai berry-based juice blend, mainly attributed to its high total polyphenol content and the related high in vivo antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic activities of this supplement. PMID:26060341

  7. Amazon acai: chemistry and biological activities: a review.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Klenicy Kazumy de Lima; Pereira, Luiz Felipe Ravazi; Lamarão, Carlos Victor; Lima, Emerson Silva; da Veiga-Junior, Valdir Florêncio

    2015-07-15

    Acai (acai or assai) is one of the Amazon's most popular functional foods and widely used in the world. There are many benefits to its alleged use in the growing market for nutraceuticals. The acai extracts have a range of polyphenolic components with antioxidant properties, some of those present in greater quantity are orientin, isoorientin and vanillic acid, as well as anthocyanins cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. The presence of these substances is linked mainly to the antioxidant, anti- inflammatory, anti-proliferative and cardioprotective activities. Importantly, there are two main species of the Euterpe genus which produce acai. There are several differences between them but they are still quite unknown, from literature to producers and consumers. In this review are highlighted the chemical composition, botanical aspects, pharmacological, marketing and nutrition of these species based on studies published in the last five years in order to unify the current knowledge and dissimilarities between them. PMID:25722148

  8. Kinetic modeling of anthocyanin degradation and microorganism growth during postharvest storage of açai fruits (Euterpe oleracea).

    PubMed

    Rogez, Hervé; Akwie, Santuscha N L T; Moura, Fábio G; Larondelle, Yvan

    2012-12-01

    The unavoidable damage of açai (Euterpe oleracea) fruits (AF) during picking leads to microbial contamination and anthocyanin degradation, which prejudice the consumed fruit drink. Thirteen lots of AF (24 kg) from different municipal districts of the Pará State (Brazil) were monitored during a 75-h-long storage in the dark at 30 °C for microbial growth, and 7 lots for anthocyanin degradation. On arrival at the laboratory, anthocyanins presented a mean concentration of 828 mg kg(-1) fruits with a standard deviation of 323 mg kg(-1) fruits whereas mean microbial contamination was 2.64 10(6) CFU g(-1) of dry matter for total mesophilic bacteria, 1.98 10(3) MPN g(-1) DM for fecal coliforms, and 1.11 10(5) CFU g(-1) DM for moulds and yeasts. Kinetic growth of the microbes could be fitted to a quadratic equation with an unusual rapid growth during the 1st 24 h. The kinetics of anthocyanin degradation fitted a 1st-order equation. The mean velocity constant of the reaction (k(1)) was of 0.0137 h(-1) and the mean half-life (t(½)) of the anthocyanins was 50 h. These results indicate that the AF simultaneously suffer extensive anthocyanin degradation and explosive microbial growth during the postharvest period needing a special care. PMID:23240969

  9. Toxicological evaluation of Euterpe edulis: a potential superfruit to be considered.

    PubMed

    Felzenszwalb, Israel; da Costa Marques, Monica Regina; Mazzei, José L; Aiub, Claudia A F

    2013-08-01

    Superfruits have a high nutritional value due to their richness in nutrients, antioxidants, proven or potential health benefits and taste appeal. However, there are no scientific criteria for defining which fruits are superfruits. In Brazil, several palms have an edible palm heart, the best known and most widely appreciated of which is called Acai (Euterpe oleracea). Euterpe edulis Mart., commonly called jussara, is an evergreen species that grows in the rainforest. Having initially been consumed in the form of juice and pulp, they have since been incorporated as an ingredient in many foods. A risk assessment to identify adverse health effects is a prerequisite for taking forward the development of new drugs, cosmetics and foods. To make a toxicological evaluation of E. edulis, in the present work this prerequisite was met by an interdisciplinary network that performed mass spectroscopy analyses, blood biochemistry, genotoxicity, bacterial reverse mutation and cytotoxicity assays. Positive mutagenicity results were detected for Salmonella typhimurium TA97 at low doses, and positive results were also obtained for the mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus assay, indicating that the pulp of E. edulis contains compounds with the capacity to induce mutagenicity and clastogenic/aneugenic effects. PMID:23712094

  10. Restoration of stressor-induced calcium dysregulation and autophagy inhibition by polyphenol-rich acai (Euterpe sps.) fruit pulp extracts in rodent brain cells in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and nucleic acids in brain often causes progressive neuronal degeneration and death which are the focal traits of chronic and acute pathologies in the brain, including those involving cognitive decline. It has been postulated that at least part of the loss of cog...

  11. Karyotype and genome size in Euterpe Mart. (Arecaceae) species

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ludmila Cristina; de Oliveira, Maria do Socorro Padilha; Davide, Lisete Chamma; Torres, Giovana Augusta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euterpe (Martius, 1823), a genus from Central and South America, has species with high economic importance in Brazil, because of their palm heart and fruits, known as açaí berries. Breeding programs have been conducted to increase yield and establish cultivation systems to replace the extraction of wild material. These programs need basic information about the genome of these species to better explore the available genetic variability. The aim of this study was to compare Euterpe edulis (Martius, 1824), Euterpe oleracea (Martius, 1824) and Euterpe precatoria (Martius, 1842), with regard to karyotype, type of interphase nucleus and nuclear DNA amount. Metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei from root tip meristematic cells were obtained by the squashing technique and solid stained for microscope analysis. The DNA amount was estimated by flow cytometry. There were previous reports on the chromosome number of Euterpe edulis and Euterpe oleracea, but chromosome morphology of these two species and the whole karyotype of Euterpe precatoria are reported for the first time. The species have 2n=36, a number considered as a pleisomorphic feature in Arecoideae since the modern species, according to floral morphology, have the lowest chromosome number (2n=28 and 2n=30). The three Euterpe species also have the same type of interphase nuclei, classified as semi-reticulate. The species differed on karyotypic formulas, on localization of secondary constriction and genome size. The data suggest that the main forces driving Euterpe karyotype evolution were structural rearrangements, such as inversions and translocations that alter chromosome morphology, and either deletion or amplification that led to changes in chromosome size. PMID:27186334

  12. Karyotype and genome size in Euterpe Mart. (Arecaceae) species.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ludmila Cristina; de Oliveira, Maria do Socorro Padilha; Davide, Lisete Chamma; Torres, Giovana Augusta

    2016-01-01

    Euterpe (Martius, 1823), a genus from Central and South America, has species with high economic importance in Brazil, because of their palm heart and fruits, known as açaí berries. Breeding programs have been conducted to increase yield and establish cultivation systems to replace the extraction of wild material. These programs need basic information about the genome of these species to better explore the available genetic variability. The aim of this study was to compare Euterpe edulis (Martius, 1824), Euterpe oleracea (Martius, 1824) and Euterpe precatoria (Martius, 1842), with regard to karyotype, type of interphase nucleus and nuclear DNA amount. Metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei from root tip meristematic cells were obtained by the squashing technique and solid stained for microscope analysis. The DNA amount was estimated by flow cytometry. There were previous reports on the chromosome number of Euterpe edulis and Euterpe oleracea, but chromosome morphology of these two species and the whole karyotype of Euterpe precatoria are reported for the first time. The species have 2n=36, a number considered as a pleisomorphic feature in Arecoideae since the modern species, according to floral morphology, have the lowest chromosome number (2n=28 and 2n=30). The three Euterpe species also have the same type of interphase nuclei, classified as semi-reticulate. The species differed on karyotypic formulas, on localization of secondary constriction and genome size. The data suggest that the main forces driving Euterpe karyotype evolution were structural rearrangements, such as inversions and translocations that alter chromosome morphology, and either deletion or amplification that led to changes in chromosome size. PMID:27186334

  13. Açai palm fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp improves survival of flies on a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoping; Seeberger, Jeanne; Alberico, Thomas; Wang, Chunxu; Wheeler, Charles T; Schauss, Alexander G; Zou, Sige

    2010-03-01

    Reducing oxidative damage is thought to be an effective aging intervention. Açai, a fruit indigenous to the Amazon, is rich in phytochemicals that possesses high anti-oxidant activities, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease properties. However, little is known about its potential anti-aging properties especially at the organismal level. Here we evaluated the effect of açai pulp on modulating lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that açai supplementation at 2% in the food increased the lifespan of female flies fed a high fat diet compared to the non-supplemented control. We measured transcript changes induced by açai for age-related genes. Although transcript levels of most genes tested were not altered, açai increased the transcript level of l(2)efl, a small heat-shock-related protein, and two detoxification genes, GstD1 and MtnA, while decreasing the transcript level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck), a key gene involved in gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, açai increased the lifespan of oxidative stressed females caused by sod1 RNAi. This suggests that açai improves survival of flies fed a high fat diet through activation of stress response pathways and suppression of Pepck expression. Açai has the potential to antagonize the detrimental effect of fat in the diet and alleviate oxidative stress in aging. PMID:20080168

  14. Acai juice attenuates atherosclerosis in apoe deficient mice through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective - Acai fruit pulp has received much attention because of its high antioxidant capacity and potential anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, athero-protective effects of açaí juice were investigated in apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE -/-) mice. Methods and Results - ApoE-/- mice were f...

  15. Pain Reduction and Improvement in Range of Motion After Daily Consumption of an Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Pulp–Fortified Polyphenolic-Rich Fruit and Berry Juice Blend

    PubMed Central

    Ager, David M.; Redman, Kimberlee A.; Mitzner, Marcie A.; Benson, Kathleen F.; Schauss, Alexander G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Dietary interventions involving antioxidants are of interest for reducing inflammation, improving joint motion, and altering pain perception. We evaluated the effect of oral consumption of a fruit and berry blend on pain and range of motion (ROM). This open-label clinical pilot study involved 14 study participants with limitations in ROM that was associated with pain and affected daily living. Participants included but were not limited to those with age-related osteoarthritis. Study participants consumed 120 mL MonaVie Active® fruit juice, predominantly containing açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and other fruit concentrates, daily for 12 weeks. Study participants were assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks by structured nurse interviews, pain and activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaires, blood samples, and ROM assessment. Pain was scored by using a visual analogue scale. ROM was assessed by using dual digital inclinometry as recommended by American Medical Association guidelines. Consumption of the juice resulted in significant pain reduction, improved ROM measures, and improvement in ADLs. Serum antioxidant status, as monitored by the cell-based antioxidant protection in erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay, was improved within 2 weeks and continued to improve throughout the 12 weeks of study participation (P<.01). The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein was reduced at 12 weeks, but this change did not reach statistical significance. Lipid peroxidation decreased mildly at 12 weeks. The antioxidant status, as measured by the CAP-e bioassay, showed the best correlation with improvements in physical well-being (pain, ROM, and ADL). The significant association among increased antioxidant status, improved ROM, and pain reduction warrants further study. PMID:21470042

  16. Total anthocyanin content determination in intact açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and palmitero-juçara (Euterpe edulis Mart.) fruit using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and multivariate calibration.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Maria Raquel Cavalcanti; de Lima, Kássio Michell Gomes; Lopes, Valquiria Garcia; Pessoa, José Dalton Cruz; de Almeida Teixeira, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIR), and multivariate calibration potential as a rapid method to determinate anthocyanin content in intact fruit (açaí and palmitero-juçara). Several multivariate calibration techniques, including partial least squares (PLS), interval partial least squares, genetic algorithm, successive projections algorithm, and net analyte signal were compared and validated by establishing figures of merit. Suitable results were obtained with the PLS model (four latent variables and 5-point smoothing) with a detection limit of 6.2 g kg(-1), limit of quantification of 20.7 g kg(-1), accuracy estimated as root mean square error of prediction of 4.8 g kg(-1), mean selectivity of 0.79 g kg(-1), sensitivity of 5.04×10(-3) g kg(-1), precision of 27.8 g kg(-1), and signal-to-noise ratio of 1.04×10(-3) g kg(-1). These results suggest NIR spectroscopy and multivariate calibration can be effectively used to determine anthocyanin content in intact açaí and palmitero-juçara fruit. PMID:23194509

  17. Anticonvulsant properties of Euterpe oleracea in mice.

    PubMed

    Souza-Monteiro, José Rogerio; Hamoy, Moisés; Santana-Coelho, Danielle; Arrifano, Gabriela P F; Paraense, Ricardo S O; Costa-Malaquias, Allan; Mendonça, Jackson R; da Silva, Rafael F; Monteiro, Wallena S C; Rogez, Hervé; de Oliveira, Diogo L; do Nascimento, José Luiz M; Crespo-López, Maria Elena

    2015-11-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a highly consumed fruit in Amazon, is from a common palm with remarkable antioxidant properties. Because oxidative stress and seizures are intimately linked, this study investigated the potential neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of commercial clarified açai juice (EO). EO did not alter spontaneous locomotor activity. Four doses of EO were sufficient to increase latencies to both first myoclonic jerk and first generalized tonic-clonic seizure and significantly decrease the total duration of tonic-clonic seizures caused by pentylenetetrazol administration. Also, electrocortical alterations provoked by pentylenetetrazol were prevented, significantly decreasing amplitude of discharges and frequencies above 50 Hz. EO was also able to completely prevent lipid peroxidation in the cerebral cortex, showing a potent direct scavenging property. These results demonstrate for the first time that E. oleracea significantly protects against seizures and seizure-related oxidative stress, indicating an additional protection for humans who consume this fruit. PMID:26142570

  18. Effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on consumer acceptance of fruit juices with different concentrations of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    PubMed

    Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruit juices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruit juices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruit juices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruit juices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruit juices that claim a particular health benefit. PMID:19467277

  19. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of Euterpe oleraceae Mart. (Arecaceae) fruit oil (açaí), in mammalian cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Marques, E S; Froder, J G; Carvalho, J C T; Rosa, P C P; Perazzo, F F; Maistro, E L

    2016-07-01

    E. oleracea is a tropical plant from the Amazon region, with its fruit used for food, and traditionally, as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, for atherosclerotic disease, and has anticancer properties. The oil of the fruit has antidiarrheic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, but without genotoxicity evaluation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of E. oleracea fruit oil (EOO), in rat cells. Male Wistar rats were treated with EOO by gavage at doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, for 14 days, within a 24 h interval. The DNA damage in the leukocytes, liver, bone marrow and testicular cells, was assessed by the comet assay, and the clastogenic/aneugenic effects in the bone marrow cells, by the micronucleus test. Our phytochemicals characterization of the EOO showed the presence of vanillic, palmitic, γ-linolenic, linoleic, oleic, cinnamic, caffeic, protocatechuic, ferulic, syringic acids, and flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol rutinoside as the main constituents. Both cytogenetic tests performed showed that EOO presented no significant genotoxic effects in the analyzed cells, at the three tested doses. These results indicate that, under our experimental conditions, E. oleracea fruit oil did not reveal genetic toxicity in rat cells. PMID:27125964

  20. Polysaccharides Isolated from Açaí Fruit Induce Innate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Holderness, Jeff; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Freedman, Brett; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Quinn, Mark T.; Hedges, Jodi F.; Jutila, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The Açaí (Acai) fruit is a popular nutritional supplement that purportedly enhances immune system function. These anecdotal claims are supported by limited studies describing immune responses to the Acai polyphenol fraction. Previously, we characterized γδ T cell responses to both polyphenol and polysaccharide fractions from several plant-derived nutritional supplements. Similar polyphenol and polysaccharide fractions are found in Acai fruit. Thus, we hypothesized that one or both of these fractions could activate γδ T cells. Contrary to previous reports, we did not identify agonist activity in the polyphenol fraction; however, the Acai polysaccharide fraction induced robust γδ T cell stimulatory activity in human, mouse, and bovine PBMC cultures. To characterize the immune response to Acai polysaccharides, we fractionated the crude polysaccharide preparation and tested these fractions for activity in human PBMC cultures. The largest Acai polysaccharides were the most active in vitro as indicated by activation of myeloid and γδ T cells. When delivered in vivo, Acai polysaccharide induced myeloid cell recruitment and IL-12 production. These results define innate immune responses induced by the polysaccharide component of Acai and have implications for the treatment of asthma and infectious disease. PMID:21386979

  1. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children.

    PubMed

    Bittman, Mark E; Callahan, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. PMID:24573534

  2. Variability in the antioxidant activity of dietary supplements from pomegranate, milk thistle, green tea, grape seed, goji, and acai: effects of in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Huang, Jianjun; Lee, Ru-Po; Trang, Amy; Nuernberger, Gloria; Heber, David

    2014-05-14

    The antioxidant activity (AA) of fruits and vegetables has been thoroughly investigated but less is known about the AA of dietary supplements (DS). We therefore assessed the AA of three to five DS each from pomegranate, milk thistle, green tea, grapes, goji, and acai using four widely used standard methods. The secondary objective was to determine the effects of in vitro digestion on their AA. The AA of the DS prior to digestion ranked as follows: pomegranate > resveratrol > green tea > grape seed > milk thistle and very low in goji and acai with significant group variability in AA. The AA after in vitro simulated digestion of the mouth, stomach, and small intestine compared to undigested supplement was decreased for green tea and grape seed but increased for pomegranate, resveratrol, milk thistle, goji, and acai to various extents. Although polyphenols provide the major antioxidant potency of the tested supplements, our observations indicate that digestion may alter antioxidant properties depending in part on the variations in polyphenol content. PMID:24745654

  3. Extract of acai-berry inhibits osteoclast differentiation and activity.

    PubMed

    Brito, C; Stavroullakis, A T; Ferreira, A C; Li, K; Oliveira, T; Nogueira-Filho, G; Prakki, A

    2016-08-01

    Osteoclastogenesis is the major cellular event responsible for bone loss and is triggered by inflammation. Acai-berry has proven anti-inflammatory effects. However, there is a lack of evidence for its effects on osteoclastogenesis. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether acai-berry extract (ABE) could inhibit osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity in vitro. The secretion of cytokines by osteoclasts has been also evaluated. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with RANKL (50ng/mL) and treated with various concentrations of ABE (25-100μg/mL) to verify: cell viability (MTT), total protein concentration (BCA), osteoclast differentiation and activity, and cytokine secretion. Cell viability and protein assays showed no toxicity to RAW cells for the tested ABE concentrations (p>0.05). ABE also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and hydroxylapatite resorption assay, respectively (p<0.05). ABE decreased the secretion of interleukin (IL)-1α, -6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha while increasing the secretion of IL-3, -4, -13 and interferon gamma when compared to the control group (p<0.05). Results of this study showed that acai-berry extract inhibits osteoclast differentiation and activity possibly due to the modulation of a vast number of cytokines produced by osteoclast precursor cells. PMID:27054700

  4. Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.): a tropical fruit with high levels of essential minerals-especially manganese-and its contribution as a source of natural mineral supplementation.

    PubMed

    da Silva Santos, Vivian; de Almeida Teixeira, Gustavo Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Açaí is a fruit from the Brazilian Amazon region, with an exotic flavor, possessing high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on these properties, the fruit is classified as one of the new "super fruits." The mean daily consumption of açai pulp may reach 300 ml in several Brazilian regions. Further, this fruit is also gaining popularity in Europe and North America. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the levels of some essential minerals in freeze-dried açaí pulp obtained in different Brazilian locations. It was found that açaí pulp is rich in essential minerals (Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn), but the levels of copper (Cu) and especially manganese (Mn) are surprisingly markedly higher than the traditional sources of these elements in the human diet. A daily consumption of 300 ml açaí pulp leads to a Mn daily intake exceeding at least sixfold (14.6 mg on average) the reference daily intake for an adult. Consequently, Mn intake may surpass the permitted daily maximum intake of 11 mg, which leads to a special concern, particularly for children, vegetarians, and individuals with anemia, since iron (Fe) absorption is impaired by Mn. Our findings demonstrate that this fruit is a potential source of several nutrients and a good dietary supplement to resolve malnutrition problems. However, due to the expressive levels of Mn, further studies are necessary to evaluate potential adverse effects associated with açaí consumption. PMID:24555649

  5. Cytotoxic effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. in malignant cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Euterpe oleracea Mart., a plant from the Amazon region, is commonly known as açaí or juçara; it has high nutritional value and elevated levels of lipids, proteins, and minerals. Açaí is an abundant and much consumed fruit by the Amazon local population, and studies have demonstrated that it is rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test this plant for anticancer activity in different human malignant cell lines. Methods Cell lines derived from breast and colorectal adenocarcinomas were treated with 10, 20, and 40 μg/mL of bark, seed, and total açaí fruit hydroalcoholic extracts for 24 and 48 h. After treatment, cell viability was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, and cell morphological features were observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The type of cell death was also evaluated. The data were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s or Tukey’s post hoc tests, as appropriate. Results We observed that of all the cell lines tested, MCF-7 was the only line that responded to açaí treatment. The extracts caused significant reduction (p < 0.01) in cell viability and altered cell morphological features by inducing the appearance of autophagic vacuoles, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, increased expression of LC3BII, a protein marker of autophagosome formation, was observed by western blotting. Caspase Glo™ assays and morphologic observations by DAPI nuclear staining and transmission electron microscopy did not indicate any apoptotic events. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that açaí possesses antitumorigenic potential in the MCF-7 cell line. Further studies are needed to identify the compound (s) responsible for this cytotoxic activity and the molecular target in the cell. This discovery of the

  6. Identification of species of the Euterpe genus by rare earth elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and linear discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Vívian Silva; Nardini, Viviani; Cunha, Luís Carlos; Barbosa, Fernando; De Almeida Teixeira, Gustavo Henrique

    2014-06-15

    The açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and juçara (Euterpe edulis Mart.) produce similar fruits which are rich in energy, minerals, vitamins and natural compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Although the drink obtained from these species is similar, it is important to develop tools to establish the identity of the fruit species and growing regions. To assess claims of origin and for other purposes, we use multivariate analysis to investigate the differentiation of açaí and juçara fruits based on rare earth element (REE) content determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. REE content, in particular Sm, Th, La, Pr, Gd, and especially Ce and Nd varied between species. PCA analysis was not efficient in differentiating açaí from juçara fruit samples. In contrast, LDA analysis permitted a correct differentiation between species with a predictive ability of 83.3%. The methodology that we have applied confirms that REE can be used to differentiate between açaí and juçara fruit samples and to identify their origin. PMID:24491738

  7. Design study of the storage ring EUTERPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Boling; Botman, J. I. M.; Timmermans, C. J.; Hagedoorn, H. L.

    1992-05-01

    At present the 400 MeV electron storage ring EUTERPE is being constructed at the Eindhoven University of Technology. It is a university project set up for studies of charged particle beam dynamics and applications of synchroton radiation, and for the education of students in these fields. The design of the ring is described in this paper. Considering the requirements of users in different fields, a lattice based on a so-called triple bend achromat structure with a high flexibility has been chosen. With this lattice, different optical options, including the HBSB (high brightness, small beam), the SBL (short bunch length) and the HLF (high light flux) modes can be realized. A small emittance of 7 nm rad and a short bunch length of the order of several mm can be achieved. In the first phase the synchrotron radiation in the UV and XUV region (the critical wavelength is 8.3 nm) will be provided from the regular dipole magnets. Later on, a 10 T wiggler magnet and other special inserters will be added, and other applications and beam dynamics studies will be feasible. Bending magnets are of the parallel faced C configuration. The effective aperture of the vacuum chamber is 2.3 cm (vertical) in the bending magnets and 4.7 cm elsewhere with a working vacuum condition of 10-9 Torr. Collective effects have been studied initially. First calculations indicate that a lifetime of several hours, influenced by the Touschek effect and residual gas scattering will be achievable for a 200 mA beam in the HLF mode for the standard rf parameters. A 70 MeV racetrack microtron will serve as injector for the ring.

  8. In Vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities of an antioxidant-rich fruit and berry juice blend. Results of a pilot and randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a juice blend (JB), MonaVie Active, containing a mixture of fruits and berries with known antioxidant activity, including acai, a palm fruit, as the predominant ingredient. The phytochemical antioxidants...

  9. Synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects of fruit mixtures on total antioxidant capacities and bioactive compounds in tropical fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Carolina da Silva; Wurlitzer, Nedio Jair; Dionisio, Ana Paula; Lacerda Soares, Marcia Valéria; Rocha Bastos, Maria do Socorro; Elesbão Alves, Ricardo; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work was investigate the synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects of fruit mixtures on total antioxidant capacities and bioactive compounds in tropical fruit juices, and optimize its formulation by the response surface methodology based on the responses: total polyphenols (TP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ascorbic acid content and sensorial acceptance. Camu-camu, acerola and acai were the major factors that influenced the antioxidant potential of the juice; and the yellow mombin showed a positive effect on the acceptance of the tropical juice. It was observed an/antagonistic effect between acerola and camu-camu for the TAC response. The optimum formulation obtained was 20% acerola, 10% camu-camu, 10% yellow mombin, 10% cashew apple and 10% acai, which was responsible for a response of 155.46 mg.100 g(-1) of ascorbic acid, 103.01 mg of GAE.100 g-1 of TP, 10.27 µM Trolox g(-1) of TAC and approximately 6.1 of acceptance. PMID:26817384

  10. Effects of clarification on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant capacity and quality attributes of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Leiliane Teles; de Freitas Cabral, Marília; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; de Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane; de Miranda, Maria Raquel Alcântara; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Gomes, Carmen Luiza

    2014-11-01

    The effects of a clarifying process using pectinases and chitosan on the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant capacity and quality attributes of açaí fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice were evaluated. Clarification of acaí pulp resulted (P ≤ 0.05) in a 50 % loss of total anthocyanin (4.2730 mg/100 mL) and 29 % reduction in antioxidant capacity (33.60 μM FeSO4/g). A high association (P ≤ 0.05) was found between the decrease of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin loss. The use of pectinases associated with chitosan as an aid for clarification of açaí juice proved to be highly effective and resulted in a clear juice with a brighter purple to red color that was free of lipids, insoluble solids, and others substances that cause hazes. The obtained clarified açaí juice is a genuinely high-value anthocyanin-rich product that could be used as colorant and functional ingredient to fruit juices and soft drinks. PMID:26396323

  11. The risks of introduction of the Amazonian palm Euterpe oleracea in the Atlantic rainforest.

    PubMed

    Tiberio, F C S; Sampaio-E-Silva, T A; Matos, D M S; Antunes, A Z

    2016-02-01

    The introduction of a species may alter ecological processes of native populations, such as pollination and dispersal patterns, leading to changes in population structure. When the introduced and the native species are congeners, interference in pollination can also lead to hybridization. We aimed to understand the ecological aspects of Euterpe oleracea introduction in the Atlantic forest and the possible consequences for the conservation of the native congener Euterpe edulis. We analysed the population structure of palm populations, including hybrids, and observed the interaction with frugivorous birds of both palm species after E. oleracea introduction. We observed that E. edulis had significantly lower density and a smaller number of seedlings when occurring with E. oleracea. Native and introduced Euterpe species shared nine frugivorous bird species. E. oleracea and hybrids had dispersed outside the original planting area. Consequently, the risks of introduction of E. oleracea may mostly be related to the disruption of interactions between E. edulis and frugivorous birds and the spontaneous production of hybrids. Finally, the cultivation of E. oleracea and hybrids in Atlantic rainforest could affect the conservation of the already endangered E. edulis. PMID:26909625

  12. Development and validation of an UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS method for non-anthocyanin flavonoids quantification in Euterpe oleracea juice.

    PubMed

    Dias, Aécio L S; Rozet, Eric; Larondelle, Yvan; Hubert, Philippe; Rogez, Hervé; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2013-11-01

    Euterpe oleracea fruits have gained much attention because of their phenolic constituents that have shown potential health benefits. The aim of this work was to quantify the major non-anthocyanin flavonoids (NAF) in the fruit juice by an accurate method coupling ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography with a linear ion trap-high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry system (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS). Fruits were processed to juice, and then the juice was lyophilized and defatted. The residue was then extracted in the presence of methanol by sonication. The extraction time was optimized and recovery rates of the extraction were >90%. The extracts were dried and solubilized again in 40% MeOH, which showed the best compromise for MS detection. For the UHPLC quantification, a HSS C18 column (1.8 μm) was used with a gradient elution of methanol and water both with 0.1% formic acid. Total error and accuracy profiles were used as validation criteria. Seven compounds and their isomers were successfully separated, including the major NAF. Calibration in the matrix was found to be more accurate than calibration without matrix. Trueness (<15% relative bias), repeatability, and intermediate precision (<13% RSD), selectivity, response function, linearity, LOD (ranged from 0.04 to 0.81 μg/mL) and LOQ (0.15-5.78 μg/mL) for 12 compounds were evaluated and the quantification method was validated. Its applicability was demonstrated on real samples from different suppliers. Their qualitative and quantitative profiles were similar and some compounds were for the first time quantified. In addition, eriodictyol was identified for the first time in this fruit along with five other flavonoids for which possible structures were proposed. PMID:24136248

  13. Carbon Tetrachloride Increases the Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Levels in Different Brain Areas of Wistar Rats: The Protective Effect of Acai Frozen Pulp.

    PubMed

    de Souza Machado, Fernanda; Marinho, Jéssica Pereira; Abujamra, Ana Lúcia; Dani, Caroline; Quincozes-Santos, André; Funchal, Cláudia

    2015-09-01

    Acai offers health benefits associated with its high antioxidante capacity, phytochemical composition, nutritional and sensory value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of acai frozen pulp on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced damage via modulation of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines in rat brain tissue. The rats were treated via oral (gavage) daily with water or acai frozen pulp for 14 days at a dose of 7 μL/g. On the 15th day, the animals in each group received a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 in a dose of 3.0 mL/kg or the same volume of mineral oil. After 4 h, the animals were euthanized by decapitation and the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were dissected and homogenated to evaluate the levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 18 (IL-18), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). Data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance followed by the Tukey post hoc test. It was observed that CCl4 increased TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-18 levels in all brain tissues, and that acai frozen pulp was able to prevent this increase. IL-6 and IL-10 brain tissue levels remained unchanged during all treatments. CCl4 experimental model was suitable to investigate brain tissue anti and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Acai frozen pulp prevented an increase in IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α, while IL-6 and IL-10 levels remained unchanged. The precise pathway by which inflammation contribute to hepatic encephalopathy, as well as to how this pathway can be modulated, is still under investigation. PMID:26283513

  14. [Efficacy analysis and theoretical study on Chinese herbal properties of Açaí (Euterpe oleracea)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-jun; Chen, Shao-hong; Zhu, Ying-li; Wang, Chun; Wang, Jing-xia; Wang, Lin-yuan; Gao, Xue-min

    2015-06-01

    Açaí (Euterpe oleracea) emerged as a source of herb has a long history in South America, which was approved by the Ministry of Health used in China and it has been introduced planting in Guangdong and Taiwan. This article summarized applied history of Açaí and its present status in China. Did theoretical study on the Chinese herbal properties of Açaí based on the Chinese traditional philosophical culture to analysis the function and symptom preliminary, combining with used for medical recordation, chemical component, biological activity. It is aiming at establishing the theoretical foundation for the application under the guidance of TCM theory. PMID:26552192

  15. Effects of Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry preparation on metabolic parameters in a healthy overweight population: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of açai fruit pulp on risk factors for metabolic disorders in overweight subjects. The açaí palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), which is native to South America, produces a small, black-purple fruit which is edible. The fruit has recently become popular as a functional food due to its antioxidant potential. Although several studies have been conducted in vitro and with animals, little is known about the potential health benefits in humans aside from an increase in plasma anti-oxidant capacity. Metabolic syndrome is a condition which is defined by a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and/or type-2 diabetes. Preliminary studies indicate that a reduction in reactive oxygen species can assist in the normalization of the metabolic pathways involved in this syndrome. Methods This was an open label pilot study conducted with 10 overweight adults (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and ≤ 30 kg/m2) who took 100 g açai pulp twice daily for 1 month. The study endpoints included levels of fasting plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, exhaled (breath) nitric oxide metabolites (eNO) and plasma levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). The response of blood glucose, blood pressure and eNO to a standardized meal was determined at baseline and following the 30 day treatment. Results Compared to baseline, there were reductions in fasting glucose and insulin levels following the 30 day treatment (both p < 0.02). There was also a reduction in total cholesterol (p = 0.03), as well as borderline significant reductions in LDL-cholesterol and the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol (both p = 0.051). Compared to baseline, treatment with açai ameliorated the post-prandial increase in plasma glucose following the standardized meal, measured as the area under the curve (p = 0.047). There was no effect on blood pressure, hs-CRP or eNO. Conclusion In this uncontrolled pilot study, consumption

  16. A Spectral Comparison of the M Asteroid 75 Eurydike and S Asteroid 27 Euterpe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busarev, V. V.

    1996-09-01

    75 Euridyke and 27 Euterpe were observed under small phase angles and air mass differences with the same reference star of solar type (HD11170) in the course of a night. A scanning spectrophotometer operating in the mode of photon counting in the {3380--7617 Angstroms} range with a resolution of {48 Angstroms} mounted on the 1.25-m telescope in Crimea was used. The obtained reflectance spectra are similar in general shapes to those of other asteroids of corresponding classes [1]. So the bodies may have ordinary contents. On the spectra there are the following absorption features exeeded the error limits (RMSD). For 75 Eurydike these are at {5100 Angstroms} ( ~ 10% with a width of ~ {200 Angstroms}) and {6300 Angstroms} ( ~ 8% with a width of ~ {300 Angstroms}). For 27 Euterpe there are {5100 Angstroms} and {5650 Angstroms} (3--4% with widths of {200 Angstroms}), {6000 Angstroms} and {6550 Angstroms} (2--3% with widths of {400--500 Angstroms}) weak absorption bands. The common spectral features on the bodies at {5100 Angstroms} and {5650 Angstroms} may be a result of crystal-field transitions of Fe(2+) in pyroxenes as in lunar those [2]. The specific absorption band for 75 Eurydike at {6300 Angstroms} may be caused by charge transfer transitions Fe(2+) -Fe(3+) in oxidized pyroxenes as on Earth [4]. The features on the 27 Euterpe's spectra at {6000 Angstroms} and {6550 Angstroms} may arise in oxidized Fe-Ni metal and spinel-group minerals as on other S asteroids [3]. The results show that regolithes of both M and S asteroids may contain pyroxenes and Fe-Ni metal including their oxidized states as common factors influencing optical properties of the bodies. REFERENCES: 1. Chapman C. R. and M. J. Gaffey 1979. In: "Asteroids"(T. Gehrels, Ed.), p. 655--687. Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson. 2. Hazen R. M. et al. 1978. In: "Proc. LPSC 9th", p. 2919--2934. 3. Hiroi T. and F. Vilas 1996. "Icarus", V.119, p. 202--208. 4. Wagner J. K. et al. 1987. "Icarus", V.69, p. 14--28.

  17. Hydraulic architecture and photoinhibition influence spatial distribution of the arborescent palm Euterpe edulis in subtropical forests.

    PubMed

    Gatti, M Genoveva; Campanello, Paula I; Villagra, Mariana; Montti, Lía; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2014-06-01

    Physiological characteristics of saplings can be considered one of the most basic constraints on species distribution. The shade-tolerant arborescent palm Euterpe edulis Mart. is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. At a local scale, saplings of this species growing in native forests are absent in gaps. We tested the hypothesis whether sensitivity to photoinhibition or hydraulic architecture constrains the distribution of E. edulis saplings in sun-exposed forest environments. Using shade houses and field studies, we evaluated growth, survival, hydraulic traits and the susceptibility of Photosystem II to photoinhibition in E. edulis saplings under different growth irradiances. Survival rates in exposed sites in the field were very low (a median of 7%). All saplings exhibited photoinhibition when exposed to high radiation levels, but acclimation to a high radiation environment increased the rate of recovery. Petiole hydraulic conductivity was similar across treatments regardless of whether it was expressed per petiole cross-sectional area or per leaf area. At the plant level, investment in conductive tissues relative to leaf area (Huber values) increased with increasing irradiance. Under high irradiance conditions, plants experienced leaf water potentials close to the turgor-loss point, and leaf hydraulic conductance decreased by 79% relative to its maximum value. Euterpe edulis saplings were able to adjust their photosynthetic traits to different irradiance conditions, whereas hydraulic characteristics at the leaf level did not change across irradiance treatments. Our results indicate that uncoupling between water demand and supply to leaves apparently associated with high resistances to water flow at leaf insertion points, in addition to small stems with low water storage capacity, weak stomatal control and high vulnerability of leaves to hydraulic dysfunction, are the main ecophysiological constraints that prevent the growth and

  18. Anthocyanin-rich açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) extract attenuates manganese-induced oxidative stress in rat primary astrocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    da Silva Santos, Vivian; Bisen-Hersh, Emily; Yu, Yingchun; Cabral, Ingridy Simone Ribeiro; Nardini, Viviani; Culbreth, Megan; Teixeira da Rocha, João Batista; Barbosa, Fernando; Aschner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for human health. However, at high concentrations Mn may be neurotoxic. Mn accumulates in astrocytes, affecting their redox status. In view of the high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the exotic Brazilian fruit açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), its methanolic extract was obtained by solid-phase extraction (SPE). This açaí extract showed considerable anthocyanins content and direct antioxidant capacity. The açaí extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) with an EC₅₀ of 19.1 ppm, showing higher antioxidant activity compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), but lower than ascorbic acid and quercetin. This obtained açaí extract also attenuated Mn-induced oxidative stress in primary cultured astrocytes. Specifically, the açaí extract at an optimal and nutritionally relevant concentration of 0.1 μg/ml prevented Mn-induced oxidative stress by (1) restoring GSH/GSSG ratio and net glutamate uptake, (2) protecting astrocytic membranes from lipid peroxidation, and (3) decreasing Mn-induced expression of erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) protein. A larger quantity of açaí extract exacerbated the effects of Mn on these parameters except with respect to lipid peroxidation assessed by means of F₂-isoprostanes. These studies indicate that at nutritionally relevant concentration, anthocyanins obtained from açaí protect astrocytes against Mn neurotoxicity, but at high concentrations, the "pro-oxidant" effects of its constituents likely prevail. Future studies may be profitably directed at potential protective effects of açaí anthocyanins in nutraceutical formulations. PMID:24617543

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of polyphenolics from açai (Euterpe oleracea Martius) in intestinal myofibroblasts CCD-18Co cells.

    PubMed

    Dias, Manoela Maciel dos Santos; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Noratto, Giuliana; Roque-Andrade, Andrea; Stringheta, Paulo César; Talcott, Stephen; Ramos, Afonso Mota; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2015-10-01

    The demand for tropical fruits high in polyphenolics including açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been increasing based on ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of açai polyphenolics in human colon myofibroblastic CCD-18Co cells to investigate the suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mRNA and protein expression of inflammatory proteins. Non-cytotoxic concentrations of açai extract, 1-5 mg gallic acid equivalent L(-1), were selected. The generation of ROS was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and açai extract partially reversed this effect to 0.53-fold of the LPS-control. Açai extract (5 mg GAE L(-1)) down-regulated LPS-induced mRNA-expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNF-α (to 0.42-fold), cyclooxygenase 2, COX-2 (to 0.61-fold), toll-like receptor-4, TLR-4 (to 0.52-fold), TNF receptor-associated factor 6, TRAF-6 (to 0.64-fold), nuclear factor kappa-B, NF-κB (to 0.76-fold), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, VCAM-1 (to 0.71-fold) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1, ICAM-1 (to 0.68-fold). The protein levels of COX-2, TLR-4, p-NF-κB and ICAM-1 were induced by LPS and the açai extract partially reversed this effect in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest the anti-inflammatory effect of açai polyphenolic extract in intestinal cells are at least in part mediated through the inhibition of ROS and the expression of TLR-4 and NF-κB. Results indicate the potential for açai polyphenolics in the prevention of intestinal inflammation. PMID:26243669

  20. Utilizing micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) micro-shutter designs for adaptive coded aperture imaging (ACAI) technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledet, Mary M.; Starman, LaVern A.; Coutu, Ronald A., Jr.; Rogers, Stanley

    2009-08-01

    Coded aperture imaging (CAI) has been used in both the astronomical and medical communities for years due to its ability to image light at short wavelengths and thus replacing conventional lenses. Where CAI is limited, adaptive coded aperture imaging (ACAI) can recover what is lost. The use of photonic micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) for creating adaptive coded apertures has been gaining momentum since 2007. Successful implementation of micro-shutter technologies would potentially enable the use of adaptive coded aperture imaging and non-imaging systems in current and future military surveillance and intelligence programs. In this effort, a prototype of MEMS microshutters has been designed and fabricated onto a 3 mm x 3 mm square of silicon substrate using the PolyMUMPSTM process. This prototype is a line-drivable array using thin flaps of polysilicon to cover and uncover an 8 x 8 array of 20 μm apertures. A characterization of the micro-shutters to include mechanical, electrical and optical properties is provided. This prototype, its actuation scheme, and other designs for individual microshutters have been modeled and studied for feasibility purposes. In addition, microshutters fabricated from an Al-Au alloy on a quartz wafer were optically tested and characterized with a 632 nm HeNe laser.

  1. Aerobic exercise and not a diet supplemented with jussara açaí (Euterpe edulis Martius) alters hepatic oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers in ApoE-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Cynthia Aparecida; Natali, Antonio José; Cardoso, Luciana Marques; Ferreira-Machado, Alessandra Barbosa; Novello, Alexandre Azevedo; da Silva, Karina Ana; Tafuri, Natalia Filard; da Matta, Sergio Luis Pinto; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia

    2014-08-14

    The pulp of jussara açaí (Euterpe edulis Martius) fruit is rich in anthocyanins that exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects similar to those exerted by aerobic exercise. In the present study, we investigated the effects of jussara açaí fruit pulp consumption, either alone or in combination with aerobic exercise, on the hepatic oxidative and inflammatory status of ApoE-deficient (ApoE - / - ) mice. Male mice were divided into four groups (control (C), control plus açaí, exercise plus açaí (EXA) and exercise (EX)) and fed the AIN-93M diet or the AIN-93M diet formulated to contain 2 % freeze-dried açaí pulp. Mice in the EX and EXA groups were subjected to a progressive running programme (5 d/week, 60 min/d, 16 m/min) for 12 weeks. Mice that were made to exercise exhibited reduced (40·85 %; P< 0·05) hepatic superoxide dismutase activity when compared with the C mice, independent of the açaí diet. Mice in the EX group exhibited a lower (42 %; P< 0·05) mRNA expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in the liver compared with the C mice. Mice in the EXA and EX groups had lower percentages of hepatic lipid droplets (70 % and 56 %, respectively; P< 0·05) when compared with the C mice. Mice in the EX group had smaller (58 %; P< 0·05) area of lesions in the aorta when compared with the C mice. Serum lipid profile was not affected (P>0·05). In conclusion, aerobic exercise training rather than açaí fruit pulp consumption or a combination of both enhances the hepatic oxidative and inflammatory status of ApoE - / - mice. PMID:24787366

  2. Fruit Flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a botanical sense, fruits are the developed part of the seed-containing ovary. Evolutionarily speaking, plants have developed fruit with the goal of attracting insects, birds, reptiles and mammals to spread the seeds. Fruit can be dry such as the pod of a pea, or fleshy such as a peach. As humans...

  3. Seed deposition patterns and the survival of seeds and seedlings of the palm Euterpe edulis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizo, Marco A.; Simão, Isaac

    2001-08-01

    The seed deposition pattern created by a seed disperser is one of the components of the efficiency of a species as seed disperser, and ultimately may influence the recruitment of a plant species. In this study, we used the seeds of a bird-dispersed forest palm, Euterpe edulis, to investigate the effects of two distinct seed deposition patterns created by birds that defecate (clumped pattern) and regurgitate seeds (loose-clumped pattern) on the survival of seeds experimentally set in an E. edulis-rich site, and of seedlings grown under shade-house conditions. The study was conducted in the lowland forest of Parque Estadual Intervales, SE Brazil. Clumped and loose-clumped seeds were equally preyed upon by rodents and insects. Although clumped and isolated seedlings had the same root weight after 1 year, the isolated seedlings survived better and presented more developed shoots, suggesting intraspecific competition among clumped seedlings. Our results indicate that animals that deposit E. edulis seeds in faecal clumps (e.g. cracids, tapirs) are less efficient seed dispersers than those that regurgitate seeds individually (e.g. trogons, toucans). Intraspecific competition among seedlings growing from faecal clumps is a likely process preventing the occurrence of clumps of adult palms.

  4. A critical review on the spray drying of fruit extract: effect of additives on physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Krishnaiah, Duduku; Nithyanandam, Rajesh; Sarbatly, Rosalam

    2014-01-01

    Spray drying accomplishes drying while particles are suspended in the air and is one method in the family of suspended particle processing systems, along with fluid-bed drying, flash drying, spray granulation, spray agglomeration, spray reaction, spray cooling, and spray absorption. This drying process is unique because it involves both particle formation and drying. The present paper reviews spray drying of fruit extracts, such as acai, acerola pomace, gac, mango, orange, cactus pear, opuntia stricta fruit, watermelon, and durian, and the effects of additives on physicochemical properties such as antioxidant activity, total carotenoid content, lycopene and β-carotene content, hygroscopy, moisture content, volatile retention, stickiness, color, solubility, glass transition temperature, bulk density, rehydration, caking, appearance under electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The literature clearly demonstrates that the effect of additives and encapsulation play a vital role in determining the physicochemical properties of fruit extract powder. The technical difficulties in spray drying of fruit extracts can be overcome by modifying the spray dryer design. It also reveals that spray drying is a novel technology for converting fruit extract into powder form. PMID:24236997

  5. Seed size variation in the palm Euterpe edulis and the effects of seed predators on germination and seedling survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizo, Marco A.; Von Allmen, Christiane; Morellato, L. Patricia C.

    2006-05-01

    Intraspecific variation in seed size is common in wild plant populations and has important consequences for the reproductive success of individual plants. Multiple, often conflicting evolutionary forces mediated by biotic as well as abiotic agents may maintain such a variation. In this paper we assessed seed size variation in a population of the threatened, commercially important palm Euterpe edulis in southeast Brazil. We investigated (i) how this variation affects the probability of attack by vertebrate and invertebrate post-dispersal seed predators, and (ii) if seed size influences the outcome of seeds damaged by beetles in terms of seed germination and early survival of seedlings. Euterpe edulis seeds varied in diameter from 8.3 to 14.1 mm. Neither insects nor rodents selected the seeds they preyed upon based on seed size. Seed germination and total, shoot and root biomasses of one-year seedlings were significantly and positively affected by seed size. Root biomass and seedling survival were negatively affected by seed damage caused by a scolytid beetle ( Coccotrypes palmarum) whose adults bore into seeds to consume part of the endosperm, but do not oviposit on them. Seed size had a marginally significant effect on seedling survival. Therefore, if any advantage is accrued by E. edulis individuals producing large seeds, this is because of greater seed germination success and seedling vigor. If this is so, even a relatively narrow range of variation in seed size as observed in the E. edulis population studied may translate into differential success of individual plants.

  6. Post-harvest nutraceutical behaviour during ripening and senescence of 8 highly perishable fruit species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Neves, Leandro Camargo; Tosin, Jéssica Milanez; Benedette, Ronaldo Moreno; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2015-05-01

    The post-harvest nutraceutical characteristics of highly perishable native fruits species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region were studied during 12 day at 15 ± 1 °C and 95 ± 3% RH. Uxi and caja fruit showed climacteric behaviour while caju, açai de terra firme, camu-camu, inajá, murici and araçá-boi were non-climacteric. Soluble solids and sugars increased for climacteric fruit while total acidity remained constant for all fruits. In general, all fruit species had high levels of total phenolics (121-9889 mg GAE 100 g(-1) dry weight pulp), vitamin C (31-1532 mg AA 100 mL(-1) juice) and antioxidant activity (AOX) (75-288 1 μmol Trolox Eq 100 g(-1) dry weight, ORAC value), however, camu-camu, acai and murici were among the highest. All fruits showed an increase in phenolic content (15-82%), a simultaneous decrease in ascorbic acid in both peel (88-98%) and pulp (89-97%), while AOX increased or decreased depending on the fruit species, very likely due to the specific phenolic profile being synthesized. We propose a hypothetical model where ripening/senescence induced a redox homeostasis imbalance which in turn triggered the responses. PMID:25529669

  7. Total oxidant scavenging capacity of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) seeds and identification of their polyphenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Roberta B; Lichtenthäler, Ramona; Zimmermann, Benno F; Papagiannopoulos, Menelaos; Fabricius, Heinz; Marx, Friedhelm; Maia, José G S; Almeida, Ossalin

    2006-06-14

    The antioxidant capacity of methanol and ethanol seed extracts from Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) against the reactive oxygen species (ROS) peroxyl radicals, peroxynitrite, and hydroxyl radicals was studied with the total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay in a modified and automated version. Cold methanol digestion was the most efficient extraction method with respect to the antioxidant capacity. The extracts exhibit good antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals, similar to the capacity of the pulp. The antioxidant capacity against peroxynitrite and hydroxyl radicals is even higher. The main antioxidants identified by HPLC-MS and HPLC-CEAD are five different procyanidins (di- through pentamers); furthermore, protocatechuic acid and epicatechin were identified as minor compounds. Determination of TOSC values of HPLC seed extract fractions indicates that the procyanidins contribute substantially to the overall antioxidant capacity. In addition, however, other compounds that have not yet been identified are responsible for a large part of the observed antioxidant capacity. PMID:16756342

  8. Berry Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Horticulture: Plants for People and Places" co-edited by G.R. Dixon and D.E. Aldous (eds.) will be a three volume set to be published in 2014. It is designed to educate people on horticultural plants. For each fruit crop, different authors wrote overviews of the crops with information on genetic ...

  9. Bamboo thickets alter the demographic structure of Euterpe edulis population: A keystone, threatened palm species of the Atlantic forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rother, Débora Cristina; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro; Pizo, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    The rapid spread of bamboos can strongly affect forest structure by interfering plant regeneration and reducing local biodiversity. Considering that bamboos exert a negative influence on the plant community, our main goal was to investigate how this influence manifests at the population level. We compared the demographic structure of the threatened palm Euterpe edulis between bamboo and non-bamboo dominated patches within the Atlantic forest. In the study site, the native bamboo Guadua tagoara has created a marked patchiness and heterogeneity in the vegetation. Plots were set up randomly in bamboo and non-bamboo patches and the heights of all E. edulis individuals were measured. Data from canopy openness and litter depth were collected for both patches. Greater number of E. edulis was recorded in bamboo patches. However, frequency distribution of the height classes differed between patches revealing a predominance of seedling and sapling I classes in bamboo patches, in comparison to a more evenly distribution of height classes in non-bamboo patches. The canopy in bamboo patches was more open and the litter depth was thicker. Our analyses evidenced G. tagoara is functioning as a demographic bottleneck of natural population of E. edulis by arresting its later stages of regeneration and in high densities that bamboos may limit recruitment of this palm species.

  10. Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) modulates oxidative stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans by direct and indirect mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bonomo, Larissa de Freitas; Silva, David Nunes; Boasquivis, Patrícia Ferreira; Paiva, Franciny Aparecida; Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Martins, Talita Alves Faria; de Jesus Torres, Álvaro Gustavo; de Paula, Igor Thadeu Borges Raposo; Caneschi, Washington Luiz; Jacolot, Philippe; Grossin, Nicolas; Tessier, Frederic J; Boulanger, Eric; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; Oliveira, Riva de Paula

    2014-01-01

    Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Despite its claimed pharmacological and nutraceutical value, studies regarding the effects of açaí in vivo are limited. In this study, we use the Caenorhabditis elegans model to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant properties of açaí on an organismal level and to examine its mechanism of action. Supplementation with açaí aqueous extract (AAE) increased both oxidative and osmotic stress resistance independently of any effect on reproduction and development. AAE suppressed bacterial growth, but this antimicrobial property did not influence stress resistance. AAE-increased stress resistance was correlated with reduced ROS production, the prevention of sulfhydryl (SH) level reduction and gcs-1 activation under oxidative stress conditions. Our mechanistic studies indicated that AAE promotes oxidative stress resistance by acting through DAF-16 and the osmotic stress response pathway OSR-1/UNC-43/SEK-1. Finally, AAE increased polyglutamine protein aggregation and decreased proteasome activity. Our findings suggest that natural compounds available in AAE can improve the antioxidant status of a whole organism under certain conditions by direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:24594796

  11. Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Modulates Oxidative Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans by Direct and Indirect Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bonomo, Larissa de Freitas; Silva, David Nunes; Boasquivis, Patrícia Ferreira; Paiva, Franciny Aparecida; Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Martins, Talita Alves Faria; de Jesus Torres, Álvaro Gustavo; de Paula, Igor Thadeu Borges Raposo; Caneschi, Washington Luiz; Jacolot, Philippe; Grossin, Nicolas; Tessier, Frederic J.; Boulanger, Eric; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; de Paula Oliveira, Riva

    2014-01-01

    Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Despite its claimed pharmacological and nutraceutical value, studies regarding the effects of açaí in vivo are limited. In this study, we use the Caenorhabditis elegans model to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant properties of açaí on an organismal level and to examine its mechanism of action. Supplementation with açaí aqueous extract (AAE) increased both oxidative and osmotic stress resistance independently of any effect on reproduction and development. AAE suppressed bacterial growth, but this antimicrobial property did not influence stress resistance. AAE-increased stress resistance was correlated with reduced ROS production, the prevention of sulfhydryl (SH) level reduction and gcs-1 activation under oxidative stress conditions. Our mechanistic studies indicated that AAE promotes oxidative stress resistance by acting through DAF-16 and the osmotic stress response pathway OSR-1/UNC-43/SEK-1. Finally, AAE increased polyglutamine protein aggregation and decreased proteasome activity. Our findings suggest that natural compounds available in AAE can improve the antioxidant status of a whole organism under certain conditions by direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:24594796

  12. Açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) berry extract exerts neuroprotective effects against β-amyloid exposure in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wong, Daphne Yiu San; Musgrave, Ian Francis; Harvey, Benjamin Scott; Smid, Scott Darryl

    2013-11-27

    The native South American palm açaí berry (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) has high polyphenolic and antioxidant levels. This study examined whether açaí berry extract afforded protection against β-amyloid (Aβ)-mediated loss of cell viability and oxidative stress associated with anti-fibrillar effects. PC12 cells were exposed to either Aβ1-42, Aβ25-35 or tert butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), alone or in the presence of açaí extract (0.5-50μg/ml). Thioflavin T (ThT) binding assay and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine effects of açaí extract on Aβ1-42 fibril morphology and compared to açaí phenolics gallic acid, cyanidin rutinoside and cyanidin glucoside. Exposure to Aβ1-42, Aβ25-35 or t-BHP decreased PC12 cell viability. Pretreatment with açaí extract significantly improved cell viability following Aβ1-42 exposure, however Aβ25-35 or t-BHP-mediated viability loss was unaltered. Açaí extract inhibited ThT fluorescence and disrupted Aβ1-42 fibril and aggregate morphology. In comparison with other phenolics, açaí was most effective at inhibiting Aβ1-42 aggregation. Inhibition of β-amyloid aggregation may underlie a neuroprotective effect of açaí. PMID:24161892

  13. Demographic variation across successional stages and their effects on the population dynamics of the neotropical palm Euterpe precatoria.

    PubMed

    Otárola, Mauricio Fernández; Avalos, Gerardo

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Environmental heterogeneity is a strong selective force shaping adaptation and population dynamics across temporal and spatial scales. Natural and anthropogenic gradients influence the variation of environmental and biotic factors, which determine population demography and dynamics. Successional gradients are expected to influence demographic parameters, but the relationship between these gradients and the species life history, habitat requirements, and degree of variation in demographic traits remains elusive.• Methods: We used the palm Euterpe precatoria to test the effect of successional stage on plant demography within a continuous population. We calculated demographic parameters for size stages and performed matrix analyses to investigate the demographic variation within primary and secondary forests of La Selva, Costa Rica.• Key results: We observed differences in mortality and recruitment of small juveniles between primary and secondary forests. Matrix models described satisfactorily the chronosequence of population changes, which were characterized by high population growth rate in disturbed areas, and decreased growth rate in old successional forests until reaching stability.• Conclusions: Different demographic parameters can be expressed in contiguous subpopulations along a gradient of successional stages with important consequences for population dynamics. Demographic variation superimposed on these gradients contributes to generate subpopulations with different demographic composition, density, and ecological properties. Therefore, the effects of spatial variation must be reconsidered in the design of demographic analyses of tropical palms, which are prime examples of subtle local adaptation. These considerations are crucial in the implementation of management plans for palm species within spatially complex and heterogeneous tropical landscapes. PMID:24907255

  14. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  15. Use of the palm Euterpe edulis martius in landscape units managed by migrants of German origin in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People influence their environments through the manipulation of landscapes and species. Human influence on the landscape may lead to the development of differentiated landscape units that originate from past use and may be related to the presence of certain species. This study investigated the presence of the palm Euterpe edulis and its current and past importance in landscape units established by a community of German descendants located in southern Brazil. The objectives of this study were to characterize the use of the species, to identify the importance of E.edulis for the German immigrant community, to identify past and current uses of E.edulis, to describe the historical use of the landscape, and lastly, to identify landscape units in which E.edulis is found. Methods The researched community is composed of people of German descent residing in southern Brazil. A variety of research tools were used to achieve the objectives of the research. Semi-structured interviews and free-listings were conducted in all family units. The interviews focused on groups of people in the community who had current or historical connection with the species. Group workshops and guided tours were conducted to identify different landscape units. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, use-value index, citation frequency, salience index, and informant perception analysis. Results Over the historical period studied, the community demonstrated changes with respect to economic activities. These changes are reflected in the transformation of the landscape. The species E.edulis was and still is very important for people in the community; its importance is reflected in its high use value, citation frequency and salience. The species is found within various landscape units in the community as well as in homegardens and in secondary forests. Conclusions The landscape heterogeneity of this community is influenced by changes in economic activities and by the relationship

  16. The association between chromaticity, phenolics, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity of frozen fruit pulp in Brazil: an application of chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Ávila, Suelen; Ito, Vivian; Nogueira, Alessandro; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro

    2014-04-01

    A total of 19 Brazilian frozen pulps from the following fruits: açai (Euterpe oleracea), blackberry (Rubus sp.), cajá (Spondias mombin), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), coconut (Cocos nucifera), grape (Vitis sp.), graviola (Annona muricata), guava (Psidium guajava), papaya (Carica papaya), peach (Prunus persica), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pineapple and mint (A. comosus and Mentha spicata), red fruits (Rubus sp. and Fragaria sp.), seriguela (Spondias purpurea), strawberry (Fragaria sp.), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), umbu (Spondias tuberosa), and yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) were analyzed in terms of chromaticity, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, which showed significant (P < 0.01) correlation with total phenolic compounds (r = 0.88 and 0.70, respectively), total flavonoids (r = 0.63 and 0.81, respectively), and total monomeric anthocyanins (r = 0.59 and 0.73, respectively). PCA explained 74.82% of total variance of data, and the separation into 3 groups in a scatter plot was verified. Three clusters also suggested by HCA, corroborated with PCA, in which cluster 3 was formed by strawberry, red fruits, blackberry, açaí, and grape pulps. This cluster showed the highest contents of total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity. PMID:24547813

  17. How Do Fruits Ripen?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

  18. The fruit, the whole fruit, and everything about the fruit.

    PubMed

    Kourmpetli, Sofia; Drea, Sinéad

    2014-08-01

    Fruits come in an impressive array of shapes, sizes, and consistencies, and also display a huge diversity in biochemical/metabolite profiles, wherein lies their value as rich sources of food, nutrition, and pharmaceuticals. This is in addition to their fundamental function in supporting and dispersing the developing and mature seeds for the next generation. Understanding developmental processes such as fruit development and ripening, particularly at the genetic level, was once largely restricted to model and crop systems for practical and commercial reasons, but with the expansion of developmental genetic and evo-devo tools/analyses we can now investigate and compare aspects of fruit development in species spanning the angiosperms. We can superimpose recent genetic discoveries onto the detailed characterization of fruit development and ripening conducted with primary considerations such as yield and harvesting efficiency in mind, as well as on the detailed description of taxonomically relevant characters. Based on our own experience we focus on two very morphologically distinct and evolutionary distant fruits: the capsule of opium poppy, and the grain or caryopsis of cereals. Both are of massive economic value, but because of very different constituents; alkaloids of varied pharmaceutical value derived from secondary metabolism in opium poppy capsules, and calorific energy fuel derived from primary metabolism in cereal grains. Through comparative analyses in these and other fruit types, interesting patterns of regulatory gene function diversification and conservation are beginning to emerge. PMID:24723396

  19. Preserving Fresh Fruit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Geo-Centers, Inc. has developed an Ethlyene Monitoring and Control System through an SBIR contract with Kennedy Space Center. As plants grow, they produce by products of ethylene and ammonia which are harmful to plant development. The system provides optimal exposure of fruit to ethylene since the proper balance in ethylene is necessary to prevent fruit loss. It can be used to monitor the de-greening process of citrus fruits, in particular.

  20. Oral treatment with Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) extract improves cardiac dysfunction and exercise intolerance in rats subjected to myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart., popularly known as “açaí”, on rats subjected to myocardial infarction (MI). Methods Hydroalcoholic extracts of açaí were obtained from a decoction of the seeds. Two male Wistar rat groups were delineated: 1) the sham-operated group (control, n = 6), with no surgical amendment, and 2) the MI group (n = 12), in which the anterior descendent coronary artery was occluded during surgery. MI group was divided into two subgroups, in which rats were either treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Euterpe oleracea seeds (100 mg/kg/day p.o.) or received no treatment. Treatment began on the day of surgery, and lasted 4 weeks. Subsequently, rats were subject to an exercise test protocol, hemodynamic evaluation, and histological analysis of the left ventricle. Groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s test. Results The total running distance of sham rats was 1339.0 ± 276.6 m, MI rats was 177.6 ± 15.8 m (P < 0.05), and MI-açaí rats was 969.9 ± 362.2 m. Systolic arterial pressure was significantly decreased in MI rats (86.88 ± 4.62 mmHg) compared to sham rats (115.30 ± 7.24 mmHg; P < 0.05). Açaí treatment prevented a reduction in systolic arterial pressure (130.00 ± 8.16 mmHg) compared to MI rats (P < 0.05). Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure was significantly augmented in MI rats (17.62 ± 1.21 mmHg) compared to sham rats (4.15 ± 1.60 mmHg; P < 0.05), but was 3.69 ± 2.69 mmHg in açaí-treated rats (P < 0.05 vs. MI). The LV relaxation rate (-dp/dt) was reduced in MI rats compared to the sham group, whereas açaí treatment prevented this reduction. Açaí treatment prevented cardiac hypertrophy and LV fibrosis in MI rats. Conclusions Euterpe oleracea treatment of MI rats prevented the development of exercise intolerance, cardiac

  1. Regulation of fruit ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit ripening is a process unique to plants in which floral seed bearing organs mature into fleshy structures attractive and nutritious to seed dispersing organisms. While the specific characteristics of ripening fruit vary among species, a number of general themes are exhibited in many fleshy rip...

  2. Fruit and Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased by more than 30% over the last few decades in the U.S. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruit and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on mi...

  3. Velutin reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory cytokine TNFa and IL-6 production by inhibiting NF-Kappa B activation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown that some flavonoids are modulators of proinflammatory cytokine expression. Velutin, an uncommon flavone isolated from acai (Euterpe oleraceas) berry, was tested for the effects in reducing LPS-induced TNFa and IL-6 production in RAW 264.7 peripheral macrophages and periton...

  4. Consumption of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) functional beverage reduces muscle stress and improves effort tolerance in elite athletes: a randomized controlled intervention study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Peixoto, Jacqueline; Moura, Mirian Ribeiro Leite; Cunha, Felipe Amorim; Lollo, Pablo Christiano B; Monteiro, Walace David; Carvalho, Lucia Maria Jaeger de; Farinatti, Paulo de Tarso Veras

    2015-07-01

    The study analyzed the effect of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) functional beverage (AB) on muscle and oxidative stress markers, cardiorespiratory responses, perceived exertion, and time-to-exhaustion during maximal treadmill running. The beverage was developed as an ergogenic aid for athletes and contained 27.6 mg of anthocyanins per dose. Fourteen athletes performed 3 exercise tests: a ramp-incremental maximal exercise test and 2 maximal exercise bouts performed in 2 conditions (AB and without AB (control)) at 90% maximal oxygen uptake. Blood was collected at baseline and after maximal exercise in both conditions to determine biomarkers. AB increased time to exhaustion during short-term high-intensity exercise (mean difference: 69 s, 95% confidence interval = -296 s to 159 s, t = 2.2, p = 0.045), attenuating the metabolic stress induced by exercise (p < 0.05). AB also reduced perceived exertion and enhanced cardiorespiratory responses (p < 0.05). The AB may be a useful and practical ergogenic aid to enhance performance during high-intensity training. PMID:26140415

  5. Pro-apoptotic activities of polyphenolics from açai (Euterpe oleracea Martius) in human SW-480 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dias, Manoela Maciel dos Santos; Noratto, Giuliana; Martino, Hercia Stampini Duarte; Arbizu, Shirley; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Talcott, Stephen; Ramos, Afonso Mota; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the cell growth inhibition activity of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) polyphenolic extract against colon cancer HT-29 and SW-480 cells and the nonmalignant CCD-18Co colon fibroblast cells. Results showed that açai polyphenolic extract (5-20 mg/L) inhibited preferentially the growth of SW-480 cells with no toxicity in CCD-18Co cells, and this was accompanied by reduction of H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The mechanisms involved in SW-480 cell growth-inhibition by açai polyphenolic extract included the downregulation of NF-κB proinflammatory transcription factor and the nuclear factor-kappa B targets intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Furthermore, prooncogenic specificity proteins (Sp) were downregulated as well as Sp-targets Bcl-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and survivin. This was accompanied by activation of mitochondrial proapoptotic pathway involving increase of cytochrome c, cleavage of caspase-3, and decrease of PARP-1. Results strongly suggest that açai polyphenolic extract has antiinflammatory and cytotoxic activities in colon cancer cells and can be effective as natural colon cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:25329001

  6. Seedless Fruit Production by Hormonal Regulation of Fruit Set

    PubMed Central

    Pandolfini, Tiziana

    2009-01-01

    Seed and fruit development are intimately related processes controlled by internal signals and environmental cues. The absence of seeds is usually appreciated by consumers and producers because it increases fruit quality and fruit shelf-life. One method to produce seedless fruit is to develop plants able to produce fruits independently from pollination and fertilization of the ovules. The onset of fruit growth is under the control of phytohormones. Recent genomic studies have greatly contributed to elucidate the role of phytohormones in regulating fruit initiation, providing at the same time genetic methods for introducing seedlessness in horticultural plants. PMID:22253976

  7. Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synerg...

  8. Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and syner...

  9. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, ...

  10. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities of an antioxidant-rich fruit and berry juice blend. Results of a pilot and randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Gitte S; Wu, Xianli; Patterson, Kelly M; Barnes, Janelle; Carter, Steve G; Scherwitz, Larry; Beaman, Robert; Endres, John R; Schauss, Alexander G

    2008-09-24

    This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a juice blend (JB), MonaVie Active, containing a mixture of fruits and berries with known antioxidant activity, including acai, a palm fruit, as the predominant ingredient. The phytochemical antioxidants in the JB are primarily in the form of anthocyanins, predominantly cyanidin 3-rutoside, cyanidin 3-diglycoside, and cyanidin 3-glucoside. The cell-based antioxidant protection of erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay demonstrated that antioxidants in the JB penetrated and protected cells from oxidative damage ( p < 0.001), whereas polymorphonuclear cells showed reduced formation of reactive oxygen species ( p < 0.003) and reduced migration toward three different pro-inflammatory chemoattractants: fmlp ( p < 0.001), leukotriene B4 ( p < 0.05), and IL-8 ( p < 0.03). A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with 12 healthy subjects examined the JB's antioxidant activity in vivo. Blood samples at baseline, 1 h, and 2 h following consumption of the JB or placebo were tested for antioxidant capacity using several antioxidant assays and the TBARS assay, a measure of lipid peroxidation. A within subject comparison showed an increase in serum antioxidants at 1 h ( p < 0.03) and 2 h ( p < 0.015), as well as inhibition of lipid peroxidation at 2 h ( p < 0.01) postconsumption. PMID:18717569

  11. Inhibitory effect of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp on IgE-mediated mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Tomoko; Ishiguro, Nahoko; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao; Hori-Tamura, Naoko

    2011-05-25

    The palm fruit açaí is known to have potential health benefits due to its antioxidant scavenging capacities. Pretreatment of IgE-sensitized mouse primary cultured mast cells with açaí pulp resulted in the dramatic suppression of antigen-induced degranulation in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, açaí suppressed IgE-mediated degranulation and transcription of the cytokine genes from a cultured mast cell line of rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Açaí could selectively inhibit FcεRI signaling pathways. Furthermore, the FcεRI-mediated complementary signaling pathway was also suppressed by açaí. These results demonstrate that açaí is a potent inhibitor of IgE-mediated mast cell activation. PMID:21486000

  12. Euterpe oleracea Mart.-derived polyphenols prevent endothelial dysfunction and vascular structural changes in renovascular hypertensive rats: role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Cristiane Aguiar; de Oliveira, Paola Raquel Braz; de Bem, Graziele Freitas; de Cavalho, Lenize Costa Reis Marins; Ognibene, Dayane Teixeira; da Silva, Andréa Fernandes Emiliano; Dos Santos Valença, Samuel; Pires, Karla Maria Pereira; da Cunha Sousa, Pergentino José; de Moura, Roberto Soares; Resende, Angela Castro

    2012-12-01

    The consumption of polyphenol-rich foods is associated with a decreased risk of mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Previously, we have demonstrated that the stone of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) from the Amazon region exerts vasodilator and antioxidant actions. This study examined the effect of açaí stone extract (ASE) on the vascular functional and structural changes and oxidative stress associated with the two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C) renovascular hypertension. 2K-1C and sham-operated rats were treated with ASE 200 mg/kg/day (or vehicle) for 40 days. Blood pressure was measured by tail plethysmography, and the vascular reactivity was evaluated in the rat isolated mesenteric arterial bed. Mesenteric protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 (SOD1 and SOD2), metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP)-1 was assessed by Western blot; oxidative damage and antioxidant activity by spectrophotometry; MMP-2 levels by gelatin zymography; and structural changes by histological analysis. ASE prevented 2K-1C hypertension and the reduction of acetylcholine-induced vasodilation. The increased levels of malondialdehyde and carbonyl protein were reduced by ASE. SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities and the expressions of SOD1 and SOD2, eNOS, and TIMP-1 were decreased in 2K-1C rats and recovered by ASE. In 2K-1C rats, ASE prevented vascular remodeling and the increased expression/levels of MMP-2. These findings indicate that ASE produces antihypertensive effect and prevents the endothelial dysfunction and vascular structural changes in 2K-1C hypertension, probably through mechanisms involving antioxidant effects, NOS activation, and inhibition of MMP-2 activation. PMID:23052352

  13. Fruit and vegetable allergy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable allergies are the most prevalent food allergies in adolescents and adults. The identification of the allergens involved and the elucidation of their intrinsic properties and cross-reactivity patterns has helped in the understanding of the mechanisms of sensitisation and how the allergen profiles determine the different phenotypes. The most frequent yet contrasting fruit and vegetable allergies are pollen-food syndrome (PFS) and lipid transfer protein (LTP) syndrome. In PFS, fruit and vegetable allergies result from a primary sensitisation to labile pollen allergens, such as Bet v 1 or profilin, and the resulting phenotype is mainly mild, consisting of local oropharyngeal reactions. In contrast, LTP syndrome results from a primary sensitisation to LTPs, which are stable plant food allergens, inducing frequent systemic reactions and even anaphylaxis. Although much less prevalent, severe fruit allergies may be associated with latex (latex-fruit syndrome). Molecular diagnosis is essential in guiding the management and risk assessment of these patients. Current management strategies comprise avoidance and rescue medication, including adrenaline, for severe LTP allergies. Specific immunotherapy with pollen is not indicated to treat pollen-food syndrome, but sublingual immunotherapy with LTPs seems to be a promising therapy for LTP syndrome. PMID:26022876

  14. Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... at breakfast At breakfast, top your cereal with bananas, peaches, or strawberries; add blueberries to pancakes; drink ... fruit at lunch At lunch, pack a tangerine, banana, or grapes to eat, or choose fruits from ...

  15. Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... lunch At lunch, pack a tangerine, banana, or grapes to eat, or choose fruits from a salad ... coleslaw, or include orange sections, dried cranberries, or grapes in a tossed salad. 9 snack on fruits ...

  16. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find…

  17. Pesticides on fruits and vegetables

    MedlinePlus

    ... option, you may want to buy and serve organic produce. Organic growers do not use pesticides on their fruits ... To remove harmful bacteria, you must wash both organic and nonorganic fruits and vegetables.

  18. Ethylene and Fruit Ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments designed to down-regulate specific tomato ethylene receptor isoforms using antisense suppression have been reported for LeETR1, NR and LeETR4. Down-regulation of LeETR1 expression in transgenic plants did not alter fruit ripening but resulted in plants with shorter internodes and reduce...

  19. Raspberry Crumbly Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raspberry crumbly fruit, widespread in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and British Columbia, Canada, can be caused by virus infection. Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) has long been attributed as the causal agent of the disease. Recently, the identification of two new viruses, Raspberry...

  20. Emerging fruit crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...

  1. Palms versus trees: water use characteristics of native fruit-bearing plant species in the Central Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunert, N.; Barros, P.; Higuchi, N.

    2012-12-01

    Native fruiting plants are widely cultivated in the Amazon but only little information on their water use characteristics can be found in the literature. Due to the growing local consumption and the increasing popularity for new "exotic" fruits all over Brazil and worldwide, additional new plantations cultivating such fruit-bearing species might be established in the Amazon in the future. These new plantations will affect the water table of the cultivated areas, however, the impact of these changes on the regional hydrology are not known. We, therefore, decided to study plant water use characteristics of two native fruit plants commonly occurring in the Amazon region, a tree species (Cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum, (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum., Malvaceae) and a palm species (Açai, Euterpe oleraceae Mart., Arecaceae). This study was conducted in a fruit plantation close to the city of Manaus, in the Central Amazon, Brazil. The objectives of our study were 1) to compare variables controlling plant water use and 2) to identify differences in water use between woody monocot and dicot plant species. We chose three representative individuals with well-sun-exposed crowns for each species, which were equipped with Granier-type thermal dissipation probes to measure sap flux density continuously for six weeks from August 1st 2011 until September 6th 2011. We used a simple sap flux model with two environmental variables, photosynthetic photon flux density and vapor pressure deficit, to compare sap flux densities between species. We achieved a good model fit and modeled sap flux densities corresponded very well with the actual measured values. No significant differences among species in sap flux densities were indicated by the model. Overall, palms had a 3.5 fold higher water consumption compared to trees with similar diameter. Water use scaled independent from species with the size of the conductive xylem area (r2 = 0.85), so that the higher water use of the palms was

  2. Myxobacteria Fruiting Body Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yi

    2006-03-01

    Myxobacteria are social bacteria that swarm and glide on surfaces, and feed cooperatively. When starved, tens of thousands of cells change their movement pattern from outward spreading to inward concentration; they form aggregates that become fruiting bodies, inside which cells differentiate into nonmotile, environmentally resistant spores. Traditionally, cell aggregation has been considered to imply chemotaxis, a long-range cell interaction mediated by diffusing chemicals. However, myxobacteria aggregation is the consequence of direct cell-contact interactions. I will review our recent efforts in modeling the fruiting body formation of Myxobacteria, using lattice gas cellular automata models that are based on local cell-cell contact signaling. These models have reproduced the individual phases in Myxobacteria development such as the rippling, streaming, early aggregation and the final sporulation; the models can be unified to simulate the whole developmental process of Myxobacteria.

  3. Auditory system of fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Kamikouchi, Azusa

    2016-08-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an invaluable model for auditory research. Advantages of using the fruit fly include its stereotyped behavior in response to a particular sound, and the availability of molecular-genetic tools to manipulate gene expression and cellular activity. Although the receiver type in fruit flies differs from that in mammals, the auditory systems of mammals and fruit flies are strikingly similar with regard to the level of development, transduction mechanism, mechanical amplification, and central projections. These similarities strongly support the use of the fruit fly to study the general principles of acoustic information processing. In this review, we introduce acoustic communication and discuss recent advances in our understanding on hearing in fruit flies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:26560238

  4. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented. PMID:26593569

  5. Deconstructing a fruit serving: comparing the antioxidant density of select whole fruit and 100% fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Kristi Michele; Murray, Elizabeth

    2013-10-01

    Research suggests phytonutrients, specifically phenolic compounds, within fruit may be responsible for the putatively positive antioxidant benefits derived from fruit. Given the prominence of fruit juice in the American diet, the purpose of this research was to assess the antioxidant density of fresh fruit and 100% fruit juice for five commonly consumed fruits and juices and to compare the adequacy of 100% juice as a dietary equivalent to whole fruit in providing beneficial antioxidants. Antioxidant density was measured using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method on six samples assayed in triplicate for each fruit (grape, apple, orange, grapefruit, pineapple), name-brand 100% juice, and store-brand 100% juice. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference or Student t test were used to assess significance (P<0.05). Antioxidant density (mmol TE/100 g) of apple, orange, and grapefruit was 23% to 54% higher than the mean antioxidant density of name-brand and store-brand juices for each fruit; however, only apple and grapefruit exhibited significantly greater (P<0.05) antioxidant density than either of their name-brand or store-brand juices. In contrast, the mean antioxidant density of name-brand grape and pineapple juice was higher than fresh grape or pineapple fruit; however, both fresh grapes and commercial grape juice contained significantly more (P<0.05) antioxidants than store-brand grape juice. Regardless of the convenience of fruit juice, results support the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for increasing fruit servings in the whole fruit form due to their provision of beneficial antioxidants and fiber with approximately 35% less sugar. PMID:23810279

  6. Authentication of Punica granatum L.: Development of SCAR markers for the detection of 10 fruits potentially used in economically motivated adulteration.

    PubMed

    Marieschi, Matteo; Torelli, Anna; Beghé, Deborah; Bruni, Renato

    2016-07-01

    The large commercial success of pomegranate increase the likelihood of economically motivated adulteration (EMA), which has been gradually spotted with the undeclared addition of anthocyanin-rich plants or cheaper fruit juices used as bulking and diluting agents. A method based on Sequence-Characterized Amplified Regions (SCARs) was developed to detect the presence of Aristotelia chilensis, Aronia melanocarpa, Dioscorea alata, Euterpe oleracea, Malus×domestica, Morus nigra, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vitis vinifera as bulking agents in Punica granatum. The method enabled the unequivocal detection of up to 1% of each adulterant, allowing the preemptive rejection of suspect samples. The recourse to such method may reduce the number of samples to be subjected to further phytochemical analyses when multiple batches have to be evaluated in a short time. Vice versa, it allows the cross-check of suspect batches previously tested only for their anthocyanin profile. The dimension of the amplicons is suitable for the analysis of degraded DNA obtained from stored and processed commercial material. Proper SCAR markers may represent a fast, sensitive, reliable and low-cost screening method for the authentication of processed commercial pomegranate material. PMID:26920316

  7. The control of polyphenol oxidase activity in fruits and vegetables. A study of the interactions between the chemical compounds used and heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Almeida, M E; Nogueira, J N

    1995-04-01

    Objective of this research was to find alternative methods for the control of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in fruits and vegetables with the purpose of reducing or eliminating the use of SO2 for this purpose. Interactions between the use of ascorbic acid, citric acid, EDTA, sodium metabisulphite and heat treatment (70 degrees C for 2 min) in the control of PPO activity were studied in avocado (var. Fortuna), banana (var. Nanica), apple (var. Ana, Fuji, Gala & Golden), pear (var. D'Agua), peach (var. Réal), potato (var. Bintje), eggplant (var. Super F100), mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and hearts-of-palm (Euterpe edulis Mart). The results demonstrated that PPO of avocado and eggplant was most resistant to inhibition by the methods used. The least efficient method tested for the control of PPO was the addition of ascorbic acid and EDTA, while the most efficient methods investigated included the use of ascorbic acid, citric acid, sodium metabisulphite and heat treatment. The results indicated that, with the exception of PPO from avocado, the most adequate alternative method to substitute for the use of SO2 in the control of PPO was a combination of ascorbic acid, citric acid and heat treatment. PMID:7659702

  8. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently. PMID:26706059

  9. Moulds and yeasts in fruit salads and fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Tournas, V H; Heeres, J; Burgess, L

    2006-10-01

    Thirty-eight fruit salad samples including cantaloupe, citrus fruits, honeydew, pineapple, cut strawberries and mixed fruit salads, and 65 pasteurized fruit juice samples (apple, carrot, grapefruit, grape and orange juices, apple cider, and soy milk) were purchased from local supermarkets in the Washington, DC area and tested for fungal contamination. The majority of fruit salad samples (97%) were contaminated with yeasts at levels ranging from <2.0 to 9.72 log10 of colony forming units per gram (cfu/g). Frequently encountered yeasts were Pichia spp., Candida pulcherrima, C. lambica, C. sake, Rhodotorula spp., and Debaryomyces polymorphus. Low numbers of Penicillium spp. were found in pineapple salads, whereas Cladosporium spp. were present in mixed fruit and cut strawberry salads. Twenty-two per cent of the fruit juice samples tested showed fungal contamination. Yeasts were the predominant contaminants ranging from <1.0 to 6.83 log10 cfu/ml. Yeasts commonly found in fruit juices were C. lambica, C. sake, and Rhodotorula rubra. Geotrichum spp. and low numbers of Penicillium and Fusarium spp. (1.70 and 1.60 log10 cfu/ml, respectively) were present in grapefruit juice. PMID:16943069

  10. Anthocyanins Present in Some Tropical Fruits.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many tropical fruits are rich in anthocyanins, though limited information is available about the characterization and quantification of these anthocyanins. The identification of anthocyanin pigments in four tropical fruits was determined by ion trap mass spectrometry. Fruits studied included acero...

  11. Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits You are here ... Fruits Print Share 10 TIPS NUTRITION EDUCATION SERIES Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits 10 tips for ...

  12. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  13. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Burton, Rachel A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  14. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D; Burton, Rachel A; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  15. Gibberellin metabolism in isolated pea fruit tissue and intact fruits

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, S.; Brenner, M.L. )

    1989-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) have been shown by others to be required for normal development of pea fruit. Whether the pericarp of the developing pea fruit produces GAs in situ is not known. To determine if the pericarp has the capacity to produce GAs during fruit growth, the metabolism of the first two committed GAs in the biosynthetic pathway, ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde and ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was examined in tissue obtained from pollinated, parthenocarpic, and control fruit over 4 days from treatment. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde was converted primarily to conjugates, including ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde conjugate. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was converted to ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53} in all tissue, but by day 4 only tissue from pollinated or parthenocarpic fruits showed sustained formation of ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53}. When ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} is applied to 4-day-old fruits attached to the plants, the major product obtained after 24 hours is ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 20} (as identified by GC-MS). No transport to the developing seed was observed. These results indicate that the elongating fruit tissue has the capacity to produce GAs.

  16. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  17. 76 FR 81401 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... pests, and 1 mite. Fruit flies Jarvis's fruit fly (Bactrocera jarvisi). Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni). Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata). Lepidopteran pests Yellow peach moth (Conogethes... of Litchi Fruit From Australia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

  18. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestication of olive fruit, Olea europaea L., produced a better host for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), than wild olives, but fruit domestication reduced natural enemy efficiency. Important factors for selection of natural enemies for control of olive fruit fly include climate matchi...

  19. Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Veggies and Fruits Print Share 10 TIPS NUTRITION EDUCATION SERIES Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits 10 tips for affordable vegetables and fruits It is possible to fit vegetables and fruits into any budget. Making nutritious choices does not have to hurt ...

  20. Evaluating health benefits of various fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits are an essential part of our daily diets. Most fruits are naturally low in fat, sodium and calories. Fruits are important sources of many nutrients, including potassium, dietary fiber, vitamin C, folic acid and they do not contain cholesterol. Some fruits have laxative effects, prevent uri...

  1. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  2. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both...

  3. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  4. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both...

  5. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both...

  6. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  7. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  8. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  9. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both...

  10. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both...

  11. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  12. Fruiting organs of Cladosporium werneckii.

    PubMed

    Volcán, G; Godoy, G A; Battistini, F; Alvarez, A

    1976-07-01

    Submerged mycelia of a strain of Cladosporium werneckii isolated from tinea nigra palmaris, when cultured on enriched corn-meal agar media, developed fruiting bodies resembling perithecia. PMID:986694

  13. Biomechanics of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Peleg, K

    1985-01-01

    The scope of fruit and vegetable biomechanics is reviewed. Sources of mechanical injury to produce in harvesting, processing, storage, packaging and transportation are briefly described. A survey of produce handling and transportation environments was conducted, whereby an envelope model encompassing composite spectra of trucks, railroad, marine and cargo aircraft is presented. The protective quality, i.e. strength of shipping containers is quantified in static and dynamic loading such as encountered in storage, handling and transportation. Mechanical response of fruits and vegetables in quasistatic and dynamic loading are formulated by a nonlinear rheological model, whereby a time and deformation dependent relaxation modulus is defined. A realistic link is established between the model and real fruits and vegetables by test procedures for determination of the parameters in the governing nonlinear equations. Based on the nonlinear relaxation modulus, mechanical damage of fruits and vegetables is quantified for static compression, transients and vibration loading as well as for combined static and dynamic loading, by equations of contact circle diameter, bruise depth and contact pressure. Distribution of loads over a maximal number of contact points per fruit is linked to geometrical patterns of produce packs. The application of Shock Damage Boundary techniques for produce-package testing is described along with a case study comparing the protective qualities of two types of apple packs. Produce damage quantification by direct fruit inspection in terms of a 'Bruise Index' is described, including a practical example, comparing the protective qualities of three types of apple packs in shipping tests. Indirect methods of mechanical injury evaluation, based on weight loss and CO2 emission differences between bruised and wholesome fruits are also briefly discussed. PMID:4077855

  14. Freeze-frame fruit selection by birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Mercedes S.

    2008-01-01

    The choice of fruits by an avian frugivore is affected by choices it makes at multiple hierarchical levels (e.g., species of fruit, individual tree, individual fruit). Factors that influence those choices vary among levels in the hierarchy and include characteristics of the environment, the tree, and the fruit itself. Feeding experiments with wild-caught birds were conducted at El Tirol, Departamento de Itapua, Paraguay to test whether birds were selecting among individual fruits based on fruit size. Feeding on larger fruits, which have proportionally more pulp, is generally more efficient than feeding on small fruits. In trials (n = 56) with seven species of birds in four families, birds selected larger fruits 86% of the time. However, in only six instances were size differences significant, which is likely a reflection of small sample sizes.

  15. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  16. Processing of fresh palm fruits using microwaves.

    PubMed

    Chow, Mee Chin; Ma, Ah Ngan

    2007-01-01

    Microwave heating was determined in this study to be suitable for the detachment and drying of palm fruits from whole bunches, cut bunches and spikelets. Microwave treatment of the palm fruits was able to attain the objectives of conventional fresh palm fruits sterilization processeses such as fruit softening, nut conditioning and halting of enzymatic lipolysis. Palm oil and kernel oil solvent extracted respectively from the microwave treated whole fruits and kernel were found to have a good quality of low free fatty acid content. This technology, together with the solvent extraction of the dehydrated fruits, may have the potential to be a continuous, dry and clean technology for palm oil milling. PMID:17645207

  17. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  18. Molecular regulation of fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Sonia; Scossa, Federico; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2013-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process that coincides with seed maturation. The ripening process is regulated by thousands of genes that control progressive softening and/or lignification of pericarp layers, accumulation of sugars, acids, pigments, and release of volatiles. Key to crop improvement is a deeper understanding of the processes underlying fruit ripening. In tomato, mutations blocking the transition to ripe fruits have provided insights into the role of ethylene and its associated molecular networks involved in the control of ripening. However, the role of other plant hormones is still poorly understood. In this review, we describe how plant hormones, transcription factors, and epigenetic changes are intimately related to provide a tight control of the ripening process. Recent findings from comparative genomics and system biology approaches are discussed. PMID:23785378

  19. Fruit biomechanics based on anatomy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiguo; Yang, Hongling; Li, Pingping; Liu, Jizhan; Wang, Jizhang; Xu, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Fruit biomechanics is needed for quality determination, multiscale modelling and engineering design of fruit processes and equipments. However, these determined fruit biomechanics data often have obvious differences for the same fruit or tissue. In order to investigate it, the fruit biomechanics based on anatomy was reviewed in this paper. First, the anatomical characteristics of fruit biomaterials were described at the macroscopic `tissue' level and microscopic `cellular' level. Subsequently, the factors affecting fruit biomechanics based on anatomy and the relationships between fruit biomechanics, texture and mechanical damage were summarised according to the published literature. Fruit biomechanics is mainly affected by size, number and arrangement of cells, quantity and volume of intracellular spaces, structure, thickness, chemical composition and permeability of cell walls, and pectin degradation level and turgor pressure within cells based on microanatomy. Four test methods and partial determined results of fruit biomechanics were listed and reviewed. The determined mechanical properties data of fruit are only approximate values by using the existing four test methods, owing to the fruit biomaterials being non-homogeneous and living. Lastly, further aspects for research on fruit biomechanics were proposed for the future.

  20. Flowering and Fruiting Patterns of Primocane-Fruiting Blackberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flowering morphology of the erect, thorny, primocane-fruiting blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus, Watson) cultivars Prime-Jan® and Prime-Jim® were studied in 2005 and 2006 in Aurora, Ore. Primocanes that were "soft-tipped" in early summer to 1 m were compared to un-tipped primocanes. In both ...

  1. Flowering and Fruiting Morphology of Primocane-Fruiting Blackberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flowering morphology of the erect, thorny primocane-fruiting blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus) cultivars Prime-JanTM and Prime-JimTM were studied in 2005 in Aurora, Oregon. Primocanes that were "soft-tipped" in early summer to 1 m were compared to un-tipped primocanes and floricanes. On avera...

  2. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer ... courtesy of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be ...

  3. Mechanisms regulating auxin action during fruit development.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Richard J; Csukasi, Fabiana; Catalá, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Auxin controls many aspects of fruit development, including fruit set and growth, ripening and abscission. However, the mechanisms by which auxin regulates these processes are still poorly understood. While it is generally agreed that precise spatial and temporal control of auxin distribution and signaling are required for fruit development, the dynamics of auxin biosynthesis and the mechanisms for its transport to different fruit tissues are mostly unknown. Despite major advances in elucidating many aspects of auxin biology in vegetative tissues, until recently, the nature and importance of auxin metabolism, transport and signaling during fruit ontogeny remained obscure. In this review, we summarize recent research that has started to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which auxin is produced and transported in the fruit and to unravel the complexity of auxin signaling during fruit development. We also discuss recent approaches used to reveal the genes and regulatory networks that mediate cell and tissue-specific control of auxin levels in the developing fruit. PMID:24329770

  4. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough to imagine a ...

  5. Fruit Every Day Might Help Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... suggests. Adults who ate fresh fruit, such as apples and oranges, every day had about a one- ... The most commonly eaten fruits in China are apples, pears and oranges, Li said. America's favorite fresh ...

  6. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  7. Blueberry Fruit Development and Splitting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A problem facing blueberry growers in the southeastern United States is rain-related fruit splitting. Splitting refers to a break in the skin and/or pulp of the berry, prevalent in some cultivars, that occurs after a period of drought followed by intense rain. We hypothesize that blueberry cultiv...

  8. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alco...

  9. Rubus fruit myths vs. reality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This factsheet corrects several popular media inaccuracies about Rubus fruit. Supplying the public with scientific facts is part of our continued efforts to assist consumers in making sound health conscious decisions. This project was partially funded by a Specialty Crop Research Initiative grant fr...

  10. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases. Also in…

  11. Developing disease resistant stone fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stone fruit (Prunus spp.) (peach, nectarine, plum, apricot, cherry) and almonds are susceptible to a number of pathogens. These pathogens can cause extensive losses in the field, during transport and storage, and in the market. Breeding for disease resistance requires an extensive knowledge of the...

  12. Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past five or so years blueberry growers in south Mississippi have discovered the disease Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot on some of their blueberry plants. In the past this disease was considered to be of minor importance occurring infrequently on isolated farms. But in recent years it ...

  13. Genomics of Tropical Fruit Tree Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic improvement of tropical fruit trees is limited when compared to progress achieved in temperate fruit trees and annual crops. Tropical fruit tree breeding programs require significant resources to develop new cultivars that are adapted to modern shipping and storage requirements. The use...

  14. Fruit ripening: physiology, signalling and genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit development and ripening represent the terminal phase of plant development. It is during this phase that fleshy fruits are enriched with sensory and nutritional quality attributes. Fruits are a dietary source of vitamins, minerals and fibre but, due to their short postharvest life, a large por...

  15. EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON FRUIT CROPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of climatic restrictions, fruit production is concentrated in a relatively few states in the U.S. Among the factors presenting increasing challenges to fruit growers is air pollution. In contrast to herbaceous annual agricultural crops, woody perennial fruit plants are su...

  16. 27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of wine from dried fruit, a quantity of water sufficient to restore the moisture content to that of... to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content is not known, sufficient water may be added to reduce the density to 22 degrees Brix. If the dried fruit liquid after restoration is found to...

  17. Increasing tomato fruit quality by enhancing fruit chloroplast function. A double-edged sword?

    PubMed

    Cocaliadis, Maria Florencia; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Pons, Clara; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Fruits are generally regarded as photosynthate sinks as they rely on energy provided by sugars transported from leaves to carry out the highly demanding processes of development and ripening; eventually these imported photosynthates also contribute to the fruit organoleptic properties. Three recent reports have revealed, however, that transcriptional factors enhancing chloroplast development in fruit may result in higher contents not only of tomato fruit-specialized metabolites but also of sugars. In addition to suggesting new ways to improve fruit quality by fortifying fruit chloroplasts and plastids, these results prompted us to re-evaluate the importance of the contribution of chloroplasts/photosynthesis to fruit development and ripening. PMID:24723405

  18. Acylphloroglucinol Biosynthesis in Strawberry Fruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Chuankui; Ring, Ludwig; Hoffmann, Thomas; Huang, Fong-Chin; Slovin, Janet; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-11-01

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native Fragaria spp. fruit metabolites whose levels were differently regulated in the transgenic fruits. The biosynthesis of the APG aglycones was investigated by examination of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant Fragaria vesca chalcone synthase (FvCHS) proteins. CHS is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis during ripening. The F. vesca enzymes readily catalyzed the condensation of two intermediates in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, isovaleryl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and isobutyryl-CoA, with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form phlorisovalerophenone and phlorisobutyrophenone, respectively, and formed naringenin chalcone when 4-coumaroyl-CoA was used as starter molecule. Isovaleryl-CoA was the preferred starter substrate of FvCHS2-1. Suppression of CHS activity in both transient and stable CHS-silenced fruit resulted in a substantial decrease of APG glucosides and anthocyanins and enhanced levels of volatiles derived from branched-chain amino acids. The proposed APG pathway was confirmed by feeding isotopically labeled amino acids. Thus, Fragaria spp. plants have the capacity to synthesize pharmaceutically important APGs using dual functional CHS/(phloriso)valerophenone synthases that are expressed during fruit ripening. Duplication and adaptive evolution of CHS is the most probable scenario and might be generally applicable to other plants. The results highlight that important promiscuous gene function may be missed when annotation relies solely on in silico analysis. PMID:26169681

  19. Potential heat treatments for quarantine security of exotic tropical fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential heat treatments (HT) were developed to control fruit flies in selected tropical fruits (avocado, guava, longan, passion fruit, and persimmon). Hawaii has three fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), oriental fruit fly, and melon fly. Previous r...

  20. Testing fruit quality by photoacoustic spectroscopy assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, C.; Dumitras, D. C.; Patachia, M.; Banita, S.

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis that raspberry and strawberry fruits from nonorganic farming release more ethylene gas compounds compared to organic ones. At the same time, the experiments focused on evaluation of the potential and capabilities of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) method in the assessment of fruit quality related to the effects of nitrogen. Ethylene gas can be harmful and carcinogenic, because it can accelerate the natural ripening process of physiologically mature fruits and makes the fruits more consistent in size. With the advantages of LPAS, we demonstrate that the concentration of ethylene from nonorganic raspberry and strawberry fruits is greater than from organic ones.

  1. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    PubMed

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. PMID:26802540

  2. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  3. Health benefits of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Joanne L; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-07-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  4. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin

    2016-09-01

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed, their anthocyanin profiles (based on high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] separation) indicated if products' fruit origin listings were authentic. Over 30% of the Vaccinium fruit (cranberry, lingonberry, bilberry, and blueberry; 14 of 45) products available as dietary supplements did not contain the fruit listed as ingredients. Six supplements contained no anthocyanins. Five others had contents differing from labeled fruit (e.g., bilberry capsules containing Andean blueberry fruit). Of the samples that did contain the specified fruit (n = 27), anthocyanin content ranged from 0.04 to 14.37 mg per capsule, tablet, or teaspoon (5 g). Approaches to utilizing anthocyanins in assessment of sample authenticity, and a discussion of the challenges with anthocyanin profiles in quality control are both presented. PMID:27625778

  5. Why fruits go to the dark side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, H. Martin

    2011-11-01

    The colours of fleshy fruits are usually attributed to attract seed dispersers to the plant. A cursory look at the gaudy colours of fleshy fruits on offer in a local fruit stall gives the impression that plants use primarily bright colours to attract fruit consumer. This impression is misleading; many small fruits 'go to the dark side' and become dark purple or black when ripe. Intermingled in foliage, these colours, which are produced by anthocyanins, can be fairly inconspicuous and are thus not easily reconciled with a signalling function to attract seed dispersers. In this review I therefore discuss complementary hypotheses on the function and evolution of fruit colouration. First, I focus on the evidence that fruit colours indeed function as signals to attract seed dispersers. I then show that anthocyanins, the most prevalent fruit pigments, are important dietary antioxidants that can be selected by blackcaps ( Sylvia atricapilla) which are important avian seed dispersers of many European plants. Moreover, the consumption of anthocyanins increases the likelihood that blackcaps mount an immune response during immune challenges. As a next step, I review evidence that anthocyanins accumulate in fruit skin in response to abiotic factors, in particular high illumination coupled with low temperature favour the increase of anthocyanins. Finally, I show that anthocyanins can also be selected for by fruit antagonists, consumers that do not disperse seeds. In particular, high contents of anthocyanins strongly reduce fungal growth in fruit tissue. Taken together, there are various selective pressures which likely influence fruit colour evolution. Currently, the relative importance of each of these selective agents is unknown. There is consequently a need to develop a more encompassing framework on fruit colour evolution.

  6. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine

    PubMed Central

    Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  7. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    PubMed

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  8. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  9. Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops.

    PubMed

    Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda; Sargent, Daniel James; Velasco, Riccardo; Maffei, Massimo E; Malnoy, Mickael

    2015-02-01

    The availability of genome sequences for many fruit crops has redefined the boundaries of genetic engineering and genetically modified (GM) crop plants. However commercialization of GM crops is hindered by numerous regulatory and social hurdles. Here, we focus on recently developed genome-editing tools for fruit crop improvement and their importance from the consumer perspective. Challenges and opportunities for the deployment of new genome-editing tools for fruit plants are also discussed. PMID:25129425

  10. Cell Wall Metabolism in Ripening Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ahmed Elrayah; Labavitch, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Mature `Bartlett' pear (Pyrus communis) fruits were ripened at 20 C. Fruits at different stages of ripeness were homogenized, and extracts of the low speed pellet (crude cell wall) were prepared. These extracts contained polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and activity against seven p-nitrophenyl glycoside substrates. Polygalacturonase, α-galactosidase, and α-mannosidase increased in activity as the fruit ripened. Cellulase and activities against pear wall xylan and arabinan were absent from the extracts. PMID:16661276

  11. Evaluation of blackberry cultivars and breeding selections for fruit quality traits and flowering and fruiting dates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of 122 Rubus (L.) cultivars and breeding selections, primarily semi-erect Eastern blackberry, were evaluated for fruit antioxidant capacity (ORAC), total phenolics, total anthocyanins, percentage soluble solids, titratable acids, flowering dates and fruiting dates. The highly correlated...

  12. Multiscale Biomechanics of Tomato Fruits: A Review.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiguo; Thomas, Colin

    2016-05-18

    Bruising and other mechanical damage to fruit caused by external forces during and postharvesting is manifested at the macroscale but is ultimately the result of failure of cells at the microscale. However, fruits have internal structures and cells from different tissue types react differently to application of an external force. Not much is known about the effects of such forces on single cells within tissues and one reason for this is the lack of multiscale models linking macro- (organ or whole fruit), meso- (tissue), and micro- (cell) mechanics. This review concerns tomato fruits specifically as this is an important crop and is an excellent exemplar of past and proposed research in this field. The first consideration is the multiscale anatomy of tomato fruits that provides the basis for mechanical modeling. The literature on experimental methods for studying multiscale mechanics of fruit is then reviewed, as are recent results from using those methods. Finally, future research directions are discussed, in particular the combination of work over all scales. It is clear that a bottom-up approach incorporating single-cell mechanics in finite element models of whole fruit assumed to have internal structures is a promising way forward for tomato fruits but further method developments may be needed for these and other fruits and vegetables, in particular recovery of representative single cells from tissues for mechanical characterization. PMID:25674836

  13. Susceptibility of Olive Fruit in Relation to Olive Fruit Fly Development and Ovipositional Period in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), females oviposited their first and last eggs in olive fruit, Olea europaea L., when females were 6 and 90 d-old, respectively. The highest mean numbers of eggs per day in 10 olive fruit (55) were oviposited by 28 d-old females, and peak egg production occ...

  14. How microRNA172 affects fruit growth in different species is dependent on fruit type.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jia-Long; Tomes, Sumathi; Xu, Juan; Gleave, Andrew P

    2016-04-01

    microRNA172 (miR172) expression has been shown to have a positive effect on Arabidopsis fruit (siliques) growth. In contrast, over-expression of miR172 has a negative influence on fruit growth in apple, resulting in a dramatic reduction in fruit size. This negative influence is supported by the results of analyzing a transposable element (TE) insertional allele of a MIR172 gene that has reduced expression of the miRNA and is associated with an increase in fruit size. Arabidopsis siliques are a dry fruit derived from ovary tissues, whereas apple is a fleshy pome fruit derived mostly from hypanthium tissues. A model has been developed to explain the contrasting impact of miR172 expression in these two plant species based on the differences in their fruit structure. Transgenic apple plants with extremely high levels of miR172 overexpression produced flowers consisting of carpel tissues only, which failed to produce fruit. By comparison, in tomato, a fleshy berry fruit derived from the ovary, high level over-expression of the same miR172 resulted in carpel-only flowers which developed into parthenocarpic fruit. These results further indicate that the influence of miR172 on fruit growth in different plant species depends on its fruit type. PMID:26926448

  15. Blueberry Fruit Quality and Antioxidants Capacity as Effected by Fruit Ripeness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rabbiteye blueberry fruit are sometimes commercially harvested at onset of ripening as determined visually in order to concentrate harvest, minimize picking times, and increase storage life. These fruit may not be fully ripe at picking, thus fruit quality and antioxidants levels may not have comple...

  16. The hypocholesterolemic activity of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) is mediated by the enhanced expression of the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters 5 and 8 and low-density lipoprotein receptor genes in the rat.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Melina Oliveira; Souza E Silva, Lorena; de Brito Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes; de Figueiredo, Bianca Barros; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the ingestion of açaí pulp can improve serum lipid profile in various animal models; therefore, we hypothesized that açaí pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) may modulate the expression of the genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in the liver and increase fecal excretion, thus reducing serum cholesterol. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the expression of 7α-hydroxylase and ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters (ABCG5 and ABCG8), which are genes involved with the secretion of cholesterol in the rat. We also evaluated the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R), and apolipoprotein B100, which are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Female Fischer rats were divided into 4 groups: the C group, which was fed a standard AIN-93 M diet; the CA group, which was fed a standard diet supplemented with 2% açaí pulp; the H group, which was fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol); and the HA group, which was fed a hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 2% açaí pulp. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were euthanized, and their blood and livers were collected. The HA group exhibited a significant decrease in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and atherogenic index and also had increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cholesterol excretion in feces compared with the H group. In addition, the expression of the LDL-R, ABCG5, and ABCG8 genes was significantly increased by the presence of açaí pulp. These results suggest that açaí pulp promotes a hypocholesterolemic effect in a rat model of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia through an increase in the expression of ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters, and LDL-R genes. PMID:23244543

  17. "FruitZotic": A Sensory Approach to Introducing Preschoolers to Fresh Exotic Fruits at Head Start Locations in Western Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannan, Srimathi; Smith, Rebecca; Foley, Christine; Del Sole, Sarah; White, Alissa; Sheldon, Lisa A.; Mietlcki-Floyd, Shirley; Severin, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    FruitZotic incorporated fruit stories (exotic-fruits-literacy), a "See, Smell, Hear, Touch and Taste" (sensory) segment and a question-prompted discussion. Three take-home components incorporating the exotic fruits were: Coloring Activity, Recipes, and Fact Sheets. Sensory based nutrition education can increase familiarity with exotic fruits among…

  18. Evaluation of Methods to Estimate Understory Fruit Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Lashley, Marcus A.; Thompson, Jeffrey R.; Chitwood, M. Colter; DePerno, Christopher S.; Moorman, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Fleshy fruit is consumed by many wildlife species and is a critical component of forest ecosystems. Because fruit production may change quickly during forest succession, frequent monitoring of fruit biomass may be needed to better understand shifts in wildlife habitat quality. Yet, designing a fruit sampling protocol that is executable on a frequent basis may be difficult, and knowledge of accuracy within monitoring protocols is lacking. We evaluated the accuracy and efficiency of 3 methods to estimate understory fruit biomass (Fruit Count, Stem Density, and Plant Coverage). The Fruit Count method requires visual counts of fruit to estimate fruit biomass. The Stem Density method uses counts of all stems of fruit producing species to estimate fruit biomass. The Plant Coverage method uses land coverage of fruit producing species to estimate fruit biomass. Using linear regression models under a censored-normal distribution, we determined the Fruit Count and Stem Density methods could accurately estimate fruit biomass; however, when comparing AIC values between models, the Fruit Count method was the superior method for estimating fruit biomass. After determining that Fruit Count was the superior method to accurately estimate fruit biomass, we conducted additional analyses to determine the sampling intensity (i.e., percentage of area) necessary to accurately estimate fruit biomass. The Fruit Count method accurately estimated fruit biomass at a 0.8% sampling intensity. In some cases, sampling 0.8% of an area may not be feasible. In these cases, we suggest sampling understory fruit production with the Fruit Count method at the greatest feasible sampling intensity, which could be valuable to assess annual fluctuations in fruit production. PMID:24819253

  19. Holistic approaches to understanding fruit metabolism using metabolomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interpreting fruit metabolism, especially tree fruit, presents unique challenges. Long periods from tree establishment to fruiting render techniques directed towards reducing the complexity of metabolic mechanisms, such as genomic modification, relatively difficult. Consequently, holistic integrat...

  20. 76 FR 37312 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee... Agriculture (USDA) Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee and a Request for Nominations. SUMMARY: The USDA intends to reestablish the Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee (Committee)....

  1. A fruitful endeavor: modeling ALS in the fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Casci, Ian; Pandey, Udai Bhan

    2015-05-14

    For over a century Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, has been instrumental in genetics research and disease modeling. In more recent years, it has been a powerful tool for modeling and studying neurodegenerative diseases, including the devastating and fatal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The success of this model organism in ALS research comes from the availability of tools to manipulate gene/protein expression in a number of desired cell-types, and the subsequent recapitulation of cellular and molecular phenotypic features of the disease. Several Drosophila models have now been developed for studying the roles of ALS-associated genes in disease pathogenesis that allowed us to understand the molecular pathways that lead to motor neuron degeneration in ALS patients. Our primary goal in this review is to highlight the lessons we have learned using Drosophila models pertaining to ALS research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ALS complex pathogenesis. PMID:25289585

  2. A Fruitful Endeavor: Modeling ALS in the Fruit Fly

    PubMed Central

    Casci, Ian; Pandey, Udai Bhan

    2014-01-01

    For over a century Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, has been instrumental in genetics research and disease modeling. In more recent years, it has been a powerful tool for modeling and studying neurodegenerative diseases, including the devastating and fatal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The success of this model organism in ALS research comes from the availability of tools to manipulate gene/protein expression in a number of desired cell-types, and the subsequent recapitulation of cellular and molecular phenotypic features of the disease. Several Drosophila models have now been developed for studying the roles of ALS-associated genes in disease pathogenesis that allowed us to understand the molecular pathways that lead to motor neuron degeneration in ALS patients. Our primary goal in this review is to highlight the lessons we have learned using Drosophila models pertaining to ALS research. PMID:25289585

  3. Lepidoptera associated with avocado fruit in Guatemala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of about 1,098 specimens representing 10 moth species from four families were reared from harvested avocado fruit in Guatemala. Two species were reared from small immature avocados and grown to maturity on unopened avocado flower clusters after small fruit desiccated: (1) Argyrotaenia urbana...

  4. Dispersers shape fruit diversity in Ficus (Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lomáscolo, Silvia B.; Levey, Douglas J.; Kimball, Rebecca T.; Bolker, Benjamin M.; Alborn, Hans T.

    2010-01-01

    Seed dispersal by vertebrates is one of the most common and important plant–animal mutualisms, involving an enormous diversity of fruiting plants and frugivorous animals. Even though plant reproduction depends largely on seed dispersal, evolutionary ecologists have been unable to link co-occurring traits in fruits with differences in behavior, physiology, and morphology of fruit-eating vertebrates. Hence, the origin and maintenance of fruit diversity remains largely unexplained. Using a multivariate phylogenetic comparative test with unbiased estimates of odor and color in figs, we demonstrate that fruit traits evolve in concert and as predicted by differences in the behavior, physiology (perceptive ability) and morphology of their frugivorous seed dispersers. The correlated evolution of traits results in the convergence of general appearance of fruits in species that share disperser types. Observations at fruiting trees independently confirmed that differences in fig traits predict differences in dispersers. Taken together, these results demonstrate that differences among frugivores have shaped the evolution of fruit traits. More broadly, our results underscore the importance of mutualisms in both generating and maintaining biodiversity. PMID:20679219

  5. Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

  6. Antimicrobial packaging for fresh-cut fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh-cut fruits are minimally processed produce which are consumed directly at their fresh stage without any further kill step. Microbiological quality and safety are major challenges to fresh-cut fruits. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the innovative food packaging systems that is able to kill o...

  7. Tephritid fruit fly transgenesis and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most serious agricultural pests in the world, owing in large part to those species having broad host ranges including hundreds of fruits and vegetables. They are the largest group of insects subject to population control by a biologically-based systems, most notab...

  8. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microarray and Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruit, a...

  9. Microbiological spoilage of fruits and vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the U.S. by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruit and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on...

  10. 27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... either water or sugar, or both, in such total volume as may be necessary to reduce the natural fixed acid... of wine from dried fruit, a quantity of water sufficient to restore the moisture content to that of... to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content is not known, sufficient water may be added...

  11. 27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... either water or sugar, or both, in such total volume as may be necessary to reduce the natural fixed acid... of wine from dried fruit, a quantity of water sufficient to restore the moisture content to that of... to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content is not known, sufficient water may be added...

  12. 27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... either water or sugar, or both, in such total volume as may be necessary to reduce the natural fixed acid... of wine from dried fruit, a quantity of water sufficient to restore the moisture content to that of... to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content is not known, sufficient water may be added...

  13. 27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... either water or sugar, or both, in such total volume as may be necessary to reduce the natural fixed acid... of wine from dried fruit, a quantity of water sufficient to restore the moisture content to that of... to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content is not known, sufficient water may be added...

  14. Apple function genomics: from fruit to root

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genotype-specific fruit ripening patterns of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) are closely associated with the at-harvest quality and the post-harvest storability. To elucidate the molecular networks and identify the key genes regulating apple fruit maturation and ripening processes, large-scale ...

  15. Apple function genomics: from fruit to root

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genotype-specific fruit ripening patterns of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) are closely associated with the at-harvest quality and the post-harvest storability. To elucidate the molecular networks and identify the key genes regulating apple fruit maturation and ripening processes, large-scale a...

  16. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic

    PubMed Central

    Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-01-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

  17. A Study of Germination Inhibition in Fruits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, John

    1982-01-01

    Describes a method for the extraction and bioassay of natural germination inhibitors, requiring only inexpensive equipment and minimal experimental skill. The method has been used to demonstrate qualitative/quantitative differences in germination inhibitor levels in a variety of different fruits or in different tissues within a single fruit.…

  18. Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

    1987-04-01

    Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A)/sup +/ RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L-/sup 35/S-methionine. The /sup 35/S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues.

  19. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic.

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-09-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

  20. A young bud's fruitful journey: The spatial and temporal expression of transcription factors controlling early fruit determination and differentiation in stone fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies in Arabidopsis and tomato have provided insights into the transcriptional regulation of floral organogenesis and fruit development in both a dry dehiscent and a fleshy fruit, respectively. Stone fruits including peaches, plums, cherries, and apricots form a fleshy fruit that contains a hard...

  1. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit". PMID:21299842

  2. Novel trends to revolutionize preservation and packaging of fruits/fruit products: microbiological and nanotechnological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Anu; Parshad, Vir R

    2015-01-01

    Fruit preservation and packaging have been practiced since ages to maintain the constant supply of seasonal fruits over lengthened periods round the year. However, health and safety issues have attracted attention in recent decades. The safety and quality assurance of packaged fruits/fruit products are vital concerns in present day world-wide-integrated food supply chains. The growing demand of minimally or unprocessed packaged fruits has further aggravated the safety concerns which fuelled in extensive research with objectives to develop novel techniques of food processing, preservation, and packaging as well as for rapid, accurate, and early detection of contaminant products/microbes. Nevertheless, fruits and fruit-based products have yet to observe a panoramic introduction. Tropics and subtropics are the stellar producers of a variety of fruits; majority if not all is perishable and prone to postharvest decay. This evoked the opportunity to critically review the global scenario of emerging and novel techniques for fruit preservation and packaging, hence providing insight for their future implementation. This review would survey key nanotechnology innovations applied in preservation, packaging, safety, and storage of fruits and fruit-based products. The challenges and pros and cons of wider application of these innovative techniques, their commercial potential, and consumer acceptability have also been discussed. PMID:24915398

  3. Edible coatings influence fruit ripening, quality, and aroma biosynthesis in mango fruit.

    PubMed

    Dang, Khuyen T H; Singh, Zora; Swinny, Ewald E

    2008-02-27

    The effects of different edible coatings on mango fruit ripening and ripe fruit quality parameters including color, firmness, soluble solids concentrations, total acidity, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, fatty acids, and aroma volatiles were investigated. Hard mature green mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Kensigton Pride) fruits were coated with aqueous mango carnauba (1:1 v/v), Semperfresh (0.6%), Aloe vera gel (1:1, v/v), or A. vera gel (100%). Untreated fruit served as the control. Following the coating, fruits were allowed to dry at room temperature and packed in soft-board trays to ripen at 21+/-1 degrees C and 55.2+/-11.1% relative humidity until the eating soft stage. Mango carnauba was effective in retarding fruit ripening, retaining fruit firmness, and improving fruit quality attributes including levels of fatty acids and aroma volatiles. Semperfresh and A. vera gel (1:1 or 100%) slightly delayed fruit ripening but reduced fruit aroma volatile development. A. vera gel coating did not exceed the commercial mango carnauba and Semperfresh in retarding fruit ripening and improving aroma volatile biosynthesis. PMID:18247535

  4. Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis During Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Lado, Joanna; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Rodrigo, María Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are recognized as the main pigments in most fruit crops, providing colours that range from yellow and pink to deep orange and red. Moreover, the edible portion of widely consumed fruits or their derived products represent a major dietary source of carotenoids for animals and humans. Therefore, these pigments are crucial compounds contributing to fruit aesthetic and nutritional quality but may also have protecting and ecophysiological functions in coloured fruits. Among plant organs, fruits display one of the most heterogeneous carotenoids patterns in terms of diversity and abundance. In this chapter a comprehensive list of the carotenoid content and profile in the most commonly cultivated fleshy fruits is reported. The proposed fruit classification systems attending to carotenoid composition are revised and discussed. The regulation of carotenoids in fruits can be rather complex due to the dramatic changes in content and composition during ripening, which are also dependent on the fruit tissue and the developmental stage. In addition, carotenoid accumulation is a dynamic process, associated with the development of chromoplasts during ripening. As a general rule, carotenoid accumulation is highly controlled at the transcriptional level of the structural and accessory proteins of the biosynthetic and degradation pathways, but other mechanisms such as post-transcriptional modifications or the development of sink structures have been recently revealed as crucial factors in determining the levels and stability of these pigments. In this chapter common key metabolic reactions regulating carotenoid composition in fruit tissues are described in addition to others that are restricted to certain species and generate unique carotenoids patterns. The existence of fruit-specific isoforms for key steps such as the phytoene synthase, lycopene β-cyclases or catabolic carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases has allowed an independent regulation of the pathway in fruit tissues

  5. Fruit Sorting Using Fuzzy Logic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elamvazuthi, Irraivan; Sinnadurai, Rajendran; Aftab Ahmed Khan, Mohamed Khan; Vasant, Pandian

    2009-08-01

    Fruit and vegetables market is getting highly selective, requiring their suppliers to distribute the goods according to very strict standards of quality and presentation. In the last years, a number of fruit sorting and grading systems have appeared to fulfill the needs of the fruit processing industry. However, most of them are overly complex and too costly for the small and medium scale industry (SMIs) in Malaysia. In order to address these shortcomings, a prototype machine was developed by integrating the fruit sorting, labeling and packing processes. To realise the prototype, many design issues were dealt with. Special attention is paid to the electronic weighing sub-system for measuring weight, and the opto-electronic sub-system for determining the height and width of the fruits. Specifically, this paper discusses the application of fuzzy logic techniques in the sorting process.

  6. A multilevel analysis of fruit growth of two tomato cultivars in response to fruit temperature.

    PubMed

    Okello, Robert C O; de Visser, Pieter H B; Heuvelink, Ep; Lammers, Michiel; de Maagd, Ruud A; Struik, Paul C; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2015-03-01

    Fruit phenotype is a resultant of inherent genetic potential in interaction with impact of environment experienced during crop and fruit growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic and physiological basis for the difference in fruit size between a small ('Brioso') and intermediate ('Cappricia') sized tomato cultivar exposed to different fruit temperatures. It was hypothesized that fruit heating enhances expression of cell cycle and expansion genes, rates of carbon import, cell division and expansion, and shortens growth duration, whereas increase in cell number intensifies competition for assimilates among cells. Unlike previous studies in which whole-plant and fruit responses cannot be separated, we investigated the temperature response by varying fruit temperature using climate-controlled cuvettes, while keeping plant temperature the same. Fruit phenotype was assessed at different levels of aggregation (whole fruit, cell and gene) between anthesis and breaker stage. We showed that: (1) final fruit fresh weight was larger in 'Cappricia' owing to more and larger pericarp cells, (2) heated fruits were smaller because their mesocarp cells were smaller than those of control fruits and (3) no significant differences in pericarp carbohydrate concentration were detected between heated and control fruits nor between cultivars at breaker stage. At the gene level, expression of cell division promoters (CDKB2, CycA1 and E2Fe-like) was higher while that of the inhibitory fw2.2 was lower in 'Cappricia'. Fruit heating increased expression of fw2.2 and three cell division promoters (CDKB1, CDKB2 and CycA1). Expression of cell expansion genes did not corroborate cell size observations. PMID:24957883

  7. Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, Yew-Ai

    2003-01-01

    The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health. PMID:14506001

  8. Model-Assisted Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Variations in Fruit Temperature and Transpiration Highlighting the Role of Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Saudreau, Marc; Joas, Jacques; Génard, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology. PMID:24663687

  9. [Effects of GA, and CPPU on grape fruit adjacent leaf photosynthesis and fruit quality].

    PubMed

    Xin, Shou-peng; Liu, Shuai; Yu, Yang; Nie, Song-qing; Gao, Zhi-hong; Tao, Jian-min

    2015-06-01

    Taken the grape cultivar 'Shine Muscat' as the material, the effect of the combination of GA3 and CPPU on the light-response curves in the fruit adjacent leaves and fruit quality were investigated two weeks after blossoming. The results showed that non-rectangular hyperbolic model was more suitable for grape fruit adjacent leaf light response curve-fitting. Pn and g(s) of fruit adjacent leaves among all treatments increased with the increasing light intensity under the combination treat-ments of 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 and 5, 10, 15, 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU, respectively, but Ci decreased. Fruit quality increased with the increasing CPPU concentration under the combination treatments of 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 and 5, 10, 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU, respectively. Grape fruit adjacent leaf photosynthesis under the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was higher than the other treatments. The fruit quality under the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was lower than the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment. It indicated that reasonable CPPU treatment concentration could improve fruit adjacent leaf photosynthetic ability and fruit quality. Too high concentration made the fruit quality lower instead. The 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was most appropriate in two weeks after blossoming. PMID:26572037

  10. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F.; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding. PMID:27069395

  11. Fruits and dietary phytochemicals in bone protection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; von Bergen, Vera; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Jenkins, Marjorie R; Mo, Huanbiao; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Kwun, In-Sook

    2012-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease of bone characterized by loss of bone matrix and deterioration of bone microstructure that leads to an increased risk of fracture. Cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between higher fruit intake and higher bone mineral density. In this review, we evaluated animal and cellular studies of dried plum and citrus and berry fruits and bioactive compounds including lycopene, phenolics, favonoids, resveratrol, phloridzin, and pectin derived from tomato, grapes, apples, and citrus fruits. In addition, human studies of dried plum and lycopene were reviewed. Animal studies strongly suggest that commonly consumed antioxidant-rich fruits have a pronounced effect on bone, as shown by higher bone mass, trabecular bone volume, number, and thickness, and lower trabecular separation through enhancing bone formation and suppressing bone resorption, resulting in greater bone strength. Such osteoprotective effects seem to be mediated via antioxidant or anti-inflammatory pathways and their downstream signaling mechanisms, leading to osteoblast mineralization and osteoclast inactivation. In future studies, randomized controlled trials are warranted to extend the bone-protective activity of fruits and their bioactive compounds. Mechanistic studies are needed to differentiate the roles of phytochemicals and other constitutes in bone protection offered by the fruits. Advanced imaging technology will determine the effective doses of phytochemicals and their metabolites in improving bone mass, microarchitecture integrity, and bone strength, which is a critical step in translating the benefits of fruit consumption on osteoporosis into clinical data. PMID:23244535

  12. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part V. Temperate fruits: pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of temperate fruits, i.e., apple, pear, peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, plum, strawberry, bilberry, cranberry, raspberry, and black currant, is reviewed. Changes in fruit metabolism, chemical composition, texture, and organoleptic quality attributes are discussed with reference to the irradiation dose. The feasibility of using radiation either alone or in conjunction with heat treatment, refrigeration, and controlled atmospheres (CA) for the control of storage decay caused by fungal pathogens is considered. Areas of further research are suggested before irradiation could be considered for practical application in some of these temperate fruits. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation for disinfestation of certain pome and stone fruits and the prospects for the commercial utilization of irradiation for improving the market life of strawberries are discussed. PMID:3536313

  13. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part V. Temperate fruits: pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of temperate fruits, i.e., apple, pear, peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, plum, strawberry, bilberry, cranberry, raspberry, and black currant, is reviewed. Changes in fruit metabolism, chemical composition, texture, and organoleptic quality attributes are discussed with reference to the irradiation dose. The feasibility of using radiation either alone or in conjunction with heat treatment, refrigeration, and controlled atmospheres (CA) for the control of storage decay caused by fungal pathogens is considered. Areas of further research are suggested before irradiation could be considered for practical application in some of these temperate fruits. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation for disinfestation of certain pome and stone fruits and the prospects for the commercial utilization of irradiation for improving the market life of strawberries are discussed. 156 references.

  14. Gravitropic bending of fruit bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, Bertold

    Fruit bodies of basidiomycetes exhibit a unique mechanism of gravitropic bending, related to their specific architecture. The gravisensitive region of the stipe directly below the cap coincides with the bending zone. The hyphae of this region are equipped with the ability to generate positional information and translate it into differential growth. A model is introduced with the fundamental characteristics of agent-based modeling as it is applied in robotics and artificial intelligence. The hyphae are equivalent to autonomous decision-making agents on the basis of a simple set of rules. Repetitive interactions between the agents, i.e. the hyphae, permit the correct adjustment of the fruit body independent from its relative position in space. This model is based on the following structural as well as biochemical data derived from the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes. A statolith-mediated mechanism in each individual hypha of the gravisensitive region accounts for graviperception. Cell nuclei with a density of 1.22 g cm-3 are considered the most likely candidates for gravity-induced sedimentation (statoliths). The number of nuclei in this zone is increased from 2 to up to 10 individual nuclei within each hyphal compartment. The nuclei are suspended in a web of actin filaments anchored in the plasma membrane. Any shift from the vertical position is converted into a change in the gravitational pull exerted on the plasma membrane. This leads to a functional distinction of the upper and lower flanks of each hypha. Each hypha is equipped with the ability to generate and amplify a positional signal perpendicular to the axis of the gravisensitive zone. This signal coordinates different hyphal extension of the upper and lower flank of the stipe: upper flank hyphae grow slower than lower flank hyphae. Hyphal growth requires continued turgor pressure and depends on the expansion of the vacuolar compartment. This vacuolation is conspicuously increased in lower flank

  15. Global gene expression analysis of apple fruit development from the floral bud to ripe fruit

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Bart J; Thodey, Kate; Schaffer, Robert J; Alba, Rob; Balakrishnan, Lena; Bishop, Rebecca; Bowen, Judith H; Crowhurst, Ross N; Gleave, Andrew P; Ledger, Susan; McArtney, Steve; Pichler, Franz B; Snowden, Kimberley C; Ward, Shayna

    2008-01-01

    Background Apple fruit develop over a period of 150 days from anthesis to fully ripe. An array representing approximately 13000 genes (15726 oligonucleotides of 45–55 bases) designed from apple ESTs has been used to study gene expression over eight time points during fruit development. This analysis of gene expression lays the groundwork for a molecular understanding of fruit growth and development in apple. Results Using ANOVA analysis of the microarray data, 1955 genes showed significant changes in expression over this time course. Expression of genes is coordinated with four major patterns of expression observed: high in floral buds; high during cell division; high when starch levels and cell expansion rates peak; and high during ripening. Functional analysis associated cell cycle genes with early fruit development and three core cell cycle genes are significantly up-regulated in the early stages of fruit development. Starch metabolic genes were associated with changes in starch levels during fruit development. Comparison with microarrays of ethylene-treated apple fruit identified a group of ethylene induced genes also induced in normal fruit ripening. Comparison with fruit development microarrays in tomato has been used to identify 16 genes for which expression patterns are similar in apple and tomato and these genes may play fundamental roles in fruit development. The early phase of cell division and tissue specification that occurs in the first 35 days after pollination has been associated with up-regulation of a cluster of genes that includes core cell cycle genes. Conclusion Gene expression in apple fruit is coordinated with specific developmental stages. The array results are reproducible and comparisons with experiments in other species has been used to identify genes that may play a fundamental role in fruit development. PMID:18279528

  16. Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2009, Trichoderma rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreening with 5...

  17. Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2009, brown rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreened with 5 ppm et...

  18. 21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail. 145... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.136 Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail. (a) Artificially sweetened canned...

  19. 7 CFR 1416.402 - Eligible fruit and vegetable producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. 1416.402... DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.402 Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. (a) Producers of fruits and vegetables utilizing “plasticulture”, and “other than...

  20. 7 CFR 1416.402 - Eligible fruit and vegetable producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. 1416.402... DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.402 Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. (a) Producers of fruits and vegetables utilizing “plasticulture”, and “other than...

  1. 7 CFR 1416.402 - Eligible fruit and vegetable producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. 1416.402... DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.402 Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. (a) Producers of fruits and vegetables utilizing “plasticulture”, and “other than...

  2. 7 CFR 1416.402 - Eligible fruit and vegetable producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. 1416.402... DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.402 Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. (a) Producers of fruits and vegetables utilizing “plasticulture”, and “other than...

  3. 7 CFR 1416.402 - Eligible fruit and vegetable producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. 1416.402... DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.402 Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. (a) Producers of fruits and vegetables utilizing “plasticulture”, and “other than...

  4. 21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail. 145... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.136 Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail. (a) Artificially sweetened canned...

  5. 21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail. 145... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.136 Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail. (a) Artificially sweetened canned...

  6. 21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail. 145... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.136 Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail. (a) Artificially sweetened canned...

  7. 21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail. 145... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.136 Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail. (a) Artificially sweetened canned...

  8. Structure of anthocyanins from Eugenia jambolana fruit.

    PubMed

    Li, Liya; Zhang, Yanjun; Seeram, Navindra P

    2009-02-01

    The purple color of the ripe Eugenia jambolana fruit is attributed to anthocyanins, a class of plant pigments that has attracted immense attention due to the potential health benefits of these compounds. There is disagreement in the literature on whether E. jambolana fruit anthocyanins are found as 3,5- or 3-diglucosides. Therefore, we used a combination of HPLC-UV, tandem LC-MS, and NMR techniques to identify the structures of anthocyanins present in E. jambolana fruit collected in the U.S.A. and India. Our results indicate that the anthocyanins from both locations occur as 3,5-, but not 3-diglucosides, of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin, and malvidin. This is the first report to use a combination of spectrometric and spectroscopic methods to identify unequivocally the structures of E. jambolana fruit anthocyanins. PMID:19370926

  9. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... no correction is made for water-insoluble solids. Copies may be obtained from the AOAC INTERNATIONAL..., canned, and/or dried (evaporated) mature fruits, with or without added water, and screening out...

  10. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... no correction is made for water-insoluble solids. Copies may be obtained from the AOAC INTERNATIONAL..., canned, and/or dried (evaporated) mature fruits, with or without added water, and screening out...

  11. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... no correction is made for water-insoluble solids. Copies may be obtained from the AOAC INTERNATIONAL..., canned, and/or dried (evaporated) mature fruits, with or without added water, and screening out...

  12. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... no correction is made for water-insoluble solids. Copies may be obtained from the AOAC INTERNATIONAL..., canned, and/or dried (evaporated) mature fruits, with or without added water, and screening out...

  13. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... no correction is made for water-insoluble solids. Copies may be obtained from the AOAC INTERNATIONAL..., canned, and/or dried (evaporated) mature fruits, with or without added water, and screening out...

  14. 7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... varieties of the following types of citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, commonly called “oranges”; (b) Citrus paradisi, MacFadyen, commonly called “grapefruit”; (c) Citrus...

  15. 7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... varieties of the following types of citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, commonly called “oranges”; (b) Citrus paradisi, MacFadyen, commonly called “grapefruit”; (c) Citrus...

  16. 7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... varieties of the following types of citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, commonly called “oranges”; (b) Citrus paradisi, MacFadyen, commonly called “grapefruit”; (c) Citrus...

  17. 7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... varieties of the following types of citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, commonly called “oranges”; (b) Citrus paradisi, MacFadyen, commonly called “grapefruit”; (c) Citrus...

  18. 7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... varieties of the following types of citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, commonly called “oranges”; (b) Citrus paradisi, MacFadyen, commonly called “grapefruit”; (c) Citrus...

  19. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  20. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA... kinds of trees: (a) All varieties of pears except Beurre Hardy, Beurre D'Anjou, Bosc, Winter...

  1. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA... kinds of trees: (a) All varieties of pears except Beurre Hardy, Beurre D'Anjou, Bosc, Winter...

  2. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA... kinds of trees: (a) All varieties of pears except Beurre Hardy, Beurre D'Anjou, Bosc, Winter...

  3. Using mobile fruit vendors to increase access to fresh fruit and vegetables for schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Tester, June M; Yen, Irene H; Laraia, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which schoolchildren purchased precut and bagged fruits and vegetables from a mobile fruit vendor (frutero). During 14 days in fall 2008, a frutero sold fruits and vegetables at the entrance of an elementary school; 59% of the frutero's 233 consumers of 248 items were elementary-school students. With each successive day, an average of 1 additional bag of fruits and vegetables was sold by the frutero and 1.5 fewer nonnutritious foods by a competing vendor. Policies encouraging the sale of nutritious foods from mobile food vendors may increase access for schoolchildren. PMID:22632739

  4. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ..., 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 18419-18421, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0127) a proposal... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit...

  5. Fruit transpiration in kiwifruit: environmental drivers and predictive model

    PubMed Central

    Montanaro, Giuseppe; Dichio, Bartolomeo; Xiloyannis, Cristos; Lang, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims In most fruit crops, storage quality varies greatly between regions and seasons, causing significant commercial loss. Understanding the sources of this variability will contribute to the knowledge of fruit developmental physiology and may also benefit commercial fruit production via altered managements that reduce it or forecasts that predict it. A causal-chain relationship is proposed to help elucidate the sources of variability in fruit storage quality: the weather →(i)→ fruit transpiration →(ii)→ fruit calcium →(iii)→ fruit storage quality. This paper explores the first link of this hypothesis, →(i)→, for Hayward kiwifruit using field measurements of fruit transpiration rate and concurrent meteorological recordings. The aims are to identify the key environmental variables driving fruit transpiration and develop a predictive fruit transpiration model. Methodology Fruit transpiration was determined hourly over several 24-h periods by recording weight loss of detached fruit, on Days 23, 35, 49, 65, 94 and 140 after full bloom. Meteorological records were made every 15 min throughout the season at an adjacent regional weather station. A model of fruit transpiration was developed in which the usual meteorological variables (radiation, temperature, windspeed and relative humidity) were incorporated in a Fick's Law transpiration flux equation. Principal results Fruit transpiration rate (i.e. the molar flux density, mmol cm−2 h−1) varied diurnally and decreased during the season. The dominant fruit variable governing transpiration rate was skin conductance and the dominant environmental variables were relative humidity and temperature. Radiation and windspeed were not significantly influential. Conclusions The model provides a good fit to the fruit transpiration rate measurements regardless of the time of day/night or the stage of fruit development. The model allows reasonably accurate and continuous predictions of fruit

  6. Do Small Canopy Gaps Created by Japanese Black Bears Facilitate Fruiting of Fleshy-Fruited Plants?

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kaori; Washitani, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    Japanese black bears often break branches when climbing trees and feeding on fruit in canopies, thereby creating small canopy gaps. However, the role of black bear-created canopy gaps has not been evaluated in the context of multiple forest dynamics. Our hypothesis was that small canopy gaps created by black bears improve light conditions, which facilitates fruiting of adult fleshy-fruited plants located beneath the gaps, and also that this chain interaction depends on interactions among the size of gaps, improved light conditions, forest layers, and life form of plants. The rPPFD, size of black bear-created canopy gaps, and fruiting/non-fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants were investigated in five forest layers beneath black-bear-created canopy gaps and closed canopies of Mongolian oak (Quercus crispula). We found that light conditions improved beneath black bear-disturbed trees with canopy gaps of large size, and the effect of improvement of light conditions was reduced with descending forest layers. Fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants, especially woody lianas and trees, was facilitated by the improvement of light conditions accompanied by an increase in the size of black-bear-created gaps. Data from this study revealed that canopy disturbance by black bears was key for improving light conditions and accelerating fruiting of fleshy-fruited trees and woody lianas in the canopy layers in particular. Therefore, our hypothesis was mostly supported. Our results provide evidence that Japanese black bears have high potential as ecosystem engineers that increase the availability of resources (light and fruit in this study) to other species by causing physical state changes in biotic materials (branches of Q. crispula in this study). PMID:26207908

  7. Fleshy-fruits phenology: temporal variability on quantity and quality of animal-dispersed fruits in a cerrado-savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Camargo, Maria Gabriela G.; Cazetta, Eliana; Schaefer, Martin; Morellato, L. Patrícia C.

    2014-05-01

    Time and quantity and quality of fruits and seeds produced are limiting factors for the recruitment of new individuals and maintenance plant species. Furthermore, species that produced fruits dispersed by animals have an important role as a source of food for different groups of animals and relay on them to dispersed their seeds. In most of the Brazilian cerrado-savanna, as in others tropical vegetations, there is a predominance of animal-dispersed species, however there is a lack of information about fruit production and its availability over time on tropical savannas. Beyond the comprehension of fruiting patterns and their relation to biotic and abiotic factors, the fruit production over time can be associated with data on fruit quality such as the fruit color and nutritional content. Those combined informations allow us to evaluate the quantity and quality of resources available in a plant community for frugivores and seed predators. For a cerrado-savanna woody community in southeastern Brazil, subjected to a marked seasonal climate, we intended to describe: (i) fruit availability over time (in number and biomass); (ii) nutritional content; and (ii) fruit color patterns over a year. We counted fortnightly the number of ripe fruits and estimated fruit biomass over a year. For the nutritional content, we evaluated the percentage of protein, lipids and carbohydrates in the pulp or aril of fleshy-fruits. We classified fruit colors in red, black, yellow, dark-red, blue and multicolored (when the fruit display is composed by a combination of two non-green colors or more). We observed a period of the highest fruit production in the wet season, with two peaks of production, and a decline in the dry season, a possible period of scarcity. As expected, fruit nutritional content followed mainly the fruiting pattern in biomass. For lipids there was a different seasonal pattern in which lipid-rich fruits were produced mainly at the end of the wet season while fruits with less

  8. Procyaidin composition of selected fruits and fruit byproducts is affected by extraction method and variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits and fruit byproducts are a rich source of polyphenols, including procyanidins, which are known to have numerous potential health benefits. We investigated if varietal differences existed in the procyanidin composition of grape seed and if soaking in extraction solvent overnight prior to extra...

  9. Differential inheritance of pepper (capsicum annum) fruit pigments results in black to violet fruit color

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color and appearance of fruits and vegetables are critical determinants of product quality and may afford high-value market opportunities. Exploiting the rich genetic diversity in Capsicum, we characterized the inheritance of black and violet immature fruit color and chlorophyll, carotenoid and ant...

  10. Hot Water Immersion Quarantine Treatment Against Mediterranean Fruit Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Eggs and Larvae in Litchi and Longan Fruits Exported from Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immersion of litchi fruit in 49ºC water for 20 min followed by hydrocooling in ambient (24 ± 4ºC) temperature water for 20 min was tested as a quarantine treatment against potential infestations of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (...

  11. Pesticide residues in imported, organic, and "suspect" fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Winter, Carl K

    2012-05-01

    Consumers are frequently urged to avoid imported foods as well as specific fruits and vegetables due to health concerns from pesticide residues and are often encouraged to choose organic fruits and vegetables rather than conventional forms. Studies have demonstrated that while organic fruits and vegetables have lower levels of pesticide residues than do conventional fruits and vegetables, pesticide residues are still frequently detected on organic fruits and vegetables; typical dietary consumer exposure to pesticide residues from conventional fruits and vegetables does not appear to be of health significance. Similarly, research does not demonstrate that imported fruits and vegetables pose greater risks from pesticide residues than do domestic fruits and vegetables or that specific fruits and vegetables singled out as being the most highly contaminated by pesticides should be avoided in their conventional forms. PMID:22335627

  12. The positive effect of skin transpiration in peach fruit growth.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Brunella; Manfrini, Luigi; Losciale, Pasquale; Zibordi, Marco; Corelli-Grappadelli, Luca

    2010-09-01

    The effect of fruit transpiration on the mechanisms driving peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) daily growth was investigated. In peach, fruit water losses increase during the season and might play a key role in determining fruit growth. Skin transpiration was reduced during the cell expansion stage by enclosing fruit in plastic bags fitted with holes. In the first year, diameter changes of bagged and control fruit were precisely monitored for 15 days, and percentage dry matter and soluble solids content were determined during the experiment and at harvest. In the second year, midday fruit water potential, daily patterns of fruit growth and of vascular and transpiration flows were monitored. Bagging reduced fruit daily growth on some days, and negatively affected both fruit dry matter percentage and soluble solids content. Fruit transpiration rate was reduced during the midday hours, thus increasing midday fruit water potential and lowering xylem inflows. In accordance with the Münch hypothesis on traslocation, these conditions likely decreased the necessary gradient needed for the transport of phloem sap to sink organs, as in the afternoon, bagged fruit showed lower phloem inflows. These data suggest that skin transpiration in peach has a positive effect on fruit growth, as it enhances fruit phloem import. PMID:20417987

  13. Biological control of postharvest diseases of fruits.

    PubMed

    Janisiewicz, Wojciech J; Korsten, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Losses from postharvest fruit diseases range from 1 to 20 percent in the United States, depending on the commodity. The application of fungicides to fruits after harvest to reduce decay has been increasingly curtailed by the development of pathogen resistance to many key fungicides, the lack of replacement fungicides, negative public perception regarding the safety of pesticides and consequent restrictions on fungicide use. Biological control of postharvest diseases (BCPD) has emerged as an effective alternative. Because wound-invading necrotrophic pathogens are vulnerable to biocontrol, antagonists can be applied directly to the targeted area (fruit wounds), and a single application using existing delivery systems (drenches, line sprayers, on-line dips) can significantly reduce fruit decays. The pioneering biocontrol products BioSave and Aspire were registered by EPA in 1995 for control of postharvest rots of pome and citrus fruit, respectively, and are commercially available. The limitations of these biocontrol products can be addressed by enhancing biocontrol through manipulation of the environment, using mixtures of beneficial organisms, physiological and genetic enhancement of the biocontrol mechanisms, manipulation of formulations, and integration of biocontrol with other alternative methods that alone do not provide adequate protection but in combination with biocontrol provide additive or synergistic effects. PMID:12147766

  14. Interconnected Cavernous Structure of Bacterial Fruiting Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Cameron W.; Du, Huijing; Xu, Zhiliang; Kaiser, Dale; Aranson, Igor; Alber, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The formation of spore-filled fruiting bodies by myxobacteria is a fascinating case of multicellular self-organization by bacteria. The organization of Myxococcus xanthus into fruiting bodies has long been studied not only as an important example of collective motion of bacteria, but also as a simplified model for developmental morphogenesis. Sporulation within the nascent fruiting body requires signaling between moving cells in order that the rod-shaped self-propelled cells differentiate into spores at the appropriate time. Probing the three-dimensional structure of myxobacteria fruiting bodies has previously presented a challenge due to limitations of different imaging methods. A new technique using Infrared Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) revealed previously unknown details of the internal structure of M. xanthus fruiting bodies consisting of interconnected pockets of relative high and low spore density regions. To make sense of the experimentally observed structure, modeling and computer simulations were used to test a hypothesized mechanism that could produce high-density pockets of spores. The mechanism consists of self-propelled cells aligning with each other and signaling by end-to-end contact to coordinate the process of differentiation resulting in a pattern of clusters observed in the experiment. The integration of novel OCT experimental techniques with computational simulations can provide new insight into the mechanisms that can give rise to the pattern formation seen in other biological systems such as dictyostelids, social amoeba known to form multicellular aggregates observed as slugs under starvation conditions. PMID:23300427

  15. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  16. Wolbachia in Anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Coscrato, Virginia E; Braz, Antônio S K; P Perondini, André L; Selivon, Denise; Marino, Celso L

    2009-09-01

    Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are widespread among arthropods and cause a variety of reproductive abnormalities, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, thelytokous parthenogenesis, male-killing, and host feminization. In this study, we used three sets of Wolbachia-specific primers (16S rDNA, ftsZ, and wsp) in conjunction with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and sequencing to study the infection of fruit flies (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) by Wolbachia. The flies were collected at several localities in Brazil and at Guayaquil, Ecuador. All of the fruit flies studied were infected with Wolbachia supergroup A, in agreement with the high prevalence of this group in South America. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the wsp gene was the most sensitive gene for studying the relationships among Wolbachia strains. The Wolbachia sequences detected in these fruit flies were similar to those such as wMel reported for other fruit flies. These results show that the infection of Anastrepha fruit flies by Wolbachia is much more widespread than previously thought. PMID:19536597

  17. A brief history of fruits and frugivores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Theodore H.; John Kress, W.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we briefly review the evolutionary history of the mutualistic interaction between angiosperms that produce fleshy fruits and their major consumers: frugivorous birds and mammals. Fleshy fruits eaten by these vertebrates are widely distributed throughout angiosperm phylogeny. Similarly, a frugivorous diet has evolved independently many times in birds and mammals. Bird dispersal is more common than mammal-dispersal in all lineages of angiosperms, and we suggest that the evolution of bird fruits may have facilitated the evolution of frugivory in primates. The diets of fruit-eating bats overlap less with those of other kinds of frugivorous vertebrates. With a few exceptions, most families producing vertebrate-dispersed fruit appeared substantially earlier in earth history than families of their vertebrate consumers. It is likely that major radiations of these plants and animals have occurred in the past 30 Ma, in part driven by geological changes and also by the foraging behavior of frugivores in topographically complex landscapes. Overall, this mutualistic interaction has had many evolutionary and ecological consequences for tropical plants and animals for most of the Cenozoic Era. Loss of frugivores and their dispersal services will have a strong negative impact on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of tropical and subtropical communities.

  18. Proteomic responses of fruits to environmental stresses

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Zhulong

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are extremely susceptible to decay and easily lose commercial value after harvest. Different strategies have been developed to control postharvest decay and prevent quality deterioration during postharvest storage, including cold storage, controlled atmosphere (CA), and application of biotic and abiotic stimulus. In this review, mechanisms related to protein level responses of host side and pathogen side were characterized. Protein extraction protocols have been successfully developed for recalcitrant, low protein content fruit tissues. Comparative proteome profiling and functional analysis revealed that defense related proteins, energy metabolism, and antioxidant pathway played important roles in fruits in response to storage conditions and exogenous elicitor treatments. Secretome of pathogenic fungi has been well-investigated and the results indicated that hydrolytic enzymes were the key virulent factors for the pathogen infection. These protein level changes shed new light on interaction among fruits, pathogens, and environmental conditions. Potential postharvest strategies to reduce risk of fruit decay were further proposed based on currently available proteomic data. PMID:23335934

  19. Dried fruits quality assessment by hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serranti, Silvia; Gargiulo, Aldo; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    Dried fruits products present different market values according to their quality. Such a quality is usually quantified in terms of freshness of the products, as well as presence of contaminants (pieces of shell, husk, and small stones), defects, mould and decays. The combination of these parameters, in terms of relative presence, represent a fundamental set of attributes conditioning dried fruits humans-senses-detectable-attributes (visual appearance, organolectic properties, etc.) and their overall quality in terms of marketable products. Sorting-selection strategies exist but sometimes they fail when a higher degree of detection is required especially if addressed to discriminate between dried fruits of relatively small dimensions and when aiming to perform an "early detection" of pathogen agents responsible of future moulds and decays development. Surface characteristics of dried fruits can be investigated by hyperspectral imaging (HSI). In this paper, specific and "ad hoc" applications addressed to propose quality detection logics, adopting a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) based approach, are described, compared and critically evaluated. Reflectance spectra of selected dried fruits (hazelnuts) of different quality and characterized by the presence of different contaminants and defects have been acquired by a laboratory device equipped with two HSI systems working in two different spectral ranges: visible-near infrared field (400-1000 nm) and near infrared field (1000-1700 nm). The spectra have been processed and results evaluated adopting both a simple and fast wavelength band ratio approach and a more sophisticated classification logic based on principal component (PCA) analysis.

  20. Native fruit tree genetic resources in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of climate, from subarctic to subtropical, and the complex geological history of Japan have produced a rich biodiversity. The flora includes several hundred species of native woody plants with edible fleshy fruits or nuts. People have eaten them from prehistoric times until about a half century ago. In Hokkaidō and the Ryūkyū Islands nut species had an important role in the diet, but fleshy fruits were also eaten until recently. Only Castanea crenata and a few minor species became domesticated as edible fruit trees in pre-modern times. Recently, Vitis coignetiae, Lonicera caerulea, Akebia quinata, Akebia trifoliata, Stauntonia hexaphylla, and Actinidia arguta have entered small-scale cultivation. The conservation of the germplasm of many of these native species, both in situ and ex situ, is precarious. PMID:27069393

  1. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    PubMed

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  2. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  3. Native fruit tree genetic resources in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of climate, from subarctic to subtropical, and the complex geological history of Japan have produced a rich biodiversity. The flora includes several hundred species of native woody plants with edible fleshy fruits or nuts. People have eaten them from prehistoric times until about a half century ago. In Hokkaidō and the Ryūkyū Islands nut species had an important role in the diet, but fleshy fruits were also eaten until recently. Only Castanea crenata and a few minor species became domesticated as edible fruit trees in pre-modern times. Recently, Vitis coignetiae, Lonicera caerulea, Akebia quinata, Akebia trifoliata, Stauntonia hexaphylla, and Actinidia arguta have entered small-scale cultivation. The conservation of the germplasm of many of these native species, both in situ and ex situ, is precarious. PMID:27069393

  4. Gene regulation in parthenocarpic tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L; Reagan, Russell L; Chen, Ying; Tricoli, David; Fiehn, Oliver; Rocke, David M; Gasser, Charles S; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2009-01-01

    Parthenocarpy is potentially a desirable trait for many commercially grown fruits if undesirable changes to structure, flavour, or nutrition can be avoided. Parthenocarpic transgenic tomato plants (cv MicroTom) were obtained by the regulation of genes for auxin synthesis (iaaM) or responsiveness (rolB) driven by DefH9 or the INNER NO OUTER (INO) promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana. Fruits at a breaker stage were analysed at a transcriptomic and metabolomic level using microarrays, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a Pegasus III TOF (time of flight) mass spectrometer. Although differences were observed in the shape of fully ripe fruits, no clear correlation could be made between the number of seeds, transgene, and fruit size. Expression of auxin synthesis or responsiveness genes by both of these promoters produced seedless parthenocarpic fruits. Eighty-three percent of the genes measured showed no significant differences in expression due to parthenocarpy. The remaining 17% with significant variation (P <0.05) (1748 genes) were studied by assigning a predicted function (when known) based on BLAST to the TAIR database. Among them several genes belong to cell wall, hormone metabolism and response (auxin in particular), and metabolism of sugars and lipids. Up-regulation of lipid transfer proteins and differential expression of several indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)- and ethylene-associated genes were observed in transgenic parthenocarpic fruits. Despite differences in several fatty acids, amino acids, and other metabolites, the fundamental metabolic profile remains unchanged. This work showed that parthenocarpy with ovule-specific alteration of auxin synthesis or response driven by the INO promoter could be effectively applied where such changes are commercially desirable. PMID:19700496

  5. DeepFruits: A Fruit Detection System Using Deep Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Sa, Inkyu; Ge, Zongyuan; Dayoub, Feras; Upcroft, Ben; Perez, Tristan; McCool, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to fruit detection using deep convolutional neural networks. The aim is to build an accurate, fast and reliable fruit detection system, which is a vital element of an autonomous agricultural robotic platform; it is a key element for fruit yield estimation and automated harvesting. Recent work in deep neural networks has led to the development of a state-of-the-art object detector termed Faster Region-based CNN (Faster R-CNN). We adapt this model, through transfer learning, for the task of fruit detection using imagery obtained from two modalities: colour (RGB) and Near-Infrared (NIR). Early and late fusion methods are explored for combining the multi-modal (RGB and NIR) information. This leads to a novel multi-modal Faster R-CNN model, which achieves state-of-the-art results compared to prior work with the F1 score, which takes into account both precision and recall performances improving from 0 . 807 to 0 . 838 for the detection of sweet pepper. In addition to improved accuracy, this approach is also much quicker to deploy for new fruits, as it requires bounding box annotation rather than pixel-level annotation (annotating bounding boxes is approximately an order of magnitude quicker to perform). The model is retrained to perform the detection of seven fruits, with the entire process taking four hours to annotate and train the new model per fruit. PMID:27527168

  6. Fruit and Food Eponyms in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Nidhi; Jindal, Pooja; Kumar, Jeevan; Gupta, Sanjeev; Jain, VK

    2015-01-01

    Dermatology world is brimming with myriad of interesting clinical conditions, signs and syndromes. It is infinite, which has systemic clinical connotations too. Complicated pronunciations of diagnosis have always placed residents in an intricate state. Each one is trying his best to make this cumbersome subject comparatively more acceptable and convenient. The present paper is an attempt to further simplify the subject by correlating difficult conditions with commonly used and seen things such as fruit and food. A total of 45 dermatological conditions were found to be based on fruit and food eponyms. For example, strawberries can remind us of strawberry gums of Wegener's granulomatosis and strawberry nevus. PMID:25814737

  7. Gibberellins control fruit patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Girin, Thomas; Sorefan, Karim; Fuentes, Sara; Wood, Thomas A.; Lawrenson, Tom; Sablowski, Robert; Østergaard, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The Arabidopsis basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) proteins INDEHISCENT (IND) and ALCATRAZ (ALC) specify tissues required for fruit opening that have major roles in seed dispersal and plant domestication. Here, we show that synthesis of the phytohormone gibberellin is a direct and necessary target of IND, and that ALC interacts directly with DELLA repressors, which antagonize ALC function but are destabilized by gibberellin. Thus, the gibberellin/DELLA pathway has a key role in patterning the Arabidopsis fruit, and the interaction between DELLA and bHLH proteins, previously shown to connect gibberellin and light responses, is a versatile regulatory module also used in tissue patterning. PMID:20889713

  8. Gibberellins control fruit patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Girin, Thomas; Sorefan, Karim; Fuentes, Sara; Wood, Thomas A; Lawrenson, Tom; Sablowski, Robert; Østergaard, Lars

    2010-10-01

    The Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins INDEHISCENT (IND) and ALCATRAZ (ALC) specify tissues required for fruit opening that have major roles in seed dispersal and plant domestication. Here, we show that synthesis of the phytohormone gibberellin is a direct and necessary target of IND, and that ALC interacts directly with DELLA repressors, which antagonize ALC function but are destabilized by gibberellin. Thus, the gibberellin/DELLA pathway has a key role in patterning the Arabidopsis fruit, and the interaction between DELLA and bHLH proteins, previously shown to connect gibberellin and light responses, is a versatile regulatory module also used in tissue patterning. PMID:20889713

  9. GENERAL VIEW OF DEHYDRATER (STRUCTURE 12), SHED (STRUCTURE 18), FRUIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF DEHYDRATER (STRUCTURE 12), SHED (STRUCTURE 18), FRUIT TRAY STORAGE ROOM (STRUCTURE 11), WITH FRUIT DRYING AREA AND TRAM TRACKS IN FOREGROUND, FROM NORTHWEST - Stevens Ranch Complex, State Route 101, Coyote, Santa Clara County, CA

  10. Liven Up Your Meals with Vegetables and Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... creative with your baked goods. Add apples, bananas, blueberries, or pears to your favorite muffin recipe for ... a tasty fruit smoothie . For dessert, blend strawberries, blueberries, or raspberries with frozen bananas and 100% fruit ...

  11. Novel approaches for postharvest preservation of fresh citrus fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus are nonclimacteric fruits that are harvested when their commercial maturity index has already been reached. The maturity index expresses the relationship between two important internal quality parameters, solid soluble concentration and titratable acidity, that determine the fruit consumer ac...

  12. Mechanisms for the influence of citrus rootstocks on fruit size.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangyu; Li, Juan; Huang, Min; Chen, Jiezhong

    2015-03-18

    To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on fruit size, we performed a comparative analysis of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto two rootstocks. The results demonstrated that trees grafted onto Canton lemon produced larger fruits through an enhancement of cell expansion in the ripening period. The difference in fruit size may be due to greater auxin levels in fruits from trees on Canton lemon, and different auxin levels may be produced by parent trees as the result of AUX1 upregulation. Rootstocks also modulate auxin signaling by affecting the transcription of several auxin response factor genes. There were higher abscisic acid concentrations in fruits of 'Shatangju'/Trifoliate orange, resulting in an inhibition of fruit growth and cell expansion through suppression of the synthesis of growth promoting hormones. Furthermore, expansins may be involved in the regulation of final fruit size by influencing cell expansion. Multiple pathways likely exist in citrus rootstocks that regulate fruit size. PMID:25693745

  13. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars- List 44

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars- List 44 reports on the recent releases for 24 crops from around the world. The blackberry section reported on the origin and the fruit and plant characteristics for three new cultivars....

  14. Gene expression profiling of peach fruit during stone development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of seedless grapes and watermelons has energized these fruit markets and resulted in increased consumption. Seedless stone fruits including peaches, plums, and cherries would undoubtedly have similar positive impacts on these industries. However, this would require the elimination...

  15. Kids' Fruit Drinks, Juices Contain Day's Worth of Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_157954.html Kids' Fruit Drinks, Juices Contain Day's Worth of Sugar Study was conducted in Britain, ... fruit drinks and juices give kids a full day's worth of sugar in a single serving, a ...

  16. "Eat Fresh Vegetables, Fruit, and Whole Grain Products"

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Diverticulitis "Eat fresh vegetables, fruit, and whole grain products." Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... diverticulitis. I once again eat fresh vegetables and fruit and whole grain products. My two episodes of ...

  17. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing.

    PubMed

    Seal, Dakshina R; Martin, Cliff G

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin "Habanero" was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars "SY" and "SR" were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation. PMID:26959066

  18. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing

    PubMed Central

    Seal, Dakshina R.; Martin, Cliff G.

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin “Habanero” was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars “SY” and “SR” were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation. PMID:26959066

  19. Simultaneous transcriptome analysis of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and tomato fruit pathosystem reveals novel fungal pathogenicity and fruit defense strategies.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Noam; Friedlander, Gilgi; Ment, Dana; Prusky, Dov; Fluhr, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides breaches the fruit cuticle but remains quiescent until fruit ripening signals a switch to necrotrophy, culminating in devastating anthracnose disease. There is a need to understand the distinct fungal arms strategy and the simultaneous fruit response. Transcriptome analysis of fungal-fruit interactions was carried out concurrently in the appressoria, quiescent and necrotrophic stages. Conidia germinating on unripe fruit cuticle showed stage-specific transcription that was accompanied by massive fruit defense responses. The subsequent quiescent stage showed the development of dendritic-like structures and swollen hyphae within the fruit epidermis. The quiescent fungal transcriptome was characterized by activation of chromatin remodeling genes and unsuspected environmental alkalization. Fruit response was portrayed by continued highly integrated massive up-regulation of defense genes. During cuticle infection of green or ripe fruit, fungi recapitulate the same developmental stages but with differing quiescent time spans. The necrotrophic stage showed a dramatic shift in fungal metabolism and up-regulation of pathogenicity factors. Fruit response to necrotrophy showed activation of the salicylic acid pathway, climaxing in cell death. Transcriptome analysis of C. gloeosporioides infection of fruit reveals its distinct stage-specific lifestyle and the concurrent changing fruit response, deepening our perception of the unfolding fungal-fruit arms and defenses race. PMID:25377514

  20. Fruit and vegetable films and uses thereof

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present invention is directed to monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer films made from fruit, vegetable or a combination thereof, which films have the thinness, strength, flexibility and crispness to serve as alternates or substitutes for seaweed-based films such as nori, while providing nutrition ...

  1. Dispersers shape fruit diversity in Ficus (Moraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dispersal by vertebrates is one of the most common and important plant-animal mutualisms, involving an enormous diversity of fruiting plants and frugivorous vertebrates. Even though plant reproduction largely depends on seed dispersal, evolutionary ecologists have been unable to link co-occurr...

  2. Fruit and Nut Production. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials required to teach the fruit and nut production component of a competency-based horticulture course that is intended to provide students with technical skills and the basic business skills to run a successful operation or be a productive employee. The following topics are covered in the 12…

  3. An Auxin-Conjugated Strawberry Fruit Protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strawberry fruit contain indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) covalently attached to specific strawberry proteins. Immunoblotting using a specific antibody to IAA-glycine linked to BSA detected IAA proteins in both achenes and receptacles. Protein-conjugated IAA accounts for the majority of the total IAA pool...

  4. NRCS-EQIP Tree Fruit IPM Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2008, the WVU Extension Service partnered with the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to develop and implement a cost-share IPM program for the commercial tree fruit growers in West Virginia. Fifty percent of implementation costs were paid by NRCS through the Environmental Quality Ince...

  5. Strawberry breeding selections for postharvest fruit decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit from the annual replicated yield assessments for the USDA-ARS strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) breeding program at Beltsville, MD in 2010 were evaluated for postharvest decay development after storage at 5 °C. A statistically significant correlation between percentage decay o...

  6. Harvesting the High-Hanging Fruit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenton, Jay D.

    2014-01-01

    For many years, higher education institutions have been harvesting the low-hanging fruit when it comes to budget reductions and adjustments. Easier changes have often been made--such as cutting administration, using more adjunct faculty, contracting out inefficient or non effective auxiliary operations and so forth. Until recently such strategies,…

  7. Raspberry (Rubus spp.)-Crumbly Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A virus complex consisting of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) and Raspberry leaf mottle virus (RLMV) and/or Raspberry latent virus (RpLV). The cultivar 'Meeker' had more severe growth reductions when infected by RBDV and RLMV; whereas crumbly fruit was more prominent when infected by RBDV and RpL...

  8. Coatings for fresh fruits and vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coatings (waxes) are applied to apples, citrus, stone fruits, avocados, tomatoes and cucumbers prior to marketing in order to reduce water loss and shrinkage, create a modified atmosphere inside the produce, slow down senescence and ageing, impart shine, and allow for better quality and marketing pr...

  9. Liquid Larval Diet for Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly liquid larvae diet has been developed for rearing Bactrocera dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in small and large scales and is ready for technology transfer into factory scale. The most appropriate rearing conditions using liquid diet up-to-date have been identified as follows: (1) basic diet fo...

  10. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA... kinds of trees: (a) All varieties of peaches grown in the production area; (b) All hybrids grown in the production area exhibiting the characteristics of a peach and subject to cultural practices common to...

  11. Plums in temperate fruit crop breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book is slanted towards molecular biologists working with fruit crops. The chapter on plums describes the characteristics and biology of European and Japanese type plums. Current status of molecular work on these crops is described. In general plums are amenable to regeneration and transform...

  12. Electronic nose for detecting strawberry fruit maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strawberry is one of the major fresh market commodities in Florida. Strawberry must be harvested at the proper time, to keep its fruit quality and shelf life. Generally, soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity and/or color are the major indices for fruity quality control. However, the...

  13. Chemical constituents from Myristica fragrans fruit.

    PubMed

    Francis, K Sajin; Suresh, Eringathodi; Nair, Mangalam S

    2014-01-01

    A neolignan, erythrosurinamensin and a diaryl phenyl propanoid, virolane were isolated from Myristica fragrans for the first time. Apart from these two, previously known steroids, other lignans and neolignans were isolated from the fruit pericarp of M. fragrans. The structures of the compounds were identified by employing various spectroscopic methods. PMID:25011059

  14. MEDITERRANEAN FRUITS: ANCIENT HISTORY AND MODERN PROMISE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Davis, California is home of the national collections of most Mediterranean-adapted fruits and nuts (including fig, olive and pomegranate), while the NCGR at Riverside, CA maintains the dates and citrus. Our missions are to acquire, preserve, charac...

  15. Spoilage of fruit juices by filamentous fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of molds in fruit juices has risen in recent years. Even though there are many critical control points in the processing protocols that are noted and maintained, there remains a problem with dairy and juices packed in paperboard cartons. This talk discusses the work involved in the dis...

  16. Dehulling of coriander fruit before oil extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as fresh green herb, spice or for its essential oil. The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of crushed fruit and the residue is utilized as feed or processed further to recover the triglyceride. The triglyc...

  17. Coatings for minimally processed fruits and vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh-cut fruit and vegetables are gaining increasing popularity and market share. Techniques to enhance stability of fresh cut produce are reviewed. Among these techniques, edibles coatings can provide protection against dehydration, microbial decay and decrease events related to physiological sene...

  18. Expression and Polymorphism of Watermelon Fruit ESTs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 8,000 ESTs were generated for watermelon and were assembled into 4,700 EST-unigenes (http://www.icugi.org). Microarray and Real-Time PCR analyses were used to examine differential expression of 832 of these EST-unigenes in developing and ripening watermelon fruit. RNA was isolated from waterm...

  19. Fruit, vegetable, and grain processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, R.M.; Soderquist, M.R.

    1980-06-01

    This is a literature review of fruit, vegetable and grain processing wastes. The factors affecting water usage and methods of conservation were examined. Various processes were investigated which included the pulp recovery from caustic peeled tomato skin, the dewatering of citrus, washing leafy vegetables with recycled process water and the potato processing industry.

  20. The fruit flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen species of Tephritidae are newly recorded from Ontario, and alternative format keys are provided to the 31 genera and 72 species of fruit fly now known from, or likely to occur, in the province. Standard dichotomous keys to genera, and simplified field keys to genera and species are provide...

  1. Physical Aspects of Fruit Growth 1

    PubMed Central

    Considine, John; Brown, Ken

    1981-01-01

    The theory of shells has been applied to some aspects of the physics of fruit growth. Four form and structural attributes are identified which may intensify mechanical stress in the skin of a growing fruit and alter the distribution of that stress. One is a radius-related factor introduced by deviation of shape from that of a sphere and the other three are related to attachment of a fruit to a plant and to provision of a vascular system: core diameter, core tensile strength, and structure of the core/skin interface. The last factor also applies in principle to a hole which may be introduced for example at the style canal. These factors either alone or in combination can cause stresses far in excess of those predicted for a spherical shell of similar volume and wall thickness. They are considered in relation to their effect on fruit morphogenesis and the occurrence of disorders such as rainfall-induced splitting and cracking. PMID:16661919

  2. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA... kinds of trees: (a) All varieties of peaches grown in the production area; (b) All hybrids grown in the production area exhibiting the characteristics of a peach and subject to cultural practices common to...

  3. Quality evaluation of fruit by hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter presents new applications of hyperspectral imaging for measuring the optical properties of fruits and assessing their quality attributes. A brief overview is given of current techniques for measuring optical properties of turbid and opaque biological materials. Then a detailed descripti...

  4. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., greengage plum 7.0 Guava 13.0 Loganberry 9.5 Orange 8.0 Peach 8.5 Pineapple 7.0 Plum (other than damson..., crabapple, pineapple, or two or all of such fruits. (9) Cinnamon flavoring, other than artificial...

  5. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., greengage plum 7.0 Guava 13.0 Loganberry 9.5 Orange 8.0 Peach 8.5 Pineapple 7.0 Plum (other than damson..., crabapple, pineapple, or two or all of such fruits. (9) Cinnamon flavoring, other than artificial...

  6. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., greengage plum 7.0 Guava 13.0 Loganberry 9.5 Orange 8.0 Peach 8.5 Pineapple 7.0 Plum (other than damson..., crabapple, pineapple, or two or all of such fruits. (9) Cinnamon flavoring, other than artificial...

  7. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., greengage plum 7.0 Guava 13.0 Loganberry 9.5 Orange 8.0 Peach 8.5 Pineapple 7.0 Plum (other than damson..., crabapple, pineapple, or two or all of such fruits. (9) Cinnamon flavoring, other than artificial...

  8. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., greengage plum 7.0 Guava 13.0 Loganberry 9.5 Orange 8.0 Peach 8.5 Pineapple 7.0 Plum (other than damson..., crabapple, pineapple, or two or all of such fruits. (9) Cinnamon flavoring, other than artificial...

  9. The Fruit Group. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of using the Food Guide Pyramid and eating plenty of servings of fruit. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and…

  10. Pop! Go the Fruits and Vegetables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Eleanor

    1974-01-01

    Sparked by a filmstrip on Pop Art and its influence on contemporary sculpture, an eleventh year Art class at Clara Barton Vocational High School decided to create "larger than life" three-dimensional objects inspired by natural patterns and forms of fruits and vegetables. (Author)

  11. Micro irrigation of tropical fruit crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In most tropical regions, tropical fruits are grown either in wet-and-dry climates characterized by erratic rainfall patterns and prolonged dry periods or in fertile but semiarid lands under irrigation. Little is known about water requirements of tropical crops grown in the tropics. This book chapt...

  12. Sanitizer competency and fruit surface topography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All sanitizers and sanitizing protocols are not created equal. For the fresh produce market the lack of a comprehensive disinfection method is problematic especially in the face of the increasing recalls of fresh fruit, vegetables and unpasteurized juices. Research has shown that sanitizers and how ...

  13. Still Life with Fruit and Seashell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gojeski, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Henri Matisse's painting, "Sideboard," opens the door to the author's first-grade students' lesson on still life. This lesson is about the process of designing, the act of making decisions, and the knowledge of one's own preferences. In this article, the author describes how the students made still life with fruit and seashells.

  14. Berry fruit enhances beneficial signaling in brain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased lifespans have led to population aging and brought attention to healthcare concerns associated with old age. A growing body of pre-clinical and clinical research has identified neurological benefits associated with the consumption of berry fruits. In addition to their now well-known antio...

  15. Electronic nose for detecting strawberry fruit maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An electronic nose (e-nose) composed of eighteen different metal oxide gas sensors was used to characterize the volatile patterns of ‘Strawberry Festival’ and ‘Florida Radiance’ strawberry fruit at five developmental stages: white, half red, three-quarter red, full ripe, and overripe. Strawberry sam...

  16. Pattern of Variation of Fruit Traits and Phenol Content in Olive Fruits from Six Different Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, olive fruits from six cultivars grown under similar agronomical and environmental conditions were collected at four different times during fruit ripening. Some agronomical traits were determined, and general increases in the size of the fruit and oil contents were recorded for all cultivars. The phenolic fraction in fruits was also identified and quantified during the same period using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. Thus, a total of 57 phenolic compounds were determined, and qualitative and quantitative differences among cultivars and also among sampling times were observed. In contrast to the agronomical traits, a general decrease of total phenolic compounds was observed, characterized by a domination of secoiridoids at the beginning of ripening and by a domination of simple phenols and flavonoids in the end. This is the first time that four of the six cultivars have been studied regarding phenolic compounds evolution during ripening. PMID:26509962

  17. Fruit abscission by Physalis species as defense against frugivory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit abscission as a response to herbivory is well-documented in many plant species, but its effect on further damage by mobile herbivores that survive fruit abscission is relatively unstudied. Physalis plants abscise fruit containing feeding larvae of their main frugivore, Heliothis subflexa Guen...

  18. Improve California trap programs for detection of fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are >160,000 federal and state fruit fly detection traps deployed in southern and western U.S. States and Puerto Rico. In California alone, >100,000 traps are deployed and maintained just for exotic fruit flies detection. Fruit fly detection and eradication requires deployment of large numbers...

  19. Free School Fruit--Sustained Effect 1 Year Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bere, E.; Veierod, M. B.; Bjelland, M.; Klepp, K.-I.

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the effect of a school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a subscription to the Norwegian School Fruit Programme at no parental cost, and the Fruit and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) educational programme, both delivered in the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly chosen schools received the…

  20. Ultraviolet radiation effects on fruit surface respiration and chlorophyll fluorescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-value fruit crops are exposed to a range of environmental conditions that can reduce fruit quality. Solar injury (SI) or sunburn is a common disorder in tropical, subtropical and temperate climates and is related to: 1) high fruit surface temperature, 2) high visible light intensity, and 3) ul...

  1. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, list 45: Strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  2. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, List 46: Strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  3. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, list 48: strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  4. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars, List 44: Strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then fruit and nut variety descript...

  5. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, list 47: Strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  6. Breeding for fruit rot resistance in Vaccinium macrocarpon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cranberry fruit rot complex can cause severe crop loss and requires multiple fungicide applications each year. To identify sources of fruit rot resistance, fungicides were withheld from our germplasm collection in 2003 and 2004 and the collection was rated for fruit rot (1-5 scale, 1=no rot, 5=...

  7. Blackberry fruit quality components, composition, and potential health benefits.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberries have long been a popular small fruit. Their chemical composition data was assembled for this invited book chapter. Briefly, primary and secondary metabolites important to blackberry fruit quality were summarized. Metabolites are involved in many critical aspects of fruit quality includi...

  8. Parent outcome expectancies for purchasing fruit and vegetables: a validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To validate four scales – outcome expectancies for purchasing fruit and for purchasing vegetables, and comparative outcome expectancies for purchasing fresh fruit and for purchasing fresh vegetables versus other forms of fruit and vegetables (F&V). Design: Survey instruments were administ...

  9. Gene expression profiles of auxin metabolism in maturing apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation exists among apple genotypes in fruit maturation and ripening patterns that influences at-harvest fruit firmness and postharvest storability. Based on the results from our previous large-scale transcriptome profiling on apple fruit maturation and well-documented auxin-ethylene crosstalk, t...

  10. Primocane-fruiting in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of fruit on first year canes, or primocane-fruiting in caneberries (Rubus L.) has proven to be an important trait, allowing production, particularly for the fresh market, to expand into new geographic areas and non-traditional seasons. While not a new trait, primocane-fruiting black rasp...

  11. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF ORIENTING FRUIT USING STABILITY PROPERTIES DURING ROTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Described is the potential use of a stability property of fruit to allow fruit to be oriented along the stem/calyx axis. Inspection using machine vision offers the potential for improved safety and quality of foods. However, effectiveness of fruit inspection has been limited by the difficulty of dif...

  12. 7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into the...

  13. Apple fruit responses following exposure to nitric oxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exogenous nitric oxide (.NO) applied as gas or generated from .NO releasing compounds has physiological activity in cut apple fruit tissues. Studies were conducted to characterize .NO production by whole fruit as well as to assess responses of whole fruit to exogenous .NO. .NO and ethylene product...

  14. CULTURAL SYSTEM AFFECTS FRUIT QUALITY AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN STRAWBERRIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultural system [hill plasticulture (HC) vs. matted row (MR)] and genotypes interactions affected strawberry fruit quality. In general, fruit soluble content, total sugar, fructose, glucose, ascorbic acid, titratable acid and citric acid content were increased in the HC system. Fruit from HC also ...

  15. State Indicator Report on Fruits and Vegetables, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "State Indicator Report on Fruits and Vegetables, 2009" provides for the first time information on fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and policy and environmental support within each state. Fruits and vegetables, as part of a healthy diet, are important for optimal child growth, weight management, and chronic disease prevention. Supporting…

  16. 21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened fruit jelly. 150.141 Section 150.141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit...

  17. Register of new fruit and nut varieties list 48

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world, with particular attention to cultivars from North America. In the 48th edition, one newly released apricot cultivar is described in terms of its origin, important fruit ...

  18. 7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into the...

  19. 7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into the...

  20. 7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into the...

  1. 7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into the...

  2. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 46. Rambutan.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 46 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, 8 newly released rambutan cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. Of the eight described cultivars, one ...

  3. 75 FR 8038 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... interested parties that the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) will hold a Fruit and Vegetable Industry...) established the Committee to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable industry...

  4. I Have Braces: How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cuts? I Have Braces. How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies? KidsHealth > For Teens > I Have Braces. How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies? Print A A A Text Size ... weight. I read about eating 5 servings of fruits and veggies a day. But I can't ...

  5. 7 CFR 905.80 - Fruit not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit not subject to regulation. 905.80 Section 905.80... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.80 Fruit...

  6. 76 FR 5779 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... interested parties that the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) will hold a Fruit and Vegetable Industry...) established the Committee to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable industry...

  7. 7 CFR 905.80 - Fruit not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit not subject to regulation. 905.80 Section 905.80... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.80 Fruit...

  8. 7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906.41... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments....

  9. 7 CFR 905.80 - Fruit not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit not subject to regulation. 905.80 Section 905.80... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.80 Fruit...

  10. 7 CFR 905.80 - Fruit not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit not subject to regulation. 905.80 Section 905.80... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.80 Fruit...

  11. 7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906.41... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments....

  12. 7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906.41... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments....

  13. 7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906.41... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments....

  14. 75 FR 47535 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... interested parties that the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) will hold a Fruit and Vegetable Industry...) established the Committee to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable industry...

  15. 7 CFR 905.80 - Fruit not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit not subject to regulation. 905.80 Section 905.80... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.80 Fruit...

  16. 7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906.41... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments....

  17. EDIBLE COATINGS FOR LYCHEE FRUIT TO MAINTAIN COLOR IN STORAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bright red pericarp of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit quickly turns brown after harvest due to peel dehydration, anthocyanin degradation, and fungal growth on the fruit surface. Lychee fruit, cv. Mauricious and Brewster from Florida, and Hong Hauy and Juckapat from Thailand, were dipped ...

  18. AREA-WIDE CONTROL OF FRUIT FLIES IN HAWAII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Area-Wide Control of Fruit Flies in Hawaii The Hawaii Fruit Fly Area-Wide Pest Management (AWPM) Program was initiated in 1999 by USDA-ARS to suppress fruit flies below economic thresholds while reducing the use of organophosphate insecticides. The program has involved developing and integrating bi...

  19. Association of raw fruit and fruit juice consumption with blood pressure: the INTERMAP Study1234

    PubMed Central

    Oude Griep, Linda M; Stamler, Jeremiah; Chan, Queenie; Van Horn, Linda; Steffen, Lyn M; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okuda, Nagako; Zhao, Liancheng; Daviglus, Martha L; Elliott, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that fruit consumption may lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases through blood pressure (BP)–lowering effects; little is known on the independent effect of raw fruit and fruit juice on BP. Objective: The objective was to quantify associations of raw fruit and fruit juice consumption with BP by using cross-sectional data from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) of 4680 men and women aged 40–59 y from Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Design: During 4 visits, 8 BP, four 24-h dietary recalls, and two 24-h urine samples were collected. Country-specific multivariate-controlled linear regression coefficients, including adjustment for urinary sodium excretion, were estimated and pooled, weighted by inverse of their variance. Results: The average total raw fruit consumption varied from a mean ± SD of 52 ± 65 g/1000 kcal in the United States to 68 ± 70 g/1000 kcal in China. Individual raw fruit intake was not associated with BP in pooled analyses for all countries or in participants from Western countries, although a positive association with diastolic BP was observed in East Asian participants (per 50 g/1000 kcal; 0.37 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.71). Positive relationships with diastolic BP were found for citrus fruit intake in Western consumers (per 25 g/1000 kcal; 0.47 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.81) and for apple intake in East Asian consumers (0.40 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.78). Among East Asian banana consumers, banana intake was inversely associated with diastolic BP (−1.01 mm Hg; 95% CI: −1.88, −0.02). Fruit juice intake, which was negligible in Asia, was not related to BP in Western countries. Conclusion: Consistent associations were not found between raw fruit and fruit juice consumption of individuals and BP. This observational study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005271. PMID:23553162

  20. Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary

    2010-01-27

    More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons. PMID:20030384

  1. Solubilisation of tomato fruit pectins by ascorbate: a possible non-enzymic mechanism of fruit softening.

    PubMed

    Dumville, Jo C; Fry, Stephen C

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that endogenous ascorbate, released into the apoplast by membrane permeabilisation early in fruit ripening, could promote the solubilisation and depolymerisation of polysaccharides, and thus contribute to fruit softening. In vitro, ascorbate (1 mM), especially in the presence of traces of either Cu2+ or H2O2, solubilised up to 40% of the total pectin from the alcohol-insoluble residue of mature-green tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit. Solubilisation was due to the action of ascorbate-generated hydroxyl radicals (*OH), which can cause non-enzymic scission of polysaccharides. The pectins solubilised by ascorbate in vitro were polydisperse (4-1,000 kDa), partially esterified and galactose-rich. Excised pieces of living tomato fruit released ascorbate into the medium (apoplast); the ability of different tissues to do this increased in the order pericarp < placenta < locule. In all three tissues, but especially in the locule, the ability to release ascorbate increased during ripening. The Cu content of each tissue also increased during ripening, whereas neither Fe nor Mn showed a similar trend. We suggest that progressively increasing levels of Cu and ascorbate in the fruit apoplast would lead to elevated *OH production there and thus to non-enzymic scission of pectins during ripening. Such scission could contribute to the natural softening of the fruit. De-esterified citrus pectin was more susceptible to ascorbate-induced scission in vitro than methylesterified pectin, suggesting a possible new significance for pectin methylesterase activity in fruit ripening. In conclusion, non-enzymic mechanisms of fruit softening should be considered alongside the probable roles of hydrolases, xyloglucan endotransglucosylases and expansins. PMID:12838420

  2. Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

  3. BACKYARD COMPOSTING OF INFESTED FRUIT: A POTENTIAL PATHWAY FOR INTRODUCTION OF ANASTREPHA FRUIT FLIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) INTO FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of infested fruit directly into the environment is a potential pathway for pest introduction. This study estimated the likelihood of exotic fruit flies entering south Florida through backyard composting. Grapefruits infested with Caribbean fruit fly larvae, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), wer...

  4. Phytonutrient deficiency: the place of palm fruit.

    PubMed

    Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is native to many West African countries, where local populations have used its oil for culinary and other purposes. Large-scale plantations, established principally in tropical regions (Asia, Africa and Latin America), are mostly aimed at the production of oil, which is extracted from the fleshy mesocarp of the palm fruit, and endosperm or kernel oil. Palm oil is different from other plant and animal oils in that it contains 50% saturated fatty acids, 40% unsaturated fatty acids, and 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fruit also contains components that can endow the oil with nutritional and health beneficial properties. These phytonutrients include carotenoids (alpha-,beta-,and gamma-carotenes), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), sterols (sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol), phospholipids, glycolipids and squalene. In addition, it is recently reported that certain water-soluble powerful antioxidants, phenolic acids and flavonoids, can be recovered from palm oil mill effluent. Owing to its high content of phytonutrients with antioxidant properties, the possibility exists that palm fruit offers some health advantages by reducing lipid oxidation, oxidative stress and free radical damage. Accordingly, use of palm fruit or its phytonutrient-rich fractions, particularly water-soluble antioxidants, may confer some protection against a number of disorders or diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancers, cataracts and macular degeneration, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, whilst prevention of disease through use of these phytonutrients as in either food ingredients or nutraceuticals may be a worthwhile objective, dose response data are required to evaluate their pharmacologic and toxicologic effects. In addition, one area of concern about use of antioxidant phytonutrients is how much suppression of oxidation may be compatible with good health, as toxic free radicals are required for defence

  5. Evaluations of the health benefits of eating more fruit depend on the amount of fruit previously eaten, variety, and timing.

    PubMed

    Burns, Rachel J; Rothman, Alexander J

    2016-10-01

    Though research has demonstrated that people generally perceive fruits to be healthy foods, little is known about how people think about the health benefits associated with eating increasing quantities of fruit. The purpose of this paper is to examine how evaluations of healthiness change as participants consider eating increasing quantities of fruit, and to explore how additional contextual features (i.e., variety and timing) can be leveraged to improve evaluations. In two within-subjects experiments, participants rated how good or bad for one's health it would be to eat increasing quantities of either the same fruit or a variety of fruits. In study 1, all participants were instructed to imagine eating the fruit over the course of the day. In study 2, the temporal distribution of the fruit (throughout the day, during a single meal) was manipulated. In general, both studies demonstrated that evaluations of overall healthiness for eating increasing quantities of the same fruit tended to diminish beyond two pieces of fruit, whereas the overall healthiness of eating increasing quantities of a variety of fruit remained stable. Study 2 demonstrated that evaluations of healthiness increased as additional fruit was considered when a variety of fruit was imagined to be eaten throughout the day. Thus, the health benefits that people assign to eating increasing quantities of fruit seem to increase, but only if eating a variety of fruits throughout the day is considered. This study suggests that evaluations of the healthiness of fruit are not made in isolation; evaluations of healthiness are contextualized by what has been eaten previously and when it was eaten. PMID:27311377

  6. The role of auxin and gibberellin in tomato fruit set.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Maaike; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H

    2009-01-01

    The initiation of tomato fruit growth, fruit set, is very sensitive to environmental conditions. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanisms that regulate this process can facilitate the production of this agriculturally valuable fruit crop. Over the years, it has been well established that tomato fruit set depends on successful pollination and fertilization, which trigger the fruit developmental programme through the activation of the auxin and gibberellin signalling pathways. However, the exact role of each of these two hormones is still poorly understood, probably because only few of the signalling components involved have been identified so far. Recent research on fruit set induced by hormone applications has led to new insights into hormone biosynthesis and signalling. The aim of this review is to consolidate the current knowledge on the role of auxin and gibberellin in tomato fruit set. PMID:19321650

  7. Why don't poor men eat fruit? Socioeconomic differences in motivations for fruit consumption☆

    PubMed Central

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo; Ng, Yin-Lam; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have less healthy diets than those of higher SES. This study aimed to assess whether differences in motivations for particular foods might contribute to socioeconomic differences in consumption. Methods: Participants (n = 732) rated their frequency of consumption and explicit liking of fruit, cake and cheese. They reported eating motivations (e.g., health, hunger, price) and related attributes of the investigated foods (healthiness, expected satiety, value for money). Participants were randomly assigned to an implicit liking task (Single Category Implicit Association Task) for one food category. Analyses were conducted separately for different SES measures (income, education, occupational group). Results: Lower SES and male participants reported eating less fruit, but no SES differences were found for cheese or cake. Analyses therefore focused on fruit. In implicit liking analyses, results (for income and education) reflected patterning in consumption, with lower SES and male participants liking fruit less. In explicit liking analyses, no differences were found by SES. Higher SES participants (all indicators) were more likely to report health and weight control and less likely report price as motivators of food choices. For perceptions of fruit, no SES-based differences were found in healthiness whilst significant interactions (but not main effects) were found (for income and education) for expected satiety and value for money. Neither liking nor perceptions of fruit were found to mediate the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit consumption. Conclusions: There is evidence for social patterning in food motivation, but differences are modified by the choice of implicit or explicit measures. Further work should clarify the extent to which these motivations may be contributing to the social and gender patterning in diet. PMID:25451584

  8. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-10-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose-response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6-227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level.

  9. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. PMID:25527581

  10. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Swapnil Y.; Harisha, C. R.; Galib, Ruknuddin; Prajapati, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana), calcination (Māraṇa) etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%), ash value (1.4%), alcohol soluble extract (28.6%), and water soluble extract (53.3%). These observations can be of use in future studies. PMID:25861144

  11. Host range and distribution of fruit-infesting pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) in selected areas of Central Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwatawala, M W; De Meyer, M; Makundi, R H; Maerere, A P

    2009-12-01

    The host range of major fruit fly pests in Central Tanzania was evaluated from October 2004 to October 2006. Samples of 48 potential hosts were collected and incubated for fruit fly emergence. Bactrocera invadens was the dominant species in incidence expressed as the ratio of infested to total number samples collected, as well as infestation rate, expressed as number of flies emerging per unit weight. Eight new host fruits are reported. Infestation by native pests, such as Ceratitis capitata and C. cosyra, was minor compared to B. invadens. Ceratitis rosa was the dominant species in temperate fruits, and Cucurbitaceae were mainly infested by Bactrocera cucurbitae, a specialized cucurbit feeder. Among commercial fruits, high infestation incidences were observed in mango and guava, but they decreased throughout the fruiting season. Low infestation rates were observed in all Citrus species and in avocado, indicating these fruits as poor hosts for the studied fruit fly pests in this region. Widespread availability and abundance of fruit species studied here ensures year-round breeding of B. invadens. Seasonal infestation differs, with mango being the most important host in October to January, while guava being important from February to August. Tropical almond showed very high incidence and infestation rate for B. invadens and might act as an important reservoir host, bridging the fruiting seasons of mango and guava. Soursop acts as an important host for C. cosyra after the mango season. Ceratitis capitata is a pest of minor importance of the commercial fruits studied in this region. PMID:19323850

  12. Interaction between juniper Juniperus communis L. and its fruit pest insects: Pest abundance, fruit characteristics and seed viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Daniel

    1998-12-01

    The relationships between the fruit features of Juniperus communis and the presence of fruit pests were studied in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. The abundance of two insect species — a pulp-sucking scale and a seed-predator wasp — was surveyed with respect both to fruit characteristics and to viability of seeds contained therein. Seed-predator pressure was not significantly related to any fruit characteristics; however, pulp suckers tended to be more abundant in plants with low pulp: seed ratios and high fruit-water content. In addition, fruits with high levels of pulp-sucker attack tended to have higher water content. A multi-factor ANOVA, considering the identity of the plant and the attack of the different pests as factors, showed that plant identity accounts for most of the variation in fruit characteristics. The viability of seeds tended to be lower in plants strongly attacked by both pests. Fruits attacked by seed predators showed significantly lower proportions of viable and unviable seeds than did unattacked fruits. Seed viability was also lower in those fruits heavily attacked by pulp suckers, but this pattern is strongly mediated by plant identity. Pest activity proved to be clearly associated with a direct decrease in juniper reproductive capacity. This loss involved a reduction of the viable-seed number, mainly related to the seed predator, as well as a reduction of fruit attractiveness to frugivorous dispersers, related to the pulp sucker.

  13. Plastid Proteomic Analysis in Tomato Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Miho; Takahashi, Sachiko; Kondo, Takanori; Dohra, Hideo; Ito, Yumihiko; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Marina; Kamiya, Shiori; Kato, Masaya; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Fukao, Yoichiro; Kobayashi, Megumi; Nagata, Noriko; Motohashi, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the mechanism of plastid differentiation from chloroplast to chromoplast, we examined proteome and plastid changes over four distinct developmental stages of 'Micro-Tom' fruit. Additionally, to discover more about the relationship between fruit color and plastid differentiation, we also analyzed and compared 'Micro-Tom' results with those from two other varieties, 'Black' and 'White Beauty'. We confirmed that proteins related to photosynthesis remain through the orange maturity stage of 'Micro-Tom', and also learned that thylakoids no longer exist at this stage. These results suggest that at a minimum there are changes in plastid morphology occurring before all related proteins change. We also compared 'Micro-Tom' fruits with 'Black' and 'White Beauty' using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. We found a decrease of CHRC (plastid-lipid-associated protein) and HrBP1 (harpin binding protein-1) in the 'Black' and 'White Beauty' varieties. CHRC is involved in carotenoid accumulation and stabilization. HrBP1 in Arabidopsis has a sequence similar to proteins in the PAP/fibrillin family. These proteins have characteristics and functions similar to lipocalin, an example of which is the transport of hydrophobic molecules. We detected spots of TIL (temperature-induced lipocalin) in 2D-PAGE results, however the number of spots and their isoelectric points differed between 'Micro-Tom' and 'Black'/'White Beauty'. Lipocalin has various functions including those related to environmental stress response, apoptosis induction, membrane formation and fixation, regulation of immune response, cell growth, and metabolism adjustment. Lipocalin related proteins such as TIL and HrBP1 could be related to the accumulation of carotenoids, fruit color and the differentiation of chromoplast. PMID:26371478

  14. Plastid Proteomic Analysis in Tomato Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Takanori; Dohra, Hideo; Ito, Yumihiko; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Marina; Kamiya, Shiori; Kato, Masaya; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Fukao, Yoichiro; Kobayashi, Megumi; Nagata, Noriko; Motohashi, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the mechanism of plastid differentiation from chloroplast to chromoplast, we examined proteome and plastid changes over four distinct developmental stages of ‘Micro-Tom’ fruit. Additionally, to discover more about the relationship between fruit color and plastid differentiation, we also analyzed and compared ‘Micro-Tom’ results with those from two other varieties, ‘Black’ and ‘White Beauty’. We confirmed that proteins related to photosynthesis remain through the orange maturity stage of ‘Micro-Tom’, and also learned that thylakoids no longer exist at this stage. These results suggest that at a minimum there are changes in plastid morphology occurring before all related proteins change. We also compared ‘Micro-Tom’ fruits with ‘Black’ and ‘White Beauty’ using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. We found a decrease of CHRC (plastid-lipid-associated protein) and HrBP1 (harpin binding protein-1) in the ‘Black’ and ‘White Beauty’ varieties. CHRC is involved in carotenoid accumulation and stabilization. HrBP1 in Arabidopsis has a sequence similar to proteins in the PAP/fibrillin family. These proteins have characteristics and functions similar to lipocalin, an example of which is the transport of hydrophobic molecules. We detected spots of TIL (temperature-induced lipocalin) in 2D-PAGE results, however the number of spots and their isoelectric points differed between ‘Micro-Tom’ and ‘Black’/‘White Beauty’. Lipocalin has various functions including those related to environmental stress response, apoptosis induction, membrane formation and fixation, regulation of immune response, cell growth, and metabolism adjustment. Lipocalin related proteins such as TIL and HrBP1 could be related to the accumulation of carotenoids, fruit color and the differentiation of chromoplast. PMID:26371478

  15. Phytoconstituents from Vitex agnus-castus fruits

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shao-Nong; Friesen, J. Brent; Webster, Donna; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B.; Wang, Z. Jim; Fong, Harry H.S.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2011-01-01

    A new labdane-diterpene, viteagnusin I (1), together with 23 known phytoconstituents were isolated from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L, and their structures characterized by spectroscopic method (NMR and MS). The known compounds include ten flavonoids, five terpenoids, three neolignans, and four phenolic compounds, as well as one glyceride. Biological evaluation identified apigenin, 3-methylkaempferol, luteolin, and casticin as weak ligands of delta and mu opioid receptors, exhibiting dose-dependent receptor binding. PMID:21163339

  16. Ethylene detection in fruit supply chains.

    PubMed

    Janssen, S; Schmitt, K; Blanke, M; Bauersfeld, M L; Wöllenstein, J; Lang, W

    2014-06-13

    Ethylene is a gaseous ripening phytohormone of fruits and plants. Presently, ethylene is primarily measured with stationary equipment in laboratories. Applying in situ measurement at the point of natural ethylene generation has been hampered by the lack of portable units designed to detect ethylene at necessary resolutions of a few parts per billion. Moreover, high humidity inside controlled atmosphere stores or containers complicates the realization of gas sensing systems that are sufficiently sensitive, reliable, robust and cost efficient. In particular, three measurement principles have shown promising potential for fruit supply chains and were used to develop independent mobile devices: non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy, miniaturized gas chromatography and electrochemical measurement. In this paper, the measurement systems for ethylene are compared with regard to the needs in fruit logistics; i.e. sensitivity, selectivity, long-term stability, facilitation of automated measurement and suitability for mobile application. Resolutions of 20-10 ppb can be achieved in mobile applications with state-of-the-art equipment, operating with the three methods described in the following. The prices of these systems are in a range below €10 000. PMID:24797138

  17. Ethylene detection in fruit supply chains

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, S.; Schmitt, K.; Blanke, M.; Bauersfeld, M. L.; Wöllenstein, J.; Lang, W.

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene is a gaseous ripening phytohormone of fruits and plants. Presently, ethylene is primarily measured with stationary equipment in laboratories. Applying in situ measurement at the point of natural ethylene generation has been hampered by the lack of portable units designed to detect ethylene at necessary resolutions of a few parts per billion. Moreover, high humidity inside controlled atmosphere stores or containers complicates the realization of gas sensing systems that are sufficiently sensitive, reliable, robust and cost efficient. In particular, three measurement principles have shown promising potential for fruit supply chains and were used to develop independent mobile devices: non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy, miniaturized gas chromatography and electrochemical measurement. In this paper, the measurement systems for ethylene are compared with regard to the needs in fruit logistics; i.e. sensitivity, selectivity, long-term stability, facilitation of automated measurement and suitability for mobile application. Resolutions of 20–10 ppb can be achieved in mobile applications with state-of-the-art equipment, operating with the three methods described in the following. The prices of these systems are in a range below €10 000. PMID:24797138

  18. Light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits

    PubMed Central

    Zoratti, Laura; Karppinen, Katja; Luengo Escobar, Ana; Häggman, Hely; Jaakola, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Light is one of the most important environmental factors affecting flavonoid biosynthesis in plants. The absolute dependency of light to the plant development has driven evolvement of sophisticated mechanisms to sense and transduce multiple aspects of the light signal. Light effects can be categorized in photoperiod (duration), intensity (quantity), direction and quality (wavelength) including UV-light. Recently, new information has been achieved on the regulation of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits, in which flavonoids have a major contribution on quality. This review focuses on the effects of the different light conditions on the control of flavonoid biosynthesis in fruit producing plants. An overview of the currently known mechanisms of the light-controlled flavonoid accumulation is provided. R2R3 MYB transcription factors are known to regulate by differential expression the biosynthesis of distinct flavonoids in response to specific light wavelengths. Despite recent advances, many gaps remain to be understood in the mechanisms of the transduction pathway of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis. A better knowledge on these regulatory mechanisms is likely to be useful for breeding programs aiming to modify fruit flavonoid pattern. PMID:25346743

  19. Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

  20. Cytokinins of the Developing Mango Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Shaw

    1983-01-01

    The cytokinin activity has been isolated and identified from extracts of immature mango (Mangifera indica L.) seeds. The structures of zeatin, zeatin riboside, and N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine riboside were confirmed on the basis of their chromatographic behavior and mass spectra of trimethylsilyl derivatives. Both trans and cis isomers of zeatin and zeatin riboside were also identified by the retention times of high performance liquid chromatography. In addition, an unidentified compound appeared to be a cytokinin glucoside. The concentration of cytokinins in the panicle and pulp of mango reached a maximum 5 to 10 days after full bloom and decreased rapidly thereafter. The cytokinin level in the seed remained high until the 28th day after full bloom. The quantity of cytokinins in pulp per fruit increased from the 10th day after full bloom, the maximum being attained around the 50th day after full bloom. Similarly, the amount of cytokinins per seed increased from the 10th day after full bloom, reaching a peak on the 40th day and decreasing gradually thereafter. A high percentage of fruit set in mango was persistently maintained by supplying 6-benzylaminopurine (1.5 × 103 micromolar) onto the panicle at the anthesis stage and by supplying gibberellic acid (7.2 × 102 micromolar) and naphthalene acetamide (3.1 × 10 micromolar) at the young fruit stage. PMID:16662830

  1. A comprehensive survey of fruit grading systems for tropical fruits of Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Khoje, Suchitra A; Bodhe, S K

    2015-01-01

    It is said that the backbone of Indian economy is agriculture. The contribution of the agriculture sector to the national GDP (Gross Domestic Products) was 14.6% in the year 2010. To attain a growth rate equivalent to that of industry (viz., about 9%), it is highly mandatory for Indian agriculture to modernize and use automation at various stages of cultivation and post-harvesting techniques. The use of computers in assessing the quality of fruits is one of the major activities in post-harvesting technology. As of now, this assessment is majorly done manually, except for a few fruits. Currently, the fruit quality assessment by machine vision in India is still at research level. Major research has been carried out in countries like China, Malaysia, UK, and Netherlands. To suit the Indian market and psychology of Indian farmers, it is necessary to develop indigenous technology. This paper is the first step toward evaluating the research carried out by the research community all over world for tropical fruits. For the purpose of survey, we have concentrated on the tropical fruits of the state of Maharashtra, while keeping in focus of the review image processing algorithms. PMID:24915312

  2. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima’D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future. PMID:27077652

  3. Spotting fruit versus picking fruit as the selective advantage of human colour vision

    PubMed Central

    Bompas, Aline; Kendall, Grace; Sumner, Petroc

    2013-01-01

    The spatiochromatic properties of the red–green dimension of human colour vision appear to be optimized for picking fruit in leaves at about arms' reach. However, other evidence suggests that the task of spotting fruit from a distance might be more important. This discrepancy may arise because the task a system (e.g. human trichromacy) is best at is not necessarily the same task where the largest advantage occurs over the evolutionary alternatives (dichromacy or anomalous trichromacy). We tested human dichromats, anomalous trichromats and “normal” trichromats in a naturalistic visual search task in which they had to find fruit pieces in a bush at 1, 4, 8 or 12 m viewing distance. We found that the largest advantage (in terms of either performance ratio or performance difference) of normal trichromacy over both types of colour deficiency was for the largest viewing distance. We infer that in the evolution of human colour vision, spotting fruit from a distance was a more important selective advantage than picking fruit at arms' reach. PMID:23755352

  4. Yucca brevifolia fruit production, predispersal seed predation, and fruit removal by rodents during two years of contrasting reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borchert, Mark I.; DeFalco, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The distribution of Yucca brevifolia, a keystone species of the Mojave Desert, may contract with climate change, yet reproduction and dispersal are poorly understood. We tracked reproduction, seed predation, and fruit dispersal for two years and discuss whether Y. brevifolia is a masting species. METHODS: Fruit maturation, seed predation (larval yucca moths), and fruit dispersal (rodents) were monitored on a random sample of panicles during 2013 and 2014, which were years of high and low reproduction, respectively. Fates of fruits placed on the ground and in canopies were also tracked. Rodents were live-trapped to assess abundance and species composition. KEY RESULTS: In 2013, 66% of inflorescences produced fruit of which 53% escaped larval predation; 19.5% of seeds were destroyed in infested fruits. Total seed production was estimated to be >100 times greater in 2013 than 2014. One-third of the fruit crop fell to the ground and was removed by rodents over the course of 120 d. After ground fruits became scarce, rodents exploited canopy fruits. Rodent numbers were low in 2013, so fruits remained in canopies for 370 d. In 2014, fruit production was approximately 20% lower. Larvae infested the majority of fruits, and almost twice the number of seeds were damaged. Fruits were exploited by rodents within 65 d. CONCLUSIONS: High fertilization, prolific seed production, and low predispersal predation in 2013 suggests that pollinator attraction and satiation of seed predators influence masting in Y. brevifolia. Abundant, prolonged fruit availability to seed-dispersing rodents likely extends recruitment opportunities during mast years.

  5. Warming-induced shift in European mushroom fruiting phenology.

    PubMed

    Kauserud, Håvard; Heegaard, Einar; Büntgen, Ulf; Halvorsen, Rune; Egli, Simon; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Dämon, Wolfgang; Sparks, Tim; Nordén, Jenni; Høiland, Klaus; Kirk, Paul; Semenov, Mikhail; Boddy, Lynne; Stenseth, Nils C

    2012-09-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, fungi are the major agents of decomposition processes and nutrient cycling and of plant nutrient uptake. Hence, they have a vital impact on ecosystem processes and the terrestrial carbon cycle. Changes in productivity and phenology of fungal fruit bodies can give clues to changes in fungal activity, but understanding these changes in relation to a changing climate is a pending challenge among ecologists. Here we report on phenological changes in fungal fruiting in Europe over the past four decades. Analyses of 746,297 dated and geo-referenced mushroom records of 486 autumnal fruiting species from Austria, Norway, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom revealed a widening of the annual fruiting season in all countries during the period 1970-2007. The mean annual day of fruiting has become later in all countries. However, the interspecific variation in phenological responses was high. Most species moved toward a later ending of their annual fruiting period, a trend that was particularly strong in the United Kingdom, which may reflect regional variation in climate change and its effects. Fruiting of both saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi now continues later in the year, but mycorrhizal fungi generally have a more compressed season than saprotrophs. This difference is probably due to the fruiting of mycorrhizal fungi partly depending on cues from the host plant. Extension of the European fungal fruiting season parallels an extended vegetation season in Europe. Changes in fruiting phenology imply changes in mycelia activity, with implications for ecosystem function. PMID:22908273

  6. Fruit volatile analysis using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Vallone, Simona; Lloyd, Nathan W; Ebeler, Susan E; Zakharov, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Numerous and diverse physiological changes occur during fruit ripening, including the development of a specific volatile blend that characterizes fruit aroma. Maturity at harvest is one of the key factors influencing the flavor quality of fruits and vegetables. The validation of robust methods that rapidly assess fruit maturity and aroma quality would allow improved management of advanced breeding programs, production practices and postharvest handling. Over the last three decades, much research has been conducted to develop so-called electronic noses, which are devices able to rapidly detect odors and flavors. Currently there are several commercially available electronic noses able to perform volatile analysis, based on different technologies. The electronic nose used in our work (zNose, EST, Newbury Park, CA, USA), consists of ultra-fast gas chromatography coupled with a surface acoustic wave sensor (UFGC-SAW). This technology has already been tested for its ability to monitor quality of various commodities, including detection of deterioration in apple; ripeness and rot evaluation in mango; aroma profiling of thymus species; C(6) volatile compounds in grape berries; characterization of vegetable oil and detection of adulterants in virgin coconut oil. This system can perform the three major steps of aroma analysis: headspace sampling, separation of volatile compounds, and detection. In about one minute, the output, a chromatogram, is produced and, after a purging cycle, the instrument is ready for further analysis. The results obtained with the zNose can be compared to those of other gas-chromatographic systems by calculation of Kovats Indices (KI). Once the instrument has been tuned with an alkane standard solution, the retention times are automatically converted into KIs. However, slight changes in temperature and flow rate are expected to occur over time, causing retention times to drift. Also, depending on the polarity of the column stationary phase, the

  7. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases. PMID:24188234

  8. Assessing the impact of deforestation of the Atlantic rainforest on ant-fruit interactions: a field experiment using synthetic fruits.

    PubMed

    Bieber, Ana Gabriela D; Silva, Paulo S D; Sendoya, Sebastián F; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2014-01-01

    Ants frequently interact with fleshy fruits on the ground of tropical forests. This interaction is regarded as mutualistic because seeds benefit from enhanced germination and dispersal to nutrient-rich microsites, whereas ants benefit from consuming the nutritious pulp/aril. Considering that the process of deforestation affects many attributes of the ecosystem such as species abundance and composition, and interspecific interactions, we asked whether the interaction between ants and fallen fleshy fruits in the Brazilian Atlantic forest differs between human-created fragments and undisturbed forests. We controlled diaspore type and quantity by using synthetic fruits (a plastic 'seed' covered by a lipid-rich 'pulp'), which were comparable to lipid-rich fruits. Eight independent areas (four undisturbed forests, and four disturbed forest fragments) were used in the field experiment, in which we recorded the attracted ant species, ant behaviour, and fruit removal distance. Fruits in undisturbed forest sites attracted a higher number of species than those in disturbed forests. Moreover, the occurrence of large, fruit-carrying ponerine ants (Pachycondyla, Odontomachus; 1.1 to 1.4 cm) was higher in undisturbed forests. Large species (≥3 mm) of Pheidole (Myrmicinae), also able to remove fruits, did not differ between forest types. Following these changes in species occurrence, fruit displacement was more frequent in undisturbed than in disturbed forests. Moreover, displacement distances were also greater in the undisturbed forests. Our data suggest that fallen fleshy fruits interacting with ants face different fates depending on the conservation status of the forest. Together with the severe loss of their primary dispersers in human-disturbed tropical forest sites, vertebrate-dispersed fruits may also be deprived of potential ant-derived benefits in these habitats due to shifts in the composition of interacting ant species. Our data illustrate the use of synthetic fruits

  9. Assessing the Impact of Deforestation of the Atlantic Rainforest on Ant-Fruit Interactions: A Field Experiment Using Synthetic Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Bieber, Ana Gabriela D.; Silva, Paulo S. D.; Sendoya, Sebastián F.; Oliveira, Paulo S.

    2014-01-01

    Ants frequently interact with fleshy fruits on the ground of tropical forests. This interaction is regarded as mutualistic because seeds benefit from enhanced germination and dispersal to nutrient-rich microsites, whereas ants benefit from consuming the nutritious pulp/aril. Considering that the process of deforestation affects many attributes of the ecosystem such as species abundance and composition, and interspecific interactions, we asked whether the interaction between ants and fallen fleshy fruits in the Brazilian Atlantic forest differs between human-created fragments and undisturbed forests. We controlled diaspore type and quantity by using synthetic fruits (a plastic ‘seed’ covered by a lipid-rich ‘pulp’), which were comparable to lipid-rich fruits. Eight independent areas (four undisturbed forests, and four disturbed forest fragments) were used in the field experiment, in which we recorded the attracted ant species, ant behaviour, and fruit removal distance. Fruits in undisturbed forest sites attracted a higher number of species than those in disturbed forests. Moreover, the occurrence of large, fruit-carrying ponerine ants (Pachycondyla, Odontomachus; 1.1 to 1.4 cm) was higher in undisturbed forests. Large species (≥3 mm) of Pheidole (Myrmicinae), also able to remove fruits, did not differ between forest types. Following these changes in species occurrence, fruit displacement was more frequent in undisturbed than in disturbed forests. Moreover, displacement distances were also greater in the undisturbed forests. Our data suggest that fallen fleshy fruits interacting with ants face different fates depending on the conservation status of the forest. Together with the severe loss of their primary dispersers in human-disturbed tropical forest sites, vertebrate-dispersed fruits may also be deprived of potential ant-derived benefits in these habitats due to shifts in the composition of interacting ant species. Our data illustrate the use of synthetic

  10. Pattern of the Cyanide-Potential in Developing Fruits 1

    PubMed Central

    Frehner, Marco; Scalet, Mario; Conn, Eric E.

    1990-01-01

    The absolute cyanide content of developing fruits was determined in Costa Rican wild lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus), oil flax (Linum usitatissimum), and bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus). The cyanide potential (HCN-p) of the lima bean and the almond fruit began to increase shortly after anthesis and then stopped before fruit maturity. In contrast, the flax inflorescence had a higher HCN-p in absolute terms than the mature flax fruit. At all times of its development the bean fruit contained the monoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin. The almond and the flax fruits contained, at anthesis, the monoglucosides prunasin, and linamarin and lotaustralin, respectively, while, at maturity, only the corresponding diglucosides amygdalin, and linustatin and neolinustatin, respectively, were present. PMID:16667698

  11. Sugar metabolism in relation to chilling tolerance of loquat fruit.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Yang, Zhenfeng; Zheng, Yonghua

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between chilling injury and sugar metabolism was investigated in loquat fruit stored at 1°C for 35days. No symptoms of chilling injury occurred in the fruit, of 'Ninghaibai' cultivar, during the whole storage whereas, in 'Dahongpao' fruit, severe chilling symptoms were observed after 20days of storage at 1°C. 'Ninghaibai' fruit had higher levels of glucose and fructose and higher activities of sucrose hydrolyzing enzymes, such as sucrose synthase-cleavage and invertase, than had 'Dahongpao'. Furthermore, the chilling resistant 'Ninghaibai' fruit also showed higher activities of hexokinase and fructokinase, involved in hexose phoshorylation and sugar signal generation. These results suggest that the higher content of hexoses and activities of hexose sensors were likely part of the mechanism for chilling tolerance of loquat fruit. PMID:23017404

  12. Inheritance of fruit-coat colours in Trichosanthes anguina Linn.

    PubMed

    Sardar, A K; Mukherjee, K K

    1987-05-01

    In Trichosanthes anguina Linn. (Cucurbitaceae), reciprocal crosses among three naturally occurring fruit-coat colour varieties (deep green, green and white) and two yellow fruit-coat colour mutants isolated in the M1 generation showed that a multiple allelic series control the fruit-coat colours. In the F2 generation the fruit-coat colours segregated in a monohybrid ratio with deep green dominant over green, yellow and white, green dominant over yellow and white, and yellow dominant over white. Two yellow fruit-coat colour mutants used in this study were isolated from X-ray- and EMS-treated populations of a white fruit-coat colour variety. PMID:24241474

  13. Postharvest physiology and technology of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Pareek, Sunil; Benkeblia, Noureddine; Janick, Jules; Cao, Shifeng; Yahia, Elhadi M

    2014-06-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is a subtropical evergreen tree whose fruit is consumed both fresh and processed. Loquat fruit is a good source of minerals and carotenoids, while the kernel is rich in protein and carbohydrates. It has been considered a non-climacteric fruit, but there is evidence that some cultivars have a ripening pattern similar to that of climacteric fruits. The fruit has a short postharvest life at ambient temperatures and is susceptible to physical and mechanical damage, loss of moisture and nutrients, and decay. Low-temperature storage extends the shelf life of loquat fruit, but some cultivars are severely affected by chilling injury and flesh browning during cold storage. Purple spot, browning and leatheriness are major postharvest disorders. The shelf life of loquat can be extended by modified or controlled atmosphere storage as well as by postharvest treatment with 1-methyl cyclopropene or methyl jasmonate. PMID:24395491

  14. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

  15. Recent advances in fruit development and ripening: an overview.

    PubMed

    White, Philip J

    2002-10-01

    This article provides an overview of the Journal of Experimental Botany Special Issue on Fruit Development and Ripening. It reports that significant progress is being made in identifying genes controlling the development of dry dehiscent fruits in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. In plants with fleshy fruits, a major focus has been the dissection of biochemical and genetic regulatory cascades controlling ripening, using tomato as a model species. Intermediates of the ethylene-signalling cascade, potential cross-talk between ethylene and auxin signals, and the role of ethylene-independent signals have all been described in this climacteric fruit. The recent isolation of the NOR and LeMADS-RIN genes, which participate in ethylene-independent signalling in tomato, and the discovery that a homologue of the RIN gene is expressed in strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit, suggests that common regulatory cascades may operate in all fruits. Transcriptional profiling during the development and ripening of both climacteric (tomato) and non-climacteric (strawberry) fruit has supported these observations, and also identified a number of novel genes involved in the biochemistry of fruit development and ripening. The use of phylogenies based on chloroplast gene sequences has allowed an insight into the evolution of fruit forms and fruit biochemistry, which may be useful for the manipulation of commercial species. Several molecular approaches, including positional cloning, QTL mapping and genetic engineering, are helping to define the biochemical and molecular bases of texture, flavour, colour, and aroma. As the understanding of the biology of fruit ripening has improved, so has the ability to improve the organoleptic and nutritional qualities of fruits through crop management, breeding or biotechnology. PMID:12324524

  16. Squeezing Fact from Fiction about 100% Fruit Juice123

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

  17. Inhibitory effects of fruit juices on CYP3A activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunmi; Yoon, Yune-Jung; Shon, Ji-Hong; Cha, In-June; Shin, Jae-Gook; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon

    2006-04-01

    There have been very limited reports on the effects of commercial fruit juices on human CYP3A activity. Therefore, the inhibitory effects of readily available commercial fruit juices on midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity, a marker of CYP3A, were evaluated in pooled human liver microsomes. The fruit juices investigated were black raspberry, black mulberry, plum, and wild grape. White grapefruit, pomegranate, and orange juice were used as positive and negative controls. The black mulberry juice showed the most potent inhibition of CYP3A except for grapefruit juice. The inhibition depended on the amount of a fruit juice added to the incubation mixture. The inhibitory potential of human CYP3A was in the order: grapefruit > black mulberry > wild grape > pomegranate > black raspberry. The IC(50) values of all fruit juices tested were reduced after preincubation with microsomes in the presence of the NADPH-generating system, suggesting that a mechanism-based inhibitory component was present in these fruit juices, as in the case of grapefruit. The results suggest that, like grapefruit juice, commercial fruit juices also have the potential to inhibit CYP3A-catalzyed midazolam 1'-hydroxylation. Therefore, in vivo studies investigating the interactions between fruit juices such as black mulberry and wild grape and CYP3A substrates are necessary to determine whether inhibition of CYP3A activity by fruit juices is clinically relevant. PMID:16415112

  18. Research of pesticide residues on fruit by terahertz spectroscopy technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yehao; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Huali

    2011-11-01

    Pesticide residues on the fruit skin are measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in 0.2-1.3THz. Pesticide is mainly residues for fruit, which threatens health of human, so the research about the fruit residues is absolutely important. In the experiment, a kind of pesticide carbendazim, orange, and the mixture of them are measured by THz-TDS, and then calculate absorption spectrums through Fourier transform and Fresnel formula. Experiment results indicate that THz-TDS is an effective tool for the measurement of pesticide residues on the fruit skin.

  19. Forest Fruit Production Is Higher on Sumatra Than on Borneo

    PubMed Central

    Wich, Serge A.; Vogel, Erin R.; Larsen, Michael D.; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Leighton, Mark; Yeager, Carey P.; Brearley, Francis Q.; van Schaik, Carel P.; Marshall, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Various studies have shown that the population densities of a number of forest vertebrates, such as orangutans, are higher on Sumatra than Borneo, and that several species exhibit smaller body sizes on Borneo than Sumatra and mainland Southeast Asia. It has been suggested that differences in forest fruit productivity between the islands can explain these patterns. Here we present a large-scale comparison of forest fruit production between the islands to test this hypothesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on fruit production were collated from Sumatran and Bornean sites. At six sites we assessed fruit production in three forest types: riverine, peat swamp and dryland forests. We compared fruit production using time-series models during different periods of overall fruit production and in different tree size classes. We examined overall island differences and differences specifically for fruiting period and tree size class. The results of these analyses indicate that overall the Sumatran forests are more productive than those on Borneo. This difference remains when each of the three forest types (dryland, riverine, and peat) are examined separately. The difference also holds over most tree sizes and fruiting periods. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that forest fruit productivity is higher on Sumatra than Borneo. This difference is most likely the result of the overall younger and more volcanic soils on Sumatra than Borneo. These results contribute to our understanding of the determinants of faunal density and the evolution of body size on both islands. PMID:21738627

  20. Chemical inhibitors of viviparous germination in the fruit of watermelon.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    It is well known that the seeds of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai] have a high potential to germinate when the fruit has ripened. When removed from the mature fruit, the seeds can germinate under appropriate conditions. However, it is unclear why they cannot germinate in the flesh of the fruit. Here, we show that cis-ABA and its β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (ABA-β-GE) accumulate in the flesh of the fruit at levels high enough to inhibit seed germination. This result indicates the existence of chemical factors that inhibit viviparous seed germination of watermelon. PMID:20630986

  1. 4. View facing southwest showing the Silvertop Diner, Providence Fruit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View facing southwest showing the Silvertop Diner, Providence Fruit & Produce Building, and Merchants' Cold Storage Warehouse. - Provisions Warehouse Historic District, Kinsley & Harris Avenues, Providence, Providence County, RI

  2. An overview of fruit allergy and the causative allergens.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A K G; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-11-01

    Plant allergens, being one of the most widespread allergenic substances, are hard to avoid. Hence, their identification and characterization are of prime importance for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy. The reported allergies to fruits mainly evoke oral allergy syndrome caused by the presence of cross-reactive IgE to certain pollens and thus, allergy to fruits has also been linked to particular pollens. Many fruit allergies are being studied for their causative allergens, and are being characterized. Some tropical or exotic fruits are responsible for region-specific allergies for which only limited information is available, and generally lack allergen characterization. From a survey of the literature on fruit allergy, it is clear that some common fruits (apple, peach, musk melon, kiwi fruit, cherry, grape, strawberry, banana, custard apple, mango and pomegranate) and their allergens appear to be at the center of current research on food allergy. The present review focuses on common fruits reported as allergenic and their identified allergens; a brief description of allergens from six rare/tropical fruits is also covered. PMID:26549334

  3. Genetic control of fruit vitamin C contents.

    PubMed

    Davey, Mark W; Kenis, Katrien; Keulemans, Johan

    2006-09-01

    An F(1) progeny derived from a cross between the apple (Malus x domestica) cultivars Telamon and Braeburn was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked to the vitamin C (l-ascorbate [l-AA]) contents of fruit skin and flesh (cortex) tissues. We identified up to three highly significant QTLs for both the mean l-AA and the mean total l-AA contents of fruit flesh on both parental genetic linkage maps, confirming the quantitative nature of these traits. These QTLs account for up to a maximum of 60% of the total population variation observed in the progeny, and with a maximal individual contribution of 31% per QTL. QTLs common to both parents were identified on linkage groups (LGs) 6, 10, and 11 of the Malus reference map, while each parent also had additional unique QTLs on other LGs. Interestingly, one strong QTL on LG-17 of the Telamon linkage map colocalized with a highly significant QTL associated with flesh browning, and a minor QTL for dehydroascorbate content, supporting earlier work that links fruit l-AA contents with the susceptibility of hardfruit to postharvest browning. We also found significant minor QTLs for skin l-AA and total l-AA (l-AA + dehydroascorbate) contents in Telamon. Currently, little is known about the genetic determinants underlying tissue l-AA homeostasis, but the presence of major, highly significant QTL in both these apple genotypes under field conditions suggests the existence of common control mechanisms, allelic heterozygosity, and helps outline strategies and the potential for the molecular breeding of these traits. PMID:16844833

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-13 - Fruits and vegetables allowed importation subject to specified conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (b)(2)(iii), (b)(2)(vi). Egypt Pineapple Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). El Salvador Fennel... Cucurbitaceae Fruit (b)(2)(iii), (b)(3). Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Leaf and stem (b)(2)(i). German chamomile... spp. Fruit (b)(3), (b)(5)(xvi). Passion fruit Passiflora spp. Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Nicaragua...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-13 - Fruits and vegetables allowed importation subject to specified conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (b)(2)(iii), (b)(2)(vi). Egypt Pineapple Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). El Salvador Fennel... Cucurbitaceae Fruit (b)(2)(iii), (b)(3). Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Leaf and stem (b)(2)(i). German chamomile... spp. Fruit (b)(3), (b)(5)(xvi). Passion fruit Passiflora spp. Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Nicaragua...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-13 - Fruits and vegetables allowed importation subject to specified conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (b)(2)(iii), (b)(2)(vi). Egypt Pineapple Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). El Salvador Fennel... Cucurbitaceae Fruit (b)(2)(iii), (b)(3). Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Leaf and stem (b)(2)(i). German chamomile... spp. Fruit (b)(3), (b)(5)(xvi). Passion fruit Passiflora spp. Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Nicaragua...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-13 - Fruits and vegetables allowed importation subject to specified conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (b)(2)(iii), (b)(2)(vi). Egypt Pineapple Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). El Salvador Fennel... Cucurbitaceae Fruit (b)(2)(iii), (b)(3). Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Leaf and stem (b)(2)(i). German chamomile... spp. Fruit (b)(3), (b)(5)(xvi). Passion fruit Passiflora spp. Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Nicaragua...

  8. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department...

  9. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department...

  10. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department...

  11. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department...

  12. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department...

  13. Characterizing culturable microflora of nectarines: bacteria and their potential for biological control of postharvest fruit decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microorganisms isolated from fruit surfaces have been used to control postharvest decays of fruit. However, there is little information on microflora colonizing surfaces of fruits other than grapes, apples, and citrus. We characterized bacterial microflora on nectarine fruit surfaces during fruit ...

  14. Increasing portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school lunch program can increase fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nicole; Reicks, Marla; Redden, Joseph P; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Vickers, Zata

    2015-08-01

    Increasing portion size can increase children's consumption of food. The goal of this study was to determine whether increasing the portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school cafeteria environment would increase children's consumption of them. We measured each child's consumption of the fruit and vegetables served in a cafeteria line on a control day (normal cafeteria procedures) and on two intervention days. When we increased the portion size of 3 of the 4 fruits and vegetables by about 50%, children who took those foods increased their consumption of them. Although this was an effective strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among students who took those foods, many children chose not to take any fruits or vegetables. Further efforts are needed to increase children's selection and consumption of fruits and vegetables in an environment of competing foods of higher palatability. PMID:25958117

  15. Studying tauopathies in Drosophila: A fruitful model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingkuan; Chen, Liam

    2015-12-01

    Tauopathies are a group of neurodegenerative disorders that include hereditary frontotemporal dementias (FTDs) such as FTD with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), as well as sporadic variants of FTDs like progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and Pick's disease. These diverse diseases all have in common the presence of abnormally phosphorylated tau aggregates. In this review, we will summarize key features of transgenic Drosophila models of tauopathies and a number of insights into disease mechanisms as well as therapeutic implications gained from the fruit fly models. PMID:25862286

  16. Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia catappa Linn fruits.

    PubMed

    Nagappa, A N; Thakurdesai, P A; Venkat Rao, N; Singh, Jiwan

    2003-09-01

    In view of alleged antidiabetic potential, effect of the petroleum ether, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Terminalia catappa Linn (combretaceae) fruit, on fasting blood sugar levels and serum biochemical analysis in alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated. All the three extracts of Terminalia catappa produced a significant antidiabetic activity at dose levels 1/5 of their lethal doses. Concurrent histological studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by methanolic and aqueous extracts which were earlier, necrosed by alloxan. PMID:12902049

  17. Antibacterial substance from Carica papaya fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Emeruwa, A C

    1982-01-01

    Ripe and unripe Carica papaya fruits (epicarp, endocarp, seeds and leaves) were extracted separately and purified. All the extracts except that of leaves produced very significant antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella flexneri. The MIC of the substance was small (0.2-0.3 mg/ml) for gram-positive bacteria and large (1.5-4 mg/ml) for gram-negative bacteria. The substance was bactericidal and showed properties of a protein. Other proteins previously found in C. papaya did not show antibacterial activity. PMID:7097295

  18. Ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit.

    PubMed

    Digiacomo, Fabio; Girelli, Gabriele; Aor, Bruno; Marchioretti, Caterina; Pedrotti, Michele; Perli, Thomas; Tonon, Emil; Valentini, Viola; Avi, Damiano; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Dorigato, Andrea; Torre, Paola; Jousson, Olivier; Mansy, Sheref S; Del Bianco, Cristina

    2014-12-19

    Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered E. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae. EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples. PMID:25393892

  19. Isolation and biophysical study of fruit cuticles.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Sarkar, Sayantani; Oktawiec, Julia; Mao, Zhantong; Niitsoo, Olivia; Stark, Ruth E

    2012-01-01

    The cuticle, a hydrophobic protective layer on the aerial parts of terrestrial plants, functions as a versatile defensive barrier to various biotic and abiotic stresses and also regulates water flow from the external environment. A biopolyester (cutin) and long-chain fatty acids (waxes) form the principal structural framework of the cuticle; the functional integrity of the cuticular layer depends on the outer 'epicuticular' layer as well as the blend consisting of the cutin biopolymer and 'intracuticular' waxes. Herein, we describe a comprehensive protocol to extract waxes exhaustively from commercial tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit cuticles or to remove epicuticular and intracuticular waxes sequentially and selectively from the cuticle composite. The method of Jetter and Schäffer (2001) was adapted for the stepwise extraction of epicuticular and intracuticular waxes from the fruit cuticle. To monitor the process of sequential wax removal, solid-state cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning (CPMAS) (13)C NMR spectroscopy was used in parallel with atomic force microscopy (AFM), providing molecular-level structural profiles of the bulk materials complemented by information on the microscale topography and roughness of the cuticular surfaces. To evaluate the cross-linking capabilities of dewaxed cuticles from cultivated wild-type and single-gene mutant tomato fruits, MAS (13)C NMR was used to compare the relative proportions of oxygenated aliphatic (CHO and CH(2)O) chemical moieties. Exhaustive dewaxing by stepwise Soxhlet extraction with a panel of solvents of varying polarity provides an effective means to isolate wax moieties based on the hydrophobic characteristics of their aliphatic and aromatic constituents, while preserving the chemical structure of the cutin biopolyester. The mechanical extraction of epicuticular waxes and selective removal of intracuticular waxes, when monitored by complementary physical methodologies, provides an unprecedented means to

  20. Pest, Parasitoid, and Fruit Interactions in Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and the imported parasitoid, P. humilis, required cool temperatures, high humidities, and food and water for prolonged survival (about 6 months for host) in laboratory and greenhouse tests. Life span was greatly shortened by high temperatures, low humiditi...

  1. Food Insecurity is Related to Home Availability of Fruit, 100% Fruit Juice, and Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Household food security is defined as access to enough food at all times for active, healthy living. Low food security may influence consumption because those households may lack sufficient resources to purchase more healthful items like fruit and vegetables. Because home availability is related to ...

  2. Exporting fruit from low fruit fly prevalence zones with a multiple mitigation systems approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the increase emphasis on trade of fresh fruits and vegetables worldwide, systems approaches have become part of an international effort to reduce risk of establishing new pests while providing a biological basis to risk assessment. Areawide pest management programs have been shown to be success...

  3. Management of primocane-fruiting blackberry – impacts on yield, fruiting season, and cane architecture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Primocane management systems were compared for ‘Prime-Jan’® and ‘Prime-Jim’®, primocane-fruiting blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus, Watson), grown in a field planting in Aurora, OR. Treatments studied were: 1) no manipulation of primocanes (un-tipped; no floricanes); 2) un-tipped primocanes growin...

  4. Pomological and nutraceutical properties in apricot fruit: cultivation systems and cold storage fruit management.

    PubMed

    Leccese, Annamaria; Bureau, Sylvie; Reich, Maryse; Renard, M G C Catherine; Audergon, Jean-Marc; Mennone, Carmelo; Bartolini, Susanna; Viti, Raffaella

    2010-06-01

    We have investigated the effect of cultivation systems and fruit post-harvest management on the antioxidant properties of apricot fruits. Trees of five cultivars 'Tyrinthos', 'Cafona', 'Bella d'Italia', 'Vitillo' and 'Pellecchiella' were cultivated under integrated and organic systems. Fruits were collected at full maturity stage and analyzed either immediately or after storage at 4+/-0.5 degrees C and 85% of relative humidity for seven and 14 days. The main pomological traits (weight, colour, flesh firmness, total soluble sugars, titratable acidity) and antioxidant properties were analyzed. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC by TEAC method), total phenols content (TP by Folin-Ciocalteu method) and carotenoid content by HPLC-DAD were monitored. Cultivar characterization by principal component analysis (PCA) indicated a large variability on pomological and antioxidant properties of apricot fruits. 'Bella d'Italia' showed better TAC and TP values compared to the other cultivars. ANOVA interactions between cultivar and cultivation system (organic/integrated) were found for the antioxidant properties. These interactions may help to select a set of genotypes with better performances under organic system, which in our study might be indicated in 'Cafona' and 'Bella d'Italia'. PMID:20198441

  5. Procyanidin composition of selected fruits and fruit byproducts is affected by extraction method and variety.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Ramesh C; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L

    2009-10-14

    Fruits and fruit byproducts are rich sources of polyphenols, including procyanidins, which are known to have numerous potential health benefits. This study investigated if varietal differences existed in the procyanidin composition of grape seed and if soaking in extraction solvent overnight prior to extraction improved the recovery of procyanidins from grape seed, grape pomace, and blueberry and cranberry powders. Riesling contained the highest amount of procyanidins, including the lower molecular weight monomers and dimers, followed by Chardonnay (60%), whereas Merlot contained much lower levels (14%) of individual and total procyanidins. A modified method of extraction whereby selected fruits and fruit byproducts were soaked in the extraction solvent overnight before the extraction process was begun increased procyanidins extracted by 24-100% from grape seeds and by 0-30% with berry procyanidin sources. The results indicate a wide variation in the procyanidin contents among different varieties of grape seeds that could have implications in the selection of procyanidin-rich germplasm. Soaking samples in the extraction solvent for 16 h resulted in increased procyanidins extracted and thus higher calculated concentrations in the food samples tested. PMID:19722520

  6. Fruit specific variability in capsaicinoid accumulation and transcription of structural and regulatory genes in Capsicum fruit.

    PubMed

    Keyhaninejad, Neda; Curry, Jeanne; Romero, Joslynn; O'Connell, Mary A

    2014-02-01

    Accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissue of ripening chile (Capsicum spp.) fruit follows the coordinated expression of multiple biosynthetic enzymes producing the substrates for capsaicin synthase. Transcription factors are likely agents to regulate expression of these biosynthetic genes. Placental RNAs from habanero fruit (Capsicum chinense) were screened for expression of candidate transcription factors; with two candidate genes identified, both in the ERF family of transcription factors. Characterization of these transcription factors, Erf and Jerf, in nine chile cultivars with distinct capsaicinoid contents demonstrated a correlation of expression with pungency. Amino acid variants were observed in both ERF and JERF from different chile cultivars; none of these changes involved the DNA binding domains. Little to no transcription of Erf was detected in non-pungent Capsium annuum or C. chinense mutants. This correlation was characterized at an individual fruit level in a set of jalapeño (C. annuum) lines again with distinct and variable capsaicinoid contents. Both Erf and Jerf are expressed early in fruit development, 16-20 days post-anthesis, at times prior to the accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissues. These data support the hypothesis that these two members of the complex ERF family participate in regulation of the pungency phenotype in chile. PMID:24388515

  7. Fruit specific variability in capsaicinoid accumulation and transcription of structural and regulatory genes in Capsicum fruit

    PubMed Central

    Keyhaninejad, Neda; Curry, Jeanne; Romero, Joslynn; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissue of ripening chile (Capsicum spp.) fruit follows the coordinated expression of multiple biosynthetic enzymes producing the substrates for capsaicin synthase. Transcription factors are likely agents to regulate expression of these biosynthetic genes. Placental RNAs from habanero fruit (C. chinense) were screened for expression of candidate transcription factors; with two candidate genes identified, both in the ERF family of transcription factors. Characterization of these transcription factors, Erf and Jerf, in nine chile cultivars with distinct capsaicinoid contents demonstrated a correlation of expression with pungency. Amino acid variants were observed in both ERF and JERF from different chile cultivars; none of these changes involved the DNA binding domains. Little to no transcription of Erf was detected in non-pungent C. annuum or C. chinense mutants. This correlation was characterized at an individual fruit level in a set of jalapeño (C. annuum) lines again with distinct and variable capsaicinoid contents. Both Erf and Jerf are expressed early in fruit development, 16–20 days post-anthesis, at times prior to the accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissues. These data support the hypothesis that these two members of the complex ERF family participate in regulation of the pungency phenotype in chile. PMID:24388515

  8. Feasibility study of utilizing simplified near infrared imaging for detecting fruit fly larvae in intact fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the previous research to classify intact mangoes infested with oriental fruit fly from the control ones using near infrared (NIR) spectra acquired by a spot-type handheld NIR instrument, an attempt to improve the sensitivity of the system by employing NIR imaging technology was conducted. ...

  9. 77 FR 71746 - Artificially Sweetened Fruit Jelly and Artificially Sweetened Fruit Preserves and Jams; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... fruit preserves and jams (artificially sweetened preserves and jams) (21 CFR 150.161) (24 FR 8896... for their use in food labeling (58 FR 2302; January 6, 1993). FDA also prescribed at the same time in... a traditional standardized food term (58 FR 2431; January 6, 1993). A nutrient content claim...

  10. Ethylene Biosynthesis in Detached Young Persimmon Fruit Is Initiated in Calyx and Modulated by Water Loss from the Fruit1

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryohei; Ogura, Emi; Kubo, Yasutaka; Inaba, Akitsugu

    2003-01-01

    Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit are usually classified as climacteric fruit; however, unlike typical climacteric fruits, persimmon fruit exhibit a unique characteristic in that the younger the stage of fruit detached, the greater the level of ethylene produced. To investigate ethylene induction mechanisms in detached young persimmon fruit, we cloned three cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (DK-ACS1, 2, and -3) and two encoding ACC oxidase (DK-ACO1 and -2) genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and we analyzed their expression in various fruit tissues. Ethylene production was induced within a few days of detachment in all fruit tissues tested, accompanied by temporally and spatially coordinated expression of all the DK-ACS and DK-ACO genes. In all tissues except the calyx, treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, suppressed ethylene production and ethylene biosynthesis-related gene expression. In the calyx, one ACC synthase gene (DK-ACS2) exhibited increased mRNA accumulation accompanied by a large quantity of ethylene production, and treatment of the fruit with 1-methylcyclopropene did not prevent either the accumulation of DK-ACS2 transcripts or ethylene induction. Furthermore, the alleviation of water loss from the fruit significantly delayed the onset of ethylene production and the expression of DK-ACS2 in the calyx. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in detached young persimmon fruit is initially induced in calyx and is modulated by water loss through transcriptional activation of DK-ACS2. The ethylene produced in the calyx subsequently diffuses to other fruit tissues and acts as a secondary signal that stimulates autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis in these tissues, leading to a burst of ethylene production. PMID:12529535

  11. Survival of salmonella on dried fruits and in aqueous dried fruit homogenates as affected by temperature.

    PubMed

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

    2014-07-01

    A study was done to determine the ability of Salmonella to survive on dried cranberries, raisins, and strawberries and in date paste, as affected by storage temperature. Acid-adapted Salmonella, initially at 6.57 to 7.01 log CFU/g, was recovered from mist-inoculated cranberries (water activity [aw] 0.47) and raisins (aw 0.46) stored at 25°C for 21 days but not 42 days, strawberries (aw 0.21) for 42 days but not 84 days, and date paste (aw 0.69) for 84 days but not 126 days. In contrast, the pathogen was detected in strawberries stored at 4°C for 182 days (6 months) but not 242 days (8 months) and in cranberries, date paste, and raisins stored for 242 days. Surface-grown cells survived longer than broth-grown cells in date paste. The order of rate of inactivation at 4°C was cranberry > strawberry > raisin > date paste. Initially at 2.18 to 3.35 log CFU/g, inactivation of Salmonella on dry (sand)&ndash inoculated fruits followed trends similar to those for mist-inoculated fruits. Survival of Salmonella in aqueous homogenates of dried fruits as affected by fruit concentration and temperature was also studied. Growth was not observed in 10% (aw 0.995 to 0.999) and 50% (aw 0.955 to 0.962) homogenates of the four fruits held at 4°C, 50% homogenates at 25°C, and 10% cranberry and strawberry homogenates at 25°C. Growth of the pathogen in 10% date paste and raisin homogenates stored at 25°C was followed by rapid inactivation. Results of these studies suggest the need to subject dried fruits that may be contaminated with Salmonella to a lethal process and prevent postprocess contamination before they are eaten out-of-hand or used as ingredients in ready-to-eat foods. Observations showing that Salmonella can grow in aqueous homogenates of date paste and raisins emphasize the importance of minimizing contact of these fruits with high-moisture environments during handling and storage. PMID:24988015

  12. Fruit juice-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: evaluation of different fruit juices and purees and optimization of a red fruit juice blend.

    PubMed

    Auger, Cyril; Kim, Jong-Hun; Trinh, Sandrine; Chataigneau, Thierry; Popken, Anne M; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2011-05-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that several polyphenol-rich sources such as red wine and green tea are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. As various fruits and berries are known to contain high levels of polyphenols, the aim of the present study was to assess the ability of selected pure fruit juices and purees as well as blends to cause endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. Vascular reactivity was assessed using porcine coronary artery rings, and fruit juices, purees and blends were characterized for their content in vitamin C, total phenolic, sugar and antioxidant activity. Fruit juices and purees caused variable concentration-dependent relaxations, with blackcurrant, aronia, cranberry, blueberry, lingonberry, and grape being the most effective fruits. Several blends of red fruits caused endothelium-dependent relaxations. Relaxations to blend D involved both a NO- and an EDHF-mediated components. The present findings indicate that some berries and blends of red fruit juices are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in the porcine coronary artery. This effect involves both endothelium-derived NO and EDHF, and appears to be dependent on their polyphenolic composition rather than on the polyphenolic content. PMID:21779562

  13. Changing how I feel about the food: experimentally manipulated affective associations with fruits change fruit choice behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Kiviniemi, Marc T.

    2013-01-01

    Fewer than half of Americans meet current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. The behavioral affective associations model posits that feelings and emotions associated with a behavior are a proximal influence on decision making. Cross-sectional evidence supports the model and suggests that affective associations predict fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to test whether a causal relation exists between affective associations about fruits and future fruit consumption behavior, as measured by a snack selection task. Following a baseline assessment of cognitive and affective variables, participants’ (N = 161) affective associations about fruits were experimentally manipulated with an implicit priming paradigm. Images of fruits were repeatedly paired with positive, negative, or neutral affective stimuli. The key outcome measure was a behavioral choice task in which participants chose between fruit and a granola bar. Participants in the positive prime condition were three times more likely than those in the negative condition to select a piece of fruit over the granola bar alternative in the snack selection task. They were also twice as likely as those in the neutral condition to select fruit. There were no changes in self-reported affective associations or cognitive beliefs. These findings provide further evidence of the implicit and direct influence of affective associations on behavior, suggesting the need to both incorporate the role of affect in health decision making models, as well as the potential utility of intervention strategies targeting affective associations with health-related behaviors. PMID:23299831

  14. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyushu to Taiwan, are at the northern limits for tropical fruit production without artificial heating. In this review, we describe the current status of tropical fruit breeding, genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of three main tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, and papaya) that are cultivated and consumed in Japan. More than ten new elite cultivars of pineapple have been released with improved fruit quality and suitability for consumption as fresh fruit. New challenges and perspectives for obtaining high fruit quality are discussed in the context of breeding programs for pineapple. PMID:27069392

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Climacteric Fruit of Chinese Pear (Pyrus ussuriensis) Reveals New Insights into Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Dongmei; Jiang, Zhongyu; Wei, Yun; Li, Juncai; Wang, Aide

    2014-01-01

    The fruit of Pyrus ussuriensis is typically climacteric. During ripening, the fruits produce a large amount of ethylene, and their firmness drops rapidly. Although the molecular basis of climacteric fruit ripening has been studied in depth, some aspects remain unclear. Here, we compared the transcriptomes of pre- and post-climacteric fruits of Chinese pear (P. ussuriensis c.v. Nanguo) using RNA-seq. In total, 3,279 unigenes were differentially expressed between the pre- and post-climacteric fruits. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were subjected to Gene Ontology analysis, and 31 categories were significantly enriched in the groups ‘biological process’, ‘molecular function’ and ‘cellular component’. The DEGs included genes related to plant hormones, such as ethylene, ABA, auxin, GA and brassinosteroid, and transcription factors, such as MADS, NAC, WRKY and HSF. Moreover, genes encoding enzymes related to DNA methylation, cytoskeletal proteins and heat shock proteins (HSPs) showed differential expression between the pre- and post-climacteric fruits. Select DEGs were subjected to further analysis using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the results were consistent with those of RNA-seq. Our data suggest that in addition to ethylene, other hormones play important roles in regulating fruit ripening and may interact with ethylene signaling during this process. DNA methylation-related methyltransferase and cytoskeletal protein genes are also involved in fruit ripening. Our results provide useful information for future research on pear fruit ripening. PMID:25215597

  16. 'Movers and shakers' in the regulation of fruit ripening: a cross-dissection of climacteric versus non-climacteric fruit.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Sam; Figueroa, Carlos R; Nair, Helen

    2014-09-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex and highly coordinated developmental process involving the expression of many ripening-related genes under the control of a network of signalling pathways. The hormonal control of climacteric fruit ripening, especially ethylene perception and signalling transduction in tomato has been well characterized. Additionally, great strides have been made in understanding some of the major regulatory switches (transcription factors such as RIPENING-INHIBITOR and other transcriptional regulators such as COLOURLESS NON-RIPENING, TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs), that are involved in tomato fruit ripening. In contrast, the regulatory network related to non-climacteric fruit ripening remains poorly understood. However, some of the most recent breakthrough research data have provided several lines of evidences for abscisic acid- and sucrose-mediated ripening of strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit model. In this review, we discuss the most recent research findings concerning the hormonal regulation of fleshy fruit ripening and their cross-talk and the future challenges taking tomato as a climacteric fruit model and strawberry as a non-climacteric fruit model. We also highlight the possible contribution of epigenetic changes including the role of plant microRNAs, which is opening new avenues and great possibilities in the fields of fruit-ripening research and postharvest biology. PMID:24994760

  17. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyushu to Taiwan, are at the northern limits for tropical fruit production without artificial heating. In this review, we describe the current status of tropical fruit breeding, genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of three main tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, and papaya) that are cultivated and consumed in Japan. More than ten new elite cultivars of pineapple have been released with improved fruit quality and suitability for consumption as fresh fruit. New challenges and perspectives for obtaining high fruit quality are discussed in the context of breeding programs for pineapple. PMID:27069392

  18. Changing how I feel about the food: experimentally manipulated affective associations with fruits change fruit choice behaviors.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Erin M; Kiviniemi, Marc T

    2014-04-01

    Fewer than half of Americans meet current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. The behavioral affective associations model posits that feelings and emotions associated with a behavior are a proximal influence on decision making. Cross-sectional evidence supports the model and suggests that affective associations predict fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to test whether a causal relation exists between affective associations about fruits and future fruit consumption behavior, as measured by a snack selection task. Following a baseline assessment of cognitive and affective variables, participants' (N = 161) affective associations about fruits were experimentally manipulated with an implicit priming paradigm. Images of fruits were repeatedly paired with positive, negative, or neutral affective stimuli. The key outcome measure was a behavioral choice task in which participants chose between fruit and a granola bar. Participants in the positive prime condition were three times more likely than those in the negative condition to select a piece of fruit over the granola bar alternative in the snack selection task. They were also twice as likely as those in the neutral condition to select fruit. There were no changes in self-reported affective associations or cognitive beliefs. These findings provide further evidence of the implicit and direct influence of affective associations on behavior, suggesting the need to both incorporate the role of affect in health decision making models, as well as the potential utility of intervention strategies targeting affective associations with health-related behaviors. PMID:23299831

  19. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of ‘natural plant defenses’ by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis. PMID:26422203

  20. Involvement of ethylene biosynthesis and signalling in fruit set and early fruit development in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We have identified a kind of parthenocarpy in zucchini squash which is associated with an incomplete andromonoecy, i.e. a partial conversion of female into bisexual flowers. Given that andromonoecy in this and other cucurbit species is caused by a reduction of ethylene production in the female flower, the associated parthenocarpic development of the fruit suggested the involvement of ethylene in fruit set and early fruit development. Results We have compared the production of ethylene as well as the expression of 13 ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes in pollinated and unpollinated ovaries/fruits of two cultivars, one of which is parthenocarpic (Cavili), while the other is non-parthenocarpic (Tosca). In the latter, unpollinated ovaries show an induction of ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signal transduction pathway genes three days after anthesis, which is concomitant with the initiation of fruit abortion and senescence. Fruit set and early fruit development in pollinated flowers of both cultivars and unpollinated flowers of Cavili is coupled with low ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, which would also explain the partial andromonoecy in the parthenocarpic genotype. The reduction of ethylene production in the ovary cosegregates with parthenocarpy and partial andromonoecy in the selfing progeny of Cavili. Moreover, the induction of ethylene in anthesis (by ethephon treatments) reduced the percentage of bisexual parthenocarpic flowers in Cavili, while the inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis or response (by AVG and STS treatments) induces not only andromonoecy but also the parthenocarpic development of the fruit in both cultivars. Conclusions Results demonstrate that a reduction of ethylene production or signalling in the zucchini flower is able to induce fruit set and early fruit development, and therefore that ethylene is actively involved in fruit set and early fruit development. Auxin and TIBA treatments, inducing fruit set and early fruit

  1. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p <0.01), central pulse pressure (F (2, 134) = 4.16, p <0.05), central augmentation pressure (F (2, 134) = 5.98, p <0.01) and central augmentation index (F (2, 134) = 3.29, p <0.05) as well as lower pulse pressure amplification (F (2, 134) = 4.36, p <0.05). There were no differences in brachial BP. Central systolic BP was 3-4 mmHg higher for those who consumed fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs. PMID:25278432

  2. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in ripening pineapple fruits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical fruit crop of significant commercial importance. Although the physiological changes that occur during pineapple fruit development have been well characterized, little is known about the molecular events that occur during the fruit ripening process. Understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening will aid the development of new varieties via molecular breeding or genetic modification. In this study we developed a 9277 element pineapple microarray and used it to profile gene expression changes that occur during pineapple fruit ripening. Results Microarray analyses identified 271 unique cDNAs differentially expressed at least 1.5-fold between the mature green and mature yellow stages of pineapple fruit ripening. Among these 271 sequences, 184 share significant homology with genes encoding proteins of known function, 53 share homology with genes encoding proteins of unknown function and 34 share no significant homology with any database accession. Of the 237 pineapple sequences with homologs, 160 were up-regulated and 77 were down-regulated during pineapple fruit ripening. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) analysis of all 237 sequences with homologs revealed confident enrichment scores for redox activity, organic acid metabolism, metalloenzyme activity, glycolysis, vitamin C biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and cysteine peptidase activity, indicating the functional significance and importance of these processes and pathways during pineapple fruit development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for nine out of ten genes tested. Conclusions This is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study undertaken in pineapple. Our bioinformatic analyses of the transcript profiles have identified a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in the pineapple fruit ripening process. This study extends our knowledge of the

  3. Betaines in fruits of Citrus genus plants.

    PubMed

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Bata-Csere, Andrea; Cautela, Domenico; Castaldo, Domenico

    2011-09-14

    Numerous compounds, many of them osmolytes, were quantified in natural juices and in frozen concentrate juices from fruits of plants of the Citrus genus. L-proline, N-methyl-L-proline (hygric acid), N,N-dimethyl-L-proline (stachydrine), 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine (betonicine), 4-hydroxy-L-proline, γ-aminobutyric acid (Gaba), 3-carboxypropyltrimethylammonium (GabaBet), N-methylnicotinic acid (trigonelline), and choline in the fruit juices of yellow orange, blood orange, lemon, mandarin, bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia), and grapefruit were analyzed by sensitive HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry procedure. It was found that the most represented osmolytes in the juices, that is, L-proline, stachydrine, and betonicine, can be quantified with minimal sample preparation and short analysis time (about 1 min) also by flow injection analysis (FIA) ESI-MS/MS with the same results as obtained by HPLC ESI-MS/MS. In all of the juices, discrete amounts of choline and trigonelline were present. Conversely, GabaBet was always below detection limits. Notably, N-methyl-L-proline and 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine, which were discovered for the first time in the juice of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poit), are also present in all of the citrus juices examined. PMID:21838291

  4. How to catch a falling fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marantan, Andrew; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2015-03-01

    A variety of fish engage in complex hunting behaviors involving catching airborne prey falling to the surface of the water. In principle this requires that the fish develop internal models describing both the falling prey and its own motion relative to that prey. However learning such models is complicated by the fact that the fish must also account for noise in optical measurements and the refraction occurring at the air/water interface. Inspired by experimental observations, we describe how one such species (Brycon guatemalensis) might feasibly overcome these obstacles and learn a model accurate enough to catch falling fruit. Instead of learning a model for how the fruit falls and a model for how it moves in the water and a model accounting for refraction, we argue that the fish could instead learn one approximate linear model relating a set of measured inputs to a set of measured outputs valid in a limited domain of initial conditions. The fish could then make its control decisions based on the outcome predicted by this combined linear model. We also discuss how the fish can leverage neural transformations of raw data to learn a model with a larger domain of validity and yet more sensitive to noise due to nontrivial Jacobians arising from the neural transformations.

  5. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective.

    PubMed

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in 'omics' sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  6. Palm fruit in traditional African food culture.

    PubMed

    Atinmo, Tola; Bakre, Aishat Taiwo

    2003-01-01

    The centre of origin of the oil palm is the tropical rain forest region of West Africa. It is considered to be the 200-300 kilometre wide coastal belt between Liberia and Mayumbe. The oil palm tree has remained the 'tree of life' of Yoruba land as well as of other parts of southern West Africa to which it is indigenous. The Yoruba are adept at spinning philosophical and poetical proverbs around such ordinary things as hills, rivers, birds, animals and domestic tools. Hundreds of the traditional proverbs are still with us, and through them one can see the picture of the environment that contributed to the moulding of the thoughts of the people. Yoruba riddles or puzzles were also couched in terms of the environment and the solutions to them were also environmental items. They have a popular saying: A je eran je eran a kan egungun, a je egungun je egungun a tun kan eran: 'A piece of meat has an outer layer of flesh, an intermediate layer of bone and an inner layer of flesh'. What is it? A palm fruit: it has an outer edible layer, the mesocarp; then a layer of shell, inedible, and the kernel inside, edible. The solution to this puzzle summarises the botanical and cultural characteristics of the palm fruit. PMID:14506000

  7. Fresh fruit: microstructure, texture, and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Delilah F.; Imam, Syed H.; Orts, William J.; Glenn, Gregory M.

    2009-05-01

    Fresh-cut produce has a huge following in today's supermarkets. The trend follows the need to decrease preparation time as well as the desire to follow the current health guidelines for consumption of more whole "heart-healthy" foods. Additionally, consumers are able to enjoy a variety of fresh produce regardless of the local season because produce is now shipped world-wide. However, most fruits decompose rapidly once their natural packaging has been disrupted by cutting. In addition, some intact fruits have limited shelf-life which, in turn, limits shipping and storage. Therefore, a basic understanding of how produce microstructure relates to texture and how microstructure changes as quality deteriorates is needed to ensure the best quality in the both the fresh-cut and the fresh produce markets. Similarities between different types of produce include desiccation intolerance which produces wrinkling of the outer layers, cracking of the cuticle and increased susceptibility to pathogen invasion. Specific examples of fresh produce and their corresponding ripening and storage issues, and degradation are shown in scanning electron micrographs.

  8. Air volume measurement of 'Braeburn' apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Drazeta, Lazar; Lang, Alexander; Hall, Alistair J; Volz, Richard K; Jameson, Paula E

    2004-05-01

    The radial disposition of air in the flesh of fruit of Malus domestica Borkh., cv 'Braeburn' was investigated using a gravimetric technique based on Archimedes' principle. Intercellular air volume was measured by weighing a small tissue sample under water before and after vacuum infiltration to remove the air. In a separate procedure, the volume of the same sample was measured by recording the buoyant upthrust experienced by it when fully immersed in water. The method underestimates tissue air volume due to a slight invasion of the intercellular air spaces around the edges of the sample when it is immersed in water. To correct for this error, an adjustment factor was made based upon an analysis of a series of measurements of air volume in samples of different dimensions. In 'Braeburn' there is a gradient of declining air content from just beneath the skin to the centre of the fruit with a sharp discontinuity at the core line. Cell shape and cell packing were observed in the surface layers of freshly excised and stained flesh samples using a dissecting microscope coupled to a video camera and a PC running proprietary software. Tissue organization changed with distance below the skin. It is speculated that reduced internal gas movement, due to the tightly packed tissue of 'Braeburn' and to the potential diffusion barrier at the core line between the cortex and the pith, may increase susceptibility of the flesh to disorders associated with tissue browning and breakdown. PMID:15047764

  9. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in ‘omics’ sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  10. Temporal and spatial variation in infestation of fruit by Anastrepha spp. in Puerto Rico: Support for a fruit fly-free zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    If Puerto Rico could establish and maintain a fruit fly-free zone in a portion of the island, growers could then export that fruit without expensive post-harvest measures, as well as dramatically increase the locations where they could export this fruit. Key in establishing a fruit fly-free zone is ...

  11. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects after acute and subacute treatments with açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) on mice using the erythrocytes micronucleus test and the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Juliana Carvalho; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Aissa, Alexandre Ferro; Darin, Joana D'arc Castania; De Rosso, Veridiana Vera; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Bianchi, Maria de Lourdes Pires

    2010-01-01

    Açai, the fruit of a palm native to the Amazonian basin, is widely distributed in northern South America, where it has considerable economic importance. Whereas individual polyphenolics compounds in açai have been extensively evaluated, studies of the intact fruit and its biological properties are lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo genotoxicity of açai and its possible antigenotoxicity on doxorubicin (DXR)-induced DNA damage. The açai pulp doses selected were 3.33, 10.0 and 16.67g/kg b.w. administered by gavage alone or prior to DXR (16mg/kg b.w.) administered by intraperitoneal injection. Swiss albino mice were distributed in eight groups for acute treatment with açai pulp (24h) and eight groups for subacute treatment (daily for 14 consecutive days) before euthanasia. The negative control groups were treated in a similar way. The results of chemical analysis suggested the presence of carotenoids, anthocyanins, phenolic, and flavonoids in açai pulp. The endpoints analyzed were micronucleus induction in bone marrow and peripheral blood cells polychromatic erythrocytes, and DNA damage in peripheral blood, liver and kidney cells assessed using the alkaline (pH >13) comet assay. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between the negative control and the groups treated with the three doses of açai pulp alone in all endpoints analyzed, demonstrating the absence of genotoxic effects. The protective effects of açai pulp were observed in both acute and subacute treatments, when administered prior to DXR. In general, subacute treatment provided greater efficiency in protecting against DXR-induced DNA damage in liver and kidney cells. These protective effects can be explained as the result of the phytochemicals present in açai pulp. These results will be applied to the developmental of food with functional characteristics, as well as to explore the characteristics of açai as a health promoter. PMID

  12. Successful Utilization of the Area-Wide Approach for Management of Fruit Flies in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and the so-called Malaysian (solenaceous) fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel), have accidentally become established in Hawaii, and attack mor...

  13. Studies on water transport through the sweet cherry fruit surface: III. Conductance of the cuticle in relation to fruit size.

    PubMed

    Knoche, Moritz; Peschel, Stefanie; Hinz, Matthias

    2002-03-01

    Rain-cracking of sweet cherry fruit has been related to water absorption through the fruit surface and large fruit has been reported to be more susceptible to cracking than small fruit. Therefore, the effect of fruit size on water conductance of the cuticular membrane (CM) of exocarp segments excised from cheek, suture or stylar end region of mature sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. cv. Sam) was investigated. Segments consisting of epidermis, hypodermis and several layers of mesocarp cells were mounted in diffusion cells filled with deionized water. Mass loss due to transpiration was monitored gravimetrically during an 8-h incubation period (25 +/- 2 degrees C) over dry silica in the dark. Conductance was calculated from the amount of water transpired per unit surface area and time divided by the difference in water vapour concentration across the segment. For an average size cv. Sam sweet cherry CM conductance was 1.06 x 10-4, 0.91 x 10-4 and 2.09 x 10-4 m s-1 in cheek, suture and stylar end region, respectively. Fruit size had no significant effect on conductance in cheek or suture regions, but for the stylar end region conductance was positively related to fruit size. Stomatal density in the cheek, but not the suture or stylar end region increased as fruit size increased. The area of the stylar scar was positively related to fruit size. Conductance of the stylar scar averaged 37.6 +/- 4.0 x 10-4 m s-1 and was 54-fold higher than that of the CM between stomata in the cheek region (mean 0.69 x 10-4 m s-1). Conductance calculated on a whole fruit basis is estimated to increase by 108% as fruit size increases from 6 to 12 g. Increased conductance on a whole fruit basis may be attributed to increased fruit surface area and increased conductance per unit fruit surface area, particularly in the stylar end region. PMID:12060264

  14. Unraveling apple fruit metabolism: Storage management opportunities and beyond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple fruit has become a staple fruit commodity in many markets worldwide, making year-round availability crucial to retail chains. Consequently, apple storage practices have become increasingly sophisticated to meet rising quality expectations of fresh taste and a blemish free appearance. Modern ...

  15. Biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, in Israel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera oleae, the olive fruit fly (OFF), is a key pest of olives in most olive-growing countries in the Mediterranean basin and elsewhere. It significantly reduces yields and degrades the quality of the oil extracted from infested fruit. Olive growers have traditionally used systemic organopho...

  16. WHOLE SURFACE IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION FOR MACHINE VISION INSPECTION OF FRUIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract: Automated imaging systems offer the potential to inspect the quality and safety of fruits and vegetables consumed by the public. Current automated inspection systems allow fruit such as apples to be sorted for quality issues including color and size by looking at a portion of the surface o...

  17. Preliminary Studies on Rain-Related Splitting of Blueberry Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant problem facing blueberry growers in the southeastern United States is rain-related fruit splitting. The occurrence of fruit splitting is most prevalent after a period of drought followed by intense rain. A 2003 survey of blueberry growers from the Gulf South region showed that a prof...

  18. Commercialization of irradiation on fresh fruits and vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes current applications of irradiation on fresh fruits and vegetables. Major applications of irradiation around the world include disinfestation of fresh fruits to eliminate pests and reduction of tuber crop losses by inhibiting sprouting. In recent years, a number of irrad...

  19. Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties List 45

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world, with particular attention to cultivars from North America. In the 45th edition, 7 newly released apricot cultivars and 11 pubescent-skinned Prunophora hybrids are descri...

  20. Fruit body formation on silkworm by Cordyceps militaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Injection inoculation protocols for fruit body formation of Cordyceps militaris were investigated to improve the incidence of infection in the silkworm species Bombyx mori. Injection, with suspensions of C. militaris hyphal bodies into living silkworm pupae, was used to test for fruit body productio...

  1. REGISTER OF NEW FRUIT AND NUT VARIETIES LIST 39.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This register of new fruit varieties includes these crops: apple, apricot, blackberry and hybrid berries, blueberry, grape, grape rootstock, nectarine, paw-paw, peach, pecan, plum and plum hybrids, Prunus rootstock, raspberry, strawberry, and tropical fruits avocado and kiwifruit. For each variety t...

  2. Cultural Practices Affect Fruit Quality and Antioxident Capacity in Blueberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of cultural practices on fruit quality and antioxidant capacity in highbush blueberries var. Bluecrop was evaluated from random samples of commercial late harvest fields in New Jersey. Results from this single season survey showed that blueberry fruit grown from organic culture yielded hi...

  3. Susceptibility of pear to European pear sawfly fruit infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European pear sawfly, Hoplocampa brevis (Klug), is a relatively new pest in the Mid-Atlantic fruit production region. A plot containing twelve Pyrus communis pear cultivars and one breeder’s selection in a randomized block design was surveyed for fruit damage. Infestation frequency ranged from...

  4. Register Of New Fruit And Nut Cultivars, List 43

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world but with particular attention on North America. In the current 43rd edition, there are over 400 entries for the following crops: acerola, apple, apple rootstock, apricot...

  5. Microbial control of arthropod pests of tropical tree fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial control agents (virus, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes) have been developed as alternative control methods of a wide variety of arthropod pests of a number of crops including tropical fruit. The majority of research and application in tropical fruit agroecosystems has been conducted in citr...

  6. Global Expression of Cold-Responsive Genes in Fruit Trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual plants in temperate zones survive low temperature extremes in the form of seeds that over-winter. Perennial plants, like trees, must adapt their physiology and biochemistry to survive winters. How do fruit trees adapt to low temperatures? Research has shown that fruit trees alter the expressi...

  7. Characterization and manipulation of fruit susceptibility to Drosophila suzukii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is an economic pest of small fruits and cherries that attacks intact ripening fruits. Host susceptibility is influenced by characteristics such as flesh firmness, penetration force of the skin, total soluble solids (TSS, also known as °Brix) and pH. Improved knowledge ...

  8. THE POMEGRANATE: A NEW LOOK AT THE FRUIT OF PARADISE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pomegranate, Punica granatum, is one of 2 members of the Punicaceae family. The plant was first domesticated approximately 10,000 years ago in Iran, where it is native, and Turkey. The fruit may have been the “apple” that Eve was deceived by the snake into partaking. Cultivation of the fruit q...

  9. The cryogenic collection of fruit biodiversity in Kazakhstan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation of the biodiversity of fruit crops is important to the future of horticulture in Kazakhstan. A field collection of fruit germplasm with more than 4000 cultivars and wild selections is grown in the Pomological Garden of the Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture near Almaty, to preser...

  10. Population Structure of the North American Cranberry Fruit Rot Complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cranberry fruit rot is caused by a complex of pathogenic fungi. Variation in the populations within this complex from region to region could delay identification of the causal agents(s) and complicate management strategies. Our objective was to assess genetic variation within the four major fruit ro...

  11. A Virus Associated With Blueberry Fruit Drop Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past few years, a fruit drop symptom has been observed in several blueberry fields in Oregon, Washington and British Columbia. The plants flower normally, though the young leaves and flowers have a transient red coloration that is absent in healthy plants. The fruit develops to 3-5 mm i...

  12. REGISTER OF NEW FRUIT AND NUT VARIETIES LIST 43.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This register of new fruit varieties includes these crops: apple, apricot, blackberry and hybrid berries, blueberry, grape, grape rootstock, nectarine, paw-paw, peach, pecan, plum and plum hybrids, prunus rootstock, raspberry, strawberry, and tropical fruits avocado and kiwifruit. For each variety t...

  13. Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties List 44

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world but with particular attention to cultivars from North America. In the 44th edition, 11 newly released apricot cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important...

  14. QTL analysis of fruit quality traits in muscadine grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia) are an important native fruit crop grown in the southeastern United States. To facilitate the breeding of improved cultivars of muscadine grapes a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted on several flower and fruit characteristics of two segregatin...

  15. Pre-harvest muskmelon fruit cracking: causes and potential remedies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit cracking is a serious disorder that causes a major loss of marketable yield and revenue in the muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit industry. The physiological and environmental factors causing cracking are poorly understood. Although generally considered a physiological disorder caused by fluctu...

  16. QTL analysis of fruit cluster abundance in grape (Vitis sp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainably maximizing yield or productivity of fruit over time is a major goal of modern viticulture. One major yield component is the number of fruit or flower clusters present on a single shoot of the current year’s growth. A quantitative trail loci (QTL) study was conducted on both average numbe...

  17. Tolerance to Phytophthora Fruit Rot in Watermelon Plant Introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora capsici is distributed worldwide, and is an aggressive pathogen with a broad host range infecting solanaceous, leguminaceous, and cucurbitaceous crops. Fruit rot, caused by P. capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast US. Resistance to fruit rot o...

  18. A NEW BIOYIELD TESTER FOR MEASURING APPLE FRUIT FIRMNESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nondestructive sensing of fruit firmness provides the producer and retailer with a means for assessing and/or assuring the quality and consistency of apples delivered to the market. The objective of this research was to evaluate a newly developed bioyield tester for measuring fruit firmness and its...

  19. Fruit Fly Liquid Larval Diet Technology Transfer and Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since October 2006, USDA-ARS has been implementing a fruit fly liquid larval diet technology transfer, which has proceeded according to the following steps: (1) Recruitment of interested groups through request; (2) Establishment of the Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) with ARS; (3) Fruit fly liquid...

  20. Anaphylaxis and generalized urticaria from eating Chinese bayberry fruit*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui-ying; Gao, Zhong-shan; Yang, Zhao-wei; Shao, Jing-xin; Zhao, Xiu-zhen; Dai, Yu; Van Ree, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Chinese bayberry myrica rubra is a very popular fruit in southeastern China. In spite of its wide consumption, no allergies to this fruit have been reported previously. Here we report on a 40-year-old woman suffering from anaphylaxis to Chinese bayberry fruit. Prick-prick skin tests revealed strong reactions to fresh Chinese bayberry fruits as well as to peach, and weaker reactions to some other fruits including apple, melon, and banana. ImmunoCAP analysis revealed identical titers of specific IgE (4.3 kUA/L) to peach extract and its lipid transfer protein (LTP, rPru p 3), which was confirmed by detection of a 9 kD band following immunoblotting. Immunoblot analysis with Chinese bayberry extract gave bands of 22, 45, and 90 kD, but no 9 kD band was recognized. There was also no evidence of LTP recognition for loquat (36 kD) or melon (24 kD). This first report of a severe allergic reaction to Chinese bayberry fruit in a patient with LTP-mediated peach allergy indicates that other as yet unidentified non-pollen related fruit allergens are involved in this new severe fruit allergy. PMID:23024053

  1. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48- Blackberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars is a listing of cultivars that have been released from around the world. List 48 reports on the releases for 24 crops from. The blackberry section gives a description of the origin, and the fruit and plant characteristics for the following cultivars: Amar...

  2. Ascorbic acid contents of Pakistani fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M Perwaiz; Kazim, Syed Faraz; Mehboobali, Naseema

    2006-10-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are good sources of vitamin C which is known for its antioxidant and immune-enhancing effects. The objective of this study was to determine ascorbic acid (vitamin C) contents of regularly consumed fruits and vegetables available in Pakistani markets. Most commonly used fresh fruits and vegetables were homogenized in 5% trichloroacetic acid, and ascorbic acid contents in the extracts were determined using a spectrophotometric method. Banana, custard apple, orange, lemon, guava and papaya were found to be very rich in ascorbic acid. Among vegetables, capsicum (green sweet pepper), cauliflower, bittergourd, roundgourd, beetroot, spinach, cabbage and radish contained high concentrations of ascorbic acid. Chikoo, grapes, pear, apricot, peach, carrot, cucumber, lettuce and "kakri" were found to be poor sources of ascorbic acid. Several Pakistani fruits and vegetables (pear, melon, onion, sweet green pepper, spinach, cucumber) had ascorbic acid values similar to those reported by US Department of Agriculture in these fruits and vegetables in USA. However, wide differences in vitamin C contents were also observed in certain other fruits and vegetables from these two countries. This indicates that regional varieties of fruits and vegetables could vary in their ascorbic acid contents. Since subclinical deficiency of vitamin C appears to be quite common in developing countries like Pakistan, there is a need to develop awareness among masses to consume fresh fruits and vegetables with high contents of vitamin C. PMID:17105704

  3. Optimization of lychee and longan flowering and fruiting in Hawaii.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new management method was developed for consistent flowering and fruiting of ‘Kaimana’ lychee at the Inconsistent or lack of flower and fruit production in germplasm accessions is a major obstacle in the evaluation, characterization and documentation of germplasm accessions and limits the genetic...

  4. U.S. Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Katharine C.; And Others

    Because of shifts in consumer tastes and preferences, demographics, technology, government regulation, and the expanding interdependence of world markets, the United States fruit and vegetable processing industries must operate in a constantly changing and uncertain economic environment. U.S. per capita use of processed fruits and vegetables is…

  5. Managing citrus canker for the fresh fruit industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment of citrus canker in Florida changed the way the $400 million dollar industry grows, packs ships and stores fruit. Canker regulations have become less strict, but there is still a requirement for compliance for growers and packers to move fruit from Florida to other areas. The comp...

  6. A Continuum Model for Metabolic Gas Exchange in Pear Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Q. Tri; Verboven, Pieter; Verlinden, Bert E.; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Vandewalle, Stefan; Nicolaï, Bart M.

    2008-01-01

    Exchange of O2 and CO2 of plants with their environment is essential for metabolic processes such as photosynthesis and respiration. In some fruits such as pears, which are typically stored under a controlled atmosphere with reduced O2 and increased CO2 levels to extend their commercial storage life, anoxia may occur, eventually leading to physiological disorders. In this manuscript we have developed a mathematical model to predict the internal gas concentrations, including permeation, diffusion, and respiration and fermentation kinetics. Pear fruit has been selected as a case study. The model has been used to perform in silico experiments to evaluate the effect of, for example, fruit size or ambient gas concentration on internal O2 and CO2 levels. The model incorporates the actual shape of the fruit and was solved using fluid dynamics software. Environmental conditions such as temperature and gas composition have a large effect on the internal distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide in fruit. Also, the fruit size has a considerable effect on local metabolic gas concentrations; hence, depending on the size, local anaerobic conditions may result, which eventually may lead to physiological disorders. The model developed in this manuscript is to our knowledge the most comprehensive model to date to simulate gas exchange in plant tissue. It can be used to evaluate the effect of environmental stresses on fruit via in silico experiments and may lead to commercial applications involving long-term storage of fruit under controlled atmospheres. PMID:18369422

  7. Real-time fruit size inspection based on machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Jiangsheng; Ying, Yibin; Rao, Xiuqin

    2004-11-01

    A real time machine vision system for fruit size inspection was developed, which solved the problems such as fast processing the large amount of image information, improving system performance for real time dynamic image capture and processing capability, increasing precision of detection etc. For each fruit, four images were caught, and from which all the quality information of the whole surface were collected. Images were grabbed with a CCD camera (TMC-7DSP) and a frame grabber (Matrox Meteor II/MC), which is described in RGB space. The value of R/B was used as an index for image binary threshold after blurred image restoration. Median filter was used to denoise before edge detecting with Laplace Operator. A sphere fruit size-inspecting model was set up with a set of standard ball to calibrate the fruit size after the relative size of fruit, which was obtained with the method of partition edge point sets. The absolute error of the system was less than 1.1 mm and inspecting rate was over 31 fruits per second. That was this method can obtain fair inspecting speed, small absolute error, and filled the requirement of fruit automatic fruit sorting. But something is need to be paid attention, if shadow being in this vision system, it will arise big error when use partitions edge point, so it is needed to avoid the shadow.

  8. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality.

    PubMed

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC(50) value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment. PMID:25348886

  9. New Fungicides for Managing Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the past several years, Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon (causal agent: Phytophthora capsici) has been considered an important problem and a top research priority by the National Watermelon Association. Management of Phytophthora fruit rot is particularly difficult because of the long durati...

  10. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC50 value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  11. Blackberry section register of fruit and nut cultivars list 47

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars is a listing of cultivars that have been released from around the world. List 47 reports on the releases for 24 crops from. The blackberry section gives a description of the origin, and the fruit and plant characteristics for the following cultivars: Heav...

  12. Register of new fruit and nut varieties list 46

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world, with particular attention to cultivars from North America. In the 46th edition, 5 newly released apricot cultivars and 3 pubescent-skinned Prunophora hybrids are descr...

  13. Register of new fruit and nut varieties list 47

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world, with particular attention to cultivars from North America. In the 47th edition, one newly released apricot cultivar and five pubescent-skinned Prunophora hybrids are des...

  14. REGISTER OF NEW FRUIT AND NUT VARIETIES LIST 42.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This register of new fruit varieties includes these crops: apple, apricot, blackberry and hybrid berries, blueberry, grape, grape rootstock, nectarine, paw-paw, peach, pecan, plum and plum hybrids, Prunus rootstock, raspberry, strawberry, and tropical fruits avocado and kiwifruit. For each variety t...

  15. Chemical Investigation of Crataeva nurvala Buch. Ham. Fruits.

    PubMed

    Gagandeep; Meera; Kalidhar, S B

    2009-03-01

    Chemical investigation of fruits of Crataeva nurvala has revealed the presence of four known compounds which are pentadecane, octanamide, 12-tricosanone and friedelin. These compounds have been characterized on the basis of spectral and other data. These are being reported for the first time from the fruits of this plant. PMID:20336208

  16. Chemical Investigation of Crataeva nurvala Buch. Ham. Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Gagandeep; Meera; Kalidhar, S. B.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical investigation of fruits of Crataeva nurvala has revealed the presence of four known compounds which are pentadecane, octanamide, 12-tricosanone and friedelin. These compounds have been characterized on the basis of spectral and other data. These are being reported for the first time from the fruits of this plant. PMID:20336208

  17. HoneySweet: a hope for stone-fruit growers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prunus species are among the important domesticated fruit crops, and they have been spread worldwide. Since its identification in the early 1900’s, Plum pox virus (PPV), one of the most damaging pathogens of stone fruit trees, has also been spreading worldwide, and the pace of its movement has acce...

  18. Effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) disease on orange fruit flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is known that the destructive citrus greening, or Huanglongbing (HLB), disease causes orange fruit to be smaller, lopsided and greener. It was also reported that HLB fruit and resulting juice are perceived as being more sour, bitter and off-flavored, even though it hasn’t been well documented nor...

  19. Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh fruits and vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for fresh fruits and vegetables has been successfully used in practices for decades. However, based on the review of published studies in this area, the research on MAP for fresh fruits and vegetables was still very active in the last few years. These suggest th...

  20. Blueberry Splitting Tendencies as Predicted by Fruit Firmness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To improve the quality of berries during handling and shipping, blueberry breeders have strived to develop a fruit that is firm in texture. However previous studies show blueberry cultivars with firmer fruit were more susceptible to splitting. This study was further investigates the correlation be...