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Sample records for acanthamoeba astigmatism blepharitis

  1. Blepharitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... base of the eyelashes as well. Causes The exact cause of blepharitis is unknown. It is thought ... day. After the warm compresses, gently rub a solution of warm water and no-tears baby shampoo ...

  2. Astigmatism

    MedlinePlus

    ... change the shape of the cornea surface to eliminate astigmatism, along with nearsightedness or farsightedness. ... contact lenses. Laser vision correction can most often eliminate, or greatly reduce astigmatism.

  3. Astigmatism

    MedlinePlus

    ... retina, at the back of your eye. A refractive error If either your cornea or lens is egg ... too close to the television or squinting. Other refractive errors Astigmatism may occur in combination with other refractive ...

  4. Interventions for chronic blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, Kristina; Matsumura, Sueko; Hatef, Elham; Akpek, Esen K

    2012-01-01

    Background Blepharitis, an inflammatory condition associated with itchiness, redness, flaking, and crusting of the eyelids, is a common eye condition that affects both children and adults. It is common in all ethnic groups and across all ages. Although infrequent, blepharitis can lead to permanent alterations to the eyelid margin or vision loss from superficial keratopathy (abnormality of the cornea), corneal neovascularization, and ulceration. Most importantly, blepharitis frequently causes significant ocular symptoms such as burning sensation, irritation, tearing, and red eyes as well as visual problems such as photophobia and blurred vision. The exact etiopathogenesis is unknown, but suspected to be multifactorial, including chronic low-grade infections of the ocular surface with bacteria, infestations with certain parasites such as demodex, and inflammatory skin conditions such as atopy and seborrhea. Blepharitis can be categorized in several different ways. First, categorization is based on the length of disease process: acute or chronic blepharitis. Second, categorization is based on the anatomical location of disease: anterior, or front of the eye (e.g. staphylococcal and seborrheic blepharitis), and posterior, or back of the eye (e.g. meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD)). This review focuses on chronic blepharitis and stratifies anterior and posterior blepharitis. Objectives To examine the effectiveness of interventions in the treatment of chronic blepharitis. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE (January 1950 to February 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to February 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We searched the reference lists of included studies for any

  5. Blepharitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tear film can result in excess tearing or dry eye. Because tears are necessary to keep the cornea ... redness of the eye, blurred vision, frothy tears, dry eye, or crusting of the eyelashes on awakening. Treatment ...

  6. Oral azithromycin for treatment of posterior blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Igami, Thais Zamudio; Holzchuh, Ricardo; Osaki, Tammy Hentona; Santo, Ruth Miyuki; Kara-Jose, Newton; Hida, Richard Y

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral azithromycin in patients with posterior blepharitis. Twenty-six eyes of 13 patients with posterior blepharitis diagnosed by a qualified ophthalmologist were enrolled in this study. Patients were instructed to use oral azithromycin 500 mg per day for 3 days in 3 cycles with 7-day intervals. Subjective clinical outcomes were graded and scored 1 day before and 30 days after the end of the treatment (53 days after initiating the treatment) based on severity scores of: (1) eyelid debris; (2) eyelid telangiectasia; (3) swelling of the eyelid margin; (4) redness of the eyelid margin; and (5) ocular mucus secretion. For the assessment of global efficacy, patients were asked by the investigator to rate the subjective symptoms (eyelid itching, ocular itching, eyelid hyperemia, ocular hyperemia, ocular mucus secretion, photophobia, foreign body sensation, and dry eye sensation) on a scale of 0 (no symptoms) to 5 (severe symptoms). Break-up time, Schirmer I test, corneal fluorescein staining score, and rose bengal staining score were also performed in all patients. All clinical outcomes scoring showed statistically significant improvement after oral azithromycin, except for eyelid swelling. Average subjective symptom grading improved statistically after treatment with oral azithromycin, except for eyelid hyperemia, photophobia, and foreign body sensation. Average tear film break-up time values showed statistically significant improvement after the treatment with oral azithromycin. No statistically significant improvement was observed on average values of Schirmer I test, corneal fluorescein staining score, and rose bengal staining score. The combination of multiple clinical parameters shown in this study supports the clinical efficacy of pulsed oral azithromycin therapy for the management of posterior blepharitis.

  7. Treatment of Malassezia species associated seborrheic blepharitis with fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Zisova, Lilia G

    2009-01-01

    The AIM of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of fluconazole (FungoIon) in patients with seborrheic blepharitis. Four seborrheic blepharitis patients with Malassezia spp. positive cultures on Dixon's agar were treated with fluconazole (Fungolon) (0.200) weekly for 4 weeks. The therapeutic effect of the treatment was positive in all patients--the clinical symptoms withdrew and cultures became mycologically negative. The results indicate that antifungal agents are efficient in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.

  8. Astigmatism in reflector antennas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogdell, J. R.; Davis, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Astigmatic phase error in large parabolic reflector antennas is discussed. A procedure for focusing an antenna and diagnosing the presence and degree of astigmatism is described. Theoretical analysis is conducted to determine the nature of this error in such antennas.

  9. Effects of Induced Astigmatism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Delwyn G.; Walton, Howard N.

    1968-01-01

    The relationship of astigmatism to reading and the possible detrimental effects it might have on reading were investigated. The greatest incidence of astigmatism was for the with-the-rule type ranging from .50 to 1.00 diopter. This type of astigmatism was induced in 35 seniors from the Los Angeles College of Optometry by placing cylindrical lenses…

  10. [Chronic blepharitis: which role for Demodex folliculorum? A case report].

    PubMed

    Martinaud, C; Gaillard, T; Pons, S; Fournier, B; Brisou, P

    2009-01-01

    We present a 73-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a 2 years history of eyes itching. The ophthalmological testing was normal. Physical examination revealed blepharitis and lesions acnea-like on mouth, nose and chest. Biological testing revealed no abnormalities. Histologic study and direct immunofluorescence on a cutaneous biopsy were no contributive. The research of an allergic origine was practised by cutaneous and serological tests and negative. An examination of eyelashes was performed and yielded Demodex. Demodex folliculorum is a mite that is the most common permanent ectoparasite of humans, which is thought to be linked to blepharitis and allergic blepharoconjunctivis with rosacea, although much controversy persists. Recent studies demonstrate a high frequence of chronic blepharitis when Demodex are abundant. Several molecules can be used to treat this infestation. Parasiticide as oral ivermectine may be useful when the infestation is important.

  11. Treatment options for demodex blepharitis: patient choice and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Hirsch-Hoffmann, S; Kaufmann, C; Bänninger, P B; Thiel, M A

    2015-04-01

    Demodex mites are microscopic parasites that live around hair follicles or sebaceous glands and may cause chronic blepharitis. The aim of this outcome analysis was to assess the efficacy and patient preferences with regard to the currently recommended treatment options. All patients with microscopic evidence for Demodex blepharitis were informed about the currently published treatments and instructed about daily lid hygiene. Additional topical treatment options included tea tree oil (TTO) 5%, a cleansing foam containing 0.02% TTO (Naviblef®), and metronidazole 2% ointment. Systemic treatment options included oral ivermectin 6 mg on day 1 and 14 and metronidazole 500 mg twice daily for 10 days. All patients were reviewed after 2 months for symptoms and for a mite count on 10 epilated lashes. Ninety-four of 96 patients with Demodex blepharitis opted for an additional treatment. The mean mite count after 2 months of treatment were 13.3 with 5% TTO (n=6), 12.0 with 0.02% TTO (n=38), 9.4 with metronidazole ointment (n=5), 12.8 with ivermectin (n=27) and 22.0 with oral metronidazole (n=5). While there are several published treatment options available, none of these options seem to be clearly effective in Demodex blepharitis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. DEBS - a unification theory for dry eye and blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Rynerson, James M; Perry, Henry D

    2016-01-01

    For many years, blepharitis and dry eye disease have been thought to be two distinct diseases, and evaporative dry eye distinct from aqueous insufficiency. In this treatise, we propose a new way of looking at dry eye, both evaporative and insufficiency, as the natural sequelae of decades of chronic blepharitis. Dry eye is simply the late form and late manifestation of one disease, blepharitis. We suggest the use of a new term in describing this one chronic disease, namely dry eye blepharitis syndrome (DEBS). Bacteria colonize the lid margin within a structure known as a biofilm. The biofilm allows for population densities that initiate quorum-sensing gene activation. These newly activated gene products consist of inflammatory virulence factors, such as exotoxins, cytolytic toxins, and super-antigens, which are then present for the rest of the patient's life. The biofilm never goes away; it only thickens with age, producing increasing quantities of bacterial virulence factors, and thus, increasing inflammation. These virulence factors are likely the culprits that first cause follicular inflammation, then meibomian gland dysfunction, aqueous insufficiency, and finally, after many decades, lid destruction. We suggest that there are four stages of DEBS which correlate with the clinical manifestations of folliculitis, meibomitis, lacrimalitis, and finally lid structure damage evidenced by entropion, ectropion, and floppy eyelid syndrome. When one fully understands the structure and location of the glands within the lid, it becomes easy to understand this staged disease process. The longer a gland can resist the relentless encroachment of the invading biofilm, the longer it can maintain normal function. The stages depend purely on anatomy and years of biofilm presence. Dry eye now becomes a very easy disease to understand. We feel that dry eye should be treated and prevented by early and routine biofilm removal through electromechanical lid margin debridement.

  13. DEBS – a unification theory for dry eye and blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Rynerson, James M; Perry, Henry D

    2016-01-01

    For many years, blepharitis and dry eye disease have been thought to be two distinct diseases, and evaporative dry eye distinct from aqueous insufficiency. In this treatise, we propose a new way of looking at dry eye, both evaporative and insufficiency, as the natural sequelae of decades of chronic blepharitis. Dry eye is simply the late form and late manifestation of one disease, blepharitis. We suggest the use of a new term in describing this one chronic disease, namely dry eye blepharitis syndrome (DEBS). Bacteria colonize the lid margin within a structure known as a biofilm. The biofilm allows for population densities that initiate quorum-sensing gene activation. These newly activated gene products consist of inflammatory virulence factors, such as exotoxins, cytolytic toxins, and super-antigens, which are then present for the rest of the patient’s life. The biofilm never goes away; it only thickens with age, producing increasing quantities of bacterial virulence factors, and thus, increasing inflammation. These virulence factors are likely the culprits that first cause follicular inflammation, then meibomian gland dysfunction, aqueous insufficiency, and finally, after many decades, lid destruction. We suggest that there are four stages of DEBS which correlate with the clinical manifestations of folliculitis, meibomitis, lacrimalitis, and finally lid structure damage evidenced by entropion, ectropion, and floppy eyelid syndrome. When one fully understands the structure and location of the glands within the lid, it becomes easy to understand this staged disease process. The longer a gland can resist the relentless encroachment of the invading biofilm, the longer it can maintain normal function. The stages depend purely on anatomy and years of biofilm presence. Dry eye now becomes a very easy disease to understand. We feel that dry eye should be treated and prevented by early and routine biofilm removal through electromechanical lid margin debridement. PMID

  14. Management of irregular astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Goggin, M; Alpins, N; Schmid, L M

    2000-08-01

    Using a liberal definition of corneal irregularity, modern videokeratoscopy may define approximately 40% of normal corneas with a toric refractive error as possessing primary irregular astigmatism. The causes of secondary forms of irregular astigmatism include corneal surgery, trauma, dystrophies, and infections. Internal refractive surface and media irregularity or noncorneal astigmatism (ocular residual astigmatism) contribute to irregular astigmatism of the entire refractive path of which crystaline lenticular astigmatism is usually the principal contributing component. Treatment options have increased in recent years, particularly, though not exclusively, through the advent of tailored corneal excimer laser ablations. However, discussion continues concerning the systematic approach necessary to enable treatment to achieve an optimal optical surface for the eye. Discussion also continues as to what constitutes the optimal corneal shape. Some refractive procedures may increase higher order aberrations in the attempt to neutralize refractive astigmatism. The way to further refinement of the commonly performed refractive techniques will ultimately lie in the integrated inclusion of a trio of technologies: topographic analysis of the corneal surface, wavefront analysis of ocular refractive aberrations, and vector planning to enable the appropriate balance in emphasis between these two diagnostic modalities. For the uncommon, irregularly roughened corneas, the ablatable polymer techniques show some promise.

  15. Acanthamoeba castellanii STAT protein.

    PubMed

    Kicinska, Anna; Leluk, Jacek; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2014-01-01

    STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) proteins are one of the important mediators of phosphotyrosine-regulated signaling in metazoan cells. We described the presence of STAT protein in a unicellular, free-living amoebae with a simple life cycle, Acanthamoeba castellanii. A. castellanii is the only, studied to date, Amoebozoan that does not belong to Mycetozoa but possesses STATs. A sequence of the A. castellanii STAT protein includes domains similar to those of the Dictyostelium STAT proteins: a coiled coil (characteristic for Dictyostelium STAT coiled coil), a STAT DNA-binding domain and a Src-homology domain. The search for protein sequences homologous to A. castellanii STAT revealed 17 additional sequences from lower eukaryotes. Interestingly, all of these sequences come from Amoebozoa organisms that belong to either Mycetozoa (slime molds) or Centramoebida. We showed that there are four separated clades within the slime mold STAT proteins. The A. castellanii STAT protein branches next to a group of STATc proteins from Mycetozoa. We also demonstrate that Amoebozoa form a distinct monophyletic lineage within the STAT protein world that is well separated from the other groups.

  16. Photochemotherapeutic Strategy against Acanthamoeba Infections

    PubMed Central

    Aqeel, Yousuf; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Anwar, Ayaz; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Khoja, Shahrukh

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is a protist pathogen that can cause serious human infections, including blinding keratitis and a granulomatous amoebic encephalitis that almost always results in death. The current treatment for these infections includes a mixture of drugs, and even then, a recurrence can occur. Photochemotherapy has shown promise in the treatment of Acanthamoeba infections; however, the selective targeting of pathogenic Acanthamoeba has remained a major concern. The mannose-binding protein is an important adhesin expressed on the surface membranes of pathogenic Acanthamoeba organisms. To specifically target Acanthamoeba, the overall aim of this study was to synthesize a photosensitizing compound (porphyrin) conjugated with mannose and test its efficacy in vitro. The synthesis of mannose-conjugated porphyrin was achieved by mixing benzaldehyde and pyrrole, yielding tetraphenylporphyrin. Tetraphenylporphyrin was then converted into mono-nitrophenylporphyrin by selectively nitrating the para position of the phenyl rings, as confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The mono-nitrophenylporphyrin was reduced to mono-aminophenylporphyrin in the presence of tin dichloride and confirmed by a peak at m/z 629. Finally, mono-aminoporphyrin was conjugated with mannose, resulting in the formation of an imine bond. Mannose-conjugated porphyrin was confirmed through spectroscopic analysis and showed that it absorbed light of wavelengths ranging from 425 to 475 nm. To determine the antiacanthamoebic effects of the derived product, amoebae were incubated with mannose-conjugated porphyrin for 1 h and washed 3 times to remove extracellular compound. Next, the amoebae were exposed to light of the appropriate wavelength for 1 h. The results revealed that mannose-conjugated porphyrin produced potent trophicidal effects and blocked excystation. In contrast, Acanthamoeba castellanii incubated with mannose alone and porphyrin alone did not exhibit an antiamoebic effect

  17. Acanthamoeba migration in an electric field.

    PubMed

    Rudell, Jolene Chang; Gao, Jing; Sun, Yuxin; Sun, Yaohui; Chodosh, James; Schwab, Ivan; Zhao, Min

    2013-06-21

    We investigated the in vitro response of Acanthamoeba trophozoites to electric fields (EFs). Acanthamoeba castellanii were exposed to varying strengths of an EF. During EF exposure, cell migration was monitored using an inverted microscope equipped with a CCD camera and the SimplePCI 5.3 imaging system to capture time-lapse images. The migration of A. castellanii trophozoites was analyzed and quantified with ImageJ software. For analysis of cell migration in a three-dimensional culture system, Acanthamoeba trophozoites were cultured in agar, exposed to an EF, digitally video recorded, and analyzed at various Z focal planes. Acanthamoeba trophozoites move at random in the absence of an EF, but move directionally in response to an EF. Directedness in the absence of an EF is 0.08 ± 0.01, while in 1200 mV/mm EF, directedness is significantly higher at -0.65 ± 0.01 (P < 0.001). We find that the trophozoite migration response is voltage-dependent, with higher directionality with higher voltage application. Acanthamoeba move directionally in a three-dimensional (3D) agar system as well when exposed to an EF. Acanthamoeba trophozoites move directionally in response to an EF in a two-dimensional and 3D culture system. Acanthamoeba trophozoite migration is also voltage-dependent, with increased directionality with increasing voltage. This may provide new treatment modalities for Acanthamoeba keratitis.

  18. [Astigmatism correction with Excimer laser].

    PubMed

    Gauthier, L

    2012-03-01

    Excimer laser is the best and the more used technique for Astigmatism correction. Lasik is generally preferred to PRK and must be the choice for hyperopic and mix astigmatisms. Myopic astigmatisms are the easier cases to treat: the length of the photoablation is placed on the flat meridian. Hyperopic and mix astigmatisms are more difficult to correct because they are more technically demanding and because the optical zone of the photoablation must be large. Flying spots lasers are the best for these cases. The most important point is to trace the photoablation very precisely on the astigmatism axis. The use of eye trackers with iris recognition or a preoperative marking of the reference axis avoid cyclotorsion or a wrong position of the head. Irregular astigmatism are better corrected with topoguided or wavefront guided photoablations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Two cases of tinea ciliaris with blepharitis due to Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton verrucosum and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Gulay Ozel; Dadaci, Zeynep; Ozer, Turkan Toka

    2014-09-01

    Dermatophytes are rarely taken into account among the causes of blepharitis. In our report, we describe a 69-year-old man and a 40-year-old woman with chronic blepharitis for 10 years and 4 years respectively, in whom we examined the scales and pulled eyelashes on direct microscopy and isolated Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton verrrucosum in the culture. We emphasise that dermatophytes may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of chronic blepharitis. In chronic, treatment resistance blepharitis fungal infections may be considered as possible cause. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Rapidly progressive idiopathic lenticular astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Tint, Naing L; Jayaswal, Rakesh; Masood, Imran; Maharajan, V Senthil

    2007-02-01

    A myopic 43-year-old woman with early nuclear sclerotic cataract developed more than 11.0 diopters (D) of astigmatism over a 6-month period. This was found to be lenticular in origin. Phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation was performed, resulting in residual astigmatism of 0.75 D. To our knowledge, this is the first case of rapidly progressive lenticular astigmatism in an otherwise healthy eye with early nuclear sclerotic cataract.

  1. Co-isolation of Vahlkampfia and acanthamoeba in acanthamoeba-like keratitis in a Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Irigoyen, Cristina; Morcillo-Laiz, Rafael; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Muñoz-Negrete, Francisco; Piñero, Jose E; Valladares, Basilio

    2013-05-01

    To report the co-isolation incidence of Acanthamoeba and Vahlkampfia in amoebic keratitis from a tertiary care institution in Madrid, Spain. In this retrospective case series, 7 eyes of 7 consecutive patients with culture-proven or polymerase chain reaction-positive Acanthamoeba keratitis were seen at a tertiary care institution from January 2010 to April 2011, and their charts were reviewed. Two of 7 patients showed mixed Acanthamoeba and Vahlkampfia keratitis. Good clinical response to the treatment was strongly correlated with early diagnosis, whereas delayed diagnosis resulted in poor response to the treatment in single or mixed infection. Co-isolation of Vahlkampfia and Acanthamoeba in Acanthamoeba-like keratitis has recently been detected in our population. This finding should raise awareness of the existence of other amoeba different from Acanthamoeba causing keratitis. There are not enough cases yet to determine the impact of mixed amoebic keratitis in the prognosis of this disease.

  2. Astigmatism following retinal detachment surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Goel, R; Crewdson, J; Chignell, A H

    1983-01-01

    Eighty-three patients on whom successful retinal detachment had been performed were studied to note astigmatic changes following surgery. In the majority of cases the errors following such surgery are of no great clinical importance. However, in some situations a high degree of astigmatism may be produced. This study showed that these sequelae are particularly likely after radial buckling procedures, and surgeons favouring these techniques should be aware that astigmatic errors can be induced. The astigmatic errors may persist for several years after surgery. PMID:6838807

  3. Adhesion of Acanthamoeba on Cosmetic Contact Lenses

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the adhesion of Acanthamoeba trophozoites on cosmetic contact lenses (CLs) with and without CL care multipurpose solution (MPS) treatment. Methods Acanthamoeba lugdunensis L3a trophozoites were inoculated onto disks trimmed from CLs: 1-day Acuvue moist, 1-day Acuvue define, Acuvue 2, and Acuvue 2 define. After 18-hour inoculation, the number of adherent trophozoites was counted under phase contrast microscopy. The effects of MPS, Opti-Free Express, soaking CLs for 6 hours, on Acanthamoeba adhesion were analyzed. Scanning electron microscopic examination was performed for assessment of Acanthamoeba attached on the lens surface. Results Acanthamoeba trophozoites showed greater adhesion to cosmetic CL (P = 0.017 for 1-day CL and P = 0.009 for 2-week CL) although there was no significant difference between the types of cosmetic CL. On all lenses, the number of adherent Acanthamoeba was significantly reduced after treatment with MPS (P < 0.001 for 1-day Acuvue moist, P = 0.046 for 1-day Acuvue define, P < 0.001 for Acuvue 2, and P = 0.015 for Acuvue 2 define), but there was still significant difference between conventional and cosmetic CLs (P = 0.003 for 1-day CL and P < 0.001 for 2-week CL, respectively). More attachment of Acanthamoeba was observed on colored area and the acanthopodia of Acanthamoeba was placed on the rough surface of colored area. Conclusion Acanthamoeba showed a greater affinity for cosmetic CL and mostly attached on colored area. Although MPS that contained myristamidopropyl dimethylamine reduced the adhesion rate, there was a significant difference between conventional and cosmetic CLs. PMID:29318793

  4. Quantitation by flow microfluorometry of total cellular DNA in Acanthamoeba

    SciTech Connect

    Coulson, P.B.; Tyndall, R.

    1978-01-01

    The DNA content of five speciea of Acanthamoeba was determined by flow microfluorometry. Acanthamoeba castellanii (AC-30), acanthamoeba polyphaga (APG and P-23), acanthamoeba rhysodes, acanthamoeba culbertsoni (A-1), and acanthamoeba royreba were grown in a casitone based medium 24 to 48 hr. The trophozoites were harvested, fixed in 70% ethanol (acidified), pretreated with RNase, stained with propidium diiodide, and evaluated for DNA-bound fluorescence. All species tested had DNA values between 2.0 to 5.0 pg/cell. These results placed DNA/cell values of Acanthamoeba slightly lower than DNA/cell values of other eucaryotic cells and much lower than Amoeba proteus values. These results indicate that FMFmore » may be a useful adjunct in distinguishing Acanthamoeba cells from either eucaryotic cells or some other amoeba. However, differences in DNA/cell between species of Acanthamoeba are small and would not be useful in identification of species.« less

  5. Age-Related Changes in Corneal Astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xu; Zhou, Kai-Jing; Pan, An-Peng; Cheng, Xue-Ying; Cai, He-Xie; Huang, Jin-Hai; Yu, A-Yong

    2017-10-01

    To analyze the changes in corneal astigmatism as a function of age and develop a novel model to estimate corneal astigmatic change according to age. This was a cross-sectional study of right eyes of 3,769 individuals. Total corneal astigmatism, keratometric astigmatism, anterior corneal astigmatism, and posterior corneal astigmatism were measured by a Scheimpflug tomographer. Smoothing fitting curves of polar values of corneal astigmatism as a function of age were drawn and average changes in corneal astigmatism at different ages were calculated. Two turning points of age on total corneal astigmatism were 36 and 69 years. The average change of total corneal astigmatism toward against-the-rule astigmatism was 0.13 diopters (D)/10 years from 18 to 35 years, 0.45 D/10 years from 36 to 68 years, and decreased after 69 years, mainly caused by anterior corneal astigmatism. The mean magnitude of posterior corneal astigmatism was -0.33 D and exceeded 0.50 D in 14.27% of eyes. The vectorial difference between total corneal astigmatism and keratometric astigmatism was correlated with posterior corneal astigmatism, polar value of anterior corneal astigmatism, age, and corneal higher order aberrations (r = 0.636; standard partial regression coefficients were 0.479, -0.466, 0.282, and 0.196, respectively; all P < .001). Based on the non-linear model to estimate corneal astigmatic change with age, a formula was developed to calculate recommended correction of astigmatism according to age and astigmatic type. The rate of change of total corneal astigmatism showed a non-linear trend toward against-the-rule astigmatism, which was low at young and old age, high at middle age, and should be taken into account when performing surgery to correct astigmatism. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(10):696-703.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Ocular residual astigmatism's effect on high myopic astigmatism LASIK surgery

    PubMed Central

    Teus, M A; Arruabarrena, C; Hernández-Verdejo, J L; Cañones, R; Mikropoulos, D G

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the effect of ocular residual astigmatism (ORA) on the effectiveness of LASIK for treating high myopic astigmatism. Methods This is an observational, cross-sectional study. We studied 116 consecutive myopic eyes with −3 diopters (D) or more of astigmatism that underwent LASIK surgery. The magnitude of uncorrected residual refractive astigmatism 3 months postoperatively was measured. Results The mean preoperative cylinder was −4.0±0.83 D (range, −7.5 to −3 D) and the mean preoperative ORA was 0.82±0.5 D. The mean residual refractive cylinder 3 months postoperatively was −0.78±0.83 D (range, −3 to 0 D). No correlation was found between ORA and the refractive cylinder 3 months postoperatively (P=0.6). Conclusion In eyes with high myopic astigmatism undergoing LASIK, ORA was not correlated with the residual postoperative cylinder. PMID:24971989

  7. A case of trauma related Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    PubMed

    Kamel, A G M; Faridah, H; Yusof, S; Norazah, A; Nakisah, M A

    2004-12-01

    Acanthamoeba is an uncommon cause of keratitis but one of the most severe because of the prolonged and painful course of the disease and poor visual outcome. Although contact lens use is the principal risk factor, about 10% of cases occur following trauma and exposure to contaminated soil or water. Two cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis involving women contact lens wearers have previously been reported in Malaysia but this is the first time, a non contact lens related Acanthamoeba keratitis is reported. The case involved a 28 year old Indonesian male construction worker who had a trauma of the right eye during work. His eye was struck by sand and dust particles after which he quickly washed with water from an open tank at the construction site. He experienced pain, redness, glaring and blurring of vision of the right eye three days later. The diagnosis was missed at initial presentation but culture of the corneal scraping had proven Acanthamoeba as the aetiological agent. The history and clinical findings of this trauma related Acanthamoeba keratitis are briefly discussed.

  8. Acanthamoeba keratitis challenges a case report.

    PubMed

    Cristina, Stan; Cristina, Vlăduţiu; Mihaela, Popovici

    2016-01-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare, chronic, mainly contact lens-related infection caused by a free-living amoeba found ubiquitously in water and soil. A case of a 9-year-old child, who presented to our clinic with painful, red left eye, associated with photophobia, and decreased visual acuity, wais reported. The clinical examination revealed a discoid opacity inferiorly bounded by a dense, gray infiltrate. The progressive nature of the corneal infiltrate, the epithelial defect, and the lack of response to treatment was highly suggestive for Acanthamoeba keratitis. The distinctiveness of this case was the presence of Acanthamoeba keratitis in a child without a history of trauma or contact lens usage, the lack of an appropriate diagnosis and management of this vision-threatening infection.

  9. Progressive lenticular astigmatism in the clear lens.

    PubMed

    Tatham, Andrew; Prydal, Jeremy

    2008-03-01

    We describe a case of progressive lenticular astigmatism in a 53-year-old man with a clear lens. The patient acquired 5 diopters of lenticular astigmatism in his right eye over an 18-month period. The visual acuity was reduced to 6/60. Following phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation, the uncorrected visual acuity was 6/5. Progressive astigmatism is usually corneal in origin and in an otherwise healthy eye, significant lenticular astigmatism is rare. When lenticular astigmatism occurs, it is usually associated with a cortical cataract; however, astigmatism may precede the development of a clinically visible cataract.

  10. Amblyopia in Astigmatic Children: Patterns of Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Erin M.; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M.; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.

    2007-01-01

    Neural changes that result from disruption of normal visual experience during development are termed amblyopia. To characterize visual deficits specific to astigmatism-related amblyopia, we compared best-corrected visual performance in 330 astigmatic and 475 non-astigmatic kindergarten through 6th grade children. Astigmatism was associated with deficits in letter, grating and vernier acuity, high and middle spatial frequency contrast sensitivity, and stereoacuity. Although grating acuity, vernier acuity, and contrast sensitivity were reduced across stimulus orientation, astigmats demonstrated orientation-dependent deficits (meridional amblyopia) only for grating acuity. Astigmatic children are at risk for deficits across a range of visual functions. PMID:17184807

  11. Prognostic factors in Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    PubMed

    Kaiserman, Igor; Bahar, Irit; McAllum, Penny; Srinivasan, Sathish; Elbaz, Uri; Slomovic, Allan R; Rootman, David S

    2012-06-01

    To assess the prognostic factors influencing visual prognosis and length of treatment after acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Forty-two AK eyes of 41 patients treated between 1999 and 2006 were included. A diagnosis of AK was made on the basis of culture results with a corresponding clinical presentation. We calculated the prognostic effect of the various factors on final visual acuity and the length of treatment. Multivariate regression analysis was used to adjust for the simultaneous effects of the various prognostic factors. Mean follow-up was 19.7 ± 21.0 months. Sixty-four percent of cases had > 1 identified risk factor for AK, the most common risk factor being contact lens wear (92.9% of eyes). At presentation, median best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/200 (20/30 to Hand Motion [HM]) that improved after treatment to 20/50 (20/20 to Counting Fingers [CF]). Infection acquired by swimming or related to contact lenses had significantly better final BCVA (p = 0.03 and p = 0.007, respectively). Neuritis and pseudodendrites were also associated with better final BCVA (p = 0.04 and p = 0.05, respectively). Having had an epithelial defect on presentation and having been treated with topical steroid were associated with worse final best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) (p = 0.0006 and p = 0.04). Multivariate regression analysis found a good initial visual acuity (p = 0.002), infections related to swimming (p = 0.01), the absence of an epithelial defect (p = 0.03), having been treated with chlorhexidine (p = 0.05), and not having receive steroids (p = 0.003) to significantly forecast a good final BCVA. We identified several prognostic factors that can help clinicians evaluate the expected visual damage of the AK infection and thus tailor treatment accordingly. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Lenticular astigmatism after penetrating eye injury.

    PubMed

    Rumelt, S; Jager, G; Rehany, U

    1996-09-01

    Lenticular astigmatism of 5.00 diopters developed after penetrating injury in the eye of a 16-year-old boy. Full visual acuity, refraction, and crystalline lens clarity remained stable for more than 2 years. The high astigmatism, in conjunction with a spherical cornea and posterior lens capsule striae, indicates the lenticular origin of the astigmatism.

  13. Area 51: How do Acanthamoeba invade the central nervous system?

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Emes, Richard; Elsheikha, Hany; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2011-05-01

    Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis generally develops as a result of haematogenous spread, but it is unclear how circulating amoebae enter the central nervous system (CNS) and cause inflammation. At present, the mechanisms which Acanthamoeba use to invade this incredibly well-protected area of the CNS and produce infection are not well understood. In this paper, we propose two key virulence factors: mannose-binding protein and extracellular serine proteases as key players in Acanthamoeba traversal of the blood-brain barrier leading to neuronal injury. Both molecules should provide excellent opportunities as potential targets in the rational development of therapeutic interventions against Acanthamoeba encephalitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of posterior corneal astigmatism on postoperative refractive astigmatism in pseudophakic eyes after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Sano, Maki; Hiraoka, Takahiro; Ueno, Yuta; Itagaki, Hideo; Ogami, Tomohiro; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2016-12-01

    To examine the influence of posterior corneal astigmatism on postoperative refractive astigmatism in pseudophakic eyes after cataract surgery. The study enrolled 64 pseudophakic eyes of 50 patients (71.8 ± 9.9 years old, mean ± standard deviation) who had undergone phacoemulsification with non-toric IOL implantation. Refractive astigmatism was measured using an auto ref-keratometer with a 0.01- diopter (D) scale. Two types of corneal astigmatism were calculated using anterior segment optical coherence tomography; keratometric and total corneal astigmatism. Keratometric astigmatism was obtained based on anterior corneal curvature alone and total corneal astigmatism was calculated using both anterior and posterior corneal curvatures. The difference between refractive and corneal astigmatism was computed as the vector difference using 1) refractive and keratometric astigmatism and 2) refractive and total corneal astigmatism. The mean refractive, keratometric, and total corneal astigmatism was 0.92 ± 0.48 D, 0.87 ± 0.44 D, and 0.94 ± 0.46 D, respectively. The difference between refractive and keratometric astigmatism (0.70 ± 0.40 D, mean vector of 0.30 D axis 164°) was significantly larger than the difference between refractive and total corneal astigmatism (0.63 ± 0.38 D, mean vector of 0.12 D axis 137°) (P = .019). The difference between refractive and total corneal astigmatism, calculated using both anterior and posterior corneal curvatures, was significantly smaller than the difference between refractive and keratometric astigmatism using anterior corneal astigmatism alone, implying that the latter overestimates the true postoperative refractive astigmatism and can cause cylindrical inaccuracy after cataract surgery.

  15. [Efficacy of physiotherapy and hygienic procedures in treatment of adults and children with chronic blepharitis and dry eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Prozornaia, L P; Brzhevskiĭ, V V

    2013-01-01

    110 patients aged from 3 to 42 years old were examined to estimate the efficacy of chronic blepharitis treatment: 50 patients with chronic blepharitis and dry eye syndrome (DES), 28 with DES due to computer vision syndrome and 32 with isolated chronic blepharitis. All patients received eyelid massage. If the secretion was too thick and difficult to evacuate from meibomian glands then duct probing was performed. In addition a complex of hygienic procedures was performed using phytoproducts ("Geltec-Medika", Russia): blepharoshampoo, blepharolotion, blepharogel 1 and 2. Moist warm pads (with blepharolotion and calendula extraction) were applied on the eyelids in 25 patients. Massage and probing of meibomian gland ducts and hygienic procedures were showed to be effective in management of clinical signs of chronic blepharitis including coexisting DES. Moist warm pads improve efficacy of background therapy in patients with meibomian gland hypofunction and have no effect in blepharitis with excessive meibomian gland secretion. Eyelid hygiene was showed to be effective in adults and children as well including infants.

  16. Surgically induced astigmatism following trabeculectomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyu Ah; Lee, Si Hyung; Lee, Sang Yeop; Kwon, Hee Jung; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2018-03-14

    Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) has attracted much interest in recent times because changes in corneal astigmatism can lead to decreased uncorrected visual acuity and patient discomfort. This study aimed to evaluate SIA and to identify factors correlated therewith after trabeculectomy. We retrospectively reviewed medical charts of patients who were treated with trabeculectomy at 120° meridian (superotemporal area on right eye and superonasal area on left eye) by the same surgeon. Preoperative keratometric data were compared with data collected from 2 months to 12 months postoperatively. SIA was evaluated using Naeser's polar value analysis. Using Naeser's method, ΔKP(120) was calculated as 0.7 ± 0.7 (0.82@104°), which indicates a with-the-rule change. After surgery, the combined mean polar values changed significantly (Hotelling T 2  = 22.47; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that postoperative intraocular pressure and location of surgery were independent factors that were significantly associated with SIA (p = 0.002 and 0.03, respectively). Trabeculectomy at the 120° meridian was not astigmatically neutral. In addition, the SIA after trabeculectomy appears to be greater in eyes with low postoperative intraocular pressure and a superonasal surgical wound rather than a superotemporal wound.

  17. [Astigmatism after keratoplasty: influence of orthotopic transplantation].

    PubMed

    Feuerstacke, J; Hellwinkel, O; Naydis, I; Linke, S; Klemm, M

    2014-09-01

    Patients undergoing corneal transplantation often suffer from postoperative reduced vision due to high astigmatism. This retrospective study analyzed the influence of heterotopic or orthotopic transplantation on astigmatism and visual outcome. In this study 373 eyes of 334 patients were analyzed. Group 1 (OT) contained 186 eyes, which underwent orthotopic transplantation (side of recipient and donor corresponded), whereas group 2 (HT) included 187 heterotopic keratoplasties (donor cornea placed in the recipient's contralateral side). After 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months the median of keratometric astigmatism, objective astigmatism, topographic astigmatism and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were assessed and compared between groups. The long-term results showed no statistically significant differences regarding keratometric and objective astigmatism, whereas topographic astigmatism differed significantly (p = 0.04) after 3 months. We observed a lower astigmatism of 5.7 dpt (range 3.08-7.78 dpt) in group OT than in the group HT with 7.1 dpt (range 3.9-10.7 dpt). No differences were found at the other time points. The BCVA showed a significantly better effect after 1 month (p = 0.01) in the OT group of 0.2 (0.1-0.3) than in HT group of 0.1 (0.05/0.25). In the postoperative course no additional significant dissimilarities were documented. Heterotopic and orthotopic keratoplasty show no significant long-term differences in astigmatism and visual outcom.

  18. Influence of internal optical astigmatism on the correction of myopic astigmatism by LASIK.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yi-Shan; Huang, Jia; Liu, Rui; Chu, Ren-Yuan; Xu, Ye; Zhou, Xing-Tao; Hoffman, Matthew R

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the influence of the origin of astigmatism on the correction of myopic astigmatism by LASIK. A retrospective study was conducted of the records of 192 patients (192 eyes) undergoing LASIK for correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism from January to September 2010. Ocular residual astigmatism (ORA) and lenticular astigmatism (LA) were determined by vector analysis using objective refraction and Pentacam (Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH) imaging of both corneal surfaces. Patients were divided into two groups according to ORA (high ORA group: ORA/preoperative refractive astigmatism >1; normal ORA group: ORA/preoperative refractive astigmatism ≤ 1) and LA (high LA group: LA/preoperative refractive astigmatism >1; normal LA group: LA/preoperative refractive astigmatism ≤ 1). Procedural efficacy was compared between those eyes with and without a significant amount of internal optical astigmatism using index of success. Mean preoperative vectors for the astigmatism of the anterior cornea, posterior cornea, and lens were -1.33 × 3.0°, -0.33 × 95.3°, and -0.27 × 103.3°, respectively. Mean indices of success in the high and low ORA groups were 1.75 and 0.59, respectively (t=7.81, P<.001). Mean indices of success in the high and low LA groups were 2.07 and 0.70, respectively (t=12.36, P<.001). The higher indices of success in the high ORA and high LA groups suggest a lower efficacy of LASIK in treating astigmatism primarily located intraocularly. Myopic LASIK is less effective in correcting astigmatism when astigmatism is mainly located at the internal optics. Topography and refractive value should be incorporated in the treatment of patients when a significant amount of internal optical astigmatism is detected preoperatively.

  19. A novel gammaherpesvirus in a large flying fox (Pteropus vampyrus) with blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Paige Brock, A; Cortés-Hinojosa, Galaxia; Plummer, Caryn E; Conway, Julia A; Roff, Shannon R; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2013-05-01

    A novel gammaherpesvirus was identified in a large flying fox (Pteropus vampyrus) with conjunctivitis, blepharitis, and meibomianitis by nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of 472 base pairs of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene were used to identify a novel herpesvirus. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses indicated that the virus is a member of the genus Percavirus in the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae. Additional research is needed regarding the association of this virus with conjunctivitis and other ocular pathology. This virus may be useful as a biomarker of stress and may be a useful model of virus recrudescence in Pteropus spp.

  20. An update on Acanthamoeba keratitis: diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Khan, Naveed A.; Walochnik, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are causal agents of a severe sight-threatening infection of the cornea known as Acanthamoeba keratitis. Moreover, the number of reported cases worldwide is increasing year after year, mostly in contact lens wearers, although cases have also been reported in non-contact lens wearers. Interestingly, Acanthamoeba keratitis has remained significant, despite our advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and supportive care. In part, this is due to an incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of the disease, diagnostic delays and problems associated with chemotherapeutic interventions. In view of the devastating nature of this disease, here we present our current understanding of Acanthamoeba keratitis and molecular mechanisms associated with the disease, as well as virulence traits of Acanthamoeba that may be potential targets for improved diagnosis, therapeutic interventions and/or for the development of preventative measures. Novel molecular approaches such as proteomics, RNAi and a consensus in the diagnostic approaches for a suspected case of Acanthamoeba keratitis are proposed and reviewed based on data which have been compiled after years of working on this amoebic organism using many different techniques and listening to many experts in this field at conferences, workshops and international meetings. Altogether, this review may serve as the milestone for developing an effective solution for the prevention, control and treatment of Acanthamoeba infections. PMID:25687209

  1. [The relations of corneal, lenticular and total astigmatism].

    PubMed

    Liang, D; Guan, Z; Lin, J

    1995-06-01

    To determine the relations of corneal, lenticular and total astigmatism and the changes of the astigmatism with age. Out-patients with refractive errors were refracted with retinoscope after using cycloplegic drops and measured the radii of anterior corneal curvature. One hundred and ninety-four cases (382 eyes) with refractive errors were studied. Of the eyes 67.9% had regular corneal astigmatism, 68.1% irregular lenticular astigmatism and 60.7% regular total astigmatism, 88.5% of the corneal astigmatism has the same quality as the total astigmatism. The total astigmatism in 46% of the eyes included the summation of corneal and lenticular astigmatism, but in 41.3% of the eyes irregular lenticular astigmatism corrected the regular corneal astigmatism. The astigmatism of cornea, lens and total astigmatism changed from regular to irregular with the increase of age. The linear correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between the power of horizontal corneal refraction and age, and a negative corrlation between the power of vertical corneal refraction and age. The shape of cornea was the major cause of total astigmatism. The influence of lens on the total astigmatism was different. The reasons for the change of the total astigmatism from regular to irregular with the increase of age were the changes of the power of corneal refraction, particularly the increase of the power of horizontal corneal refraction and lenticular irregular astigmatism.

  2. Astigmatism evaluation prior to cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pankaj C; Caty, Jane T

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate and summarize literature from the past 18 months reporting advancements and issues in astigmatism assessment prior to cataract surgery. New and updated toric calculators and regression formulas offer the opportunity for more accurate lens selection for our patients. Concurrently, improvements in topographic evaluation of corneal keratometry have allowed for a decrease in unplanned residual corneal astigmatism. Measuring posterior corneal astigmatism is especially valuable in eyes with keratoconus when planning to implant toric intraocular lens (IOL) and now allows access to this patient population. Improved accuracy of astigmatism evaluation now occurs with point reflections on the corneal surface along with the latest generation toric lens formulas which integrated posterior corneal astigmatism, predicted lens position, and intended spherical power of the IOL. These improvements can allow for incorporation of toric lenses in keratoconus patients.

  3. Comparative study of the efficacy of different treatment options in patients with chronic blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Arrúa, M; Samudio, M; Fariña, N; Cibils, D; Laspina, F; Sanabria, R; Carpinelli, L; Mino de Kaspar, H

    2015-03-01

    To compare the efficacy of 3 treatment options in patients with chronic blepharitis. An experimental, randomized, controlled study was conducted on 45 patients (female 67%; Mean age: 40.5 years) diagnosed with chronic blepharitis, in order to compare the effectiveness of three treatment options. Group 1: eyelid hygiene with neutral shampoo three times/day; group 2: neutral shampoo eyelid hygiene plus topical metronidazole gel 0.75% twice/day; group 3: neutral eyelid hygiene with shampoo plus neomycin 3.5% and polymyxin 10% antibiotic ointment with 0.5% dexamethasone 3 times/day. The symptoms and signs were assessed by assigning scores from 0: no symptoms and/or signs; 1: mild symptoms and/or signs, 2: moderate symptoms and/or signs; and 3: severe symptoms and/or signs. A significant improvement was observed in the signs and symptoms in all 3 treatment groups. While groups 1 and 2 had more improvement in all variables studied (P<.05), Group 3 showed no clinical improvement for itching (P=.16), dry eye (P=.29), eyelashes falling (P=.16), and erythema at the eyelid margin (P=.29). Shampoo eyelid hygiene neutral and neutral shampoo combined with the use of metronidazole gel reported better hygiene results than neutral shampoo lid with antibiotic ointment and neomycin and polymyxin dexamethasone. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbiological evaluation of chronic blepharitis among Iranian veterans exposed to mustard gas: a case-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Karimian, Farid; Zarei-Ghanavati, Siamak; A, Baradaran-Rafii; Jadidi, Khosrow; Lotfi-Kian, Alireza

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the microbiological characteristics of eyelid margin flora in chronic blepharitis in mustard gas-exposed individuals and compare the results with those in age- and sex-matched unexposed people. In this comparative case series, 289 patients with ocular manifestations of mustard gas exposure (case) were evaluated for signs of chronic blepharitis. Additionally, microbiological evaluation of eyelid margins was conducted in these patients and compared with results of 100 unexposed patients with chronic blepharitis (control). One-hundred fifty (52.0%) of 289 mustard gas casualties had signs of chronic blepharitis. Microbiological evaluation revealed higher isolation rates of Staphylococcus epidermidis (78%) and Staphylococcus aureus (57%) in the case in comparison to control group (P < 0.01). Moreover, S. aureus isolated from the cases exhibited greater resistance to common antibiotics compared with control group. Fungi were isolated more frequent in the case compared with controls (30% vs. 4%, P < 0.01), with Cladosporium and Candida species being most common in the case group. Exposure to mustard gas seems to alter the microbiological flora of the eyelid margin. Staphylococcus spp., including antibiotic-resistant strains, and fungi were more frequently isolated in these patients. The relationship between microbial culture results and the severity of ocular surface manifestations in mustard gas-injured cases warrant further investigation.

  5. Severe Acanthamoeba sclerokeratitis in a non-contact lens wearer.

    PubMed

    Hirano, K; Sai, S

    1999-06-01

    To report a case of severe Acanthamoeba sclerokeratitis. A 70-year-old male non-contact lens wearer was examined for severe pain in the left eye which began about 40 days after cataract surgery. In spite of a careful search, it required 6 weeks to detect Acanthamoeba. Systemic and topical fluconazol and miconazol did not help and the keratitis progressed into necrotic sclerokeratitis with protrusion of uveal tissue through the thin sclera. Those findings slowly got worse before the Acanthamoeba sclerokeratitis resolved 6 months later with scar formation. We describe the terminal and cicatricial stages of Acanthamoeba keratitis, and report that the healing process can follow the terminal stage and the eye does not need to be enucleated.

  6. Pathobiology and Immunobiology of Acanthamoeba Keratitis: Insights from Animal Models
.

    PubMed

    Neelam, Sudha; Niederkorn, Jerry Y

    2017-06-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare but sight-threatening disease caused by pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba . Despite its ubiquitous nature, the incidence of AK is relatively low compared to other forms of infectious keratitis. Although contact lens wear is a major risk factor, exposure to contaminated water and ocular trauma are also associated with AK. Once a patient develops AK the prognosis is very poor unless an aggressive treatment regimen is initiated early. Some of the intriguing features of AK are the lack of immunological memory, resistance of the dormant cyst form to treatment, differences between the pathogenic strains and soil isolates of Acanthamoeba and the unique role of the innate immune system in controlling this disease. Understanding the series of steps involved in the pathogenesis of the disease and the host immune response against Acanthamoeba antigens is crucial for developing effective therapeutic strategies targeting the disease.

  7. [Analyzing and tracking preoperative and intraoperative astigmatism].

    PubMed

    Perez, M

    2012-03-01

    Precise evaluation of preoperative astigmatism is the first step optimizing outcomes. This begins with office-based evaluation of astigmatism; corneal astigmatism is evaluated by keratometry, traditionally by Javal keratometry, but now including topography, whether Placido- or elevation-based, which allows for detailed analysis of even irregular astigmatism, including the corneal periphery, which is invaluable. Aberrometers, essentially "super-auto refractors", allow the incorporation of additional data into the qualitative analysis of astigmatism. The correlation between these multiple preoperative data helps to differentiate between corneal and total astigmatism, to infer the lenticular astigmatism, and to integrate all of these data into the clinical decision-making process. Immediately preoperatively, the 0 and 180° axes are marked; then, with the aid of a special marker, the axis of alignment for the toric IOL is also marked. Once the cataract is removed, the toric IOL is injected and pre-aligned; the viscoelastic is carefully removed, particularly from between the IOL and posterior capsule, with the toric IOL being definitively aligned at this point. These alignment techniques represent a major advance, soon to be indispensible for toric IOL surgery, which will certainly continue to grow in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Lenticular astigmatism in tilted disc syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Abuzer; Evereklioglu, Cem; Er, Hamdi; Hepşen, Ibrahim F

    2002-10-01

    To evaluate whether an abnormal optic disc shape in patients with tilted disc syndrome (TDS) is associated with an abnormal configuration of the crystalline lens measured as lenticular astigmatism. Department of Ophthalmology, Inönü University Medical Faculty, Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Malatya, Turkey. This cross-sectional masked case-control study comprised 32 eyes of 32 patients with established TDS (13 men, 19 women; mean age 21.31 years +/- 7.05 [SD]) and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (8 men, 12 women; mean age 22.65 +/- 7.11 years) with a comparable amount of myopic astigmatism (spherical equivalent) without TDS. The optic disc was morphometrically analyzed by planimetric evaluation of optic disc photographs. The total refractive and keratometric corneal astigmatism was obtained, and lenticular astigmatism was calculated by vector analysis. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis; 1 eye of each patient was evaluated in both groups. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean spherical equivalent refraction was comparable in TDS patients (-4.73 +/- 1.12 diopters [D]) and controls (-4.28 +/- 1.29 D) (P =.210). The mean total astigmatism was higher in TDS patients (-2.96 +/- 1.04 D) than in the controls (-2.51 +/- 1.09 D), but the difference was not significant (P =.151). The mean corneal astigmatism was comparable in TDS patients (-2.07 +/- 0.83 D) and controls (-2.28 +/- 0.87 D) (P =.454), but the calculated mean lenticular astigmatism was significantly higher in TDS patients (-1.31 +/- 0.98 D and -0.20 +/- 0.35 D, respectively) (P <.001). Twenty-nine of 32 TDS patients (90.6%) had lenticular astigmatism; in 16 (50%), it was greater than -1.00 D. Lenticular astigmatism was present in 7 controls (35%); in 2 (10%), it was greater than -1.00 D. The mean keratometry was significantly higher in TDS patients (43.84 +/- 1.06 D) than in the controls (42.75 +/- 1.45 D) (P =.011). Clinically

  9. Genotyping of clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba genus in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Ysea, María Alejandra Vethencourt; Pérez, Mónica V Galindo; de Rondón, Carmen Guzmán; Paduani, Anaibeth J Nessi; Pérez, Angelyseb Dorta; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; de Galindo, María Virginia Pérez; de Suárez, Eva Pérez; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    Free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus are opportunistic pathogens distributed worldwide. Strains included in this genus are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and a sight-threating keratitis in humans and other animals. In this study, 550 clinical samples which were collected between 1984 and 2014 from different patients with suspected infections due to Acanthamoeba were initially screened for the presence of this amoebic genus at the Laboratorio de Amibiasis-Escuela de Bioanálisis at the Universidad Central de Venezuela. Samples were cultured in 2% Non-Nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. From the 550 clinical samples included in this study, 18 of them were positive for Acanthamoeba genus after culture identification. Moreover, positive samples were confirmed after amplification of the Diagnostic Fragment 3 (DF3) of the Acanthamoeba18S rDNA genus and sequencing was carried out in order to genotype the isolated strains of Acanthamoeba. Furthermore, the pathogenic potential of the strains was checked by performing thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays. Sequencing of the DF3 region resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all the isolated strains. Moreover, most isolates were thermotolerant or both thermotolerant and osmotolerant and thus were classified as potentially pathogenic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization at the genotype level of Acanthamoeba strains in Venezuela.

  10. Bowman's layer encystment in cases of persistent Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    PubMed

    Yokogawa, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Akira; Yamazaki, Natsuko; Ishibashi, Yasuhisa; Oikawa, Yosaburo; Tokoro, Masaharu; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report Acanthamoeba encystment in Bowman's layer in Japanese cases of persistent Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Laser confocal microscopic images of the cornea were obtained in vivo from 18 consecutive eyes from 17 confirmed AK patients. Retrospectively, 14 cases treated over 4 months were categorized as a nonpersistent group and three cases that required prolonged therapy for more than 6 months were categorized as a persistent group. Clinical outcomes based on final best-corrected visual acuity were retrospectively analyzed, and selected confocal images were evaluated qualitatively for abnormal findings. The final best-corrected visual acuity was significantly lower (P < 0.01) for patients in the persistent group compared with that in the nonpersistent group. At the initial visit, in vivo confocal microscopy demonstrated Acanthamoeba cysts exclusively in the epithelial layer in both the nonpersistent group (80%) and the persistent group (100%). At a subsequent follow-up visit, numerous Acanthamoeba cysts were observed in the epithelial cell layer and in Bowman's layer in all patients with persistent AK, but Acanthamoeba cysts were undetectable in all cases with nonpersistent AK tested. Invasion of cysts into Bowman's layer was characteristically observed in patients with persistence of AK. This finding suggests that invasion of Acanthamoeba cysts into Bowman's layer may be a useful predictor for a persistent clinical course.

  11. Statins and Voriconazole Induce Programmed Cell Death in Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Reyes-Batlle, María; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E.; Maciver, Sutherland K.; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens of humans, causing a sight-threatening keratitis and a life-threatening encephalitis. In order to treat those infections properly, it is necessary to target the treatment not only to the trophozoite but also to the cyst. Furthermore, it may be advantageous to avoid parasite killing by necrosis, which may induce local inflammation. We must also avoid toxicity of host tissue. Many drugs which target eukaryotes are known to induce programmed cell death (PCD), but this process is poorly characterized in Acanthamoeba. Here, we study the processes of programmed cell death in Acanthamoeba, induced by several drugs, such as statins and voriconazole. We tested atorvastatin, fluvastatin, simvastatin, and voriconazole at the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) and IC90s that we have previously established. In order to evaluate this phenomenon, we investigated the DNA fragmentation, one of the main characteristics of PCD, with quantitative and qualitative techniques. Also, the changes related to phosphatidylserine exposure on the external cell membrane and cell permeability were studied. Finally, because caspases are key to PCD pathways, caspase activity was evaluated in Acanthamoeba. All the drugs assayed in this study induced PCD in Acanthamoeba. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study where PCD induced by drugs is described quantitatively and qualitatively in Acanthamoeba. PMID:25733513

  12. Acanthamoeba, an opportunistic microorganism: a review.

    PubMed

    Martinez, A J; Janitschke, K

    1985-01-01

    Granulomatous amebic encephalitis due to Acanthamoeba spp. usually occurs in chronically ill and debilitated individuals. Some of these patients may have received immunosuppressive therapy. Another infection due to Acanthamoeba spp. has been corneal ulcerations which usually occur after minimal trauma to the corneal epithelium (1). In contrast, primary amebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri usually occurs in healthy, young individuals with a history of swimming in heated swimming pools, in manmade lakes or with recent contact with contaminated water and practising water-related sports. Subclinical infections due to free-living amebas are probably common in healthy individuals with the protozoa living as "normal flora" in the nose and throat. It is possible that in humans, antibodies and cell-mediated immunity protect the host in such ordinary circumstances against invasive infection. In debilitated and chronically ill individuals, depressed cellmediated immunity may allow these protozoa to proliferate, allowing a fulminant "opportunistic" infection to develop. In the case of acanthamoebic keratitis, it is important to keep in mind that the temperature and moist environment of the eye serve as a good medium for the growth and proliferation of the amebas and is not necessarily associated with immunosuppression but rather with trauma. This review confirms that opportunistic free-living amebic infections occur with increased frequency in patients treated with steroids, radiotherapy, chemotherapeutic drugs or with broad-spectrum antibiotics and suggest that the mechanism of such infection may be depressed cell-mediated immunity or some other alteration of the immune system, like acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

  13. A design of PAL with astigmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yefei; Xiang, Huazhong; Zhu, Tianfeng; Chen, Jiabi

    2015-08-01

    Progressive addition lens (PAL) is designed for those who suffer from myopia and presbyopia to have a clear vision from a far distance to a nearby distance. Additionally there are many people that also suffer from astigmatism and need to be corrected. The cylinder power can't be simply added to the diopter of the PAL directly, because the diopter of the PAL needs to be changed smoothly. A methods has been proposed in this article to solve the problem, the freeform surface height of a PAL without astigmatism and the cylindrical lens surface height for the correction of astigmatism are calculated separately. The both two surface heights were added together, then the final surface is produced and shown with the both properties of PALs and cylindrical lenses used to correct the astigmatism.

  14. Isolation of Acanthamoeba from the rhizosphere of maize and lucerne plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orosz, Erika; Farkas, Ágnes; Ködöböcz, László; Becsak, Péter; Danka, József; Kucsera, István; Füleky, György

    2013-04-01

    Acanthamoeba species are free-living amoebae that can be found in almost every range of environments. Within this genus, a number of species are recognized as human pathogens, potentially causing Acanthamoeba keratitis, granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, and chronic granulomatous lesions. Soil and water samples were taken from experimental station at Julianna Major of Plant Protection Institute of Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences. We detected living Acanthamoeba spp. based on culture- confirmed detection combined with the molecular taxonomic identification method. Living Acanthamoeba spp. were detected in thirteen (65%) samples. The presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in the samples depends significantly on the rhizosphere plants. The most frequently identified living Acanthamoeba genotype was T4 followed by T11, T2/T6 and T17. Genotypes T4 and T11 of Acanthamoeba, are responsible for Acanthamoeba keratitis as well as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, and should therefore be considered as a potential health risk associated with human activities in the environment.

  15. MAGNETIC DEFLEXION OF ELECTRON BEAMS WITHOUT ASTIGMATISM

    SciTech Connect

    Archard, G.D.; Mulvey, T.

    1958-09-01

    An electron beam passing through a magnetic defiecting field is, in general, subject to astigmatism. For circular pole pieces, this takes the form of focusing in the plane of deflection; for square pole pieces, focusing perpendicular to the pinne of deflection. Deflection free from astigmatism can be achieved by means of circular pole-pieces from which semicircular portions have been removed. An application of this to reflection electron microsccpy is described. (auth)

  16. Fluorescein dye improves microscopic evaluation and counting of demodex in blepharitis with cylindrical dandruff.

    PubMed

    Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Blanco, Gabriela; Casas, Victoria; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2007-07-01

    To show whether fluorescein dye helps detect and count Demodex embedded in cylindrical dandruff (CD) of epilated eyelashes from patients with blepharitis. Two eyelashes with CD were removed from each lid of 10 consecutive patients with blepharitis and subjected to microscopic examination with and without fluorescein solution to detect and count Demodex mites. Of 80 eyelashes examined, 36 (45%) lashes retained their CD after removal. Before addition of the fluorescein solution, the mean total Demodex count per patient was 14.9 +/- 10 and the mean Demodex count per lash was 3.1 +/- 2.5 and 0.8 +/- 0.7 in epilated eyelashes with and without retained CD, respectively (P < 0.0001). After addition of the fluorescein solution, opaque and compact CD instantly expanded to reveal embedded mites in a yellowish and semitransparent background. As a result, the mean total Demodex count per patient was significantly increased to 20.2 +/- 13.8 (P = 0.003), and the mean count per lash was significantly increased to 4.4 +/- 2.8 and 1 +/- 0.8 in eyelashes with and without retained CD (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.007), respectively. This new method yielded more mites in 8 of 10 patients and allowed mites to be detected in 3 lashes with retained CD and 1 lash without retained CD that had an initial count of zero. Addition of fluorescein solution after mounting further increases the proficiency of detecting and counting mites embedded in CD of epilated eyelashes.

  17. Does blunt ocular trauma induce corneal astigmatism?

    PubMed

    Akinci, Arsen; Ileri, Dilek; Polat, Sibel; Can, Cigdem; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2007-06-01

    To determine the effect of blunt ocular trauma on refractive astigmatism. Eighty-six eyes of 86 patients with known previous refractive status exposed to blunt ocular trauma were included in the study. Trauma-induced astigmatism (TIA) was calculated using vector analysis. In eyes with TIA, central corneal thickness was assessed by ultrasound pachymetry, and corneal topographies were obtained. Anterior-chamber angles were examined by Goldmann 3-mirror lens to find microhemorrhages, scarring, or recession. Patients were followed up between 8 and 12 months (average, 9.2 months). In 18 eyes (21%), TIA was detected. Six (7%) of these eyes had lenticular astigmatism caused by traumatic lens subluxation. In the remaining 12 eyes (14%), corneal topography showed regular astigmatic patterns, which were symmetrical in 3 eyes and asymmetric in the remaining 9. The etiologic factor was a game marble in 6 eyes and a stone in the remaining 6. The mean central corneal thickness was 535.75 microm (range, 498-570 microm) in these 12 eyes. In 9 of these 12 eyes, recession or scarring in the anterior-chamber angle was detected at 1 edge of the steepest axis. Blunt trauma can induce astigmatism. Hard and small objects are more likely to induce astigmatism.

  18. [Internal astigmatism with other ocular lesions].

    PubMed

    Limaiem, R; Baba, A; Bouraoui, R; Mghaieth, F; El Matri, L

    2012-04-01

    Astigmatism is a refractive defect whose origin is not always purely corneal, and is sometimes the result of corneal, crystalline lens or mixte contributions. The aim of our study is to report, through two cases, ocular lesions associated with a lenticular astigmatism and their evolution after treatment. In the first observation, it is a 25-year-old patient with a unilateral extra corneal astigmatism within the framework of the "tilted disc syndrome" associated with bilateral myopia. This patient has received treatment by Lasik. The postoperative course was good with a decline of 5 ans. The second observation is that of a patient aged 35 years without having a general history with a posterior lenticonus associated with keratoconus responsible for a major mixed astigmatism. She received combined surgery: penetrating keratoplasty with lens extraction and implantation of an artificial lens. The evolution was good with good visual recovery. The balance of internal astigmatism must include the systematic achievement of a subjective and objective refraction under cycloplegia and corneal topography. The search for etiology is critical to screen for eye or general disease and guide the therapeutic strategy. Knowledge of the refractive power of the cornea and crystalline lens of astigmatism separately would be important for surgery refractive and crystalline lens surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of a Candidate Gene for Astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Margarida C.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Verhoeven, Virginie J. M.; Macgregor, Stuart; Hewitt, Alex W.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Cumberland, Phillippa; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Young, Terri L.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Oostra, Ben; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Mackey, David A.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Andrew, Toby; Hammond, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Astigmatism is a common refractive error that reduces vision, where the curvature and refractive power of the cornea in one meridian are less than those of the perpendicular axis. It is a complex trait likely to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Twin studies of astigmatism have found approximately 60% of phenotypic variance is explained by genetic factors. This study aimed to identify susceptibility loci for astigmatism. Methods. We performed a meta-analysis of seven genome-wide association studies that included 22,100 individuals of European descent, where astigmatism was defined as the number of diopters of cylinder prescription, using fixed effect inverse variance-weighted methods. Results. A susceptibility locus was identified with lead single nucleotide polymorphism rs3771395 on chromosome 2p13.3 (meta-analysis, P = 1.97 × 10−7) in the VAX2 gene. VAX2 plays an important role in the development of the dorsoventral axis of the eye. Animal studies have shown a gradient in astigmatism along the vertical plane, with corresponding changes in refraction, particularly in the ventral field. Conclusions. This finding advances the understanding of refractive error, and provides new potential pathways to be evaluated with regard to the development of astigmatism. PMID:23322567

  20. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis as a cause of chronic marginal blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Czepita, Damian; Kuźna-Grygiel, Wanda; Czepita, Maciej; Grobelny, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Intensive long-term studies of Demodex spp. (D.) and its role in chronic blepharits have been carried out in recent years by scientists from the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. It has resulted in numerous publications, spurring a lot of interest worldwide. A few of the papers have been cited in leading American medical journals. In recent years many papers dealing with demodicosis of the eyelids have been published worldwide. Based on the growing interest in the role of Demodex spp. in chronic blepharitis we decided to present and discuss the results of the latest experimental and clinical studies. A review of the literature concerning the role of D. folliculorum and D. brevis in the pathogenesis of chronic blepharitis was done. Demodex spp. are intradermal parasites, which thrive in follicles and sebaceous glands of humans and animals. D. is spread by direct contact and probably by dust containing eggs (figs. 1, 2, 3). Currently, it is thought that pathological changes in the course of demodicosis of the eyelids are consequences of: (1) blockage of follicles and leading out tubules of sebaceous glands by the mites and by reactive hyperkeratinization and epithelial hyperplasia; (2) a mechanical vector role of bacteria; (3) host's inflammatory reaction to the presence of parasite's chitine as a foreign body; and (4) stimulation of the host's humoral responses and cell-mediated immunological reactions under the influence of the mites and their waste products. It has been established that: (1) D. folliculorum and D. brevis are cosmopolitan in terms of their distribution; (2) Infection of Demodex spp. often occurs in the course of chronic blepharitis; (3) With the increase in age, the prevalence rate of eyelid demodicosis rises; (4) Demodicosis of the eyelids may be the effect of the decrease of immunity of some patients. Treatment of demodicosis of the eyelids as a general rule lasts a few months. The use of yellow mercurial ointment, sulphur ointment

  1. LASIK for spherical refractive myopia: effect of topographic astigmatism (ocular residual astigmatism, ORA) on refractive outcome.

    PubMed

    Frings, Andreas; Richard, Gisbert; Steinberg, Johannes; Skevas, Christos; Druchkiv, Vasyl; Katz, Toam; Linke, Stephan J

    2015-01-01

    In eyes with a preoperative plano refractive cylinder, it would appear that there is no rationale for astigmatic treatment. The aim of this retrospective, cross-sectional data analysis was to determine the amount of topographic astigmatism in refractive plano eyes that results in reduced efficacy after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). This study included 267 eyes from 267 consecutive myopic patients with a refractive plano cylinder. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to find the cut-off values of preoperative ocular residual astigmatism (= topographic astigmatism) that can best discriminate between groups of efficacy and safety indices in preoperative plano refractive cylinder eyes. Preoperative ocular residual astigmatism (ORA) (or topographic astigmatism) of ≤0.9 diopters (D) resulted in an efficacy index of at least 0.8 statistically significantly more frequently than eyes with a preoperative ORA of >0.9 D. Eyes with a high ORA preoperatively also had a high ORA postoperatively. Regression analysis showed that each diopter of preoperative ORA reduced efficacy by 0.07. A preoperative corneal astigmatism of ≥0.9 D could (partially) be taken into account in the LASIK design, even if the subjective refractive astigmatism is neutral.

  2. Long-term follow-up of astigmatic keratotomy for corneal astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Böhringer, Daniel; Dineva, Nina; Maier, Philip; Birnbaum, Florian; Kirschkamp, Thomas; Reinhard, Thomas; Eberwein, Philipp

    2016-11-01

    To report the long-term stability of paired arcuate corneal keratotomies (AKs) in patients with high regular postpenetrating keratoplasty astigmatism. Retrospective chart review of best-corrected visual acuity, refraction and keratometric values of 41 eyes with AK between 2003 and 2012. Magnitude of median target induced astigmatism vector was 9.2 dioptres (Dpt). We reached a median magnitude of surgically induced astigmatism vector of 9.81 Dpt and a median magnitude of difference vector of 5.5 Dpt. In keratometry, we achieved a net median astigmatism reduction by 3.3 Dpt. The average correction index was 1.14, showing a slight overcorrection. Irregularity of keratometric astigmatism increased by 0.6 Dpt, and spherical equivalent changed by 1.75 Dpt. Monocular best spectacle corrected visual acuity increased from preoperatively 20/63 (0.5 logMAR) to 20/40 (0.3 logMAR) postoperatively. Median gain on the ETDRS chart was two lines. Long-term follow-up showed a median keratometric astigmatic increase by 0.3 Dpt per year. Arcuate corneal keratotomies is a safe and effective method to reduce high regular corneal astigmatism following penetrating keratoplasty but has limited predictability. The long-term follow-up shows an increase of keratometric astigmatism by 0.3 Dpt/year, equalizing the surgical effect after 10 years. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. LASIK for Spherical Refractive Myopia: Effect of Topographic Astigmatism (Ocular Residual Astigmatism, ORA) on Refractive Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Frings, Andreas; Richard, Gisbert; Steinberg, Johannes; Skevas, Christos; Druchkiv, Vasyl; Katz, Toam; Linke, Stephan J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In eyes with a preoperative plano refractive cylinder, it would appear that there is no rationale for astigmatic treatment. The aim of this retrospective, cross-sectional data analysis was to determine the amount of topographic astigmatism in refractive plano eyes that results in reduced efficacy after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Methods This study included 267 eyes from 267 consecutive myopic patients with a refractive plano cylinder. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to find the cut-off values of preoperative ocular residual astigmatism (= topographic astigmatism) that can best discriminate between groups of efficacy and safety indices in preoperative plano refractive cylinder eyes. Results Preoperative ocular residual astigmatism (ORA) (or topographic astigmatism) of ≤0.9 diopters (D) resulted in an efficacy index of at least 0.8 statistically significantly more frequently than eyes with a preoperative ORA of >0.9 D. Eyes with a high ORA preoperatively also had a high ORA postoperatively. Regression analysis showed that each diopter of preoperative ORA reduced efficacy by 0.07. Conclusion A preoperative corneal astigmatism of ≥0.9 D could (partially) be taken into account in the LASIK design, even if the subjective refractive astigmatism is neutral. PMID:25875476

  4. Comparison of astigmatic correction after femtosecond lenticule extraction and wavefront-guided LASIK for myopic astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohamed A; Kobashi, Hidenaga; Kamiya, Kazutaka; Igarashi, Akihito; Miyake, Toshiyuki; Elewa, Mohamed Ehab M; Komatsu, Mari; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2014-12-01

    To compare postoperative astigmatic correction between femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx) and wavefront-guided LASIK in eyes with myopic astigmatism. Fifty-eight eyes of 41 patients undergoing FLEx and 49 eyes of 29 patients undergoing wavefront-guided LASIK to correct myopic astigmatism were examined. Visual acuity, cylindrical refraction, predictability of the astigmatic correction, and astigmatic vector components were compared between groups 6 months after surgery. There was no statistically significant difference in manifest cylindrical refraction (P = .08) or percentage of eyes within ± 0.50 diopter (D) of its refraction (P = .11) between the surgical procedures. The index of success in FLEx was statistically significantly better than that of wavefront-guided LASIK (P = .02), although there was no significant difference between the groups in other indices (eg, surgically induced astigmatism, target-induced astigmatism, astigmatic correction index, angle of error, difference vector, and flattening index). Subgroup analysis showed that FLEx had a better index of success (P = .02) and difference vector (P = .04) than wavefront-guided LASIK in the low cylinder subgroup; the angle of error in FLEx was significantly smaller than that of wavefront-guided LASIK in the moderate cylinder subgroup (P = .03). Both FLEx and wavefront-guided LASIK worked well for the correction of myopic astigmatism by the 6-month follow-up visit. Although FLEx had a better index of success than wavefront-guided LASIK when using vector analysis, it appears equivalent to wavefront-guided LASIK in terms of visual acuity and the correction of astigmatism. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Measurement of Posterior Corneal Astigmatism by the IOLMaster 700.

    PubMed

    LaHood, Benjamin R; Goggin, Michael

    2018-05-01

    To provide the first description of posterior corneal astigmatism as measured by the IOLMaster 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany) and assess how its characteristics compare to previous measurements from other devices. A total of 1,098 routine IOLMaster 700 biometric measurements were analyzed to provide magnitudes and orientation of steep and flat axes of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism. Subgroup analysis was conducted to assess correlation of posterior corneal astigmatism characteristics to anterior corneal astigmatism and describe the distribution of posterior corneal astigmatism with age. Mean posterior corneal astigmatism was 0.24 ± 0.15 diopters (D). The steep axis of posterior corneal astigmatism was vertically oriented in 73.32% of measurements. Correlation between the magnitude of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism was greatest when the steep axis of the anterior corneal astigmatism was oriented vertically (r = 0.68, P < .0001). Vertical orientation of the steep axis of anterior corneal astigmatism became less common as age increased, whereas for posterior corneal astigmatism it remained by far the most common orientation. This first description of posterior corneal astigmatism measurement by the IOLMaster 700 found the average magnitude of posterior corneal astigmatism and proportion of vertical orientation of steep axis was lower than previous estimates. The IOLMaster 700 appears capable of providing enhanced biometric measurement for individualized surgical planning. [J Refract Surg. 2018;34(5):331-336.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Reading Fluency in School-Age Children with Bilateral Astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Erin M.; Miller, Joseph M.; Twelker, J. Daniel; Davis, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare oral reading fluency (ORF) in students with no/low astigmatism and moderate/high astigmatism and to assess the impact of spectacle correction on ORF in moderate and high astigmats. Methods Subjects were 3rd–8th grade students from a highly astigmatic population. Refractive error was determined through subjectively refined cycloplegic autorefraction. Data from students with ocular abnormalities, anisometropia, symptomatic binocular vision disorders, or refractive error that did not meet study criteria (no/low (cyl < 1.00 both eyes, no significant myopia/hyperopia), moderate (cyl ≥ 1.00 D both eyes, mean ≥ 1.00 D and < 3.00 D), or high astigmatism group (cyl ≥ 1.00 D both eyes, mean ≥ 3.00 D)) were excluded. ORF was tested with a modified version of the DIBELS Next test of ORF. No/low astigmats were tested without spectacles; astigmats were tested with and without spectacles. Mean ORF was compared in no/low astigmats and astigmats (with and without correction). Improvement in ORF with spectacles was compared for moderate and high astigmats. Results The sample included 130 no/low, 67 moderate, and 76 high astigmats. ORF was lower in uncorrected astigmats than in no/low astigmats (p=0.011). ORF did not significantly differ in no/low astigmats and corrected astigmats (p=0.10). ORF significantly improved with spectacle correction in high astigmats (p=0.001, mean improvement 6.55 words per minute (WPM)), but not in moderate astigmats (p=0.193, mean improvement 1.87 WPM). Effects of spectacle wear were observed in students who read smaller text stimuli (older grades). Conclusions ORF is significantly reduced in students with bilateral astigmatism (≥ 1.00D) when uncorrected, but not when best-corrected, compared to their non-astigmatic peers. Improvement in ORF with spectacle correction is seen in high astigmats, but not in moderate astigmats. These data support the recommendation for full-time spectacle wear in astigmatic students

  7. Tubular astigmatism-tunable fluidic lens.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Daniel; Zappe, Hans

    2016-06-15

    We demonstrate a new means to fabricate three-dimensional liquid lenses which may be tuned in focal length and astigmatism. Using actuation by electrowetting-on-dielectrics, astigmatism in arbitrary directions may be tuned independently, with almost no cross talk between orthogonal orientations. The lens is based on electrodes structured on planar polyimide foils and subsequently rolled, enabling high-resolution patterning of complex electrodes along the azimuthal and radial directions of the lens. Based on a design established through fluidic and optical simulations, the astigmatism tuning is experimentally verified by a change of the corresponding Zernike coefficients measured using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. It was seen that the back focal length can be tuned by 5 mm and 0° and 45° astigmatism by 3 μm through application of voltages in the range of 50  Vrms. It was observed that the cross talk with other aberrations is very low, suggesting a novel means for astigmatism control in imaging systems.

  8. Improved astigmatic focus error detection method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.

    1992-01-01

    All easy-to-implement focus- and track-error detection methods presently used in magneto-optical (MO) disk drives using pre-grooved media suffer from a side effect known as feedthrough. Feedthrough is the unwanted focus error signal (FES) produced when the optical head is seeking a new track, and light refracted from the pre-grooved disk produces an erroneous FES. Some focus and track-error detection methods are more resistant to feedthrough, but tend to be complicated and/or difficult to keep in alignment as a result of environmental insults. The astigmatic focus/push-pull tracking method is an elegant, easy-to-align focus- and track-error detection method. Unfortunately, it is also highly susceptible to feedthrough when astigmatism is present, with the worst effects caused by astigmatism oriented such that the tangential and sagittal foci are at 45 deg to the track direction. This disclosure outlines a method to nearly completely eliminate the worst-case form of feedthrough due to astigmatism oriented 45 deg to the track direction. Feedthrough due to other primary aberrations is not improved, but performance is identical to the unimproved astigmatic method.

  9. More exact solutions of the constant astigmatism equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlaváč, Adam

    2018-01-01

    By using Bäcklund transformation for the sine-Gordon equation, new periodic exact solutions of the constant astigmatism equation zyy +(1 / z) xx + 2 = 0 are generated from a seed which corresponds to Lipschitz surfaces of constant astigmatism.

  10. Astigmatism at nearpoint: adventitious, purposeful, and environmental influences.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, S B; Garzia, R P

    1988-12-01

    Previous studies indicate that a number of individuals display significant differences between astigmatism measured at farpoint and nearpoint. Adventitious effects, purposeful lenticular changes and adaptations in response to environmental forces are reviewed as possible sources of this astigmatic variability.

  11. Acanthamoeba keratitis: an emerging disease gathering importance worldwide?

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Martín-Navarro, Carmen María; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2013-04-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is increasingly being recognized as a severe sight-threatening ocular infection worldwide. Although contact lens wear is the leading risk factor for AK, Acanthamoeba parasites are also an important cause of keratitis in non-contact lens wearers. Diagnosis of AK is challenging, and the available treatments are lengthy and not fully effective against all strains. The pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba is still under study, and the identification of the key factors involved in this process should be useful for the development of fully effective therapies. This review focuses on recent developments on AK pathogenesis and diagnosis as well as novel strategies for the evaluation of anti-amoebic agents that could be applied in the near future against these pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reading Fluency in School-Aged Children with Bilateral Astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Erin M; Miller, Joseph M; Twelker, J Daniel; Davis, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    To compare oral reading fluency (ORF) in students with no/low astigmatism and moderate/high astigmatism and to assess the impact of spectacle correction on ORF in moderate and high astigmats. Subjects were third- to eighth-grade students from a highly astigmatic population. Refractive error was determined through subjectively refined cycloplegic autorefraction. Data from students with ocular abnormalities, anisometropia, symptomatic binocular vision disorders, or refractive error that did not meet study criteria (no/low [cylinder < 1.00 both eyes, no significant myopia/hyperopia], moderate [cylinder ≥ 1.00 D both eyes, mean ≥ 1.00 D and < 3.00 D], or high astigmatism group [cylinder ≥ 1.00 D both eyes, mean ≥ 3.00 D]) were excluded. Oral reading fluency was tested with a modified version of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) Next test of ORF. No/low astigmats were tested without spectacles; astigmats were tested with and without spectacles. Mean ORF was compared in no/low astigmats and astigmats (with and without correction). Improvement in ORF with spectacles was compared between moderate and high astigmats. The sample included 130 no/low, 67 moderate, and 76 high astigmats. ORF was lower in uncorrected astigmats than in no/low astigmats (p = 0.011). ORF did not significantly differ in no/low astigmats and corrected astigmats (p = 0.10). ORF significantly improved with spectacle correction in high astigmats (p = 0.001; mean improvement, 6.55 words per minute) but not in moderate astigmats (p = 0.193; mean improvement, 1.87 words per minute). Effects of spectacle wear were observed in students who read smaller text stimuli (older grades). ORF is significantly reduced in students with bilateral astigmatism (≥1.00D) when uncorrected but not when best-corrected compared with their nonastigmatic peers. Improvement in ORF with spectacle correction is seen in high astigmats but not in moderate astigmats. These data support the

  13. Label-free imaging of acanthamoeba using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tsubasa; Cha, Yu-Rok; Kaji, Yuichi; Oshika, Tetsuro; Leproux, Philippe; Couderc, Vincent; Kano, Hideaki

    2018-02-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis is a disease in which amoebae named Acanthamoeba invade the cornea of an eye. To diagnose this disease before it becomes serious, it is important to detect the cyst state of Acanthamoeba in the early stage of infection. In the present study, we explored spectroscopic signitures of the cyst state of Acanthamoeba using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy with the channels of multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second harmonic generation (SHG), and third harmonic generation (THG). A sharp band at around 1603 cm-1 in the CARS (Im[χ(3)]) spectrum was found at the cyst state of Acanthamoeba, which possibly originates from ergosterol and/or 7-dehydrostigmasterol. It can be used as a maker band of Acanthamoeba for medical treatment. Keyword: Acanthamoeba keratitis, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, CARS, second harmonic generation, SHG, microspectroscopy, multiphoton microscopy

  14. The association of contact lens solution use and Acanthamoeba keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Joslin, Charlotte E.; Tu, Elmer Y.; Shoff, Megan E.; Booton, Gregory C.; Fuerst, Paul A.; McMahon, Timothy T.; Anderson, Robert J.; Dworkin, Mark S.; Sugar, Joel; Davis, Faith G.; Stayner, Leslie T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis, a rare but serious corneal infection, has recently increased significantly at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) Cornea Service. The purpose is to investigate Acanthamoeba keratitis risk factors. Design Retrospective case-control study. Methods Setting University, tertiary care hospital. Patients Fifty-five Acanthamoeba keratitis cases with contact lens use were diagnosed between May 1, 2003 and September 15, 2006. Clinic-matched controls with contact lens use were recruited. Subjects completed surveys targeting lens hygiene, contact lens solution use, and water exposure. Main Outcome Measure Acanthamoeba keratitis. Results Thirty-nine (73.6%) cases and 113 (65.3%) controls participated; 38 cases had complete contact lens data. Thirty-five of 38 cases (92.1%) and 47 of 100 controls (47.0%) used soft lenses. Analysis was performed on 30 cases and 39 controls with matched pairs with soft lens use. Exclusive use of AMO Complete MoisturePlus Multi-Purpose Solution was independently associated with Acanthamoeba keratitis in multivariable analysis (55.2% vs. 10.5%; OR, 16.67; 95% CI, 2.11–162.63; p = 0.008). However, 38.8% of cases reported no use of AMO Complete MoisturePlus Multi-Purpose Solution or used it in combination with other solutions. Although not statistically significant, additional hygiene-related variables (solution ‘reuse’, lack of ‘rubbing’, and showering with lenses) suggest a pattern of risk,. Conclusions AMO Complete MoisturePlus Multi-Purpose Solution use is independently associated with Acanthamoeba keratitis among soft contact lens users. However, it does not explain all cases, suggesting additional factors. Further research into environmental risk factors and hygiene practices is warranted, especially considering this is the second outbreak of an atypical, contact lens-related infection. PMID:17588524

  15. Influence of Posterior Corneal Astigmatism on Total Corneal Astigmatism in Eyes With Keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Savini, Giacomo; Næser, Kristian; Schiano-Lomoriello, Domenico; Mularoni, Alessandro

    2016-11-01

    To measure posterior corneal astigmatism (PCA) and investigate its influence on total corneal astigmatism (TCA) in eyes with keratoconus. Keratometric astigmatism (KA), PCA, and TCA were investigated by means of a dual Scheimpflug analyzer in patients with keratoconus. Vector analysis was carried out with the Næser polar value method. We enrolled 119 eyes. PCA magnitude averaged 0.77 ± 0.43 diopters (D) and exceeded 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00 D in 73.9%, 21.8%, and 16.8% of eyes, respectively. PCA averaged 0.95 ± 0.48, 0.55 ± 0.28, and 0.70 ± 0.35 D in eyes with with-the-rule (WTR), against-the-rule (ATR), and oblique astigmatism. The steepest posterior meridian was oriented vertically (between 61 and 119 degrees) in 55.5% of eyes, thus generating ATR astigmatism. The difference between the location of the steepest meridian of KA and that of TCA was >10 degrees in 8.4% of eyes. On average, KA overestimated TCA in eyes with WTR astigmatism by 0.16 D and underestimated TCA in eyes with ATR astigmatism by 0.22 D. The PCA power oriented along the steeper anterior corneal meridian averaged -0.83 ± 0.40, -0.40 ± 0.37, and -0.53 ± 0.43 D for WTR, ATR, and obliquely astigmatic eyes, respectively. Linear regression disclosed a statistically significant correlation (P < 0.0001, r = 0.16) between the meridional powers of TCA and PCA. In eyes with keratoconus, PCA displays large, variable values and is correlated to TCA. The influence of PCA on TCA cannot be disregarded when planning astigmatism correction by toric intraocular lenses.

  16. [Eyelid hygiene for contact lens wearers with blepharitis. Comparative investigation of treatment with baby shampoo versus phospholipid solution].

    PubMed

    Khaireddin, R; Hueber, A

    2013-02-01

    Blepharitis due to Meibom gland dysfunction (MGD) is presumed to be one of the main reasons for dry eye symptoms which occur in up to 50% of contact lens users. Thus, MGD presumably plays an important role in dry eye in contact lens wearers. In the present prospective, randomized and double blind trial the efficacy of two established treatment options for MGD and blepharitis was evaluated in symptomatic contact lens wearers. In this prospective, randomized 2-centre trial 53 symptomatic contact lens wearers suffering from blepharitis were included. Patients were randomly selected for two treatment groups: group A performed lid margin hygiene using the commonly recommended mild baby shampoo (Bübchen Kinder Shampoo-extra augenmild, Bübchen Werk Ewald Hermes Pharmazeutische Fabrik GmbH, Soest, Germany) and group B performed lid margin hygiene using a phospholipid-liposome solution specially designed for lid hygiene (Blepha Cura, Optima, Moosburg/Wang, Germany), each for 4 weeks. Before as well as 4 weeks after initiation of this study the following tests were performed: standardized subjective assessment using the ocular surface disease index, non-invasive break-up time (NIBUT) and objective evaluation of lid-parallel conjunctival folds (LIPCOF) and further lid margin criteria by double blinded evaluation of slit lamp photographs. Of the 53 symptomatic contact lens wearers suffering from blepharitis 21 (39,6%) were randomly selected for treatment group A and 32 (60.4%) for group B. In both treatment groups there was objective and subjective improvement of symptoms of dry eye in contact lens wearers. Interestingly, there was a significantly greater improvement, subjective as well as objective, in treatment group B which used the phospholipidliposome solution for lid margin hygiene compared to group A using baby shampoo. Although both therapies improved symptoms of dry eye due to blepharitis in symptomatic contact lens wearers, patients using phospholipid

  17. Spherical aberrations of human astigmatic corneas.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huawei; Dai, Guang-Ming; Chen, Li; Weeber, Henk A; Piers, Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate whether the average spherical aberration of human astigmatic corneas is statistically equivalent to human nonastigmatic corneas. Spherical aberrations of 445 astigmatic corneas prior to laser vision correction were retrospectively investigated to determine Zernike coefficients for central corneal areas 6 mm in diameter using CTView (Sarver and Associates). Data were divided into groups according to cylinder power (0.01 to 0.25 diopters [D], 0.26 to 0.75 D, 0.76 to 1.06 D, 1.07 to 1.53 D, 1.54 to 2.00 D, and >2.00 D) and according to age by decade. Spherical aberrations were correlated with age and astigmatic power among groups and the entire population. Statistical analyses were conducted, and P<.05 was considered statistically significant. Mean patient age was 42.6±11 years. Astigmatic corneas had an average astigmatic power of 0.78±0.58 D and mean spherical aberration was 0.25±0.13 μm for the entire population and approximately the same (0.27 μm) for individual groups, ranging from 0.23 to 0.29 μm (P>.05 for all tested groups). Mean spherical aberration of astigmatic corneas was not correlated significantly with cylinder power or age (P>.05). Spherical aberrations are similar to those of nonastigmatic corneas, permitting the use of these additional data in the design of aspheric toric intra-ocular lenses. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Comparison of Astigmatic Correction after Femtosecond Lenticule Extraction and Small-Incision Lenticule Extraction for Myopic Astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Kobashi, Hidenaga; Kamiya, Kazutaka; Ali, Mohamed A.; Igarashi, Akihito; Elewa, Mohamed Ehab M.; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare postoperative astigmatic correction between femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx) and small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in eyes with myopic astigmatism. Methods We examined 26 eyes of 26 patients undergoing FLEx and 26 eyes of 26 patients undergoing SMILE to correct myopic astigmatism (manifest astigmatism of 1 diopter (D) or more). Visual acuity, cylindrical refraction, the predictability of the astigmatic correction, and the astigmatic vector components using Alpin’s method, were compared between the two groups 3 months postoperatively. Results We found no statistically significant difference in manifest cylindrical refraction (p=0.74) or in the percentage of eyes within ± 0.50 D of their refraction (p=0.47) after the two surgical procedures. Moreover, no statistically significant difference was detected between the groups in astigmatic vector components, namely, surgically induced astigmatism (0.80), target induced astigmatism (p=0.87), astigmatic correction index (p=0.77), angle of error (p=0.24), difference vector (p=0.76), index of success (p=0.91), flattening effect (p=0.79), and flattening index (p=0.84). Conclusions Both FLEx and SMILE procedures are essentially equivalent in correcting myopic astigmatism using vector analysis, suggesting that the lifting or non-lifting of the flap does not significantly affect astigmatic outcomes after these surgical procedures. PMID:25849381

  19. Correlation of major components of ocular astigmatism in myopic patients.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, Mehrdad; Heidari, Zahra; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Amouzegar, Afsaneh; Hashemi, Hassan

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the correlation of major components of ocular astigmatism in myopic patients in an academic hospital. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 376 eyes of 188 patients who were referred to Farabi Eye Hospital for refractive surgery. Preoperative examinations including refraction and corneal topography were performed for all candidates to measure refractive and corneal astigmatism. Ocular residual astigmatism was calculated using vector analysis. Pearson's correlation and ANOVA analysis were used to evaluate the strength of the association between different types of astigmatism. Both eyes were defined as cluster and the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) analysis were performed. Mean age of 119 women (63.3%) and 69 men (36.7%) was 27.8 ± 5.7 years. Mean refractive error based on spherical equivalent was -3.59 ± 1.95D (range, -0.54 to -10.22D). Mean refractive and corneal astigmatism was 1.97 ± 1.3D and 1.85 ± 1.01D, respectively. Mean amount of ORA was 0.65 ± 0.36D.There was a significant correlation between ORA and refractive astigmatism(r=0.23, p<0.001), corneal and refractive astigmatism (r=0.91, p<0.001) and a weak correlation between ORA and corneal astigmatism (r=0.13, p=0.014). There was a significant correlation between J0 and J45 values of ORA and corneal astigmatism (p<0.001). There is a significant correlation between ORA and refractive astigmatism, refractive and corneal astigmatism and a weak correlation between ORA and corneal astigmatism in refractive surgery candidates. Identifying the type of astigmatism and preoperative measurement of ocular residual astigmatism is highly recommended prior to any refractive surgery, especially in cases with significant astigmatism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Astigmatism transfer phenomena in the optical parametric amplification process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenkai; Chen, Yun; Li, Yanyan; Xu, Yi; Guo, Xiaoyang; Lu, Jun; Leng, Yuxin

    2017-01-01

    We numerically and experimentally investigate the astigmatism transfer phenomena in femtosecond optical parametric amplification (OPA). We model the OPA process based on the coupled second-order three-wave nonlinear propagation equations. The numerical and experimental results support that the input pump pulse astigmatism can be transferred into the idler pulse but not the signal pulse, and the idler pulse astigmatism originating from spatial walk-off is less than the idler pulse astigmatism received from the pump. Thus, we can provide a clear understanding of astigmatism transfer mechanisms in the OPA process, and make better use of broadband tunable OPA sources.

  1. Higher Order Aberration and Astigmatism in Children with Hyperopic Amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Kwon; Chang, Ji Woong

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the changes in corneal higher-order aberration (HOA) during amblyopia treatment and the correlation between HOA and astigmatism in hyperopic amblyopia children. In this retrospective study, a total of 72 eyes from 72 patients ranging in age from 38 to 161 months were included. Patients were divided into two groups based on the degree of astigmatism. Corneal HOA was measured using a KR-1W aberrometer at the initial visit and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Correlation analysis was performed to assess the association between HOA and astigmatism. A total of 72 patients were enrolled in this study, 37 of which were classified as belonging to the higher astigmatism group, while 35 were assigned to the lower astigmatism group. There was a statistically significant difference in success rate between the higher and lower astigmatism groups. In both groups, all corneal HOAs were significantly reduced during amblyopia treatment. When comparing the two groups, a significant difference in coma HOA at the 12-month follow-up was detected (p = 0.043). In the Pearson correlation test, coma HOA at the 12-month follow-up demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with astigmatism and a stronger correlation with astigmatism in the higher astigmatism group than in the lower astigmatism group (coefficient values, 0.383 and 0.284 as well as p = 0.021 and p = 0.038, respectively). HOA, particularly coma HOA, correlated with astigmatism and could exert effects in cases involving hyperopic amblyopia.

  2. Relationship between preoperative axis of astigmatism and postoperative astigmatic change after superior scleral incision phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Lyhne, N; Hansen, T E; Corydon, L

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of the preoperative axis of astigmatism on the outcome of corneal astigmatism after sutured 5.2 to 5.7 mm superior incision phacoemulsification. Departments of Opthalmology, Odense and Vejle Hospitals, Denmark. Seventy-three consecutive patients with preoperative corneal astigmatism of 2.0 diopters (D) or less, axial length between 20.0 and 25.5 mm, and no eye disease except cataract were grouped according to preoperative with-the-rule (WTR) or against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism. The keratometric cylinder, induced keratometric cylinder (subtraction), and induced cylinder (Jaffe) were measured and calculated 10 to 12 months postoperatively. The postoperative keratometric cylinder and induced keratometric cylinder were significantly higher in the ATR group (P < .00001; mean difference [95% confidence limits]: 0.76 D [0.54; 0.98] and 0.69 D [0.46; 0.92], respectively). There was no significant difference between groups in induced cylinder (Jaffe). The estimated differences were significantly in favor of patients with preoperative WTR astigmatism. The findings support using temporal incision in cases with a preoperative ATR axis of astigmatism.

  3. Optical advantages of astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooyen, De Wet; Schöttl, Peter; Bern, Gregor; Heimsath, Anna; Nitz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats adapt their shape in dependence of the incidence angle of the sun on the heliostat. Simulations show that this optical correction leads to a higher concentration ratio at the target and thus in a decrease in required receiver aperture in particular for smaller heliostat fields.

  4. Acanthamoeba keratitis in Scotland: risk factors for contact lens wearers.

    PubMed

    Seal, D V; Kirkness, C M; Bennett, H G; Peterson, M

    1999-01-01

    To investigate risk factors for Acanthamoeba keratitis amongst contact lens wearers in Scotland. Patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis in the Scottish study, all of whom wore contact lenses, were compared with 46 healthy asymptomatic contact lens-wearing controls. They were all visited at home for contact lens and environmental microbiological sampling. In addition, all 288 optical practices in the West of Scotland were polled for contact lens types and disinfecting solutions sold in 1995, and a sample, each of whom fitted more than 500 contact lenses per year, were polled for a second time. Independently, a poll was commissioned by the Eyecare Information Service in July/August 1995 to estimate the numbers of contact lens wearers in Scotland and the UK. Industry was polled for numbers of each contact lens disinfecting regimen sold in Scotland in 1995. West of Scotland, UK. All contact lens wearers among the 3 million population of the West of Scotland Health Board Areas. Risk factors for Acanthamoeba infection and recommendations for its prevention. When Acanthamoeba infection occurred, patients' home water systems were frequently (54%) found to be colonised by this amoeba. Patients more frequently washed their storage cases in tap water than controls (P<0.05) with resulting contamination, kept storage cases wet rather than air drying them (P<0.05), and had coliform bacteria cultured from the storage case (P<0.05) and had viable Acanthamoeba within the storage case (P<0.0001). Overall, patients were found to have significantly more risk factors than controls (P<0.0001). The noncompliant use of chlorine tablet disinfection, or failure to disinfect contact lenses at all, was associated with increased risk (P<0.05). Ionic high water content contact lenses (FDA group 4 material), when used without disinfection or with non-compliant use of low chlorine (Soflab) tablet-based disinfection, were associated with increased risk of Acanthamoeba infection (P<0.05). In log

  5. Occurrence of Acanthamoeba genotypes in Central West Malaysian environments.

    PubMed

    Basher, Mohamad Hafiz Abdul; Ithoi, Init; Mahmud, Rohela; Abdulsalam, Awatif Mohamed; Foead, Agus Iwan; Dawaki, Salwa; Atroosh, Wahib Mohammed Mohsen; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Abdullah, Wan Omar

    2018-02-01

    Acanthamoeba species are ubiquitous free-living protozoa that can be found worldwide. Occasionally, it can become parasitic and the causative agent of acanthamoebic keratitis (AK) and Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis (GAE) in man. A total of 160 environmental samples and 225 naturally-infected animal corneal swabs were collected for Acanthamoeba cultivation. Acanthamoeba was found to be high in samples collected from environments (85%, 136/160) compared to infected animal corneas (24.89%, 56/225) by microscopic examination. Analysis of nucleotide sequence of 18S rRNA gene of all the 192 cultivable Acanthamoeba isolates revealed 4 genotypes (T3, T4. T5 and T15) with T4 as the most prevalent (69.27%, 133/192) followed by T5 (20.31%), T15 (9.90%) and T3 (0.52%). Genotype T4 was from the strain of A. castellanii U07401 (44.27%), A. castellanii U07409 (20.83%) and A. polyphagaAY026243 (4.17%), but interestingly, only A. castellanii U07401 was detected in naturally infected corneal samples. In environmental samples, T4 was commonly detected in all samples including dry soil, dust, wet debris, wet soil and water. Among the T4, A. castellanii (U07409) strains were detected high occurrence in dry (45%) followed by aquatic (32.50%) and moist (22.50%) samples but however A. castellanii (U07401) strains were dominant in dry samples of soil and dust (93.10%). Subsequently, genotype T5 of A. lenticulata (U94741) strains were dominant in samples collected from aquatic environments (58.97%). In summary, A. castellanii (U07401) strains were found dominant in both environmental and corneal swab samples. Therefore, these strains are possibly the most virulent and dry soil or dusts are the most possible source of Acanthamoeba infection in cats and dogs corneas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Perioperative Modulating Factors on Astigmatism in Sutured Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yang Kyeung

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the factors that affect postoperative astigmatism and post-suture removal astigmatism, and to evaluate the risk factors associated with astigmatism axis shift. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of 130 eyes that had undergone uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Preoperative astigmatism was divided into four groups (Groups I, II, III, and IV) according to the differences between the axis of preoperative astigmatism (flattest axis) and the incision axis (105 degrees). We analyzed the magnitude and axis of the induced astigmatism after the operation and after suture removal in each group. We also analyzed the factors which affected the postoperative astigmatism and post-suture removal astigmatism in each sub-group of Groups I, II, III, and IV, excluding postoperative or post-suture removal axis shift (specifically, Group IWAS, IIWAS, IIIWAS, and IVWAS). We identified the variables associated with the prevalence of postoperative astigmatism axis shift and those associated with the prevalence of post-suture removal axis shift. Results An increase in the magnitude of postoperative astigmatism was associated with an increase in the preoperative magnitude of astigmatism in Groups IWAS, IIWAS, and IIIWAS (p<0.05), and with an increase in the corneal tunnel length in Group IWAS. A decrease in the magnitude of postoperative astigmatism was associated with an increase in the corneal tunnel length in Groups IIIWAS and IVWAS (p<0.05). An increase in the magnitude of post-suture removal astigmatism was associated with an increase in the magnitude of postoperative astigmatism in Groups IWAS and IVWAS (p<0.05), and with late suture removal in Group IVWAS (p<0.05). A decrease in the magnitude of post-suture removal astigmatism was associated with late suture removal in Groups IWAS and IIWAS. A logistic regression analysis showed that the prevalence of post-suture removal astigmatism axis shift was associated with increased corneal

  7. Combined astigmatic keratotomy and conductive keratoplasty to correct high corneal astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Sy, Mary Ellen; Kovoor, Timmy A; Tannan, Anjali; Choi, Daniel; Deng, Sophie X; Danesh, Jennifer; Hamilton, D Rex

    2015-05-01

    To determine the safety, efficacy, and predictability of combined astigmatic keratotomy (AK) and conductive keratoplasty (CK) for treating high corneal astigmatism. University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA. Retrospective case series. From January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2009, AK and CK were performed in eyes with corneal astigmatism of 5.0 diopters (D) or more after keratoplasty or trauma. The uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities, spherical equivalent (SE), defocus equivalent, mean astigmatism, efficacy index, and complications were evaluated. In 11 eyes of 11 patients, the mean UDVA improved from 1.54 logMAR ± 0.50 (SD) preoperatively to 0.69 ± 0.62 logMAR 3 months postoperatively (P < .001) and the mean CDVA from 0.55 ± 0.62 logMAR to 0.12 ± 0.11 logMAR (P = .028). The mean SE and mean defocus equivalent decreased from -1.25 ± 5.06 D to 3.13 ± 3.06 D (P = .15) and from 7.98 ± 4.41 D to 6.97 ± 3.73 D (P = .45), respectively; these changes were not statistically significant. The mean absolute astigmatism decreased from 10.25 ± 4.71 D to 4.31 ± 2.34 D (P < .001). The mean absolute orthogonal and mean oblique astigmatism showed a statistically significant decrease. The efficacy index was 0.82. One case of wound gape after AK required suturing. No infectious keratitis, corneal perforation, or graft rejection occurred. Results indicate that combined AK and CK is safe and effective for correcting high corneal astigmatism after surgery or trauma. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Astigmatic keratotomy with the femtosecond laser: correction of high astigmatisms after keratoplasty].

    PubMed

    Kook, D; Bühren, J; Klaproth, O K; Bauch, A S; Derhartunian, V; Kohnen, T

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel technique for the correction of postoperative astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty with the use of the femtosecond laser creating astigmatic keratotomies (femto-AK) in the scope of a retrospective case series. Clinical data of ten eyes of nine patients with high residual astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty undergoing paired femto-AK using a 60-kHz femtosecond laser (IntraLase™, AMO) were analyzed. A new software algorithm was used to create paired arcuate cuts deep into the donor corneal button with different cut angles. Target values were refraction, uncorrected visual acuity, best corrected visual acuity, topographic data (Orbscan®, Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY, USA), and corneal wavefront analysis using Visual Optics Lab (VOL)-Pro 7.14 Software (Sarver and Associates). Vector analysis was performed using the Holladay, Cravy and Koch formula. Statistical analysis was performed to detect significances between visits using Student's t test. All procedures were performed without any major complications. The mean follow-up was 13 months. The mean patient age was 48.7 years. The preoperative mean uncorrected visual acuity (logMAR) was 1.27, best corrected visual acuity 0.55, mean subjective cylinder -7.4 D, and mean topometric astigmatism 9.3 D. The postoperative mean uncorrected visual acuity (logMAR) was 1.12, best corrected visual acuity 0.47, mean subjective cylinder -4.1 D, and mean topometric astigmatism 6.5 D. Differences between corneal higher order aberrations showed a high standard deviation and were therefore not statistically significant. Astigmatic keratotomy using the femtosecond laser seems to be a safe and effective tool for the correction of higher corneal astigmatisms. Due to the biomechanical properties of the cornea and missing empirical data for the novel femto-AK technology, higher numbers of patients are necessary to develop optimal treatment nomograms.

  9. Seasonal distribution of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba species from drinking water reservoirs in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kao, Po-Min; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Liu, Jorn-Hon; Chang, Hsiang-Yu; Ji, Wen-Tsai; Tzeng, Kai-Jiun; Huang, Shih-Wei; Huang, Yu-Li

    2015-03-01

    In order to detect the presence/absence of Acanthamoeba along with geographical variations, water quality variations and seasonal change of Acanthamoeba in Taiwan was investigated by 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR. Samples were collected quarterly at 19 drinking water reservoir sites from November 2012 to August 2013. Acanthamoeba was detected in 39.5 % (30/76) of the water sample, and the detection rate was 63.2 % (12/19) from samples collected in autumn. The average concentration of Acanthamoeba was 3.59 × 10(4) copies/L. For geographic distribution, the detection rate for Acanthamoeba at the northern region was higher than the central and southern regions in all seasons. Results of Spearman rank test revealed that heterotrophic plate count (HPC) had a negative correlation (R = -0.502), while dissolved oxygen (DO) had a positive correlation (R = 0.463) in summer. Significant differences were found only between the presence/absence of Acanthamoeba and HPC in summer (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05). T2 and T4 genotypes of Acanthamoeba were identified, and T4 was the most commonly identified Acanthamoeba genotypes. The presence of Acanthamoeba in reservoirs presented a potential public health threat and should be further examined.

  10. Developmental compensation of imposed astigmatism is not initiated by astigmatic accommodation in chickens.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S; Schaeffel, F

    2000-01-01

    It is not clear whether emmetropization is confined to spherical refractive errors, or whether astiqmatic errors are also corrected via visual feedback. Experimental results from the animal model of the chicken are equivocal since compensation of imposed astimatic defocus was found in some but not all studies. Astigmatism could only be compensated by changes in the geometry of the cornea or lens. One has tested whether astigmatic spectacle lenses induce astigmatic accommodation as a possible first step of long-lasting compensation. Thirty-five chickens were treated with cylinder lenses (+3/0D or -3/0D) for 5 h. Refractions were determined at 1.38 m distance without cycloplegia in hand-held chicks before attaching the lenses, with the lenses on (0 h), and after 3 and 5 h, and after removal of the lenses. Spheres (S), cylinders (C) and axes (A) were determined using infrared photoretinocopy in three axes (the 'PowerRefractor', equipped with a 135 mm lens). (1) The performance of the 'PowerRefractor' was tested in the chickens with trial lenses and gave correct refractions. (2) Astigmatic trial lenses induced refractive errors as expected from their powers in the case of +3/0D lenses: (S) +3.26 +/- 0.93D, (C) -3.45 +/- 0.87D). In the case of -3/0D lenses, slightly more hyperopic spheres were induced (refractions (S) +4.5 +/- 0.48D) but the cylinders were still as expected (-3.25 +/- 0.49D). The axes of astigmatism were correctly reproduced, since rotating the lenses changed the axes of the induced cylinders as expected. (3) Neither after 3 nor after 5 h of lens wear were there significant changes in the axes or the magnitude of astigmatism. Directly after removal of the lens, the refractions did not differ from their start-up values (with +3/0D lenses: (S) +3.31 +/- 1.05D vs. +3.22 +/- 0.76D, (C) -1.19 +/- 1.77D vs. -0.65 +/- 0.94D, (A) 96 +/- 49 vs. 113 +/- 45 deg; with -3/0D lenses: (S) 2.63 +/- 1.12D vs. 2.97 +/- 0.94D, (C) -1.11 +/- 1.15D vs. -0.53 +/- 0.56D, (A

  11. Predictors of femtosecond laser intrastromal astigmatic keratotomy efficacy for astigmatism management in cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Day, Alexander C; Stevens, Julian D

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the factors associated with the efficacy of femtosecond laser intrastromal astigmatic keratotomy (AK). Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, United Kingdom. Prospective case series. Eyes having intrastromal AK for corneal cylinder correction were analyzed. Preoperative biometric parameters included axial length, anterior chamber depth, central corneal thickness, and Ocular Response Analyzer corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF). Preoperative and 1-month postoperative corneal keratometry was measured using the Topcon KR8100PA topographer-autorefractor. Astigmatic analyses were performed using the Alpins method. The study analyzed 319 eyes of 213 patients with a mean target induced astigmatism of 1.24 diopters (D) ± 0.44 (SD), mean surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) of 0.71 ± 0.43 D, and mean difference vector of 0.79 ± 0.41 D. Two multiple regression models were constructed for SIA prediction. Model 1, based on previous manual limbal relaxing incision parameters, confirmed age and astigmatism meridian (with/against the rule and oblique) to be associated with SIA in addition to AK arc length, AK start depth, and preoperative corneal cylinder magnitude. Model 2, additionally considering other parameters, found only lower CH (-0.06 DC per unit CH), a higher CRF (0.04 D per unit CRF), and the astigmatism meridian to be independent predictors of greater SIA (after adjusting for intrastromal AK arc length, start depth, and preoperative corneal cylinder). With-the-rule astigmatism was associated with a 0.13 D higher SIA than against-the-rule astigmatism, holding all other variables constant. Corneal biomechanical parameters and astigmatism meridian were independent predictors of femtosecond laser intrastromal AK efficacy even after adjusting for AK arc length, AK start depth, and preoperative corneal cylinder. Dr. Stevens is a previous consultant to Optimedica, Inc. which is now part of Abbott Medical Optics, Inc. Drs. Stevens and Day have

  12. Role of Hemidivisional Corneal Topographic Astigmatisms (CorTs) in the Regularization and Reduction of Irregular Astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Alpins, Noel; Ong, James K Y; Stamatelatos, George

    2018-03-01

    To demonstrate how the concept of hemidivisional corneal topographic astigmatism (hemiCorT) enables the planning of hemidivisional corneal treatments to reduce irregularity and overall astigmatism. Whole-of-cornea corneal topographic astigmatism (CorT) is calculated from topography data derived from a corneal topographer or tomographer. The cornea is conceptually divided into 2 hemidivisions along the flat meridian of the CorT. For each hemidivision, hemiCorTs are calculated. The regularization treatment for each hemidivision is the treatment required to target the whole-of-cornea CorT, which is a symmetrical orthogonal corneal astigmatism. The regularization is then combined with astigmatism reduction treatment, which could be a conventional refractive treatment or a vector-planned treatment. For each hemidivision, the combined astigmatic effect of the regularization treatment and reduction treatment can be determined through double-angle vector summation. The 2 hemidivisional treatments together regularize and reduce corneal astigmatism. A theoretical pair of hemidivisional treatments is derived from an actual example of a cornea displaying idiopathic asymmetric nonorthogonal astigmatism. HemiCorTs allow for the design of hemidivisional corneal treatments of asymmetric nonorthogonal astigmatism. Such treatments should be suitable in the routine treatment of commonly occurring irregular astigmatism, while also allowing the spherical refractive error to be treated concurrently.

  13. [Value the correction of corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery].

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Cao, Y X

    2018-05-11

    The aim of modern micro-incision phacoemulsification combined with foldable intraocular lens implantation and femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery is evolving from a simple pursuit of recuperation to a refractive procedure, which involves the correction of ametropia according to preoperative and postoperative refractive conditions, especially corneal astigmatism, in order to achieve the goal of optimized postoperative uncorrected full range of vision. Nowadays, due attention to the effect of preoperative corneal astigmatism, surgery-induced astigmatism and residual astigmatism after operation is lacked, which affect postoperative visual acuity significantly. There are many effective ways to reduce corneal astigmatism after cataract surgery including selecting appropriate size and location of clear corneal incision, employing astigmatism keratotomy and the implantation of Toric intraocular lenses, which need to be appropriately applied and popularized. At the same time, surgical indications, predictability and safety should also be taken into account. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2018, 54: 321-323) .

  14. Glaucoma surgery and induced astigmatism: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chan, Helen H L; Kong, Yu Xiang G

    2017-01-01

    The refractive outcomes of glaucoma surgeries, particularly their effect on astigmatism, are incompletely understood. Trabeculectomy is associated with a considerable amount of with-the-rule astigmatic change in the immediate postoperative period. This is followed by a gradual against-the-rule shift. These changes are altered with the use of mitomycin C (MMC). Non-penetrating surgery such as deep sclerectomy is also associated with a similar or smaller degree of induced astigmatism. Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery appears to be astigmatically neutral. There is no clear evidence regarding refractive outcomes of glaucoma drainage device surgery. Induced astigmatism may account for a reduction in unaided visual acuity in the early postoperative period following a successful trabeculectomy. These changes appear to stabilise at 3 months, and it would be prudent to defer the prescription of new glasses until this time. If sequential cataract surgery is to be performed, toric intraocular lenses can be a useful option for astigmatic correction.

  15. Assessment and statistics of surgically induced astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Naeser, Kristian

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the thesis was to develop methods for assessment of surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) in individual eyes, and in groups of eyes. The thesis is based on 12 peer-reviewed publications, published over a period of 16 years. In these publications older and contemporary literature was reviewed(1). A new method (the polar system) for analysis of SIA was developed. Multivariate statistical analysis of refractive data was described(2-4). Clinical validation studies were performed. The description of a cylinder surface with polar values and differential geometry was compared. The main results were: refractive data in the form of sphere, cylinder and axis may define an individual patient or data set, but are unsuited for mathematical and statistical analyses(1). The polar value system converts net astigmatisms to orthonormal components in dioptric space. A polar value is the difference in meridional power between two orthogonal meridians(5,6). Any pair of polar values, separated by an arch of 45 degrees, characterizes a net astigmatism completely(7). The two polar values represent the net curvital and net torsional power over the chosen meridian(8). The spherical component is described by the spherical equivalent power. Several clinical studies demonstrated the efficiency of multivariate statistical analysis of refractive data(4,9-11). Polar values and formal differential geometry describe astigmatic surfaces with similar concepts and mathematical functions(8). Other contemporary methods, such as Long's power matrix, Holladay's and Alpins' methods, Zernike(12) and Fourier analyses(8), are correlated to the polar value system. In conclusion, analysis of SIA should be performed with polar values or other contemporary component systems. The study was supported by Statens Sundhedsvidenskabeligt Forskningsråd, Cykelhandler P. Th. Rasmussen og Hustrus Mindelegat, Hotelejer Carl Larsen og Hustru Nicoline Larsens Mindelegat, Landsforeningen til Vaern om Synet

  16. The Limiting Effects of Astigmatism on Visual Performance through Periscopes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    NAVAL SUBMARINE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY SUBMARINE BASE, GROTON, CONN. , ; REPORT NUMBER 905 THE LIMITING EFFECTS OF ASTIGMATISM ...distribution unlimited THE LIMITING EFFECTS OF ASTIGMATISM ON VISUAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH PERISCOPES by S. M. Luria, J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. Schlichting...release; distribution unlimited PROBLEM To determine if the new peri: Navy standards for astigmatic peris« FINDINGS copes make it possible to relax

  17. On multisoliton solutions of the constant astigmatism equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlaváč, Adam

    2015-09-01

    We introduce an algebraic formula producing infinitely many exact solutions of the constant astigmatism equation {z}{yy}+{(1/z)}{xx}+2=0 from a given seed. A construction of corresponding surfaces of constant astigmatism is then a matter of routine. As a special case, we consider multisoliton solutions of the constant astigmatism equation defined as counterparts of famous multisoliton solutions of the sine-Gordon equation. A few particular examples are surveyed as well.

  18. Better detection of Demodex mites by Löffler's alkaline methylene blue staining in patients with blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, Katsuji

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether the Löffler's alkaline methylene blue staining method is better than no staining in detecting Demodex mites in the eyelashes of patients with blepharitis. Eyelashes were collected from 22 patients with blepharitis. The mean age of the patients was 82.5±6.2 years (± SD) with a range from 71 to 93 years. Eyelashes were epilated by forceps and placed individually on microscope slides. The number of Demodex mites was determined by conventional optical microscopy before and immediately after the addition of the methylene blue staining solution. The mean Demodex count before the addition of the methylene blue solution was 2.9±2.9, and it was 4.4±3.9 after the addition of the methylene blue solution ( P <0.01, Wilcoxon test). The methylene blue staining method is a simple and useful method in detecting the presence and quantifying the number of Demodex mites. We recommend the methylene blue staining method not only for the diagnosis of the presence of Demodex mites but also to evaluate the therapeutic effects of medications to eliminate the mite infestation.

  19. Better detection of Demodex mites by Löffler’s alkaline methylene blue staining in patients with blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Kiuchi, Katsuji

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether the Löffler’s alkaline methylene blue staining method is better than no staining in detecting Demodex mites in the eyelashes of patients with blepharitis. Materials and methods Eyelashes were collected from 22 patients with blepharitis. The mean age of the patients was 82.5±6.2 years (± SD) with a range from 71 to 93 years. Eyelashes were epilated by forceps and placed individually on microscope slides. The number of Demodex mites was determined by conventional optical microscopy before and immediately after the addition of the methylene blue staining solution. Results The mean Demodex count before the addition of the methylene blue solution was 2.9±2.9, and it was 4.4±3.9 after the addition of the methylene blue solution (P<0.01, Wilcoxon test). Conclusion The methylene blue staining method is a simple and useful method in detecting the presence and quantifying the number of Demodex mites. We recommend the methylene blue staining method not only for the diagnosis of the presence of Demodex mites but also to evaluate the therapeutic effects of medications to eliminate the mite infestation. PMID:29713140

  20. Can artificial tears prevent Acanthamoeba keratitis? An in vitro approach.

    PubMed

    Magnet, Angela; Gomes, Thiago Santos; Pardinas, Carmen; Garcia de Blas, Natalia; Sadaba, Cruz; Carrillo, Eugenia; Izquierdo, Fernando; Del Castillo, José Manuel Benítez; Hurtado, Carolina; Del Aguila, Carmen; Fenoy, Soledad

    2018-01-22

    The use of contact lenses has increased in recent years as has the incidence of Dry Eye Syndrome, partly due to their use. Artificial tears are the most common treatment option. Since these changes can facilitate Acanthamoeba infection, the present study has been designed to evaluate the effect of three artificial tears treatments in the viability of Acanthamoeba genotype T4 trophozoites. Optava Fusion™, Oculotect®, and Artelac® Splash were selected due to their formulation. Viability was assessed using two staining methods, Trypan Blue stain and CTC stain at different time intervals (2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 h). Trypan Blue viability was obtained by manual count with light microscopy while the CTC stain was determined using flow cytometry. Trypan Blue staining results demonstrated a decrease in viability for Optava Fusion™ and Artelac® Splash during the first 4 h of incubation. After, this effect seems to lose strength. In the case of Oculotect®, complete cell death was observed after 2 h. Using flow cytometry analysis, Optava Fusion™ and Oculotect® exhibited the same effect observed with Trypan Blue staining. However, Artelac® Splash revealed decreasing cell respiratory activity after four hours, with no damage to the cell membrane. The present study uses, for the first time, CTC stain analyzed by flow cytometry to establish Acanthamoeba viability demonstrating its usefulness and complementarity with the traditional stain, Trypan Blue. Artelac® Splash, with no preservatives, and Optava Fusion TM, with Purite®, have not shown any useful amoebicidal activity. On the contrary, promising results presented by Ocultect®, with BAK, open up a new possibility for Acanthamoeba keratitis prophylaxis and treatment although in vivo studies should be carried out.

  1. Development of a nomogram for femtosecond laser astigmatic keratotomy for astigmatism after keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    St Clair, Ryan M; Sharma, Anushree; Huang, David; Yu, Fei; Goldich, Yakov; Rootman, David; Yoo, Sonia; Cabot, Florence; Jun, Jason; Zhang, Lijun; Aldave, Anthony J

    2016-04-01

    To develop a nomogram for femtosecond laser astigmatic keratotomy (AK) to treat post-keratoplasty astigmatism. Three academic medical centers. Retrospective interventional case series. A review of post-keratoplasty femtosecond laser AK was performed. Uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities, manifest refraction, and keratometry were recorded preoperatively and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The location, length, depth, and diameter of the AK incisions were recorded, and the surgically induced astigmatic correction was related to these variables using regression analysis. One hundred forty femtosecond laser AK procedures were performed after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) (n = 129) or deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) (n =11), with 89 procedures (80 PKP, 9 DALK) included in the analysis. The mean CDVA improved from 20/59 (0.47 logMAR ± 0.38 [SD]) preoperatively to 20/45 (0.35 ± 0.31 logMAR) postoperatively (P = .013) (n = 46). The mean keratometric astigmatism decreased from 8.26 ± 2.90 diopters (D) preoperatively to 3.62 ± 2.59 D postoperatively (P < .0001) (n = 89). The mean refractive cylinder decreased from 6.77 ± 2.80 D preoperatively to 2.85 ± 2.57 D postoperatively (P < .0001) (n = 69). A nomogram for femtosecond laser AK to treat post-keratoplasty astigmatism was generated using regression analysis. Femtosecond laser AK significantly improved UDVA and CDVA and significantly reduced keratometric astigmatism and refractive cylinder after keratoplasty. The nomogram generated should improve the accuracy of post-keratoplasty femtosecond laser AK. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Scleral Shape and Its Correlations With Corneal Astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Consejo, Alejandra; Rozema, Jos J

    2018-03-06

    To assess the correlation between the scleral shape and corneal astigmatism. Twenty-two participants (11 nonastigmatic and 11 astigmatic) aged from 19 to 36 years and with no previous ocular surgeries were included in this study. Three-dimensional (3D) corneoscleral maps from both eyes (44 eyes) were acquired using a corneoscleral topographer (Eye Surface Profiler). Each 3D map was split into 13 concentric annuli, each 0.5-mm wide, starting at 1.0-mm radius from the corneal apex to the scleral periphery at 7.5 mm from the apex. Each ring was fitted to a quadratic function of the radial distance to the apex, to calculate the elevation difference between the raw data and the fitting surface ring. For each ring, the resulting elevation difference between the original and fit data profile was fit to a sum of sine function. Decentration and astigmatic terms obtained from the sinusoidal fit were analyzed and compared between nonastigmatic and astigmatic groups. In astigmatic eyes, corneal and scleral asymmetry are highly correlated, but both appear independent of each other in nonastigmatic eyes. No significant difference between astigmatic and nonastigmatic eyes was found for the decentration term [P > 0.05/N (Bonferroni)], whereas for the astigmatic component, the differences were statistically significant [P < 0.05/N (Bonferroni)]. Corneal and scleral shapes are correlated in astigmatic eyes, which suggests that astigmatism is not restricted to the cornea but should rather be considered a property of the entire eye globe.

  3. Relationship between central and peripheral corneal astigmatism in elderly patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamorita, Takushi; Shimizu, Kimiya; Hoshikawa, Rie; Kamiya, Kazutaka; Shoji, Nobuyuki

    2018-03-01

    Abstract Purpose We investigated the relationship between central and peripheral corneal astigmatism in elderly patients. Methods Seventy-six eyes of 76 elderly subjects (mean age = 72.6 ± 3.0 years) were included in the study. Corneal shape was evaluated using the Pentacam HR (Oculus, Wetzlark, Germany), which is comprised of a rotating Scheimpflug camera and a short-wavelength slit light. The power distribution map was selected and corneal astigmatism was calculated using front K-Readings in zones centered on the pupil. Analyzed zones were 2.0-6.0 mm in diameter. Results Corneal astigmatism decreased as diameter increased, similar to what was observed in eyes with with-the-rule astigmatism and against-the-rule astigmatism (ANOVA, p < 0.01). This effect was more pronounced in eyes with a large central corneal astigmatism (Spearman's rank-correlation coefficient test, r = 0.51, p < 0.01). There was no change as to axis of corneal astigmatism (ANOVA, p = 0.98). Conclusion These results suggest that the relationship between central and peripheral corneal astigmatism should be taken into consideration to optimize vision when astigmatic correction is needed.

  4. Acanthamoeba keratitis: current status and urgent research priorities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Anwar, Ayaz; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah

    2018-05-10

    First discovered in the early 1970s, Acanthamoeba keratitis has remained a major eye infection and presents a significant threat to the public health, especially in developing countries. The aim is to present a timely review of our current understanding of the advances made in this field in a comprehensible manner and includes novel concepts and provides clear directions for immediate research priorities. We undertook a search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature and also summarized our published results in this field. The present review focuses on novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in details which can provide access to management and treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. This coupled with the recently available genome sequence information together with high throughput genomics technology and innovative approaches should stimulate interest in the rational design of preventative and therapeutic measures. Current treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis is problematic and often leads to infection recurrence. Better understanding of diagnosis, pathogenesis, pathophysiology and therapeutic regimens, would lead to novel strategies in treatment and prophylaxis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. DNA Methylation of Gene Expression in Acanthamoeba castellanii Encystation.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Yeonchul; Lee, Hae-Ahm; Quan, Fu-Shi; Kong, Hyun-Hee

    2017-04-01

    Encystation mediating cyst specific cysteine proteinase (CSCP) of Acanthamoeba castellanii is expressed remarkably during encystation. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the regulation of CSCP gene expression remains unclear. In this study, we focused on epigenetic regulation of gene expression during encystation of Acanthamoeba . To evaluate methylation as a potential mechanism involved in the regulation of CSCP expression, we first investigated the correlation between promoter methylation status of CSCP gene and its expression. A 2,878 bp of promoter sequence of CSCP gene was amplified by PCR. Three CpG islands (island 1-3) were detected in this sequence using bioinformatics tools. Methylation of CpG island in trophozoites and cysts was measured by bisulfite sequence PCR. CSCP promoter methylation of CpG island 1 (1,633 bp) was found in 8.2% of trophozoites and 7.3% of cysts. Methylation of CpG island 2 (625 bp) was observed in 4.2% of trophozoites and 5.8% of cysts. Methylation of CpG island 3 (367 bp) in trophozoites and cysts was both 3.6%. These results suggest that DNA methylation system is present in CSCP gene expression of Acanthamoeba . In addition, the expression of encystation mediating CSCP is correlated with promoter CpG island 1 hypomethylation.

  6. Correcting lenticular astigmatism by reinstating the correct neuromuscular message.

    PubMed

    Yee, John William

    2013-07-01

    The spasm of the oblique muscles can contribute to lenticular astigmatism. The visual cortex interprets the tension of the oblique muscles as an eye that is in near focus mode. It overrides the response to the information generated by depth perception to bring a distant image into focus. Any excessive effort to bring it into focus will not be successful and continuing to make that effort can cause a misalignment in the tension of the rectus muscles. This in turn can directly induce corneal astigmatism and indirectly induce lenticular astigmatism. The astigmatic eye can still bring a near image into focus, but a distant image remains aberrant. The design of a special contact lens to treat lenticular astigmatism is similar to the design of a contact lens to treat corneal astigmatism by means of orthoculogy (or ortho C) as outlined in the paper Correcting Corneal Astigmatism by Reinstating the Correct Neuromuscular Message. The ortho C lens is worn for about two minutes to attend to the blur and distorted aspects of "simple myopic astigmatism". Both of these refractive errors are corrected simultaneously. Once the oblique muscles become "loose" due to a "contact lens draw", it triggers the visual cortex to reinstate the proper neuromotor message to stimulate the ciliary muscle (the muscle that controls the shape of the crystalline lens) to relax along a certain meridian-which in turn "flattens" the crystalline lens along that meridian to bring a blur and distorted image in the distance into focus. The correction only takes a few minutes because the ciliary muscle of an astigmatic eye was not compromised. The correction is not strictly due to an ortho C lens. Its design is the same for corneal astigmatism or lenticular astigmatism. The purpose of the design is to "loosen" the oblique muscles in a certain manner depending on the degree of astigmatism instead of a specific type of astigmatism. The visual cortex can discriminate whether to correct for corneal astigmatism

  7. Astigmatism in Monkeys with Experimentally Induced Myopia or Hyperopia

    PubMed Central

    KEE, CHEA-SU; HUNG, LI-FANG; QIAO-GRIDER, YING; RAMAMIRTHAM, RAMKUMAR; SMITH, EARL L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Astigmatism is the most common ametropia found in humans and is often associated with large spherical ametropias. However, little is known about the etiology of astigmatism or the reason(s) for the association between spherical and astigmatic refractive errors. This study examines the frequency and characteristics of astigmatism in infant monkeys that developed axial ametropias as a result of altered early visual experience. Methods Data were obtained from 112 rhesus monkeys that experienced a variety of lens-rearing regimens that were intended to alter the normal course of emmetropization. These visual manipulations included form deprivation (n = 13); optically imposed defocus (n = 48); and continuous ambient lighting with (n = 6) or without optically imposed defocus (n = 6). In addition, data from 19 control monkeys and 39 infants reared with an optically imposed astigmatism were used for comparison purposes. The lens-rearing period started at approximately 3 weeks of age and ended by 4 to 5 months of age. Refractive development for all monkeys was assessed periodically throughout the treatment and subsequent recovery periods by retinoscopy, keratometry, and A-scan ultrasonography. Results In contrast to control monkeys, the monkeys that had experimentally induced axial ametropias frequently developed significant amounts of astigmatism (mean refractive astigmatism = 0.37 ± 0.33 D [control] vs. 1.24 ± 0.81 D [treated]; two-sample t-test, p < 0.0001), especially when their eyes exhibited relative hyperopic shifts in refractive error. The astigmatism was corneal in origin (Pearson’s r; p < 0.001 for total astigmatism and the JO and J45 components), and the axes of the astigmatism were typically oblique and bilaterally mirror symmetric. Interestingly, the astigmatism was not permanent; the majority of the monkeys exhibited substantial reductions in the amount of astigmatism at or near the end of the lens-rearing procedures. Conclusions In infant monkeys

  8. Pseudolentogenic astigmatic effect of multifocal intraocular lenses: non-corneal ocular residual astigmatism (N-CORA) as a new parameter in astigmatic change analysis.

    PubMed

    Frings, Andreas; Steinberg, Johannes; Druchkiv, Vasyl; Linke, Stephan J; Katz, Toam

    2017-08-01

    This study was initiated to introduce the term non-corneal ocular residual astigmatism (N-CORA) as a new parameter in astigmatic change analysis after implantation of two different types of non-toric, multifocal intraocular lenses (MIOL). Seventy-two eyes from 72 consecutive patients after MIOL surgery were studied in terms of a retrospective, cross-sectional data analysis. Two types of spherical MIOL were used. Surgical technique in all patients was a 2.4-mm incision phacoemulsification, performed by one surgeon. To investigate the magnitude and axis of astigmatic changes, the true corneal astigmatism and Alpins vector method were applied. There were no statistically significant between-group differences related to the preoperative refraction or ocular residual astigmatism (ORA). After surgery, the mean refractive surgically induced astigmatism (RSIA) and the topographic SIA (TSIA) did not differ significantly between the lenses. The magnitude and orientation of ORA and N-CORA changed after surgery. There are no statistically significant differences in postoperative ORA in magnitude or axis when implanting different types of MIOL. The similarity of N-CORA between both MIOL types shows that both diffractive and refractive asymmetric MIOLs with plate haptics have the same pseudolentogenic astigmatic effect which could be presented in terms of the newly introduced parameter N-CORA.

  9. Higher Order Aberration and Astigmatism in Children with Hyperopic Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the changes in corneal higher-order aberration (HOA) during amblyopia treatment and the correlation between HOA and astigmatism in hyperopic amblyopia children. Methods In this retrospective study, a total of 72 eyes from 72 patients ranging in age from 38 to 161 months were included. Patients were divided into two groups based on the degree of astigmatism. Corneal HOA was measured using a KR-1W aberrometer at the initial visit and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Correlation analysis was performed to assess the association between HOA and astigmatism. Results A total of 72 patients were enrolled in this study, 37 of which were classified as belonging to the higher astigmatism group, while 35 were assigned to the lower astigmatism group. There was a statistically significant difference in success rate between the higher and lower astigmatism groups. In both groups, all corneal HOAs were significantly reduced during amblyopia treatment. When comparing the two groups, a significant difference in coma HOA at the 12-month follow-up was detected (p = 0.043). In the Pearson correlation test, coma HOA at the 12-month follow-up demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with astigmatism and a stronger correlation with astigmatism in the higher astigmatism group than in the lower astigmatism group (coefficient values, 0.383 and 0.284 as well as p = 0.021 and p = 0.038, respectively). Conclusions HOA, particularly coma HOA, correlated with astigmatism and could exert effects in cases involving hyperopic amblyopia. PMID:26865804

  10. Number of Bacteria and Time of Coincubation With Bacteria Required for the Development of Acanthamoeba Keratitis.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hayate; Hattori, Takaaki; Koike, Naohito; Ehara, Tomoko; Narimatsu, Akitomo; Kumakura, Shigeto; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Goto, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    We hypothesized that bacteria may be a factor contributing to the development of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). We investigated interactions between Acanthamoeba and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the development of keratitis in rabbit corneas. Acanthamoeba castellanii (ATCC50492) and P. aeruginosa (PAO-1) were used. Two densities of P. aeruginosa (high, 1 × 10/mL; low, 3 × 10/mL) and 2 durations of coincubation (long, 6 h; short, 2 h) of Acanthamoeba with 1 × 10/mL of P. aeruginosa were tested. Acanthamoeba alone or Acanthamoeba coincubated with P. aeruginosa was inoculated into rabbit corneas. After inoculation, levofloxacin (LVFX) eye drops were administered. The clinical score of the cornea was evaluated after inoculation. Acanthamoeba alone did not produce keratitis during a 5-day observation period. Rabbit corneas inoculated with Acanthamoeba coincubated with low-density P. aeruginosa followed by topical LVFX were clear with few infiltrates. Corneas inoculated with Acanthamoeba coincubated with high-density P. aeruginosa followed by LVFX treatment developed severe keratitis, and clinical scores were significantly higher compared with high-density P. aeruginosa alone followed by LVFX treatment (scores 7, 9.6, 8.5 vs. 3, 3.5, 3.25 on days 1-3, all P < 0.01). The long (6 h) coincubation time of Acanthamoeba with high-density P. aeruginosa resulted in more severe keratitis compared with short (2 h) coincubation (scores, 9.7, 12.7, 12.1, 9.8, 8.7 vs. 7, 9.6, 8.5, 6.9, 5.6 on days 1-5, all P < 0.01). These results suggest that the presence of bacteria is essential and a critical number of bacteria is required for the development of AK. The time of coexistence with bacteria may be an important determinant of the severity of AK.

  11. Beveled Femtosecond Laser Astigmatic Keratotomy for the Treatment of High Astigmatism Post–Penetrating Keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Catherine; Tang, Maolong; Ahmed, Habeeb; Fox, Martin; Huang, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To use beveled femtosecond laser astigmatic keratotomy (FLAK) incisions to treat high astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty. Methods Paired FLAK incisions at a bevel angle of 135 degrees, 65% to 75% depth, and arc lengths of 60 to 90 degrees were performed using a femtosecond laser. One case of perpendicular FLAK was presented for comparison. Vector analysis was used to calculate the changes in astigmatism. Fourier domain optical coherence tomography was used to examine incision morphology. Results Wound gaping requiring suturing was observed in the case of perpendicular FLAK. Six consecutive cases of beveled FLAK were analyzed. Fourier domain optical coherence tomography showed that beveled FLAK caused a mean forward shift of Bowman layer anterior to the incisions of 126 ± 38 μm, with no wound gaping. The mean magnitude of preoperative keratometric astigmatism was 9.8 ± 2.9 diopters (D), and postoperatively it was 4.5 ± 3.2 D (P < 0.05). Uncorrected visual acuity improved from 1.24 ± 0.13 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution preoperatively to 0.76 ± 0.38 postoperatively (P < 0.05). Best spectacle–corrected visual acuity improved from 0.43 ± 0.33 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution preoperatively to 0.27 ± 0.24 postoperatively (P = 0.22). Visual results were reduced in 2 patients by cataract progression. Between 1 and 3 months after beveled FLAK, the keratometric cylinder was stable (<1 D change) in 5 of 6 patients, and regressed in 1 patient. No complications occurred. Conclusions Beveled FLAK incisions at varied depth are effective in the management of postkeratoplasty astigmatism. Early postoperative changes stabilized within 1 month in most patients. Further studies are needed to assess long-term outcomes. PMID:22968362

  12. Toric intraocular lens implantation versus astigmatic keratotomy to correct astigmatism during phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Titiyal, Jeewan S; Khatik, Mukesh; Sharma, Namrata; Sehra, Sri Vatsa; Maharana, Parfulla K; Ghatak, Urmimala; Agarwal, Tushar; Khokhar, Sudarshan; Chawla, Bhavana

    2014-05-01

    To compare toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and astigmatic keratotomy (AK) in correction of astigmatism during phacoemulsification. Tertiary care hospital. Prospective randomized trial. Consecutive patients with visually significant cataract and moderate astigmatism (1.25 to 3.00 diopters [D]) were randomized into 2 groups. Temporal clear corneal 2.75 mm phacoemulsification with toric IOL implantation was performed in the toric IOL group and with 30-degree coupled AK at the 7.0 mm optic zone in the keratotomy group. The uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities, refraction, keratometry, topography, central corneal thickness, and endothelial cell density were evaluated preoperatively and 1 day, 1 week, and 1 and 3 months postoperatively. The study enrolled 34 eyes (34 patients), 17 in each group. There was no difference in UDVA or CDVA between the 2 groups at any follow-up visit. The mean preoperative and postoperative refractive cylinder was 2.00 D ± 0.49 (SD) and 0.33 ± 0.17 D, respectively, in the toric IOL group and 1.95 ± 0.47 D and 0.57 ± 0.41 D, respectively, in the keratotomy group (P=.10). The mean residual astigmatism at 3 months was 0.44 ± 1.89 @ 160 in the toric IOL group and 0.77 ± 1.92 @ 174 in the keratotomy group (P=.61). All eyes in the toric IOL group and 14 eyes (84%) in the keratotomy group achieved a residual refractive cylinder of 1.00 D or less (P=.17). Toric IOL implantation was comparable to AK in eyes with moderate astigmatism having phacoemulsification. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Polarization-based compensation of astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Dola Roy; Bhattacharya, Kallol; Chakraborty, Ajay K; Ghosh, Raja

    2004-02-01

    One approach to aberration compensation of an imaging system is to introduce a suitable phase mask at the aperture plane of an imaging system. We utilize this principle for the compensation of astigmatism. A suitable polarization mask used on the aperture plane together with a polarizer-retarder combination at the input of the imaging system provides the compensating polarization-induced phase steps at different quadrants of the apertures masked by different polarizers. The aberrant phase can be considerably compensated by the proper choice of a polarization mask and suitable selection of the polarization parameters involved. The results presented here bear out our theoretical expectation.

  14. Astigmatic Herriott cell for optical refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gragossian, Aram; Meng, Junwei; Ghasemkhani, Mohammadreza; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2017-01-01

    Cooling rare-earth-doped crystals to the lowest temperature possible requires enhanced resonant absorption and high-purity crystals. Since resonant absorption decreases as the crystal is cooled, the only path forward is to increase the number of roundtrips that the laser makes inside the crystal. To achieve even lower temperatures than previously reported, we have employed an astigmatic Herriott cell to improve laser absorption at low temperatures. Preliminary results indicate improvement over previous designs. This cavity potentially enables us to use unpolarized high-power fiber lasers, and to achieve much higher cooling power for practical applications.

  15. Intracavity adaptive optics. 1: Astigmatism correction performance.

    PubMed

    Spinhirne, J M; Anafi, D; Freeman, R H; Garcia, H R

    1981-03-15

    A detailed experimental study has been conducted on adaptive optical control methodologies inside a laser resonator. A comparison is presented of several optimization techniques using a multidither zonal coherent optical adaptive technique system within a laser resonator for the correction of astigmatism. A dramatic performance difference is observed when optimizing on beam quality compared with optimizing on power-in-the-bucket. Experimental data are also presented on proper selection criteria for dither frequencies when controlling phase front errors. The effects of hardware limitations and design considerations on the performance of the system are presented, and general conclusions and physical interpretations on the results are made when possible.

  16. Corneal and lenticular components of total astigmatism in a preschool sample.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Sunita; Bobier, William R

    2004-07-01

    To examine the contribution of corneal and lenticular components to total astigmatism in preschool low and high astigmats to determine whether there was any compensation for high astigmatism by the lenticular component. Cycloplegic refractive and keratometric measures using the Retinomax K-Plus (Nikon Inc., Melville, NY) were conducted on 129 children (mean age, 51.1 +/- 8.4 mo) in Oxford County, Canada. We divided the sample into high astigmats (total cylinder > or =1 D; mean, 1.38 +/- 0.43 D; n = 29) and normal astigmats (total cylinder < or =0.75 D; mean, 0.22 +/- 0.20 D; n = 100). Measures of total and corneal cylinder were transposed into J0 and J45 components, where positive and negative J0 values quantified with-the-rule (WTR) and against-the-rule astigmatisms, respectively, and J45 quantified oblique astigmatism. WTR astigmatism was dominant in both the high and normal astigmatic group. J0 and J45 components of corneal astigmatism were highly correlated with total astigmatism in high astigmats, whereas only J0 was significantly correlated with total astigmatism in normal astigmats. Although the magnitude of total and corneal cylinder was significantly greater in high astigmats, overall lenticular cylinder was similar in both groups. However, the Fourier transforms showed high astigmats to have significantly lower lenticular J0 and higher lenticular J45 than the normal astigmats. Astigmatism in 3- to 5-year-old children is primarily corneal. In preschool children, the lens does not vary in response to high amounts of corneal WTR astigmatism, and in fact, it increases the oblique astigmatism component when the corneal component is high. In high astigmats, lenticular astigmatism contributes to both J0 and J45 components, whereas the corneal contribution is primarily J0.

  17. Scintillation of astigmatic dark hollow beams in weak atmospheric turbulence.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yangjian; Eyyuboğlu, Halil T; Baykal, Yahya

    2008-07-01

    The scintillation properties of astigmatic dark hollow beams (DHBs) in weak atmospheric turbulence were investigated in detail. An explicit expression for the on-axis scintillation index of an astigmatic DHB propagating in weak atmospheric turbulence was derived. It was found that the scintillation index value of an astigmatic DHB with suitable astigmatism (i.e., ratio of the beam waist size in the x direction to that in the y direction), dark size, beam waist size, and wavelength can be smaller than that of a stigmatic DHB and that of stigmatic and astigmatic flat-topped, annular, and Gaussian beams in weak atmospheric turbulence particularly at long propagation ranges. Our results will be useful in long-distance free-space optical communications.

  18. Accommodation in Astigmatic Children During Visual Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Erin M.; Miller, Joseph M.; Apple, Howard P.; Parashar, Pavan; Twelker, J. Daniel; Crescioni, Mabel; Davis, Amy L.; Leonard-Green, Tina K.; Campus, Irene; Sherrill, Duane L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the accuracy and stability of accommodation in uncorrected children during visual task performance. Methods. Subjects were second- to seventh-grade children from a highly astigmatic population. Measurements of noncycloplegic right eye spherical equivalent (Mnc) were obtained while uncorrected subjects performed three visual tasks at near (40 cm) and distance (2 m). Tasks included reading sentences with stimulus letter size near acuity threshold and an age-appropriate letter size (high task demands) and viewing a video (low task demand). Repeated measures ANOVA assessed the influence of astigmatism, task demand, and accommodative demand on accuracy (mean Mnc) and variability (mean SD of Mnc) of accommodation. Results. For near and distance analyses, respectively, sample size was 321 and 247, mean age was 10.37 (SD 1.77) and 10.30 (SD 1.74) years, mean cycloplegic M was 0.48 (SD 1.10) and 0.79 diopters (D) (SD 1.00), and mean astigmatism was 0.99 (SD 1.15) and 0.75 D (SD 0.96). Poor accommodative accuracy was associated with high astigmatism, low task demand (video viewing), and high accommodative demand. The negative effect of accommodative demand on accuracy increased with increasing astigmatism, with the poorest accommodative accuracy observed in high astigmats (≥3.00 D) with high accommodative demand/high hyperopia (1.53 D and 2.05 D of underaccommodation for near and distant stimuli, respectively). Accommodative variability was greatest in high astigmats and was uniformly high across task condition. No/low and moderate astigmats showed higher variability for the video task than the reading tasks. Conclusions. Accuracy of accommodation is reduced in uncorrected children with high astigmatism and high accommodative demand/high hyperopia, but improves with increased visual task demand (reading). High astigmats showed the greatest variability in accommodation. PMID:25103265

  19. Lack of oblique astigmatism in the chicken eye.

    PubMed

    Maier, Felix M; Howland, Howard C; Ohlendorf, Arne; Wahl, Siegfried; Schaeffel, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Primate eyes display considerable oblique off-axis astigmatism which could provide information on the sign of defocus that is needed for emmetropization. The pattern of peripheral astigmatism is not known in the chicken eye, a common model of myopia. Peripheral astigmatism was mapped out over the horizontal visual field in three chickens, 43 days old, and in three near emmetropic human subjects, average age 34.7years, using infrared photoretinoscopy. There were no differences in astigmatism between humans and chickens in the central visual field (chicks -0.35D, humans -0.65D, n.s.) but large differences in the periphery (i.e. astigmatism at 40° in the temporal visual field: humans -4.21D, chicks -0.63D, p<0.001, unpaired t-test). The lack of peripheral astigmatism in chicks was not due to differences in corneal shape. Perhaps related to their superior peripheral optics, we found that chickens had excellent visual performance also in the far periphery. Using an automated optokinetic nystagmus paradigm, no difference was observed in spatial visual performance with vision restricted to either the central 67° of the visual field or to the periphery beyond 67°. Accommodation was elicited by stimuli presented far out in the visual field. Transscleral images of single infrared LEDs showed no sign of peripheral astigmatism. The chick may be the first terrestrial vertebrate described to lack oblique astigmatism. Since corneal shape cannot account for the difference in astigmatism in humans and chicks, it must trace back to the design of the crystalline lens. The lack of peripheral astigmatism in chicks also excludes a role in emmetropization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genotypic, physiological, and biochemical characterization of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba isolated from the environment in Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Tawfeek, Gihan Mostafa; Bishara, Sawsan Abdel-Hamid; Sarhan, Rania Mohammad; ElShabrawi Taher, Eman; ElSaady Khayyal, Amira

    2016-05-01

    Acanthamoebae are the most common opportunistic amphizoic protozoa that cause life-threatening granulomatous amoebic encephalitis in immunocompromised individuals and sight-threatening amoebic keratitis (AK) in contact lens wearers. The present work aimed to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba isolates in different environmental sources: water, soil, and dust in Cairo, Egypt and to characterize the pathogenic potential of the isolated Acanthamoeba using physiological and biochemical assays as well as determination of the genotypes in an attempt to correlate pathogenicity with certain genotypes. The study included the collection of 22 corneal scrapings from patients complaining of symptoms and signs indicative of acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and 75 environmental samples followed by cultivation on non-nutrient agar plates preseeded with E. coli. Positive samples for Acanthamoeba were subjected to osmo- and thermo-tolerance assays and zymography analysis. Potentially pathogenic isolates were subjected to PCR amplification using genus-specific primer pair. Isolates were classified at the genotype level based on the sequence analysis of Acanthamoeba 18S rRNA gene (diagnostic fragment 3). The total detection rate for Acanthamoeba in environmental samples was 33.3 %, 31.4 % in water, 40 % in soil, and 20 % in dust samples. Three and two Acanthamoeba isolates from water and soil sources, respectively, had the potential for pathogenicity as they exhibited full range of pathogenic traits. Other 12 isolates were designated as weak potential pathogens. Only ten of the environmental isolates were positive in PCR and were classified by genotype analysis into T4 genotype (70 %), T3 (10 %) and T5 (20 %). Potential pathogens belonged to genotypes T4 (from water) and T5 (from soil) while weak potential pathogens belonged to genotypes T3 (from water) and T4 (from water and soil). Additionally, T7 genotype was isolated from keratitis patients. There is a considerable

  1. Astigmatism induced by conventional spherical ablation after PRK and LASIK in myopia with astigmatism < 1.00 D

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Steven M; Mifflin, Mark D; Edmonds, Jason N; Simpson, Rachel G; Moshirfar, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate surgically-induced astigmatism after spherical ablation in photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia with astigmatism < 1.00 D. Methods The charts of patients undergoing spherical PRK or LASIK for the correction of myopia with minimal astigmatism of <1.00 D from 2002 to 2012 at the John A Moran Eye Center in Salt Lake City, UT, were retrospectively reviewed. Astigmatism was measured by manifest refraction. The final astigmatic refractive outcome at 6 months postoperatively was compared with the initial refraction by Alpins vector analysis. Results For PRK, average cylinder increased from 0.39 ± 0.25 (0.00–0.75) preoperatively to 0.55 ± 0.48 (0.00–1.75) postoperatively (P = 0.014), compared with an increase in LASIK eyes from 0.40 ± 0.27 (0.00–0.75) preoperatively to 0.52 ± 0.45 (0.00–2.00) postoperatively (P = 0.041). PRK eyes experienced an absolute value change in cylinder of 0.41 ± 0.32 (0.00–1.50) and LASIK eyes experienced a change of 0.41 ± 0.31 (0.00–1.50, P = 0.955). Mean surgically-induced astigmatism was 0.59 ± 0.35 (0.00–1.70) in PRK eyes, with an increase in surgically-induced astigmatism of 0.44 D for each additional 1.00 D of preoperative cylinder; in LASIK eyes, mean surgically-induced astigmatism was 0.55 ± 0.32 (0.00–1.80, P = 0.482), with an increase in surgically-induced astigmatism of 0.29 D for each 1.00 D of preoperative cylinder. Conclusion Spherical ablation can induce substantial astigmatism even in eyes with less than one diopter of preoperative astigmatism in both PRK and LASIK. No significant difference in the magnitude of surgically-induced astigmatism was found between eyes treated with PRK and LASIK, although surgically-induced astigmatism was found to increase with greater levels of preoperative astigmatism in both PRK and LASIK. PMID:23277735

  2. Astigmatism induced by conventional spherical ablation after PRK and LASIK in myopia with astigmatism < 1.00 D.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Steven M; Mifflin, Mark D; Edmonds, Jason N; Simpson, Rachel G; Moshirfar, Majid

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate surgically-induced astigmatism after spherical ablation in photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia with astigmatism < 1.00 D. The charts of patients undergoing spherical PRK or LASIK for the correction of myopia with minimal astigmatism of <1.00 D from 2002 to 2012 at the John A Moran Eye Center in Salt Lake City, UT, were retrospectively reviewed. Astigmatism was measured by manifest refraction. The final astigmatic refractive outcome at 6 months postoperatively was compared with the initial refraction by Alpins vector analysis. For PRK, average cylinder increased from 0.39 ± 0.25 (0.00-0.75) preoperatively to 0.55 ± 0.48 (0.00-1.75) postoperatively (P = 0.014), compared with an increase in LASIK eyes from 0.40 ± 0.27 (0.00-0.75) preoperatively to 0.52 ± 0.45 (0.00-2.00) postoperatively (P = 0.041). PRK eyes experienced an absolute value change in cylinder of 0.41 ± 0.32 (0.00-1.50) and LASIK eyes experienced a change of 0.41 ± 0.31 (0.00-1.50, P = 0.955). Mean surgically-induced astigmatism was 0.59 ± 0.35 (0.00-1.70) in PRK eyes, with an increase in surgically-induced astigmatism of 0.44 D for each additional 1.00 D of preoperative cylinder; in LASIK eyes, mean surgically-induced astigmatism was 0.55 ± 0.32 (0.00-1.80, P = 0.482), with an increase in surgically-induced astigmatism of 0.29 D for each 1.00 D of preoperative cylinder. Spherical ablation can induce substantial astigmatism even in eyes with less than one diopter of preoperative astigmatism in both PRK and LASIK. No significant difference in the magnitude of surgically-induced astigmatism was found between eyes treated with PRK and LASIK, although surgically-induced astigmatism was found to increase with greater levels of preoperative astigmatism in both PRK and LASIK.

  3. Randomised masked trial of the clinical safety and tolerability of MGO Manuka Honey eye cream for the management of blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Jennifer P; Wang, Michael T M; Ganesalingam, Kalaivarny; Rupenthal, Ilva D; Swift, Simon; Loh, Chee Seang; Te Weehi, Leah; Cheung, Isabella M Y; Watters, Grant A

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical safety and tolerability of a novel MGO Manuka Honey microemulsion (MHME) eye cream for the management of blepharitis in human subjects. Methods and analysis Twenty-five healthy subjects were enrolled in a prospective, randomised, paired-eye, investigator-masked trial. The MHME eye cream (Manuka Health New Zealand) was applied to the closed eyelids of one eye (randomised) overnight for 2 weeks. LogMAR visual acuity, eyelid irritation symptoms, ocular surface characteristics and tear film parameters were assessed at baseline, day 7 and day 14. Expression of markers of ocular surface inflammation (matrix metalloproteinase-9 and interleukin-6) and goblet cell function (MUC5AC) were quantified using impression cytology at baseline and day 14. Results There were no significant changes in visual acuity, eyelid irritation symptoms, ocular surface characteristics, tear film parameters and inflammatory marker expression during the 2-week treatment period in treated and control eyes (all p>0.05), and measurements did not differ significantly between eyes (all p>0.05). No major adverse events were reported. Two subjects experienced transient ocular stinging, presumably due to migration of the product into the eye, which resolved following aqueous irrigation. Conclusion The MHME eye cream application was found to be well tolerated in healthy human subjects and was not associated with changes in visual acuity, ocular surface characteristics, tear film parameters, expression of markers of inflammation or goblet cell function. The findings support future clinical efficacy trials in patients with blepharitis. Trial registration number ACTRN12616000540415 PMID:29354710

  4. Acanthamoeba castellanii interactions with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Yee Ong, Timothy Yu; Jung, Suk Yul; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Among the genus Streptococcus, S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae are the major causes of pharyngitis, impetigo, pneumonia and meningitis in humans. Streptococcus spp. are facultative anaerobes that are nutritionally fastidious, yet survive in the environment and target the predisposed population. Antibacterial disinfectants have been partially effective only, indicating the need for novel preventative measures and to understand mechanisms of bacterial resistance. Acanthamoeba is a free-living protist that is known to harbour microbial pathogens, provide shelter, and assist in their transmission to susceptible population. The overall aim of this study was to determine whether S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae can interact with A. castellanii by associating, invading, and surviving inside trophozoites and cysts. It was observed that both S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae were able to associate as well as invade and/or taken up by the phagocytic A. castellanii trophozoite. Notably, S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae survived the encystation process, avoided phagocytosis, multiplied, and exhibited higher recovery from the mature cysts, compared with the trophozoite stage (approximately 2 bacteria per amoebae ratio for cyst stage versus 0.02 bacteria per amoeba ration for trophozoite stage). As Acanthamoeba cysts are resilient and can disperse through the air, A. castellanii can act as a vector in providing shelter, facilitating growth and possibly genetic exchanges. In addition, these interactions may contribute to S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae survival in harsh environments, and transmission to susceptible population and possibly affecting their virulence. Future studies will determine the molecular mechanisms associated with Acanthamoeba interactions with Streptococcus and the evolution of pathogenic bacteria and in turn expedite the discovery of novel therapeutic and/or preventative measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulated astigmatism impairs academic-related performance in children.

    PubMed

    Narayanasamy, Sumithira; Vincent, Stephen J; Sampson, Geoff P; Wood, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Astigmatism is an important refractive condition in children. However, the functional impact of uncorrected astigmatism in this population is not well established, particularly with regard to academic performance. This study investigated the impact of simulated bilateral astigmatism on academic-related tasks before and after sustained near work in children. Twenty visually normal children (mean age: 10.8 ± 0.7 years; six males and 14 females) completed a range of standardised academic-related tests with and without 1.50 D of simulated bilateral astigmatism (with both academic-related tests and the visual condition administered in a randomised order). The simulated astigmatism was induced using a positive cylindrical lens while maintaining a plano spherical equivalent. Performance was assessed before and after 20 min of sustained near work, during two separate testing sessions. Academic-related measures included a standardised reading test (the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability), visual information processing tests (Coding and Symbol Search subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) and a reading-related eye movement test (the Developmental Eye Movement test). Each participant was systematically assigned either with-the-rule (WTR, axis 180°) or against-the-rule (ATR, axis 90°) simulated astigmatism to evaluate the influence of axis orientation on any decrements in performance. Reading, visual information processing and reading-related eye movement performance were all significantly impaired by both simulated bilateral astigmatism (p < 0.001) and sustained near work (p < 0.001), however, there was no significant interaction between these factors (p > 0.05). Simulated astigmatism led to a reduction of between 5% and 12% in performance across the academic-related outcome measures, but there was no significant effect of the axis (WTR or ATR) of astigmatism (p > 0.05). Simulated bilateral astigmatism impaired children's performance on a

  6. Acanthamoeba on Sabouraud's agar from a patient with keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Baradkar, Vasant; Samal, Badhuli; Mali, Swapna A; Kulkarni, Ketaki; Shastri, Jayanthi

    2011-01-01

    A 25-year-old transgender patient came with complaints of watery discharge, red eye and photophobia in the left eye since 2 days. The patient had a history of wearing colored contact lenses since 4 years and cleaning the lens with tap water. Culture of lenses on Mac Conkey and blood agar yielded Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sabouroud's agar showed yeast cells and double-walled cysts of Acanthamoeba species. On further incubation of Sabouroud's agar, the cysts transformed to trophozoites. Parallel results were obtained on tap water agar. The previous therapy of moxifloxacin was changed to local Neosporin application. PMID:23508061

  7. ACANTHAMOEBA SP.S-11 PHAGOCYTOTIC ACTIVITY ON MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE IN DIFFERENT NUTRIENT CONDITIONS.

    PubMed

    Paling, Sepling; Wahyuni, Ratna; Ni'matuzahroh; Winarni, Dwi; Iswahyudi; Astari, Linda; Adriaty, Dinar; Agusni, Indropo; Izumi, Shinzo

    2018-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae ( M. leprae ) is a pathogenic bacterium that causes leprosy. The presence of M. leprae in the environment is supported by microorganisms that act as the new host for M. leprae . Acanthamoeba 's potential to be a host of M. leprae in the environment. Acanthamoeba sp. is Free Living Amoeba (FLA) that classified as holozoic, saprophytic, and saprozoic. The existence of nutrients in the environment influence Acanthamoeba ability to phagocytosis or pinocytosis. This study is aimed to determine Acanthamoeba sp.S-11 phagocytic activity to Mycobacterium leprae ( M. leprae ) which cultured in non-nutrient media and riched-nutrient media. This research conducted by culturing Acanthamoeba sp.S-11 and M. leprae on different nutrient media conditions. M. leprae intracellular DNA were isolated and amplified by M. leprae specific primers through Real Time PCR (Q-PCR). The results showed that Acanthamoeba co-cultured on non-nutrient media were more active to phagocyte M. leprae than on rich-nutrient media. The use of non-nutrient media is recommended to optimize Acanthamoeba sp. phagocytic activity to M. leprae .

  8. The capsule plays an important role in Escherichia coli K1 interactions with Acanthamoeba.

    PubMed

    Jung, Suk-Yul; Matin, Abdul; Kim, Kwang Sik; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2007-03-01

    Escherichia coli K1 is shown to bind to, associate with, invade and survive inside Acanthamoeba, but the precise mechanisms associated with these events are unclear. We have previously shown that outer membrane protein A and lipopolysaccharide are critical bacterial determinants involved in E. coli K1 interactions with Acanthamoeba. Using an isogenic K1 capsule-deletion mutant (lacking the neuDB genes cluster that is necessary for the production of cytoplasmic precursors to the exopolysaccharide capsule), we observed that the capsule modulates and enhances E. coli K1 association and survival inside Acanthamoeba. The capsule-deletion mutant exhibited significantly reduced association compared with the wild type strain, E44. Similarly, the K1 capsule-deletion mutant exhibited limited ability for invasion/uptake by and survival inside Acanthamoeba. Next, we determined whether E. coli K1 survive inside Acanthamoeba during the encystment process and that viable bacteria can be isolated from the mature cysts. Using encystment assays, our findings revealed that E. coli K1, but not its capsule-deletion mutant, exhibit survival inside Acanthamoeba cysts. We believe this is the first demonstration that the K1 capsule plays an important role in E. coli K1 interactions with Acanthamoeba.

  9. Acanthamoeba spp. in Contact Lenses from Healthy Individuals from Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Thiago Dos Santos; Magnet, Angela; Izquierdo, Fernando; Vaccaro, Lucianna; Redondo, Fernando; Bueno, Sara; Sánchez, Maria Luisa; Angulo, Santiago; Fenoy, Soledad; Hurtado, Carolina; Del Aguila, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a painful and potentially blinding corneal infection caused by Acanthamoeba spp. In Madrid, environmental studies have demonstrated a high presence of these free-living amoebae in tap water. Since most of AK cases occur in contact lenses (CL) wearers with inadequate hygiene habits, the presence of Acanthamoeba in discarded CL has been studied and compared with other common etiological agents of keratitis, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. One hundred and seventy-seven healthy individuals from Madrid contributed their discarded CL and answered a questionnaire on hygiene habits. DNA was extracted from the CL solution and analyzed by real-time PCR for Acanthamoeba, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. These CL and their solutions were also cultured on non-nutrient agar to isolate Acanthamoeba. Among the 177 samples, Acanthamoeba DNA was detected in 87 (49.2%), P. aeruginosa DNA in 14 (7.9%) and S. aureus DNA in 19 (10.7%). Cultivable amoebae, however, were observed in only one sample (0.6%). This isolate was genotyped as T4. The habits reported by this CL owner included some recognized risk factors for AK, but in this study only the practice of "not cleaning the CL case" presented some statistical significant association with Acanthamoeba DNA presence. Detection of the investigated bacterial DNA did not demonstrate statistical significant association with the studied practices, but the presence of P. aeruginosa revealed a possible inhibition of Acanthamoeba in these samples. The PCR results suggest a high presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in healthy CL wearers from Madrid, but we can assume that CL solutions are properly disinfecting the CL since only 1.1% of the positive PCR samples correspond to viable amoebae and, after four years, only one participant reported stronger ocular problems. Nevertheless, more studies are necessary to corroborate this hypothesis.

  10. Defocus and magnification dependent variation of TEM image astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Yan, Rui; Li, Kunpeng; Jiang, Wen

    2018-01-10

    Daily alignment of the microscope is a prerequisite to reaching optimal lens conditions for high resolution imaging in cryo-EM. In this study, we have investigated how image astigmatism varies with the imaging conditions (e.g. defocus, magnification). We have found that the large change of defocus/magnification between visual correction of astigmatism and subsequent data collection tasks, or during data collection, will inevitably result in undesirable astigmatism in the final images. The dependence of astigmatism on the imaging conditions varies significantly from time to time, so that it cannot be reliably compensated by pre-calibration of the microscope. Based on these findings, we recommend that the same magnification and the median defocus of the intended defocus range for final data collection are used in the objective lens astigmatism correction task during microscope alignment and in the focus mode of the iterative low-dose imaging. It is also desirable to develop a fast, accurate method that can perform dynamic correction of the astigmatism for different intended defocuses during automated imaging. Our findings also suggest that the slope of astigmatism changes caused by varying defocuses can be used as a convenient measurement of objective lens rotation symmetry and potentially an acceptance test of new electron microscopes.

  11. Astigmatism and early academic readiness in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Orlansky, Gale; Wilmer, Jeremy; Taub, Marc B; Rutner, Daniella; Ciner, Elise; Gryczynski, Jan

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the relationship between uncorrected astigmatism and early academic readiness in at-risk preschool-aged children. A vision screening and academic records review were performed on 122 three- to five-year-old children enrolled in the Philadelphia Head Start program. Vision screening results were related to two measures of early academic readiness, the teacher-reported Work Sampling System (WSS) and the parent-reported Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). Both measures assess multiple developmental and skill domains thought to be related to academic readiness. Children with astigmatism (defined as >|-0.25| in either eye) were compared with children who had no astigmatism. Associations between astigmatism and specific subscales of the WSS and ASQ were examined using parametric and nonparametric bivariate statistics and regression analyses controlling for age and spherical refractive error. Presence of astigmatism was negatively associated with multiple domains of academic readiness. Children with astigmatism had significantly lower mean scores on Personal and Social Development, Language and Literacy, and Physical Development domains of the WSS, and on Personal/Social, Communication, and Fine Motor domains of the ASQ. These differences between children with astigmatism and children with no astigmatism persisted after statistically adjusting for age and magnitude of spherical refractive error. Nonparametric tests corroborated these findings for the Language and Literacy and Physical Health and Development domains of the WSS and the Communication domain of the ASQ. The presence of astigmatism detected in a screening setting was associated with a pattern of reduced academic readiness in multiple developmental and educational domains among at-risk preschool-aged children. This study may help to establish the role of early vision screenings, comprehensive vision examinations, and the need for refractive correction to improve academic success in

  12. Influence of different types of astigmatism on visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Remón, Laura; Monsoriu, Juan A; Furlan, Walter D

    To investigate the change in visual acuity (VA) produced by different types of astigmatism (on the basis of the refractive power and position of the principal meridians) on normal accommodating eyes. The lens induced method was employed to simulate a set of 28 astigmatic blur conditions on different healthy emmetropic eyes. Additionally, 24 values of spherical defocus were also simulated on the same eyes for comparison. VA was measured in each case and the results, expressed in logMAR units, were represented against of the modulus of the dioptric power vector (blur strength). LogMAR VA varies in a linear fashion with increasing astigmatic blur, being the slope of the line dependent on the accommodative demand in each type of astigmatism. However, in each case, we found no statistically significant differences between the three axes investigated (0°, 45°, 90°). Non-statistically significant differences were found either for the VA achieved with spherical myopic defocus (MD) and mixed astigmatism (MA). VA with simple hyperopic astigmatism (SHA) was higher than with simple myopic astigmatism (SMA), however, in this case non conclusive results were obtained in terms of statistical significance. The VA achieved with imposed compound hyperopic astigmatism (CHA) was highly influenced by the eye's accommodative response. VA is correlated with the blur strength in a different way for each type of astigmatism, depending on the accommodative demand. VA is better when one of the focal lines lie on the retina irrespective of the axis orientation; accommodation favors this situation. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. First time identification of Acanthamoeba genotypes in the cornea samples of wild birds; Is Acanthamoeba keratitis making the predatory birds a target?

    PubMed

    Karakavuk, Muhammet; Aykur, Mehmet; Şahar, Esra Atalay; Karakuş, Mehmet; Aldemir, Duygu; Döndüren, Ömer; Özdemir, Hüseyin Gökhan; Can, Hüseyin; Gürüz, Adnan Yüksel; Dağcı, Hande; Döşkaya, Mert

    2017-12-01

    Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba which can be isolated from environment and among others well known as an opportunist protozoan parasite causing infections in humans and animals. Eyes are extremely important for the wild birds and losing sight ability due to Acanthamoeba can be dangerous. The studies on Acanthamoeba infection in wild birds is very few in world and Turkey therefore we aimed to screen deceased wild birds found in İzmir and Manisa provinces located in western Turkey using PCR and non-nutrition agar (NNA) plate method. Cornea samples were obtained from 18 deceased wild birds. During the external examination, signs of keratitis were observed in two Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus). All of the corneal samples were analyzed by two PCR methods and NNA plate. According to results, the Acanthamoeba positivity in corneal samples was 16.6% and 5.5% by PCR and plate method, respectively. According to sequencing data, two of isolates belonged to genotype T5 and one was genotype T4. In conclusion, Acanthamoeba infection was detected in wild bird cornea samples with/without keratitis for the first time in the world. The result of this study also show that Acanthamoeba can be a cause of keratitis in wild birds of Turkey and thus these predator birds can be a target of other wild animals due to loss of sight ability. In terms of public health, these results show the importance of wild birds as a source of Acanthamoeba infection in nature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inheritance of astigmatism: evidence for a major autosomal dominant locus.

    PubMed Central

    Clementi, M; Angi, M; Forabosco, P; Di Gianantonio, E; Tenconi, R

    1998-01-01

    Although astigmatism is a frequent refractive error, its mode of inheritance remains uncertain. Complex segregation analysis was performed, by the POINTER and COMDS programs, with data from a geographically well-defined sample of 125 nuclear families of individuals affected by astigmatism. POINTER could not distinguish between alternative genetic models, and only the hypothesis of no familial transmission could be rejected. After inclusion of the severity parameter, COMDS results defined a genetic model for corneal astigmatism and provided evidence for single-major-locus inheritance. These results suggest that genetic linkage studies could be implemented and that they should be limited to multiplex families with severely affected individuals. PMID:9718344

  15. Transformation of the optical vortex dipole by an astigmatic lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hongwei; Lü, Baida

    2009-06-01

    The transformation of the optical vortex dipole (OVD) by an astigmatic lens is studied. The explicit propagation expression of the OVD nested in a Gaussian beam is derived and used to analytically determine the position of the OVD after the passage through the astigmatic lens. The transformation by an aberration-free lens is treated as a special case. It is shown that, depending on the propagation distance, waist width, off-axis distance and astigmatic coefficient, the motion, annihilation and revival of the OVD and the inversion of the topological charge may take place. Specifically, the creation of two OVDs may appear under certain conditions. The results are illustrated by numerical examples.

  16. Risk factors for astigmatism in the Vision in Preschoolers Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiayan; Maguire, Maureen G; Ciner, Elise; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Cyert, Lynn A; Quinn, Graham E; Orel-Bixler, Deborah; Moore, Bruce; Ying, Gui-Shuang

    2014-05-01

    To determine demographic and refractive risk factors for astigmatism in the Vision in Preschoolers Study. Three- to 5-year-old Head Start preschoolers (N = 4040) from five clinical centers underwent comprehensive eye examinations by study-certified optometrists and ophthalmologists, including monocular visual acuity testing, cover testing, and cycloplegic retinoscopy. Astigmatism was defined as the presence of greater than or equal to +1.5 diopters (D) cylinder in either eye, measured with cycloplegic refraction. The associations of risk factors with astigmatism were evaluated using the odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) from logistic regression models. Among 4040 Vision in Preschoolers Study participants overrepresenting children with vision disorders, 687 (17%) had astigmatism, and most (83.8%) had with-the-rule astigmatism. In multivariate analyses, African American (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.24), Hispanic (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.62 to 3.12), and Asian (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.93) children were more likely to have astigmatism than non-Hispanic white children, whereas American Indian children were less likely to have astigmatism than Hispanic, African American, and Asian children (p < 0.0001). Refractive error was associated with astigmatism in a nonlinear manner, with an OR of 4.50 (95% CI, 3.00 to 6.76) for myopia (≤-1.0 D in spherical equivalent) and 1.55 (95% CI, 1.29 to 1.86) for hyperopia (≥+2.0 D) when compared with children without refractive error (>-1.0 D, <+2.0 D). There was a trend of an increasing percentage of astigmatism among older children (linear trend p = 0.06). The analysis for risk factors of with-the-rule astigmatism provided similar results. Among Head Start preschoolers, Hispanic, African American, and Asian race as well as myopic and hyperopic refractive error were associated with an increased risk of astigmatism, consistent with findings from the population-based Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study and the

  17. Detection of glycoproteins in the Acanthamoeba plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Paatero, G.I.L.; Gahmberg, C.G.

    1988-11-01

    In the present study the authors have shown that glycoproteins are present in the plasma membrane of Acanthamoeba castellanii by utilizing different radioactive labeling techniques. Plasma membrane proteins in the amoeba were iodinated by {sup 125}I-lactoperoxidase labeling and the solubilized radiolabeled glycoproteins were separated by lectin-Sepharose affinity chromatography followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The periodate/NaB{sup 3}H{sub 4} and galactose oxidase/NaB{sup 3}H{sub 4} labeling techniques were used for labeling of surface carbohydrates in the amoeba. Several surface-labeled glycoproteins were observed in addition to a diffusely labeled region with M{sub r} of 55,000-75,000 seen on electrophoresis, which could represent glycolipids. The presencemore » of glycoproteins in the plasma membrane of Acanthamoeba castellanii was confirmed by metabolic labeling with ({sup 35}S)methionine followed by lectin-Sepharose affinity chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.« less

  18. Essential oil composition and anti Acanthamoeba studies of Teucrium ramosissimum.

    PubMed

    Ghazouani, Nessrine; Sifaoui, Ines; Bachrouch, Olfa; Abderrabba, Manef; E Pinero, José; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of T. ramosissimum by hydrodistillation and to investigate their anti-Acanthamoeba activity. Identification and quantification were realized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection by (GC-FID). Sixty-eight compounds representing 97.78% of the essential oil were identified, of which δ-cadinene (18.63%), δ-cadinol (18.70%), β-eudesmol (12.13%), γ-gurjunene (4.34%) and 8-cedrene (3.99%) were the main compounds. This essential oil contained a complex mixture consisting mainly on sesquiterpenes (80.62%) and monoterpene fractions (14.34%). The findings of the anti-Acanthamoeba assay indicate that T. ramosissimum essential oil have a good activity with an IC 50  = 25.73 ± 0.75 μg/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Acanthamoeba keratitis in patients wearing scleral contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Sticca, Matheus Porto; Carrijo-Carvalho, Linda C; Silva, Isa M B; Vieira, Luiz A; Souza, Luciene B; Junior, Rubens Belfort; Carvalho, Fábio Ramos S; Freitas, Denise

    2018-06-01

    To report a series of cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in scleral lens wearers with keratoconus to determine whether this type of contact lens presents a greater risk for development of infection. This study reports three patients who wore scleral contact lenses to correct keratoconus and developed AK. The diagnoses of AK were established based on cultures of the cornea, scleral contact lenses, and contact lens paraphernalia. This study investigated the risk factors for infections. The possible risks for AK in scleral contact lens wearers are hypoxic changes in the corneal epithelium because of the large diameter and minimal tear exchange, use of large amounts of saline solution necessary for scleral lens fitting, storing the scleral lens overnight in saline solution rather than contact lens multipurpose solutions, not rubbing the contact lens during cleaning, and the space between the cornea and the back surface of the scleral lens that might serve as a fluid reservoir and environment for Acanthamoeba multiplication. Two patients responded well to medical treatment of AK; one is still being treated. The recommendations for use and care of scleral contact lenses should be emphasized, especially regarding use of sterile saline (preferably single use), attention to rubbing the lens during cleaning, cleaning of the plunger, and overnight storage in fresh contact lens multipurpose solutions without topping off the lens solution in the case. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Scleral and intraocular amoebic dissemination in Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    PubMed

    Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Jaumandreu, Laia; Leal, Marina; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2013-12-01

    To review an Acanthamoeba keratitis case series for the documented extracorneal spread of the amoeba. A retrospective review of an observational case series from a single institution. Three patients with 4 instances of microbiologically confirmed extracorneal amoebic spread were identified. Patient 1 had nodular scleritis after undergoing penetrating keratoplasty and was treated successfully with double freeze-thaw cryotherapy; patient 2 had intraocular dissemination of the amoeba detected in a retrocorneal membrane; and patient 3 had, after undergoing tectonic keratoplasty, intraocular dissemination of the amoeba that was treated successfully with intraocular and systemic voriconazole and, afterwards, a nodular scleritis treated with double freeze-thaw cryotherapy and a large-diameter corneal graft to treat corneal recurrence. Acanthamoeba can migrate to the sclera or to the intraocular tissues in some instances, such as in long-standing disease or in penetrating keratoplasty. A prompt biopsy for microbiological analysis and early treatment are required, if this is suspected. Voriconazole can be effective for intraocular invasion when used orally and intraocularly. Scleral involvement might require a surgical approach with double freeze-thaw cryotherapy to treat the localized disease.

  1. Acanthamoeba keratitis: study of the 5-year incidence in Israel.

    PubMed

    Graffi, Shmuel; Peretz, Avi; Jabaly, Haneen; Koiefman, Anna; Naftali, Modi

    2013-11-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is not a notifiable disease in Israel, so there are no accurate incidence rates for this condition in Israel. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of AK in Israel for the years 2008-2012. We distributed a survey questionnaire to laboratory managers in Israel. The laboratories were affiliated to medical institutes that either provided ophthalmology services or served community ophthalmology clinics. Our questionnaire requested survey respondents to provide information regarding the methods used to diagnose AK, and the number of positive and negative cultures for Acanthamoebae species performed for each of the years from 2008 to 2012. Six laboratories used non-nutrient agar with Escherichia coli as the culture medium, one used calcofluor-white staining with fluorescent microscopy, and two used PCR for diagnosing AK. Twenty-three AK cases were identified, to give an estimated incidence of 1/1 668 552. AK is mostly attributable to the use of contact lenses. As contact lenses are popular in Israel, we expected a higher incidence rate. A lower than expected incidence rate may indicate insufficient awareness of AK in Israel.

  2. The visual and functional impacts of astigmatism and its clinical management.

    PubMed

    Read, Scott A; Vincent, Stephen J; Collins, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    To provide a comprehensive overview of research examining the impact of astigmatism on clinical and functional measures of vision, the short and longer term adaptations to astigmatism that occur in the visual system, and the currently available clinical options for the management of patients with astigmatism. The presence of astigmatism can lead to substantial reductions in visual performance in a variety of clinical vision measures and functional visual tasks. Recent evidence demonstrates that astigmatic blur results in short-term adaptations in the visual system that appear to reduce the perceived impact of astigmatism on vision. In the longer term, uncorrected astigmatism in childhood can also significantly impact on visual development, resulting in amblyopia. Astigmatism is also associated with the development of spherical refractive errors. Although the clinical correction of small magnitudes of astigmatism is relatively straightforward, the precise, reliable correction of astigmatism (particularly high astigmatism) can be challenging. A wide variety of refractive corrections are now available for the patient with astigmatism, including spectacle, contact lens and surgical options. Astigmatism is one of the most common refractive errors managed in clinical ophthalmic practice. The significant visual and functional impacts of astigmatism emphasise the importance of its reliable clinical management. With continued improvements in ocular measurement techniques and developments in a range of different refractive correction technologies, the future promises the potential for more precise and comprehensive correction options for astigmatic patients. © 2014 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2014 The College of Optometrists.

  3. Polar Value Analysis of Low to Moderate Astigmatism with Wavefront-Guided Sub-Bowman Keratomileusis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the astigmatic outcomes of wavefront-guided sub-Bowman keratomileusis (WFG-SBK) for low to moderate myopic astigmatism. Methods This study enrolled 100 right eyes from 100 patients who underwent WFG-SBK for the correction of myopia and astigmatism. The polar value method was performed with anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism measured with Scheimpflug camera combined with Placido corneal topography (Sirius, CSO) and refractive astigmatism preoperatively and 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively. Results Similar results for surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) and error of the procedure in both anterior corneal astigmatism (ACA) and total ocular astigmatism (TOA). There was a minor undercorrection of the cylinder in both ACA and TOA. Posterior corneal astigmatism (PCA) showed no significant change. Conclusions Wavefront-guided SBK could provide good astigmatic outcomes for the correction of low to moderate myopic astigmatism. The surgical effects were largely attributed to the astigmatic correction of the anterior corneal surface. Posterior corneal astigmatism remained unchanged even after WFG-SBK for myopic astigmatism. Polar value analysis can be used to guide adjustments to the treatment cylinder alongside a nomogram designed to optimize postoperative astigmatic outcomes in myopic WFG-SBK. PMID:28831306

  4. Optical imaging module for astigmatic detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei-Min; Cheng, Chung-Hsiang; Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, an optical imaging module design for an astigmatic detection system (ADS) is presented. The module is based on a commercial optical pickup unit (OPU) and it contains a coaxial illuminant for illuminating a specimen. Furthermore, the imaging module facilitates viewing the specimen and the detection laser spot of the ADS with a lateral resolution of approximately 1 μm without requiring the removal of an element of the OPU. Two polarizers and one infrared filter are used to eliminate stray laser light in the OPU and stray light produced by the illuminant. Imaging modules designed for digital versatilemore » disks (DVDs) and Blu-ray DVDs were demonstrated. Furthermore, the module can be used for imaging a small cantilever with approximate dimensions of 2 μm (width) × 5 μm (length), and therefore, it has the potential to be used in high-speed atomic force microscopy.« less

  5. Comparison between toric and spherical phakic intraocular lenses combined with astigmatic keratotomy for high myopic astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lin-Yan; Zhu, Shuang-Qian; Su, Yan-Feng; Zou, Hu-Yong; Wang, Qin-Mei; Yu, A-Yong

    2017-01-01

    To compare the outcomes of a toric phakic intraocular lens (PIOL) and a spherical PIOL combined with astigmatic keratotomy (AK) for the correction of high myopic astigmatism. This study enrolled patients with high myopic astigmatism, including 30 eyes (22 patients) that received a toric PIOL implantation (TICL group), and 32 eyes (24 patients) that received combined AK and a spherical PIOL implantation (AK+ ICL group). The outcomes were compared between the two groups before surgery, and at the following time points after surgery: 1 week, 1, 3, 6 months, and 1, 2 years. Preoperatively, the mean manifest spherical equivalent (SE) was -14.14 ± 2.12 D in the TICL group and -14.83 ± 2.79 D in the AK + ICL group ( P  = 0.28), and the mean manifest refractive cylinder, -2.87 ± 1.09 D and -2.58 ± 0.85 D, respectively ( P  = 0.28). Two years postoperatively, the mean safety index was 1.53 ± 0.55 in the TICL group and 1.60 ± 0.70 in the AK + ICL group ( P  = 1.00), and the mean efficacy index, 1.18 ± 0.45 and 1.38 ± 0.52, respectively ( P  = 0.86). The mean manifest refractive cylinder correction was 1.94 ± 1.07 D in the TICL group and 1.39 ± 0.71 D in the AK + ICL group ( P  = 0.02). The mean changes in SE and refractive cylinder from 1 week to 2 years were less than 0.50 D in both groups. Both TICL implantation and AK + ICL implantation are a good alternative for correction of astigmatism in addition to high myopia. TICL implantation has better predictability in correction of high myopic astigmatism. NCT03202485.

  6. Malassezia spp on the periocular skin of dogs and their association with blepharitis, ocular discharge, and the application of ophthalmic medications.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Georgina M; Outerbridge, Catherine A; Kass, Philip H; Maggs, David J

    2014-06-01

    To determine how frequently Malassezia spp were identified on the periocular skin of dogs and assess the respective associations between the presence of Malassezia spp on the periocular skin and blepharitis, ocular discharge, and the application of ophthalmic medications. Prospective clinical study. 167 eyelids of 84 dogs. Samples obtained from the surface of the eyelid skin by use of adhesive tape were evaluated cytologically for the presence of Malassezia spp. Dogs were grouped on the basis of the presence of blepharitis, nature of ocular discharge, and whether ophthalmic medications were applied, and the proportion of samples with Malassezia spp was compared among the groups. Malassezia spp were detected in 19 samples, of which 15 were obtained from eyes without blepharitis and 14 were obtained from eyes treated with topical ophthalmic medications. The proportion of samples with Malassezia spp was significantly higher for eyes with ocular discharge than for eyes without ocular discharge, especially if that discharge was mucoid or mucopurulent, and for eyes that were treated with aqueous-based medications only or a combination of oil- and aqueous-based medications than for eyes that were not treated. Malassezia organisms were detected on the periocular skin of 3 of 56 (5%) clinically normal dogs. Malassezia organisms were also frequently found on the periocular skin of dogs that had mucoid or mucopurulent ocular discharge or that were administered topical aqueous-based ophthalmic medications, and the periocular skin of these dogs should be cytologically evaluated for Malassezia organisms.

  7. Nonlocal conservation laws of the constant astigmatism equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlaváč, Adam; Marvan, Michal

    2017-03-01

    For the constant astigmatism equation, we construct a system of nonlocal conservation laws (an abelian covering) closed under the reciprocal transformations. The corresponding potentials are functionally independent modulo a Wronskian type relation.

  8. Calculation of the change in corneal astigmatism following cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Cravy, T V

    1979-01-01

    Obtaining a minimal amount of postoperative astigmatism following cataract surgery is becoming increasingly important. One aspect of the patient's surgery which should not be overlooked is the preoperative keratometry which provides a basis for preoperative planning of surgical technique to be used and a point of reference for determining the amount of change in astigmatism produced by the surgery. Analysis of the surgically induced change in astigmatism using the calculations described in this paper will allow the surgeon to evaluate his own techniques and to maximize his potential for obtaining consistently good postoperative astigmatic results without the need for suture removal. The method presented is based upon concepts in common use in surgical ophthalmology and requires only simple mathematical procedures, familiar to all with a background in algebra and trigonometry.

  9. Patterned corneal collagen crosslinking for astigmatism: Computational modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Seven, Ibrahim; Roy, Abhijit Sinha; Dupps, William J.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To test the hypothesis that spatially selective corneal stromal stiffening can alter corneal astigmatism and assess the effects of treatment orientation, pattern, and material model complexity in computational models using patient-specific geometries. SETTING Cornea and Refractive Surgery Service, Academic Eye Institute, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. DESIGN Computational modeling study. METHODS Three-dimensional corneal geometries from 10 patients with corneal astigmatism were exported from a clinical tomography system (Pentacam). Corneoscleral finite element models of each eye were generated. Four candidate treatment patterns were simulated, and the effects of treatment orientation and magnitude of stiffening on anterior curvature and aberrations were studied. The effect of material model complexity on simulated outcomes was also assessed. RESULTS Pretreatment anterior corneal astigmatism ranged from 1.22 to 3.92 diopters (D) in a series that included regular and irregular astigmatic patterns. All simulated treatment patterns oriented on the flat axis resulted in mean reductions in corneal astigmatism and depended on the pattern geometry. The linear bow-tie pattern produced a greater mean reduction in astigmatism (1.08 D ± 0.13 [SD]; range 0.74 to 1.23 D) than other patterns tested under an assumed 2-times increase in corneal stiffness, and it had a nonlinear relationship to the degree of stiffening. The mean astigmatic effect did not change significantly with a fiber- or depth-dependent model, but it did affect the coupling ratio. CONCLUSIONS In silico simulations based on patient-specific geometries suggest that clinically significant reductions in astigmatism are possible with patterned collagen crosslinking. Effect magnitude was dependent on patient-specific geometry, effective stiffening pattern, and treatment orientation. PMID:24767795

  10. Association between mode of delivery and astigmatism in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fengyang; Yang, Xubo; Tang, Angcang; Liu, Longqian

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether mode of delivery has any impact on astigmatism. This case-control study was performed in the Department of Ophthalmology in 2015. Exposure was mode of delivery [vaginal delivery (VD) or caesarean section (CS), which here included both elective and emergency CS]. Outcome was astigmatism (≥2.5 D), which was determined by cycloplegic refraction. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were computed to assess the associations between mode of delivery and astigmatism from logistic regression models. Of the 659 children studied here (341 boys; mean age, 4.37 years), 440 were born by CS and 219 by VD. The incidence of severe astigmatism (≥2.5 D) in the CS and VD groups was 22.06% and 13.24%, respectively. Children delivered by CS had a 77.9% higher risk of severe astigmatism compared with vaginally delivered children (OR = 1.779; 95% CI, 1.121 to 2.824). After dividing CS into elective CS and emergency CS, children delivered by elective CS had an 87.3% increased risk of severe astigmatism (OR = 1.873; 95% CI, 1.157 to 3.032), but children delivered by emergency CS did not differ from vaginally delivered children. In addition, the children whose mothers had histories of breastfeeding had a 44.6% lower risk of severe astigmatism than children whose mother did not breastfeed them (OR = 0.554, 95% CI, 0.335-0.914). Birth by CS, especially elective CS, increases the risk of severe astigmatism (≥2.50 D) in childhood. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comparability and repeatability of different methods of corneal astigmatism assessment.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Tiago B; Ribeiro, Filomena J

    2018-01-01

    To assess the comparability and repeatability of keratometric and astigmatism values measured by four techniques: Orbscan IIz ® (Bausch and Lomb), Lenstar LS 900 ® (Haag-Streit), Cassini ® (i-Optics), and Total Cassini (anterior + posterior surface), in healthy volunteers. Fifteen healthy volunteers (30 eyes) were assessed by the four techniques. In each eye, three consecutive measures were performed by the same operator. Keratometric and astigmatism values were recorded. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess comparability and repeatability. Agreement between measurement techniques was evaluated with Bland-Altman plots. Comparability was high between all measurement techniques for minimum keratometry (K1), maximum keratometry (K2), astigmatism magnitude, and astigmatism axis, with ICC >0.900, except for astigmatism magnitude measured by Cassini compared to Lenstar (ICC =0.798) and Orbscan compared to Lenstar (ICC =0.810). However, there were some differences in the median values of K1 and K2 between measurement techniques, and the Bland-Altman plots showed a wide data spread for all variables, except for astigmatism magnitude measured by Cassini and Total Cassini. For J0 and J45, comparability was only high for J0 between Cassini and Orbscan. Repeatability was also high for all measurement techniques except for K2 (ICC =0.814) and J45 (ICC =0.621) measured by Cassini. All measurement techniques showed high comparability regarding K1, K2, and astigmatism axis. Although posterior corneal surface is known to influence these measurements, comparability was high between Cassini and Total Cassini regarding astigmatism magnitude and axis. However, the wide data spread suggests that none of these devices should be used interchangeably.

  12. Comparison of exact pupil astigmatism conditions with Seidel approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunyu; Burge, James H.

    2002-12-01

    The aberrations of axisymmetric imaging systems can be calculated to third order by use of the Seidel formulas. The Coddington equations give aberrations that have quadratic dependence on the pupil, for all field points. The pupil astigmatism conditions were recently developed to predict and control aberrations that have quadratic field dependence and arbitrary pupil dependence. We investigate the relationship between the exact pupil astigmatism conditions and the classical Seidel treatment of pupil aberrations.

  13. Visual acuity with simulated and real astigmatic defocus.

    PubMed

    Ohlendorf, Arne; Tabernero, Juan; Schaeffel, Frank

    2011-05-01

    To compare the effects of "simulated" and "real" spherical and astigmatic defocus on visual acuity (VA). VA was determined with letter charts that were blurred by calculated spherical or astigmatic defocus (simulated defocus) or were seen through spherical or astigmatic trial lenses (real defocus). Defocus was simulated using ZEMAX and the Liou-Brennan eye model. Nine subjects participated [mean age, 27.2 ± 1.8 years; logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR), -0.1]. Three different experiments were conducted in which VA was reduced by 20% (logMAR 0.0), 50% (logMAR 0.2), or 75% (logMAR 0.5) by either (1) imposing positive spherical defocus, (2) imposing positive and negative astigmatic defocus in three axes (0, 45, and 90°), and (3) imposing cross-cylinder defocus in the same three axes as in (2). Experiment (1): there were only minor differences in VA with simulated and real positive spherical defocus. Experiment (2): simulated astigmatic defocus reduced VA twice as much as real astigmatic defocus in all tested axes (p < 0.01 in all cases). Experiment (3): simulated cross-cylinder defocus reduced VA much more than real cross-cylinder defocus (p < 0.01 in all cases), similarly for all three tested axes. The visual system appears more tolerant against "real" spherical, astigmatic, and cross-cylinder defocus than against "simulated" blur. Possible reasons could be (1) limitations in the modeling procedures to simulate defocus, (2) higher ocular aberrations, and (3) fluctuations of accommodation. However, the two optical explanations (2) and (3) cannot account for the magnitude of the effect, and (1) was carefully analyzed. It is proposed that something may be special about the visual processing of real astigmatic and cross-cylinder defocus-because they have less effect on VA than simulations predict.

  14. Off-axis astigmatism in the isolated chicken crystalline lens.

    PubMed

    Maier, Felix; Wahl, Siegfried; Schaeffel, Frank

    2016-12-01

    The chicken eye was previously found to have little off-axis astigmatism which is not explained by its special corneal shape but rather by the optical properties of the crystalline lens. To learn more about lens design, we studied off-axis astigmatism in the chicken lens in situ and compared it to a glass lens of similar power but with homogenous refractive index. After euthanasia, enucleated eye balls were cut in the equatorial plane right behind the scleral ossicles. The anterior segment was placed in a water-filled chamber. Several thin laser beams were projected in two perpendicular meridians through the lens under various eccentricities and the focal lengths were determined. Off-axis astigmatism across the horizontal visual field was determined as the differences in power in the two meridians. The same procedure was used for the glass lens. On-axis, the chicken crystalline lens had slightly more power in the vertical than in the horizontal meridian (-2.8±0.7D (SEM)). Astigmatism flipped sign and increased with eccentricity to reach +6.1±2.1D (SEM) at 33.5deg off-axis, as expected from off-axis astigmatism. Even though this value appears high, it was still 2.5 times lower than in the glass lens. A ZEMAX model of a lens with a homogeneous index and with surface profiles taken of the natural chicken lens revealed even higher levels of off-axis astigmatism. Obviously, the natural chicken lens displays much less off-axis astigmatism than a glass lens with similar power. Since its shape does not explain the low off-axis astigmatism, it must be due to a refined internal refractive index structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Surveillance and Molecular Identification of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria Species in Two Swimming Pools in Alexandria University, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    AL-HERRAWY, Ahmad Z.; KHALIL, Mahmoud I.; EL-SHERIF, Soheir S.; OMAR, Fatima A. E.; LOTFY, Wael M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Swimming in contaminated water was reported to be associated with Acanthamoeba and N. fowleri human infections. The present study was carried out with the aim of isolation and identification of the different species of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria from two swimming pools in Alexandria University. Methods: Samples were collected from the swimming pools of Alexandria University Stadium and Faculty of Agriculture-Alexandria University during the period from May 2012 to April 2013. Results: Free-living amoebae were prevalent in the collected samples. Molecular characterization confirmed the identity of ten Acanthamoeba isolates and seven Naegleria isolates. Acanthamoeba T3, T4, T5, T11 and T15 genotypes were identified. Acanthamoeba T4 was the most prevalent genotype. Conclusion: The relatively high prevalence of Acanthamoeba, especially genotype T4, indicates the presence of a health hazard to swimmers particularly those wearing contact lenses. Naegleria fowleri was not found during the present study. PMID:28761479

  16. Vectorial role of Acanthamoeba in Legionella propagation in water for human use.

    PubMed

    Magnet, A; Peralta, R H S; Gomes, T S; Izquierdo, F; Fernandez-Vadillo, C; Galvan, A L; Pozuelo, M J; Pelaz, C; Fenoy, S; Del Águila, C

    2015-02-01

    Legionella spp. is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease and is transmitted through aerosols emanating from man-made water systems. Legionella resistance to water treatments has been related to its association with environmental amoebae such as Acanthamoeba. Due to the high presence of this protozoon in Spain and the high rate of notification of Legionnaires' disease of this country, the aims of this work were to study the coexistence of these bacteria and protozoa in water as well as their interaction. The usefulness of Acanthamoeba co-culture for the isolation of environmental Legionella was also studied. For this purpose, 70 water samples were collected in 2011 from three Drinking Water Treatment Plants, three Wastewater Treatment Plants and five Natural Pools in Spain. Acanthamoeba was found by PCR in 87.1% (61/70) samples and, by culture in 85.7% (60/70) samples. Legionella was detected by PCR in 58.6% (41/70) of water samples, in 5.7% (4/70) by agar culture and 75.7% (53/70) by Acanthamoeba co-culture. From the 54 Acanthamoeba water isolates, Legionella was detected in 43 of them independently of Acanthamoeba's genotype (T3, T4 and T11). Legionella feeleii, Legionella birminghamiensis, Legionella gresilensis/berliardensis, Legionella fairfieldensis, Legionella drozanski and Legionella falloni were identified. In conclusion, our results showed that environmental Acanthamoeba is infected by Legionella to a high percentage, and due to its ubiquity, high resistance and its pathogenic potential per se, new methods for its elimination should be studied. Also, the high effectivity of Acanthamoeba co-culture for Legionella detection has been shown. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fibrous Catalyst-Enhanced Acanthamoeba Disinfection by Hydrogen Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Kilvington, Simon; Winterton, Lynn

    2017-11-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) disinfection systems are contact-lens-patient problem solvers. The current one-step, criterion-standard version has been widely used since the mid-1980s, without any significant improvement. This work identifies a potential next-generation, one-step H2O2, not based on the solution formulation but rather on a case-based peroxide catalyst. One-step H2O2 systems are widely used for contact lens disinfection. However, antimicrobial efficacy can be limited because of the rapid neutralization of the peroxide from the catalytic component of the systems. We studied whether the addition of an iron-containing catalyst bound to a nonfunctional propylene:polyacryonitrile fabric matrix could enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of these one-step H2O2 systems. Bausch + Lomb PeroxiClear and AOSept Plus (both based on 3% H2O2 with a platinum-neutralizing disc) were the test systems. These were tested with and without the presence of the catalyst fabric using Acanthamoeba cysts as the challenge organism. After 6 hours' disinfection, the number of viable cysts was determined. In other studies, the experiments were also conducted with biofilm formed by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Elizabethkingia meningoseptica bacteria. Both control systems gave approximately 1-log10 kill of Acanthamoeba cysts compared with 3.0-log10 kill in the presence of the catalyst (P < .001). In the biofilm studies, no viable bacteria were recovered following disinfection in the presence of the catalyst compared with ≥3.0-log10 kill when it was omitted. In 30 rounds' recurrent usage, the experiments, in which the AOSept Plus system was subjected to 30 rounds of H2O2 neutralization with or without the presence of catalytic fabric, showed no loss in enhanced biocidal efficacy of the material. The catalytic fabric was also shown to not retard or increase the rate of H2O2 neutralization. We have demonstrated the catalyst significantly increases the efficacy of one-step H2O2

  18. Identification of 18S ribosomal DNA genotype of Acanthamoeba from hot spring recreation areas in the central range, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu; Ma, Po-Hua; Liou, Tai-Sheng; Chen, Jung-Sheng; Shih, Feng-Cheng

    2009-04-01

    SummaryAcanthamoeba is a free-living amoebae ubiquitous to aquatic environments. Within the genus a few species are recognized as opportunistic potential human pathogens, which cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and keratitis. Infections of keratitis are frequently reported through wearing lens while swimming in the non-disinfected aquatic environment. Contaminations in hot tubs, spas and public baths are also possible. As a result, in this study, we identified Acanthamoeba based on the PCR amplification with a genus-specific primer pair and investigated the distribution of Acanthamoeba at five hot spring recreation areas in central range, Taiwan. We gathered data on factors potentially associated with the pathogen's distribution, including various sampling sites, aquatic environment, physical and microbiological water quality parameters. Spring water was collected from 55 sites and Acanthamoeba was detected in 9 (16.4%). The most frequently detected was Acanthamoeba griffini, followed by Acanthamoeba jacobsi. Legionella were detected in 18 (32.7%) of the sites sampled in this study. The species of Legionella identified included Legionella pneumophila serotype 6, serotype 1, and Legionella erythra. Overall, 9.1% of the samples contained both Acanthamoeba and Legionella. The prevalence of Acanthamoeba was contrary to the levels of microbiological indicators recommended by Taiwan CDC, and no significant differences (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05) were observed between the presence/absence of Acanthamoeba and water quality parameters. Results of this survey confirm the existence of Acanthamoeba in Taiwan spring recreation areas. Acanthamoeba, the organism responsible for the majority of Acanthamoeba keratitis and can serve as vehicles for facultative pathogens, should be considered a potential threat for health associated with human activities in spring recreation areas of Taiwan.

  19. Detection and molecular characterization of Acanthamoeba spp. in stray cats from Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Ana; Miró, Guadalupe; Saugar, José María; Fernández, Beatriz; Checa, Rocío; Gálvez, Rosa; Bailo, Begoña; Marino, Valentina; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Fuentes, Isabel

    2018-05-01

    Acanthamoeba spp. is a widespread protozoan that has been isolated from air, dust, soil, water and biological samples. An opportunistic pathogen of humans and animals, it may cause ocular keratitis, encephalitis, and even multisystem disease. The frequency of Acanthamoeba in animals is unknown. The aim of present study was determine the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in immunocompromised stray cats - animals possibly more likely to harbour the infection given their immunocompromised status and frequenting of contaminated environments. Of 307 cats examined, 55 were positive for feline immunodeficiency virus and/or feline leukaemia virus and therefore included in the study. Corneal scrapings were obtained to isolate Acanthamoeba spp. by culture and molecular detection by conventional and real time PCR. None of the samples examined directly by molecular methods were positive for Acanthamoeba spp. However, two (3.6%) cases of the cultured samples provided positive results, which were confirmed by subsequent molecular analysis. Sequencing assigned one isolate to genotype T4 and the other to T2. Since Acanthamoeba spp. may also infect animals and humans, the present findings may raise some public health and veterinary concerns. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Bowman’s layer encystment in cases of persistent Acanthamoeba keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Yokogawa, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Akira; Yamazaki, Natsuko; Ishibashi, Yasuhisa; Oikawa, Yosaburo; Tokoro, Masaharu; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to report Acanthamoeba encystment in Bowman’s layer in Japanese cases of persistent Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Methods Laser confocal microscopic images of the cornea were obtained in vivo from 18 consecutive eyes from 17 confirmed AK patients. Retrospectively, 14 cases treated over 4 months were categorized as a nonpersistent group and three cases that required prolonged therapy for more than 6 months were categorized as a persistent group. Clinical outcomes based on final best-corrected visual acuity were retrospectively analyzed, and selected confocal images were evaluated qualitatively for abnormal findings. Results The final best-corrected visual acuity was significantly lower (P < 0.01) for patients in the persistent group compared with that in the nonpersistent group. At the initial visit, in vivo confocal microscopy demonstrated Acanthamoeba cysts exclusively in the epithelial layer in both the nonpersistent group (80%) and the persistent group (100%). At a subsequent follow-up visit, numerous Acanthamoeba cysts were observed in the epithelial cell layer and in Bowman’s layer in all patients with persistent AK, but Acanthamoeba cysts were undetectable in all cases with nonpersistent AK tested. Conclusion Invasion of cysts into Bowman’s layer was characteristically observed in patients with persistence of AK. This finding suggests that invasion of Acanthamoeba cysts into Bowman’s layer may be a useful predictor for a persistent clinical course. PMID:22927735

  1. Failure of molecular diagnostics of a keratitis-inducing Acanthamoeba strain.

    PubMed

    Scheid, Patrick L; Balczun, Carsten

    2017-12-01

    An otherwise healthy 49-year-old female patient presented at the local hospital with severe keratitis in both inflamed eyes. She was a contact lens wearer and had no history of a corneal trauma. In our laboratory for medical parasitology Acanthamoebae were detected microscopically from the cornea scraping and from the fluid of the contact lens storage case after xenical culture and showed the typical cyst morphology of Acanthamoebae group II. The diagnosis of "Acanthamoeba keratitis" was established and successful therapy was provided. While the morphological microscopic method led to the correct diagnosis in this case, an in-house multiplex qPCR and a commercial qPCR showed false negative results regarding Acanthamoeba sp. The subsequent sequencing revealed the Acanthamoeba genotype T4. In the present case report, the inability to detect Acanthamoebae using qPCR only is presented. Therefore, we recommend the utilization of combined different assays for optimal diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Resistance of Acanthamoeba cysts to disinfection in multiple contact lens solutions.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Stephanie P; Sriram, Rama; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Roy, Sharon; Verani, Jennifer; Yoder, Jonathan; Lorick, Suchita; Roberts, Jacquelin; Beach, Michael J; Visvesvara, Govinda

    2009-07-01

    Acanthamoebae are free-living amoebae found in the environment, including soil, freshwater, brackish water, seawater, hot tubs, and Jacuzzis. Acanthamoeba species can cause keratitis, a painful vision-threatening infection of the cornea, and fatal granulomatous encephalitis in humans. More than 20 species of Acanthamoeba belonging to morphological groups I, II, and III distributed in 15 genotypes have been described. Among these, Acanthamoeba castellanii, A. polyphaga, and A. hatchetti are frequently identified as causing Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Improper contact lens care and contact with nonsterile water while wearing contact lenses are known risk factors for AK. During a recent multistate outbreak, AK was found to be associated with the use of Advanced Medical Optics Complete MoisturePlus multipurpose contact lens solution, which was hypothesized to have had insufficient anti-Acanthamoeba activity. As part of the investigation of that outbreak, we compared the efficacies of 11 different contact lens solutions against cysts of A. castellanii, A. polyphaga, and A. hatchetti (the isolates of all species were genotype T4), which were isolated in 2007 from specimens obtained during the outbreak investigation. The data, generated with A. castellanii, A. polyphaga, and A. hatchetti cysts, suggest that the two contact lens solutions containing hydrogen peroxide were the only solutions that showed any disinfection ability, with 0% and 66% growth, respectively, being detected with A. castellanii and 0% and 33% growth, respectively, being detected with A. polyphaga. There was no statistically significant difference in disinfection efficacy between the 11 solutions for A. hatchetti.

  3. Vector analysis of astigmatism before and after LASIK: a comparison of two different platforms for treatment of high astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Biscevic, Alma; Bohac, Maja; Koncarevic, Mateja; Anticic, Marija; Dekaris, Iva; Patel, Sudi

    2015-12-01

    To compare the outcomes of astigmatic laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) procedures between two different platforms using J0 and J45 vector analysis. Patients were divided into four groups, depending on the type of astigmatism and laser platform on which they were treated. Astigmatism was between 2 and 7 diopters (D). One hundred and thirty-five patients with myopic astigmatism (246 eyes) and 102 patients with mixed astigmatism (172 eyes) underwent unremarkable LASIK correction on Wavelight Allegretto Eye-Q 400Hz and Schwind Amaris 750S laser platform. The preoperative and postoperative sphere, negative cylinder [C] and axis (ø) of manifest refractions were subjected to vector analysis by calculations of the standard J0 (cos [4π(ø-90)/360]xC/2) and J45 (sin[4π(ø-90)/360]xC/2). Reporting the key results, we found J0 significantly reduced after LASIK in both groups (p < 0.001) but not J45. There was no significant association between individual pairs of pre and postoperative J0 & J45 values. There was no significant difference between the outcomes of the two platforms. Wavelight Allegretto 400Hz and Schwind Amaris 750S showed excellent results for treating patients with astigmatism, regardless whether it is mixed or myopic astigmatism. The J45 did not reduce significantly possibly because of the low number of eyes with oblique astigmatism. There was no genuine difference post-operatively between groups treated on two different laser platforms according to the vector analyses.

  4. Astigmatism of the Ex Vivo Human Lens: Surface and Gradient Refractive Index Age-Dependent Contributions.

    PubMed

    Birkenfeld, Judith; de Castro, Alberto; Marcos, Susana

    2015-08-01

    We estimated the contribution of the gradient refractive index (GRIN) and lens surfaces to lens astigmatism and lens astigmatic angle as a function of age in human donor lenses. Human lenses were imaged, ex vivo, with 3D-spectral optical coherence tomography (OCT) and their back focal length was measured using laser ray tracing. The contribution of lens surfaces and GRIN to lens astigmatism were evaluated by computational ray tracing on the GRIN lens and a homogenous equivalent index lens. Astigmatism magnitude and relative astigmatic angle of and between lens surfaces, GRIN lens, and lens with homogeneous refractive index were evaluated, and all results were correlated with age. The magnitude of astigmatism in the anterior lens surface decreased with age (slope = -0.005 diopters [D]/y; r = 0.397, P = 0.018). Posterior surface astigmatism and lens astigmatism were not age-dependent. Presence of GRIN did not alter significantly the magnitude or axis of the lens astigmatism. The astigmatism of GRIN lens and lens with homogeneous refractive index correlated with anterior lens surface astigmatism (GRIN, P = 3.9E - 6, r = 0.693; equivalent refractive index lens, P = 4.1E - 4, r = 0.565). The astigmatic angle of posterior surface, GRIN lens, and homogeneous refractive index lens did not change significantly with age. The axis of lens astigmatism is close to the astigmatic axis of the anterior lens surface. Age-related changes in lens astigmatism appear to be related to changes in the anterior lens astigmatism. The influence of the GRIN on lens astigmatism and the astigmatic axis is minor.

  5. [Survey of the number of Acanthamoeba keratitis cases in Japan].

    PubMed

    Toriyama, Koji; Suzuki, Takashi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the trend in the number of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) cases in Japan. A survey was conducted in 48 university hospitals. Patients who were diagnosed with AK from January 2007 to December 2011 were enrolled. The trend in the number of cases and the type of contact lenses (CLs) that patients used were studied. A total of 524 patients was studied. The numbers of AK cases in each year, from 2007 to 2011, were 105, 152, 155, 65, and 47. The number dropped markedly after 2009. The percentage of conventional soft CLs and frequent replacement soft CL users that needed daily care such as rubbing-washing also dropped after 2008. The number of AK cases in Japan has been decreasing in recent years. The cause is uncertain, but one possibility is that information about proper CL care promulgated by ophthalmic societies in recent years is producing results.

  6. Acanthamoeba and bacteria produce antimicrobials to target their counterpart

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the microbial ecosystem, microbes compete for space and nutrients. Consequently, some have developed the ability to kill or inhibit the growth of other competing microbes by producing antimicrobial substances. As the ‘producer’ species are generally immune to these substances, their compounds act on the competing microbial species and give the producer more space and access to nutrients for growth. Many currently used antibiotics were developed by exploiting this potential of certain microbes. Findings Here, the free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba castellanii, was investigated for its antibacterial activity against representative Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, while bacterial isolates were tested for their anti-amoebic properties. Conditioned medium from A. castellanii showed remarkable bactericidal properties against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) exhibiting almost 100% kill rate, but had limited effect against Acinetobacter sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE). Similarly, the conditioned medium of E. coli K1 and Enterobacter sp., exhibited potent anti-Acanthamoebic effects in a concentration-dependent manner. Conditioned media of Acanthamoeba, E. coli K1 and Enterobacter sp. showed no cytotoxicity in vitro when tested against human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Active molecule/s in aforementioned amoebic and two bacterial conditioned media were 5 – 10 kDa, and <5 kDa respectively. Conclusions A. castellanii conditioned medium showed potent bactericidal properties against MRSA. The active molecule(s) are heat- and pronase-resistant, and in the 5 to 10 kDa molecular mass range. Contrary to this, E. coli K1 and Enterobacter sp., conditioned medium showed anti-amoebic effects that are <5 kDa in molecular mass, suggestive of active metabolites. PMID:24479709

  7. The association of contact lens solution use and Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    PubMed

    Joslin, Charlotte E; Tu, Elmer Y; Shoff, Megan E; Booton, Gregory C; Fuerst, Paul A; McMahon, Timothy T; Anderson, Robert J; Dworkin, Mark S; Sugar, Joel; Davis, Faith G; Stayner, Leslie T

    2007-08-01

    To investigate Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) risk factors. Diagnosis of AK, a rare but serious corneal infection, has recently increased significantly at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) Cornea Service. Retrospective case-control study. settings: University, tertiary care hospital. patients: Fifty-five AK cases with contact lens use were diagnosed between May 1, 2003 and September 15, 2006. Clinic-matched controls with contact lens use were recruited. Subjects completed surveys targeting lens hygiene, contact lens solution use, and water exposure. main outcome measure: Acanthamoeba keratitis. Thirty-nine (73.6%) cases and 113 (65.3%) controls participated; 38 cases had complete contact lens data. Thirty-five of 38 cases (92.1%) and 47 of 100 controls (47.0%) used soft lenses. Analysis was performed on 30 cases and 39 controls with matched pairs with soft lens use. Exclusive use of Advance Medical Optics (AMO) Complete MoisturePlus Multi-Purpose Solution was independently associated with AK in multivariable analysis (55.2% vs 10.5%; odds ratio [OR], 16.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.11 to 162.63; P = .008). However, 38.8% of cases reported no use of AMO Complete MoisturePlus Multi-Purpose Solution either alone or in combination with other solutions. Although not statistically significant, additional hygiene-related variables (solution "reuse," lack of "rubbing," and showering with lenses) suggest a pattern of risk. AMO Complete MoisturePlus Multi-Purpose Solution use is independently associated with AK among soft contact lens users. However, it does not explain all cases, suggesting additional factors. Further research into environmental risk factors and hygiene practices is warranted, especially considering this is the second outbreak of an atypical, contact lens-related infection.

  8. Neuronal adaptation to simulated and optically-induced astigmatic defocus.

    PubMed

    Ohlendorf, Arne; Tabernero, Juan; Schaeffel, Frank

    2011-03-25

    It is well established that spatial adaptation can improve visual acuity over time in the presence of spherical defocus. It is less well known how far adaptation to astigmatic defocus can enhance visual acuity. We adapted subjects to "simulated" and optically-induced "real" astigmatic defocus, and studied how much they adapt and how selective adaptation was for the axis of astigmatism. Ten subjects with a mean age of 26.7±2.4years (range 23-30) were enrolled in the study, three of them myopic (average spherical equivalent (SE)±SD: -3.08±1.42D) and seven emmetropic (average SE±SD: -0.11±0.18D). All had a corrected minimum visual acuity (VA) of logVA 0.0. For adaptation, subjects watched a movie at 4m distance for 10min that was convolved frame-by-frame with an astigmatic point spread function, equivalent to +3D defocus, or they watched an unfiltered movie but with spectacle frames with a 0/+3D astigmatic trial lenses. Subsequently, visual acuity was determined at the same distance, using high contrast letter acuity charts. Four experiments were performed. In experiment (1), simulated astigmatic defocus was presented both for adaptation and testing, in experiment (2) optically-induced astigmatic defocus was presented both for adaptation and testing of visual acuity. In all these cases, the +3D power meridian was at 0°. In experiments (3) and (4), the +3D power meridian was at 0° during adaptation but rotated to 90° during testing. Astigmatic defocus was simulated in experiment (3) but optically-induced in experiment (4). Experiments 1 and 2: adaptation to either simulated or real astigmatic defocus increased visual acuity in both test paradigms, simulated (change in VA 0.086±0.069 log units; p<0.01) and lens-induced astigmatic defocus (change in VA 0.068±0.031 log units; p<0.001). Experiments 3 and 4: when the axis was rotated, the improvement in visual acuity failed to reach significance, both for simulated (change in VA 0.042±0.079 log units; p=0.13) and

  9. Characteristics of Posterior Corneal Astigmatism in Different Stages of Keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Aslani, Fereshteh; Khorrami-Nejad, Masoud; Aghazadeh Amiri, Mohammad; Hashemian, Hesam; Askarizadeh, Farshad; Khosravi, Bahram

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the magnitudes and axis orientation of anterior corneal astigmatism (ACA) and posterior corneal astigmatism (PCA), the ratio of ACA to PCA, and the correlation between ACA and PCA in the different stages of keratoconus (KCN). This retrospective case series comprised 161 eyes of 161 patients with KCN (104 men, 57 women; mean age, 22.35 ± 6.10 years). The participants were divided into four subgroups according to the Amsler-Krumeich classification. A Scheimpflug imaging system was used to measure the magnitude and axis orientation of ACA and PCA. The posterior-anterior corneal astigmatism ratio was also calculated. The results were compared among different subgroups. The average amounts of anterior, posterior, and total corneal astigmatism were 4.08 ± 2.21 diopters (D), 0.86 ± 0.46 D, and 3.50 ± 1.94 D, respectively. With-the-rule, against-the-rule, and oblique astigmatisms of the posterior surface of the cornea were found in 61 eyes (37.9%), 67 eyes (41.6%), and 33 eyes (20.5%), respectively; corresponding figures in the anterior corneal surface were 55 eyes (32.4%), 56 eyes (34.8%), and 50 eyes (31.1%), respectively. A strong correlation ( P ≤ 0.001, r = 0.839) was found between ACA and PCA in the different stages of KCN; the correlation was weaker in eyes with grade 3 ( P ≤ 0.001, r = 0.711) and grade 4 ( P ≤ 0.001, r = 0.717) KCN. The maximum posterior-anterior corneal astigmatism ratio (PCA/ACA, 0.246) was found in patients with stage 1 KCN. Corneal astigmatism in anterior surface was more affected than posterior surface by increasing in the KCN severity, although PCA was more affected than ACA in an early stage of KCN.

  10. Toric Intraocular Lens for Astigmatism Correction in Cataract Patients.

    PubMed

    Razmjoo, Hassan; Ghoreishi, Mohammad; Milasi, Azadeh Mohammadi; Peyman, Alireza; Jafarzadeh, Zahra; Mohammadinia, Mohadeseh; Kobra, Nasrollahi

    2017-01-01

    To assess the clinical consequences of AcrySof toric intraocular lens (IOL) and Hoya toric IOL implantation to correct preexisting corneal astigmatism in patients undergoing cataract surgery. In this study, we examined 55 eyes of 45 patients with at least 1.00 D corneal astigmatism who were scheduled for cataract surgery. After phacoemulsification, toric IOL was inserted and axis was aligned. We observed the patients, uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), keratometry, manifest refraction, and IOL axis alignment 6 months after surgery. After 6 months, the UDVA was 0.17 ± 0.17 logMAR in the AcrySof group and 0.17 ± 0.18 logMar in the Hoya group. More than 78% of eyes in the AcrySof group and 80% of eyes in the Hoya toric IOL achieved a UDVA of 20/40 or better. In the AcrySof group, the mean preoperative corneal astigmatism was 2.73 ± 0.92 D. The mean postoperative refractive astigmatism was 0.84 ± 0.63 D. In the Hoya group, the preoperative corneal astigmatism was 2.58 ± 0.76 D and the postoperative refractive astigmatism was 0.87 ± 0.66 D ( P < 0.05). The mean AcrySof IOL axis rotation was 1.88° ± 3.05°. In the Hoya group, the mean axis rotation was 1.53° ± 3.66°. All changes in visual and refractive data before and after surgery were statistically significant ( P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding refractive and visual outcome after surgery ( P > 0.05 for all). Implantation of AcrySof toric IOL and Hoya toric IOL was an effective way to correct preexisting corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery.

  11. Posterior corneal astigmatism in refractive lens exchange surgery.

    PubMed

    Rydström, Elin; Westin, Oscar; Koskela, Timo; Behndig, Anders

    2016-05-01

    To assess the anterior, posterior and total corneal spherical and astigmatic powers in patients undergoing refractive lens exchange (RLE) surgery. In 402 consecutive patients planned for RLE at Koskelas Eye Clinic, Luleå, Sweden, right eye data from pre- and postoperative subjective refraction, preoperative IOLMaster(®) biometry and Pentacam HR(®) measurements were collected. Postoperative Pentacam HR(®) data were collected for 54 of the patients. The spherical and astigmatic powers of the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces and for the total cornea were assessed and compared, and surgically, induced astigmatism was calculated using vector analysis. The spherical power of the anterior corneal surface was 48.18 ± 1.69D with an astigmatic power of 0.83 ± 0.54D. The corresponding values for the posterior surface were -6.05 ± 2,52D and 0.26 ± 0.15D, respectively. The total corneal spherical power calculated with ray tracing was 42.47 ± 2.89D with a 0.72 ± 0.48D astigmatic power, and the corresponding figures obtained by estimating the posterior corneal surface were 43.25 ± 1.51D (p < 0.001) with a 0.75 ± 0.49D astigmatic power (p = 0.003). In eyes with anterior astigmatism with-the-rule, the total corneal astigmatism is overestimated if the posterior corneal surface is estimated; in eyes, with against-the-rule astigmatism it is underestimated. Had the posterior corneal surface been measured in this material, 14.7% of the patients would have received a spheric instead of a toric IOL, or vice versa. Estimating the posterior corneal surface in RLE patients leads to systematic measurement errors that can be reduced by measuring the posterior surface. Such an approach can potentially increase the refractive outcome accuracy in RLE surgery. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Correction of low corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Leon, Pia; Pastore, Marco Rocco; Zanei, Andrea; Umari, Ingrid; Messai, Meriem; Negro, Corrado; Tognetto, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate and compare aspheric toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and aspheric monofocal IOL implantation with limbal relaxing incisions (LRI) to manage low corneal astigmatism (1.0-2.0 D) in cataract surgery. A prospective randomized comparative clinical study was performed. There were randomly recruited 102 eyes (102 patients) with cataracts associated with corneal astigmatism and divided into two groups. The first group received toric IOL implantation and the second one monofocal IOL implantation with peripheral corneal relaxing incisions. Outcomes considered were: visual acuity, postoperative residual astigmatism, endothelial cell count, the need for spectacles, and patient satisfaction. To determine the postoperative toric axis, all patients who underwent the toric IOL implantation were further evaluated using an OPD Scan III (Nidek Co, Japan). Follow-up lasted 6mo. The mean uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCVA) and the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) demonstrated statistically significant improvement after surgery in both groups. At the end of the follow-up the UCVA was statistically better in the patients with toric IOL implants compared to those patients who underwent implantation of monofocal IOL plus LRI. The mean residual refractive astigmatism was of 0.4 D for the toric IOL group and 1.1 D for the LRI group (P<0.01). No difference was observed in the postoperative endothelial cell count between the two groups. The two surgical procedures demonstrated a significant decrease in refractive astigmatism. Toric IOL implantation was more effective and predictable compared to the limbal relaxing incision.

  13. [The application of vector analysis for evaluation of astigmatism correction in the corneal refractive surgery].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiamei; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Since sixty percent of ametropes obtain astigmatism, which has influence on the visual quality, correcting the astigmatism is always the focus of concerns during visual correction procedures especially for the corneal refractive surgery. The postoperative spherical equivalent or residual cylindrical dioptors was used as quantitative index to evaluate the correction of astigmatism previously; however, such results neglect the effect of astigmatic axis shift on the treatment. Taking astigmatism as a vector parameter could describe the magnitude and direction of astigmatism accurately, thus it was increasingly applied in the evaluation of astigmatism correction. This paper reviews the present vector analysis methods, evaluation indexes and its application for the correction of astigmatism in the corneal refractive surgery.

  14. Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts for astigmatic Gaussian beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornigotti, Marco; Aiello, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    In this work we investigate the role of the beam astigmatism in the Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Fedorov shift. As a case study, we consider a Gaussian beam focused by an astigmatic lens and we calculate explicitly the corrections to the standard formulas for beam shifts due to the astigmatism induced by the lens. Our results show that the different focusing in the longitudinal and transverse direction introduced by an astigmatic lens may enhance the angular part of the shift.

  15. Full-Thickness Astigmatic Keratotomy Combined With Small-Incision Lenticule Extraction to Treat High-Level and Mixed Astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bu Ki; Mun, Su Joung; Lee, Dae Gyu; Kim, Jae Ryun; Kim, Hyun Seung; Chung, Young Taek

    2015-12-01

    To explore the clinical effects of combined full-thickness astigmatic keratotomy and small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in patients who are inoperable using SMILE alone. We included 13 eyes of 9 patients with high-level or mixed astigmatism who underwent full-thickness astigmatic keratotomy followed by SMILE (secondarily) to correct the residual refractive error. Six months after SMILE, the spherical equivalent was reduced from -4.83 ± 3.26 D to -0.17 ± 0.38 D (P < 0.001), and the astigmatism was reduced from 5.12 ± 0.96 D to 0.21 ± 0.22 D (P < 0.001). The uncorrected and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities improved from 1.07 ± 0.62 to 0.02 ± 0.13 (P < 0.001) and from 0.08 ± 0.14 to -0.01 ± 0.14 (P = 0.002), respectively. The CDVA improved by 1 or 2 Snellen lines in 8 cases (61.5%), and there was no loss in CDVA. All procedures were completed without intraoperative or postoperative complications. This combined procedure was effective and safe for the treatment of high-level or mixed astigmatism.

  16. Lenticular meridional astigmatism secondary to iris mesectodermal leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Chalam, K V; Cutler Peck, Carolee M; Grover, Sandeep; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    A 61-year-old African American man presented with decreased vision of 2 months duration. Examination revealed a significant lenticular astigmatism and sectoral cataract as a result of an amelanotic iris lesion. Slitlamp optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed angle crowding. An excisional biopsy was performed along with phacoemulsification in the right eye, with intraocular lens implantation for meridional lenticular astigmatism. Histopathology and histoimmunochemistry confirmed a diagnosis of uveal mesectodermal leiomyoma. Lenticular astigmatism may be a subtle sign of an anterior segment tumor. Anterior segment slitlamp OCT is an effective tool in diagnosing as well as monitoring small interval changes in these types of tumors. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lens-induced astigmatism after perforating scleral injury.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Klaus; Moradi, Said; Rudolph, Guenther; Boergen, Klaus Peter

    2002-10-01

    Within 6 weeks of a penetrating scleral injury that included vitreous prolapse, a 6-year-old boy developed lenticular astigmatism with a regular component of 5.5 diopters (D). Visible indentational folds in the posterior lens capsule, caused by anterior vitreous fibers and anterior hyaloid, were presumed to be the origin of the astigmatism. Because of decreased visual acuity and the suspicion of early amblyopia, a pars plana vitrectomy with removal of the anterior hyaloid and the critical anterior vitreous fibers was performed. Dense fibrotic tissue between the lens equator and the site of the original scleral perforation limited reduction of the preoperative astigmatism to 4.0 D. However, the striae-like lenticular deformation disappeared completely, and full visual acuity was restored. During the 12-month follow-up, the lens remained clear

  18. Status of astigmatism-corrected Czerny-Turner spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinhang; Dong, Keyan; An, Yan; Wang, Zhenye

    2016-10-01

    In order to analysis and design the Czerny-Turner structure spectrometer with the high resolution and high energy reception, various astigmatism methods of the Czerny-Turner structure are reported. According to the location of plane grating, the astigmatism correction methods are divided into two categories, one is the plane grating in divergent illumination, another is the plane grating in parallel illumination. Basing on the different methods, the anastigmatic principle and methods are analyzed, the merits and demerits of the above methods are summarized and evaluated. The theoretical foundation for design of broadband eliminating astigmatism Czerny-Turner spectrometer and the reference value for the further design work are laid by the summary and analyzing in this paper.

  19. Quasi-Bessel beams from asymmetric and astigmatic illumination sources.

    PubMed

    Müller, Angelina; Wapler, Matthias C; Schwarz, Ulrich T; Reisacher, Markus; Holc, Katarzyna; Ambacher, Oliver; Wallrabe, Ulrike

    2016-07-25

    We study the spatial intensity distribution and the self-reconstruction of quasi-Bessel beams produced from refractive axicon lenses with edge emitting laser diodes as asymmetric and astigmatic illumination sources. Comparing these to a symmetric mono-mode fiber source, we find that the asymmetry results in a transition of a quasi-Bessel beam into a bow-tie shaped pattern and eventually to a line shaped profile at a larger distance along the optical axis. Furthermore, we analytically estimate and discuss the effects of astigmatism, substrate modes and non-perfect axicons. We find a good agreement between experiment, simulation and analytic considerations. Results include the derivation of a maximal axicon angle related to astigmatism of the illuminating beam, impact of laser diode beam profile imperfections like substrate modes and a longitudinal oscillation of the core intensity and radius caused by a rounded axicon tip.

  20. Topographical analysis of corneal astigmatism in patients with tilted-disc syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Banu; Irkec, Murat; Gedik, Sansal; Orhan, Mehmet; Erdener, Uğur

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate the corneal topography in patients with tilted-disc syndrome to determine the relationship between optic disc dysversion and corneal astigmatism and the pattern of astigmatism in these patients. The study included 23 eyes of the 13 tilted-disc syndrome patients with spheric refractive errors ranging between +1.00 D and -9.00 D (mean -4.00 +/- 3.4 D) and astigmatic errors ranging between -0.50 and -4.50 D (mean -1.95 +/- 0.93 D). Corneal topography was performed by computer-assisted videokeratoscope topographic modelling system 2 (TMS-2) and incidence of corneal astigmatism, corneal topographic patterns, and mean values of the topographic indices were determined. Corneal topographic analysis showed corneal astigmatism in 22 out of 23 patients with tilted discs. Corneal astigmatism was symmetric bow tie pattern in 10 eyes (45.45%), asymmetric bow tie pattern in 11 eyes (50%) and irregular in 1 eye (4.5%). Among the patients with bow tie pattern group (21 eyes), 14 eyes had with-the-rule astigmatism, 1 eye had against-the-rule astigmatism, and 6 eyes had oblique astigmatism. In 18 eyes, astigmatism was corneal, whereas combined corneal and lenticular in 4 eyes and lenticular in 1 eye. In the majority of tilted-disc cases, ocular astigmatism is mainly corneal. Morphogenetic factors in the development of the tilted disc might possibly influence the corneal development in such a way to result in corneal astigmatism.

  1. Viability and morphological changes of Acanthamoeba spp. cysts after treatment with Effective microorganisms (EM).

    PubMed

    Sampaotong, Tanitta; Lek-Uthai, Usa; Roongruangchai, Jantima; Roongruangchai, Kosol

    2016-06-01

    Acanthamoeba is a free-living opportunistic protozoan parasite that is found in diverse environments. It can cause keratitis, mostly related to inappropriate use of contact lenses, as well as life threatening diseases including encephalitis, disseminated sinusitis, and skin ulcers. This study investigated morphological changes and fine structures of the cyst form of Acanthamoeba spp. after treatment with effective microorganisms (EM™) using light and scanning electron microscopies. Acanthamoeba cysts treated with 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, and undiluted EM™ showed higher percentages of non-viable cysts than those treated with 1:8, 1:10, 1:100, 1:200, and 1:400 EM™ and at 5 days post-treatment developed from cystic stage to trophozoite stage. Acanthamoeba cysts treated at concentrations of 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, and undiluted EM™ exhibited cytoplasmic clumping and shrinkage of amoeba cells away from cyst walls. The effective EM™ concentration lethal to Acanthamoeba spp. cyst could provide information to monitor the environmental control system.

  2. Isolation and Genotyping of Acanthamoeba spp. as Neglected Parasites in North of Iran.

    PubMed

    Shokri, Azar; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Daryani, Ahmad; Sharif, Mehdi

    2016-08-01

    Acanthamoeba, a free-living amoeba, is widely distributed in the environment, water sources, soil, dust, and air. It can cause keratitis in contact lens wearers with poor hygiene and also fatal granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this study was to gain some insights into the distribution and genotypes of the potentially pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba present in water sources in north of Iran. Total 43 Acanthamoeba species were isolated from 77 water samples taken from different water sources within the Mazandaran province in Northern Iran (Sari city and suburbs). Isolates were identified based on cyst and trophozoite morphological characteristics as well genetics. PCR fragments corresponding to the small-subunit 18S rRNA gene were sequenced for 20 of 43 positive isolates. The results revealed that 83.3% of sequenced isolates belonged to the T4 genotype and the rest belonged to the T2 genotype. Our results indicated that Acanthamoeba is widely distributed in Sari city. As the incidence in Iran of amoebic keratitis has increased in recent years, the exact estimation of the prevalence of this amoeba and its predominant genotype may play a crucial role in prevention of the disease. Sari city has several rivers, seashores, and natural recreational amenities, which attract visitors during the year. This is the first report of Acanthamoeba genotypes from water sources in Sari city, Mazandaran province of Iran, and the results suggest that more attention is needed to protect the visiting population and immunocompromised individuals.

  3. A multisystemic Acanthamoeba infection in a dog in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Valladares, María; Reyes-Batlle, María; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Dorta-Gorrín, Alexis; Comyn-Afonso, Estefanía; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Maciver, Sutherland K; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-10-15

    A 22-month-old male Spanish water dog was hospitalized after its physical examination revealed fever and movement difficulty. After 24h, the dog was found to have a high fever (39.5 °C) and was treated empirically with doxycycline/ciprofloxacin. At 48 h, after submission the fever rose to 41 °C and the animal presented with a stiff neck and dehydration. Peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were sampled and trophozoites with an Acanthamoeba-like morphology were observed in the CSF. PCR specific for Acanthamoeba, Naegleria fowleri and Balamuthia mandrillaris were performed and the CSF sample found positive for Acanthamoeba. Lungs, kidney, liver and spleen samples were collected post mortem. All collected organ samples were positive for Acanthamoeba by PCR, thus confirming a multisystemic infection. Water samples taken at a suspected site of infection yielded an almost identical PCR fragment to those of the clinical samples, indicating that this was probably where the infection originated. This is the first report of a fatal case of Acanthamoeba disseminated infection in a dog in Spain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Failure of chemotherapy in the first reported cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Chaudhry, Tanveer; Lakhundi, Sahreena; Ahmad, Khabir; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis is a painful and progressive infection of the cornea that can result in loss of vision. Here, for the first time in Pakistan, we report two cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis. The first patient was a 37-year-old female who presented with severe itching, redness, pain, along with loss of vision. The patient was a regular soft contact lens wearer. The second patient was a 25-year-old female who had been using soft contact lenses for the past two years. She presented with a burning sensation and extreme pain, along with loss of vision. Both patients were treated for a possible microbial keratitis with topical moxifloxacin hydrochloride drops, vancomycin drops, propamidine isethionate ointment, amphotericin B drops, and amikacin drops. However, the response was inadequate and both patients were referred for corneal transplant. Acanthamoeba castellanii was isolated by placing contact lenses and contact lens cases on non-nutrient agar plates containing a lawn of non-invasive Escherichia coli K-12 HB101 bacteria. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genus-specific probes confirmed the identity of Acanthamoeba spp., whereas the morphological characteristics of trophozoites and cysts were suggestive of A. castellanii in both cases. With growing use of contact lenses for vision correction/cosmetic use coupled with sub-standard lens care in this region and the possibility of non-contact lens-associated Acanthamoeba keratitis, a need for increased awareness of this sight-threatening infection is discussed further. PMID:24548160

  5. Acanthamoeba genotypes T3 and T4 as causative agents of amoebic keratitis in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Vanzzini-Zago, Virginia; Hernandez-Martinez, Dolores; Gonzalez-Robles, Arturo; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Ramirez-Flores, Elizabeth; Oregon-Miranda, Eric; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Martinez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2016-02-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed worldwide. Some genera included in this group act as opportunistic pathogens causing fatal encephalitis and Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), a sight-threatening infection of the cornea associated with the use of soft contact lenses that could even end in blindness if an early diagnosis and treatment are not achieved. Furthermore, the numbers of AK cases keep rising worldwide mainly due to an increase of contact lens wearers and lack of hygiene in the maintenance of lenses and their cases. In Mexico, no cases of AK have been described so far although the isolation of other pathogenic FLA such as Naegleria fowleri and Balamuthia mandrillaris from both clinical and environmental sources has been reported. The present study reports two cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis diagnosed in two patients admitted to the Hospital "Luis Sánchez Bulnes" for Blindness Prevention in Mexico City, Mexico. Corneal scrapes and contact lenses were checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba strains in both patients. Strains were axenized after initial isolation to classify at the genotype level. After sequencing the diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region located on the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene of Acanthamoeba, genotype T3 and genotype T4 were identified in clinical case 1 and 2, respectively. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of AK in Mexico in the literature and the first description of Acanthamoeba genotypes T3 and T4 as causative agents of amoebic infection.

  6. Amoebicidal Activity of Caffeine and Maslinic Acid by the Induction of Programmed Cell Death in Acanthamoeba

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Navarro, Carmen M.; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Reyes-Batlle, María; Fouque, Emilie; Osuna, Antonio; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E.; Héchard, Yann; Maciver, Sutherland K.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are the causal agents of a sight-threatening ulceration of the cornea called Acanthamoeba keratitis, as well as the rare but usually fatal disease granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. Although there are many therapeutic options for the treatment of Acanthamoeba infections, they are generally lengthy and/or have limited efficacy. For the best clinical outcome, treatments should target both the trophozoite and the cyst stages, as cysts are known to confer resistance to treatment. In this study, we document the activities of caffeine and maslinic acid against both the trophozoite and the cyst stages of three clinical strains of Acanthamoeba. These drugs were chosen because they are reported to inhibit glycogen phosphorylase, which is required for encystation. Maslinic acid is also reported to be an inhibitor of extracellular proteases, which may be relevant since the protease activities of Acanthamoeba species are correlated with their pathogenicity. We also provide evidence for the first time that both drugs exert their anti-amoebal effects through programmed cell death. PMID:28320723

  7. Corneal coupling of astigmatism applied to incisional and ablative surgery.

    PubMed

    Alpins, Noel; Ong, James K Y; Stamatelatos, George

    2014-11-01

    To redefine measures of corneal coupling for use with incisional and ablation procedures for astigmatism. Private clinics, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Retrospective nonrandomized study. The measures known as the coupling ratio (CR) and coupling constant (CC) were redefined to ensure validity in most cases of incisional procedures and laser vision correction procedures. In addition, a new measure--the coupling adjustment (CAdj)--was developed to quantify the amount of spherical adjustment that must be applied to compensate for coupling that occurs as a result of astigmatism treatment. These quantitative measures of coupling were applied to retrospective data to show their applicability. Pure myopic, compound myopic, and compound hyperopic astigmatism excimer laser treatments showed a CR close to zero, a CC close to 0.5, and a CAdj close to zero. Incision LRIs showed a CR close to 1.0 and a CC close to zero. In all cases, the coupling measures were consistent for treatments with a larger astigmatic component (>1.0 diopter) but variable when the astigmatic component of the treatment was smaller. The revised definitions of CR and CC can be used with incisional and ablative surgery. Incorporating the CAdj into the planning of spherocylindrical treatments allows one to factor in the effect of the astigmatic treatment on the spherical component and thus to more accurately target the desired spherical equivalent. Dr. Alpins and Mr. Stamatelatos have a financial interest in the Assort software program. Dr. Ong is an employee of Assort. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oregon Elks Children's Eye Clinic vision screening results for astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Joannah; Dale, Talitha; Herrera, Daniel; Karr, Daniel

    2018-04-19

    In the Elks Preschool Vision Screening program, which uses the plusoptiX S12 to screen children 36-60 months of age, the most common reason for over-referral, using the 1.50 D referral criterion, was found to be astigmatism. The goal of this study was to compare the accuracy of the 2.25 D referral criterion for astigmatism to the 1.50 D referral criterion using screening data from 2013-2014. Vision screenings were conducted on Head Start children 36-72 months of age by Head Start teachers and Elks Preschool Vision Screening staff using the plusoptiX S12. Data on 4,194 vision screenings in 2014 and 4,077 in 2013 were analyzed. Area under the curve (AUC) and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis were performed to determine the optimal referral criteria. A t test and scatterplot analysis were performed to compare how many children required treatment using the different criteria. The medical records of 136 (2.25 D) and 117 children (1.50 D) who were referred by the plusoptiX screening for potential astigmatism and received dilated eye examinations from their local eye doctors were reviewed retrospectively. Mean subject age was 4 years. Treatment for astigmatism was prescribed to 116 of 136 using the 2.25 D setting compared to 60 of 117 using the 1.50 D setting. In 2013 the program used the 1.50 D setting for astigmatism. Changing the astigmatism setting to 2.25 D; , 85% of referrals required treatment, reducing false positives by 34%. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The effect of astigmatism axis on visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Mimouni, Michael; Nemet, Achia; Pokroy, Russell; Sela, Tzahi; Munzer, Gur; Kaiserman, Igor

    2017-05-11

    To evaluate the effect of astigmatism axis on uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) in emmetropic eyes that underwent laser refractive surgery. This retrospective study included patients who underwent laser in situ keratomileusis or photorefractive keratectomy between January 2000 and December 2015 at the Care-Vision Laser Centers, Tel Aviv, Israel. Eyes with a 3-month postoperative spherical equivalent between -0.5 D and 0.5 D were included in this study. Eyes with ocular comorbidities and planned ametropia were excluded. Study eyes were divided into 3 groups according to the steep astigmatic axis: with the rule (WTR) (60-120), oblique (31-59 or 121-149), and against the rule (ATR) (0-30 or 150-180). The UDVA of these 3 groups was compared. The oblique group was divided into oblique ATR and oblique WTR, which were compared with each other. A total of 17,416 consecutive eyes of 8,708 patients were studied. The WTR eyes (n = 10,651) had significantly better UDVA (logMAR 0.01 ± 0.08) than the oblique (n = 3,141, logMAR 0.02 ± 0.09) and ATR eyes (n = 3,624, logMAR 0.02 ± 0.10) (p<0.001). The oblique WTR group had significantly better UDVA than the oblique ATR group (p<0.001). The UDVA of the oblique and ATR groups was similar. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the group accounted for 15% of the UDVA variance (p = 0.04). The astigmatic axis has a small but significant effect on UDVA in emmetropic eyes; WTR was better than oblique and ATR astigmatism. Therefore, when correcting astigmatism, it may be preferable to err towards WTR astigmatism.

  10. Does correcting astigmatism with toric lenses improve driving performance?

    PubMed

    Cox, Daniel J; Banton, Thomas; Record, Steven; Grabman, Jesse H; Hawkins, Ronald J

    2015-04-01

    Driving is a vision-based activity of daily living that impacts safety. Because visual disruption can compromise driving safety, contact lens wearers with astigmatism may pose a driving safety risk if they experience residual blur from spherical lenses that do not correct their astigmatism or if they experience blur from toric lenses that rotate excessively. Given that toric lens stabilization systems are continually improving, this preliminary study tested the hypothesis that astigmats wearing toric contact lenses, compared with spherical lenses, would exhibit better overall driving performance and driving-specific visual abilities. A within-subject, single-blind, crossover, randomized design was used to evaluate driving performance in 11 young adults with astigmatism (-0.75 to -1.75 diopters cylinder). Each participant drove a highly immersive, virtual reality driving simulator (210 degrees field of view) with (1) no correction, (2) spherical contact lens correction (ACUVUE MOIST), and (3) toric contact lens correction (ACUVUE MOIST for Astigmatism). Tactical driving skills such as steering, speed management, and braking, as well as operational driving abilities such as visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and foot and arm reaction time, were quantified. There was a main effect for type of correction on driving performance (p = 0.05). Correction with toric lenses resulted in significantly safer tactical driving performance than no correction (p < 0.05), whereas correction with spherical lenses did not differ in driving safety from no correction (p = 0.118). Operational tests differentiated corrected from uncorrected performance for both spherical (p = 0.008) and toric (p = 0.011) lenses, but they were not sensitive enough to differentiate toric from spherical lens conditions. Given previous research showing that deficits in these tactical skills are predictive of future real-world collisions, these preliminary data suggest that correcting low to moderate

  11. Satisfaction and convenience of using terpenoid-impregnated eyelid wipes and teaching method in people without blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Tian Yu; Yeo, Sharon; Tong, Louis

    2018-01-01

    Demodex infestations cause blepharitis and are difficult to treat. Recently, a new type of eyelid wipes with terpenoids has been found effective. We aim to evaluate patient satisfaction after short-term use and compare two teaching modalities on the techniques of use. Eligible participants were taught to use eyelid wipes (Cliradex ® ) by either live or online video demonstration based on random allocation. Participants used the wipes twice daily for a week. All participants had prior evaluation of socioeconomic status, dry eye symptoms, and meibomian gland features. After 1 week, competence of use was assessed by participants showing their technique to the investigator, and a questionnaire on comfort, ease, and convenience of use was administered. Higher scores indicate greater satisfaction, and these levels are compared among the two teaching modalities using chi square. A total of 50 participants were recruited, with a mean age of 42±16 years, and 88% of the participants were females. Overall, median comfort level was 4.0 (range: 1-6), ease level was 5.0 (3-6), and convenience level was 5.0 (2-6). Median stinging was 2.0 (1-4), which corresponded to some but mild stinging. The median competence level was 4.0 (2-4), which corresponded to excellent competence. These satisfactory levels (ease, comfort, and convenience) experienced were not significantly associated with different socioeconomic indicators, that is, housing type, income, highest education level, and were not different between teaching methods ( p >0.05). Short-term use of Cliradex eyelid wipes seems to be acceptable to most people. The teaching instructions before using these wipes were equally effective - whether live or online video demonstration was used.

  12. Satisfaction and convenience of using terpenoid-impregnated eyelid wipes and teaching method in people without blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Tian Yu; Yeo, Sharon; Tong, Louis

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Demodex infestations cause blepharitis and are difficult to treat. Recently, a new type of eyelid wipes with terpenoids has been found effective. We aim to evaluate patient satisfaction after short-term use and compare two teaching modalities on the techniques of use. Patients and methods Eligible participants were taught to use eyelid wipes (Cliradex®) by either live or online video demonstration based on random allocation. Participants used the wipes twice daily for a week. All participants had prior evaluation of socioeconomic status, dry eye symptoms, and meibomian gland features. After 1 week, competence of use was assessed by participants showing their technique to the investigator, and a questionnaire on comfort, ease, and convenience of use was administered. Higher scores indicate greater satisfaction, and these levels are compared among the two teaching modalities using chi square. Results A total of 50 participants were recruited, with a mean age of 42±16 years, and 88% of the participants were females. Overall, median comfort level was 4.0 (range: 1–6), ease level was 5.0 (3–6), and convenience level was 5.0 (2–6). Median stinging was 2.0 (1–4), which corresponded to some but mild stinging. The median competence level was 4.0 (2–4), which corresponded to excellent competence. These satisfactory levels (ease, comfort, and convenience) experienced were not significantly associated with different socioeconomic indicators, that is, housing type, income, highest education level, and were not different between teaching methods (p>0.05). Conclusion Short-term use of Cliradex eyelid wipes seems to be acceptable to most people. The teaching instructions before using these wipes were equally effective – whether live or online video demonstration was used. PMID:29379270

  13. Longitudinal Change and Stability of Refractive, Keratometric, and Internal Astigmatism in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Erin M.; Miller, Joseph M.; Twelker, J. Daniel; Sherrill, Duane L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess longitudinal change in refractive, keratometric, and internal astigmatism in a sample of students from a population with a high prevalence of with-the-rule (WTR) astigmatism and to determine the optical origins of changes in refractive astigmatism. Methods. A retrospective analysis of longitudinal measurements of right eye refractive and keratometric astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American children was conducted. Changes in refractive and keratometric astigmatism per year were compared in a younger cohort (n = 1594, 3 to <11 years old) and an older cohort (n = 648, 11 to <19 years old). Data were analyzed in clinical notation (Cyl) and vector notation (J0, J45). Results. On average, refractive astigmatism (means: 1.19 diopters [D] Cyl, +0.54 J0, +0.03 J45) resulted primarily from WTR corneal astigmatism (means: +0.85 J0, −0.02 J45) and against-the-rule (ATR) internal astigmatism (means: −0.31 J0, +0.05 J45). Mean longitudinal changes in astigmatism were statistically significant (younger cohort −0.02 D/y Cyl; older cohort +0.06 D/y Cyl). In the younger cohort, astigmatism decreased with age in low and moderate astigmats (<3.00 D) and increased with age in high astigmats (≥3.00 D). In the older cohort, astigmatism increased with age across all levels of astigmatism. Longitudinal changes in keratometric and internal astigmatism were negatively correlated in both cohorts. Conclusions. Cross-sectional data suggest the presence of a constant ATR contribution from internal astigmatism (0.60 D Cyl) that is close to the 0.50 D ATR constant reported by Javal and others. Highly astigmatic 3- to <11-year-old children and children older than age 11 years show a small (not clinically significant) increase in astigmatism with age. A negative correlation between changes in keratometric astigmatism and internal astigmatism suggests an active compensation that may contribute to the stability of astigmatism in Tohono O'odham children. PMID:25515577

  14. Generally astigmatic Gaussian beam representation and optimization using skew rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbourne, Paul D.

    2014-12-01

    Methods are presented of using skew rays to optimize a generally astigmatic optical system to obtain the desired Gaussian beam focus and minimize aberrations, and to calculate the propagating generally astigmatic Gaussian beam parameters at any point. The optimization method requires very little computation beyond that of a conventional ray optimization, and requires no explicit calculation of the properties of the propagating Gaussian beam. Unlike previous methods, the calculation of beam parameters does not require matrix calculations or the introduction of non-physical concepts such as imaginary rays.

  15. Nonparaxial wave beams and packets with general astigmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, A. P.; Plachenov, A. B.; Chamorro-Posada, P.

    2012-04-01

    We present exact solutions of the wave equation involving an arbitrary wave form with a phase closely similar to the general astigmatic phase of paraxial wave optics. Special choices of the wave form allow general astigmatic beamlike and pulselike waves with a Gaussian-type unrestricted localization in space and time. These solutions are generalizations of the known Bateman-type waves obtained from the connection existing between beamlike solutions of the paraxial parabolic equation and relatively undistorted wave solutions of the wave equation. As a technical tool, we present a full description of parametrizations of 2×2 symmetric matrices with positive imaginary part, which arise in the theory of Gaussian beams.

  16. Acanthamoeba and Dictyostelium as Cellular Models for Legionella Infection

    PubMed Central

    Swart, A. Leoni; Harrison, Christopher F.; Eichinger, Ludwig; Steinert, Michael; Hilbi, Hubert

    2018-01-01

    Environmental bacteria of the genus Legionella naturally parasitize free-living amoebae. Upon inhalation of bacteria-laden aerosols, the opportunistic pathogens grow intracellularly in alveolar macrophages and can cause a life-threatening pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. Intracellular replication in amoebae and macrophages takes place in a unique membrane-bound compartment, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). LCV formation requires the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system, which translocates literally hundreds of “effector” proteins into host cells, where they modulate crucial cellular processes for the pathogen's benefit. The mechanism of LCV formation appears to be evolutionarily conserved, and therefore, amoebae are not only ecologically significant niches for Legionella spp., but also useful cellular models for eukaryotic phagocytes. In particular, Acanthamoeba castellanii and Dictyostelium discoideum emerged over the last years as versatile and powerful models. Using genetic, biochemical and cell biological approaches, molecular interactions between amoebae and Legionella pneumophila have recently been investigated in detail with a focus on the role of phosphoinositide lipids, small and large GTPases, autophagy components and the retromer complex, as well as on bacterial effectors targeting these host factors. PMID:29552544

  17. Survival of taylorellae in the environmental amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Taylorella equigenitalis is the causative agent of contagious equine metritis, a sexually-transmitted infection of Equidae characterised in infected mares by abundant mucopurulent vaginal discharge and a variable degree of vaginitis, cervicitis or endometritis, usually resulting in temporary infertility. The second species of the Taylorella genus, Taylorella asinigenitalis, is considered non-pathogenic, although mares experimentally infected with this bacterium can develop clinical signs of endometritis. To date, little is understood about the basic molecular virulence and persistence mechanisms employed by the Taylorella species. To clarify these points, we investigated whether the host-pathogen interaction model Acanthamoeba castellanii was a suitable model for studying taylorellae. Results We herein demonstrate that both species of the Taylorella genus are internalised by a mechanism involving the phagocytic capacity of the amoeba and are able to survive for at least one week inside the amoeba. During this one-week incubation period, taylorellae concentrations remain strikingly constant and no overt toxicity to amoeba cells was observed. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence of the capacity of taylorellae to survive in a natural environment other than the mammalian genital tract, and shows that the alternative infection model, A. castellanii, constitutes a relevant alternative system to assess host-pathogen interactions of taylorellae. The survival of taylorellae inside the potential environmental reservoir A. castellanii brings new insight, fostering a broader understanding of taylorellae biology and its potential natural ecological niche. PMID:24641089

  18. Characterization of actin filament severing by actophorin from Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Actophorin is an abundant 15-kD actinbinding protein from Acanthamoeba that is thought to form a nonpolymerizable complex with actin monomers and also to reduce the viscosity of polymerized actin by severing filaments (Cooper et al., 1986. J. Biol. Chem. 261:477-485). Homologous proteins have been identified in sea urchin, chicken, and mammalian tissues. Chemical crosslinking produces a 1:1 covalent complex of actin and actophorin. Actophorin and profilin compete for crosslinking to actin monomers. The influence of actophorin on the steady-state actin polymer concentration gave a Kd of 0.2 microM for the complex of actophorin with actin monomers. Several new lines of evidence, including assays for actin filament ends by elongation rate and depolymerization rate, show that actophorin severs actin filaments both at steady state and during spontaneous polymerization. This is confirmed by direct observation in the light microscope and by showing that the effects of actophorin on the low shear viscosity of polymerized actin cannot be explained by monomer sequestration. The severing activity of actophorin is strongly inhibited by stoichiometric concentrations of phalloidin or millimolar concentrations of inorganic phosphate. PMID:1757465

  19. Legionella pneumophila prevents proliferation of its natural host Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    Mengue, Luce; Régnacq, Matthieu; Aucher, Willy; Portier, Emilie; Héchard, Yann; Samba-Louaka, Ascel

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a ubiquitous, pathogenic, Gram-negative bacterium responsible for legionellosis. Like many other amoeba-resistant microorganisms, L. pneumophila resists host clearance and multiplies inside the cell. Through its Dot/Icm type IV secretion system, the bacterium injects more than three hundred effectors that modulate host cell physiology in order to promote its own intracellular replication. Here we report that L. pneumophila prevents proliferation of its natural host Acanthamoeba castellanii. Infected amoebae could not undergo DNA replication and no cell division was observed. The Dot/Icm secretion system was necessary for L. pneumophila to prevent the eukaryotic proliferation. The absence of proliferation was associated with altered amoebal morphology and with a decrease of mRNA transcript levels of CDC2b, a putative regulator of the A. castellanii cell cycle. Complementation of CDC28-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the CDC2b cDNA was sufficient to restore proliferation of CDC28-deficient S. cerevisiae and suggests for the first time that CDC2b from A. castellanii could be functional and a bona fide cyclin-dependent kinase. Hence, our results reveal that L. pneumophila impairs proliferation of A. castellanii and this effect could involve the cell cycle protein CDC2b. PMID:27805070

  20. Acanthamoeba keratitis: the role of domestic tap water contamination in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Kilvington, Simon; Gray, Trevor; Dart, John; Morlet, Nigel; Beeching, John R; Frazer, David G; Matheson, Melville

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in the UK is some 15 times that in the United States and seven times that in Holland. To investigate reasons for this higher frequency, a study of the role of domestic tap water as a potential source of AK was undertaken. Tap outlets from the homes of 27 patients with culture-proven AK were sampled and cultured for free-living amoebae (FLA). For all Acanthamoeba isolates, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and cytochrome oxidase (cox 1/2) sequence typing was performed to determine the similarity between corneal and tap water isolates. FLA, including Acanthamoeba, were isolated from 24 (89%) of 27 homes, and the presence within the homes varied significantly with tap water temperature and location: 19 (76%) of 25 bathroom sink cold taps sampled compared with 6 (24%) of 25 hot and 9 (47%) of 19 kitchen cold taps compared with 3 (16%) of 19 of hot kitchen taps. Acanthamoeba were isolated from 8 (30%) of 27 homes (five bathroom sink cold taps, one cloakroom cold tap, one bath, and one bedroom sink mixer [hot/cold] taps). In six cases, identical Acanthamoeba mtDNA profiles were found for the clinical and home tap water isolates. In keeping with UK plumbing practice, 24 of 27 homes had internal roof water storage tanks to supply domestic taps, but the mains fed the kitchen cold tap. Water storage tanks promote colonization of domestic water with FLA, including Acanthamoeba, and hence increase the risk of AK. This accounts for the significantly greater incidence of AK in the UK and supports advice to avoid using tap water in contact lens care routines.

  1. Killing of diverse eye pathogens (Acanthamoeba spp., Fusarium solani, and Chlamydia trachomatis) with alcohols.

    PubMed

    Aqeel, Yousuf; Rodriguez, Raquel; Chatterjee, Aparajita; Ingalls, Robin R; Samuelson, John

    2017-02-01

    Blindness is caused by eye pathogens that include a free-living protist (Acanthamoeba castellanii, A. byersi, and/or other Acanthamoeba spp.), a fungus (Fusarium solani), and a bacterium (Chlamydia trachomatis). Hand-eye contact is likely a contributor to the spread of these pathogens, and so hand washing with soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizers (when water is not available) might reduce their transmission. Recently we showed that ethanol and isopropanol in concentrations present in hand sanitizers kill walled cysts of Giardia and Entamoeba, causes of diarrhea and dysentery, respectively. The goal here was to determine whether these alcohols might kill infectious forms of representative eye pathogens (trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba, conidia of F. solani, or elementary bodies of C. trachomatis). We found that treatment with 63% ethanol or 63% isopropanol kills >99% of Acanthamoeba trophozoites after 30 sec exposure, as shown by labeling with propidium iodide (PI) and failure to grow in culture. In contrast, Acanthamoeba cysts, which contain cellulose fibers in their wall, are relatively more resistant to these alcohols, particularly isopropanol. Depending upon the strain tested, 80 to 99% of Acanthamoeba cysts were killed by 63% ethanol after 2 min and 95 to 99% were killed by 80% ethanol after 30 sec, as shown by PI labeling and reduced rates of excystation in vitro. Both ethanol and isopropanol (63% for 30 sec) kill >99% of F. solani conidia, which have a wall of chitin and glucan fibrils, as demonstrated by PI labeling and colony counts on nutrient agar plates. Both ethanol and isopropanol (63% for 60 sec) inactivate 96 to 99% of elementary bodies of C. trachomatis, which have a wall of lipopolysaccharide but lack peptidoglycan, as measured by quantitative cultures to calculate inclusion forming units. In summary, alcohols kill infectious forms of Acanthamoeba, F. solani, and C. trachomatis, although longer times and higher ethanol

  2. Infections caused by pathogenic free-living amebas (Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba sp.) in horses.

    PubMed

    Kinde, Hailu; Read, Deryck H; Daft, Barbara M; Manzer, Michael; Nordhausen, Robert W; Kelly, Daryl J; Fuerst, Paul A; Booton, Gregory; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2007-05-01

    This article describes amebic infections in 4 horses: granulomatous amebic encephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba culbertsoni and systemic infections caused by Acanthamoeba sp. The former infection occurred in 1 of 4 horses spontaneously without any underlying conditions; the latter amebic infection was perhaps "opportunistic" considering the visceral involvement by this protozoan in association with Aspergillus sp. and/or Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas sp. The clinicopathologic findings and demonstration of the amebic organisms using immunohistochemical techniques, culture, polymerase chain reactions, and electron microscopy are presented.

  3. Killing of diverse eye pathogens (Acanthamoeba spp., Fusarium solani, and Chlamydia trachomatis) with alcohols

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Blindness is caused by eye pathogens that include a free-living protist (Acanthamoeba castellanii, A. byersi, and/or other Acanthamoeba spp.), a fungus (Fusarium solani), and a bacterium (Chlamydia trachomatis). Hand-eye contact is likely a contributor to the spread of these pathogens, and so hand washing with soap and water or alcohol–based hand sanitizers (when water is not available) might reduce their transmission. Recently we showed that ethanol and isopropanol in concentrations present in hand sanitizers kill walled cysts of Giardia and Entamoeba, causes of diarrhea and dysentery, respectively. The goal here was to determine whether these alcohols might kill infectious forms of representative eye pathogens (trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba, conidia of F. solani, or elementary bodies of C. trachomatis). Methodology/Principal findings We found that treatment with 63% ethanol or 63% isopropanol kills >99% of Acanthamoeba trophozoites after 30 sec exposure, as shown by labeling with propidium iodide (PI) and failure to grow in culture. In contrast, Acanthamoeba cysts, which contain cellulose fibers in their wall, are relatively more resistant to these alcohols, particularly isopropanol. Depending upon the strain tested, 80 to 99% of Acanthamoeba cysts were killed by 63% ethanol after 2 min and 95 to 99% were killed by 80% ethanol after 30 sec, as shown by PI labeling and reduced rates of excystation in vitro. Both ethanol and isopropanol (63% for 30 sec) kill >99% of F. solani conidia, which have a wall of chitin and glucan fibrils, as demonstrated by PI labeling and colony counts on nutrient agar plates. Both ethanol and isopropanol (63% for 60 sec) inactivate 96 to 99% of elementary bodies of C. trachomatis, which have a wall of lipopolysaccharide but lack peptidoglycan, as measured by quantitative cultures to calculate inclusion forming units. Conclusions/Significance In summary, alcohols kill infectious forms of Acanthamoeba, F. solani, and

  4. The location of incision in cataract surgery and its impact on induced astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Soroush, Sara; Shariati, Reyhane; Miraftab, Mohammad; Yekta, Abbasali

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is a systematic review of previous studies on choosing the best incision site for the correction of astigmatism in cataract surgery and assessing the amount of surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) with each approach. Regardless of astigmatism axis, studies show that using an on-axis incision is associated with favorable results for 0.5-1.0 diopter (D) of astigmatism. In cases with more than 1.0 D astigmatism, paired on-axis incisions can be appreciably efficient in astigmatism correction and cause at least 1.5 D SIA. Considering the amount of SIA, a temporal incision is the best approach when the patient has minimal amounts of corneal astigmatism preoperatively. At higher levels of astigmatism, if no other astigmatism correction method is used simultaneously, the temporal incision is used less frequently; however, since it is associated with the least SIA, it is still the choice site when another correction method is used. The temporal incisions in cataract surgery are associated with little SIA and are appropriate choices for mild preoperative astigmatism. At higher levels of preoperative astigmatism, superior incisions are associated with better results when combined methods are not applied.

  5. Small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in the correction of myopic astigmatism: outcomes and limitations - an update.

    PubMed

    Alió Del Barrio, Jorge L; Vargas, Verónica; Al-Shymali, Olena; Alió, Jorge L

    2017-01-01

    Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE) is a flap-free intrastromal technique for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism. To date, this technique lacks automated centration and cyclotorsion control, so several concerns have been raised regarding its capability to correct moderate or high levels of astigmatism. The objective of this paper is to review the reported SMILE outcomes for the correction of myopic astigmatism associated with a cylinder over 0.75 D, and its comparison with the outcomes reported with the excimer laser-based corneal refractive surgery techniques. A total of five studies clearly reporting SMILE astigmatic outcomes were identified. SMILE shows acceptable outcomes for the correction of myopic astigmatism, although a general agreement exists about the superiority of the excimer laser-based techniques for low to moderate levels of astigmatism. Manual correction of the static cyclotorsion should be adopted for any SMILE astigmatic correction over 0.75 D.

  6. Astigmatism-corrected echelle spectrometer using an off-the-shelf cylindrical lens.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiao; Duan, Fajie; Jiang, Jiajia; Huang, Tingting; Ma, Ling; Lv, Changrong

    2017-10-01

    As a special kind of spectrometer with the Czerny-Turner structure, the echelle spectrometer features two-dimensional dispersion, which leads to a complex astigmatic condition. In this work, we propose an optical design of astigmatism-corrected echelle spectrometer using an off-the-shelf cylindrical lens. The mathematical model considering astigmatism introduced by the off-axis mirrors, the echelle grating, and the prism is established. Our solution features simplified calculation and low-cost construction, which is capable of overall compensation of the astigmatism in a wide spectral range (200-600 nm). An optical simulation utilizing ZEMAX software, astigmatism assessment based on Zernike polynomials, and an instrument experiment is implemented to validate the effect of astigmatism correction. The results demonstrated that astigmatism of the echelle spectrometer was corrected to a large extent, and high spectral resolution better than 0.1 nm was achieved.

  7. Corneal shape and astigmatism: with a note on myopia.

    PubMed Central

    Weale, R A

    1988-01-01

    The elliptical shape and the physiological astigmatism of the normal neonatal human cornea are attributed to the ellipsoidal shape of the eyeball. This in turn is a feature of ocular development. The analysis is used to examine earlier observations on myopia. PMID:3179259

  8. Astigmatic Changes after Horizontal Rectus Muscle Surgery in Intermittent Exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung Woo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the changes of refractive astigmatism after horizontal rectus muscle surgery in intermittent exotropic children. Methods Sixty-nine exotropic patients were retrospectively reviewed. Of those, 35 patients received unilateral lateral rectus recession (BLR group, 35 eyes) and 34 patients received unilateral lateral rectus recession and medial rectus resection (R&R group, 34 eyes). Non-cycloplegic refractions were measured until 6 months postoperatively. Spherical equivalent (SE), J0 and J45 using power vectors were calculated to determine and compare the changes of refractive astigmatism and axis in both groups. Results SE significantly decreased after surgery for the first week and did not changed thereafter in both groups (p = 0.000 and p = 0.018, respectively). In BLR group, J0 showed significant changes at the first week and 1 month after surgery (p = 0.005 and p = 0.016, respectively), but in R&R group, J0 changed significantly between 1 week and 3 months postoperatively (p = 0.023 and p = 0.016, respectively). J45 did not change significantly as time passed in both groups (all p > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the magnitude of changes in SE, J0 and J45 between the two groups after the 6-month follow-up (p = 0.500, p = 0.244 and p = 0.202, respectively). Conclusions Horizontal rectus muscle surgery in intermittent exotropic children tends to induce a statistically significant change in astigmatism in the with-the-rule direction and myopic shift in SE. This astigmatism change seems to occur within the first 3 months after surgery. Thus, astigmatism induced by surgery should be checked and corrected at least 3 months after horizontal strabismus surgery. PMID:23204799

  9. Repair of Irregularly Irregular Astigmatism by Transepithelial Phototherapeutic Keratectomy.

    PubMed

    Guglielmetti, Stefano; Kirton, Amy; Reinstein, Dan Z; Carp, Glenn I; Archer, Timothy J

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the outcome of transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) in the management of irregularly irregular astigmatism. This was a case series of two patients who underwent transepithelial PTK for irregularly irregular astigmatism. In the first case, the patient complained of diplopia due to corneal scarring caused by a metallic foreign body injury. The topography demonstrated irregularly irregular astigmatism with significant asymmetry in the inferotemporal to superonasal axis. In the second case, the patient complained of blurred vision and ghosting caused by significant central epithelial ingrowth through a buttonhole LASIK flap, which was causing a localized irregularity on topography. Due to the localized nature of the irregularities, a transepithelial PTK treatment was preferred to custom ablation given the degree of epithelial masking present. Transepithelial PTK was performed in both cases using the Schwind Amaris 500E excimer laser (Schwind eye-tech-solutions, Kleinostheim, Germany) and an 8-mm optical zone. The ablation depth was planned to reach the depth of the epithelium using a stepwise protocol, reviewing the pattern of the remaining epithelium and regularity of the stromal surface between each ablation. A marked improvement in the regularity of the topography was achieved in both cases, with only regular astigmatism remaining. Both patients reported a subjective improvement in quality of vision and the corrected distance visual acuity improved by one and two lines, respectively. Transepithelial PTK was effective in treating these cases of localized irregularly irregular astigmatism, achieving both objective and subjective improvement in vision. Compensatory epithelial remodeling over the irregularities enabled the transepithelial PTK approach to target the stromal surface irregularities. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(10):714-719.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Astigmatism corrected common path probe for optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanwarpal; Yamada, Daisuke; Tearney, Guillermo

    2017-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) catheters for intraluminal imaging are subject to various artifacts due to reference-sample arm dispersion imbalances and sample arm beam astigmatism. The goal of this work was to develop a probe that minimizes such artifacts. Our probe was fabricated using a single mode fiber at the tip of which a glass spacer and graded index objective lens were spliced to achieve the desired focal distance. The signal was reflected using a curved reflector to correct for astigmatism caused by the thin, protective, transparent sheath that surrounds the optics. The probe design was optimized using Zemax, a commercially available optical design software. Common path interferometric operation was achieved using Fresnel reflection from the tip of the focusing graded index objective lens. The performance of the probe was tested using a custom designed spectrometer-based OCT system. The probe achieved an axial resolution of 15.6 μm in air, a lateral resolution 33 μm, and a sensitivity of 103 dB. A scattering tissue phantom was imaged to test the performance of the probe for astigmatism correction. Images of the phantom confirmed that this common-path, astigmatism-corrected OCT imaging probe had minimal artifacts in the axial, and lateral dimensions. In this work, we developed an astigmatism-corrected, common path probe that minimizes artifacts associated with standard OCT probes. This design may be useful for OCT applications that require high axial and lateral resolutions. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:312-318, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Correction of low corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Pia; Pastore, Marco Rocco; Zanei, Andrea; Umari, Ingrid; Messai, Meriem; Negro, Corrado; Tognetto, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate and compare aspheric toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and aspheric monofocal IOL implantation with limbal relaxing incisions (LRI) to manage low corneal astigmatism (1.0-2.0 D) in cataract surgery. METHODS A prospective randomized comparative clinical study was performed. There were randomly recruited 102 eyes (102 patients) with cataracts associated with corneal astigmatism and divided into two groups. The first group received toric IOL implantation and the second one monofocal IOL implantation with peripheral corneal relaxing incisions. Outcomes considered were: visual acuity, postoperative residual astigmatism, endothelial cell count, the need for spectacles, and patient satisfaction. To determine the postoperative toric axis, all patients who underwent the toric IOL implantation were further evaluated using an OPD Scan III (Nidek Co, Japan). Follow-up lasted 6mo. RESULTS The mean uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCVA) and the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) demonstrated statistically significant improvement after surgery in both groups. At the end of the follow-up the UCVA was statistically better in the patients with toric IOL implants compared to those patients who underwent implantation of monofocal IOL plus LRI. The mean residual refractive astigmatism was of 0.4 D for the toric IOL group and 1.1 D for the LRI group (P<0.01). No difference was observed in the postoperative endothelial cell count between the two groups. CONCLUSION The two surgical procedures demonstrated a significant decrease in refractive astigmatism. Toric IOL implantation was more effective and predictable compared to the limbal relaxing incision. PMID:26309869

  12. Development of a program for toric intraocular lens calculation considering posterior corneal astigmatism, incision-induced posterior corneal astigmatism, and effective lens position.

    PubMed

    Eom, Youngsub; Ryu, Dongok; Kim, Dae Wook; Yang, Seul Ki; Song, Jong Suk; Kim, Sug-Whan; Kim, Hyo Myung

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the toric intraocular lens (IOL) calculation considering posterior corneal astigmatism, incision-induced posterior corneal astigmatism, and effective lens position (ELP). Two thousand samples of corneal parameters with keratometric astigmatism ≥ 1.0 D were obtained using bootstrap methods. The probability distributions for incision-induced keratometric and posterior corneal astigmatisms, as well as ELP were estimated from the literature review. The predicted residual astigmatism error using method D with an IOL add power calculator (IAPC) was compared with those derived using methods A, B, and C through Monte-Carlo simulation. Method A considered the keratometric astigmatism and incision-induced keratometric astigmatism, method B considered posterior corneal astigmatism in addition to the A method, method C considered incision-induced posterior corneal astigmatism in addition to the B method, and method D considered ELP in addition to the C method. To verify the IAPC used in this study, the predicted toric IOL cylinder power and its axis using the IAPC were compared with ray-tracing simulation results. The median magnitude of the predicted residual astigmatism error using method D (0.25 diopters [D]) was smaller than that derived using methods A (0.42 D), B (0.38 D), and C (0.28 D) respectively. Linear regression analysis indicated that the predicted toric IOL cylinder power and its axis had excellent goodness-of-fit between the IAPC and ray-tracing simulation. The IAPC is a simple but accurate method for predicting the toric IOL cylinder power and its axis considering posterior corneal astigmatism, incision-induced posterior corneal astigmatism, and ELP.

  13. Interactions between Human Norovirus Surrogates and Acanthamoeba spp.

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Tun-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the most common cause of food-borne disease outbreaks, as well as virus-related waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States. Here, we hypothesize that common free-living amoebae (FLA)—ubiquitous in the environment, known to interact with pathogens, and frequently isolated from water and fresh produce—could potentially act as reservoirs of HuNoV and facilitate the environmental transmission of HuNoVs. To investigate FLA as reservoirs for HuNoV, the interactions between two Acanthamoeba species, A. castellanii and A. polyphaga, as well as two HuNoV surrogates, murine norovirus type 1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV), were evaluated. The results showed that after 1 h of amoeba-virus incubation at 25°C, 490 and 337 PFU of MNV-1/ml were recovered from A. castellanii and A. polyphaga, respectively, while only few or no FCVs were detected. In addition, prolonged interaction of MNV-1 with amoebae was investigated for a period of 8 days, and MNV-1 was demonstrated to remain stable at around 200 PFU/ml from day 2 to day 8 after virus inoculation in A. castellanii. Moreover, after a complete amoeba life cycle (i.e., encystment and excystment), infectious viruses could still be detected. To determine the location of virus associated with amoebae, immunofluorescence experiments were performed and showed MNV-1 transitioning from the amoeba surface to inside the amoeba over a 24-h period. These results are significant to the understanding of how HuNoVs may interact with other microorganisms in the environment in order to aid in its persistence and survival, as well as potential transmission in water and to vulnerable food products such as fresh produce. PMID:25841006

  14. Visual outcome in Japanese patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    PubMed

    Yamazoe, K; Yamamoto, Y; Shimazaki-Den, S; Shimazaki, J

    2012-04-01

    To identify prognostic factors affecting visual outcome in Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) treated with topical chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG). A total of 35 eyes in 34 patients with AK were treated with 0.02% topical CHG. Patients were divided into two groups according to the final visual outcome: Group 1, final visual acuity (VA) of 20/25 or greater (22 eyes); Group 2, less than 20/25 (13 eyes). We compared these groups and evaluated the effectiveness of topical CHG compared with outcomes in previous reports. Ring infiltrate was observed more often in Group 2 (4.5% vs 61.5%, OR 33.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-333.9, P<0.01). The duration between onset and diagnosis of AK was significantly longer (24.9 days vs 48.4 days, OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06, P = 0.04) and VA at initial examination (log MAR) significantly lower (0.47 vs 1.59, OR 25.5, 95% CI 3.4-186.7, P<0.01) in Group 2 (visual outcome <20/25). Multivariate analysis revealed that only VA at initial examination was independently associated with worse visual outcome (adjusted OR 24.5, 95% CI 1.9-312.6, P=0.01). Seventeen (85.0%) of the 20 eyes diagnosed within 1 month and 24 (82.8%) of 29 eyes diagnosed within 2 months achieved a VA of 20/40 or greater. VA at initial examination was the most predictive factors for final visual outcome in AK. Topical CHG was comparably effective to other treatments, including polyhexamethyl biguanide and propamidine isethionate.

  15. Changes in Astigmatism, Densitometry, and Aberrations After SMILE for Low to High Myopic Astigmatism: A 12-Month Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Iben Bach; Ivarsen, Anders; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate 12-month changes in refraction, visual outcome, corneal densitometry, and postoperative aberrations after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for myopic astigmatism. This 12-month prospective clinical trial comprised 101 eyes (101 patients) treated with SMILE for myopic astigmatism with cylinder of 0.75 to 4.00 diopters (D). The preoperative, 1-week, and 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month examinations included measurement of manifest refraction, uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuity. Astigmatic error vector analysis was performed using Al-pin's method. Densitometry and aberrations were evaluated with Pentacam HR (Oculus Optikgeräte, Wetzlar, Germany). Preoperative spherical equivalent averaged -6.78 ± 1.90 D with 1.81 ± 1.00 D in cylinder correction. After 12 months, 74% and 93% of the eyes were within ±0.50 and ±1.00 D of the attempted refraction, respectively. The logMAR UDVA and CDVA averaged 0.03 ± 0.16 and -0.08 ± 0.09, respectively. Vector analysis showed a with-the-rule undercorrection at 12 months with a mean difference vector of 0.31 D @ 91°. There was a minor counterclockwise rotation of the axis, with an arithmetic angle of error of 0.34° ± 14°. An undercorrection of approximately 11% per diopter of attempted correction was seen at 12 months. Spherical aberrations, coma, and higher order aberrations remained stable during the postoperative period (P < .09). After 12 months, no increase in densitometry could be identified. Treatment of astigmatism with SMILE seems to be predictable and effective, but with an astigmatic undercorrection of approximately 11% and a small counterclockwise rotation of the axis. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(1):11-17.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Evaluating internal and ocular residual astigmatism in Chinese myopic children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanlin; Cheng, Yong; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Mingwei; Wang, Kai

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the nature of internal astigmatism (IA) and ocular residual astigmatism (ORA) in Chinese myopic children and to identify factors that may influence IA and ORA. A total of 206 eyes of 206 myopic children (97 boys and 109 girls; 10.95 ± 2.2 years) were enrolled in this cross sectional study. Total ocular astigmatism (TOA), anterior corneal astigmatism (ACA), posterior corneal astigmatism (PCA) and total corneal astigmatism (TCA) were measured directly using either a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor or a Pentacam. IA and ORA were calculated by Fourier vector analyses (the definitions of IA and ORA are: IA = TOA - ACA - PCA, ORA = TOA - ACA). Spearman or Pearson correlation was adopted to detect multiple factors that may influence IA and ORA, which were then predicted by linear regressions. Modified compensation factors were applied to evaluate the inter-relationship between corneal astigmatism and ORA. While the mean values of IA and ORA were -0.52 DC × 94.8° and -0.63 DC × 93.0°, respectively, the percentage of ORA power over 1.00 D was as high as 28.64%. Full or under-compensation of ACA by ORA predominated in the enrolled subjects. The mean ORA J 0 and J 45 were -0.311 ± 0.236 and -0.032 ± 0.156 D, respectively, negatively correlated with the corresponding ACA components (J 0 : r = -0.276, J 45 : r = -0.616, p < 0.001). While age was not correlated with either IA or ORA (p > 0.1), the power of IA or ORA was correlated inversely with the axial length (IA: r = -0.193, p = 0.005; ORA: r = -0.169, p = 0.015) and positively with the spherical equivalent refraction (IA r = 0.195, p = 0.005; ORA r = 0.213, p = 0.002) and power of corneal astigmatism (IA-ACA: r = 0.302, IA-TCA: r = 0.368, ORA-ACA: r = 0.334, ORA-TCA: r = 0.293). Girls had larger IA powers than boys (0.741 ± 0.345 D vs 0.651 ± 0.340, p = 0.036). Full or under-compensation of ACA by ORA is common in Chinese myopic children, and the

  17. Chemical composition and anti-Acanthamoeba activity of Melaleuca styphelioides essential oil.

    PubMed

    Albouchi, Ferdaous; Sifaoui, Ines; Reyes-Batlle, Maria; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Abderrabba, Manef

    2017-12-01

    Acanthamoeba infections cause serious humans diseases, such as amoebic keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. Melaleuca essential oil has been reported to be effective in treating bacterial and fungal infections. However, the anti-parasitic effects of this essential oil are not well studied. In the present study, we first characterized the composition of the essential oil, extracted from the Tunisian Melaleuca styphelioides leaves, and then tested its effect on the Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the major common compounds were Caryophyllene oxide (23.42%), Spathulenol (20.5%), Isoaromadendrene epoxide (7.45%), Ledol (5.98%), α-Pinene (3.82%), Isopinocarveol (2.18%). Our data also showed that M. styphelioides essential oil inhibited the growth of Acanthamoeba with an IC 50 value of 69.03 ± 9.17 μg/ml. This work suggests M. styphelioides essential oil as a potential anti amoeba drug. Nevertheless, further studies are still needed to further verify the cytotoxicity of the studied oil on human macrophages and check its applicability to treat Acanthamoeba infections in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [The effect of active immunization with Acanthamoeba culbertsoni in mice born to immune mother].

    PubMed

    Kong, H H; Seo, S A; Shin, C O; Im, K I

    1993-06-01

    Acanthamoeba culbertsoni is a pathogenic free-living amoeba causing primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAME) in human and mouse. Several reports on the immune responses in mice with this amoebic infection have been published, but the effects of transferred passive immunity on the active immunization in offspring mice have not been demonstrated. This experiment was done to observe the effect of active immunization with Acanthamoeba culbertsoni in mice born to immune mothers. Acanthamoeba culbertsoni was cultured in the CGV medium axenically. Female BALB/c mice weighing about 20g were immunized through the intraperitoneal injection of Acanthamoeba culbertsoni trophozoites 1 x 10(6) each three times at the interval of one week. Offspring mice were immunized two times. The mice were inoculated intranasally with 1 x 10(4) trophozoites under secobarbital anesthesia. There was a statistical difference in mortality between the transferred immunity group and the active immunization group. Statistical differences were not demonstrated in antibody titer between both groups. But L3T4+ T cell/Ly2+ T cell ratio was increased in the transferred immunity group more than active immunization group of the offspring mice at the age of 5 weeks. There was no differences statistically in mortality between both groups. It was recognized that active immunization in offspring mice born to immune mother could modulate the immune status according to the time of immunization.

  19. Rapid diagnosis of acanthamoeba keratitis using non-nutrient agar with a lawn of E. coli.

    PubMed

    Borin, Samuel; Feldman, Ilan; Ken-Dror, Shifra; Briscoe, Daniel

    2013-02-27

    A patient presented with a corneal foreign body in his only eye. He was treated with prophylactic antibiotics and sent home, but deteriorated. He returned to the hospital 5 days later, and on slit-lamp examination, there was ciliary injection, corneal oedema and a 1 mm × 1 mm corneal abscess with mild anterior uveitis. Corneal scrapings were taken for culture on a non-nutrient agar with a lawn of Escherichia coli, on chocolate agar and on blood agar. He was treated with fortified gentamicin and cefazolin drops. He improved and was discharged 4 days after admission. On day 5, the culture results showed acanthamoeba. He was brought back to the hospital and treated with hourly chlorhexidine drops, ofloxacin six times daily and neomycin/dexamethasone drops once daily. On day 7, he was discharged to continue treatment at home, at which time his visual acuity in that eye was 6/9, and slit-lamp examination showed punctate keratitis and a stromal opacity with mild peripheral infiltration. Culture on non-nutrient agar with a lawn of E. coli is a rapid, reliable and less invasive alternative to corneal biopsy for the diagnosis of acanthamoeba infection. We suggest using this method where acanthamoeba is suspected. Owing to the risk of corneal abscess, orthokeratology should be avoided in an amblyopic patient or an only eye. Acanthamoeba infection may be masked by other eye diseases.

  20. Acanthamoeba in the eye, can the parasite hide even more? Latest developments on the disease.

    PubMed

    Juárez, M M; Tártara, L I; Cid, A G; Real, J P; Bermúdez, J M; Rajal, V B; Palma, S D

    2018-06-01

    Acanthamoeba spp. is a free living protozoan in the environment, but can cause serious diseases. Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), a severe and painful eye infection, must be treated as soon as possible to prevent ulceration of the cornea, loss of visual acuity, and eventually blindness or enucleation. Although the disease affects principally contact lens (CLs) wearers, it is recognized nowadays as a cause of keratitis also in non-CLs wearers. Although the number of infections caused by these amoebae is low, AK is an emerging disease presenting an extended number of cases each year worldwide mostly due to the increasing use of CLs, but also to better diagnostic methods and awareness. There are two principal causes that lead to severe outcomes: misdiagnosis or late diagnosis of the causal agent, and lack of a fully effective therapy due to the existence of a highly resistant cyst stage of Acanthamoeba. Recent studies have reported different genotypes that have not been previously associated with this disease. In addition, Acanthamoeba can act as a reservoir for phylogenetically diverse microorganisms. In this regard, recently giant viruses called Pandoravirus have been found within genotypes producing keratitis. What potential risk this poses is not yet known. This review focuses on an overview of the present status and future prospects of this re-emerging pathology, including features of the parasite, epidemiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, and treatment. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Presence of Acanthamoeba in the ocular surface in a Spanish population of contact lens wearers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martín, Javier; Rocha-Cabrera, Pedro; Reyes-Batlle, María; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Rizo-Liendo, Aitor; Bethencourt-Estrella, Carlos J; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2018-06-26

    Pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba are causative agents of a sight-threatening infection of the cornea known as Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) which mainly affects contact lens wearers and it is commonly related to poor hygiene of contact lenses and their cases. Moreover, treatment of AK is complex due to the existence of a highly resistant cyst stage and if not diagnosed early has poor prognosis, leading to blindness and/or keratoplasty. Even though AK is increasing worldwide as well as awareness among patients and clinicians, it is still a poorly studied pathogen. Additionally, a remaining question to be answered is whether these opportunistic pathogens are present in the ocular surface of healthy contact lens wearers since they are the main group at risk.In order to carry out this study, sterile Schirmer strip tests were collected from a group of individuals all of them contact lens wearers who were attending a local ophthalmology clinic in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. The collected samples (100 eyes of 50 patients) were cultured in 2% Non-Nutrient Agar (NNA) plates and positive plates (16) were then cultured in axenic conditions for further analyses. Molecular analysis classified all isolated strains belonged to Acanthamoeba genotype T4 and osmotolerance and thermotolerance assays revealed that all strains were potentially pathogenic. In conclusion, the ocular surface of contact lens wearers included in this study was colonized by potentially pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba and should be considered as a risk for AK infection in this region and worldwide.

  2. Isolation of Acanthamoeba Spp. from Drinking Waters in Several Hospitals of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, HR; Shafiei, R; Shafiei, F; Sajjadi, SA

    2010-01-01

    Background Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic amphizoic protozoan found in different water sources including swimming pool as well as in sewage. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Acanthamoeba in tap-water samples in Iran. Method In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 94 samples of cold and warm tap-water were collected from different wards of hospitals in 13 cities of Iran in 2007–2008. Free residual chlorine, pH, and temperature of samples were measured. After filtration through multipore nylon membrane, samples were cultured on non-nutrient agar. Then we investigated existence of Acanthamoeba by reverse contrast phase microscope. Results Acanthamoeba was found in 45 samples (48%). Thirty-four and 11 positive samples were collected from cold and warm tap water, respectively. The samples belonged to the category of 20–30°C temperature with 0–2 ppm free residual chlorine and pH 6–7.4 showed the most coincidence to the positive cases. The greatest proportion of positive samples was obtained from Mashhad hospitals, while all samples collected from Arak and Semnan hospitals were negative. Conclusion considering the results of this study and the pathogenic role of this protozoan on patients with immunodeficiency, as well as capability of this microorganism in carrying other pathogens such as Legionella, further studies are needed. What is more important, potable water in hospitals should follow the procedure of treatment and sanitation, in order to prevent the relevant nosocomial infections. PMID:22347240

  3. The type III secretion system is involved in Escherichia coli K1 interactions with Acanthamoeba.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Malik, Huma; Sagheer, Mehwish; Jung, Suk-Yul; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2011-08-01

    The type III secretion system among Gram-negative bacteria is known to deliver effectors into host cell to interfere with host cellular processes. The type III secretion system in Yersina, Pseudomonas and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli have been well documented to be involved in the bacterial pathogenicity. The existence of type III secretion system has been demonstrated in neuropathogenic E. coli K1 strains. Here, it is observed that the deletion mutant of type III secretion system in E. coli strain EC10 exhibited defects in the invasion and intracellular survival in Acanthamoeba castellanii (a keratitis isolate) compared to its parent strain. Next, it was determined whether type III secretion system plays a role in E. coli K1 survival inside Acanthamoeba during the encystment process. Using encystment assays, our findings revealed that the type III secretion system-deletion mutant exhibited significantly reduced survival inside Acanthamoeba cysts compared with its parent strain, EC10 (P<0.01). This is the first demonstration that the type III secretion system plays an important role in E. coli interactions with Acanthamoeba. A complete understanding of how amoebae harbor bacterial pathogens will help design strategies against E. coli transmission to the susceptible hosts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An apparent Acanthamoeba genotype is the product of a chimeric 18S rDNA artifact.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Daniele; Venditti, Danielle

    2018-02-01

    Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are potentially pathogenic protozoa widespread in the environment. The detection/diagnosis as well as environmental survey strategies is mainly based on the identification of the 18S rDNA sequences of the strains that allow the recovery of various distinct genotypes/subgenotypes. The accurate recording of such data is important to better know the environmental distribution of distinct genotypes and how they may be preferentially associated with disease. Recently, a putative new acanthamoebal genotype T99 was introduced, which comprises only environmental clones apparently with some anomalous features. Here, we analyze these sequences through partial treeing and BLAST analyses and find that they are actually chimeras. Our results show that the putative T99 genotype is very likely formed by chimeric sequences including a middle fragment from acanthamoebae of genotype T13, while the 5'- and 3'-end fragments came from a nematode and a cercozoan, respectively. Molecular phylogenies of Acanthamoeba including T99 are consequently erroneous as genotype T99 does not exist in nature. Careful identification of Acanthamoeba genotypes is therefore critical for both phylogenetic and diagnostic applications.

  5. The Changes in Corneal Astigmatism after Botulinum Toxin-A Injection in Patients with Blepharospasm

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Nam Ju; Lee, Hyeon Il

    2006-01-01

    To determine if the involuntary contractions of eyelids may have any effects on the development of corneal astigmatism, we performed this prospective study which includes 19 patients with either essential blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm. In hemifacial spasm, the degree of corneal astigmatism was evaluated between two eyes. Then the topographic changes were checked using vector analysis technique before and after passively opening the eyelids. They were also measured before and at 1 and 6 months after the injection of Botulinum toxin. Resultantly, 20 eyes had the with-the-rule (group1) and 9 eyes against-the-rule (group2) astigmatism. In hemifacial spasm, significantly more astigmatism was found at spastic eyes. The corneal topographic changes after passively opening the eyelids showed 10 eyes with the astigmatic shift to the with-the-rule, while the remaining 19 to the against-the-rule. At 1 month after injection of Botulinum toxin, group 1 showed reduced average corneal astigmatism, whereas group 2 showed increased astigmatism. The astigmatic change vector showed significantly more against-the-rule. In the contrary, 6 months after treatment, corneal astigmatism again increased in group 1 and decreased in group 2. So they took on the appearance of pretreatment astigmatic status eventually. Conclusively eyelids may play an important role in corneal curvature. PMID:16479079

  6. The effect of corneal anterior surface eccentricity on astigmatism after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Park, Choul Yong; Chuck, Roy S; Channa, Prabjot; Lim, Chi-Yeon; Ahn, Byung-Jin

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of cornea eccentricity on induced astigmatism after cataract surgery. The study included 125 eyes of 87 patients. Preoperative corneal astigmatism, pachymetry, and eccentricity were measured. During cataract surgery, the location of the main incision (2.8-mm clear corneal) was selected to be either superior, superior-nasal, superior-temporal, nasal, or temporal to decrease the preexisting corneal astigmatism. Aspheric intraocular lenses were implanted. Keratometry and manifest refraction were recorded 6 months after surgery. Astigmatism was calculated using vector subtraction software. Three parameters significantly affected postoperative astigmatism: preoperative amount of corneal astigmatism, eccentricity of anterior cornea, and location of the main incision. The mean surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) was calculated to be: superior = 0.82 diopters (D), superior-nasal = 0.50 D, superior-temporal = 0.63 D, temporal = 0.45 D, and nasal = 0.55 D. Superior incision induced the greatest SIA and temporal incision induced the smallest SIA. The eccentricity of anterior cornea showed significantly positive correlation with the amount of SIA (P < .001). The preoperative corneal cylinder power showed significantly positive correlation with the amount of SIA (P < .001). Postoperative astigmatism was affected by various factors in cataract surgery. The greatest postoperative astigmatism is expected in corneas with high anterior eccentricity, high preoperative corneal astigmatism, and superior location of the main incision. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Comparing surgically induced astigmatism calculated by means of simulated keratometry versus total corneal refractive power.

    PubMed

    Garzón, Nuria; Rodríguez-Vallejo, Manuel; Carmona, David; Calvo-Sanz, Jorge A; Poyales, Francisco; Palomino, Carlos; Zato-Gómez de Liaño, Miguel Á; Fernández, Joaquín

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate surgically induced astigmatism as computed by means of either simulated keratometry (K SIM ) or total corneal refractive power (TCRP) after temporal incisions. Prospective observational study including 36 right eyes undergoing cataract surgery. Astigmatism was measured preoperatively during the 3-month follow-up period using Pentacam. Surgically induced astigmatism was computed considering anterior corneal surface astigmatism at 3 mm with K SIM and considering both corneal surfaces with TCRP from 1 to 8 mm (TCRP 3 for 3 mm). The eyes under study were divided into two balanced groups: LOW with K SIM astigmatism <0.90 D and HIGH with K SIM astigmatism ≥0.90 D. Resulting surgically induced astigmatism values were compared across groups and measuring techniques by means of flattening, steepening, and torque analysis. Mean surgically induced astigmatism was higher in the HIGH group (0.31 D @ 102°) than in the LOW group (0.04 D @ 16°). The temporal incision resulted in a steepening in the HIGH group of 0.15 D @ 90°, as estimated with K SIM , versus 0.28 D @ 90° with TCRP 3 , but no significant differences were found for the steepening in the LOW group or for the torque in either group. Differences between K SIM - and TCRP 3 -based surgically induced astigmatism values were negligible in LOW group. Surgically induced astigmatism was considerably higher in the high-astigmatism group and its value was underestimated with the K SIM approach. Eyes having low astigmatism should not be included for computing the surgically induced astigmatism because steepening would be underestimated.

  8. Optimized keratometry and total corneal astigmatism for toric intraocular lens calculation.

    PubMed

    Savini, Giacomo; Næser, Kristian; Schiano-Lomoriello, Domenico; Ducoli, Pietro

    2017-09-01

    To compare keratometric astigmatism (KA) and different modalities of measuring total corneal astigmatism (TCA) for toric intraocular lens (IOL) calculation and optimize corneal measurements to eliminate the residual refractive astigmatism. G.B. Bietti Foundation IRCCS, Rome, Italy. Prospective case series. Patients who had a toric IOL were enrolled. Preoperatively, a Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam HR) was used to measure TCA through ray tracing. Different combinations of measurements at a 3.0 mm diameter, centered on the pupil or the corneal vertex and performed along a ring or within it, were compared. Keratometric astigmatism was measured using the same Scheimpflug camera and a corneal topographer (Keratron). Astigmatism was analyzed with Næser's polar value method. The optimized preoperative corneal astigmatism was back-calculated from the postoperative refractive astigmatism. The study comprised 62 patients (64 eyes). With both devices, KA produced an overcorrection of with-the-rule (WTR) astigmatism by 0.6 diopter (D) and an undercorrection of against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism by 0.3 D. The lowest meridional error in refractive astigmatism was achieved by the TCA pupil/zone measurement in WTR eyes (0.27 D overcorrection) and the TCA apex/zone measurement in ATR eyes (0.07 D undercorrection). In the whole sample, no measurement allowed more than 43.75% of eyes to yield an absolute error in astigmatism magnitude lower than 0.5 D. Optimized astigmatism values increased the percentage of eyes with this error up to 57.81%, with no difference compared with the Barrett calculator and the Abulafia-Koch calculator. Compared with KA, TCA improved calculations for toric IOLs; however, optimization of corneal astigmatism measurements led to more accurate results. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Global prevalence and economic and humanistic burden of astigmatism in cataract patients: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Anderson, David F; Dhariwal, Mukesh; Bouchet, Christine; Keith, Michael S

    2018-01-01

    To systematically review the published evidence on the prevalence and economic and humanistic burden of astigmatism in cataract patients. For this systematic literature review, the Medline, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched from 1996 to September 2015 for available scientific literature that met the inclusion criteria. Studies published in the English language reporting prevalence and humanistic and economic burden in patients diagnosed with cataract and astigmatism were included. Of 3,649 papers reviewed, 31 studies from 32 publications met the inclusion criteria of this review. Preexisting astigmatism ≥1 D was present in up to 47% of cataract eyes. The cost burden of residual uncorrected astigmatism after cataract surgery was driven by the cost of spectacles, which was estimated to range from $2,151 to $3,440 in the US and $1,786 to $4,629 in Europe over a lifetime. In cataract patients, both preexisting and postoperative residual astigmatism were associated with poor vision-related patient satisfaction and quality of life, as well as higher spectacle burden. Astigmatism correction during cataract surgery appears to improve visual outcomes and results in overall lifetime cost savings compared to astigmatism correction with postoperative vision correction. There is a high prevalence of preexisting astigmatism in cataract patients. Although published data are limited, both preoperative astigmatism and postoperative residual astigmatism affect visual function and vision-related quality of life, resulting in increased humanistic burden. Suboptimal correction of astigmatism during cataract surgery drives the continuous need for vision correction with spectacles in the postoperative period. Patients must bear the out-of-pocket expenses, since payers often do not reimburse the cost of spectacles. Greater access to astigmatism correction during cataract surgery could improve visual outcomes and quality of life in patients. More research is required

  10. Global prevalence and economic and humanistic burden of astigmatism in cataract patients: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, David F; Dhariwal, Mukesh; Bouchet, Christine; Keith, Michael S

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To systematically review the published evidence on the prevalence and economic and humanistic burden of astigmatism in cataract patients. Materials and methods For this systematic literature review, the Medline, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched from 1996 to September 2015 for available scientific literature that met the inclusion criteria. Studies published in the English language reporting prevalence and humanistic and economic burden in patients diagnosed with cataract and astigmatism were included. Results Of 3,649 papers reviewed, 31 studies from 32 publications met the inclusion criteria of this review. Preexisting astigmatism ≥1 D was present in up to 47% of cataract eyes. The cost burden of residual uncorrected astigmatism after cataract surgery was driven by the cost of spectacles, which was estimated to range from $2,151 to $3,440 in the US and $1,786 to $4,629 in Europe over a lifetime. In cataract patients, both preexisting and postoperative residual astigmatism were associated with poor vision-related patient satisfaction and quality of life, as well as higher spectacle burden. Astigmatism correction during cataract surgery appears to improve visual outcomes and results in overall lifetime cost savings compared to astigmatism correction with postoperative vision correction. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of preexisting astigmatism in cataract patients. Although published data are limited, both preoperative astigmatism and postoperative residual astigmatism affect visual function and vision-related quality of life, resulting in increased humanistic burden. Suboptimal correction of astigmatism during cataract surgery drives the continuous need for vision correction with spectacles in the postoperative period. Patients must bear the out-of-pocket expenses, since payers often do not reimburse the cost of spectacles. Greater access to astigmatism correction during cataract surgery could improve visual outcomes and quality

  11. Refractive and corneal astigmatism in white school children in northern ireland.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Lisa; Rudnicka, Alicja R; McClelland, Julie F; Logan, Nicola S; Owen, Christopher G; Saunders, Kathryn J

    2011-06-08

    To study the prevalence of and relation between refractive and corneal astigmatism in white school children in Northern Ireland and to describe the association between refractive astigmatism and refractive error. Stratified random clustering was used to recruit 1053 white children, 392 aged 6-7 years and 661 aged 12-13 years. Eye examinations included cycloplegic autorefraction and ocular biometric measures of axial length and corneal curvature. The prevalence of refractive astigmatism (≥ 1 DC) did not differ significantly between 6- to 7-year-old children (24%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 19-30) and 12- to 13-year-old children (20%; 95% CI, 14-25). The prevalence of corneal astigmatism (≥ 1 DC) also did not differ significantly between 6- to 7-year-old children (29%; 95% CI, 24-34) and 12- to 13-year-old children (25%; 95% CI, 21-28). While levels of refractive astigmatism and corneal astigmatism were similar, refractive astigmatism was predominantly oblique (76%; 95% CI, 67-85, of 6- to 7-year-olds; 59%; 95% CI, 48-70, of 12- to 13-year-olds), but corneal astigmatism was predominantly with-the-rule (80%; 95% CI, 72-87, of 6- to 7-year-olds; 82%; 95% CI, 74-90, of 12- to 13-year-olds). The prevalence of refractive astigmatism was associated with increasing myopia and hyperopia. This study is the first to provide robust population-based data on the prevalence of astigmatism in white school children in the United Kingdom. The prevalence of refractive astigmatism and corneal astigmatism is stable between 6 and 7 years and 12 and 13 years, although this finding would need to be confirmed by prospective studies. There is a high prevalence of refractive and corneal astigmatism which is associated with ametropia.

  12. Outcome of corneal and laser astigmatic axis alignment in photoastigmatic refractive keratectomy.

    PubMed

    Farah, S G; Olafsson, E; Gwynn, D G; Azar, D T; Brightbill, F S

    2000-12-01

    To compare the refractive results of laser astigmatic treatment in eyes in which the astigmatic axes of the eye and laser are aligned by limbal marking at the 6 o'clock position and in eyes that are not marked. University Hospital and Clinics, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. This retrospective study comprised 143 eyes that had photoastigmatic refractive keratectomy with the VISX Star excimer laser. The eyes were divided into marked (G1) and unmarked (G2) groups. Based on the preoperative astigmatism, each group was subdivided into low astigmatism (astigmatism (>/=1.25 D). Early postoperative manifest refractions (1.0 to 2.5 months) were analyzed. The Alpins vector analysis method was used to calculate the target induced astigmatism, surgically induced astigmatism, difference vector (DV), magnitude of error (ME), angle of error (AE), and index of success (IS). There was no significant difference between the groups in DV, ME, and IS. When the subgroups were analyzed, the DV and ME were comparable; the IS in the G1 high astigmatism subgroup was significantly better than that in the G2 high astigmatism subgroup (0.22 +/- 0.08 and 0.29 +/- 0.04, respectively; P <.0001). There was comparable scatter of AE values; 30% and 36% in G1 and G2, respectively, had an AE of 0. Similar scatter was observed in the subgroups. Of the eyes that had an AE of 0, 90% and 43% in the high astigmatism subgroups of G1 and G2, respectively (P <.05), had full correction of astigmatism. Limbal marking and subsequent eye and laser astigmatic axis alignment improved the refractive outcome of laser astigmatic treatment of >/=1.25 D. A preliminary report of an ongoing prospective randomized study of eyes that had laser in situ keratomileusis is included.

  13. Effect of posterior corneal astigmatism on refractive outcomes after toric intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijun; Sy, Mary Ellen; Mai, Harry; Yu, Fei; Hamilton, D Rex

    2015-01-01

    To compare the prediction error after toric intraocular lens (IOL) (Acrysof IQ) implantation using corneal astigmatism measurements obtained with an IOLMaster automated keratometer and a Galilei dual rotating camera Scheimpflug-Placido tomographer. Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA. Retrospective case series. The predicted residual astigmatism after toric IOL implantation was calculated using preoperative astigmatism values from an automated keratometer and the total corneal power (TCP) determined by ray tracing through the measured anterior and posterior corneal surfaces using dual Scheimpflug-Placido tomography. The prediction error was calculated as the difference between the predicted astigmatism and the manifest astigmatism at least 1 month postoperatively. The calculations included vector analysis. The study evaluated 35 eyes (35 patients). The preoperative corneal posterior astigmatism mean magnitude was 0.33 diopter (D) ± 0.16 (SD) (vector mean 0.23 × 176). Twenty-six eyes (74.3%) had with-the-rule (WTR) posterior astigmatism. The postoperative manifest refractive astigmatism mean magnitude was 0.38 ± 0.18 D (vector mean 0.26 × 171). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean magnitude prediction error between the automated keratometer and TCP techniques. However, the automated keratometer method tended to overcorrect WTR astigmatism and undercorrect against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism. The TCP technique lacked these biases. The automated keratometer and TCP methods for estimating the magnitude of corneal astigmatism gave similar results. However, the automated keratometer method tended to overcorrect WTR astigmatism and undercorrect ATR astigmatism. Dr. Hamilton has received honoraria for educational lectures from Ziemer Ophthalmic Systems. No other author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published

  14. In vivo laser confocal microscopy findings of radial keratoneuritis in patients with early stage Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Akira; Yokogawa, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Natsuko; Ishibashi, Yasuhisa; Oikawa, Yosaburo; Tokoro, Masaharu; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2013-07-01

    To investigate in vivo corneal changes of keratoneuritis in early stage Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) using in vivo laser confocal microscopy. Single-center, prospective, clinical study. Thirteen eyes (12 patients; 5 men and 7 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 22.3 ± 4.2 years) with keratoneuritis resulting from early stage AK were included in this study. In vivo laser confocal microscopy was performed, paying special attention to keratoneuritis. Selected confocal images of corneal layers were evaluated qualitatively for shape and degree of light reflection of abnormal cells and deposits. In all patients, Acanthamoeba cysts were observed clearly in the basal epithelial cell layer as highly reflective round particles with a diameter of 10 to 20 μm. Bowman's layer infiltration of Acanthamoeba cysts was observed in only 1 case, and no cases showed stromal or nerve infiltration of Acanthamoeba cysts. In the stroma, all cases showed highly reflective activated keratocytes forming a honeycomb pattern; these changes were significant around the keratoneuritis. Infiltration of inflammatory cells, possibly polymorphonuclear cells, was observed along with keratocyte bodies in all cases. Numerous highly reflective spindle-shaped materials were observed around the keratoneuritis. Most notably, highly reflective patchy lesions were observed around the keratoneuritis in 11 cases (84.6%). Inflammatory cells also were observed in the endothelial cell layer in 4 cases (30.8%). In vivo laser confocal microscopy identified consistent corneal abnormalities around keratoneuritis in early stage AK patients, of which highly reflective patchy lesions may be characteristic of keratoneuritis. Further morphologic studies of corneas with early stage AK in a larger number of patients may elucidate the clinical significance of radial keratoneuritis and may help us to understand the interaction between Acanthamoeba organisms and host corneal cells or nerves. Copyright © 2013 American

  15. Molecular characterization of Acanthamoeba strains isolated from the oral cavity of hemodialysis patients in Iran.

    PubMed

    Niyyati, Maryam; Arab-Mazar, Zahra; Lasjerdi, Zohreh; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Espotin, Adel; Yadegarynia, Davood; Gachkar, Latif; Rahmati Roodsari, Sara

    2017-11-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) of the genus Acanthamoeba are opportunistic pathogenic agents able to cause life-threatening infections in immunosuppressed patients. Chronic kidney disease impairs adaptive and innate immunity. Thus, patients with chronic kidney disease are prone to opportunistic infections by potentially pathogenic FLA. Therefore, in the present study, the investigation of Acanthamoeba genotypes isolated from the oral cavity of hemodialysis patients of reference hospitals in Iran was aimed, using both morphology and molecular (sequence-based analysis) tools. Furthermore, classification of the strains at the genotype level was performed on the basis of differences in the diagnostic fraction 3 (DF3) region of the 18S rRNA gene. The pathogenic potential of the isolated amoebae was also determined using thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays. Out of the 187 oral cavity samples investigated, nine (4.8%) were positive for FLA. DNA sequencing of the ASA.A1 region of the 18S rRNA gene revealed that the isolated strains belonged to the Acanthamoeba T1 and T4 genotypes. Genotype T1 was isolated for the first time from a patient in Iran. Interestingly, the T1 strain (AN2 strain) exhibits a high pathogenic potential in tolerance assays. The pathogenicity assay revealed that five strains were able to grow at high temperatures (37-40 °C) and high osmolarity (0.5 and 1 M D-mannitol) conditions; thus, they were considered as potentially pathogenic strains. Moreover, two of the patients were positive for Vermamoeba genus. The present study is the first report of genotype T1 isolation in Iran and the first to identify the occurrence of Acanthamoeba and Vermamoeba genera in patients undergoing hemodialysis worldwide. Monitoring hemodialysis and renal failure patients should be a priority for possible control of Acanthamoeba and other FLA-related diseases.

  16. Comparison of Whole Eye vs. First-Surface Astigmatism in Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Rachel; Marsack, Jason D.; Leach, Norman E.; Herring, Ralph J.; Anderson, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have structural differences in the cornea and lens, as compared to the general population. This study investigates objectively measured refractive and corneal astigmatism, as well as calculated internal astigmatism in subjects with and without DS. Methods Refractive (Grand Seiko autorefraction) and anterior corneal astigmatism (difference between steep and flat keratometry obtained with Zeiss Atlas corneal topography) were measured in 128 subjects with DS (mean age = 24.8±8.7 yrs) and 137 controls without DS (mean age = 24.9±9.9 yrs), with 1 eye randomly selected for analysis per subject. Refractive astigmatism and corneal astigmatism were converted to vector notation (J0, J45) to calculate internal astigmatism (Refractive – Corneal) and then converted back to minus cylinder form. Results Mean refractive astigmatism was significantly greater in subjects with DS than controls (−1.94±1.30DC vs −0.66±0.60DC, t=−10.16, p<0.001), as was mean corneal astigmatism (1.70±1.04DC vs 1.02±0.63DC, t=6.38, p<0.001) and mean internal astigmatism (−1.07±0.68DC vs −0.77±0.41DC, t=−4.21, p<0.001). A positive linear correlation between corneal and refractive astigmatism was observed for both study populations for both the J0 and J45 vectors (p<0.001 for all comparisons, R2 range = 0.31 to 0.74). The distributions of astigmatism orientation differed significantly between the two study populations when compared across all three types of astigmatism (Chi-Square, p<0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates that corneal astigmatism is predictive of overall refractive astigmatism in individuals with DS, as it is in the general population. The greater magnitudes of astigmatism and wider variation of astigmatism orientation in individuals with DS for refractive, corneal, and calculated internal astigmatism is likely attributable to previously reported differences in the structure of the cornea and internal optical components

  17. Effects of chalazia on corneal astigmatism : Large-sized chalazia in middle upper eyelids compress the cornea and induce the corneal astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ki Won; Shin, Young Joo; Hyon, Joon Young

    2017-03-31

    A chalazion is a common eyelid disease that causes eye morbidity due to inflammation and cosmetic disfigurement. Corneal topographic changes are important factors in corneal refractive surgery, intraocular lens power calculations for cataract surgery, and visual acuity assessments. However, the effects of chalazia on corneal astigmatism have not been thoroughly investigated. The changes in corneal astigmatism according to chalazion size and location is necessary for better outcome of ocular surgery. The aim of this study is to evaluate changes in corneal astigmatism according to chalazion size and location. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 44 eyes from 33 patients were included in the chalazion group and 70 eyes from 46 patients comprised the control group. Chalazia were classified according to location and size. An autokeratorefractometer (KR8100, Topcon; Japan) and a Galilei™ dual-Scheimpflug analyzer (Ziemer Group; Port, Switzerland) were utilized to evaluate corneal changes. Oblique astigmatism was greater in the chalazion group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Astigmatism by simulated keratometry (simK), steep K by simK, total root mean square, second order aberration, oblique astigmatism, and vertical astigmatism were significantly greater in the upper eyelid group (p < 0.05). Astigmatism by simK, second order aberration, oblique astigmatism, and vertical astigmatism were significantly greater in the large-sized chalazion group (p < 0.05). Corneal wavefront aberration was the greatest in the upper eyelid chalazion group, whole area group, and large-sized chalazion group (p < 0.05). Large-sized chalazia in the whole upper eyelid should be treated in the early phase because they induced the greatest change in corneal topography. Chalazion should be treated before corneal topography is performed preoperatively and before the diagnosis of corneal diseases.

  18. Changes in Visual Function Following Optical Treatment of Astigmatism-Related Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Erin M.; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M.; Donaldson, Candice E.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of optical correction on best-corrected grating acuity (vertical (V), horizontal (H), oblique (O)), vernier acuity (V, H, O), contrast sensitivity (1.5, 6.0, and 18.0 cy/deg spatial frequency, V and H), and stereoacuity were evaluated prospectively in 4- to 13-year-old astigmats and a non-astigmatic age-matched control group. Measurements made at baseline (eyeglasses dispensed for astigmats), 6 weeks, and 1 year showed greater improvement in astigmatic than non-astigmatic children for all measures. Treatment effects occurred by 6 weeks, and did not differ by cohort (< 8 vs. 8 years), but astigmatic children did not attain normal levels of visual function. PMID:18261760

  19. Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism following different glaucoma operations.

    PubMed

    Tanito, Masaki; Matsuzaki, Yukari; Ikeda, Yoshifumi; Fujihara, Etsuko

    2017-01-01

    To compare surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) among glaucomatous eyes treated with trabeculectomy (LEC), EX-PRESS ® shunt (EXP), ab externo trabeculotomy (exLOT), or microhook ab interno trabeculotomy (μLOT). Eighty right eyes of 80 subjects who underwent LEC (n=20), EXP (n=20), exLOT (n=20), or μLOT (n=20) were included. The dataset including the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and keratometry recordings preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively was collected by chart review. The means of the vector magnitude, vector meridian, and arithmetic magnitude of the preoperative and postoperative astigmatism and SIA were calculated. The correlations among the SIA magnitude, postoperative BCVA, and IOP were assessed. The mean astigmatic arithmetic magnitudes did not differ significantly ( P =0.0732) preoperatively among the four groups, but the magnitude was significantly ( P =0.0002) greater in the LEC group than the other groups postoperatively. The mean SIA vectors were calculated to be 1.01 D at 56°, 0.62 D at 74°, 0.23 D at 112°, and 0.12 D at 97° for the LEC, EXP, exLOT, and μLOT groups, respectively. The mean SIA arithmetic magnitudes were significantly ( P <0.0001) greater in the LEC group than the other groups. Three months postoperatively, the SIA magnitude was correlated positively with the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) BCVA ( r =0.3538) and negatively with the IOP ( r =-0.3265); the logMAR BCVA was correlated negatively with the IOP ( r =-0.3105). EXP, exLOT, and μLOT induce less corneal astigmatism than LEC in the early postoperative period.

  20. LASIK versus photorefractive keratectomy for high myopic (> 3 diopter) astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Katz, Toam; Wagenfeld, Lars; Galambos, Peter; Darrelmann, Benedikt Große; Richard, Gisbert; Linke, Stephan Johannes

    2013-12-01

    To compare the efficacy, safety, predictability, and vector analysis indices of LASIK and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for correction of high cylinder of greater than 3 diopters (D) in myopic eyes. The efficacy, safety, and predictability of LASIK or PRK performed in 114 consecutive randomly selected myopic eyes with an astigmatism of greater than 3 D were retrospectively analyzed at the 2- to 6-month follow-up visits. Vector analysis of the cylindrical correction was compared between the treatment groups. A total of 57 eyes receiving PRK and 57 eyes receiving LASIK of 114 refractive surgery candidates were enrolled in the study. No statistically significant difference in efficacy [efficacy index = 0.76 (±0.32) for PRK vs 0.74 (±0.19) for LASIK (P = .82)], safety [safety index = 1.10 (±0.26) for PRK vs 1.01 (±0.17) for LASIK (P = .121)], or predictability [achieved astigmatism < 1 D in 39% of PRK- and 54% of LASIK-treated eyes, and < 2 D in 88% of PRK- and 89% of LASIK-treated eyes (P = .218)] was demonstrated. Using Alpins vector analysis, the surgically induced astigmatism and difference vector were not significantly different between the surgery methods, whereas the correction index showed a slight and significant advantage of LASIK over PRK (1.25 for PRK and 1.06 for LASIK, P < .001). LASIK and PRK are comparably safe, effective, and predictable procedures for excimer laser correction of high astigmatism of greater than 3 D in myopic eyes. Predictability of the correction of the cylindrical component is lower than that of the spherical equivalent. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism following different glaucoma operations

    PubMed Central

    Tanito, Masaki; Matsuzaki, Yukari; Ikeda, Yoshifumi; Fujihara, Etsuko

    2017-01-01

    Aim To compare surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) among glaucomatous eyes treated with trabeculectomy (LEC), EX-PRESS® shunt (EXP), ab externo trabeculotomy (exLOT), or microhook ab interno trabeculotomy (μLOT). Subjects and methods Eighty right eyes of 80 subjects who underwent LEC (n=20), EXP (n=20), exLOT (n=20), or μLOT (n=20) were included. The dataset including the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and keratometry recordings preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively was collected by chart review. The means of the vector magnitude, vector meridian, and arithmetic magnitude of the preoperative and postoperative astigmatism and SIA were calculated. The correlations among the SIA magnitude, postoperative BCVA, and IOP were assessed. Results The mean astigmatic arithmetic magnitudes did not differ significantly (P=0.0732) preoperatively among the four groups, but the magnitude was significantly (P=0.0002) greater in the LEC group than the other groups postoperatively. The mean SIA vectors were calculated to be 1.01 D at 56°, 0.62 D at 74°, 0.23 D at 112°, and 0.12 D at 97° for the LEC, EXP, exLOT, and μLOT groups, respectively. The mean SIA arithmetic magnitudes were significantly (P<0.0001) greater in the LEC group than the other groups. Three months postoperatively, the SIA magnitude was correlated positively with the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) BCVA (r=0.3538) and negatively with the IOP (r=−0.3265); the logMAR BCVA was correlated negatively with the IOP (r=−0.3105). Conclusion EXP, exLOT, and μLOT induce less corneal astigmatism than LEC in the early postoperative period. PMID:29238159

  2. Hypoxia attenuates inflammatory mediators production induced by Acanthamoeba via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in human corneal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hong; The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Public Health, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107, Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan 250012; Wu, Xinyi, E-mail: xywu8868@163.com

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia attenuates Acanthamoeba-induced the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits TLR4 expression in a time-dependent manner in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits Acanthamoeba-induced the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2 in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia decreases Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory response via TLR4 signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS-induced the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 is abated by hypoxia via TLR4 signaling. -- Abstract: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a vision-threatening corneal infection that is intimately associated with contact lens use which leads to hypoxic conditions on the corneal surface. However, the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced host inflammatory response of corneal epithelial cellsmore » has not been studied. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced production of inflammatory mediators interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) in human corneal epithelial cells and then evaluated its effects on the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling, including TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) (MyD88) expression as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-{kappa}B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). We then studied the effect of hypoxia on a TLR4-specific inflammatory response triggered by the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our data showed that hypoxia significantly decreased the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Furthermore, hypoxia attenuated Acanthamoeba-triggered TLR4 expression as well as the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2, indicating that hypoxia abated Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory responses by affecting TLR4 signaling. Hypoxia also inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, myeloid differentiation primary response

  3. [Cell-mediated immunity in mice infected with Acanthamoeba culbertsoni].

    PubMed

    Kim, M J; Shin, C O; Im, K I

    1990-09-01

    Observations were made on the differences of cell-mediated responses in mice of three infection groups differently scheduled in their severity with pathogenic Acanthamoeba culbertsoni. Infections were done by dropping 5 microliters saline suspension containing 3 x 10(3), 1 x 10(4), or 1 x 10(5) trophozoites, respectively. Amoebae were cultured axenically in CGV medium and inoculated into the right nasal cavity of C3H/HeJ mice aging around 6-8 weeks, under the anesthesia by intraperitoneal injection of secobarbital. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses in footpad and blastogenic responses of mouse spleen cells using (3H)-thymidine and the serum antibody titer were measured up to day 14 after infection, and natural killer cell activities were measured up to day 5 after infection. The results obtained in this study were as follows: 1. The mice infected with 3 x 10(3) trophozoites showed mortality rate of 17%, and 34% in the mice infected with 1 x 10(4) trophozoites and 65% with 1 x 10(5) trophozoites. 2. In regard to DTH responses in all experimental groups, the level increased on day 7 and declined on day 14 after infection, but their differences could not be noted between infected and control groups. 3. The blastogenic responses of splenocytes treated with amoeba lysates and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) showed no difference from the control group. The blastogenic responses of splenocytes treated with concanavalin A were declined significantly in the experimental group as compared with the control group, but the blastogenic responses of splenocytes treated with polyinosinic acid were not different from the control group. There was also no difference among three infected groups. 4. The cytotoxic activity of the natural killer cells was activated on day 1 after infection and declined to the level of control group on day 2 in all experimental groups. On day 5 after infection, the natural killer cell cytotoxicity was significantly suppressed as compared with the

  4. Analysis of components of total astigmatism in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Khulood Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and analyze the contribution of corneal and lenticular components of total astigmatism (TA) in infants and young children and to determine whether there is any compensation for astigmatism by the lenticular component or not. The study was conducted on 614 eyes of 307 infants and young children. Cycloplegic refraction and keratometric measures using the Hand-held Autokeratometer (Nidek Co. Ltd., Hiroishi, Japan) were done for the study group under general anesthesia in Paediatric Ophthalmology Center, Sohag City, Egypt. We divided the sample into high astigmats (total cylinder ≥ 1.00 D; mean, 1.99 ± 0.89 D; n = 431 eyes; 70 %) and normal astigmats (total cylinder ≤ 0.75 D; mean, 0.55 ± 0.22 D; n = 183; 30 %). The prevalence of corneal astigmatism (CA) ≥ 1.00 D was (73 %), any degree of lenticular astigmatism (LA) was (85 %), (LA > 0.25 D = 72 %) TA was predominantly with the rule (n = 499 eyes, 81 %). Eyes with against the rule astigmatism were (n = 33 eyes, 5.3 %) and eyes with oblique astigmatism were (n = 82 eyes; 13.3 %). Gender or age differences in TA, CA, LA, or type of astigmatism were not significant. The prevalence of astigmatism found in this population of newlyborn infants and young children was relatively high, primarily corneal, and WTR astigmatism with high prevalence of oblique astigmatism. LA was much less than previous reports (mean = -0.0044 D), associated with more hyperopic eyes and eyes with high TA. The data suggest that a compensatory process exists between CA and LA to decrease the amount of TA.

  5. Feedforward operation of a lens setup for large defocus and astigmatism correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraete, Hans R. G. W.; Almasian, MItra; Pozzi, Paolo; Bilderbeek, Rolf; Kalkman, Jeroen; Faber, Dirk J.; Verhaegen, Michel

    2016-04-01

    In this manuscript, we present a lens setup for large defocus and astigmatism correction. A deformable defocus lens and two rotational cylindrical lenses are used to control the defocus and astigmatism. The setup is calibrated using a simple model that allows the calculation of the lens inputs so that a desired defocus and astigmatism are actuated on the eye. The setup is tested by determining the feedforward prediction error, imaging a resolution target, and removing introduced aberrations.

  6. Plasma channels during filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse with wavefront astigmatism in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dergachev, A. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Kandidov, V. P.; Mokrousova, D. V.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Sunchugasheva, E. S.; Shlenov, S. A.; Shustikova, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    We have demonstrated experimentally and numerically the possibility of controlling parameters of plasma channels formed during filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse by introducing astigmatism in the laser beam wavefront. It is found that weak astigmatism increases the length of the plasma channel in comparison with the case of aberration-free focusing and that strong astigmatism can cause splitting of the plasma channel into two channels located one after another on the filament axis.

  7. Correction of high amounts of astigmatism through orthokeratology. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Baertschi, Michael; Wyss, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to introduce a method for a successful treatment of high astigmatism with a new orthokeratology design, called FOKX (Falco Kontaktlinsen, Switzerland). This novel toric orthokeratology contact lens design, the fitting approach and the performance of FOKX lenses will be illustrated in the form of a case report. Correcting astigmatism with orthokeratology offers a new perspective for all patients suffering astigmatism.

  8. Isolation and genotyping of free-living environmental isolates of Acanthamoeba spp. from bromeliads in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Landell, Melissa Fontes; Salton, Juliana; Caumo, Karin; Broetto, Leonardo; Rott, Marilise B

    2013-07-01

    Species of Acanthamoeba are frequently isolated from distinct environmental sources such as water, soil, dust and air. They are responsible to cause infections and disease in humans and animals. In addition, Acanthamoeba sp. are considered an important reservoir of bacteria, virus and fungi, which act as "Trojan horses" to protect these microorganisms of harsh environmental conditions. In this study, nine Acanthamoeba isolates from bromeliads phylloplane were identified based on the morphology of cyst and trophozoite forms. The genotype level was accessed by the sequence analysis of Acanthamoeba small-subunit rRNA gene. Genotypic characterization grouped five isolates in the genotype T2/T6, three in the T4 genotype and one in the genotype T16. The results obtained indicate that the genotype T2/T6 is common on phylloplane. To predict the pathogenic potential of the Acanthamoeba isolates, thermo and osmotolerance assays were employed, although all isolates were capable of surviving at temperatures of 37°C, other tests will be conducted in the future to determine the potential pathogenic of the isolates. Altogether, our results revealed the importance of the presence of Acanthamoeba associated with bromeliads in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and the necessity for further studies to determine the environmental distribution and the role of these species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Age Differences in Axial Length, Corneal Curvature, and Corneal Astigmatism in Marfan Syndrome with Ectopia Lentis

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Qinghe; Tang, Yating; Qian, Dongjin

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the differences in axial length, corneal curvature, and corneal astigmatism with age in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) and ectopia lentis. Methods A retrospective case series study was conducted. MFS patients with ectopia lentis were divided into groups according to age. Axial length, corneal curvature, and corneal astigmatism were measured. Results This study included 114 MFS patients (215 eyes) with a mean age of 19.0 ± 13.9 years. Axial length differed significantly across age groups in MFS patients (P < 0.001), whereas corneal curvature did not (P = 0.767). Corneal astigmatism was statistically significant throughout the MFS cohort (P = 0.009), but no significant difference was found in young MFS patients (P = 0.838). With increasing age, the orientation of the corneal astigmatism changed from with-the-rule astigmatism to against-the-rule or oblique astigmatism (P < 0.001). A linear correlation analysis showed weak correlations between age and axial length for both eyes and with corneal astigmatism for the left eye, but there was no correlation between age and corneal curvature. Conclusions In MFS, axial length varies with age, corneal curvature remains stable, and corneal astigmatism is higher in young patients and tends to shift toward against-the-rule or oblique astigmatism. Therefore, it is important to consider age when diagnosing MFS with ocular biometric data. PMID:29854424

  10. Compensation of Corneal Oblique Astigmatism by Internal Optics: a Theoretical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Thibos, Larry N.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Oblique astigmatism is a prominent optical aberration of peripheral vision caused by oblique incidence of rays striking the refracting surfaces of the cornea and crystalline lens. We inquired whether oblique astigmatism from these two sources should be expected, theoretically, to have the same or opposite signs across the visual field at various states of accommodation. Methods Oblique astigmatism was computed across the central visual field for a rotationally-symmetric schematic-eye using optical design software. Accommodative state was varied by altering the apical radius of curvature and separation of the biconvex lens’s two aspheric surfaces in a manner consistent with published biometry. Oblique astigmatism was evaluated separately for the whole eye, the cornea, and the isolated lens over a wide range of surface curvatures and asphericity values associated with the accommodating lens. We also computed internal oblique astigmatism by subtracting corneal oblique astigmatism from whole-eye oblique astigmatism. Results A visual field map of oblique astigmatism for the cornea in the Navarro model follows the classic, textbook description of radially-oriented axes everywhere in the field. Despite large changes in surface properties during accommodation, intrinsic astigmatism of the isolated human lens for collimated light is also radially oriented and nearly independent of accommodation both in theory and in real eyes. However, the magnitude of ocular oblique astigmatism is smaller than that of the cornea alone, indicating partial compensation by the internal optics. This implies internal oblique astigmatism (which includes wavefront propagation from the posterior surface of the cornea to the anterior surface of the lens and intrinsic lens astigmatism) must have tangentially-oriented axes. This non-classical pattern of tangential axes for internal astigmatism was traced to the influence of corneal power on the angles of incidence of rays striking the

  11. Compensation of corneal oblique astigmatism by internal optics: a theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Thibos, Larry N

    2017-05-01

    Oblique astigmatism is a prominent optical aberration of peripheral vision caused by oblique incidence of rays striking the refracting surfaces of the cornea and crystalline lens. We inquired whether oblique astigmatism from these two sources should be expected, theoretically, to have the same or opposite signs across the visual field at various states of accommodation. Oblique astigmatism was computed across the central visual field for a rotationally-symmetric schematic-eye using optical design software. Accommodative state was varied by altering the apical radius of curvature and separation of the biconvex lens's two aspheric surfaces in a manner consistent with published biometry. Oblique astigmatism was evaluated separately for the whole eye, the cornea, and the isolated lens over a wide range of surface curvatures and asphericity values associated with the accommodating lens. We also computed internal oblique astigmatism by subtracting corneal oblique astigmatism from whole-eye oblique astigmatism. A visual field map of oblique astigmatism for the cornea in the Navarro model follows the classic, textbook description of radially-oriented axes everywhere in the field. Despite large changes in surface properties during accommodation, intrinsic astigmatism of the isolated human lens for collimated light is also radially oriented and nearly independent of accommodation both in theory and in real eyes. However, the magnitude of ocular oblique astigmatism is smaller than that of the cornea alone, indicating partial compensation by the internal optics. This implies internal oblique astigmatism (which includes wavefront propagation from the posterior surface of the cornea to the anterior surface of the lens and intrinsic lens astigmatism) must have tangentially-oriented axes. This non-classical pattern of tangential axes for internal astigmatism was traced to the influence of corneal power on the angles of incidence of rays striking the internal lens. Partial

  12. Age-related changes in with-the-rule and oblique corneal astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Naeser, Kristian; Savini, Giacomo; Bregnhøj, Jesper Flethøj

    2018-01-25

    To describe the age-related changes in with-the-rule (WTR) and oblique keratometric astigmatism (KA), posterior corneal astigmatism (PCA) and total corneal astigmatism (TCA). We used a Pentacam HR (high-resolution) rotating Scheimpflug camera to determine the KA, PCA and TCA in the right eyes of 710 patients, aged from 20 to 88 years. The age-related changes along the vertical, horizontal and oblique meridians were analyzed with Naeser's polar value method in a cross-sectional study. In the whole group, all meridional astigmatic powers and polar values were stable in the age groups from 20 to 49 years, followed by a 1.0 dioptre (D) against-the-rule (ATR) change in KA and TCA, and a 0.12 D reduction in against-the-rule PCA. A nasal rotation of the steep meridian in KA and TCA was noted in the 70-88 years old. The PCA averaged approximately 0.25 D ATR in all age groups. Females displayed the same early astigmatic stability as in the whole group, while male eyes demonstrated a linear decay from 1.5 D WTR at 20 years to 0.5 D ATR astigmatism for the oldest patients. Corneal astigmatism is stable until the age of 50 years; thereafter both keratometric and total corneal astigmatism show a 0.25 D ATR change per 10 years. The average 0.25 D ATR PCA compensates the predominant keratometric WTR astigmatism in the younger patients and increases the TCA in the elderly with keratometric ATR astigmatism. The gender-based differences in age-related astigmatism require further studies. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Management of postkeratoplasty astigmatism by paired arcuate incisions with compression sutures.

    PubMed

    Fares, Usama; Mokashi, Aashish A; Al-Aqaba, Mouhamed Ali; Otri, Ahmad Muneer; Miri, Ammar; Dua, Harminder Singh

    2013-04-01

    To analyse the efficacy of paired arcuate incisions and compression sutures technique in the management of post penetrating keratoplasty (PK) astigmatism. A paired arcuate incision with compression sutures procedure was used to treat 26 eyes with post-PK astigmatism ranging from 6.00 to 16.50 dioptres (D). The incisions were placed at the 7.0 mm optical zone inside the graft-host junction at a depth of 80% of corneal thickness. A 45° paired arc length was planned for eyes with preoperative astigmatism between 6D and 9D, and a 60° paired arc length was planned for eyes with preoperative astigmatism of >9D. At 3 months, corneal topography and refraction was performed and suture(s) removed if indicated. Net and vector astigmatism changes were calculated to determine the efficacy of the procedure. The indications for PK included keratoconus, Fuch's endothelial dystrophy, pseudophakic bullous keratopathy and corneal scar. There was a statistically significant reduction in the mean magnitude of astigmatism from 9.66 ± 2.90D preoperatively to 4.37 ± 2.53D postoperatively in the whole group. The mean decrease in the astigmatism was 4.37 ± 2.05D (58.4%) and 6.23 ± 3.63D (52.6%) in patients with 6-9D and >9D, respectively. Vector power calculations also showed a significant astigmatism reduction in all groups. The safety and efficacy indices were 1.40 and 0.28, respectively. Manual astigmatic keratotomy is a viable technique with relatively good safety and efficacy outcomes. Based on the results we propose that increasing the arc length to a minimum of 60° for astigmatism of 6-9D, and to 75° for astigmatism >9D, is likely to have a greater beneficial effect.

  14. Longitudinal Outcomes of U.S. Air Force Pilot Applicants With Waivered Astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Andrus, David E; Haynes, Jared T; Wright, Steven T

    2017-03-01

    Current U.S. Air Force medical standards allow applicants to enter pilot training with up to 1.50 D of astigmatism. However, waivers are considered for individuals with up to 3.00 D of astigmatism. Although typically a benign finding, higher levels of astigmatism may be progressive and can be associated with corneal ectasia (e.g., keratoconus or pellucid marginal degeneration) leading to reduced visual acuity with spectacles and/or soft contact lenses. The goal of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of pilot applicants waivered into training with astigmatism exceeding the aeromedical standard. Subjects were identified on the basis of their enrollment in the Excessive Astigmatism Management Group maintained by the Aeromedical Consultation Service, Ophthalmology branch at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Metrics evaluated included refractive status, visual acuity, aeromedical waiver status, safety data, and the development of corneal ectasia. Seventy-six subjects were tracked for up to 10 years, with an average follow-up period of 5.5 years. Mean astigmatism at initial examination was 1.91 D, although mean astigmatism on the basis of the most recent examination was 2.19 D. Subjects with excessive astigmatism who were waivered into pilot training showed an average increase in astigmatism of slightly less than 0.05 D annually, which equates to a total increase in astigmatism of approximately 0.25 D for the duration of the study. No subjects developed ectasia or were disqualified from flying for vision or refractive reasons. No mishaps were identified with vision being a causative or contributing factor. This study supports continuation of current Air Force waiver policy, although a longer follow-up period is required to consider modifying the aeromedical standard for astigmatism. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. Superdiffusion dominates intracellular particle motion in the supercrowded cytoplasm of pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverey, Julia F.; Jeon, Jae-Hyung; Bao, Han; Leippe, Matthias; Metzler, Ralf; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine

    2015-06-01

    Acanthamoebae are free-living protists and human pathogens, whose cellular functions and pathogenicity strongly depend on the transport of intracellular vesicles and granules through the cytosol. Using high-speed live cell imaging in combination with single-particle tracking analysis, we show here that the motion of endogenous intracellular particles in the size range from a few hundred nanometers to several micrometers in Acanthamoeba castellanii is strongly superdiffusive and influenced by cell locomotion, cytoskeletal elements, and myosin II. We demonstrate that cell locomotion significantly contributes to intracellular particle motion, but is clearly not the only origin of superdiffusivity. By analyzing the contribution of microtubules, actin, and myosin II motors we show that myosin II is a major driving force of intracellular motion in A. castellanii. The cytoplasm of A. castellanii is supercrowded with intracellular vesicles and granules, such that significant intracellular motion can only be achieved by actively driven motion, while purely thermally driven diffusion is negligible.

  16. Comparison of Fluorescence Microscopy and Different Growth Media Culture Methods for Acanthamoeba Keratitis Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Avi; Geffen, Yuval; Socea, Soergiu D; Pastukh, Nina; Graffi, Shmuel

    2015-08-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), a potentially blinding infection of the cornea, is caused by a free-living protozoan. Culture and microscopic examination of corneal scraping tissue material is the conventional method for identifying Acanthamoeba. In this article, we compared several methods for AK diagnosis of 32 patients: microscopic examination using fluorescent dye, specific culture on growth media-non-nutrient agar (NNA), culture on liquid growth media-peptone yeast glucose (PYG), and TYI-S-33. AK was found in 14 patients. Thirteen of the specimens were found AK positive by fluorescence microscopic examination, 11 specimens were found AK positive on PYG growth media, and 9 specimens were found AK positive on TYI-S-33 growth media. Only five specimens were found AK positive on NNA growth media. Therefore, we recommend using fluorescence microscopy technique and culture method, especially PYG liquid media. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Sterol biosynthesis de nova via cycloartenol by the soil amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga.

    PubMed Central

    Raederstorff, D; Rohmer, M

    1985-01-01

    The soil amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga is capable of synthesizing its sterols de novo from acetate. The major sterols are ergosterol and poriferasta-5,7,22-trienol. Furthermore C28 and C29 sterols of still unknown structure with an aromatic B-ring are also synthesized by the amoeba. The first cyclic sterol precursor is cycloartenol, which is the sterol precursor in all photosynthetic phyla. No trace of lanosterol, which is the sterol precursor in animals and fungi, could be detected. These results show that at least some of the biochemical processes of Acanthamoeba polyphaga might be phylogenetically related to those of unicellular algae. Addition of exogenous sterols to the culture medium does not influence the sterol biosynthesis and the sterol composition of the cells. PMID:4074326

  18. Bringing forward the new generation of alkoxy-thiourea as potential treatment for Acanthamoeba keratitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairul, Wan M.; Goh, Yit-Peng; Daud, Adibah Izzati; Nakisah, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    Alkoxy substituted thiourea derivatives with general formula of A-ArC(O)NHC(S)NHAr-D which A represents the methoxy group and D denotes -OCnH2n+1 have been successfully synthesised and characterized. In turn, all the synthesised molecules were assayed for anti-amoebic activities towards Acanthamoeba sp to examine the cytotoxicity effect at their IC50 and membrane permeability. As predicted, the findings showed that the synthesised molecules owing promising anti-amoebic activity towards Acanthamoeba sp. To support, the Acridine-orange/Propidium iodide (AOPI) staining result under fluorescence microscopy revealed the treated amoeba cells by these alkoxy thiourea derivatives exhibited loss in their membrane permeability.

  19. Assessment of the efficacy of benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Tetrahymena spp.

    PubMed

    Vaerewijck, M J M; Sabbe, K; Baré, J; Spengler, H-P; Favoreel, H W; Houf, K

    2012-03-01

    The efficacy of benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and two Tetrahymena spp. was determined based on the European Standard EN 1276:2009 suspension test. Trophozoite viability was assessed by determination of the membrane integrity using flow cytometry as a fast screening technique. Bovine serum albumin was added to simulate clean (0.3 g/liter) and dirty (3 g/liter) conditions. Benzalkonium chloride caused cell lysis at concentrations above 50 mg/liter under clean and dirty conditions. A concentration of 50 mg of free chlorine per liter had a strong biocidal effect on acanthamoebae and tetrahymenae after 15 min under clean and dirty conditions. Our results suggest that benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite were effective against the three microorganisms at concentrations commonly applied in the food industry.

  20. Distribution of Acanthamoeba Genotypes Isolated from Recreational and Therapeutic Geothermal Water Sources in Southwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Niyyati, Maryam; Saberi, Reza; Latifi, Alireza; Lasjerdi, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive survey was conducted along 10 km of geothermal rivers in southwestern Iran. A total of 40 water samples were tested for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp., and genotypes were determined by targeting the diagnostic fragment 3 region of the 18S rRNA gene. The pathogenic potential of all positive isolates was also identified using tolerance ability test. High occurrences of Acanthamoeba (50%) were detected in the sampling areas. Based on sequencing analysis, isolates belonging to T4 (93.7%) and T2 (6.25%) genotypes were reported. Thermo- and osmotolerance tests revealed that five strains are highly pathogenic. Since every collection site of this study was associated with high human activity, posting of warning signs, monitoring of recreational water sources, and awareness of high-risk people are of utmost importance. To the best of our knowledge, the present research is the first to report T2 genotype from geothermal water sources in Iran. PMID:27127409

  1. Acanthamoeba castellanii is not be an adequate model to study human adenovirus interactions with macrophagic cells

    PubMed Central

    Cateau, Estelle; Leveque, Nicolas; Kaaki, Sihem; Beby-Defaux, Agnès; Rodier, Marie-Hélène

    2017-01-01

    Free living amoebae (FLA) including Acanthamoeba castellanii, are protozoa that feed on different microorganisms including viruses. These microorganisms show remarkable similarities with macrophages in cellular structures, physiology or ability to phagocyte preys, and some authors have therefore wondered whether Acanthamoeba and macrophages are evolutionary related. It has been considered that this amoeba may be an in vitro model to investigate relationships between pathogens and macrophagic cells. So, we intended in this study to compare the interactions between a human adenovirus strain and A. castellanii or THP-1 macrophagic cells. The results of molecular and microscopy techniques following co-cultures experiments have shown that the presence of the adenovirus decreased the viability of macrophages, while it has no effect on amoebic viability. On another hand, the viral replication occurred only in macrophages. These results showed that this amoebal model is not relevant to explore the relationships between adenoviruses and macrophages in in vitro experiments. PMID:28591183

  2. Distribution of Acanthamoeba Genotypes Isolated from Recreational and Therapeutic Geothermal Water Sources in Southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Niyyati, Maryam; Saberi, Reza; Latifi, Alireza; Lasjerdi, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive survey was conducted along 10 km of geothermal rivers in southwestern Iran. A total of 40 water samples were tested for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp., and genotypes were determined by targeting the diagnostic fragment 3 region of the 18S rRNA gene. The pathogenic potential of all positive isolates was also identified using tolerance ability test. High occurrences of Acanthamoeba (50%) were detected in the sampling areas. Based on sequencing analysis, isolates belonging to T4 (93.7%) and T2 (6.25%) genotypes were reported. Thermo- and osmotolerance tests revealed that five strains are highly pathogenic. Since every collection site of this study was associated with high human activity, posting of warning signs, monitoring of recreational water sources, and awareness of high-risk people are of utmost importance. To the best of our knowledge, the present research is the first to report T2 genotype from geothermal water sources in Iran.

  3. Analysis of corneal astigmatism before surgery in Chinese congenital ectopia lentis patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yichi; Jin, Guangming; Young, Charlotte Aimee; Cao, Qianzhong; Lin, Junxiong; Lin, Jianqiang; Wang, Yiyao; Zheng, Danying

    2018-04-26

    Purpose This study aims to describe the characteristics of corneal astigmatism before surgery in congenital ectopia lentis (CEL) patients. Methods This retrospective study reviewed 306 CEL patients from 1st January 2006, to 31st December 2015. One eye was randomly selected from each patient when the patient had bilateral EL. The influence of sex, laterality, and Marfan syndrome on corneal astigmatism in different age subgroups was evaluated and compared. The correlation between age and corneal astigmatism was evaluated. Results Two hundred fifty-two eyes were included in this study. The mean corneal astigmatism of CEL patients was 2.00 ± 1.28 D. There was a statistical difference in corneal astigmatism between CEL eyes with and without Marfan syndrome. However, no statistical difference was found between male and female patients, or between the EL-affected eye and the unaffected eye in monocular EL patients. There was a positive correlation between age and corneal astigmatism in CEL eyes. Conclusions This study suggests that CEL patients' corneal astigmatism is higher in patients with Marfan syndrome, and corneal astigmatism of the CEL eye increases with age. Our results are useful for surgeons to make appropriate incision and intraocular lens (IOL) choices for patients, as well as a useful reference for designs of new IOLs.

  4. [Control of corneal astigmatism following IOL implantation by Nd:YAG laser selective suture cutting].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y Z; Li, S Z

    1991-09-01

    Nd:YAG laser was used to cut the sutures selectively to reduce the postoperative corneal with-the-rule astigmatism in 48 eyes that underwent posterior chamber IOL implantation. A significant decrease in corneal astigmatism with visual improvement was affected, and the manipulation was simple. The actual procedure with its advantages and disadvantages was discussed.

  5. Effects of multipurpose solutions on the adhesion of Acanthamoeba to rigid gas permeable contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ga-Hyun; Yu, Hak-Sun; Lee, Ji-Eun

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of multipurpose contact lens care solutions (MPSs) on the adhesion of Acanthamoeba to rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses. Acanthamoeba castellanii (AC) trophozoites were inoculated onto untreated RGP contact lenses (FP, Extra, or Menicon Z), and numbers of trophozoites adhering to lenses were counted under a phase contrast microscope at 18 h post-inoculation (controls). Similarly, adhering trophozoites were counted at 6 h post-inoculation on each of the three RGP lens types with one of three MPSs (Boston Simplus, Menicare Plus, and O2 Care). Scanning electron microscopic examinations were performed to compare lens surfaces. Adhesion of AC trophozoites to untreated FP was greater than to untreated Extra or Menicon Z. Surfaces of Extra and Menicon Z lenses were waxier, smoother, and more homogeneous than those of FP lenses. After treatment with Boston Simplus, adhesion of AC trophozoites was significantly reduced for all lens types as compared with controls (p < 0.0001). Treatments with Menicare Plus or O2 Care reduced the number of adherent AC trophozoites significantly on FP lenses only as compared with controls (p < 0.0001). The adhesion rates of AC trophozoites to RGP lenses depended on lens surfaces. Boston Simplus reduced the adhesion rate of AC trophozoites more than Menicare Plus or O2 Care. Appropriate RGP lens and MPS selection could decrease the prevalence of Acanthamoeba keratitis. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  6. Photodynamic inactivation of Acanthamoeba polyphaga with curcuminoids: an in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Thaila Q.; Geralde, Mariana C.; Carvalho, Mariana T.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Kurachi, Cristina; de Souza, Clovis W. O.

    2016-03-01

    Acanthamoeba polyphaga are free-living amoebae that can be considered potentially pathogenic organisms by cause serious human infections, including keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis that usually results in death. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been used for the biological control of microorganisms and can be promise in the control of Acanthamoeba infections. This study evaluated the in vitro effectiveness of PDI in A. polyphaga using curcuminoids salt as photosensitizer (PS) besides observing morphological changes caused by this PS in this organism, in confocal microscopy. A. polyphaga trophozoites were grown at 37°C in PYG medium for 48 to 72 hours. After, the trophozoites were incubated with PS solution during one hour and the samples were irradiated using light-emitting diodes at 460 nm at light doses 30 and 50 J/cm2. The results revealed reduction of 27.7%, 61.4% and 82.5% at 30 J/cm2 and 75.2%, 85.0% and 95.9% at 50 J/cm2, respectively, at curcuminoid salt concentrations of 500, 1000 and 1500 μg/mL. Through fluorescence images, it was possible to visualize the curcuminoid salt's uptake by the trophozoites. The PS showed toxicity to amoebae, in the dark, but the irradiation in PDI contributed to amoebae death effect. These data suggest that PDI may be an application of therapeutic intervention against Acanthamoeba infections, since it was effective in the inactivation of these amoebae.

  7. [Early clinical diagnosis of acanthamoeba keratitis. A study of 70 eyes].

    PubMed

    Bernauer, W; Duguid, G I; Dart, J K

    1996-05-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis is an uncommon condition which is usually associated with contact lens wear. The use of home made saline and poor hygiene are important risk factors. Early diagnosis is crucial since these cases respond well to medical therapy. The purpose of this paper is to describe and demonstrate early clinical signs. Between September 1992 and October 1994, 70 cases of acanthamoeba keratitis, one of them bilateral, were prospectively monitored at Moorfields Eye Hospital in London. A database of all patients was set up and the clinical findings, diagnostic methods, therapeutic interventions and the outcome were recorded. 66 patients (96%) were contact lens wearers, 64 of them (97%) wore soft lenses. The mean interval between first symptoms and correct diagnosis was 42%. The most frequent initial diagnoses were "unclear keratoconjunctivitis" and "herpetic keratitis". Early corneal findings included punctate keratopathy (n = 14; 20%), pseudodendrites (n = 4; 6%), epithelial infiltrates (n = 17; 24%), diffuse or focal sub-epithelial infiltrates (n = 36; 51%) and radial keratoneuritis (n = 5; 7%). Ring infiltrates (n = 13; 18%) and corneal ulceration (n = 13) were late signs. When the above corneal findings are observed, particularly in contact lens wearers, the diagnosis of acanthamoeba keratitis should be considered. The diagnosis of "herpetic keratitis" in association with contact lens wear should be encountered with scepticism.

  8. Evaluation of Acanthamoeba Myosin-IC as a Potential Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E.; Valladares, Basilio; Maciver, Sutherland K.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens of humans, causing a sight-threatening keratitis and a fatal encephalitis. We have targeted myosin-IC by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing as a therapeutic approach, since it is known that the function of this protein is vital for the amoeba. In this work, specific siRNAs against the Acanthamoeba myosin-IC gene were developed. Treated and control amoebae were cultured in growth and encystment media to evaluate the induced effects after myosin-IC gene knockdown, as we have anticipated that cyst formation may be impaired. The effects of myosin-IC gene silencing were inhibition of cyst formation, inhibition of completion of cytokinesis, inhibition of osmoregulation under osmotic stress conditions, and death of the amoebae. The finding that myosin-IC silencing caused incompletion of cytokinesis is in agreement with earlier suggestions that the protein plays a role in cell locomotion, which is necessary to pull daughter cells apart after mitosis in a process known as “traction-mediated cytokinesis”. We conclude that myosin-IC is a very promising potential drug target for the development of much-needed antiamoebal drugs and that it should be further exploited for Acanthamoeba therapy. PMID:24468784

  9. siRNA-loaded liposomes: Inhibition of encystment of Acanthamoeba and toxicity on the eye surface.

    PubMed

    Faber, Kathrin; Zorzi, Giovanni K; Brazil, Nathalya T; Rott, Marilise B; Teixeira, Helder F

    2017-09-01

    Current treatments for Acanthamoeba keratitis are unspecific. Because of the presence of the resilient cyst form of the parasite, the infection is persistent. Silencing the key protein of cyst formation, glycogen phosphorylase, has shown potential for reducing encystment processes of the Acanthamoeba trophozoite. However, a suitable carrier to protect and deliver siRNA sequences is still needed. DOPE:DSPE-PEG liposomes were prepared by three different techniques and used to associate a therapeutic siRNA sequence. Liposomes prepared by film hydration followed by membrane extrusion were considered the most adequate ones with average size of 250 nm and zeta potential of +45 mV, being able to associate siRNA for at least 24 hr in culture medium. siRNA-liposomes could inhibit up to 66% of the encystment process. Cell viability studies demonstrated MTT reduction capacity higher than 80% after 3 hr incubation with this formulation. After 24 hr of incubation, LDH activity ranged for both the formulations from around 4% to 40%. In vivo tolerance studies in mice showed no macroscopic alteration in the eye structures up to 24 hr after eight administrations during 1 day. Histological studies showed regular tissue architecture without any morphological alteration. Overall, these results suggest that the formulations developed are a promising new strategy for the treatment of ocular keratitis caused by Acanthamoeba spp. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Interaction of Escherichia coli K1 and K5 with Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts.

    PubMed

    Matin, Abdul; Jung, Suk-Yul

    2011-12-01

    The existence of symbiotic relationships between Acanthamoeba and a variety of bacteria is well-documented. However, the ability of Acanthamoeba interacting with host bacterial pathogens has gained particular attention. Here, to understand the interactions of Escherichia coli K1 and E. coli K5 strains with Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts, association assay, invasion assay, survival assay, and the measurement of bacterial numbers from cysts were performed, and nonpathogenic E. coli K12 was also applied. The association ratio of E. coli K1 with A. castellanii was 4.3 cfu per amoeba for 1 hr but E. coli K5 with A. castellanii was 1 cfu per amoeba for 1 hr. By invasion and survival assays, E. coli K5 was recovered less than E. coli K1 but still alive inside A. castellanii. E. coli K1 and K5 survived and multiplied intracellularly in A. castellanii. The survival assay was performed under a favourable condition for 22 hr and 43 hr with the encystment of A. castellanii. Under the favourable condition for the transformation of trophozoites into cysts, E. coli K5 multiplied significantly. Moreover, the pathogenic potential of E. coli K1 from A. castellanii cysts exhibited no changes as compared with E. coli K1 from A. castellanii trophozoites. E. coli K5 was multiplied in A. castellanii trophozoites and survived in A. castellanii cysts. Therefore, this study suggests that E. coli K5 can use A. castellanii as a reservoir host or a vector for the bacterial transmission.

  11. Isolation and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba spp from oasis water in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Dendana, F; Trabelsi, H; Neiji, S; Sellami, H; Kammoun, S; Makni, F; Feki, J; Cheikhrouhou, F; Ayadi, A

    2018-04-01

    In the southern Tunisia Oasis, we conducted 211 water with drawals from various water traffic sites. This water is used for agriculture, swimming or various other human activities. Acanthamoeba genus was detected in 82% of collected samples. Sequencing of the amplification products with primers P892C/P892 has allowed us to detect genotypic variation with predominance of T4 genotype (51%) and presence of the genotypes T14, T5, T3, T16, T15, T10, T11, T9 and T7. They T4, T3, T5, T15, T11 and T10 genotypes have a high potential for pathogenicity and a very high degree of virulence due to their production of serine proteases and extracellular cysteine enzymes involved in tissue degradation of the host. T4 genotype was the most abundant in the environment as well as in infections caused by Acanthamoeba spp. T5 genotype was ranked second and T3 genotype was less abundant in the environment and its pathogenicity is discussed. Acanthamoeba strains with the genotypes T16, T9 and T7 were considered non pathogenic. In fact, they have been isolated only from the environment. However, for these strains, their role as a reservoir can be a real risk to human health. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Inactivation of Acanthamoeba spp. and Other Ocular Pathogens by Application of Cold Atmospheric Gas Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Shama, Gilbert; Andrew, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Currently there are estimated to be approximately 3.7 million contact lens wearers in the United Kingdom and 39.2 million in North America. Contact lens wear is a major risk factor for developing an infection of the cornea known as keratitis due to poor lens hygiene practices. While there is an international standard for testing disinfection methods against bacteria and fungi (ISO 14729), no such guidelines exist for the protozoan Acanthamoeba, which causes a potentially blinding keratitis most commonly seen in contact lens wearers, and as a result, many commercially available disinfecting solutions show incomplete disinfection after 6 and 24 h of exposure. Challenge test assays based on international standard ISO 14729 were used to determine the antimicrobial activity of cold atmospheric gas plasma (CAP) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Acanthamoeba castellanii. P. aeruginosa and C. albicans were completely inactivated in 0.5 min and 2 min, respectively, and trophozoites of A. polyphaga and A. castellanii were completely inactivated in 1 min and 2 min, respectively. Furthermore, for the highly resistant cyst stage of both species, complete inactivation was achieved after 4 min of exposure to CAP. This study demonstrates that the CAP technology is highly effective against bacterial, fungal, and protozoan pathogens. The further development of this technology has enormous potential, as this approach is able to deliver the complete inactivation of ocular pathogens in minutes, in contrast to commercial multipurpose disinfecting solutions that require a minimum of 6 h. PMID:26994079

  13. Disinfection capacity of PuriLens contact lens cleaning unit against Acanthamoeba.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Thomas S; Hyon, Joon Young; Song, Jae Kyung; Reviglio, Victor E; Spahr, Harry T; O'Brien, Terrence P

    2004-01-01

    The PuriLens contact lens system is indicated for cleaning and disinfection of soft (hydrophilic) contact lenses by means of subsonic agitation to remove lens deposits and microorganisms, and ultraviolet irradiation of the storage solution for disinfection. The capacity of the PuriLens system to disinfect storage solutions contaminated with known concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acanthamoeba species was evaluated. An in vitro assessment of the antibacterial and antiparasitic efficacy of the PuriLens system was performed. Separated batches of the storage solution for the cleansing system were contaminated with stock strains of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. A comparison of the microbiologic content was made between the solution before and after the cycle. The PuriLens system effectively eradicated S. aureus and P. aeruginosa organisms after a 15-minute cycle. However, viable cysts of acanthamoeba were recovered in the solution after the 15-minute cycle. The PuriLens system is highly efficient in protecting against contamination with common bacterial ocular pathogens. Acanthamoeba cysts, however, can survive in the solution or contact lens bath undergoing integrated subsonic debridement and indirect ultraviolet light disinfection. Use of chemical disinfecting solutions that contain agents such as chlorhexidine or other cationic antiseptics may be advisable in conjunction with use of the PuriLens device, especially in high-risk settings.

  14. Development and optimization of new culture media for Acanthamoeba spp. (Protozoa: Amoebozoa).

    PubMed

    Martín-Pérez, Tania; Criado-Fornelio, Angel; Ávila-Blanco, Manuel; Pérez-Serrano, Jorge

    2018-06-01

    The isolation and growth in axenic liquid media of Acanthamoeba strains is necessary in order to carry out primary in vitro drug screening. Amoebic isolates which are hard to grow in the current liquid media have been reported. Such circumstances hampers the ability of conducting drug sensitivity tests. Therefore, finding suitable universal growth media for Acanthamoeba species is required. The present study was aimed at the development of liquid medium suitable for growing a fastidious (F) genotype T3 Acanthamoeba isolate, and eventually for other genotypes of this genus as well. Trophozoite growth was indirectly monitored by respiration analysis with oxygen-sensitive microplates (OSM) and further confirmed by manual counting. Media were empirically designed and tested first in a non-fastidious (NF) T3 isolate and then tested with 14 different strains, including the fastidious one. Combinations of nutritive components such as meat/vegetable broth, LB medium, malt and skimmed milk led to the design of new media suitable for culturing all the isolates tested, in conditions similar to those obtained in standard culture media such as PYG or CERVA. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  15. Planning for Coupling Effects in Bitoric Mixed Astigmatism Ablative Treatments.

    PubMed

    Alpins, Noel; Ong, James K Y; Stamatelatos, George

    2017-08-01

    To demonstrate how to determine the historical coupling adjustments of bitoric mixed astigmatism ablative treatments and how to use these historical coupling adjustments to adjust future bitoric treatments. The individual coupling adjustments of the myopic and hyperopic cylindrical components of a bitoric treatment were derived empirically from a retrospective study where the theoretical combined treatment effect on spherical equivalent was compared to the actual change in refractive spherical equivalent. The coupling adjustments that provided the best fit in both mean and standard deviation were determined to be the historical coupling adjustments. Theoretical treatments that incorporated the historical coupling adjustments were then calculated. The actual distribution of postoperative spherical equivalent errors was compared to the theoretically adjusted distribution. The study group comprised 242 eyes and included 118 virgin right eyes and 124 virgin left eyes of 155 individuals. For the laser used, the myopic coupling adjustment was -0.02 and the hyperopic coupling adjustment was 0.30, as derived by global nonlinear optimization. This implies that almost no adjustment of the myopic component of the bitoric treatment is necessary, but that the hyperopic component of the bitoric treatment generates a large amount of unintended spherical shift. The theoretically adjusted treatments targeted zero mean spherical equivalent error, as intended, and the distribution of the theoretical spherical equivalent errors had the same spread as the distribution of actual postoperative spherical equivalent errors. Bitoric mixed astigmatism ablative treatments may display non-trivial coupling effects. Historical coupling adjustments should be taken into consideration when planning mixed astigmatism treatments to improve surgical outcomes. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(8):545-551.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Unusual Internal Astigmatism Due to Severe Capsule Contraction Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zéboulon, Pierre; Gatinel, Damien

    2018-01-01

    To describe a case of severe capsule contraction syndrome causing significant astigmatism due to intraocular lens (IOL) folding. Case report. Capsule fibrosis and contraction resulted in bending of the hydrophilic IOL along its long axis. Anterior Nd:YAG capsulotomy resolved the situation and restored the patient's visual acuity. Hydrophilic IOLs are more susceptible to capsule contraction due to the increased flexibility of highly hydrated materials. They should be avoided in patients at risk of capsule contraction to prevent ocular complications. [J Refract Surg. 2018;34(1):65-67.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Astigmatism Progression in the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Study to 6 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Davitt, Bradley V.; Quinn, Graham E.; Wallace, David K.; Dobson, Velma; Hardy, Robert J.; Tung, Betty; Lai, Dejian; Good, William V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the prevalence of astigmatism (≥1.00 diopter (D)) and high astigmatism (≥2.00 D) from 6 months post term due date to 6 years postnatal, in preterm children with birth weight ≤ 1251g who developed high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and participated in the Early Treatment for ROP (ETROP) Study. Design Observational Cohort Study Participants 401 infants who developed high-risk prethreshold ROP in one or both eyes and were randomized to early treatment (ET) versus conventional management (CM). Refractive error was measured by cycloplegic retinoscopy. Eyes were excluded if they received additional retinal, glaucoma, or cataract surgery. Intervention Eyes were randomized to receive laser photocoagulation at high-risk prethreshold ROP or to receive treatment only if threshold ROP developed. Main Outcome Measures Astigmatism and high astigmatism at each study visit. Results For both ET and CM eyes, there was a consistent increase in prevalence of astigmatism over time, increasing from 42% at 4 years to 52% by 6 years for the group of ET eyes and from 47% to 54% in the CM eyes. There was no statistically significant difference between the slopes (rate of change per month) of the ET and CM eyes for both astigmatism and high astigmatism. (P=0.75) Conclusions By 6 years of age, over 50% of eyes with high-risk prethreshold ROP developed astigmatism ≥ 1.00 D, and nearly 25% of such eyes had high astigmatism (≥ 2.00 D). Presence of astigmatism was not influenced by timing of treatment, zone of acute-phase ROP, or presence of plus disease. However, there was a trend toward higher prevalence of astigmatism and high astigmatism in eyes with ROP residua. Most astigmatism was with-the-rule (75º –105º). More eyes with Type 2 than Type 1 had astigmatism by 6 years. These findings reinforce the need for follow-up eye examinations through early grade school years in infants with high risk prethreshold ROP. PMID:21872933

  18. Astigmatism in the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Study: findings to 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Davitt, Bradley V.; Dobson, Velma; Quinn, Graham E.; Hardy, Robert J.; Tung, Betty; Good, William V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To examine the prevalence of astigmatism (≥ 1.00 diopter (D)) and high astigmatism (≥ 2.00 D) at 6 and 9 months post-term and 2 and 3 years postnatal, in preterm children with birth weight < 1251g who developed high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and participated in the Early Treatment for ROP (ETROP) Study. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial Participants 401 infants who developed prethreshold ROP in one or both eyes and were randomized after they were determined to have a high risk (≥ 15%) of poor structural outcome without treatment, using the RM-ROP2 risk management program. Refractive error was measured by cycloplegic retinoscopy. Eyes with additional retinal, glaucoma, or cataract surgery were excluded. Intervention Eyes were randomized to receive laser photocoagulation at high-risk prethreshold ROP (early treated (ET)) or to be conventionally managed (CM), receiving treatment only if threshold ROP developed. Main Outcome Measures Astigmatism and high astigmatism at each visit. Astigmatism was classified as “with-the rule” (75° – 105° (WTR)), “against-the-rule” (0° – 15° and 165° – 180° (ATR), or “oblique” (16° – 74° and 106° – 164° (OBL)). Results The prevalence of astigmatism in ET and CM eyes was similar at each test age. For both groups, there was an increase in prevalence of astigmatism from approximately 32% at 6 months to approximately 42% by 3 years, mostly occurring between 6 and 9 months. Among eyes that could be refracted, astigmatism was not influenced by zone of acute-phase ROP, presence of plus disease, or retinal residua of ROP. Eyes with astigmatism and high astigmatism most often had WTR astigmatism. Conclusions By age 3 years, nearly 43% of eyes treated at high-risk prethreshold ROP developed astigmatism ≥ 1.00 D and nearly 20% had astigmatism ≥ 2.00 D. Presence of astigmatism was not influenced by timing of treatment of acute-phase ROP, characteristics of acute

  19. Astigmatism error modification for absolute shape reconstruction using Fourier transform method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuhang; Li, Qiang; Gao, Bo; Liu, Ang; Xu, Kaiyuan; Wei, Xiaohong; Chai, Liqun

    2014-12-01

    A method is proposed to modify astigmatism errors in absolute shape reconstruction of optical plane using Fourier transform method. If a transmission and reflection flat are used in an absolute test, two translation measurements lead to obtain the absolute shapes by making use of the characteristic relationship between the differential and original shapes in spatial frequency domain. However, because the translation device cannot guarantee the test and reference flats rigidly parallel to each other after the translations, a tilt error exists in the obtained differential data, which caused power and astigmatism errors in the reconstructed shapes. In order to modify the astigmatism errors, a rotation measurement is added. Based on the rotation invariability of the form of Zernike polynomial in circular domain, the astigmatism terms are calculated by solving polynomial coefficient equations related to the rotation differential data, and subsequently the astigmatism terms including error are modified. Computer simulation proves the validity of the proposed method.

  20. A simplified focusing and astigmatism correction method for a scanning electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yihua; Zhang, Xianmin; Li, Hai

    2018-01-01

    Defocus and astigmatism can lead to blurred images and poor resolution. This paper presents a simplified method for focusing and astigmatism correction of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The method consists of two steps. In the first step, the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the SEM image is performed and the FFT is subsequently processed with a threshold to achieve a suitable result. In the second step, the threshold FFT is used for ellipse fitting to determine the presence of defocus and astigmatism. The proposed method clearly provides the relationships between the defocus, the astigmatism and the direction of stretching of the FFT, and it can determine the astigmatism in a single image. Experimental studies are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  1. Agreement between total corneal astigmatism calculated by vector summation and total corneal astigmatism measured by ray tracing using Galilei double Scheimpflug analyzer.

    PubMed

    Feizi, Sepehr; Delfazayebaher, Siamak; Ownagh, Vahid; Sadeghpour, Fatemeh

    To evaluate the agreement between total corneal astigmatism calculated by vector summation of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism (TCA Vec ) and total corneal astigmatism measured by ray tracing (TCA Ray ). This study enrolled a total of 204 right eyes of 204 normal subjects. The eyes were measured using a Galilei double Scheimpflug analyzer. The measured parameters included simulated keratometric astigmatism using the keratometric index, anterior corneal astigmatism using the corneal refractive index, posterior corneal astigmatism, and TCA Ray . TCA Vec was derived by vector summation of the astigmatism on the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. The magnitudes and axes of TCA Vec and TCA Ray were compared. The Pearson correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the relationship and agreement between TCA Vec and TCA Ray , respectively. The mean TCA Vec and TCA Ray magnitudes were 0.76±0.57D and 1.00±0.78D, respectively (P<0.001). The mean axis orientations were 85.12±30.26° and 89.67±36.76°, respectively (P=0.02). Strong correlations were found between the TCA Vec and TCA Ray magnitudes (r=0.96, P<0.001). Moderate associations were observed between the TCA Vec and TCA Ray axes (r=0.75, P<0.001). Bland-Altman plots produced the 95% limits of agreement for the TCA Vec and TCA Ray magnitudes from -0.33 to 0.82D. The 95% limits of agreement between the TCA Vec and TCA Ray axes was -43.0 to 52.1°. The magnitudes and axes of astigmatisms measured by the vector summation and ray tracing methods cannot be used interchangeably. There was a systematic error between the TCA Vec and TCA Ray magnitudes. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. A New Approach for the Calculation of Total Corneal Astigmatism Considering the Magnitude and Orientation of Posterior Corneal Astigmatism and Thickness.

    PubMed

    Piñero, David P; Caballero, María T; Nicolás-Albujer, Juan M; de Fez, Dolores; Camps, Vicent J

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate a new method of calculation of total corneal astigmatism based on Gaussian optics and the power design of a spherocylindrical lens (C) in the healthy eye and to compare it with keratometric (K) and power vector (PV) methods. A total of 92 healthy eyes of 92 patients (age, 17-65 years) were enrolled. Corneal astigmatism was calculated in all cases using K, PV, and our new approach C that considers the contribution of corneal thickness. An evaluation of the interchangeability of our new approach with the other 2 methods was performed using Bland-Altman analysis. Statistically significant differences between methods were found in the magnitude of astigmatism (P < 0.001), with the highest values provided by K. These differences in the magnitude of astigmatism were clinically relevant when K and C were compared [limits of agreement (LoA), -0.40 to 0.62 D), but not for the comparison between PV and C (LoA, -0.03 to 0.01 D). Differences in the axis of astigmatism between methods did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.408). However, they were clinically relevant when comparing K and C (LoA, -5.48 to 15.68 degrees) but not for the comparison between PV and C (LoA, -1.68 to 1.42 degrees). The use of our new approach for the calculation of total corneal astigmatism provides astigmatic results comparable to the PV method, which suggests that the effect of pachymetry on total corneal astigmatism is minimal in healthy eyes.

  3. Topography-Guided Transepithelial Surface Ablation in the Treatment of Moderate to High Astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangjun; Stojanovic, Aleksandar; Simonsen, David; Wang, Xiaorui; Liu, Yanhua; Utheim, Tor Paaske

    2016-06-01

    To analyze the outcomes of treatment of astigmatism of 2.00 diopters (D) or greater with topography-guided transepithelial surface ablation. Retrospective analysis of a series of 206 eyes divided into two groups: myopic astigmatism (153 eyes) and mixed astigmatism (53 eyes). All cases were treated with topography-guided transepithelial surface ablation. Efficacy, safety, and predictability were evaluated, and vector analysis of cylindrical correction was performed. The median preoperative spherical equivalent was -2.63 and -0.63 D for the myopic and mixed astigmatism groups, respectively, with median cylinder of -2.50 D. Postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/20 or better in 92% and 83% of eyes in the myopic and mixed astigmatism groups, respectively; the corresponding efficacy indices were 1.00 and 0.96 and residual astigmatism of 0.50 D or less was present in 82.4% and 56.7% of eyes in the myopic and mixed astigmatism groups, respectively. The arithmetic mean magnitude of the difference vector was 0.38 (myopic) and 0.65 (mixed) D. Difference vector magnitude was positively correlated with the magnitude of target induced astigmatism in both groups. The geometric mean coefficient of adjustment index was 1.04 and 1.19, representing undercorrection of 4% and 19% in the myopic and mixed astigmatism groups, respectively. Topography-guided transepithelial ablation is a safe, effective, and predictable treatment for moderate to high astigmatism. [J Refract Surg. 2016;32(6):418-425.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Refractive, corneal and ocular residual astigmatism: distribution in a German population and age-dependency - the Gutenberg health study.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Alexander Karl-Georg; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Schulz, Andreas; Hoehn, René; Ponto, Katharina A; Wild, Philipp S; Blettner, Maria; Beutel, Manfred E; Lackner, Karl J; Münzel, Thomas; Mirshahi, Alireza

    2017-12-01

    Worldwide, the most frequent cause of visual impairment is uncorrected refractive error. This analysis focused on the distribution and associations of refractive, corneal and ocular residual astigmatism. As part of the Gutenberg Health study, a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the general population of Germany. A comprehensive ophthalmological examination including refraction, tonometry, and Scheimpflug imaging of the anterior cornea (Pachycam) was performed. In addition to the magnitude and type (with-the-rule, against-the-rule, oblique) of the refractive or corneal astigmatism, we calculated the vector components (J 0 , J 45 ) of both astigmatisms and calculated the ocular residual astigmatism. We performed multiple quantile regression analysis to evaluate the factors associated with refractive, corneal and ocular residual astigmatisms. A total of 13,558 subjects (49% female) with a mean age of 54.0 years (range 35-74 years) were included in this study. The prevalence of refractive astigmatism (>1.0D) was 13.0% in right eyes and 12.0% in left eyes, and 85% of these subjects wore spectacles. The distribution of refractive astigmatism showed a two-peak distribution with high astigmatism for with-the-rule and against-the-rule astigmatism. The associated factors were corneal curvature, age and sex for the different astigmatisms (p < 0.001). We analyzed the prevalence of different astigmatisms within a European population. We confirmed a shift with aging from with-the-rule to against-the-rule astigmatism to refractive and corneal astigmatism. Astigmatism has a large impact on visual perception; more than 85% of people with astigmatism over one diopter wore glasses for distance vision.

  5. An analysis of the factors influencing the residual refractive astigmatism after cataract surgery with toric intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Savini, Giacomo; Næser, Kristian

    2015-01-13

    To investigate the influence of posterior corneal astigmatism, surgically-induced corneal astigmatism (SICA), intraocular lens (IOL) orientation, and effective lens position on the refractive outcome of toric IOLs. Five models were prospectively investigated. Keratometric astigmatism and an intended SICA of 0.2 diopters (D) were entered into model 1. Total corneal astigmatism, measured by a rotating Scheimpflug camera, was used instead of keratometric astigmatism in model 2. The mean postoperative SICA, the actual postoperative IOL orientation, and the influence of the effective lens position were added, respectively, into models 3, 4, and 5. Astigmatic data were vectorially described by meridional and torsional powers. A set of equations was developed to describe the error in refractive astigmatism (ERA) as the difference between the postoperative refractive astigmatism and the target refractive astigmatism. We enrolled 40 consecutive eyes. In model 1, ERA calculations revealed significant cylinder overcorrection in with-the-rule (WTR) eyes (meridional power = -0.59 ± 0.34 D, P < 0.0001) and undercorrection in against-the-rule (ATR) eyes (0.32 ± 0.42 D, P = 0.01). When total corneal astigmatism was used instead of keratometric astigmatism (model 2), the ERA meridional power decreased in WTR (-0.13 ± 0.42 D) and ATR (0.07 ± 0.59 D) eyes, both values being not statistically significant. Models 3 to 5 did not lead to significant improvement. Posterior corneal astigmatism exerts the highest influence on the ERA after toric IOL implantation. Basing calculations on total corneal astigmatism rather than keratometric astigmatism improves the prediction of the residual refractive astigmatism. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  6. High occurrence of Acanthamoeba genotype T4 in soil sources from Bolívar State, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Hernán, Aurora; Rojas, Elsy; Pérez, Gladymar; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-09-01

    Pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba are causative agents of keratitis and encephalitis that often may end fatal in humans and other animals. In the present study, twenty-seven soil samples were collected in the Bolivar State in Venezuela and checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba. Samples were cultivated onto 2% non-nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed E. coli. Amplification by PCR and sequencing of the DF3 region of the 18S rDNA of Acanthamoeba was carried out in order to confirm morphological identification of the amoebae. Furthermore, Acanthamoeba spp. was isolated from 51.8% of soil samples. Sequencing of the DF3 region of the 18S rDNA resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of genotype T4 in soil sources from Venezuela. Further studies should be carried out in this State and in the country in order to determine the current occurrence of Acanthamoeba in Venezuelan environments.

  7. In vitro adhesion of Acanthamoeba castellanii to soft contact lenses depends on water content and disinfection procedure.

    PubMed

    Reverey, Julia F; Fromme, Roland; Leippe, Matthias; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine

    2014-08-01

    To compare the potential of different soft contact lenses to be contaminated with Acanthamoeba castellanii as a function of material parameters and cleaning procedures. Different unworn soft hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lenses were incubated with human pathogenic A. castellanii. The adhesion of the acanthamoebae was investigated on the contact lenses and put into relation to their material parameters. The efficacy of a recommended contact lens cleaning procedure in reducing A. castellanii adhesion was investigated. We found that material parameters such as elastic modulus, silicone content, ionic properties and swelling do not influence the adhesion of acanthamoebae to soft contact lenses. A material parameter that influenced adhesion significantly was the water content of the lens. With increasing water content, the adhesion of acanthamoebae increased. By following the cleaning instructions of the manufacturer the contamination of the lenses with A. castellanii could be reduced to a minimum, as shown both on contact lenses and in control experiments. With this study we show that for the tested lenses, the adhesion of A. castellanii to contact lenses is independent of the silicone content of the lens, but depends nonlinearly on the water content of the lens. Furthermore, we demonstrate that applying proper lens cleaning procedures minimizes the risk of acanthamoebae adhesion to contact lenses. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quasi two-dimensional astigmatic solitons in soft chiral metastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudyn, Urszula A.; Jung, Paweł S.; Karpierz, Mirosław A.; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-03-01

    We investigate a non-homogeneous layered structure encompassing dual spatial dispersion: continuous diffraction in one transverse dimension and discrete diffraction in the orthogonal one. Such dual diffraction can be balanced out by one and the same nonlinear response, giving rise to light self-confinement into astigmatic spatial solitons: self-focusing can compensate for the spreading of a bell-shaped beam, leading to quasi-2D solitary wavepackets which result from 1D transverse self-localization combined with a discrete soliton. We demonstrate such intensity-dependent beam trapping in chiral soft matter, exhibiting one-dimensional discrete diffraction along the helical axis and one-dimensional continuous diffraction in the orthogonal plane. In nematic liquid crystals with suitable birefringence and chiral arrangement, the reorientational nonlinearity is shown to support bell-shaped solitary waves with simple astigmatism dependent on the medium birefringence as well as on the dual diffraction of the input wavepacket. The observations are in agreement with a nonlinear nonlocal model for the all-optical response.

  9. Inhibition of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl–Coenzyme A Reductase and Application of Statins as a Novel Effective Therapeutic Approach against Acanthamoeba Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Machin, Rubén P.; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; García-Castellano, José Manuel; de Fuentes, Isabel; Loftus, Brendan; Maciver, Sutherland K.; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E.

    2013-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic pathogen in humans, whose infections most commonly manifest as Acanthamoeba keratitis or, more rarely, granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. Although there are many therapeutic options for the treatment of Acanthamoeba, they are generally lengthy and/or have limited efficacy. Therefore, there is a requirement for the identification, validation, and development of novel therapeutic targets against these pathogens. Recently, RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely used for these validation purposes and has proven to be a powerful tool for Acanthamoeba therapeutics. Ergosterol is one of the major sterols in the membrane of Acanthamoeba. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl–coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, one of the precursors for the production of cholesterol in humans and ergosterol in plants, fungi, and protozoa. Statins are compounds which inhibit this enzyme and so are promising as chemotherapeutics. In order to validate whether this enzyme could be an interesting therapeutic target in Acanthamoeba, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against HMG-CoA were developed and used to evaluate the effects induced by the inhibition of Acanthamoeba HMG-CoA. It was found that HMG-CoA is a potential drug target in these pathogenic free-living amoebae, and various statins were evaluated in vitro against three clinical strains of Acanthamoeba by using a colorimetric assay, showing important activities against the tested strains. We conclude that the targeting of HMG-CoA and Acanthamoeba treatment using statins is a novel powerful treatment option against Acanthamoeba species in human disease. PMID:23114753

  10. Measurement centration and zone diameter in anterior, posterior and total corneal astigmatism in keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Fredriksson, Anneli; Behndig, Anders

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the central and paracentral astigmatism and the significance of centration and measurement zone diameter compared to a 3-mm pupil-centred measurement zone in keratoconus and in healthy eyes. Twenty-eight right eyes from 28 KC patients with an inferotemporal cone were selected according to specified criteria based on Oculus Pentacam HR ® measurements and were matched with healthy control eyes. The flat (K1) and steep (K2) keratometry readings were registered from the 'Total Corneal Refractive Power' (TCRP) display as well as the anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism displays (ACA and PCA, respectively). Astigmatic power vectors KP0 and KP45 were calculated and analysed for a 6-mm and two 3-mm zones centred on the corneal apex and the pupil, and for 8 paracentral 3-mm zones. The astigmatism was generally higher in KC. Many astigmatic values in KC differed between the 3-mm pupil-centred and the 3- and 6-mm apex-centred zones in KC. In the controls, no corresponding differences between measurement zones were seen, apart from PCA, which differed. The magnitude and direction of KP0 and KP45 varied greatly between the paracentral measurements in KC. Centration and measurement zone diameter have great impacts on the astigmatic values in KC. A small pupil-centred measurement zone should be considered when evaluating the astigmatism in KC. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The use of dimethyl sulfoxide in contact lens disinfectants is a potential preventative strategy against contracting Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Aqeel, Yousuf; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii is the causative agent of blinding keratitis. Though reported in non-contact lens wearers, it is most frequently associated with improper use of contact lens. For contact lens wearers, amoebae attachment to the lens is a critical first step, followed by amoebae binding to the corneal epithelial cells during extended lens wear. Acanthamoeba attachment to surfaces (biological or inert) and migration is an active process and occurs during the trophozoite stage. Thus retaining amoebae in the cyst stage (dormant form) offers an added preventative measure in impeding parasite traversal from the contact lens onto the cornea. Here, we showed that as low as 3% DMSO, abolished A. castellanii excystation. Based on the findings, it is proposed that DMSO should be included in the contact lens disinfectants as an added preventative strategy against contracting Acanthamoeba keratitis. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro anti-Acanthamoeba synergistic effect of chlorhexidine and cationic carbosilane dendrimers against both trophozoite and cyst forms.

    PubMed

    Heredero-Bermejo, I; Sánchez-Nieves, J; Soliveri, J; Gómez, R; de la Mata, F J; Copa-Patiño, J L; Pérez-Serrano, J

    2016-07-25

    Acanthamoeba sp. are the causative agents of severe illnesses in humans such as Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE). Medical therapy is not yet well established. Treatments of AK last for several months and generate toxicity, resistances appear due to the cysts stage and recurrences can occur. In this study has been demonstrated that the combination of chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX) and carbosilane dendrimers containing ammonium or guanidine moieties has in vitro synergistic effect against Acanthamoeba polyphaga. This synergy provokes an important reduction in the minimal trophozoite amoebicidal concentration (MTAC) of CLX, which means a reduction of their toxic effects on human cells. Moreover, some CLX/dendrimer combinations show important activity against the cyst resistance stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Virulent T4 Acanthamoeba causing keratitis in a patient after swimming while wearing contact lenses in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fabres, Laura Fuhrich; Maschio, Vinicius José; Santos, Denise Leal Dos; Kwitko, Sergio; Marinho, Diane Ruschel; Araújo, Bruno Schneider de; Locatelli, Claudete Inês; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2018-06-26

    Several strains of free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba can cause a painful sight-threatening disease of the cornea known as Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). The numbers of AK cases keep rising worldwide mainly due to an increase in contact lens wearers and lack of hygiene in the maintenance of contact lenses and their cases. We report a case of AK in a healthy young woman admitted to the Hospital de Clinicas in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. Corneal scrapings were examined for the presence of Acanthamoeba strains. The initial isolate was characterized by morphological and genotypic properties. The isolate belonged to group III according to Pussard and Pons' cyst morphology. Analysis of its 18S rDNA sequence identified the isolate as genotype T4. The T4 genotype is the most commonly reported among keratitis isolates and the most common in environmental samples.

  14. Vector analysis of astigmatic correction after small-incision lenticule extraction and femtosecond-assisted LASIK for low to moderate myopic astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tommy C Y; Ng, Alex L K; Cheng, George P M; Wang, Zheng; Ye, Cong; Woo, Victor C P; Tham, Clement C Y; Jhanji, Vishal

    2016-04-01

    To compare astigmatic correction between femtosecond-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). A total of 111 patients were included in this prospective study. Fifty-seven eyes were treated with LASIK and 54 eyes were treated with SMILE for myopia with low to moderate (-0.25 to -4.0 D) astigmatism. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity and manifest refraction were measured preoperatively and at 1 and 3 months postoperatively. Visual and refractive outcomes were reported. Changes in refractive astigmatism were evaluated using vector analysis. Preoperative characteristics were similar between both groups. The UDVA at 1 and 3 months was better in the LASIK group compared with the SMILE group (p<0.009). Postoperative cylinder was higher in the SMILE group (p<0.001). Fewer eyes attained the attempted cylindrical correction in the SMILE group (p<0.029). Vector analysis showed no significant difference in target-induced astigmatism (p=0.091) and angle of error (p>0.596) between the two groups. Surgically induced astigmatism was significantly lower in the SMILE group (p<0.023), while the difference vector (p<0.001) and absolute angle of error (p<0.016) were significantly higher in the SMILE group. No significant difference was found in these parameters between 1 and 3 months in both groups (p>0.122). Our results showed that SMILE offered a less favourable astigmatic correction comparable to femtosecond-assisted LASIK in eyes with low to moderate myopic astigmatism. The alignment of treatment was more variable in SMILE, leading to a lower efficacy compared with LASIK by 3 months postoperatively. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. A genome-wide association study of corneal astigmatism: The CREAM Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rupal L.; Li, Qing; Zhao, Wanting; Tedja, Milly S.; Tideman, J. Willem L.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Fan, Qiao; Yazar, Seyhan; Williams, Katie M.; Verhoeven, Virginie J.M.; Xie, Jing; Wang, Ya Xing; Hess, Moritz; Nickels, Stefan; Lackner, Karl J.; Pärssinen, Olavi; Wedenoja, Juho; Biino, Ginevra; Concas, Maria Pina; Uitterlinden, André; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Sim, Xueling; Tan, Nicholas; Tham, Yih-Chung; Sensaki, Sonoko; Hofman, Albert; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Jonas, Jost B.; Mitchell, Paul; Hammond, Christopher J.; Höhn, René; Baird, Paul N.; Wong, Tien-Yin; Cheng, Chinfsg-Yu; Teo, Yik Ying; Mackey, David A.; Williams, Cathy; Saw, Seang-Mei; Klaver, Caroline C.W.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To identify genes and genetic markers associated with corneal astigmatism. Methods A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of corneal astigmatism undertaken for 14 European ancestry (n=22,250) and 8 Asian ancestry (n=9,120) cohorts was performed by the Consortium for Refractive Error and Myopia. Cases were defined as having >0.75 diopters of corneal astigmatism. Subsequent gene-based and gene-set analyses of the meta-analyzed results of European ancestry cohorts were performed using VEGAS2 and MAGMA software. Additionally, estimates of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability for corneal and refractive astigmatism and the spherical equivalent were calculated for Europeans using LD score regression. Results The meta-analysis of all cohorts identified a genome-wide significant locus near the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) gene: top SNP: rs7673984, odds ratio=1.12 (95% CI:1.08–1.16), p=5.55×10−9. No other genome-wide significant loci were identified in the combined analysis or European/Asian ancestry-specific analyses. Gene-based analysis identified three novel candidate genes for corneal astigmatism in Europeans—claudin-7 (CLDN7), acid phosphatase 2, lysosomal (ACP2), and TNF alpha-induced protein 8 like 3 (TNFAIP8L3). Conclusions In addition to replicating a previously identified genome-wide significant locus for corneal astigmatism near the PDGFRA gene, gene-based analysis identified three novel candidate genes, CLDN7, ACP2, and TNFAIP8L3, that warrant further investigation to understand their role in the pathogenesis of corneal astigmatism. The much lower number of genetic variants and genes demonstrating an association with corneal astigmatism compared to published spherical equivalent GWAS analyses suggest a greater influence of rare genetic variants, non-additive genetic effects, or environmental factors in the development of astigmatism. PMID:29422769

  16. Variation of axial and oblique astigmatism with accommodation across the visual field

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Thibos, Larry N.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we investigated the impact of accommodation on axial and oblique astigmatism along 12 meridians of the central 30° of visual field and explored the compensation of corneal first-surface astigmatism by the remainder of the eye's optical system. Our experimental evidence revealed no systematic effect of accommodation on either axial or oblique astigmatism for two adult populations (myopic and emmetropic eyes). Although a few subjects exhibited systematic changes in axial astigmatism during accommodation, the dioptric value of these changes was much smaller than the amount of accommodation. For most subjects, axial and oblique astigmatism of the whole eye are both less than for the cornea alone, which indicates a compensatory role for internal optics at all accommodative states in both central and peripheral vision. A new method for determining the eye's optical axis based on visual field maps of oblique astigmatism revealed that, on average, the optical axis is 4.8° temporal and 0.39° superior to the foveal line-of-sight in object space, which agrees with previous results obtained by different methodologies and implies that foveal astigmatism includes a small amount of oblique astigmatism (0.06 D on average). Customized optical models of each eye revealed that oblique astigmatism of the corneal first surface is negligible along the pupillary axis for emmetropic and myopic eyes. Individual variation in the eye's optical axis is due in part to misalignment of the corneal and internal components that is consistent with tilting of the crystalline lens relative to the pupillary axis. PMID:28362902

  17. A genome-wide association study of corneal astigmatism: The CREAM Consortium.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rupal L; Li, Qing; Zhao, Wanting; Tedja, Milly S; Tideman, J Willem L; Khawaja, Anthony P; Fan, Qiao; Yazar, Seyhan; Williams, Katie M; Verhoeven, Virginie J M; Xie, Jing; Wang, Ya Xing; Hess, Moritz; Nickels, Stefan; Lackner, Karl J; Pärssinen, Olavi; Wedenoja, Juho; Biino, Ginevra; Concas, Maria Pina; Uitterlinden, André; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hysi, Pirro G; Sim, Xueling; Tan, Nicholas; Tham, Yih-Chung; Sensaki, Sonoko; Hofman, Albert; Vingerling, Johannes R; Jonas, Jost B; Mitchell, Paul; Hammond, Christopher J; Höhn, René; Baird, Paul N; Wong, Tien-Yin; Cheng, Chinfsg-Yu; Teo, Yik Ying; Mackey, David A; Williams, Cathy; Saw, Seang-Mei; Klaver, Caroline C W; Guggenheim, Jeremy A; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E

    2018-01-01

    To identify genes and genetic markers associated with corneal astigmatism. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of corneal astigmatism undertaken for 14 European ancestry (n=22,250) and 8 Asian ancestry (n=9,120) cohorts was performed by the Consortium for Refractive Error and Myopia. Cases were defined as having >0.75 diopters of corneal astigmatism. Subsequent gene-based and gene-set analyses of the meta-analyzed results of European ancestry cohorts were performed using VEGAS2 and MAGMA software. Additionally, estimates of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability for corneal and refractive astigmatism and the spherical equivalent were calculated for Europeans using LD score regression. The meta-analysis of all cohorts identified a genome-wide significant locus near the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha ( PDGFRA ) gene: top SNP: rs7673984, odds ratio=1.12 (95% CI:1.08-1.16), p=5.55×10 -9 . No other genome-wide significant loci were identified in the combined analysis or European/Asian ancestry-specific analyses. Gene-based analysis identified three novel candidate genes for corneal astigmatism in Europeans-claudin-7 ( CLDN7 ), acid phosphatase 2, lysosomal ( ACP2 ), and TNF alpha-induced protein 8 like 3 ( TNFAIP8L3 ). In addition to replicating a previously identified genome-wide significant locus for corneal astigmatism near the PDGFRA gene, gene-based analysis identified three novel candidate genes, CLDN7 , ACP2 , and TNFAIP8L3 , that warrant further investigation to understand their role in the pathogenesis of corneal astigmatism. The much lower number of genetic variants and genes demonstrating an association with corneal astigmatism compared to published spherical equivalent GWAS analyses suggest a greater influence of rare genetic variants, non-additive genetic effects, or environmental factors in the development of astigmatism.

  18. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Investigation of the Power Vector in Astigmatism: The Yamagata Study (Funagata).

    PubMed

    Namba, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Ryo; Sugano, Akira; Nishi, Katsuhiro; Murakami, Takanori; Nishitsuka, Koichi; Kato, Takeo; Kayama, Takamasa; Yamashita, Hidetoshi

    2018-01-01

    To investigate how age and other factors affect astigmatism in Japanese adults over a period of 5 years. We included 512 Japanese participants who had undergone systemic and ophthalmological examinations both in 2005-2007 and in 2010-2012 in Funagata town, Yamagata, Japan. Astigmatism was evaluated using power vector analyses, where J0 represents the power of orthogonal astigmatism. Positive values of J0 indicate with-the-rule astigmatism, whereas negative values indicate against-the-rule (ATR). In this cross-sectional investigation, J0 represented the power of orthogonal astigmatism, and multivariate regression revealed that both J0 and corneal J0 (cJ0) declined with increasing age (both P < 0.001). In a longitudinal investigation spanning 5 years, the mean amounts of change (Δ) in J0 and ΔcJ0 were -0.045 ± 0.308 and -0.072 ± 0.278, respectively. This confirmed an ATR shift with increasing age in most individuals. The age-divided distribution of the magnitude of differences indicated that older age was associated with a larger astigmatic change over a 5-year period in both the cornea and the entire eye. Using multivariate logistic regression, we observed that older age at baseline was a risk factor for low ΔJ0, indicating a large shift toward ATR astigmatism. We confirmed that a refractive and keratometric shift toward ATR astigmatism occurs with aging. Older age at baseline was also associated with a larger magnitude of astigmatic changes over the subsequent 5 years.

  19. Effect of astigmatism on visual acuity in eyes with a diffractive multifocal intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ken; Manabe, Shin-Ichi; Yoshida, Motoaki; Hayashi, Hideyuki

    2010-08-01

    To examine the effect of astigmatism on visual acuity at various distances in eyes with a diffractive multifocal intraocular lens (IOL). Hayashi Eye Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan. In this study, eyes had implantation of a diffractive multifocal IOL with a +3.00 diopter (D) addition (add) (AcrySof ReSTOR SN6AD1), a diffractive multifocal IOL with a +4.00 D add (AcrySof ReSTOR SN6AD3), or a monofocal IOL (AcrySof SN60WF). Astigmatism was simulated by adding cylindrical lenses of various diopters (0.00, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00), after which distance-corrected acuity was measured at various distances. At most distances, the mean visual acuity in the multifocal IOL groups decreased in proportion to the added astigmatism. With astigmatism of 0.00 D and 0.50 D, distance-corrected near visual acuity (DCNVA) in the +4.00 D group and distance-corrected intermediate visual acuity (DCIVA) and DCNVA in the +3.00 D group were significantly better than in the monofocal group; the corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was similar. The DCNVA with astigmatism of 1.00 D was better in 2 multifocal groups; however, with astigmatism of 1.50 D and 2.00 D, the CDVA and DCIVA at 0.5m in the multifocal groups were significantly worse than in the monofocal group, although the DCNVA was similar. With astigmatism of 1.00 D or greater, the mean CDVA and DCNVA in the multifocal groups reached useful levels (20/40). The presence of astigmatism in eyes with a diffractive multifocal IOL compromised all distance visual acuities, suggesting the need to correct astigmatism of greater than 1.00 D. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Astigmatism-free Czerny-Turner compact spectrometer with cylindrical mirrors.

    PubMed

    Xia, Guo; Wu, Su; Wang, Guodong; Hu, Mingyong; Xing, Jinyu

    2017-11-10

    A modified optical design for a broadband, high resolution, astigmatism-free Czerny-Turner spectrometer is proposed. Astigmatism is corrected by using cylindrical mirrors over a broad spectral range. The theory and method for astigmatism correction are thoroughly analyzed. The comparison between the modified Czerny-Turner spectrometer and the traditional Czerny-Turner spectrometer is also described in detail. The ray-tracing results show that the RMS spot radius has decreased to 4.2 μm at the central wavelength and 17 μm at the wedge wavelength.

  1. Characteristics of astigmatism as a function of age in a Hong Kong clinical population.

    PubMed

    Leung, Tsz-Wing; Lam, Andrew Kwok-Cheung; Deng, Li; Kee, Chea-Su

    2012-07-01

    To characterize astigmatism as a function of age in a Hong Kong clinical population. All records from new clinical patients at a university optometry clinic in the year 2007 were used for the study. Only data from subjects with corrected visual acuity ≥6/9 in both eyes and with completed subjective refraction were analyzed. The subjects were divided into seven age groups by decade (i.e., 3 to 10 years, 11 to 20 years, …, >60 years). Refractive errors were decomposed into spherical-equivalent refractive error (M), J0, and J45 astigmatic components for analyses. Internal astigmatism was calculated by subtracting corneal astigmatism from refractive astigmatism (RA). Of the 2759 cases that fulfilled our selection criteria, 58.9% had myopia (M ≥-0.75 D) and 28.4% had RA (Cyl ≥ 1.00 D). The prevalence of RA increased from 17.8% in the 3 to 10 years age group to 38.1% in the 21 to 30 years age group. It then dipped to 25.8% in 41 to 50 years age group but increased again to 41.8% in the >60 years age group. Among the astigmats, almost all 3- to 10-year-old children (92.6%) had with-the-rule (WTR) astigmatism, but a majority of the elderly (>60 years) had against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism (79.7%). For a subset of subjects who had both subjective refraction and keratometric readings (n = 883), RA was more strongly correlated with corneal (r = 0.35 to 0.74) than with internal astigmatism (r = 0.01 to 0.35). More importantly, the magnitudes of both refractive and corneal J0 were consistent with synchronized decrements (-0.15 and -0.14 D per 10 years, respectively) after the age of 30 years, indicating that the shift toward more ATR astigmatism was related to corneal change. In this Hong Kong Chinese clinical population, the prevalence rates of both myopia and astigmatism increased during the first three decades and shared a similar trend before the age of 50 years. The manifest astigmatism was mainly corneal in nature, bilaterally mirror symmetric in axis, and

  2. Optical analysis for simplified astigmatic correction of non-imaging focusing heliostat

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, K.K.

    2010-08-15

    In the previous work, non-imaging focusing heliostat that consists of m x n facet mirrors can carry out continuous astigmatic correction during sun-tracking with the use of only (m + n - 2) controllers. For this paper, a simplified astigmatic correction of non-imaging focusing heliostat is proposed for reducing the number of controllers from (m + n - 2) to only two. Furthermore, a detailed optical analysis of the new proposal has been carried out and the simulated result has shown that the two-controller system can perform comparably well in astigmatic correction with a much simpler and more cost effectivemore » design. (author)« less

  3. A method for assessing the accuracy of surgical technique in the correction of astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Kaye, S B; Campbell, S H; Davey, K; Patterson, A

    1992-12-01

    Surgical results can be assessed as a function of what was aimed for, what was done, and what was achieved. One of the aims of refractive surgery is to reduce astigmatism; the smaller the postoperative astigmatism the better the result. Determination of what was done--that is, the surgical effect, can be calculated from the preoperative and postoperative astigmatism. A simplified formulation is described which facilitates the calculation (magnitude and direction) of this surgical effect. In addition, an expression for surgical accuracy is described, as a function of what was aimed for and what was achieved.

  4. Enhanced killing of Acanthamoeba cysts with a plant peroxidase-hydrogen peroxide-halide antimicrobial system.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Reanne; Andrew, Peter W; Kilvington, Simon

    2003-05-01

    The activity of H(2)O(2) against the resistant cyst stage of the pathogenic free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba was enhanced by the addition of KI and either horseradish peroxidase or soybean peroxidase or, to a lesser degree, lactoperoxidase. This resulted in an increase in the cysticidal activity of 3% (wt/vol) H(2)O(2), and there was >3-log killing in 2 h, compared with the 6 h required for comparable results with the peroxide solution alone (P < 0.05). With 2% H(2)O(2), enhancement was observed at all time points (P < 0.05), and total killing of the cyst inoculum occurred at 4 h, compared with 6 h for the peroxide alone. The activity of sublethal 1% H(2)O(2) was enhanced to give 3-log killing after 8 h of exposure (P < 0.05). No enhancement was obtained when KCl or catalase was used as a substitute in the reaction mixtures. The H(2)O(2) was not neutralized in the enhanced system during the experiments. However, in the presence of a platinum disk used to neutralize H(2)O(2) in contact lens care systems, the enhanced 2% H(2)O(2) system gave 2.8-log killing after 6 h or total cyst killing by 8 h, and total neutralization of the H(2)O(2) occurred by 4 h. In contrast, 2% H(2)O(2) alone resulted in <0.8-log killing of cysts in the presence of the platinum disk due to rapid (<1 h) neutralization of the peroxide. Our observations could result in significant improvement in the efficacy of H(2)O(2) contact lens disinfection systems against Acanthamoeba cysts and prevention of acanthamoeba keratitis.

  5. Molecular and morphological characterization of Acanthamoeba isolated from corneal scrapes and contact lens wearers in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Casero, Rodolfo D; Mongi, Florencia; Laconte, Laura; Rivero, Fernando; Sastre, Dario; Teherán, Aníbal; Herrera, Giovanny; Ramírez, Juan David

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we describe the frequency of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in patients that assisted in the Ophthalmology Department and determine the species/genotypes of free living amoebas (FLA) isolates. FLA from Corneal scrapes (CS) and contact lens (CL) wearers were studied by morphological and molecular characterization. A database was constructed with sociodemographic, clinical findings and history of use of CL variables. During January 2000 and September 2016 patients with corneal pathology admitted to the Ophthalmology Service of the University Hospital in Córdoba city, Argentina were included in the study. FLA were detected in 1.5% (11/739) and in 17% (11/65) of CS and CL analyzed respectively. FLA isolates from CL users evidenced an 80.9% of inappropriate lens maintenance, 4.8% (1/21) were not CL users that have been in contact with waters in outdoor environment and 14,3% (3/21) with no data about CL users. Acanthamoeba was confirmed in 100% and 82% of CS and LC respectively. The most frequent symptom associated with AK was red eye and photophobia. FLA from CS belonged to group II but 82% (9/11) and 18% (2/11) from CL belonged to group II and III respectively. T4 genotype and A. polyphaga species were detected in 100% of Acanthamoeba isolates. Poor CL hygiene practices, highlights the need for improved education about the severity of AK and consequences of improper CL hygiene. Genotype T4 detected in 100% of both CS and CL samples, consistently with previous findings indicating that this genotype is by far the most prevalent isolated from ocular infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction of Escherichia coli K1 and K5 with Acanthamoeba castellanii Trophozoites and Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Matin, Abdul

    2011-01-01

    The existence of symbiotic relationships between Acanthamoeba and a variety of bacteria is well-documented. However, the ability of Acanthamoeba interacting with host bacterial pathogens has gained particular attention. Here, to understand the interactions of Escherichia coli K1 and E. coli K5 strains with Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts, association assay, invasion assay, survival assay, and the measurement of bacterial numbers from cysts were performed, and nonpathogenic E. coli K12 was also applied. The association ratio of E. coli K1 with A. castellanii was 4.3 cfu per amoeba for 1 hr but E. coli K5 with A. castellanii was 1 cfu per amoeba for 1 hr. By invasion and survival assays, E. coli K5 was recovered less than E. coli K1 but still alive inside A. castellanii. E. coli K1 and K5 survived and multiplied intracellularly in A. castellanii. The survival assay was performed under a favourable condition for 22 hr and 43 hr with the encystment of A. castellanii. Under the favourable condition for the transformation of trophozoites into cysts, E. coli K5 multiplied significantly. Moreover, the pathogenic potential of E. coli K1 from A. castellanii cysts exhibited no changes as compared with E. coli K1 from A. castellanii trophozoites. E. coli K5 was multiplied in A. castellanii trophozoites and survived in A. castellanii cysts. Therefore, this study suggests that E. coli K5 can use A. castellanii as a reservoir host or a vector for the bacterial transmission. PMID:22355201

  7. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus and other giant viruses: an open field to outstanding discoveries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2003, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV) was first described and began to impact researchers around the world, due to its structural and genetic complexity. This virus founded the family Mimiviridae. In recent years, several new giant viruses have been isolated from different environments and specimens. Giant virus research is in its initial phase and information that may arise in the coming years may change current conceptions of life, diversity and evolution. Thus, this review aims to condense the studies conducted so far about the features and peculiarities of APMV, from its discovery to its clinical relevance. PMID:24976356

  8. Post-keratoplasty astigmatism management by relaxing incisions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ho Wang Yin, Gaëlle; Hoffart, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative visual acuity can be limited by post-keratoplasty astigmatism, even with a clear corneal graft. Astigmatism management can be performed by selective suture removal, adjustment of sutures, optical correction, photorefractive procedures, wedge resection, intra-ocular lens implantation, intracorneal ring segments, relaxing incisions with or without compression sutures and repeated keratoplasty. Relaxing incisions can be made in the graft, graft-host interface or host cornea. Despite the unpredictability of the method because the flat and steep meridians are usually not orthogonal after penetrating keratoplasty, with asymmetric power distribution, all the studies showed an overall reduction of refractive, keratometric or topographic astigmatism, ranging from 30% to 72% with manual or femtosecond-assisted techniques. Most patients with astigmatism higher than 6 diopters had residual cylinder less than or equal to 3 diopters, which can be treated by laser excimer ablation or secondary intraocular lens implantation.

  9. Astigmatism correction of a non-imaging double spectrometer fitted with a 2D array detector

    SciTech Connect

    Yaney, P.P.; Ernst, S.L.; Blackshire, J.

    1992-12-01

    A SPEX 1401 double spectrometer was adapted for a liquid nitrogen cooled CCD detector to permit both spectral and spatial analysis of ceramic specimens in a laser Raman microprobe system. The exit image of the spectrometer suffers from astigmatism due to off-axis spherical mirrors. A cylindrical lens was added before the CCD to correct for the astigmatism. The spectrometer and several lenses were modeled using an optical ray tracing program to characterize the astigmatism and to optimize the locations of the lens and the detector. The astigmatism and the spot pattern sizes determined by the model were in good agreementmore » with he observed performance of the modified spectrometer-detector system. Typical spot patterns fell within the 23 {mu}m square pixel size.« less

  10. Ocular residual astigmatism (ORA) in pre-cataract eyes prior to and after refractive lens exchange.

    PubMed

    Katz, Toam; Steinberg, Johannes; Druchkiv, Vasyl; Linke, Stephan J; Frings, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze ocular residual astigmatism (ORA) before and after implantation of two different optical types of non-toric multifocal intraocular lenses (MIOL) in pre-cataract patients. This retrospective cohort study analyzed 72 eyes from 72 consecutive patients after MIOL surgery . To investigate magnitude and axis of astigmatic changes, the concepts of true corneal astigmatism and Alpins vector method were applied. There were no statistically significant between-group differences prior to surgery. The mean refractive surgically induced astigmatism (RSIA) (P = 0.063) and the topographic SIA (TSIA) (P = 0.828) did not differ significantly between the lenses, and the summated vector mean for ORA was reduced in terms of magnitude by approximately 0.30 Diopter. ORA in pseudophakic eyes mainly results from the posterior corneal surface and less from IOL tilting, postoperative posterior capsule shrinkage, or secondary cataract.

  11. Corneal limbal marking in the treatment of myopic astigmatism with the excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Celine; Zuberbuhler, Bruno; Goggin, Michael; Esterman, Adrian; Schipper, Isaak

    2010-07-01

    To determine whether preoperative marking of the limbal cornea improves treatment of myopic astigmatism with the excimer laser. Retrospective study on 108 eyes with myopic astigmatism that underwent LASIK or laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) with the Technolas 217 (Bausch & Lomb) excimer laser. Preoperative limbal marking was performed in 47 eyes (marked group). The 12-month results were used for refractive and visual analysis. The achieved cylinder reduction, spherical reduction, and refractive predictability were similar for the marked and unmarked groups in the overall study collective, in the LASIK and LASEK subgroup analysis, and in a higher astigmatism (> 1.25 diopters) subgroup analysis. Limbal marking showed no influence on the refractive results, and vector analysis showed no significant difference in angle of error among groups. Corneal limbal marking failed to improve the refractive outcome in LASIK and LASEK for myopic astigmatism.

  12. Excimer laser correction of hyperopia, hyperopic and mixed astigmatism: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Lukenda, Adrian; Martinović, Zeljka Karaman; Kalauz, Miro

    2012-06-01

    The broad acceptance of "spot scanning" or "flying spot" excimer lasers in the last decade has enabled the domination of corneal ablative laser surgery over other refractive surgical procedures for the correction of hyperopia, hyperopic and mixed astigmatism. This review outlines the most important reasons why the ablative laser correction of hyperopia, hyperopic and mixed astigmatism for many years lagged behind that of myopia. Most of today's scanning laser systems, used in the LASIK and PRK procedures, can safely and effectively perform low, moderate and high hyperopic and hyperopic astigmatic corrections. The introduction of these laser platforms has also significantly improved the long term refractive stability of hyperopic treatments. In the future, further improvements in femtosecond and nanosecond technology, eye-tracker systems, and the development of new customized algorithms, such as the ray-tracing method, could additionally increase the upper limit for the safe and predictable corneal ablative laser correction ofhyperopia, hyperopic and mixed astigmatism.

  13. Application of the fractional Fourier transformation to digital holography recorded by an elliptical, astigmatic Gaussian beam.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, F; Coëtmellec, S; Brunel, M; Allano, D; Lebrun, D; Janssen, A J E M

    2005-11-01

    The authors have studied the diffraction pattern produced by a particle field illuminated by an elliptic and astigmatic Gaussian beam. They demonstrate that the bidimensional fractional Fourier transformation is a mathematically suitable tool to analyse the diffraction pattern generated not only by a collimated plane wave [J. Opt. Soc. Am A 19, 1537 (2002)], but also by an elliptic and astigmatic Gaussian beam when two different fractional orders are considered. Simulations and experimental results are presented.

  14. Distribution of the anterior, posterior, and total corneal astigmatism in healthy eyes.

    PubMed

    Feizi, Sepehr; Naderan, Mohammad; Ownagh, Vahid; Sadeghpour, Fatemeh

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the magnitude and axis orientation of the anterior, posterior, and total corneal astigmatism in normal healthy eyes of an Iranian population. In a prospective cross-sectional study, ophthalmic and anterior segment parameters of 153 healthy eyes of 153 subjects were evaluated by Galilei dual Scheimpflug analyzer. The magnitude and axis orientation [with-the-rule (WTR), against-the-rule (ATR), and oblique] of the anterior, posterior, and total corneal astigmatism measurements (ACA, PCA, and TCA) were compared according to the age, sex, and other ophthalmic parameters. The mean ± SD age of the study population was 30 ± 5.9 years. The mean magnitude was 1.09 ± 0.76 diopters (D) for ACA, 0.30 ± 0.13 D for PCA, and 1.08 ± 0.77 D for TCA. Males had a significantly higher magnitude of PCA than females (p = 0.041). Most eyes had a WTR anterior astigmatism and an ATR posterior astigmatism. The WTR astigmatism had a higher mean magnitude compared to the ATR and oblique astigmatism in all the astigmatism groups, with a significant difference in the ACA and TCA groups (p < 0.05). PCA magnitude exceeded 0.50 D in only 7.8% of the subjects. ACA, PCA, and TCA were significantly correlated with each other and also had a significant correlation with the anterior and posterior maximum corneal elevation measurements (p < 0.001). The results of this study although are limited due to the small number of participants and confined to our demographics, provided information regarding a population that was not described before and may be helpful in obtaining optimum results in astigmatism correction in refractive surgery or designing new intraocular lenses.

  15. Mean Posterior Corneal Power and Astigmatism in Normal Versus Keratoconic Eyes.

    PubMed

    Feizi, Sepehr; Delfazayebaher, Siamak; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Karimian, Farid; Ownagh, Vahid; Sadeghpour, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    To compare mean posterior corneal power and astigmatism in normal versus keratoconus affected eyes and determine the optimal cut-off points to maximize sensitivity and specificity in discriminating keratoconus from normal corneas. A total of 204 normal eyes and 142 keratoconus affected eyes were enrolled in this prospective comparative study. Mean posterior corneal power and astigmatism were measured using a dual Scheimpflug camera. Correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the relationship between the magnitudes of keratometric and posterior corneal astigmatism in the study groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the measured parameters and to identify the optimal cut-off points for discriminating keratoconus from normal corneas. The mean posterior corneal power was -6.29 ± 0.20 D in the normal group and -7.77 ± 0.87 D in the keratoconus group ( P < 0.001). The mean magnitudes of the posterior corneal astigmatisms were -0.32 ± 0.15 D and -0.94 ± 0.39 D in the normal and keratoconus groups, respectively ( P < 0.001). Significant correlations were found between the magnitudes of keratometric and posterior corneal astigmatism in the normal (r=-0.76, P < 0.001) and keratoconus (r=-0.72, P < 0.001) groups. The mean posterior corneal power and astigmatism were highly reliable characteristics that distinguished keratoconus from normal corneas (area under the curve, 0.99 and 0.95, respectively). The optimal cut-off points of mean posterior corneal power and astigmatism were -6.70 D and -0.54 D, respectively. Mean posterior corneal power and astigmatism measured using a Galilei analyzer camera might have potential in diagnosing keratoconus. The cut-off points provided can be used for keratoconus screening.

  16. Enantiomorphism and rule similarity in the astigmatism axes of fellow eyes: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Hassan; Asharlous, Amir; Yekta, Abbasali; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Mohebi, Masumeh; Aghamirsalim, Mohamadreza; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2018-04-03

    To evaluate the relationship patterns between astigmatism axes of fellow eyes (rule similarity and symmetry) and to determine the prevalence of each pattern in the studied population. This population-based study was conducted in 2015 in Iran. All participants had tests for visual acuity, objective refraction, subjective refraction (if cooperative), and assessment of eye health at the slit-lamp. Axis symmetry was based on two different patterns: direct (equal axes) and mirror (mirror image symmetry) or enantiomorphism. Bilateral astigmatism was classified as isorule if fellow eyes had the same orientation (e.g. both eyes were with-the-rule) and as anisorule if otherwise. Of the total cases of bilateral astigmatism, 80% were isorule, and in the studied population, the prevalence of isorule and anisorule astigmatism was 14.89% and 3.53%, respectively. The prevalence of isorule increased with age (p<0.001). The prevalence of both isorule and anisorule increased at higher degrees of spherical ametropia (p<0.001). Median inter-ocular axis difference was 10° in mirror symmetry and 20° in direct symmetry with no significant difference between two genders (p>0.288). Both symmetry patterns reduced with age (p<0.001). Among cases of bilateral astigmatism, 15.5% and 19.8% had exact direct and mirror symmetry, respectively. Bilateral astigmatism is mainly isorule in the population and anisorule astigmatism is rare. The enantiomorphism is the most common pattern in the population of bilateral astigmatism. Copyright © 2018 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Astigmatism Induced by Combined Inferior Oblique Anterior Transposition Procedure and Lateral Rectus Recession Alone

    PubMed Central

    Eum, Sun Jung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the magnitude and axis of astigmatism induced by a combined inferior oblique (IO) anterior transposition procedure with lateral rectus (LR) recession versus LR recession alone. Methods Forty-six patients were retrospectively analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups: those having concurrent inferior oblique muscle overaction (IOOA) and intermittent exotropia (group 1, 20 patients) and those having only intermittent exotropia as a control (group 2, 26 patients). Group 1 underwent combined anterior transposition of IO with LR recession and group 2 underwent LR recession alone. Induced astigmatism was defined as the difference between preoperative and postoperative astigmatism using double-angle vector analysis. Cylinder power, axis of induced astigmatism, and spherical equivalent were analyzed at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery. Results Larger changes in the axis of induced astigmatism were observed in group 1, with 4.5° incyclotorsion, than in group 2 at 1 week after surgery (axis, 84.5° vs. 91°; p < 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant inter-group difference thereafter. Relaxation and rapid regression in the incyclotorsion of induced astigmatism were observed over-time. Spherical equivalent significantly decreased postoperatively at 1 month in both groups, indicating a myopic shift (p = 0.011 for group 1 and p = 0.019 for group 2) but did not show significant differences at 3 months after surgery (p = 0.107 for group 1 and p = 0.760 for group 2). Conclusions Combined IO anterior transposition procedures caused an increased change in the axis of induced astigmatism, including temporary incyclotorsion, during the first week after surgery. However, this significant difference was not maintained thereafter. Thus, combined IO surgery with LR recession does not seem to produce a sustained astigmatic change, which can be a potential risk factor of postoperative amblyopia or

  18. Vector Analysis of Corneal Astigmatism After Combined Femtosecond-Assisted Phacoemulsification and Arcuate Keratotomy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tommy C Y; Cheng, George P M; Wang, Zheng; Tham, Clement C Y; Woo, Victor C P; Jhanji, Vishal

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of femtosecond-assisted arcuate keratotomy combined with cataract surgery in eyes with low to moderate corneal astigmatism. Retrospective, interventional case series. This study included patients who underwent combined femtosecond-assisted phacoemulsification and arcuate keratotomy between March 2013 and August 2013. Keratometric astigmatism was evaluated before and 2 months after the surgery. Vector analysis of the astigmatic changes was performed using the Alpins method. Overall, 54 eyes of 54 patients (18 male and 36 female; mean age, 68.8 ± 11.4 years) were included. The mean preoperative (target-induced astigmatism) and postoperative astigmatism was 1.33 ± 0.57 diopters (D) and 0.87 ± 0.56 D, respectively (P < .001). The magnitude of error (difference between surgically induced and target-induced astigmatism) (-0.13 ± 0.68 D), as well as the correction index (ratio of surgically induced and target-induced astigmatism) (0.86 ± 0.52), demonstrated slight undercorrection. The angle of error was very close to 0, indicating no significant systematic error of misaligned treatment. However, the absolute angle of error showed a less favorable range (17.5 ± 19.2 degrees), suggesting variable factors such as healing or alignment at an individual level. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Combined phacoemulsification with arcuate keratotomy using femtosecond laser appears to be a relatively easy and safe means for management of low to moderate corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery candidates. Misalignment at an individual level can reduce its effectiveness. This issue remains to be elucidated in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Calculations of actual corneal astigmatism using total corneal refractive power before and after myopic keratorefractive surgery.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kyoung Yul; Yang, Hun; Kim, Wook Kyum; Nam, Sang Min

    2017-01-01

    To calculate actual corneal astigmatism using the total corneal refractive astigmatism for the 4-mm apex zone of the Pentacam (TCRP4astig) and keratometric astigmatism (Kastig) before and after photorefractive keratectomy or laser in situ keratomileusis. Uncomplicated 56 eyes after more than 6 months from the surgery were recruited by chart review. Various corneal astigmatisms were measured using the Pentacam and autokeratometer before and after surgery. Three eyes were excluded and 53 eyes of 38 subjects with with-the-rule astigmatism (WTR) were finally included. The astigmatisms were investigated using polar value analysis. When TCRP4astig was set as an actual astigmatism, the efficacy of arithmetic or coefficient adjustment of Kastig was evaluated using bivariate analysis. The difference between the simulated keratometer astigmatism of the Pentacam (SimKastig) and Kastig was strongly correlated with the difference between TCRP4astig and Kastig. TCRP4astig was different from Kastig in magnitude rather than meridian before and after surgery; the preoperative difference was due to the posterior cornea only; however, the postoperative difference was observed in both anterior and posterior parts. For arithmetic adjustment, 0.28 D and 0.27 D were subtracted from the preoperative and postoperative magnitudes of Kastig, respectively. For coefficient adjustment, the preoperative and postoperative magnitudes of Kastig were multiplied by 0.80 and 0.66, respectively. By arithmetic or coefficient adjustment, the difference between TCRP4astig and adjusted Kastig would be less than 0.75 D in magnitude for 95% of cases. Kastig was successfully adjusted to TCPR4astig before and after myopic keratorefractive surgery in cases of WTR. For use of TCRP4astig directly, SimKastig and Kastig should be matched.

  20. Comparison of Astigmatism Induced by Combined Inferior Oblique Anterior Transposition Procedure and Lateral Rectus Recession Alone.

    PubMed

    Eum, Sun Jung; Chun, Bo Young

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the magnitude and axis of astigmatism induced by a combined inferior oblique (IO) anterior transposition procedure with lateral rectus (LR) recession versus LR recession alone. Forty-six patients were retrospectively analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups: those having concurrent inferior oblique muscle overaction (IOOA) and intermittent exotropia (group 1, 20 patients) and those having only intermittent exotropia as a control (group 2, 26 patients). Group 1 underwent combined anterior transposition of IO with LR recession and group 2 underwent LR recession alone. Induced astigmatism was defined as the difference between preoperative and postoperative astigmatism using double-angle vector analysis. Cylinder power, axis of induced astigmatism, and spherical equivalent were analyzed at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery. Larger changes in the axis of induced astigmatism were observed in group 1, with 4.5° incyclotorsion, than in group 2 at 1 week after surgery (axis, 84.5° vs. 91°; p < 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant inter-group difference thereafter. Relaxation and rapid regression in the incyclotorsion of induced astigmatism were observed over-time. Spherical equivalent significantly decreased postoperatively at 1 month in both groups, indicating a myopic shift ( p = 0.011 for group 1 and p = 0.019 for group 2) but did not show significant differences at 3 months after surgery ( p = 0.107 for group 1 and p = 0.760 for group 2). Combined IO anterior transposition procedures caused an increased change in the axis of induced astigmatism, including temporary incyclotorsion, during the first week after surgery. However, this significant difference was not maintained thereafter. Thus, combined IO surgery with LR recession does not seem to produce a sustained astigmatic change, which can be a potential risk factor of postoperative amblyopia or diplopia compared with LR recession alone.

  1. Comparison of astigmatism correction using either peripheral corneal relaxing incisions or toric intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Muftuoglu, Ilkay Kilic; Aydin Akova, Yonca; Aksoy, Sibel; Unsal, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and short-term stability of toric intraocular lenses (tIOL) and peripheral cornea relaxing incisions (PCRI) during phacoemulsification. Patients with preexisting corneal astigmatism had cataract surgery either with tIOL (AcrySof Toric) (39 eyes of 35 patients) or standard intraocular lens (AcrySof) + PCRIs (38 eyes of 33 patients). Patients were retrospectively evaluated for manifest refraction, corneal topography, and uncorrected and corrected visual acuities preoperatively and at postoperative 1 and 6 months. The Alpins vectorial method was used to analyze the target induced astigmatism (TIA) and surgically induced astigmatism (SIA), magnitude of error (the difference between the magnitude of SIA and TIA) (ME), and correction index. Mean preoperative corneal astigmatism was 2.21 ± 1.32 D in the tIOL group and 2.24 ± 0.96 D in the PCRI group; the difference was not significant. The decrease in astigmatism was significant in both groups at last follow-up (64% tIOL group, 32% PCRI group, p<0.01, Wilcoxon signed rank test). The mean remaining refractive astigmatism was significantly higher in the PCRI group than in the tIOL group at 1-month (1.42 ± 1.22, 0.89 ± 0.68, respectively) and 6-month follow-ups (1.75 ± 1.37 D, 0.92 ± 0.72, respectively) (p<0.01). The mean ME was significantly lower (-0.35 versus -0.88) with a higher correction index (0.96 versus 0.56) in the tIOL group at 6 months postoperatively. Both tIOL implantation and using PCRI were effective methods to reduce preoperative astigmatism at the time of the cataract surgery. However, tIOLs provided better remaining astigmatism with a more stable refraction than PCRI.

  2. The efficacy of a single continuous nylon suture for control of post keratoplasty astigmatism.

    PubMed Central

    Van Meter, W

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: Post operative adjustment of a single continuous suture is an effective means of reducing post keratoplasty astigmatism. This study evaluates post keratoplasty keratometry following suture adjustment with an adjusted suture in place and after the suture is removed. METHODS: Average keratometric astigmatism was measured over 24 months time in 26 patients with an adjusted continuous suture and 24 patients with a continuous suture that was not adjusted. Average keratometry in 43 patients with an adjusted continuous suture was compared with 37 patients with combined continuous and interrupted sutures. Finally, suture out astigmatism in 19 adjusted patients was compared to six patients with no adjustment. RESULTS: There was an increase in average corneal astigmatism over two years of 2.2 diopters in the adjusted group and 1.7 diopters in the non-adjusted group with sutures in place. One year following surgery, average keratometry flattened from 47.5 to 42.9 diopters in the adjusted continuous group and from 47.0 to 46.0 diopters in the group with combined continuous and interrupted sutures. Following suture removal, average astigmatism in patients who had suture adjustment was 4.4 diopters +/- 2.5 diopters (range 1-10 diopters), and 6.01 diopters (range 4-7) in the non-adjusted group. CONCLUSIONS: Average post keratoplasty astigmatism increases after a continuous suture is adjusted but the increase is comparable to patients with acceptable astigmatism who do not require adjustment. More progressive corneal flattening over 12 months time is seen with a continuous suture than which combined sutures. Average suture out astigmatism was 4.0 diopters following suture adjustment, compared to an average of 8.4 diopters prior to adjustment. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 7A FIGURE 7B PMID:8981721

  3. Calculations of actual corneal astigmatism using total corneal refractive power before and after myopic keratorefractive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Kyoung Yul; Yang, Hun; Kim, Wook Kyum; Nam, Sang Min

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To calculate actual corneal astigmatism using the total corneal refractive astigmatism for the 4-mm apex zone of the Pentacam (TCRP4astig) and keratometric astigmatism (Kastig) before and after photorefractive keratectomy or laser in situ keratomileusis Methods Uncomplicated 56 eyes after more than 6 months from the surgery were recruited by chart review. Various corneal astigmatisms were measured using the Pentacam and autokeratometer before and after surgery. Three eyes were excluded and 53 eyes of 38 subjects with with-the-rule astigmatism (WTR) were finally included. The astigmatisms were investigated using polar value analysis. When TCRP4astig was set as an actual astigmatism, the efficacy of arithmetic or coefficient adjustment of Kastig was evaluated using bivariate analysis. Results The difference between the simulated keratometer astigmatism of the Pentacam (SimKastig) and Kastig was strongly correlated with the difference between TCRP4astig and Kastig. TCRP4astig was different from Kastig in magnitude rather than meridian before and after surgery; the preoperative difference was due to the posterior cornea only; however, the postoperative difference was observed in both anterior and posterior parts. For arithmetic adjustment, 0.28 D and 0.27 D were subtracted from the preoperative and postoperative magnitudes of Kastig, respectively. For coefficient adjustment, the preoperative and postoperative magnitudes of Kastig were multiplied by 0.80 and 0.66, respectively. By arithmetic or coefficient adjustment, the difference between TCRP4astig and adjusted Kastig would be less than 0.75 D in magnitude for 95% of cases. Conclusions Kastig was successfully adjusted to TCPR4astig before and after myopic keratorefractive surgery in cases of WTR. For use of TCRP4astig directly, SimKastig and Kastig should be matched. PMID:28403194

  4. A simple method for astigmatic compensation of folded resonator without Brewster window.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wen; Xiaojun, Zhang; Yonggang, Wang; Liqun, Sun; Hanben, Niu

    2014-02-10

    A folded resonator requires an oblique angle of incidence on the folded curved mirror, which introduces astigmatic distortions that limit the performance of the lasers. We present a simple method to compensate the astigmatism of folded resonator without Brewster windows for the first time to the best of our knowledge. Based on the theory of the propagation and transformation of Gaussian beams, the method is both effective and reliable. Theoretical results show that the folded resonator can be compensated astigmatism completely when the following two conditions are fulfilled. Firstly, when the Gaussian beam with a determined size beam waist is obliquely incident on an off-axis concave mirror, two new Gaussian beam respectively in the tangential and sagittal planes are formed. Another off-axis concave mirror is located at another intersection point of the two new Gaussian beams. Secondly, adjusting the incident angle of the second concave mirror or its focal length can make the above two Gaussian beam coincide in the image plane of the second concave mirror, which compensates the astigmatic aberration completely. A side-pumped continues-wave (CW) passively mode locked Nd:YAG laser was taken as an example of the astigmatically compensated folded resonators. The experimental results show good agreement with the theoretical predictions. This method can be used effectively to design astigmatically compensated cavities resonator of high-performance lasers.

  5. Analysis of corneal astigmatism with NIDEK axial length scan in caucasian cataract surgery candidates.

    PubMed

    Duman, R; Duman, R; Cetinkaya, E; Sabaner, M C; Inan, S; Doğan, M; Doğan, I

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze and quantify the pattern of corneal astigmatism in Caucasian cataract surgery patients using a new optical biometer (axial length [AL] Scan, NIDEK Co., Gamagori, Japan). The datasets of cataract surgery patients acquired between March 1, 2014, and April 15, 2016, were collected and analyzed. The corneal power (flat keratometry, steep keratometry, and mean keratometry), negative cylinder power, and axis of astigmatism were recorded. Keratometry values were optically measured by optical low coherence interferometry (AL-Scan, NIDEK Co., Ltd.,) before cataract extraction. The study comprised 1233 eyes of 838 consecutive cataract candidates with a mean age of 66.8 ± 10.7 years (range 40-97 years). The mean keratometry value and corneal astigmatism were 43.69 ± 1.61 D and 0.84 ± 0.70 D, respectively. Corneal astigmatism of 1.00 D or greater was found in 344 eyes (27.9%), and 548 eyes (44.4%) had against-the-rule astigmatism. A trend toward decreasing J0 and J45 with age was found by linear regression models. The per-year increase in age was associated with a J0 and J45 decrease of 0.002 D and 0.001D, respectively. This study provides the distribution of astigmatism axis and power for cataract patients in age subsets from Turkey.

  6. Prevalence of Corneal Astigmatism in an NHS Cataract Surgery Practice in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Curragh, David S; Hassett, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Post-operative corneal astigmatism following cataract surgery can leave the patient with visual impairment. Correcting it at the time of surgery with a toric intraocular lens (TIOL) can give patients a better final visual outcome. The purpose was to determine the prevalence of corneal astigmatism in a cataract population and assess the demand for TIOL. Keratometric data was collected and analyzed for all patients who attended for routine cataract surgery under the care of a single surgeon based in Altnagelvin Area Hospital, Northern Ireland (NI). All patients were included between January 2008 and December 2014. Data was collected retrospectively for this observational study. There were 2080 consecutive eyes of 1788 patients. The mean corneal astigmatism was 1.09 ± 0.83. Corneal astigmatism was 1.50D or less in 1621 eyes (78%). It was more than 2.00 D in 242 eyes (11.6%), more than 2.50 D in 127 eyes (6.1%), more than 3.00D in 68 eyes (3.27%) and more than 3.50 D in 45 eyes (2.16%). For routine cataract surgery, 41.3% of eyes had more than 1.00 D of corneal astigmatism and 11.6% had more and 2.00D. Females had more astigmatism than males. This shows the potential demand for the TIOL in this population.

  7. Genotyping, physiological features and proteolytic activities of a potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba sp. isolated from tap water in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Magliano, Ana C M; da Silva, Flávia Maia; Teixeira, Marta M G; Alfieri, Silvia C

    2009-11-01

    Acanthamoeba spp., known to cause keratitis and granulomatous encephalitis in humans, are frequently isolated from a variety of water sources. Here we report for the first time the characterization of an Acanthamoeba sp. (ACC01) isolated from tap water in Brazil. This organism is currently being maintained in an axenic growth medium. Phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rRNA gene sequences positioned the new isolate in genotype T4, closest to the keratitis-causing isolate, A. polyphaga ATCC 30461 ( approximately 99% similarity). Acanthamoeba ACC01 and A. polyphaga 30461 both grew at 37 degrees C and were osmotically resistant, multiplying in hyperosmolar medium. Both isolates secreted comparable amounts of proteolytic enzymes, including serine peptidases that were optimally active at a near neutral/alkaline pH and resolved identically in gelatin gels. Incubation of gels at pH 4.0 with 2mM DTT also indicated the secretion of similar cysteine peptidases. Altogether, the results point to the pathogenic potential of Acanthamoeba ACC01.

  8. Acanthamoeba belonging to T3, T4, and T11: genotypes isolated from air-conditioning units in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Astorga, Berbeli; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Alarcón, Verónica; Moreno, Johanna; González, Ana C; Navarrete, Elizabeth; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2011-01-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) of the genus Acanthamoeba are widely distributed in the environment, in the air, soil, and water, and have also been isolated from air-conditioning units. The objective of this work was to investigate the presence of this genus of FLA in the air-conditioning equipment at the Institute of Public Health of Chile in Santiago, Chile. Water and air samples were collected from air-conditioning systems and were checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. Positive samples were further classified at the genotype level after sequencing the highly variable diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region of the 18S rRNA gene. This is the first report of the T3, T4, and T11 genotypes of Acanthamoeba in air-conditioning units from Chile. Overall, the widespread distribution of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains in the studied source demands more awareness within the public and health professionals in Chile as this pathogen is emerging as a risk for human health worldwide. © 2011 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2011 International Society of Protistologists.

  9. Acanthamoeba castellanii : growth on human cell layers reactivates attenuated properties after prolonged axenic culture

    PubMed Central

    Koehsler, Martina; Leitsch, David; Duchêne, Michael; Nagl, Markus; Walochnik, Julia

    2009-01-01

    The free-living, but potentially pathogenic, bacteriovorous amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba can be easily grown axenically in a laboratory culture. This, however, often leads to considerable losses in virulence, and encystment capacity, and to changes in drug susceptibility. We evaluated potential options for a reactivation of a number of physiological properties, attenuated by prolonged axenic laboratory culture, including encystment potential, protease activity, heat resistance, growth rates and drug susceptibility against N-chlorotaurine (NCT). Toward this end, a strain that had been grown axenically for 10 years was repeatedly passaged on human HEp-2 cell monolayers or treated with 5′-azacytidine (AzaC), a methyltransferase inhibitor, and trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, in order to uplift epigenetic gene regulation. Culture on human cell monolayers resulted in significantly enhanced encystment potentials and protease activities, and higher susceptibility against NCT, whereas the resistance against heat shock was not altered. Treatment with AzaC/TSA resulted in increased encystment rates and protease activities, indicating the participation of epigenetic mechanisms. However, lowered resistances against heat shock indicate that possible stress responses to AzaC/TSA have to be taken into account. Repeated growth on human cell monolayers appears to be a potential method to reactivate attenuated characteristics in Acanthamoeba. PMID:19732153

  10. Molecular characterization of Acanthamoeba strains isolated from domestic dogs in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Valladares, María; Reyes-Batlle, María; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Dorta-Gorrín, Alexis; Wagner, Carolina; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2015-06-01

    The present study describes two cases of Acanthamoeba infections (keratitis and ascites/peritonitis) in small breed domestic dogs in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. In both cases, amoebic trophozoites were observed under the inverted microscope and isolated from the infected tissues and/or fluids, without detecting the presence of other viral, fungal or bacterial pathogens. Amoebae were isolated using 2 % non-nutrient agar plates and axenified for further biochemical and molecular analyses. Osmotolerance and thermotolerance assays revealed that both isolates were able to grow up to 37 °C and 1 M of mannitol and were thus considered as potentially pathogenic. Moreover, the strains were classified as highly cytotoxic as they cause more than 75 % of toxicity when incubated with two eukaryotic cell lines. In order to classify the strains at the molecular level, the diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region of the 18S rDNA of Acanthamoeba was amplified and sequenced, revealing that both isolates belonged to genotype T4. In both cases, owners of the animals did not allow any further studies or follow-up and therefore the current status of these animals is unknown. Furthermore, the isolation of these pathogenic amoebae should raise awareness with the veterinary community locally and worldwide.

  11. Arp2/3 Complex from Acanthamoeba Binds Profilin and Cross-links Actin Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, R. Dyche; Kelleher, Joseph F.; Xu, James; Pollard, Thomas D.

    1998-01-01

    The Arp2/3 complex was first purified from Acanthamoeba castellanii by profilin affinity chromatography. The mechanism of interaction with profilin was unknown but was hypothesized to be mediated by either Arp2 or Arp3. Here we show that the Arp2 subunit of the complex can be chemically cross-linked to the actin-binding site of profilin. By analytical ultracentrifugation, rhodamine-labeled profilin binds Arp2/3 complex with a Kd of 7 μM, an affinity intermediate between the low affinity of profilin for barbed ends of actin filaments and its high affinity for actin monomers. These data suggest the barbed end of Arp2 is exposed, but Arp2 and Arp3 are not packed together in the complex exactly like two actin monomers in a filament. Arp2/3 complex also cross-links actin filaments into small bundles and isotropic networks, which are mechanically stiffer than solutions of actin filaments alone. Arp2/3 complex is concentrated at the leading edge of motile Acanthamoeba, and its localization is distinct from that of α-actinin, another filament cross-linking protein. Based on localization and actin filament nucleation and cross-linking activities, we propose a role for Arp2/3 in determining the structure of the actin filament network at the leading edge of motile cells. PMID:9529382

  12. Cellulose degradation: a therapeutic strategy in the improved treatment of Acanthamoeba infections.

    PubMed

    Lakhundi, Sahreena; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2015-01-14

    Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic free-living amoeba that can cause blinding keratitis and fatal brain infection. Early diagnosis, followed by aggressive treatment is a pre-requisite in the successful treatment but even then the prognosis remains poor. A major drawback during the course of treatment is the ability of the amoeba to enclose itself within a shell (a process known as encystment), making it resistant to chemotherapeutic agents. As the cyst wall is partly made of cellulose, thus cellulose degradation offers a potential therapeutic strategy in the effective targeting of trophozoite encased within the cyst walls. Here, we present a comprehensive report on the structure of cellulose and cellulases, as well as known cellulose degradation mechanisms with an eye to target the Acanthamoeba cyst wall. The disruption of the cyst wall will make amoeba (concealed within) susceptible to chemotherapeutic agents, and at the very least inhibition of the excystment process will impede infection recurrence, as we bring these promising drug targets into focus so that they can be explored to their fullest.

  13. How Could Contact Lens Wearers Be at Risk of Acanthamoeba Infection? A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Youhanna W.; Boase, David L.; Cree, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    Contact lens wear is highly influential on the incidence of ulcerative keratitis worldwide, particularly in developed countries. The association between Acanthamoeba keratitis and contact lens wear is firmly established; it may account for up to 95% of the reported cases. Before the popularisation of soft contact lens wear, Acanthamoeba keratitis was extremely rare. In 2000 it was estimated that the number of contact lens wearers worldwide was about 80 million, out of whom 33 million were in the United States and 90% of them wore hydrogel soft lenses. Contact lens-related problems depend on many factors, such as lens material, wearing modality, lens hygiene, type of lens-caring solution, the degree of compliance of the lens user with lens wear and care procedures, lens overwear, sleeping in lenses, rate of changing lenses, and lens case hygiene. This paper is a thorough review of the literature aiming to highlight the role of one of the main risk factors of infectious keratitis, contact lens wear, and also to show the responsibility of lens users in aggravating this risk.

  14. Average intensity and spreading of an astigmatic sinh-Gaussian beam with small beam width propagating in atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jie; Zhu, Kaicheng; Tang, Huiqin; Xia, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Propagation properties of astigmatic sinh-Gaussian beams (ShGBs) with small beam width in turbulent atmosphere are investigated. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral, analytical formulae for the average intensity and the effective beam size of an astigmatic ShGB are derived in turbulent atmosphere. The average intensity distribution and the spreading properties of an astigmatic ShGB propagating in turbulent atmosphere are numerically demonstrated. The influences of the beam parameters and the structure constant of atmospheric turbulence on the propagation properties of astigmatic ShGBs are also discussed in detail. In particular, for sufficiently small beam width and sinh-part parameter as well as suitable astigmatism, we show that the average intensity pattern converts into a perfect dark-hollow profile from initial two-petal pattern when ShGBs with astigmatic aberration propagate through atmospheric turbulence.

  15. Glycogen phosphorylase in Acanthamoeba spp.: determining the role of the enzyme during the encystment process using RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Kliescikova, Jarmila; Martinez-Carretero, Enrique; De Pablos, Luis Miguel; Profotova, Bronislava; Nohynkova, Eva; Osuna, Antonio; Valladares, Basilio

    2008-03-01

    Acanthamoeba infections are difficult to treat due to often late diagnosis and the lack of effective and specific therapeutic agents. The most important reason for unsuccessful therapy seems to be the existence of a double-wall cyst stage that is highly resistant to the available treatments, causing reinfections. The major components of the Acanthamoeba cyst wall are acid-resistant proteins and cellulose. The latter has been reported to be the major component of the inner cyst wall. It has been demonstrated previously that glycogen is the main source of free glucose for the synthesis of cellulose in Acanthamoeba, partly as glycogen levels fall during the encystment process. In other lower eukaryotes (e.g., Dictyostelium discoideum), glycogen phosphorylase has been reported to be the main tool used for glycogen breakdown in order to maintain the free glucose levels during the encystment process. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the regulation of the key processes involved in the Acanthamoeba encystment may be similar to the previously reported regulation mechanisms in other lower eukaryotes. The catalytic domain of the glycogen phosphorylase was silenced using RNA interference methods, and the effect of this phenomenon was assessed by light and electron microscopy analyses, calcofluor staining, expression zymogram assays, and Northern and Western blot analyses of both small interfering RNA-treated and control cells. The present report establishes the role of glycogen phosphorylase during the encystment process of Acanthamoeba. Moreover, the obtained results demonstrate that the enzyme is required for cyst wall assembly, mainly for the formation of the cell wall inner layer.

  16. Glycogen Phosphorylase in Acanthamoeba spp.: Determining the Role of the Enzyme during the Encystment Process Using RNA Interference▿

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Kliescikova, Jarmila; Martinez-Carretero, Enrique; De Pablos, Luis Miguel; Profotova, Bronislava; Nohynkova, Eva; Osuna, Antonio; Valladares, Basilio

    2008-01-01

    Acanthamoeba infections are difficult to treat due to often late diagnosis and the lack of effective and specific therapeutic agents. The most important reason for unsuccessful therapy seems to be the existence of a double-wall cyst stage that is highly resistant to the available treatments, causing reinfections. The major components of the Acanthamoeba cyst wall are acid-resistant proteins and cellulose. The latter has been reported to be the major component of the inner cyst wall. It has been demonstrated previously that glycogen is the main source of free glucose for the synthesis of cellulose in Acanthamoeba, partly as glycogen levels fall during the encystment process. In other lower eukaryotes (e.g., Dictyostelium discoideum), glycogen phosphorylase has been reported to be the main tool used for glycogen breakdown in order to maintain the free glucose levels during the encystment process. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the regulation of the key processes involved in the Acanthamoeba encystment may be similar to the previously reported regulation mechanisms in other lower eukaryotes. The catalytic domain of the glycogen phosphorylase was silenced using RNA interference methods, and the effect of this phenomenon was assessed by light and electron microscopy analyses, calcofluor staining, expression zymogram assays, and Northern and Western blot analyses of both small interfering RNA-treated and control cells. The present report establishes the role of glycogen phosphorylase during the encystment process of Acanthamoeba. Moreover, the obtained results demonstrate that the enzyme is required for cyst wall assembly, mainly for the formation of the cell wall inner layer. PMID:18223117

  17. Effectiveness and confounding factors of penetrating astigmatic keratotomy in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chu-Yu; Tseng, Gow-Lieng

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Penetrating astigmatic keratotomy (penetrating AK) is a well-known method to correct corneal astigmatism but rarely be performed nowadays. This article reevaluated the clinical effectiveness and confounding factors of penetrating AK. Patient concerns: Penetrating AK has been introduced to serve as one alternative operation for astigmatism correction, and is thought to have the potential advantage of being more affordable and easy to perform. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the effectiveness and confounding factors of penetrating AK. Diagnoses: The chart of 95 patients with corneal astigmatism (range: 0.75–3.25 diopters [D]) who received penetrating AK from January 2014 to December 2016 was collected. The corneal astigmatism were measured by an autokeratometer (Topcon KR8100PA topographer-autorefractor), and repeated with manual keratometer in low reproducibility cases. Interventions: All patients received penetrating AK by an experienced ophthalmologist (Dr. Gow-Lieng Tseng, MD, PHD) in the operation room. Among which, 66 patients received penetrating AK with phacoemulsification simultaneously (group A), whereas 29 patients received penetrating AK at least 3 months after phacoemulsification (group B). After excluding the patients combined with other procedures or lost followed up, 79 patients are remaining for analysis. The outcome was evaluated by net correction, the difference between preoperative corneal astigmatism (PCA) and residual corneal astigmatism (RCA). Two sample t tests and Pearson test were used for effectiveness evaluation. For confounding factors, multivariate linear regression was used for statistical analysis. Outcomes: The mean preoperative and postoperative refractive cylinders were 1.97 ± 0.77 and 1.08 ± 0.64 D, respectively, in group A and 2.62 ± 1.05 and 1.51 ± 0.89 D in group B. There were no statistically significant differences in net correction between these two groups (0.9 ± 0.66 vs

  18. Prevalence of Corneal Astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American Children 6 Months to 8 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M.; Schwiegerling, Jim; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.; Green, Tina K.; Messer, Dawn H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the prevalence of corneal astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of refractive astigmatism. Methods. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism was assessed by obtaining infant keratometer (IK4) measurements from 1235 Tohono O'odham children, aged 6 months to 8 years. Results. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism >2.00 D was lower in the 1- to <2-year-old age group when compared with all other age groups, except the 6- to <7-year-old group. The magnitude of mean corneal astigmatism was significantly lower in the 1- to <2-year age group than in the 5- to <6-, 6- to <7-, and 7- to <8-year age groups. Corneal astigmatism was with-the-rule (WTR) in 91.4% of astigmatic children (≥1.00 D). Conclusions. The prevalence and mean amount of corneal astigmatism were higher than reported in non–Native American populations. Mean astigmatism increased from 1.43 D in 1-year-olds to nearly 2.00 D by school age. PMID:21460261

  19. Ocular residual and corneal astigmatism in a clinical population of high school students

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Luoru; Pan, Chenglin; Li, Xiaoning; Pan, Lun; Yang, Zhikuan

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Total refractive astigmatism is usually the first consideration that guides the selection of contact lens type (e.g., spherical or toric), while the ocular source of the astigmatism is a second, but more important consideration, for the final clinical decision. This study was conducted to provide detailed data on this topic by evaluating astigmatic components in Chinese adolescents. Methods Participants were recruited from healthy high school students undergoing an annual ocular examination at a local hospital. Total astigmatism (TA), corneal astigmatism (CA), and ocular residual astigmatism (ORA) were determined by a Hartmann-Shack wavefront analyzer system (KR-1W, Topcon) with the natural pupil. The axis relationship between CA and ORA was placed into three categories: on-axis, defined as an axis with a difference of 0 ± 10°; opposite-axis, a difference of 90 ± 10°; and the rest defined as oblique-axis. Results The study consisted of 1,466 students (57.84% girls, age: 16.49 ± 1.05 years). ORA was present in 83.97%, 66.64%, and 45.23% of participants, according to the various criteria for astigmatism (≥ 0.50 D, ≥ 0.75 D, and ≥ 1.00 D, respectively). While with-the-rule was the most common axis orientation for both TA (76.28%) and CA (89.94%), against-the-rule predominated in ORA (93.82%; χ2 = 1688.544, p < 0.001). Opposite-axis was the major type of axis difference (90.96%) of clinical significance (i.e., ≥ 1.00 D) between CA and ORA, which also prevailed in all levels of TA (range: 56.25–82.26%). Conclusions ORA is common in high school students and usually demonstrates a compensation relationship with CA, which should be taken into consideration when determining the design of contact lenses to correct refractive error. PMID:29630629

  20. Astigmatism in Chinese primary school children: prevalence, change, and effect on myopic shift.

    PubMed

    Chan, Shao-En; Kuo, Hsi-Kung; Tsai, Chia-Ling; Wu, Pei-Chang

    2018-05-01

    To study the prevalence, type, and progression of astigmatism in primary school children, and its effect on myopic shift. A prospective study carried out in a primary school in southern Taiwan. The study was performed on a subset of children, one year after initial examination. Refractive error measured by cycloplegic autorefraction was the main study outcome. Astigmatism was recorded as negative cylinder form, and we defined clinical significant astigmatism (CSA) as cylinder refraction -1.0 D or greater. Myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent refraction (SER) of -0.50 D or greater. Three hundred sixty-two children, mean age was 8.97 y/o (SD 1.41; range 7 to 11 y/o) participated in the study. One hundred nineteen (32.9 %) subjects had CSA at the initial screening. The mean cylinder refraction was -0.80 + 0.84 diopters (D) (-5.25 D to 0.00 D), with predominant with rule astigmatism (69.7%). In the 183 children studied longitudinally, the mean cylinder refraction was reduced from -0.74 D to -0.58 D (p< 0.05). The cylinder refraction in the initial CSA group was not associated with SER change (p=0.99) or axial length change (p=0.55). Compared to the initial non-CSA group, the initial CSA group had no significant difference in axial length elongation (p=0.20). The prevalence of astigmatism was not low in the Chinese primary school children and with-the-rule astigmatism was predominant. The astigmatism decreased during the 1 year follow-up. The CSA was not associated with myopia progression (p=0.99).

  1. New algorithm for toric intraocular lens power calculation considering the posterior corneal astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Canovas, Carmen; Alarcon, Aixa; Rosén, Robert; Kasthurirangan, Sanjeev; Ma, Joseph J K; Koch, Douglas D; Piers, Patricia

    2018-02-01

    To assess the accuracy of toric intraocular lens (IOL) power calculations of a new algorithm that incorporates the effect of posterior corneal astigmatism (PCA). Abbott Medical Optics, Inc., Groningen, the Netherlands. Retrospective case report. In eyes implanted with toric IOLs, the exact vergence formula of the Tecnis toric calculator was used to predict refractive astigmatism from preoperative biometry, surgeon-estimated surgically induced astigmatism (SIA), and implanted IOL power, with and without including the new PCA algorithm. For each calculation method, the error in predicted refractive astigmatism was calculated as the vector difference between the prediction and the actual refraction. Calculations were also made using postoperative keratometry (K) values to eliminate the potential effect of incorrect SIA estimates. The study comprised 274 eyes. The PCA algorithm significantly reduced the centroid error in predicted refractive astigmatism (P < .001). With the PCA algorithm, the centroid error reduced from 0.50 @ 1 to 0.19 @ 3 when using preoperative K values and from 0.30 @ 0 to 0.02 @ 84 when using postoperative K values. Patients who had anterior corneal against-the-rule, with-the-rule, and oblique astigmatism had improvement with the PCA algorithm. In addition, the PCA algorithm reduced the median absolute error in all groups (P < .001). The use of the new PCA algorithm decreased the error in the prediction of residual refractive astigmatism in eyes implanted with toric IOLs. Therefore, the new PCA algorithm, in combination with an exact vergence IOL power calculation formula, led to an increased predictability of toric IOL power. Copyright © 2018 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ocular residual and corneal astigmatism in a clinical population of high school students.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao; Liu, Luoru; Pan, Chenglin; Li, Xiaoning; Pan, Lun; Lan, Weizhong; Yang, Zhikuan

    2018-01-01

    Total refractive astigmatism is usually the first consideration that guides the selection of contact lens type (e.g., spherical or toric), while the ocular source of the astigmatism is a second, but more important consideration, for the final clinical decision. This study was conducted to provide detailed data on this topic by evaluating astigmatic components in Chinese adolescents. Participants were recruited from healthy high school students undergoing an annual ocular examination at a local hospital. Total astigmatism (TA), corneal astigmatism (CA), and ocular residual astigmatism (ORA) were determined by a Hartmann-Shack wavefront analyzer system (KR-1W, Topcon) with the natural pupil. The axis relationship between CA and ORA was placed into three categories: on-axis, defined as an axis with a difference of 0 ± 10°; opposite-axis, a difference of 90 ± 10°; and the rest defined as oblique-axis. The study consisted of 1,466 students (57.84% girls, age: 16.49 ± 1.05 years). ORA was present in 83.97%, 66.64%, and 45.23% of participants, according to the various criteria for astigmatism (≥ 0.50 D, ≥ 0.75 D, and ≥ 1.00 D, respectively). While with-the-rule was the most common axis orientation for both TA (76.28%) and CA (89.94%), against-the-rule predominated in ORA (93.82%; χ2 = 1688.544, p < 0.001). Opposite-axis was the major type of axis difference (90.96%) of clinical significance (i.e., ≥ 1.00 D) between CA and ORA, which also prevailed in all levels of TA (range: 56.25-82.26%). ORA is common in high school students and usually demonstrates a compensation relationship with CA, which should be taken into consideration when determining the design of contact lenses to correct refractive error.

  3. Beginnings of Astigmatism Understanding and Management in the 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Kanclerz, Piotr

    2017-11-14

    Within the last 200 years, the perception of astigmatism has evolved from that of an infrequent and peculiar defect of the eye to a distortion almost as common as spherical refractive errors. Most of the significant findings on this condition were made in the 19th century, including the first description by Thomas Young (1773-1829) and the introduction of the treatment methods used today. The purpose of this study was to investigate the milestones in the understanding and management of astigmatism that occurred up to the year 1900. This fascinating history illustrates how knowledge evolves across time, geographical areas, and interdisciplinary boundaries. The first article looking at the use of a cylindrical lens to correct astigmatism was written by George Airy (1801-1892) in 1825. The term "astigmatism" was introduced in by William Whewell (1794-1866) in 1846. Methods for subjective and objective evaluation were subsequently established, including the introduction of a cross cylinder, keratoscope, astigmatic dial, and the development of retinoscopy and ophthalmoscopy. In the last two decades of the 19th century, the first attempt to alter the refraction in astigmatic patients by changing the shape of the cornea was made. It must be noted that diverse challenges were encountered in this field on the way to the development of a treatment, including the technical manufacture of a lens, the precise measurement of the refractive error, and understanding the optical properties of the eye. The importance of the 19th century was that interdisciplinary cooperation, such as that seen in this study, between physicists and astronomers, and mathematicians and physicians, led to the development of comprehensive knowledge on astigmatism.

  4. Implantation of a customized toric intraocular lens for correction of post-keratoplasty astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, S; Ting, D S J; Lyall, D A M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report visual and refractive outcomes, and endothelial cell loss following primary and secondary ‘piggyback' toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in patients with high post-penetrating keratoplasty (PK) astigmatism. Methods Prospective case series. Nine eyes of nine patients with post-PK astigmatism were consecutively recruited for implantation of a customized toric IOL. Six underwent simultaneous phacoemulsification (PE) and three pseudophakic eyes had a secondary ‘piggyback' toric IOL implanted in the ciliary sulcus. Mean follow-up time was 17.2±7.7 months. Pre- and post-operative uncorrected (UDVA) and best-corrected (BDVA) distance visual acuities and refractive errors were collected for comparison. Cartesian astigmatic vectors were calculated to identify a change in the magnitude of astigmatism pre- compared to postoperatively. Pre- and post-operative endothelial cell counts were also collected for analysis. Results UDVA (logMAR) improved from 1.13±0.51 preoperatively to 0.48±0.24 postoperatively (P-value=0.003). There was no significant change in BDVA (P-value=0.905) from 0.31±0.27 to 0.26±0.19. Corneal astigmatism preoperatively was 6.57±4.40 diopters (D). Post-operative refractive cylinder was 0.83±1.09 D compared to 3.89±4.01 D preoperatively (P=0.039). Analysis of astigmatic Cartesian x and y coordinates found a significant reduction postoperatively compared to preoperatively (P=0.005 and P=0.002), respectively. Mean endothelial cell loss was 9.9%. Conclusion: Implantation of a customized primary or secondary ‘piggyback' toric IOL serves as an effective modality in treating patients with high post-PK astigmatism. PMID:23348728

  5. Femtosecond Laser-assisted Arcuate Keratotomy Versus Toric IOL Implantation for Correcting Astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Aeri; Yun, Samyoung; Kim, Jae Yong; Kim, Myoung Joon; Tchah, Hungwon

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of femtosecond laser-assisted arcuate keratotomy (FS-AK) versus toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation for correcting astigmatism in patients with cataract. A retrospective chart review was performed. All patients had senile cataracts with corneal astigmatism (range: +1.00 to +3.00 diopters [D]) before cataract surgery. Twenty-five patients agreed to undergo toric IOL implantation (the toric IOL group). Twenty-three patients did not agree to undergo toric IOL implantation despite astigmatism; however, these patients were not satisfied with their remaining astigmatism following cataract surgery and requested astigmatism correction using FS-AK (the FS-AK group). Visual acuity and intraocular pressure were evaluated, and automated refraction, keratometry, and slit-lamp examinations were performed at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 5 months after surgery. Refractive astigmatism decreased in both groups. The mean preoperative and postoperative refractive cylinders were 1.71 ± 1.15 and 0.78 ± 1.06 D, respectively, in the FS-AK group (P < .001) and 1.67 ± 0.13 and 0.83 ± 0.097 D, respectively, in the toric IOL group (P < .001). There were no statistically significant differences between groups at any time during the follow-up period. FS-AK is a fast, customizable, adjustable, precise, and safe procedure for reducing refractive errors in patients with residual astigmatism after cataract surgery. The results of this procedure are comparable to the toric IOL. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Corneal Astigmatism Stability in Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty for Fuchs Corneal Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Yokogawa, Hideaki; Sanchez, P James; Mayko, Zachary M; Straiko, Michael D; Terry, Mark A

    2016-07-01

    To calculate the magnitude and angle of the shift in corneal astigmatism associated with Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) surgery to determine the feasibility of concurrent astigmatism correction at the time of DMEK triple procedures. Retrospective study. Forty-seven eyes that previously underwent the DMEK procedure for Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy and that had more than 1.0 diopter (D) of front corneal astigmatism preoperatively were identified. All DMEK surgeries used a clear corneal temporal incision of 3.2 mm. Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) was evaluated 6 months postsurgery with vector analysis using Scheimpflug image reading. We did not find a difference between pre- and postoperative magnitude of front astigmatism (P = 0.88; paired t test). The magnitude of the SIA front surface was 0.77 ± 0.63 D (range, 0.10-3.14 D). The centroid vector of the SIA front surface was 0.14 at 89.3°. A hyperopic corneal power shift was noted in both the front surface by 0.26 ± 0.74 D (range, 0.45-3.05 D) (P = 0.018; paired t test) and back surface by 0.56 ± 0.55 D (range, 0.25-2.40 D) (P < 0.01; paired t test). DMEK surgery induces minimal amounts of corneal astigmatism that is a with-the-rule shift associated with a temporal clear corneal incision. The stability of these data from preop to postop supports the plausibility of incorporating astigmatism correction with the cautious use of toric intraocular lenses for patients with Fuchs corneal dystrophy and cataract.

  7. Astigmatism Correction With Toric Intraocular Lenses in Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty Triple Procedures.

    PubMed

    Yokogawa, Hideaki; Sanchez, P James; Mayko, Zachary M; Straiko, Michael D; Terry, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    To report the clinical efficacy of astigmatism correction with toric intraocular lenses (IOLs) in patients undergoing the Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) triple procedure and to evaluate the accuracy of the correction. Fifteen eyes of 10 patients who received cataract extraction, toric IOL placement, and DMEK surgery for Fuchs corneal dystrophy and cataracts were evaluated. The cylinder power of toric IOLs was determined by an online toric calculator with keratoscopy measurements obtained using Scheimpflug corneal imaging. Prediction errors were assessed as a difference vector between the anticipated minus postoperative residual astigmatism. At 10.1 ± 4.9 months postoperatively, 8/13 (61.5%) of eyes achieved uncorrected distance visual acuity better than 20/40. Mean best spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity (logMAR) improved from 0.21 ± 0.15 preoperatively to 0.08 ± 0.12 postoperatively (P < 0.01). The magnitude of refractive astigmatism was also significantly decreased from 2.23 ± 1.10 D (range 0.75-4.25 D) preoperatively to 0.87 ± 0.75 D (range 0.00-3.00 D) postoperatively (P < 0.01). In 1 eye with rotational misalignment by 43 degrees, we found no improvement of astigmatism. The prediction error of astigmatism at the corneal plane was 0.77 ± 0.54 D (range 0.10-1.77 D). Four eyes with preoperative "with-the-rule" corneal astigmatism had postoperative "against-the-rule" refractive astigmatism. For patients with Fuchs corneal dystrophy and cataracts, use of toric IOLs might be a valuable option in triple DMEK surgery. Additionally, care should be taken to prevent excessive IOL rotation.

  8. Changes in corneal astigmatism during 20 years after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ken; Manabe, Shin-Ichi; Hirata, Akira; Yoshimura, Koichi

    2017-05-01

    To examine how corneal astigmatism changes with age over 20 years after cataract surgery and to assess whether the changes differ from those in eyes that did not have surgery. Hayashi Eye Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan. Retrospective case study. Using an autokeratometer, corneal astigmatism was measured preoperatively, at baseline (the day the surgically induced astigmatism stabilized), and 10 years and 20 years after baseline. The change in corneal astigmatism between baseline and 10 years, 10 years and 20 years, and baseline and 20 years was determined using power vector analysis and compared between the time intervals and between groups. The study assessed 74 eyes that had phacoemulsification with a horizontal scleral incision more than 21 years ago (surgery group) and 68 eyes that did not have surgery (no-surgery group). The mean vertical/horizontal change in corneal astigmatism (J0) between baseline and 20 years was -0.64 diopter (D) in the surgery group and -0.49 D in the no-surgery group. The oblique change (J45) was -0.03 D in the surgery group and 0.07 D in the no-surgery group. Using multivariate comparison, the mean J0 and J45 values were not significantly different between baseline and 10 years or between 10 years and 20 years in both groups (P ≥ .2350). The J0 and J45 values were not significantly different between the 2 groups at any time interval (P ≥ .1331). Corneal astigmatism continues to change toward against-the-rule astigmatism over 20 years after cataract surgery. This change was similar in eyes that did not have surgery. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of Src kinase in the biology and pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acanthamoeba species are the causative agents of fatal granulomatous encephalitis in humans. Haematogenous spread is thought to be a primary step, followed by blood–brain barrier penetration, in the transmission of Acanthmaoeba into the central nervous system, but the associated molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we evaluated the role of Src, a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase in the biology and pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba. Methods Amoebistatic and amoebicidal assays were performed by incubating amoeba in the presence of Src kinase-selective inhibitor, PP2 (4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine) and its inactive analog, PP3 (4-amino-7-phenylpyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine). Using this inhibitor, the role of Src kinase in A. castellanii interactions with Escherichia coli was determined. Zymographic assays were performed to study effects of Src kinase on extracellular proteolytic activities of A. castellanii. The human brain microvascular endothelial cells were used to determine the effects of Src kinase on A. castellanii adhesion to and cytotoxicity of host cells. Results Inhibition of Src kinase using a specific inhibitor, PP2 (4-amino-5-(4 chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo [3,4-d] pyrimidine) but not its inactive analog, PP3 (4-amino-7-phenylpyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidine), had detrimental effects on the growth of A. castellanii (keratitis isolate, belonging to the T4 genotype). Interestingly, inhibition of Src kinase hampered the phagocytic ability of A. castellanii, as measured by the uptake of non-invasive bacteria, but, on the contrary, invasion by pathogenic bacteria was enhanced. Zymographic assays revealed that inhibition of Src kinases reduced extracellular protease activities of A. castellanii. Src kinase inhibition had no significant effect on A. castellanii binding to and cytotoxicity of primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells, which constitute the blood–brain barrier. Conclusions For the first

  10. Acanthamoeba Keratitis among Rigid Gas Permeable Contact Lens Wearers in the United States, 2005 through 2011.

    PubMed

    Cope, Jennifer R; Collier, Sarah A; Schein, Oliver D; Brown, Allison C; Verani, Jennifer R; Gallen, Rachel; Beach, Michael J; Yoder, Jonathan S

    2016-07-01

    To describe the clinical presentation and outcomes of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lens wearers and to identify modifiable risk factors. Case-control investigation. Patients were RGP contact lens-wearing United States residents with a diagnosis of AK from 2005 through 2011. Controls were RGP contact lens wearers with no history of AK who were at least 12 years of age. Patients were identified during 2 multistate AK outbreak investigations. Controls from the first investigation in 2007 were identified using a reverse address directory. In the second investigation, controls were recruited from participating ophthalmology and optometry practices. Patients and controls were interviewed by phone using a standardized questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and Fisher exact P values were calculated to assess risk factors associated with infection. Acanthamoeba keratitis, a rare eye disease primarily affecting contact lens wearers, is caused by free-living amebae, Acanthamoeba species. We identified 37 patients in the 2 investigations, 10 (27%) from the 2007 investigation and 27 (73%) from 2011. There were 17 healthy controls, 9 (53%) from 2007 and 8 (47%) from 2011. Among patients, 9 (24%) wore RGP lenses for orthokeratology or therapeutic indication; no controls wore RGP lenses for these indications. Significant risk factors for AK were wearing lenses for orthokeratology (OR, undefined; P = 0.02), sleeping while wearing lenses (OR, 8.00; P = 0.04), storing lenses in tap water (OR, 16.00; P = 0.001), and topping off contact lens solution in the case (OR, 4.80; P = 0.01). After stratifying by use of RGP lenses for orthokeratology, storing lenses in tap water and topping off remained significant exposures. Nearly one quarter of patients were orthokeratology wearers. Using tap water to store RGP lenses and topping off solution in the lens case were modifiable risk behaviors identified in RGP wearers who wore lenses for both orthokeratology

  11. Isolation and molecular characterization of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba genotypes from diverse water resources including household drinking water from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Tanveer, Tania; Hameed, Abdul; Muazzam, Ambreen Gul; Jung, Suk-Yul; Gul, Asma; Matin, Abdul

    2013-08-01

    Acanthamoeba, an opportunistic protozoan pathogen, is ubiquitous in nature, and therefore plays a predatory role and helps control microbial communities in the ecosystem. These Acanthamoeba species are recognized as opportunistic human pathogens that may cause blinding keratitis and rare but fatal granulomatous encephalitis. To date, there is not a single report demonstrating Acanthamoeba isolation and identification from environmental sources in Pakistan, and that is the aim of this study. Acanthamoeba were identified by morphological characteristics of their cysts on non-nutrient agar plates seeded with Escherichia coli. Additionally, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with genus-specific primers followed by direct sequencing of the PCR product for molecular identification. Furthermore, our PCR and sequencing results confirmed seven different pathogenic and nonpathogenic genotypes, including T2-T10, T4, T5, T7, T15, T16, and T17. To the best of our knowledge, we have identified and isolated Acanthamoeba sp., for the first time, from water resources of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. There is an urgent need to address (1) the pathogenic potential of the identified genotypes and (2) explore other environmental sources from the country to examine the water quality and the current status of Acanthamoeba species in Pakistan, which may be a potential threat for public health across the country.

  12. Can Opposite Clear Corneal Incisions Have a Role with Post-laser In Situ Keratomileusis Astigmatism?

    PubMed Central

    El-Awady, Hatem; Ghanem, Asaad A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the astigmatic correcting effect of paired opposite clear corneal incisions (OCCIs) on the steep axis in patients with residual astigmatism after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) Materials and Methods: Thirty-one eyes of 24 patients with a mean age of 28.4 years ±2.46 (range, 19-36 years) were recruited for the study. Inclusion criteria included residual astigmatism of ≥1.5 diopter (D) after LASIK with inadequate residual stromal bed thickness that precluded ablation. The cohort was divided into two groups; group I (with astigmatism ranging from -1.5 D to -2.5 D) and group II (with astigmatism > -2.5 D). The steep axis was marked prior to surgery. Paired three-step self-sealing opposite clear corneal incisions were performed 1-mm anterior to the limbus on the steep axis with 3.2-mm keratome for group I and 4.1 mm for group II. Patients were examined 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months, postoperatively. Visual acuity, refraction, keratometry, and corneal topography were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively. Analysis of the difference between groups was performed with the Student t-test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) improved from 0.35±0.13 (range, 0.1-0.6) to 0.78±0.19 (range, 0.5-1) in group I and from 0.26±0.19 (range, 0.1-0.5) to 0.7±0.18 (range, 0.4-1) in group II. The increase in UCVA was statistically significant in both groups (P=0.001, both cases). The mean preoperative and postoperative keratometric astigmatism in group I was 2.0±0.48 D (range, 1.5-2.5 D) and 0.8±0.37 D (range, 0.1-1.4 D), respectively. The decrease in keratometric astigmatism was highly statistically significant in group II (P=0.001.). Mean surgically induced astigmatic reduction by vector analysis was 1.47±0.85 D and 2.21±0.97 D in groups I and II respectively. There were no incision-related complications. Conclusions: Paired OCCIs were predictable and effective in

  13. Effects of Optically Imposed Astigmatism on Early Eye Growth in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chin Hung Geoffrey; Kee, Chea Su

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effects of optically imposed astigmatism on early eye growth in chicks. Methods 5-day-old (P5) White Leghorn chicks were randomly assigned to either wear, monocularly, a “high magnitude” (H: +4.00DS/-8.00DC) crossed-cylindrical lens oriented at one of four axes (45, 90, 135, and 180; n = 20 in each group), or were left untreated (controls; n = 8). Two additional groups wore a “low magnitude” (L: +2.00DS/−4.00DC) cylindrical lens orientated at either axis 90 or 180 (n = 20 and n = 18, respectively). Refractions were measured at P5 and after 7 days of treatment for all chicks (P12), whereas videokeratography and ex-vivo eyeshape analysis were performed at P12 for a subset of chicks in each group (n = 8). Results Compared to controls, chicks in the treatment groups developed significant amounts of refractive astigmatism (controls: 0.03±0.22DC; treatment groups: 1.34±0.22DC to 5.51±0.26DC, one-way ANOVAs, p≤0.05) with axes compensatory to those imposed by the cylindrical lenses. H cylindrical lenses induced more refractive astigmatism than L lenses (H90 vs. L90: 5.51±0.26D vs. 4.10±0.16D; H180 vs. L180: 2.84±0.44D vs. 1.34±0.22D, unpaired two-sample t-tests, both p≤0.01); and imposing with-the-rule (H90 and L90) and against-the-rule astigmatisms (H180 and L180) resulted in, respectively, steeper and flatter corneal shape. Both corneal and internal astigmatisms were moderately to strongly correlated with refractive astigmatisms (Pearson’s r: +0.61 to +0.94, all p≤0.001). In addition, the characteristics of astigmatism were significantly correlated with multiple eyeshape parameters at the posterior segments (Pearson’s r: -0.27 to +0.45, all p≤0.05). Conclusions Chicks showed compensatory ocular changes in response to the astigmatic magnitudes imposed in this study. The correlations of changes in refractive, corneal, and posterior eyeshape indicate the involvement of anterior and posterior ocular segments during the

  14. Assessment of refractive astigmatism and simulated therapeutic refractive surgery strategies in coma-like-aberrations-dominant corneal optics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen; Stojanovic, Aleksandar; Utheim, Tor Paaske

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to raise the awareness of the influence of coma-like higher-order aberrations (HOAs) on power and orientation of refractive astigmatism (RA) and to explore how to account for that influence in the planning of topography-guided refractive surgery in eyes with coma-like-aberrations-dominant corneal optics. Eleven eyes with coma-like-aberrations-dominant corneal optics and with low lenticular astigmatism (LA) were selected for astigmatism analysis and for treatment simulations with topography-guided custom ablation. Vector analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of coma-like corneal HOAs to RA. Two different strategies were used for simulated treatments aiming to regularize irregular corneal optics: With both strategies correction of anterior corneal surface irregularities (corneal HOAs) were intended. Correction of total corneal astigmatism (TCA) and RA was intended as well with strategies 1 and 2, respectively. Axis of discrepant astigmatism (RA minus TCA minus LA) correlated strongly with axis of coma. Vertical coma influenced RA by canceling the effect of the with-the-rule astigmatism and increasing the effect of the against-the-rule astigmatism. After simulated correction of anterior corneal HOAs along with TCA and RA (strategies 1 and 2), only a small amount of anterior corneal astigmatism (ACA) and no TCA remained after strategy 1, while considerable amount of ACA and TCA remained after strategy 2. Coma-like corneal aberrations seem to contribute a considerable astigmatic component to RA in eyes with coma-like-aberrations dominant corneal optics. If topography-guided ablation is programmed to correct the corneal HOAs and RA, the astigmatic component caused by the coma-like corneal HOAs will be treated twice and will result in induced astigmatism. Disregarding RA and treating TCA along with the corneal HOAs is recommended instead.

  15. Comparison of Wavelight Allegretto Eye-Q and Schwind Amaris 750S excimer laser in treatment of high astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Bohac, Maja; Biscevic, Alma; Koncarevic, Mateja; Anticic, Marija; Gabric, Nikica; Patel, Sudi

    2014-10-01

    To compare functional outcomes of Wavelight Allegretto Eye-Q 400Hz and Schwind Amaris 750S excimer laser for astigmatism between 2 and 7 diopters(D). Prospective comparative non-randomized case series of 480 eyes assigned in two laser groups and further divided into myopic and mixed astigmatism subgroups. All treatments were centered on corneal vertex. One-year results were compared between the groups. Statistical analysis was performed using z-test. Both Allegretto and Amaris postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) improved in comparison to preoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA). The difference was significant in the Allegretto group for myopic astigmatism (p = 0.017). There was no difference in postoperative UDVA between lasers. Average sphere decreased in all groups for both lasers (p < 0.001) without difference in effectiveness of spherical correction between lasers for both groups. In Allegretto, average cylinder decreased from -3.30D to -0.55D in myopic astigmatism (p < 0.001) and from -3.84D to -0.85D in mixed astigmatism (p < 0.001). In Amaris average cylinder decreased from -3.21D to -0.43D in myopic astigmatism (p < 0.001) and from -3.66D to -0.58D in mixed astigmatism (p < 0.001). Amaris group had less residual astigmatism (myopic astigmatism p = 0.023, mixed astigmatism p < 0.001). Mean spherical aberration shifted from positive to negative in mixed astigmatism for both lasers. Both lasers are effective in terms of UDVA, CDVA, spherical correction, and preservation of high-order aberrations. However, Amaris was more effective in cylinder correction.

  16. Accuracy of the Welch Allyn Suresight for measurement of magnitude of astigmatism in 3- to 7-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Erin M.; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M.; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.; Green, Tina K.; Messer, Dawn H.; Garvey, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the accuracy of the Welch Allyn SureSight in noncycloplegic measurements of astigmatism as compared to cycloplegic Retinomax K+ autorefractor measurements of astigmatism in children from a Native American population with a high prevalence of high astigmatism. Methods Data are reported for 825 3- to 7-year-old children with no ocular abnormalities. Each child had a Retinomax K+ cycloplegic measurement of right eye astigmatism with a confidence rating ≥8 and 3 attempts to obtain a SureSight measurement on the right eye. Results SureSight measurement success rates did not differ significantly across age or measurement confidence rating (<6 vs ≥6). Ninety-six percent of children had at least 1 measurement (any confidence), and 89% had at least 1 measurement with confidence at the manufacturer's recommended value (≥6). Overall, the SureSight tended to overestimate astigmatism. If the SureSight measurement had any dioptric value (0.00 D to 3.00 D), astigmatism of 2.00 D or less was likely to be present. If the SureSight showed astigmatism beyond the instrument's dioptric range (>3.00 D), Retinomax K+ measurements indicated that >2.00 D of astigmatism was present in 136 of 157 (86.6%). In cooperative children for whom the SureSight would not give a reading, 32 of 34 (94%) had >3.00 D of astigmatism. Conclusions The SureSight does not provide an accurate, quantitative measure of amount of astigmatism. However, it does allow accurate categorization of amount of astigmatism as ≤2.00 D, >2.00 D, or >3.00 D, and it has high measurement success rate in young children. PMID:19840726

  17. Preoperative corneal astigmatism among adult patients with cataract in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Isyaku, Mohammed; Ali, Syed A; Hassan, Sadiq

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and nature of corneal astigmatism among patients with cataract has not been well-documented in the resident African population. This retrospective study was undertaken to investigate preexisting corneal astigmatism in adult patients with cataract. We analyzed keratometric readings acquired by manual Javal-Schiotz keratometry before surgery between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2011. There were 3,169 patients (3286 eyes) aged between 16 and 110 years involved with a Male to female ratio of 1.4:1. Mean keratometry in diopters was K1 = 43.99 and K2 = 43.80. Mean corneal astigmatism was 1.16 diopter and a majority (45.92%) of eyes had astigmatism between 1.00 and 1.99 diopters. Two-thirds of the eyes (66.9%) in this study had preoperative corneal astigmatism equal to or above 1.00 diopter. Findings will help local cataract surgeons to estimate the potential demand for toric intraocular lenses. PMID:25494254

  18. Corneal Curvature, Astigmatism, and Aberrations in Marfan Syndrome with Lens Subluxation: Evaluation by Pentacam HR System.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiahui; Jing, Qinghe; Tang, Yating; Qian, Dongjin; Lu, Yi; Jiang, Yongxiang

    2018-03-06

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is associated with abnormalities of corneal biometric characteristics. We conducted a retrospective case-control study including 55 eyes of the MFS patients with lens subluxation and 53 normal eyes of the control subjects to evaluate the corneal curvature, astigmatism and aberrations using a rotating Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam HR). Compared with the control group, the anterior, posterior, and total corneal curvature were flatter in the MFS group. The anterior and total corneal astigmatism were higher in the MFS patients, whereas the posterior corneal astigmatism was not significantly different between the two groups. Regarding the total corneal aberrations, the root mean square (RMS) aberrations, RMS higher-order aberrations and RMS lower-order aberrations increased, whereas the spherical aberration decreased in the MFS patients. Corneal parameters had potential diagnostic values for MFS patients with lens subluxation and the more reasonable cutoffs were the values of corneal curvature <41.35 D, corneal astigmatism >0.85 D and spherical aberration <0.188 μm. Corneal biometric characteristics of MFS patients with lens subluxation include decreased corneal curvature, higher corneal astigmatism, larger corneal aberrations, and lower spherical aberration. Corneal curvature, corneal astigmatism, and spherical aberration are better diagnostic tools for suspicious MFS.

  19. Non-toric extended depth of focus contact lenses for astigmatism and presbyopia correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Yaish, Shai; Zlotnik, Alex; Yehezkel, Oren; Lahav-Yacouel, Karen; Belkin, Michael; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: Testing whether the extended depth of focus technology embedded on non-toric contact lenses is a suitable treatment for both astigmatism and presbyopia. Methods: The extended depth of focus pattern consisting of microndepth concentric grooves was engraved on a surface of a mono-focal soft contact lens. These grooves create an interference pattern extending the focus from a point to a length of about 1mm providing a 3.00D extension in the depth of focus. The extension in the depth of focus provides high quality focused imaging capabilities from near through intermediate and up to far ranges. Due to the angular symmetry of the engraved pattern the extension in the depth of focus can also resolve regular as well as irregular astigmatism aberrations. Results: The contact lens was tested on a group of 8 astigmatic and 13 subjects with presbyopia. Average correction of 0.70D for astigmatism and 1.50D for presbyopia was demonstrated. Conclusions: The extended depth of focus technology in a non-toric contact lens corrects simultaneously astigmatism and presbyopia. The proposed solution is based upon interference rather than diffraction effects and thus it is characterized by high energetic efficiency to the retina plane as well as reduced chromatic aberrations.

  20. Convergence Insufficiency, Accommodative Insufficiency, Visual Symptoms, and Astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Students

    PubMed Central

    Twelker, J. Daniel; Miller, Joseph M.; Campus, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine rate of convergence insufficiency (CI) and accommodative insufficiency (AI) and assess the relation between CI, AI, visual symptoms, and astigmatism in school-age children. Methods. 3rd–8th-grade students completed the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) and binocular vision testing with correction if prescribed. Students were categorized by astigmatism magnitude (no/low: <1.00 D, moderate: 1.00 D to <3.00 D, and high: ≥3.00 D), presence/absence of clinical signs of CI and AI, and presence of symptoms. Analyses determine rate of clinical CI and AI and symptomatic CI and AI and assessed the relation between CI, AI, visual symptoms, and astigmatism. Results. In the sample of 484 students (11.67 ± 1.81 years of age), rate of symptomatic CI was 6.2% and symptomatic AI 18.2%. AI was more common in students with CI than without CI. Students with AI only (p = 0.02) and with CI and AI (p = 0.001) had higher symptom scores than students with neither CI nor AI. Moderate and high astigmats were not at increased risk for CI or AI. Conclusions. With-the-rule astigmats are not at increased risk for CI or AI. High comorbidity rates of CI and AI and higher symptoms scores with AI suggest that research is needed to determine symptomatology specific to CI. PMID:27525112

  1. Raman spectroscopic study on the excystation process in a single unicellular organism amoeba (Acanthamoeba polyphaga).

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chung; Perevedentseva, Elena; Cheng, Chia-Liang

    2015-05-01

    An in vivo Raman spectroscopic study of amoeba (Acanthamoeba polyphaga) is presented. The changes of the spectra during the amoeba cyst activation and excystation are analyzed. The spectra show the changes of the relative intensities of bands corresponding to protein, lipid, and carotenoid components during cyst activation. The presence of carotenoids in the amoeba is observed via characteristic Raman bands. These signals in the Raman spectra are intense in cysts but decrease in intensity with cyst activation and exhibit a correlation with the life cycle of amoeba. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy for the detection of single amoeba microorganisms in vivo and for the analysis of the amoeba life activity. The information obtained may have implications for the estimation of epidemiological situations and for the diagnostics and prognosis of the development of amoebic inflammations.

  2. Effects of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and metals on the growth and reproduction of Acanthamoeba castellanii

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, L.M.; Kubovec, M.K.; Tryggestad, D.

    1977-07-01

    The effects of pollutants (pesticides, PCB and metals) were studied in the free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba castellanii. Eight pesticides were used--the insecticides dieldrin, aldrin and sevin, and the herbicides linuron, stam F-34, IPC, atrazine and simazine. It was shown that the sensitivity of A. castellanii to pesticides varied greatly. The population growth was inhibited by linuron, stam F-34, IPC, sevin and atrazine at a level of 10 mg/l. The polychlorinated biphenyl, Arochor 1254, had no significant effect at a concentration of 0.01 mg/l (10 ppb). The studies with metal ions showed that A. castellanii was unaffected by moderately high levels ofmore » Cu and Zn, but was sensitive to the presence of Pb and mercuric ions.« less

  3. Raman spectroscopic study on the excystation process in a single unicellular organism amoeba (Acanthamoeba polyphaga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Chung; Perevedentseva, Elena; Cheng, Chia-Liang

    2015-05-01

    An in vivo Raman spectroscopic study of amoeba (Acanthamoeba polyphaga) is presented. The changes of the spectra during the amoeba cyst activation and excystation are analyzed. The spectra show the changes of the relative intensities of bands corresponding to protein, lipid, and carotenoid components during cyst activation. The presence of carotenoids in the amoeba is observed via characteristic Raman bands. These signals in the Raman spectra are intense in cysts but decrease in intensity with cyst activation and exhibit a correlation with the life cycle of amoeba. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy for the detection of single amoeba microorganisms in vivo and for the analysis of the amoeba life activity. The information obtained may have implications for the estimation of epidemiological situations and for the diagnostics and prognosis of the development of amoebic inflammations.

  4. Amebicidal activity of the essential oils of Lippia spp. (Verbenaceae) against Acanthamoeba polyphaga trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Santos, Israel Gomes de Amorim; Scher, Ricardo; Rott, Marilise Brittes; Menezes, Leociley Rocha; Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Aguiar, Jaciana dos Santos; da Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Dolabella, Silvio Santana

    2016-02-01

    Amoebic keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis are caused by some strains of free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba. In the case of keratitis, one of the greatest problems is the disease recurrence due to the resistance of parasites, especially the cystic forms, to the drugs that are currently used. Some essential oils of plants have been used as potential active agents against this protist. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the amebicidal activity of essential oils from plants of the genus Lippia against Acanthamoeba polyphaga trophozoites. To that end, 8 × 10(4) trophozoites were exposed for 24 h to increasing concentrations of essential oils from Lippia sidoides, Lippia gracilis, Lippia alba, and Lippia pedunculosa and to their major compounds rotundifolone, carvone, and carvacrol. Nearly all concentrations of oils and compounds showed amebicidal activity. The IC50 values for L. sidoides, L. gracilis L. alba, and L. pedunculosa were found to be 18.19, 10.08, 31.79, and 71.47 μg/mL, respectively. Rotundifolone, carvacrol, and carvone were determined as the major compounds showing IC50 of 18.98, 24.74, and 43.62 μg/mL, respectively. With the exception of oil from L. alba, the other oils evaluated showed low cytotoxicity in the NCI-H292 cell line. Given these results, the oils investigated here are promising sources of compounds for the development of complementary therapy against amoebic keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and can also be incorporated into cleaning solutions to increase their amebicidal efficiency.

  5. Resistance of Acanthamoeba Cysts to Disinfection Treatments Used in Health Care Settings▿

    PubMed Central

    Coulon, Céline; Collignon, Anne; McDonnell, Gerald; Thomas, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Free-living amoebae that belong to the genus Acanthamoeba are widespread in the environment, including water. They are responsible for human infections and can host pathogenic microorganisms. Under unfavorable conditions, they form cysts with high levels of resistance to disinfection methods, thus potentially representing a threat to public health. In the present study we evaluated the efficacies of various biocides against trophozoites and cysts of several Acanthamoeba strains. We demonstrated that disinfectant efficacy varied depending on the strains tested, with environmental strains demonstrating greater resistance than collection strains. Trophozoites were inactivated by all treatments except those using glutaraldehyde as an active compound: for these treatments, we observed resistance even after 30 min exposure. Cysts resisted many treatments, including certain conditions with glutaraldehyde and other biocides. Moist heat at 55°C was not efficient against cysts, whereas exposure at 65°C was. Several chemical formulations containing peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, or ortho-phthalaldehyde presented greater efficacy than glutaraldehyde, as did ethanol and sodium hypochlorite; however, some of these treatments required relatively long incubation times to achieve cyst inactivation. Amoebal cysts can be highly resistant to some high-level disinfectants, which has implications for clinical practice. These results highlight the need to consider the effective disinfection of protozoa in their vegetative and resistant forms due to their intrinsic resistance. This is important not only to prevent the transmission of protozoa themselves but also due to the risks associated with a range of microbial pathogens that are found to be associated intracellularly with these microorganisms. PMID:20519477

  6. Evaluation of the activity of new cationic carbosilane dendrimers on trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba polyphaga.

    PubMed

    Heredero-Bermejo, Irene; Copa-Patiño, Jose Luis; Soliveri, Juan; Fuentes-Paniagua, Elena; de la Mata, Francisco Javier; Gomez, Rafael; Perez-Serrano, Jorge

    2015-02-01

    Dendrimers are repetitively branched molecules with a broad spectrum of applications, mainly for their antimicrobial properties and as nanocarriers for other molecules. Recently, our research group have synthesized and studied their activity against Acanthamoeba sp., causative agent of a severe ocular disease in humans: Acanthamoeba keratitis. New cationic carbosilane dendrimers were tested against the protozoa forms at different concentrations and for different incubation times. Trophozoite viability was determined by manual counting and cyst viability by observing excystment in microplates with fresh culture medium. Cytotoxicity was checked on HeLa cells using the microculture tetrazolium assay. Alterations were observed by optical microscopy and by flow cytometry staining with propidium iodide. Six out of the 18 dendrimers tested were non-cytotoxic and effective against the trophozoite form, having one of them (dendrimer 14 with an IC50 of 2.4 + 0.1 mg/L) a similar activity to chlorhexidine digluconate (IC50 1.7 + 0.1 mg/L). This dendrimer has a polyphenoxo core and a sulphur atom close to the six -NH3+ terminal groups. On the other hand, only two dendrimers showed some effect against cysts (dendrimers 14 and 17). However, their minimum cysticidal concentrations were cytotoxic and less effective than the control drug. The alterations on the amoeba morphology produced by the treatment with dendrimers were size reduction, increased complexity, loss of acanthopodia and cell membrane disruption. In conclusion, these results suggest that some dendrimers may be studied in animal models to test their effect and that new dendrimers with similar features should be synthesized.

  7. Meridional lenticular astigmatism associated with bilateral concurrent uveal metastases in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Priluck, Joshua C; Grover, Sandeep; Chalam, KV

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate a case illustrating meridional lenticular astigmatism as a result of renal cell carcinoma uveal metastases. Methods Case report with images. Results Clinical findings and diagnostic testing of a patient with acquired meridional lenticular astigmatism are described. The refraction revealed best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20–1 OD (−2.50 + 0.25 × 090) and 20/50 OS (−8.25 + 3.25 × 075). Bilateral concurrent renal cell carcinoma metastases to the choroid and ciliary body are demonstrated by utilizing ultrasonography, ultrawidefield fluorescein angiography, and unique spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Conclusions Metastatic disease should be included in the differential of acquired astigmatism. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, ultrawidefield fluorescein angiography, and ultrasonography have roles in delineating choroidal metastases. PMID:23152663

  8. Meridional lenticular astigmatism associated with bilateral concurrent uveal metastases in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Priluck, Joshua C; Grover, Sandeep; Chalam, Kv

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate a case illustrating meridional lenticular astigmatism as a result of renal cell carcinoma uveal metastases. Case report with images. Clinical findings and diagnostic testing of a patient with acquired meridional lenticular astigmatism are described. The refraction revealed best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20-1 OD (-2.50 + 0.25 × 090) and 20/50 OS (-8.25 + 3.25 × 075). Bilateral concurrent renal cell carcinoma metastases to the choroid and ciliary body are demonstrated by utilizing ultrasonography, ultrawidefield fluorescein angiography, and unique spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Metastatic disease should be included in the differential of acquired astigmatism. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, ultrawidefield fluorescein angiography, and ultrasonography have roles in delineating choroidal metastases.

  9. Evaluation of biometry and corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery patients from Central China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ji-Guo; Zhong, Jie; Mei, Zhong-Ming; Zhao, Fang; Tao, Na; Xiang, Yi

    2017-04-26

    To evaluate the distribution of biometric parameters and corneal astigmatism using the IOLMaster device before phacoemulsification in cataract patients in Central China. Consecutive cataract patients were recruited at the Central Hospital of Wuhan between January 2015 and June 2016. Ocular axial length (AL), keratometry values, anterior chamber depth (ACD) and horizontal corneal diameter (white to white [WTW]) of each cataract-affected eye were measured with the IOLMaster device. The study evaluated 3209 eyes of 2821 cataract patients. The mean AL, ACD, and WTW were 24.38 ± 2.47 mm, 3.15 ± 0.48 mm, and 11.63 ± 0.43 mm, respectively. Corneal astigmatism of 0.51-1.00 diopters (D) was the most common range of values (34.96%). A total of 10.56% patients exhibited a corneal astigmatism greater than 2.0 D. The flat and steep keratometry values gradually increased with age. The mean ACD and WTW showed increasing trends as the AL increased (P < 0.001). When the AL was shorter than 26.0 mm, the keratometry decreased as AL increased. The against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism proportion increased with age and the with-the-rule (WTR) astigmatism proportion decreased with age. The profile of ocular biometric data and corneal astigmatism may help ophthalmologists improve their surgical procedures and make an appropriate IOL choice to gain a high quality of postoperative vision.

  10. Aspheric versus wavefront-guided aspheric photorefractive keratectomy in eyes with significant astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Amir; Moshirfar, Majid; Karimian, Farid; Delfazayebaher, Siamak; Kheiri, Bahareh

    2017-12-01

    To compare the refractive and higher-order aberrations (HOAs) outcomes after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in patients with significant astigmatism using aspheric versus wavefront-guided aspheric profiles. Ophthalmic Research Center and Department of Ophthalmology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Negah Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Prospective randomized case series. One eye of each patient with a refractive astigmatism more than 2.00 diopters (D) randomly received aspheric PRK. In the other eye, wavefront-guided and aspheric treatment was performed using a personalized treatment advanced algorithm. Visual acuity, refractive errors, and HOAs were compared between the 2 groups preoperatively and 12 months postoperatively. The study comprised 32 patients (64 eyes). The mean preoperative refractive astigmatism was -4.07 D ± 1.64 (SD) and -4.02 ± 1.55 D in the aspheric group and wavefront-guided aspheric group, respectively (P = .2). The mean postoperative astigmatism was -0.46 ± 0.37 D and -0.82 ± 0.53 D in the aspheric group and wavefront-guided aspheric group, respectively (P = .02). Postoperatively, the root mean square of total HOAs was significantly increased in both groups. However, compared with wavefront-guided aspheric PRK, aspheric PRK induced fewer HOAs (P = .003). In eyes with high astigmatism, post-PRK residual astigmatism was lower in the aspheric group than in the wavefront-guided aspheric group. The increase in HOAs was significantly higher in the wavefront-guided aspheric group than in the aspheric group. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of corneal topographic changes and surgically induced astigmatism after transconjunctival 27-gauge microincision vitrectomy surgery.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Kemal; Sonmez, Kenan; Inanc, Merve; Ozdemir, Kubra; Goker, Yasin Sakir; Yilmazbas, Pelin

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the corneal topographic changes and postvitrectomy astigmatism after 27-gauge (g) microincision vitrectomy surgery (MIVS) by using Pentacam HR-Scheimpflug imaging system. This prospective descriptive study included 30 eyes of 30 patients who underwent 27-g MIVS. All eyes underwent a Pentacam HR examination preoperatively and on the first week, first month and third month postoperatively. The power of the corneal astigmatism, mean keratometry (K m ), K 1 and K 2 values and corneal asphericity (Q value) values for the both front and back surfaces of the cornea, index of surface variance (ISV), index of vertical asymmetry (IVA), index of height asymmetry (IHA), index of height decentration (IHD) and higher-order aberrations including coma, trefoil, spherical aberration, higher-order root-mean-square and total RMS were recorded. Additionally, the mean induced astigmatism was estimated by vector analysis. No statistically significant changes were observed in the mean power of corneal astigmatism, mean keratometry, K 1 and K 2 values, corneal asphericity values, ISV, IVA, IHA, IHD and higher-order aberrations on the first week, first month and third month after the operation. The mean surgically induced astigmatism was calculated as 0.23 ± 0.11 D on the first week, 0.19 ± 0.10 D on the first month and 0.19 ± 0.08 D on the third month postoperatively. Minor corneal surface and induced astigmatic changes are expected to result in rapid visual rehabilitation after pars plana vitrectomy with the 27-g MIVS system.

  12. [Evaluation of Postoperative Astigmatism Correction and Postoperative Rotational Stability of Two Toric Intraocular Lenses].

    PubMed

    Grohlich, M; Miháltz, K; Lasta, M; Weingessel, B; Vécsei-Marlovits, V

    2017-06-01

    Background The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the rotational stability and the refractive outcome of two different toric IOLs. Methods This study included 41 eyes with corneal astigmatism greater than 1.5 diopters (D). All patients underwent surgery in the Department of Ophthalmology at Hietzing Hospital between 2010 and 2013. The study lenses were the Alcon AcrySof IQ Toric IOL and the Abbott Tecnis Toric Aspheric IOL. Measurements of corneal topography and aberrations were performed with the HOYA iTrace™. Determination of visual acuity was performed with ETDRS charts. Optical aberrations were represented by Zernike coefficients, and optical quality was assessed with the Strehl ratio. Results Mean rotation was 4.92° (standard deviation: ± 4.10°) in the Alcon group and 4.31° (± 4.59°) in the Abbott group. No significant difference was observed between the two toric intraocular lenses. Rotational stability was comparable to results from other studies. Astigmatism correction was visualised with a power-vector analysis, which demonstrated similar results in both lenses and a clear success of astigmatism correction. No statistically significant differences were found in residual refractive astigmatism, which was 0.85 ± 0.48 D in the Alcon group and 1.09 ± 0.66 in the Tecnis group. No significant difference between the two groups was found in the Strehl ratio. Conclusion Implantation of toric intraocular lenses (Alcon + Abbott) in patients with regular astigmatism is an effective and safe method, which should be offered to patients. Both the Tecnis and the AcrySof toric IOLs similarly reduced ocular astigmatism. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Sequential selective same-day suture removal in the management of post-keratoplasty astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Fares, U; Mokashi, A A; Elalfy, M S; Dua, H S

    2013-01-01

    Aims In a previous study, we proposed that corneal topography performed 30–40 min after the initial suture removal can identify the next set of sutures requiring removal, for the treatment of post-keratoplasty astigmatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of removing subsequent sets of sutures at the same sitting. Methods 10/0 nylon interrupted sutures were placed, to secure the graft–host junction, at the time of keratoplasty. Topography was performed using Pentacam (Oculus) before suture removal. The sutures to be removed in the steep semi-meridians were identified and removed at the slit-lamp biomicroscope. Topography was repeated 30–40 min post suture removal, the new steep semi-meridians determined, and the next set of sutures to be removed were identified and removed accordingly. Topography was repeated 4–6 weeks later and the magnitude of topographic astigmatism was recorded. A paired-samples t-test was used to evaluate the impact of selective suture removal on reducing the magnitude of topographic and refractive astigmatism. Results Twenty eyes of 20 patients underwent sequential selective same-day suture removal (SSSS) after corneal transplantation. This study showed that the topographic astigmatism decreased by about 46.7% (3.68 D) and the refractive astigmatism decreased by about 37.7% (2.61 D) following SSSS. Vector calculations also show a significant reduction of both topographic and refractive astigmatism (P<0.001). Conclusion SSSS may help patients to achieve satisfactory vision more quickly and reduce the number of follow-up visits required post keratoplasty. PMID:23743526

  14. [Prevalence and age-related changes of corneal astigmatism in patients before cataract surgery].

    PubMed

    Michelitsch, M; Ardjomand, N; Vidic, B; Wedrich, A; Steinwender, G

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent and the distribution of corneal astigmatism in patients awaiting cataract surgery in a mid-European tertiary clinic centre and hence to establish the demand for methods reducing corneal astigmatism. Keratometry measurements of cataract surgery candidates assigned to a university clinic between January 2013 and October 2014 were recorded and analysed retrospectively. A total of 6900 eyes of 3450 patients with a mean age of 72.5 ± 12.2 were analyzed. The corneal astigmatism was more than 0.5 dioptres (D) in 5193 eyes (75.3 %), >1.0 D in 2641 eyes (38.3 %), >1.5 D in 1304 eyes (18.9 %), >2.0 D in 644 eyes (9.3 %), >2.5 D in 363 eyes (5.3 %), >3.0 D in 236 eyes (3.4 %) and >3.5 D in 149 eyes (2.2 %). With increasing age a shift from with-the-rule astigmatism towards against-the-rule astigmatism was observed. Of the patients admitted for routine cataract surgery at our clinic, 2641 eyes (38.3 %) had an astigmatism greater than 1.0 D. Our data could be helpful in establishing a protocol for using toric intraocular lenses and to determine the costs.

  15. Effect of fronto-orbital advancement on astigmatism in patients with anterior plagiocephaly.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun Beom; Yang, Hee Kyung; Baek, Rong-Min; Hwang, Jeong-Min; Kim, Namju; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Kim, Sukwha

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of unilateral fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) or bilateral FOA on ocular aspects of plagiocephaly. A retrospective review of ocular findings in 16 patients with plagiocephaly was performed. Patients were divided into 2 groups: 12 patients who underwent bilateral FOA (bFOA) and 4 patients who underwent unilateral FOA (uFOA), and ocular findings were compared. One-half of patients showed strabismus in both groups, and all had exotropia. Hypertropia was found only on the same side of the plagiocephaly in 17% of the bFOA group and 25% of the uFOA group. One-third of the patients in the bFOA group and one-half of patients in the uFOA group had oblique muscle dysfunction. In terms of astigmatism, the degree of with-the-rule astigmatism on the contralateral side was larger in the bFOA group compared to the uFOA group (p = 0.030). The degree of with-the-rule astigmatism was larger on the contralateral side than the ipsilateral side (p = 0.005) in the bFOA group. Patients with abnormalities in ductions/versions had larger astigmatism on the contralateral side than those without abnormalities in ductions/versions. In conclusion, bilateral FOA could induce unwanted outcomes of larger astigmatism on the contralateral side. Astigmatism should be carefully evaluated after bilateral FOA. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of induced oblique astigmatism on symptoms and reading performance while viewing a computer screen.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Mark; Hue, Jennifer E; Huang, Rae R; Bababekova, Yuliya

    2012-03-01

    Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is a complex of eye and vision problems related to computer use which has been reported in up to 90% of computer users. Ocular symptoms may include asthenopia, accommodative and vergence difficulties and dry eye. Previous studies have reported that uncorrected astigmatism may have a significant impact on symptoms of CVS. However, its effect on task performance is unclear. This study recorded symptoms after a 10 min period of reading from a computer monitor either through the habitual distance refractive correction or with a supplementary -1.00 or -2.00D oblique cylinder added over these lenses in 12 young, visually-normal subjects. Additionally, the distance correction condition was repeated to assess the repeatability of the symptom questionnaire. Subjects' reading speed and accuracy were monitored during the course of the 10 min trial. There was no significant difference in reading rate or the number of errors between the three astigmatic conditions. However, a significant change in symptoms was reported with the median total symptom scores for the 0, 1 and 2D astigmatic conditions being 2.0, 6.5 and 40.0, respectively (p < 0.0001). Further, the repeatability coefficient of the total symptom score following the repeated zero astigmatism condition was ± 13.46. The presence of induced astigmatism produced a significant increase in post-task symptoms but did not affect reading rate or the number of reading errors. The correction of small astigmatic refractive errors may be important in optimizing patient comfort during computer operation. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2011 The College of Optometrists.

  17. Sequential selective same-day suture removal in the management of post-keratoplasty astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Fares, U; Mokashi, A A; Elalfy, M S; Dua, H S

    2013-09-01

    In a previous study, we proposed that corneal topography performed 30-40 min after the initial suture removal can identify the next set of sutures requiring removal, for the treatment of post-keratoplasty astigmatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of removing subsequent sets of sutures at the same sitting. 10/0 nylon interrupted sutures were placed, to secure the graft-host junction, at the time of keratoplasty. Topography was performed using Pentacam (Oculus) before suture removal. The sutures to be removed in the steep semi-meridians were identified and removed at the slit-lamp biomicroscope. Topography was repeated 30-40 min post suture removal, the new steep semi-meridians determined, and the next set of sutures to be removed were identified and removed accordingly. Topography was repeated 4-6 weeks later and the magnitude of topographic astigmatism was recorded. A paired-samples t-test was used to evaluate the impact of selective suture removal on reducing the magnitude of topographic and refractive astigmatism. Twenty eyes of 20 patients underwent sequential selective same-day suture removal (SSSS) after corneal transplantation. This study showed that the topographic astigmatism decreased by about 46.7% (3.68 D) and the refractive astigmatism decreased by about 37.7% (2.61 D) following SSSS. Vector calculations also show a significant reduction of both topographic and refractive astigmatism (P<0.001). SSSS may help patients to achieve satisfactory vision more quickly and reduce the number of follow-up visits required post keratoplasty.

  18. Insights into the prominent effect of mahanimbine on Acanthamoeba castellanii: Cell profiling analysis based on microscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Fatimah; Amin, Nakisah Mat

    2017-02-01

    Mahanimbine (MH), has been shown to have antiamoeba properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the growth inhibitory mechanisms of MH on Acanthamoeba castellanii, a causative agents for Acanthamoeba keratitis. The IC50 value obtained for MH against A. castellanii was 1.18 µg/ml. Light and scanning electron microscopy observation showed that most cells were in cystic appearance. While transmission electron microscopy observation revealed changes at the ultrastructural level and fluorescence microscopy observation indicated the induction of apoptosis and autophagic activity in the amoeba cytoplasms. In conclusion, MH has very potent anti-amoebic properties on A. castellanii as is shown by cytotoxicity analyses based on microscopy techniques.

  19. Surgical technique for management of isolated lenticular coloboma with high corneal astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Singh, Simar Rajan; Yangzes, Sonam; Gupta, Rohit; Ram, Jagat

    2018-04-01

    We describe a surgical technique for the correction of isolated congenital lenticular coloboma associated with high corneal astigmatism. Transscleral fixation of the capsular bag with a single eyelet Cionni capsular tension ring was followed by in-the-bag implantation of a toric intraocular lens (IOL). This lead to complete correction of the lenticular defect and perfect alignment of the toric lens. In this case, the child attained an unaided distance visual acuity of 20/30 following amblyopia therapy and a well-aligned toric IOL at 12 months of follow-up. This technique can be used in cases with concomitant lenticular coloboma and significant corneal astigmatism.

  20. Surgical technique for management of isolated lenticular coloboma with high corneal astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Simar Rajan; Yangzes, Sonam; Gupta, Rohit; Ram, Jagat

    2018-01-01

    We describe a surgical technique for the correction of isolated congenital lenticular coloboma associated with high corneal astigmatism. Transscleral fixation of the capsular bag with a single eyelet Cionni capsular tension ring was followed by in-the-bag implantation of a toric intraocular lens (IOL). This lead to complete correction of the lenticular defect and perfect alignment of the toric lens. In this case, the child attained an unaided distance visual acuity of 20/30 following amblyopia therapy and a well-aligned toric IOL at 12 months of follow-up. This technique can be used in cases with concomitant lenticular coloboma and significant corneal astigmatism. PMID:29582820

  1. Astigmatism correction in x-ray scanning photoemission microscope with use of elliptical zone plate

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, H.; Ko, C.; Anderson, E.

    1992-03-02

    We report the impact of an elliptical, high resolution zone plate on the performance of an initially astigmatic soft x-ray scanning photoemission microscope. A zone plate with carefully calibrated eccentricity has been used to eliminate astigmatism arising from transport optics, and an improvement of about a factor of 3 in spatial resolution was achieved. The resolution is still dominated by the source size and chromatic aberrations rather than by diffraction and coma, and a further gain of about a factor of 2 in resolution is possible. Sub 100 nm photoemission microscopy with primary photoelectrons is now within reach.

  2. Broadband astigmatism-corrected spectrometer design using a toroidal lens and a special filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xianying; Chen, Siying; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Mu, Taotao; Yang, Jian; Bu, Zhichao

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, a method to obtain a broadband, astigmatism-corrected spectrometer based on the existing Czerny-Turner spectrometer is proposed. The theories of astigmatism correction using a toroidal lens and a special filter are described in detail. Performance comparisons of the modified spectrometer and the traditional spectrometer are also presented. Results show that with the new design the RMS spot radius in sagittal view is one-eightieth of that in the traditional spectrometer over a broadband spectral range from 300 to 700 nm, without changing or moving any optical elements in the traditional spectrometer.

  3. Scheimpflug topographical changes after Femtosecond LASIK for mixed astigmatism - theoretical aspects and case study.

    PubMed

    Tabacaru, Bogdana; Stanca, Horia Tudor

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the corneal topographical changes after Femtosecond-LASIK surgery in eyes with mixed astigmatism. Methods: We present the analysis of the corneal Scheimpflug topographies of a patient treated with Femtosecond-LASIK technique for bilateral mixed astigmatism. Results: Three-dimensional reconstruction maps and differential anterior curvature maps were used to demonstrate the ablation profile and its stability in time. Conclusions: Visual and refractive results were very good after surgery, being topographically confirmed by the corneal reshaping which was performed as planned, the achieved ablation being stable during the one-year follow-up period.

  4. Acanthamoeba of three morphological groups and distinct genotypes exhibit variable and weakly inter-related physiological properties.

    PubMed

    Possamai, Cynara Oliveira; Loss, Ana Carolina; Costa, Adriana Oliveira; Falqueto, Aloisio; Furst, Cinthia

    2018-05-01

    Free-living amoeba of the genus Acanthamoeba can eventually act as parasites, causing infections in humans. Some physiological characteristics of Acanthamoeba have been related to the grade of pathogenicity, allowing inferences about the pathogenic potential. The main goal of this study was to characterize isolates of Acanthamoeba obtained in Brazil and evaluate properties associated with their pathogenicity. A total of 39 isolates obtained from keratitis cases (n = 16) and environmental sources (n = 23) were classified into morphological groups and genotyped by sequencing the 18S rDNA fragments ASA.S1 and GTSA.B1. Samples were also tested regarding their thermo-tolerance, osmo-tolerance, and cytopathogenicity in MDCK cells. Isolates were identified and classified as follows: group I (T17, T18); group II (T1, T3, T4, T11); and group III (T5, T15), with the predominance of genotype T4 (22/39). Clinical isolates were genotyped as T3 (1/16), T4 (14/16) and T5 (1/16). The majority of isolates (38/39) were able to grow at 37 °C, but tolerance to 40 °C was more frequent among environmental samples. The tolerance to 1 M mannitol was infrequent (4/39), with three of these corresponding to clinical samples. The variable ability to cause cytopathic effects was observed among isolates of distinct genotypes and origins. This study identified, for the first time, T1, T15, and T18 in Brazil. It also indicated a weak association between the clinical origin of the isolates and tolerance to high temperatures, high osmolarity, and cytopathogenicity, demonstrating that some in vitro parameters do not necessarily reflect a higher propensity of Acanthamoeba to cause a disease.

  5. Astigmatism and biometric optic components of diode laser-treated threshold retinopathy of prematurity at 9 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Yang, C-S; Wang, A-G; Shih, Y-F; Hsu, W-M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the prevalence of astigmatism and its relationship with biometric optic components in preterm school children with diode laser-treated threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Methods A prospective, cross-sectional study in which cycloplegic keratometry, refraction, and ultrasound biometric measurement of optic components were performed on 24 consecutive preterm children with diode laser-treated threshold ROP at the age of 9 years. The study results were compared with data on 1021 age-matched full-term control children from a national survey. Results The laser-treated eyes had a mean astigmatism of 3.47 D, with a mean spherical equivalent of −4.49 D. Of the 46 eyes studied, 98% of eyes showed astigmatism ≥0.5 D and 50% had high astigmatism (>3.0 D). Most astigmatic eyes (97.7%) showed with-the-rule astigmatism, with the mean plus cylinder axis at 89.30o. Further correlation analysis showed the astigmatism in refraction was highly correlated with the corneal astigmatism (r=0.921, P<0.001) and the vertical corneal curvature (r=0.405, P=0.005). There was significantly steeper vertical corneal curvature (P=0.003) and flatter horizontal corneal curvature (P=0.031) in eyes with laser-treated ROP when compared with age-matched full-term controls. The eyes with laser-treated ROP also show significantly thicker lens (3.93 mm) and shallower anterior chamber depth (ACD; 2.92 mm) than full-term controls (P<0.001). Conclusions There is significantly higher prevalence and greater magnitude of astigmatism in eyes with laser-treated threshold ROP compared with full-term controls. The steeper vertical corneal curvature component contributes to the increased astigmatism in eyes with laser-treated ROP. PMID:23222565

  6. [The Investigation of Acanthamoeba and Other Free Living Amoeba in Swab Samples Obtained from Conjunctiva and Eye Lid].

    PubMed

    Yünlü, Önder; Özçelik, Semra; Arıcı, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-09-01

    In the study, it is aimed to determine the prevalence of Acanthamoeba and other free-living amoeba (FLA) species in the swab samples obtained from conjunctiva and lower eye lid. For this purpose, swab samples from the 500 patients'eye lid and conjunctiva were obtained who admitted to Cumhuriyet University, Research and Application Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology with variety of reasons. Swab samples were carried out using sterile cotton swab in steril tubes. The swab samples were inoculated onto non-nutrient agar (NNA). Live Escherichia coli was used as food source for the growth of the FLA. The NNA plates were incubated at 300C and examined daily using ligth microscope for two weeks. For morphotyping of the trophozoites and cysts of the FLA were used taxonomic keys. Two of the 500 swab samples (0.4%) were positive for FLA. One of them (0.2%) were identified as Acanthamoeba spp. and other was identified as Hartmannella spp. However, these patients did not reveal any complaints yet. FLA both themselves and bacteria carrying in their body as reservoirs are potential pathogen. The rapid spread of Acanthamoeba keratitis in recent years reveal that these microorganisms are in contact with the eyes.

  7. Detection of serum antibodies in children and adolescents against Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri and Acanthamoeba T4.

    PubMed

    Lares-Jiménez, Luis Fernando; Borquez-Román, Manuel Alejandro; Alfaro-Sifuentes, Rosalía; Meza-Montenegro, María Mercedes; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón; Lares-Villa, Fernando

    2018-06-01

    The presence of free-living amoebae of the genera Naegleria, Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia, which contain pathogenic species for humans and animals, has been demonstrated several times and in different natural aquatic environments in the northwest of Mexico. With the aim of continuing the addition of knowledge about immunology of pathogenic free-living amoebae, 118 sera from children and adolescents, living in three villages, were studied. Humoral IgG response against B. mandrillaris, N. fowleri and Acanthamoeba sp. genotype T4, was analyzed in duplicate to titers 1: 100 and 1: 500 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Children and adolescents ages ranged between 5 and 16 years old, with a mean of 9 years old, 55% males. All tested sera were positive for the 1: 100 dilution, and in the results obtained with the 1: 500 dilution, 116 of 118 (98.3%) were seropositive for N. fowleri, 101 of 118 (85.6%) were seropositive for Acanthamoeba sp. genotype T4, and 43 of 118 (36.4%) were seropositive for B. mandrillaris. The statistical analysis showed different distributions among the three communities and for the three species of pathogenic free-living amoebae, including age. Lysed and complete cells used as Balamuthia antigens gave differences in seropositivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Clinical analysis of real-time iris recognition guided LASIK with femtosecond laser flap creation for myopic astigmatism].

    PubMed

    Jie, Li-ming; Wang, Qian; Zheng, Lin

    2013-08-01

    To assess the safety, efficacy, stability and changes in cylindrical degree and axis after real-time iris recognition guided LASIK with femtosecond laser flap creation for the correction of myopic astigmatism. Retrospective case series. This observational case study comprised 136 patients (249 eyes) with myopic astigmatism in a 6-month trial. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the pre-operative cylindrical degree: Group 1, -0.75 to -1.25 D, 106 eyes;Group 2, -1.50 to -2.25 D, 89 eyes and Group 3, -2.50 to -5.00 D, 54 eyes. They were also grouped by pre-operative astigmatism axis:Group A, with the rule astigmatism (WTRA), 156 eyes; Group B, against the rule astigmatism (ATRA), 64 eyes;Group C, oblique axis astigmatism, 29 eyes. After femtosecond laser flap created, real-time iris recognized excimer ablation was performed. The naked visual acuity, the best-corrected visual acuity, the degree and axis of astigmatism were analyzed and compared at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Static iris recognition detected that eye cyclotorsional misalignment was 2.37° ± 2.16°, dynamic iris recognition detected that the intraoperative cyclotorsional misalignment range was 0-4.3°. Six months after operation, the naked visual acuity was 0.5 or better in 100% cases. No eye lost ≥ 1 line of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA). Six months after operation, the naked vision of 227 eyes surpassed the BSCVA, and 87 eyes gained 1 line of BSCVA. The degree of astigmatism decreased from (-1.72 ± 0.77) D (pre-operation) to (-0.29 ± 0.25) D (post-operation). Six months after operation, WTRA from 157 eyes (pre-operation) decreased to 43 eyes (post-operation), ATRA from 63 eyes (pre-operation) decreased to 28 eyes (post-operation), oblique astigmatism increased from 29 eyes to 34 eyes and 144 eyes became non-astigmatism. The real-time iris recognition guided LASIK with femtosecond laser flap creation can compensate deviation from eye cyclotorsion, decrease

  9. Optical-vortex pair creation and annihilation and helical astigmatism of a nonplanar ring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Heckenberg, N.R.; Vaupel, M.; Malos, J.T.

    1996-09-01

    The creation and annihilation of pairs of optical vortices have been studied in transitions between patterns produced in a photorefractive oscillator. Smooth metamorphosis between stable patterns occurs through pair creation or annihilation but can be modeled using superposition of modes taking into account lifting of degeneracy of helical modes by helical astigmatism of the resonator. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. Development of three-dimensional tracking system using astigmatic lens method for microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibata, Hiroki; Ishii, Katsuhiro

    2017-07-01

    We have developed a three-dimensional tracking system for microscopes. Using the astigmatic lens method and a CMOS image sensor, we realize a rapid detection of a target position in a wide range. We demonstrate a target tracking using the developed system.

  11. Measuring mental workload: ocular astigmatism aberration as a novel objective index.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Raimundo; Cárdenas, David; González-Anera, Rosario; Jiménez, José R; Vera, Jesús

    2018-04-01

    This study assessed the effect of two perceptually matched mental tasks with different levels of mental demand on ocular aberrations in a group of young adults. We measured ocular aberration with a wavefront sensor, and total, internal and corneal RMS (root mean square) aberrations were calculated from Zernike coefficients, considering natural and scaled pupils (5, 4.5, and 4 mm). We found that total, internal and corneal astigmatism RMS showed significant differences between mental tasks with natural pupils (p < .05), and this effect was maintained with 5 mm scaled pupils (total RMS astigmatism, p < .05). Consistently, pupil size, intraocular pressure, perceived mental load and cognitive performance were influenced by the level of mental complexity (p < .05 for all). The findings suggest that ocular astigmatism aberration, mediated by intraocular pressure, could be an objective, valid reliable index to evaluate the impact of cognitive processing in conjunction with others physiological markers in real world contexts. Practitioner Summary: The search continues for a valid, reliable, convenient method of measuring mental workload. In this study we found ocular astigmatism aberration is sensitive to the cumulative effect of mental effort. It shows promise of being a novel ocular index which may help to assess mental workload in real situations.

  12. Analysis of astigmatism of gain guided laser with a tapered-stripe geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mamine, T.; Oda, T.; Yoneyama, O.

    1984-12-01

    The astigmatism of the tapered-stripe (TAPS) laser has been analyzed. Calculating the near-field spot size and the radius of curvature in the tapered-stripe region, the astigmatism is determined by using the expression of D = R/sub e/ (1+(lambdaR/sub e// ..pi..w/sup 2//sub e/)/sup 2/)/sup -1/. In our formalism we assume that the gain profile is parabola and the near-field spot size at the facet is determined by the diffusion length of injected carriers. So far as these assumptions are valid, it is concluded that the amount of astigmatism is reduced with the length of tapered stripe, using the refractive index changemore » due to the band-edge absorption of -10/sup -2/. The fundamental characteristics of the gain guided laser with TAPS structure such as the astigmatism, far-field radiation pattern, and the spontaneous emission factor are shown to be controlled by properly designing the stripe geometry and the thickness of the active layer.« less

  13. Evaluation of the toric implantable collamer lens for simultaneous treatment of myopia and astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Price, Marianne O; Price, Francis W

    2015-01-01

    Myopic astigmatism is a prevalent condition that can be treated with spectacles, contact lenses, or laser refractive surgery. However, these treatment options have functional limitations at higher levels of refractive error. The toric implantable collamer lens is designed to treat a broad range of refractive error, generally up to -18 diopters with +1 to +6 diopters of astigmatism. Approval for a more limited treatment range of up to 15 diopters of myopia with +1 to +4 diopters of astigmatism is being sought in the US, where this device has not yet received marketing approval. Surgical correction of high-myopic astigmatism can be life-altering and allow people to participate in activities that were not previously feasible because of visual limitations. The toric implantable collamer lens is implanted behind the iris and in front of the natural crystalline lens. With earlier lens designs, it was necessary to create an iridectomy or iridotomy to prevent pupillary block. The newest toric implantable collamer lens model has a small central hole that is not visually noticeable. This eliminates the need to create a hole in the iris, thereby enhancing the safety of the procedure.

  14. Microkeratome-Assisted Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty for the Correction of High-Degree Postkeratoplasty Astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Gutfreund, Shay; Leon, Pia; Busin, Massimo

    2017-07-01

    To describe the surgical technique and report the outcomes of patients treated with microkeratome-assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty (MALK) for the correction of high-degree postkeratoplasty astigmatism. Four eyes of 2 patients with extremely high (>10 D) and irregular [surface asymmetry index >1.0 D] post-penetrating keratoplasty astigmatism occurring after complete suture removal underwent MALK and were followed for at least 3 years after the procedure. In all cases, 250-µm lamellar keratectomy was performed, followed by 2 full-thickness incisions through the penetrating keratoplasty scar and the placement of an appropriately sized donor graft, which was secured with a double-running 10-0 nylon suture. All sutures were removed in all eyes within 1 year from surgery. Corrected distance visual acuity, refraction, corneal topography, and endothelial cell density were noted at each examination. At the last follow-up examination (3 years or longer after MALK), corrected distance visual acuity had improved to 20/20, refractive astigmatism had decreased to an average of 2.1 D (in all cases within 4.5 D), and the average surface asymmetry index had reduced from 2.27 to 0.56. MALK is an effective and safe technique for the correction of high-degree postkeratoplasty astigmatism.

  15. Vision of low astigmats through thick and thin lathe-cut soft contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Cho, P; Woo, G C

    2001-01-01

    Distance and near visual acuity of 13 low astigmats were determined in a double-masked experiment through thick and thin (centre thickness 0.12 mm and 0.06 mm, respectively) spherical lathe-cut soft lenses. For each lens type, distance and near LogMAR VA and over-refraction were assessed with different logMAR VA charts. For 70% of the subjects, the residual astigmatism was significantly lower than the refractive astigmatism with thicker lenses. No statistically significant differences in the distance and near logMAR VA was found between the two lens types using any of the charts used, though, in general, logMAR VA obtained through the thicker lens was better than logMAR VA through the thinner lens. The variabilities in distance and near logMAR VA between the two lens types increased with decreased contrast. The variabilities in distance logMAR VA were greater with Chinese charts than with English charts, and LogMAR VA with Chinese charts were significantly worse for both lens types. Based on the results of this study, we concluded that thicker spherical lathe-cut soft lenses provide better vision in low astigmats. The Snellen acuity test is inadequate for vision assessment of soft contact lens wearers. When a patient wearing thin soft contact lenses complains of poor vision in spite of 6/6 or 6/5 Snellen acuity, changing to thicker lenses may be considered.

  16. Detection of Acanthamoeba spp. in water samples collected from natural water reservoirs, sewages, and pharmaceutical factory drains using LAMP and PCR in China.

    PubMed

    Lass, Anna; Guerrero, Milena; Li, Xiuping; Karanis, Gabriele; Ma, Liqing; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2017-04-15

    Various species of amoebas belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba are widely distributed in many parts of the world. Some strains of these protozoans may exist as parasites and pose risks to human health as causative agents of serious human diseases. Currently in China there is a lack of information about the distribution of Acanthamoeba strains in the environment. Accordingly, 261 environmental water samples taken from rivers, sewage, and pharmaceutical factory drains were collected in Qinghai Province, China. The material was filtered and then analysed with both LAMP and PCR assays. Of the samples examined, Acanthamoeba DNA was found in 32 (14.68%) samples with the use of LAMP; in 13 of these samples, DNA from this amoeba was also detected using PCR. Sequencing of selected positive samples confirmed that the PCR products were fragments of the Acanthamoeba 18S rRNA gene and that isolates represent the T4 genotype, known as the most common strain related to AK cases. The results indicate that surface water, as well as water taken from sewage and pharmaceutical drains, may be a source of acanthamoebic strains potentially pathogenic for humans in China. It has been also demonstrated that LAMP assays is more sensitive than PCR and can be regarded as useful tool for screening the environment for Acanthamoeba spp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of viroid infection of citrus trees on the amoebicidal activity of 'Maltese half-blood' (Citrus sinensis) against trophozoite stage of Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff.

    PubMed

    Zouaghi, Ghaya; Najar, Asma; Chiboub, Olfa; Sifaoui, Ines; Abderrabba, Manef; Lorenzo Morales, Jacob

    2017-12-01

    In order to promote a local Tunisian product, this study was designed to examine, for the first time, the anti-Acanthamoeba activity (Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff) of the essential oils of Tunisian Citrus sinensis peels (Maltese half-blood) and the effect of viroid plant infection on this activity. To do so, three samples of peels' essential oils were studied: from a healthy plant (Control), a plant inoculated with Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) and one inoculated with hot stunt cachexia viroid (HSVd). The samples were extracted by hydrodistillation from dried peels and characterized by GC-MS. Limonene was the major component with a percentage ranging from 90.76 to 93.34% for (CEVd) sample and (Control), respectively. Anti-Acanthamoeba activity of the tested oils was determined by the Alamar Blue ® assay. Primary results showed a strong potential anti-Acanthamoeba activity with an IC 50 ranging from 36.6 to 54.58 μg/ml for (HSVd) and (CEVd) samples, respectively. In terms of the effect of viroid infection, a strong positive correlation was observed between different chemical classes and anti-Acanthamoeba activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The potential pathogenicity of chlorhexidine-sensitive Acanthamoeba strains isolated from contact lens cases from asymptomatic individuals in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Cabrera-Serra, M Gabriela; Rancel, Fernando; Coronado-Alvarez, Nieves M; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2008-11-01

    Pathogenic strains of the genus Acanthamoeba are causative agents of a serious sight-threatening infection of the eye known as Acanthamoeba keratitis. The prevalence of this infection has risen in the past 20 years, mainly due to the increase in number of contact lens wearers. In this study, the prevalence of Acanthamoeba in a risk group constituted by asymptomatic contact lens wearers from Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, was evaluated. Contact lenses and contact lens cases were analysed for the presence of Acanthamoeba isolates. The isolates' genotypes were also determined after rDNA sequencing. The pathogenic potential of the isolated strains was subsequently established using previously described molecular and biochemical assays, which allowed the selection of three strains with high pathogenic potential. Furthermore, the sensitivity of these isolates against two standard drugs, ciprofloxacin and chlorhexidine, was analysed. As the three selected strains were sensitive to chlorhexidine, its activity and IC(50) were evaluated. Chlorhexidine was found to be active against these strains and the obtained IC(50) values were compared to the concentrations of this drug present in contact lens maintenance solutions. It was observed that the measured IC(50) was higher than the concentration found in these maintenance solutions. Therefore, the ineffectiveness of chlorhexidine-containing contact lens maintenance solutions against potentially pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba is demonstrated in this study.

  19. [Predictability of residual astigmatism after implantation of posterior chamber toric lenses].

    PubMed

    Mies, D; Klink, T; Eisenbarth, W; Meyer, L M

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the predictability of residual astigmatism after cataract surgery and implantation of the posterior chamber aspheric toric lens TECNIS® ZCT, Abott Medical Optic (Ettlingen, Deutschland). The retrospective study included a total of 88 patient eyes undergoing a cataract operation with a toric lens implantation between March 2014 and October 2015. The inclusion criteria were a regular astigmatism of at least 0.75 dpt. Posterior chamber toric lenses (model Tecnis ZCT) were exclusively implanted. Post-surgery check-ups were performed after 1 day, 1 month and 2 months. Main study outcome was best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), spherical and astigmatic aberration and the difference between expected and actual residual astigmatism after cataract surgery. The median reduction of corneal astigmatism was from -2.50 dpt (±1.06 dpt) to -0.75 dpt (±0.51 dpt) (p ≤ 0.05). The median BCVA increased from 0.37 logMAR (±0.25 logMAR) before surgery to 0.09 logMAR (±0.10 logMAR) after surgery. The spherical equivalent was reduced from +3.50 dpt (±1.11 dpt) (presurgery) to -0.56 dpt (±0.51 dpt) (postsurgery) in hyperopic patients and from -2.44 dpt (±3.03 dpt) to -0.69 dpt (±0.81 dpt) in myopic patients. By using the power vector analysis no significant deviation from the expected target values was observed; however, the median discrepancy between the expected and actual residual astigmatism was -0.50 dpt despite a surgical orientation of the intraocular lens (IOL) within 5° of the desired axis. The IOL showed a median rotation of 3.00° (±4.46°). Implantation of the aspheric toric intraocular lens Tecnis ZCT is a predictable, effective and reproducible tool in cataract surgery to account for regular corneal astigmatis; however, despite an optimal surgical orientation of the toric IOL, a small and rarely a large discrepancy might occur between expected and actual residual astigmatism.

  20. Microincision Hydrophobic Acrylic Aspheric Toric Intraocular Lens for Astigmatism and Cataract Correction.

    PubMed

    Bissen-Miyajima, Hiroko; Negishi, Kazuno; Hieda, Osamu; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new acrylic one-piece toric intraocular lens (IOL). This prospective multicenter clinical trial included 93 eyes of 61 patients that were implanted with a hydrophobic acrylic toric IOL from 2010 to 2012 and followed for 1 year. This IOL uses the platform of a microincision one-piece aspheric IOL, the NY-60 IOL (HOYA, Tokyo, Japan), with three increments in cylindrical power (NHT15, 1.5 diopters [D]; NHT23, 2.25 D; and NHT30, 3.0 D). The inclusion criterion was preoperative corneal astigmatism from 0.75 to 3.00 D. The primary endpoint was uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) of 0.0 logMAR (20/20 Snellen) or better 6 months postoperatively. In addition to UDVA, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), residual astigmatism, stability of the IOL alignment, need of realignment, and the rate of Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy were evaluated up to 1 year postoperatively. Errors in astigmatic correction were assessed using Alpin's vector analysis. The primary endpoint was achieved in 54.8% of eyes. One year postoperatively, the logMAR UDVAs were 0.02 ± 0.13, 0.05 ± 0.17, and 0.09 ± 0.14 with models NHT15, NHT23, and NHT30, which corresponds to 0.96 (19/20 Snellen), 0.89 (18/20 Snellen), and 0.82 (16/20 Snellen), respectively. One year postoperatively, the residual astigmatism was 0.66 ± 0.58 D. In each evaluation, the mean absolute change in the position of the axis mark was between 1.93° and 2.32°. Three eyes required repositioning of the IOL axis and 2 eyes received Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. The correction error showed an undercorrection with against-the-rule astigmatism and overcorrection with with-the-rule astigmatism. The new one-piece toric IOL provided desirable clinical outcomes and stability in eyes with corneal astigmatism. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. [A comparative study on hydrolase activities in Acanthamoeba culbertsoni and A. royreba

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Kyu; Kim, Tae Ue; Joung, In Sil; Im, Kyung Il

    1988-06-01

    Specific or non-specific cytolytic processes of free-living amoebae causing meningoencephalitis have been emphasized and the cytolytic ability related to hydrolases in Entamoeba sp. and Naegleria sp. has also been reported since the latter half of 1970's. However, no information on hydrolase activities in Acanthamoeba sp. is available. Hydrolases in Acanthamoeba culbertsoni, a pathogenic species of free-living amoebae, were assayed and compared with those in a non-pathogenic species, A. royreba. Pathogenicity of these two species was confirmed through experimental infection to BALB/c mice. Hydrolase activities and cytotoxic effects between pathogenic and non-pathogenic species were compared in the trophozoites cultured in CGV media and in CHO cell line, respectively. The results are summarized as follows: The mice infected with A. culbertsoni were all dead 15 days after nasal inoculation, and the mean survival time was 8.5 days. Also the mice infected with this pathogenic species mani fested typical meningoencephalitis, whereas the mice infected with A. royreba did not. Hydrolases detected both in the cell extracts and culture media were acid phosphatase, beta-N-acetyl galactosaminidase, beta-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, alpha-mannosidase, neutral proteinase and acid proteinase, all of which were detected with remarkably higher rate in A.culbertsoni than in A. royreba. A. culbertsoni revealed strong cytotoxicity for the target CHO cells, whereas A. royreba did not show any specific cytotoxicity. About 80% of the target cells mixed with A. culbertsoni were dead 48 hours after cultivation, and more than 95% of the target cells were dead 72 hours after cultivation. Hydrolase activities in A. culbertsoni cultured with the target cell line were assayed according to the culture time. The activities of acid phosphatase, beta-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, beta-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, alpha-mannosidase and acid proteinase in this pathogenic amoeba were detected higher in amoeba

  2. Correction of irregular and induced regular corneal astigmatism with toric IOL after posterior segment surgery: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kolozsvári, Bence L; Losonczy, Gergely; Pásztor, Dorottya; Fodor, Mariann

    2017-01-13

    Toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation can be an effective method for correcting corneal astigmatism in patients with vitreoretinal diseases and cataract. Our purpose is to report the outcome of toric IOL implantation in two cases - a patient with scleral-buckle-induced regular corneal astigmatism and a patient with keratoconus following pars plana vitrectomy. As far as we are aware, there are no reported cases of toric IOL implantation in a vitrectomized eye with keratoconus nor of toric IOL implantation in patients with scleral-buckle-induced regular corneal astigmatism. Two patients with myopia and high corneal astigmatism underwent cataract operation with toric IOL implantation after posterior segment surgery. Myopia and high astigmatism (>2.5 diopter) were caused by previous scleral buckling in one case and by keratoconus in the other case. Pre- and postoperative examinations during the follow-up of included uncorrected and spectacle corrected distance visual acuity (UCDVA/CDVA), automated kerato-refractometry (Topcon), Pentacam HR, IOL Master (Zeiss) axial length measurements and fundus optical coherence tomography (Zeiss). One year postoperatively, the UCDVA and CDVA were 20/25 and 20/20 in both cases, respectively. The absolute residual refractive astigmatism was 1.0 and 0.75 Diopters, respectively. The IOL rotation was within 3° in both eyes, therefore IOL repositioning was not necessary. Complications were not observed in our cases. These cases demonstrate that toric IOL implantation is a predictable and safe method for the correction of high corneal astigmatism in complicated cases with different origins. Irregular corneal astigmatism in keratoconus or scleral-buckle-induced regular astigmatisms can be equally well corrected with the use of toric IOL during cataract surgery. Previous scleral buckling or pars plana vitrectomy seem to have no impact on the success of the toric IOL implantation, even in keratoconus. IOL rotational stability and

  3. Safety and efficacy of femtosecond laser-assisted arcuate keratotomy to treat irregular astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Fadlallah, Ali; Mehanna, Chadi; Saragoussi, Jean-Jacques; Chelala, Elias; Amari, Belkacem; Legeais, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-01

    To determine the refractive efficacy, predictability, stability, and complication rate of Intralase femtosecond laser-assisted astigmatic keratotomy (AK) for irregular astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). Ophthalmology Department, Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France. Retrospective case series. Femtosecond laser-assisted AK was performed to treat high irregular astigmatism (>5.0 diopters [D]) after PKP. The uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities, manifest refraction, vector analysis, and complications were evaluated. The study evaluated 62 eyes of 57 patients over a mean follow-up of 28 months ± 3.5 (SD). Preoperatively, the mean CDVA was 0.51 ± 0.26 logMAR and the mean UDVA was 0.98 ± 0.24 logMAR; 6 months postoperatively, the mean CDVA and UDVA improved to 0.40 ± 0.22 logMAR and 0.60 ± 0.2 logMAR, respectively (both P < .01). The mean preoperative absolute astigmatism was 7.1 ± 1.72 D; 6 months postoperatively, the mean refractive astigmatism was 2.6 ± 2.4 D (P < .001). The UDVA, CDVA, and astigmatism remained stable up to the end of follow-up. The efficacy index was 0.81 at 6 months and 0.67 at 2 years. There were 2 cases of microperforation, 3 cases of infectious keratitis, 3 graft rejection episodes, and 1 case of endophthalmitis. Overcorrection occurred in 12 eyes. Femtosecond laser-assisted AK was effective in reducing irregular astigmatism after PKP. Predictability of astigmatism correction is variable over time with a decrease in the efficacy index 2 years postoperatively. Refinement of the treatment nomogram for femtosecond laser-assisted AK for high astigmatism after PKP remains a major issue. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Axis-free correction of astigmatism using bifocal soft contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Leube, Alexander; Kovats, Imre; Wahl, Siegfried; Sickenberger, Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    Pilot study to investigate the feasibility of an axis-free correction approach of regular astigmatism using soft, bifocal contact lenses (CL). The investigation covers an optical simulation and a pilot study for the assessment of visual performance (over refraction OR, monocular visual acuity VA). The power of the two zones was adjusted according to the power of the astigmatic meridians, individually. Subjective performance was assessed in 30 participants with a mean horizontal cylindrical component of J 0 =- 0.65±1.29 D (cylinder from -0.75 to -4.00 DC). OR and VA were measured directly after fitting the CL, after one hour and after 5days (3FUP). Evaluating the modulation transfer function, CL increased the Strehl ratio by 10% and the transferred spatial frequency was improved from 6.6 cpd to 21.3 cpd. Analysis of Sturm's interval revealed a residual astigmatism of D Ast =0.73 D. OR revealed a statistically significant reduction of spherical error between baseline and all follow up (ΔM=-2.14 D, p<0.001) and between the J 0 from baseline to 3FUP (ΔJ 0 =-0.46 D, p=0.04). Wearing the CL for 5days did not result in a significant difference of VA (ΔVA 3FUP =+0.01 logMAR, p=0.99). Axis-free correction of astigmatism using bifocal CL resulted in reasonable performance based on computer simulation. Participants showed no clinically reduced visual acuity or contrast sensitivity. Further clinical studies are needed to show if this approach provides a good alternative to conventional astigmatic correction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-Orthogonal Corneal Astigmatism among Normal and Keratoconic Brazilian and Chinese populations.

    PubMed

    Abass, Ahmed; Clamp, John; Bao, FangJun; Ambrósio, Renato; Elsheikh, Ahmed

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence of non-orthogonal astigmatism among normal and keratoconic Brazilian and Chinese populations. Topography data were obtained using the Pentacam High Resolution (HR) system ® from 458 Brazilian (aged 35.6 ± 15.8 years) and 505 Chinese (aged 31.6 ± 10.8 years) eyes with no history of keratoconus or refractive surgery, and 314 Brazilian (aged 24.2 ± 5.7 years) and 74 Chinese (aged 22.0 ± 5.5 years) keratoconic eyes. Orthogonal values of optical flat and steep powers were determined by finding the angular positions of two perpendicular meridians that gave the maximum difference in power. Additionally, the angular positions of the meridians with the minimum and maximum optical powers were located while being unrestricted by the usual orthogonality assumption. Eyes were determined to have non-orthogonal astigmatism if the angle between the two meridians with maximum and minimum optical power deviated by more than 5° from 90°. Evidence of non-orthogonal astigmatism was found in 39% of the Brazilian keratoconic eyes, 26% of the Chinese keratoconic eyes, 29% of the Brazilian normal eyes and 20% of the Chinese normal eyes. The large percentage of participants with non-orthogonal astigmatism in both normal and keratoconic eyes illustrates the need for the common orthogonality assumption to be reviewed when correcting for astigmatism. The prevalence of non-orthogonality should be considered by expanding the prescription system to consider the two power meridians and their independent positions.

  6. Office-based Relaxing Incision Procedure for Correction of Astigmatism after Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Feizi, Sepehr; Mirbabaee, Firooz; Fekri, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To report the outcomes of a simple and effective office-based procedure for the correction of astigmatism after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). Methods: This study enrolled 24 consecutive keratoconic eyes that developed an intolerable amount of graft astigmatism after DALK. The location and extension of steep semi-meridians were determined using corneal topography. Office-based relaxing incision procedures were performed at the slit-lamp biomicroscope using a 27-gauge needle. Relaxing incisions were made at the donor-recipient interface on one side of the steepest meridian with an arc length of 45° to 60° and an initial depth of approximately 70–80% of the corneal thickness. Topography was performed after 30–40 minutes and the initial incision was enhanced in depth and length. If an acceptable amount of astigmatism was not achieved, another incision was created at the opposite semi-meridian during the same session. Results: Mean follow-up period was 13.1 ± 7.4 months. Mean preoperative best spectacle corrected visual acuity was 0.26 ± 0.14 logMAR, increasing to 0.22 ± 0.09 logMAR after the procedure (P = 0.20). Mean spherical equivalent refractive error increased from − 4.64 ± 3.06 diopters (D) preoperatively to −6.06 ± 3.15 D postoperatively (P = 0.01). Mean keratometric astigmatism was reduced by 2.95 ± 3.43 D and 5.16 ± 2.97 D measured using subtraction and vector analysis methods, respectively (P < 0.001). Microperforation occurred in one eye, which spontaneously improved with no sequelae. Conclusion: Office-based relaxing incision is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of corneal graft astigmatism after DALK. This approach effectively decreases the need for the more costly alternative in the operating room. PMID:28540006

  7. Small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE): outcomes of 722 eyes treated for myopia and myopic astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Rasmus Søgaard; Lyhne, Niels; Grauslund, Jakob; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet

    2016-02-01

    To study the outcomes of small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for treatment of myopia and myopic astigmatism. Retrospective study of patients treated for myopia or myopic astigmatism with SMILE, using a VisuMax(®) femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany), at the Department of Ophthalmology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark. Inclusion criteria were corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) of 20/25 or better before surgery and no ocular conditions other than myopia up to -10.00 diopters (D) with astigmatism up to 3.00 D. Of the 729 treatments, 722 were included. The spherical equivalent (SE) refraction averaged -6.82 ± 1.66 diopters (D) before surgery. After 3 months, 88 % of eyes were within ±0.50 D of the intended refraction, whilst 98 % were within ±1.00 D. The mean difference between attempted and achieved SE refraction at 3 months after surgery was -0.06 ± 0.01 D (range: -1.25 to 1.25 D). In eyes with emmetropia as target refraction (n = 362), 63 % had uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) of 20/25 or better 1 day after surgery, rising to 83 % at 3 months after surgery. The average gain in CDVA from before surgery to 3 months after surgery was 0.07 ± 0.03 (logMAR). However, 12 eyes (1.6 %) lost 2 or more lines of CDVA from before surgery to 3 months postoperatively. Simultaneous treatment of up to 3.00 D of astigmatism was not associated with less predictable refractive outcomes. In the short term, SMILE seemed predictable, efficient, and safe for treatment of myopia and myopic astigmatism.

  8. Refractive Lenticule Transplantation for Correction of Iatrogenic Hyperopia and High Astigmatism After LASIK.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, Apostolos; Reinstein, Dan Z; Archer, Timothy J; Schulze, Stephan; Sekundo, Walter

    2016-11-01

    To design a technique for intrastromal transplantation of stromal lenticules with specific refractive power for correction of post-LASIK induced hyperopia and astigmatism. A 28-year-old patient was referred for consultation after complicated LASIK for moderate myopia and astigmatism. The refractive error of the right eye was severely overcorrected due to data entry error. Post-LASIK refraction showed high astigmatism (right eye: +6.50 -9.00 @ 84°) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) of 20/32. The corneal thickness was 282 µm. A refractive lenticule transplantation was performed due to contact lens intolerance, poor visual acuity, and severe anisometropia. A toric and myopic lenticule, obtained from a donor using the femtosecond lenticule extraction technique, was implanted under the flap to reduce the refractive error, bring the refraction of the eye to the level correctable by phakic intraocular lens, and restore corneal volume. Six weeks postoperatively, the donor lenticule was spread smoothly in the interface with a minor temporal decentration in relation to pupil center. The refraction showed a reduction of astigmatism but a stronger myopization compared to preoperative calculations (right eye: -6.50 -4.00 @ 70°). At 3 months, the CDVA returned to the preoperative value of 20/32. One year postoperatively, corneal tomography showed no signs of ectasia and biomicroscopy revealed no signs of rejection. After implanting a toric myopic implantable collamer lens, the patient regained uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/40 and full stereopsis. The refractive lenticule transplantation technique offers a solution for rare cases of post-LASIK hyperopia and high astigmatism while restoring the volume of thin corneas. Moreover, it is a reversible procedure with low probability of rejection. [J Refract Surg. 2016;32(11):780-786.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. A schematic eye model for the effects of translation and rotation of ocular components on peripheral astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D A; Dunne, M C; Clement, R A

    1987-01-01

    The relative contributions of translation and rotation of the cornea and lens to peripheral astigmatic asymmetry have been investigated using a linear algebraic ray tracing method. It is believed that lenticular rotation is responsible for angle alpha, so bringing about peripheral astigmatic asymmetry, as normally occurs in human eyes over the temporal and nasal retina. Rotation of the cornea may be responsible for the small numbers of eyes which exhibit large amounts of peripheral astigmatic asymmetry. The effects of corneal rotation and translation on the dimensions of the entrance pupil are illustrated.

  10. Comparison of femtosecond laser small-incision lenticule extraction and laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy to correct myopic astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yishan; Huang, Jia; Zhou, Xingtao; Wang, Yutung

    2015-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of correcting myopic astigmatism with femtosecond laser small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE, Carl Zeiss Meditec AG) versus laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK). The study was conducted at the Ophthalmology Department, Eye and ENT Hospital, Shanghai, China. A retrospective, cross-sectional study. This study included patients who underwent small-incision lenticule extraction or LASEK for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism. Preoperative and 6-month postoperative astigmatism values were analyzed. The efficacies of the 2 surgeries to correct astigmatism were compared. A total of 180 right eyes of 180 patients (small-incision lenticule extraction: n = 113, LASEK: n = 67) were included. No significant difference was found between the 2 groups in the preoperative astigmatism (small-incision lenticule extraction: 1.16 ± 0.85D, LASEK: 1.16 ± 0.83D, P > .05) or the postoperative astigmatism (small-incision lenticule extraction: 0.35 ± 0.37D; LASEK: 0.31 ± 0.42D, P > .05), determined by manifest refraction. No significant difference was found between the 2 groups in surgically induced astigmatism vector (small-incision lenticule extraction: 1.13 ± 0.83D, LASEK: 1.01 ± 0.65D, P > .05). The correction index was higher for the small-incision lenticule extraction group (1.05 ± 0.53) than for the LASEK group (0.95 ± 0.21, P = .045). The postoperative astigmatism was significantly higher for the small-incision lenticule extraction group when the preoperative astigmatism was 1.0 D or less (small-incision lenticule extraction: 0.26 ± 0.30D, LASEK: 0.12 ± 0.20D, P = .007) and lower for the small-incision lenticule extraction group when the preoperative astigmatism was more than 2.0 D (small-incision lenticule extraction: 0.48 ± 0.37D, LASEK: 0.89 ± 0.46D, P = .002). An adjustment of nomograms for correcting low astigmatism (≤1.0 D) by small-incision lenticule extraction is suggested due to the tendency toward

  11. Acanthamoeba culbertsoni isolated from a clinical case with intraocular dissemination: Structure and in vitro analysis of the interaction with hamster cornea and MDCK epithelial cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    González-Robles, Arturo; Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Flores-Maldonado, Catalina; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Reyes-Batlle, María; Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2017-12-01

    Acanthamoeba culbertsoni trophozoites, previously isolated from a human keratitis case with severe intraocular damage, were maintained in axenic culture. Co-incubation of amoebae with MDCK cell monolayers demonstrated an apparent preference of the amoebae to introduce themselves between the cells. The trophozoites appeared to cross the cell monolayer through the tight junctions, which resulted in decreased trans-epithelial resistance (TER) measurements. Unexpectedly, after co-incubation of amoebae with hamster corneas, we observed that the trophozoites were able to cross the different cell layers and reach the corneal stroma after only 12 h of interaction, in contrast to other Acanthamoeba species. These observations suggest that this A. culbertsoni isolate is particularly pathogenic. Further research with diverse methodologies needs to be performed to explain the unique behavior of this Acanthamoeba strain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydroxynonenal-stimulated activity of the uncoupling protein in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria under phosphorylating conditions.

    PubMed

    Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2013-05-01

    The influence of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a lipid peroxidation end product, on the activity of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii uncoupling protein (AcUCP) in isolated phosphorylating mitochondria was studied. Under phosphorylating conditions, exogenously added HNE induced GTP-sensitive AcUCP-mediated mitochondrial uncoupling. The HNE-induced proton leak decreased the yield of oxidative phosphorylation in an HNE concentration-dependent manner. The present study describes how the contributions of ATP synthase and HNE-induced AcUCP in phosphorylating respiration vary when the rate of succinate oxidation is decreased by limiting succinate uptake or inhibiting complex III activity within the range of a constant membrane potential. In phosphorylating mitochondria, at a given HNE concentration (100 μM), the efficiency of AcUCP in mitochondrial uncoupling increased as the respiratory rate decreased because the AcUCP contribution remained constant while the ATP synthase contribution decreased with the respiratory rate. HNE-induced uncoupling can be inhibited by GTP only when ubiquinone is sufficiently oxidized, indicating that in phosphorylating A. castellanii mitochondria, the sensitivity of AcUCP activity to GTP depends on the redox state of the membranous ubiquinone.

  13. Atomic force microscopic imaging of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Balamuthia mandrillaris trophozoites and cysts.

    PubMed

    Aqeel, Yousuf; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Ateeq, Muhammad; Raza Shah, Muhammad; Kulsoom, Huma; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Light microscopy and electron microscopy have been successfully used in the study of microbes, as well as free-living protists. Unlike light microscopy, which enables us to observe living organisms or the electron microscope which provides a two-dimensional image, atomic force microscopy provides a three-dimensional surface profile. Here, we observed two free-living amoebae, Acanthamoeba castellanii and Balamuthia mandrillaris under the phase contrast inverted microscope, transmission electron microscope and atomic force microscope. Although light microscopy was of lower magnification, it revealed functional biology of live amoebae such as motility and osmoregulation using contractile vacuoles of the trophozoite stage, but it is of limited value in defining the cyst stage. In contrast, transmission electron microscopy showed significantly greater magnification and resolution to reveal the ultra-structural features of trophozoites and cysts including intracellular organelles and cyst wall characteristics but it only produced a snapshot in time of a dead amoeba cell. Atomic force microscopy produced three-dimensional images providing detailed topographic description of shape and surface, phase imaging measuring boundary stiffness, and amplitude measurements including width, height and length of A. castellanii and B. mandrillaris trophozoites and cysts. These results demonstrate the importance of the application of various microscopic methods in the biological and structural characterization of the whole cell, ultra-structural features, as well as surface components and cytoskeleton of protist pathogens. © 2014 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2014 International Society of Protistologists.

  14. Evidence for a Hydrogenosomal-Type Anaerobic ATP Generation Pathway in Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Michael W.; Roger, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Diverse, distantly-related eukaryotic lineages have adapted to low-oxygen environments, and possess mitochondrion-related organelles that have lost the capacity to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through oxidative phosphorylation. A subset of these organelles, hydrogenosomes, has acquired a set of characteristic ATP generation enzymes commonly found in anaerobic bacteria. The recipient of these enzymes could not have survived prior to their acquisition had it not still possessed the electron transport chain present in the ancestral mitochondrion. In the divergence of modern hydrogenosomes from mitochondria, a transitional organelle must therefore have existed that possessed both an electron transport chain and an anaerobic ATP generation pathway. Here, we report a modern analog of this organelle in the habitually aerobic opportunistic pathogen, Acanthamoeba castellanii. This organism possesses a complete set of enzymes comprising a hydrogenosome-like ATP generation pathway, each of which is predicted to be targeted to mitochondria. We have experimentally confirmed the mitochondrial localizations of key components of this pathway using tandem mass spectrometry. This evidence is the first supported by localization and proteome data of a mitochondrion possessing both an electron transport chain and hydrogenosome-like energy metabolism enzymes. Our work provides insight into the first steps that might have occurred in the course of the emergence of modern hydrogenosomes. PMID:24086244

  15. Acanthamoeba and other free-living amoebae in bat guano, an extreme habitat.

    PubMed

    Mulec, Janez; Dietersdorfer, Elisabeth; Üstüntürk-Onan, Miray; Walochnik, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Several representatives of the so-called free-living amoebae (FLA) are of medical relevance, not only as facultative pathogens but also as vehicles for pathogenic bacteria. Some FLA can survive and even grow under extreme environmental conditions. Bat guano is an exceptional habitat, the conditions becoming gradually more extreme with aging. In the current study, samples of bat guano of different ages from five caves in Slovenia were screened for the presence of FLA. FLA were isolated from almost all guano samples, including guano with a pH of 3.5. Only the two samples that had been drawn from >20-year-old guano were negative for FLA. Generally, FLA diversity correlated to high concentrations of cultivable bacteria (∼10(8) CFU/g) and fungi (∼10(5) CFU/g). Interestingly, the absence of FLA in seasoned guanos was mirrored by the presence of dictyostelid slime moulds. The isolated amoebae were identified as belonging to the genera Acanthamoeba, Copromyxa, Naegleria, Sappinia, Tetramitus, Thecamoeba, Vahlkampfia, Vannella and Vermamoeba. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the diversity of FLA in guano.

  16. Relationship between Legionella pneumophila and Acanthamoeba polyphaga: Physiological status and susceptibility to chemical inactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, J.; Farrell, I.; Brown, M.R.W.

    1992-08-01

    Survival studies were conducted on Legionella pneumophila cells that had been grown intracellulary in Acanthamoeba polyphaga and then exposed to polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), benzisothiazolone (BIT), and 5-chloro-N-methylisothiazolone (CMIT). Susceptibilities were also determined for L. pneumophila grown under iron-sufficient and iron-depleted conditions. BIT was relatively ineffective against cells to PHMB and CMIT. The activities of all three biocides were greatly reduced against L. pneumophila grown in amoebae. PHMB (1 [times] MIC) gave 99.99% reductions in viability for cultures grown in broth within 6 h and no detectable survivors at 24 h but only 90 and 99.9% killing at 6 h andmore » 24 h, respectively, for cells grown in amoebae. The antimicrobial properties of the three biocides against A. polyphaga were also determined. The majority of amoebae recovered from BIT treatment, but few, if any, survived CMIT treatment or exposure of PHMB. This study not only shows the profound effect that intra-amoebal growth has on the physiological status and antimicrobial susceptibility of L. pneumophila but also reveals PHMB to be a potential biocide for effective water treatment. In this respect, PHMB has significant activity, below its recommended use concentrations, against both the host amoeba and L. pneumophila.« less

  17. Detection limits of Legionella pneumophila in environmental samples after co-culture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The efficiency of recovery and the detection limit of Legionella after co-culture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga are not known and so far no investigations have been carried out to determine the efficiency of the recovery of Legionella spp. by co-culture and compare it with that of conventional culturing methods. This study aimed to assess the detection limits of co-culture compared to culture for Legionella pneumophila in compost and air samples. Compost and air samples were spiked with known concentrations of L. pneumophila. Direct culturing and co-culture with amoebae were used in parallel to isolate L. pneumophila and recovery standard curves for both methods were produced for each sample. Results The co-culture proved to be more sensitive than the reference method, detecting 102-103 L. pneumophila cells in 1 g of spiked compost or 1 m3 of spiked air, as compared to 105-106 cells in 1 g of spiked compost and 1 m3 of spiked air. Conclusions Co-culture with amoebae is a useful, sensitive and reliable technique to enrich L. pneumophila in environmental samples that contain only low amounts of bacterial cells. PMID:23442526

  18. Cellular Response of the Amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii to Chlorine, Chlorine Dioxide, and Monochloramine Treatments ▿

    PubMed Central

    Mogoa, Emerancienne; Bodet, Charles; Morel, Franck; Rodier, Marie-Hélène; Legube, Bernard; Héchard, Yann

    2011-01-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii is a free-living amoebae commonly found in water systems. Free-living amoebae might be pathogenic but are also known to bear phagocytosis-resistant bacteria, protecting these bacteria from water treatments. The mode of action of these treatments is poorly understood, particularly on amoebae. It is important to examine the action of these treatments on amoebae in order to improve them. The cellular response to chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine was tested on A. castellanii trophozoites. Doses of disinfectants leading to up to a 3-log reduction were compared by flow cytometry and electron microscopy. Chlorine treatment led to size reduction, permeabilization, and retraction of pseudopods. In addition, treatment with chlorine dioxide led to a vacuolization of the cytoplasm. Monochloramine had a dose-dependent effect. At the highest doses monochloramine treatment resulted in almost no changes in cell size and permeability, as shown by flow cytometry, but the cell surface became smooth and dense, as seen by electron microscopy. We show that these disinfectants globally induced size reduction, membrane permeabilization, and morphological modifications but that they have a different mode of action on A. castellanii. PMID:21602398

  19. Mycobacterium gilvum Illustrates Size-Correlated Relationships between Mycobacteria and Acanthamoeba polyphaga

    PubMed Central

    Lamrabet, Otmane

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacteria are isolated from soil and water environments, where free-living amoebae live. Free-living amoebae are bactericidal, yet some rapidly growing mycobacteria are amoeba-resistant organisms that survive in the amoebal trophozoites and cysts. Such a capacity has not been studied for the environmental rapidly growing organism Mycobacterium gilvum. We investigated the ability of M. gilvum to survive in the trophozoites of Acanthamoeba polyphaga strain Linc-AP1 by using optical and electron microscopy and culture-based microbial enumerations in the presence of negative controls. We observed that 29% of A. polyphaga cells were infected by M. gilvum mycobacteria by 6 h postinfection. Surviving M. gilvum mycobacteria did not multiply and did not kill the amoebal trophozoites during a 5-day coculture. Extensive electron microscopy observations indicated that M. gilvum measured 1.4 ± 0.5 μm and failed to find M. gilvum organisms in the amoebal cysts. Further experimental study of two other rapidly growing mycobacteria, Mycobacterium rhodesiae and Mycobacterium thermoresistibile, indicated that both measured <2 μm and exhibited the same amoeba-mycobacterium relationships as M. gilvum. In general, we observed that mycobacteria measuring <2 μm do not significantly grow within and do not kill amoebal trophozoites, in contrast to mycobacteria measuring >2 μm (P < 0.05). The mechanisms underlying such an observation remain to be determined. PMID:23275502

  20. Resurgence of Acanthamoeba keratitis in Auckland, New Zealand: a 7-year review of presentation and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dipika V; Rayner, Sandra; McGhee, Charles N J

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the presentation, clinical characteristics and outcomes of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in Auckland, New Zealand over a 7-year period. Retrospective analysis of all cases of AK treated by the tertiary corneal service at Auckland City Hospital/ University of Auckland Department of Ophthalmology (August 2001 to May 2008). Data were collected regarding age, gender, contact lens history, presenting signs and symptoms, diagnosis at first presentation, time to final diagnosis, identifiable risk factors, presenting and final visual acuity, results of microbiological testing, medical treatment, surgical interventions, recurrence of disease and length of follow up. All photographs and in vivo confocal microscopy images were reviewed. Twenty-five eyes of 25 patients were identified with a diagnosis of AK (mean age 40 +/- 13 years). Ninety-six per cent were contact lens wearers. Mean time to diagnosis was 41 +/- 49 days (range 0-181 days, median 21 days). Fourteen patients (56%) had been treated with topical corticosteroids prior to the diagnosis. Early diagnosis of AK (<21 days) was associated with significantly better final visual acuity and did not require any surgical intervention compared with those diagnosed at a later stage. Six patients, all in the late diagnosis group, required surgical intervention. AK has become significantly more common in New Zealand in the current decade. This study highlights the fundamental importance of early diagnosis and appropriate management in ensuring favourable outcomes. Practitioners should maintain a clinical suspicion of AK, especially as 96% of the subjects in this study were contact lens wearers.

  1. Molecular identification of t4 and t5 genotypes in isolates from acanthamoeba keratitis patients.

    PubMed

    Ledee, D R; Iovieno, A; Miller, D; Mandal, N; Diaz, M; Fell, J; Fini, M E; Alfonso, E C

    2009-05-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare but sight-threatening ocular infection. Outbreaks have been associated with contaminated water and contact lens wear. The epidemiology and pathology may be associated with unique genotypes. We determined the Rns genotype for 37 clinical isolates from 23 patients presenting at the University of Miami Bascom Palmer Eye Institute with confirmed AK infections in 2006 to 2008. The genus-specific ASA.S1 amplicon allowed for rapid genotyping of the nonaxenic cultures. Of the 37 isolates, 36 were of the T4 genotype. Within this group, 13 unique diagnostic fragment 3 sequences were identified, 3 of which were not in GenBank. The 37th isolate was a T5, the first in the United States and second worldwide to be found in AK. For five patients with isolates from the cornea and contact lens/case, identical sequences within each patient cluster were observed, confirming the link between contact lens contamination and AK infection. Genotyping is an important tool in the epidemiological study of AK. In this study, it allowed for the detection of new strains and provided an etiological link between source and infection. Additionally, it can allow for accurate categorizing of physiological differences, such as strain virulence, between isolates and clades.

  2. Distinct DNA exit and packaging portals in the virus Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus.

    PubMed

    Zauberman, Nathan; Mutsafi, Yael; Halevy, Daniel Ben; Shimoni, Eyal; Klein, Eugenia; Xiao, Chuan; Sun, Siyang; Minsky, Abraham

    2008-05-13

    Icosahedral double-stranded DNA viruses use a single portal for genome delivery and packaging. The extensive structural similarity revealed by such portals in diverse viruses, as well as their invariable positioning at a unique icosahedral vertex, led to the consensus that a particular, highly conserved vertex-portal architecture is essential for viral DNA translocations. Here we present an exception to this paradigm by demonstrating that genome delivery and packaging in the virus Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus occur through two distinct portals. By using high-resolution techniques, including electron tomography and cryo-scanning electron microscopy, we show that Mimivirus genome delivery entails a large-scale conformational change of the capsid, whereby five icosahedral faces open up. This opening, which occurs at a unique vertex of the capsid that we coined the "stargate", allows for the formation of a massive membrane conduit through which the viral DNA is released. A transient aperture centered at an icosahedral face distal to the DNA delivery site acts as a non-vertex DNA packaging portal. In conjunction with comparative genomic studies, our observations imply a viral packaging pathway akin to bacterial DNA segregation, which might be shared by diverse internal membrane-containing viruses.

  3. Distinct DNA Exit and Packaging Portals in the Virus Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus

    PubMed Central

    Zauberman, Nathan; Mutsafi, Yael; Halevy, Daniel Ben; Shimoni, Eyal; Klein, Eugenia; Xiao, Chuan; Sun, Siyang; Minsky, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    Icosahedral double-stranded DNA viruses use a single portal for genome delivery and packaging. The extensive structural similarity revealed by such portals in diverse viruses, as well as their invariable positioning at a unique icosahedral vertex, led to the consensus that a particular, highly conserved vertex-portal architecture is essential for viral DNA translocations. Here we present an exception to this paradigm by demonstrating that genome delivery and packaging in the virus Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus occur through two distinct portals. By using high-resolution techniques, including electron tomography and cryo-scanning electron microscopy, we show that Mimivirus genome delivery entails a large-scale conformational change of the capsid, whereby five icosahedral faces open up. This opening, which occurs at a unique vertex of the capsid that we coined the “stargate”, allows for the formation of a massive membrane conduit through which the viral DNA is released. A transient aperture centered at an icosahedral face distal to the DNA delivery site acts as a non-vertex DNA packaging portal. In conjunction with comparative genomic studies, our observations imply a viral packaging pathway akin to bacterial DNA segregation, which might be shared by diverse internal membrane–containing viruses. PMID:18479185

  4. Composition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in acanthamoeba castellanii: structural and evolutionary insights.

    PubMed

    Gawryluk, Ryan M R; Chisholm, Kenneth A; Pinto, Devanand M; Gray, Michael W

    2012-11-01

    The mitochondrion, derived in evolution from an α-proteobacterial progenitor, plays a key metabolic role in eukaryotes. Mitochondria house the electron transport chain (ETC) that couples oxidation of organic substrates and electron transfer to proton pumping and synthesis of ATP. The ETC comprises several multiprotein enzyme complexes, all of which have counterparts in bacteria. However, mitochondrial ETC assemblies from animals, plants and fungi are generally more complex than their bacterial counterparts, with a number of 'supernumerary' subunits appearing early in eukaryotic evolution. Little is known, however, about the ETC of unicellular eukaryotes (protists), which are key to understanding the evolution of mitochondria and the ETC. We present an analysis of the ETC proteome from Acanthamoeba castellanii, an ecologically, medically and evolutionarily important member of Amoebozoa (sister to Opisthokonta). Data obtained from tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analyses of purified mitochondria as well as ETC complexes isolated via blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are combined with the results of bioinformatic queries of sequence databases. Our bioinformatic analyses have identified most of the ETC subunits found in other eukaryotes, confirming and extending previous observations. The assignment of proteins as ETC subunits by MS/MS provides important insights into the primary structures of ETC proteins and makes possible, through the use of sensitive profile-based similarity searches, the identification of novel constituents of the ETC along with the annotation of highly divergent but phylogenetically conserved ETC subunits. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The correlation of Acanthamoeba from the ventilation system with other environmental parameters in commercial buildings as possible indicator for indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Soo Shen; Mak, Joon Wah; Chen, Donald K F; Ambu, Stephen

    2017-02-07

    The free-living protozoan Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic pathogen that is ubiquitous in our environment. However, its role in affecting indoor air quality and ill-health of indoor occupants is relatively unknown. The present study investigated the presence of Acanthamoeba from the ventilation system and its correlation with other indoor air quality parameters, used in the industry code of practice and its potential as an indicator for indoor air quality. Indoor air quality assessments were carried out in nine commercial buildings with approval from the building management, and the parameters assessed were as recommended by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health. The presence of Acanthamoeba was determined through dust swabs from the ventilation system and indoor furniture. Logistic regression was performed to study the correlation between assessed parameters and occupants' complaints. A total of 107 sampling points were assessed and 40.2% of the supplying air diffuser and blowing fan and 15% of the furniture were positive for cysts. There was a significant correlation between Acanthamoeba detected from the ventilation system with ambient total fungus count (r=0.327; p=0.01) and respirable particulates (r=0.276; p=0.01). Occupants' sick building syndrome experience also correlated with the presence of Acanthamoeba in the ventilation system (r=0.361; p=0.01) and those detected on the furniture (r=0.290; p=0.01). Logistic regression showed that there was a five-fold probability of sick building syndrome among occupants when Acanthamoeba was detected in the ventilation system.

  6. The correlation of Acanthamoeba from the ventilation system with other environmental parameters in commercial buildings as possible indicator for indoor air quality

    PubMed Central

    OOI, Soo Shen; MAK, Joon Wah; CHEN, Donald K.F.; AMBU, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The free-living protozoan Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic pathogen that is ubiquitous in our environment. However, its role in affecting indoor air quality and ill-health of indoor occupants is relatively unknown. The present study investigated the presence of Acanthamoeba from the ventilation system and its correlation with other indoor air quality parameters, used in the industry code of practice and its potential as an indicator for indoor air quality. Indoor air quality assessments were carried out in nine commercial buildings with approval from the building management, and the parameters assessed were as recommended by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health. The presence of Acanthamoeba was determined through dust swabs from the ventilation system and indoor furniture. Logistic regression was performed to study the correlation between assessed parameters and occupants’ complaints. A total of 107 sampling points were assessed and 40.2% of the supplying air diffuser and blowing fan and 15% of the furniture were positive for cysts. There was a significant correlation between Acanthamoeba detected from the ventilation system with ambient total fungus count (r=0.327; p=0.01) and respirable particulates (r=0.276; p=0.01). Occupants’ sick building syndrome experience also correlated with the presence of Acanthamoeba in the ventilation system (r=0.361; p=0.01) and those detected on the furniture (r=0.290; p=0.01). Logistic regression showed that there was a five-fold probability of sick building syndrome among occupants when Acanthamoeba was detected in the ventilation system. PMID:27476379

  7. Refractive astigmatism and the toricity of ocular components in human infants.

    PubMed

    Mutti, Donald O; Mitchell, G Lynn; Jones, Lisa A; Friedman, Nina E; Frane, Sara L; Lin, Wendy K; Moeschberger, Melvin L; Zadnik, Karla

    2004-10-01

    Many studies have characterized astigmatism in infancy, but few have been longitudinal or contained ocular component data. This study characterized the frequency, orientation, and longitudinal change with age of infant astigmatism. Additional factors investigated were the influence of early astigmatism on emmetropization and its relation to corneal and lenticular toricity. Three hundred two infants were enrolled in the study. Of these, 298 provided data for at least one visit at 3 +/- 1 months, 9 +/- 1 months, 18 +/- 2 months, and 36 +/- 3 months. Testing included cycloplegic retinoscopy (cyclopentolate 1%), video-based keratophakometry, and ultrasonography over the closed eyelid. Astigmatism > or =1.00 DC was common at 3 months of age (41.6%) but decreased in prevalence to 4.1% by 36 months (p < 0.0001). The most common orientation was with-the-rule at 3 months (37.0% compared with 2.7% for against-the-rule) but against-the-rule at 36 months (3.2% compared with 0.9% for with-the-rule). Most of the change in the average value of the horizontal/vertical component of astigmatism (J0) occurred between 3 and 9 months (-0.26 +/- 0.36 D; p < 0.0001) with no significant change between 9 and 36 months (-0.05 +/- 0.36 D; p=0.09). Spherical equivalent refractive error was not correlated with J0 at 3 and 9 months (R=0.002, p=0.48 and R=0.001, p=0.56, respectively). The two were only weakly correlated at 18 and 36 months (R=0.06 for each age, p <0.0001, p=0.0002, respectively). Changes in spherical equivalent between 3 and 9 months were unrelated to either the initial value of J0 (partial R for J0=0.0001; p=0.85) or the change in J0 (partial R for change in J0=0.0031; p=0.31). Across all the ages, corneal toricity was with-the-rule, and lenticular toricity was against-the-rule (produced by the toricity of the posterior lens surface). The cornea and anterior lens surface became more spherical with age, contributing to the shift away from with-the-rule refractive astigmatism

  8. Phylogeography, genetic variability and structure of Acanthamoeba metapopulations in Iran inferred by 18S ribosomal RNA sequences: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Spotin, Adel; Moslemzadeh, Hamid Reza; Mahami-Oskouei, Mahmoud; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Niyyati, Maryam; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Memari, Fatemeh; Noori, Jafar

    2017-09-01

    To verify phylogeography and genetic structure of Acanthamoeba populations among the Iranian clinical isolates and natural/artificial environments distributed in various regions of the country. We searched electronic databases including Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Google Scholar from 2005 to 2016. To explore the genetic variability of Acanthamoeba sp, 205 sequences were retrieved from keratitis patients, immunosuppressed cases and environmental sources as of various geographies of Iran. T4 genotype was the predominant strain in Iran, and the rare genotypes belonged to T2, T3, T5 (Acanthamoeba lenticulata), T6, T9, T11, T13 and T15 (Acanthamoeba jacobsi). A total of 47 unique haplotypes of T4 were identified. A parsimonious network of the sequence haplotypes demonstrated star-like feature containing haplogroups IR6 (34.1%) and IR7 (31.2%) as the most common haplotypes. In accordance with the analysis of molecular variance, the high value of haplotype diversity (0.612-0.848) of Acanthamoeba T4 represented genetic variability within populations. Neutrality indices of the 18S ribosomal RNA demonstrated negative values in all populations which represented a considerable divergence from neutrality. The majority of genetic diversity belonged to the infected contact lens and dust samples in immunodeficiency and ophthalmology wards, which indicated potential routes for exposure to a pathogenic Acanthamoeba sp. in at-risk individuals. A pairwise fixation index (F ST ) was from low to high values (0.02433-0.41892). The statistically F ST points out that T4 is genetically differentiated between north-west, north-south and central-south metapopulations, but not differentiated between west-central, west-south, central-south, and north-central isolates. An occurrence of IR6 and IR7 displays that possibly a gene flow of Acanthamoeba T4 occurred after the founder effect or bottleneck experience through ecological changes or host mobility. This is the first

  9. Development of a real-time wave field reconstruction TEM system (II): correction of coma aberration and 3-fold astigmatism, and real-time correction of 2-fold astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Takahiro; Kimura, Yoshihide; Takai, Yoshizo

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a function for the correction of coma aberration, 3-fold astigmatism and real-time correction of 2-fold astigmatism was newly incorporated into a recently developed real-time wave field reconstruction TEM system. The aberration correction function was developed by modifying the image-processing software previously designed for auto focus tracking, as described in the first article of this series. Using the newly developed system, the coma aberration and 3-fold astigmatism were corrected using the aberration coefficients obtained experimentally before the processing was carried out. In this study, these aberration coefficients were estimated from an apparent 2-fold astigmatism induced under tilted-illumination conditions. In contrast, 2-fold astigmatism could be measured and corrected in real time from the reconstructed wave field. Here, the measurement precision for 2-fold astigmatism was found to be ±0.4 nm and ±2°. All of these aberration corrections, as well as auto focus tracking, were performed at a video frame rate of 1/30 s. Thus, the proposed novel system is promising for quantitative and reliable in situ observations, particularly in environmental TEM applications.

  10. Investigating the impact of preoperative corneal astigmatism orientation on the postoperative spherical equivalent refraction following intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    McNeely, Richard N; Moutari, Salissou; Pazo, Eric; Moore, Jonathan E

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the impact of the orientation of preoperative corneal astigmatism on achieving the postoperative target refraction following monofocal intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. This study enrolled 339 eyes who had uneventful cataract surgery or refractive lens exchange (RLE) with subsequent monofocal IOL implantation. Eyes were initially categorized dependent upon axial length and then on the orientation of preoperative anterior corneal astigmatism. Group 1 had against-the-rule (ATR) anterior corneal astigmatism, group 2 had with-the-rule (WTR) anterior corneal astigmatism, and group 3 had oblique (OB) anterior corneal astigmatism. The preoperative corneal astigmatism was determined by the IOLMaster (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG). Postoperative refraction was completed for all eyes, and the results were calculated and compared for the separate groups. In eyes with axial lengths greater than 22.0 mm and less than 25.0 mm there was a significant difference between the magnitude of preoperative corneal astigmatism between groups 2 and 3 with 0.827 ± 0.376 D in group 2, and 0.677 ± 0.387 D in group 3. The mean postoperative spherical equivalent (SE) prediction error was - 0.132 ± 0.475 D in group 1, 0.026 ± 0.497 D in group 2, and - 0.130 ± 0.477 D in group 3. There was a significant difference between groups 1 and 2. There was no significant difference in the magnitude of preoperative corneal astigmatism and postoperative SE prediction error between the anterior corneal astigmatism orientation groups in eyes with axial lengths of less than or equal to 22.0 mm and greater than or equal to 25.0 mm. The orientation of preoperative anterior corneal astigmatism significantly affected the postoperative biometry prediction error in eyes with astigmatism of 1.75 D or less in eyes with the axial length between 22.0 mm and 25.0 mm. However, the results were not clinically significant.

  11. Risk Factors for Astigmatism in Preschool Children: The Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease and Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Varma, Rohit; Cotter, Susan A.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Lin, Jesse H.; Borchert, Mark S.; Torres, Mina; Wen, Ge; Azen, Stanley P.; Tielsch, James M.; Friedman, David S.; Repka, Michael X.; Katz, Joanne; Giordano, Lydia; Ibironke, Josephine

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate risk factors for astigmatism in a population-based sample of preschool children. Design Population-based cross-sectional study Participants Population-based samples of 9970 children ages 6 to 72 months from Los Angeles County, California, and Baltimore, Maryland. Methods A cross-sectional study of children participating in the Multiethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study and the Baltimore Eye Disease Study was completed. Data were obtained by clinical examination or by in-person interview. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated to evaluate potential associations between clinical, behavioral, or demographic factors and astigmatism. Main Outcome Measures Odds ratios (ORs) for various risk factors associated with astigmatism. Results Participants with myopia (≤−1.0 diopters) were 4.6 times more likely to have astigmatism (95%CI 3.56, 5.96) than those without refractive error, while participants with hyperopia (≥+2.00 diopters) were 1.6 times more likely (95%CI 1.39, 1.94). Children 6 months to <12 months of age were approximately 3 times more likely to have astigmatism than children 5 to 6 years of age (95%CI 2.28, 3.73). Both Hispanic (OR=2.38) and African-American (OR=1.47) children were more likely to have astigmatism than non-Hispanic white children. Further, children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy were 1.46 times (95% CI 1.14, 1.87) more likely to have astigmatism than children whose mothers did not smoke. Conclusions In addition to infancy, Hispanic and African-American race/ethnicity and correctable/modifiable risk factors such as myopia, hyperopia, and maternal smoking during pregnancy are associated with a higher risk of having astigmatism. While the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy is typically low, this association may suggest etiologic pathways for future investigation. PMID:21856010

  12. The Effects of Surgical Factors on Postoperative Astigmatism in Patients Enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS)

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Palak B.; Lee, Jason A.; Lynn, Michael; Lambert, Scott R.; Traboulsi, Elias I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the impact of surgical factors such as incision type, number of sutures, and technique of closure on postoperative astigmatism in infants undergoing cataract extraction with or without intraocular lens implantation. Methods The IATS is a multicenter (n=12) clinical trial in which 114 infants with unilateral congenital cataracts were randomized to undergo cataract extraction with intraocular lens (IOL) placement or contact lens aphakic correction. Surgical videos were reviewed with regard to incision type and location, whether the incision was extended, the number of sutures placed, and technique of closure. Corneal astigmatism was measured using a handheld keratometer prior to surgery and at 1 year of age. Results Corneal astigmatism decreased from a mean of 1.92 D at baseline to 1.62 D at age 1 year in the CL group, but remained almost unchanged from 2.00 D to 2.09 D in the IOL group (p=0.023). There was no statistical difference between the amount of corneal astigmatism irrespective of incision type (p=0.214) and no increase in astigmatism with extension of the incision to facilitate IOL placement (p=0.849) at 1 year. The number of sutures and technique of closure did not influence the amount of astigmatism at 1 year. Conclusions At the age of one year following cataract extraction in infants, contact lens correction and the lack of IOL placement are associated with a significant decrease in postoperative corneal astigmatism compared to intraocular lens placement. No other surgical factors considered in this study had a statistically significant impact on corneal astigmatism. PMID:25266831

  13. Influence of the difference between corneal and refractive astigmatism on LASIK outcomes using solid-state technology.

    PubMed

    Piñero, David P; Ribera, David; Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Ruiz-Fortes, Pedro; Blanes-Mompó, Francisco J; Alzamora-Rodríguez, Antonio; Artola, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of the difference between preoperative corneal and refractive astigmatism [ocular residual astigmatism (ORA)] on outcomes obtained after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery for correction of myopic astigmatism using the solid-state laser technology. One hundred one consecutive eyes with myopia or myopic astigmatism of 55 patients undergoing LASIK surgery using the Pulzar Z1 solid-state laser (CustomVis Laser Pty Ltd, currently CV Laser) were included. Visual and refractive changes at 6 months postoperatively and changes in ORA and anterior corneal astigmatism and posterior corneal astigmatism (PCA) were analyzed. Postoperatively, uncorrected distance visual acuity improved significantly (P < 0.01). Likewise, refractive cylinder magnitude and spherical equivalent were reduced significantly (P < 0.01). In contrast, no significant changes were observed in ORA magnitude (P = 0.81) and anterior corneal astigmatism (P = 0.12). The mean overall efficacy and safety indices were 0.96 and 1.01, respectively. These indices were not correlated with preoperative ORA (r = -0.15, P = 0.15). Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between ORA (r = 0.81, P < 0.01) and PCA postoperatively, but not preoperatively (r = 0.12, P = 0.25). Likewise, a significant correlation of ORA with manifest refraction was only found postoperatively (r = -0.38, P < 0.01). The magnitude of ORA does not seem to be a predictive factor of efficacy and safety of myopic LASIK using a solid-state laser platform. The higher relevance of PCA after surgery in some cases may explain the presence of unexpected astigmatic residual refractive errors.

  14. The effects of surgical factors on postoperative astigmatism in patients enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS).

    PubMed

    Wall, Palak B; Lee, Jason A; Lynn, Michael J; Lambert, Scott R; Traboulsi, Elias I

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of surgical factors on postoperative astigmatism in infants undergoing cataract extraction with or without intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study is a multicenter clinical trial in which 114 infants with unilateral congenital cataracts were randomized to undergo cataract extraction with IOL placement or contact lens aphakic correction. Surgical videos were reviewed with regard to incision type and location, whether the incision was extended, the number of sutures placed, and technique of closure. Corneal astigmatism was measured using a handheld keratometer prior to surgery and at 1 year of age. Corneal astigmatism decreased from a mean of 1.92 D at baseline to 1.62 D at age 1 year in the contact lens group but remained almost unchanged from 2.00 D to 2.09 D in the IOL group (P = 0.023). There was no statistical difference between the amount of corneal astigmatism with regard to incision type (P = 0.214) and no increase in astigmatism with extension of the incision to facilitate IOL placement (P = 0.849) at 1 year. The number of sutures and technique of closure did not influence the amount of astigmatism at 1 year. At the age of 1 year following cataract extraction in infants, contact lens correction and the lack of IOL placement are associated with a significant decrease in postoperative corneal astigmatism compared to IOL placement. No other surgical factors considered in this study had a statistically significant effect on corneal astigmatism. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Visual acuity and astigmatism in periocular infantile hemangiomas treated with oral beta-blocker versus intralesional corticosteroid injection.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, Erin P; Kelly, John P; Sidbury, Robert; Perkins, Jonathan A; Weiss, Avery H

    2016-02-01

    Periocular infantile hemangiomas (PIH) can induce anisometropic astigmatism, a risk factor for amblyopia. Oral beta-blocker therapy has largely supplanted systemic or intralesional corticosteroids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect and time course of these treatment modalities on visual acuity and induced astigmatism. The medical records of patients with PIH treated with oral propanolol between November 2008 and July 2013 were retrospectively reviewed for data on visual acuity and astigmatism. Patients with incomplete pre- and post-treatment ophthalmic examinations were excluded. Results were compared to those of a similar cohort treated with intralesional corticosteroid injection. Mean astigmatism in affected eyes was 1.90 D before propranolol and 1.00 D after; patients showed a monophasic reduction in astigmatism over 12 months. By comparison, patients treated with corticosteroid injection showed a biphasic response, with an immediate steep decrease followed by a slow monophasic decline, paralleling propranolol-treated patients. Oral propranolol treatment caused a 47% reduction in mean induced astigmatism, less than the 63% reduction reported for the cohort treated with corticosteroid. No patient had visual acuity in the affected eye more than 1 standard devation below the age-matched norm, and none experienced significant side effects when treated with oral propranolol. In this patient cohort oral beta-blocker was well-tolerated. Treatment was therefore often initiated prior to the induction of significant astigmatism, with treatment effects comparable to steroid treatment. Visual outcomes were good. Early treatment may minimize the potential effect of astigmatism on postnatal visual development. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intracellular Localization and Trafficking of Serine Proteinase AhSub and Cysteine Proteinase AhCP of Acanthamoeba healyi

    PubMed Central

    Moon, E.-K.; Lee, S.-T.; Chung, D.-I.; Kong, H.-H.

    2006-01-01

    Proteinases have been proposed to play important roles in pathogenesis and various biologic actions in Acanthamoeba. Although genetic characteristics of several proteases of Acanthamoeba have been reported, the intracellular localization and trafficking of these enzymes has yet to be studied. In the present study, we analyzed the intracellular localization and trafficking of two proteinases, AhSub and AhCP, of Acanthamoeba healyi by transient transfection. Full-length AhSub-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion protein was found in intracellular vesicle-like structures of transfected amoebae. Time-lapse photographs confirmed the secretion of the fluorescent material of the vesicle toward the extracellular space. The mutated AhSub, of which the pre or prepro region was deleted, was found to localize diffusely throughout the cytoplasm of the amoeba rather than concentrated in the secretory vesicle. Transfection of the construct containing the pre region only showed the same localization and trafficking of the full-length AhSub. A cysteine proteinase AhCP-EGFP fusion protein showed similar localization in the vesicle-like structure in the amoeba. However, using Lyso Tracker analysis, these vesicular structures of AhCP were confirmed to be lysosomes rather than secretory vesicles. The AhCP construct with a deletion of the prepro region showed a dispersed distribution of fluorescence in the cytoplasm of the cells. These results indicated that AhSub and AhCP would play different roles in Acanthameoba biology and that the pre region of AhSub and pro region of AhCP are important for proper intracellular localization and trafficking of each proteinase. PMID:16400174

  17. Astigmatism and spontaneous emission factor of laser diodes with parabolic gain

    SciTech Connect

    Mamine, T.

    1983-04-01

    An explicit relation between the astigmatism and the spontaneous emission factor of gain guiding lasers has been derived with the assumption that the gain profile can be approximated to be a parabola or that the lowest order mode in the cavity is approximately Gaussian. The maximum value of the spontaneous emission factor is shown to be ..sqrt..2 if index guiding is dominant. Beyond K = ..sqrt..2, where gain guiding is dominant in this region, the astigmatism decreases with the spontaneous emission factor. It is also shown that the spontaneous emission factor of the gain guiding lasers does not much exceedmore » ten and this conclusion has been confirmed experimentally for those whose stripe widths are larger than 4 ..mu..m.« less

  18. Experimentally determining the locations of two astigmatic images for an underwater light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pao-Keng; Liu, Jian-You; Ying, Shang-Ping

    2015-05-01

    Images formed by an underwater object from light rays refracted in the sagittal and tangential planes are located at different positions for an oblique viewing position. The overlapping of these two images from the observer's perspective will thus prevent the image-splitting astigmatism from being directly observable. In this work, we present a heuristic method to experimentally visualize the astigmatism. A point light source is used as an underwater object and the emerging wave front is recorded using a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor. The wave front is found to deform from a circular paraboloid to an elliptic paraboloid as the viewing position changes from normal to oblique. Using geometric optics, we derive an analytical expression for the image position as a function of the rotating angle of an arm used to carry the wave-front sensor in our experimental setup. The measured results are seen to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  19. Mode coupling enhancement by astigmatism compensation in a femtosecond laser cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Olvera, Gustavo; Garduño-Mejía, Jesus; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Roman-Moreno, Carlos J.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we present a numerical analysis of the mode coupling between the pump-beam and the laser-beam in a Ti:Sapphire crystal used as a gain medium of a femtosecond laser. Using the Matrix ABCD and propagation gaussian beam models, we obtained an optimal configuration for compensate the astigmatism in the output beam laser. Also we analysed pump-beam propagation and got the settings to fix the astigmatism in the crystal. Furthermore we apply this configuration to a homemade femtosecond laser, accomplishing an overall efficiency of laser to 20% in continuum wave (CW) and 16% in mode looking (ML) operation. The femtosecond laser have 30 nm bandwidth to FWHM at 810 nm corresponding 30fs.

  20. Two-year results of femtosecond assisted LASIK versus PRK for different severity of astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Miraftab, Mohammad; Hashemi, Hassan; Asgari, Soheila

    2018-03-01

    To compare two-year results of femtosecond laser assisted LASIK (femto-LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in terms of astigmatism correction in patients with less than 2.0 diopters (D) of spherical error and more than 2.0 D of cylinder error. In this retrospective study, data were extracted from 100 patient charts. The two study groups were matched by age, gender, and baseline uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) and refractive astigmatism (RA). Preoperative astigmatism was categorized as mild: 2.00 to <3.00 D, moderate: 3.00 to <4.00 D, and severe: ≥4.00 D. Mean RA in the femto-LASIK and PRK groups was respectively -3.15 ± 0.94 D (-7.00 to -2.00 D) and -3.29 ± 0.95 D (-6.25 to -2.00 D) at baseline ( P  = 0.284), and -0.61 ± 0.40 D and -0.62 ± 0.60 D one year after surgery ( P  = 0.674), but significantly lower in the femto-LASIK group (-0.61 ± 0.39 vs. -0.83 ± 0.56 D, P  = 0.021) at 2 years when the rate of residual astigmatism more than 1.0 D was 6.3% in the femto-LASIK and 19.6% in the PRK group ( P  = 0.046). Mean UDVA in the femto-LASIK group (0.02 ± 0.05 logMAR) was better than the PRK group (0.06 ± 0.10 logMAR) ( P  = 0.025). Mean corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was not significantly different between groups (0.01 ± 0.03 vs. 0.01 ± 0.04 logMAR, P  = 0.714). Both groups had 1-4 Snellen lines CDVA improvement. The three subgroups of baseline astigmatism did not differ significantly in terms of residual astigmatism (all P  > 0.05). However, in subgroups with ≥4.00 D cylinder, there was less astigmatic regression at 1 year in the femto-LASIK group (0.28 ± 0.43 D) than the PRK group (0.54 ± 0.68 D) ( P  = 0.007). Our results pointed to better two-year results with femto-LASIK in the treatment of different degrees of astigmatism. UDVA improvement was superior with femto-LASIK, but the two methods did not significantly differ in terms of CDVA improvement.

  1. Effectiveness of Toric Orthokeratology in the Treatment of Patients with Combined Myopia and Astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Byul; Hwang, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Su Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this multi-institute, single-group clinical trial was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of toric orthokeratology lenses for the treatment of patients with combined myopia and astigmatism. Methods A total of 44 patients were included in this clinical trial. The patients ranged in age from 7 to 49 years, with myopia of -0.75 to -6.0 diopters (D) and astigmatism of 1.25 to 4.0 D. After excluding 21 subjects, 23 subjects (39 eyes) were analyzed after toric orthokeratology lens use. The subjects underwent ophthalmologic examination after 1 day and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of wearing overnight toric orthokeratology lenses. Results A total of 19 subjects (31 eyes) completed the trial after five subjects (eight eyes) dropped out. In the patients who completed the study by wearing lenses for 4 weeks, the myopic refractive error decreased significantly by 2.60 ± 2.21 D (p < 0.001), from -3.65 ± 1.62 to -1.05 ± 1.64 D. The astigmatic refractive error were also significantly decreased by 0.63 ± 0.98 D (p = 0.001), from 2.07 ± 0.83 to 1.44 ± 0.99 D. The mean uncorrected and corrected visual acuities before wearing the lenses were 2.14 ± 0.80 logarithm of the logMAR (logMAR) and 0.05 ± 0.13 logMAR, respectively, which changed to 0.12 ± 0.30 logarithm of the logMAR (p < 0.001) and 0.01 ± 0.04 logMAR (p = 0.156) after 4 weeks. No serious adverse reactions were reported during the clinical trial. Conclusions Our results suggest that toric orthokeratology is an effective and safe treatment for correcting visual acuity in patients with combined myopia and astigmatism. PMID:27980362

  2. Autorefraction, Retinoscopy, Javal's Rule, and Grosvenor's Modified Javal's Rule: The Best Predictor of Refractive Astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Asiedu, Kofi; Ampiah, Emmanuel Ekow

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the level of agreement between Javal's rule, autorefraction, retinoscopy, and refractive astigmatism and to determine which technique is the most suitable substitute when subjective refraction is not applicable using a clinical sample. A total of 36 subjects, 14 males and 22 females, were involved in this study. The intraclass correlation coefficients between subjective refraction, autorefraction, and retinoscopy were 0.895 and 0.989, respectively, for the spherical equivalent. The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement between subjective refraction and autorefraction; subjective refraction and retinoscopy; and autorefraction and retinoscopy were −2.84 to 3.58, −0.88 to 1.12, and −3.01 to 3.53, respectively, for the spherical equivalent. The intraclass correlation coefficients between spectacle total astigmatism and the following techniques were as follows: retinoscopy (0.85); autorefraction (0.92); Javal's rule (0.82); and Grosvenor et al. version (0.85). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement between subjective refraction and autorefraction; subjective refraction and retinoscopy; subjective refraction and Javal's rule; and subjective refraction and Grosvenor et al. version were −0.87 to 1.25, −1.49 to 1.99, −0.73 to 1.93, and −0.89 to 1.7, respectively, for the total astigmatism. The study showed that autorefraction and Javal's rule may provide a starting point for subjective refraction cylinder power determination but only retinoscopy may satisfactorily replace subjective refraction total astigmatism when subjective refraction is not applicable. PMID:27803811

  3. Detecting higher-order wavefront errors with an astigmatic hybrid wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Barwick, Shane

    2009-06-01

    The reconstruction of wavefront errors from measurements over subapertures can be made more accurate if a fully characterized quadratic surface can be fitted to the local wavefront surface. An astigmatic hybrid wavefront sensor with added neural network postprocessing is shown to have this capability, provided that the focal image of each subaperture is sufficiently sampled. Furthermore, complete local curvature information is obtained with a single image without splitting beam power.

  4. New pinhole sulcus implant for the correction of irregular corneal astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Claudio C; Trindade, Bruno C; Trindade, Fernando C; Werner, Liliana; Osher, Robert; Santhiago, Marcony R

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effect on visual acuity of the implantation of a new intraocular pinhole device (Xtrafocus) in cases of irregular corneal astigmatism with significant visual impairment. University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Prospective case series. Pseudophakic eyes of patients with irregular corneal astigmatism were treated with the pinhole device. The causes of irregular corneal astigmatism were keratoconus, post radial keratotomy (RK), post-penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), and traumatic corneal laceration. The device was implanted in the ciliary sulcus in a piggyback configuration to minimize the effect of corneal aberrations. Preoperative and postoperative visual parameters were compared. The main outcome variables were manifest refraction, uncorrected and corrected distance and near visual acuities, subjective patient satisfaction, and intraoperative and postoperative adverse events and complications. Twenty-one patients (ages 35 to 85 years) were included. There was statistically significant improvement in uncorrected and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities. The median CDVA improved from 20/200 (range 20/800 to 20/60) preoperatively to 20/50 (range 20/200 to 20/20) in the first month postoperatively and remained stable over the following months. Manifest refraction remained unchanged, while a subjective visual performance questionnaire revealed perception of improvement in all the tested working distances. No major complication was observed. One case presented with decentration of the device, which required an additional surgical intervention. The intraocular pinhole device performed well in patients with irregular astigmatism caused by keratoconus, RK, PKP, and traumatic corneal laceration. There was marked improvement in visual function, with high patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Beam width evolution of astigmatic hollow Gaussian beams in highly nonlocal nonlinear media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhen-Feng; Jiang, Xue-Song; Yang, Zhen-Jun; Li, Jian-Xing; Zhang, Shu-Min

    We investigate the beam width evolution of astigmatic hollow Gaussian beams propagating in highly nonlocal nonlinear media. The input-power-induced different evolutions of the beam width are illustrated: (i) the beam widths in two transverse directions are compressed or broadened at the same time; (ii) the beam width in one transverse direction keeps invariant, and the other is compressed or broadened; (iii) furthermore, the beam width in one transverse direction is compressed, whereas it in the other transverse direction is broadened.

  6. Corneo-scleral contact lenses in an uncommon case of keratoconus with high hyperopia and astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Porcar, Esteban; Montalt, Juan Carlos; España-Gregori, Enrique; Peris-Martínez, Cristina

    2017-10-01

    To analyse the visual quality achieved by fitting corneo-scleral contact lenses (CScL) in an uncommon case of bilateral keratoconus, high hyperopia and astigmatism. A 45-year-old man presented for eye examination due to the unsatisfactory quality of his vision wearing soft toric contact lenses. He presented high hyperopia and astigmatism with bilateral keratoconus. He was fitted with CScL to correct his irregular astigmatism and ocular aberrations. A diagnostic trial set was used in the fitting process and he was assessed according to standardised fitting methodology. Visual acuity, corneal topography, biometry and ocular aberrations were evaluated. The follow-up period was 1year. The best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was 20/32 with +8.00/-4.50×30° for the right eye (RE) and 20/25 with +7.75/-2.25×120° for the left eye (LE). After CScL fitting, visual acuity was improved to 20/20 and 20/16 for the RE and LE, respectively. The patient wore these contact lenses an average of 13h a day. The total high order aberrations decreased by approximately 79% in the RE (2.37-0.50μm) and 47% in the LE (1.04-0.55μm) after CScL fitting. Visual quality and wearing time were maintained after 1year wearing CScL. In addition, no adverse ocular effects were found during this period. The present case report describes how the patient had CScL fitted successfully for management of keratoconus with high hyperopia and astigmatism. They provided optimal visual quality, along with prolonged use times and no adverse effects to the cornea. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical outcomes of Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy to treat low to moderate myopic astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Xi, Lei; Zhang, Chen; He, Yanling

    2018-05-09

    To evaluate the refractive and visual outcomes of Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK) in the treatment of low to moderate myopic astigmatism. This retrospective study enrolled a total of 47 eyes that had undergone Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy. Preoperative cylinder diopters ranged from - 0.75D to - 2.25D (mean - 1.11 ± 0.40D), and the sphere was between - 1.50D to - 5.75D. Visual outcomes and vector analysis of astigmatism that included error ratio (ER), correction ratio (CR), error of magnitude (EM) and error of angle (EA) were evaluated. At 6 months after TransPRK, all eyes had an uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better, no eyes lost ≥2 lines of corrected distant visual acuity (CDVA), and 93.6% had residual refractive cylinder within ±0.50D of intended correction. On vector analysis, the mean correction ratio for refractive cylinder was 1.03 ± 0.30. The mean error magnitude was - 0.04 ± 0.36. The mean error of angle was 0.44° ± 7.42°and 80.9% of eyes had axis shift within ±10°. The absolute astigmatic error of magnitude was statistically significantly correlated with the intended cylinder correction (r = 0.48, P < 0.01). TransPRK showed safe, effective and predictable results in the correction of low to moderate astigmatism and myopia.

  8. Effect of Iris registration on visual outcome in wavefront-guided LASEK for myopic astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Joo; Kim, Mee Kum; Wee, Won Ryang

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of iris registration (IR) on visual outcomes in wavefront-guided LASEK for myopic astigmatism. The retrospective chart review was performed for wavefront-guided LASEK using VISX Star S4 in patients with myopic astigmatism (cylinder ≥ 1.00 diopter[D]). Eyes were divided into IR group (LASEK with IR at the time of surgery) and Non-IR group (LASEK without IR system + failed-IR engagement during LASEK). Visual acuity (VA), astigmatism, higher-order aberration (HOA), and contrast sensitivity were assessed preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. The IR and Non-IR groups were subcategorized depending on the spherical equivalent (lower myopia ≤-5.00 D vs. higher myopia >-5.00 D) for the comparison of HOA changes. Postoperative uncorrected VAs showed no differences between IR (n = 30) and Non-IR (n = 46). In astigmatic vector analyses, no differences were noted in the mean magnitude of error and the mean angle of error between two groups. There were no differences in postoperative total HOA, spherical aberration (SA), coma, and trefoil between the groups, either. The total HOA and SA increased in both groups, while coma increased only in Non-IR. In higher myopia, ΔRMS of coma was smaller in IR. Preoperative and postoperative total HOA were linearly correlated in Non-IR, but not for IR. Contrast sensitivity of 12 cycles per degree improved in both groups. IR had similar outcomes to conventional trackers in wavefront-guided LASEK, with less tendency of inducing coma, especially in higher myopia.

  9. Comparison of toric intraocular lenses and peripheral corneal relaxing incisions to treat astigmatism during cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Mingo-Botín, David; Muñoz-Negrete, Francisco José; Won Kim, Hae Ryung; Morcillo-Laiz, Rafael; Rebolleda, Gema; Oblanca, Noelia

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate and compare toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and spherical IOL implantation with peripheral corneal relaxing incisions to manage astigmatism during phacoemulsification. Ophthalmology Service, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain. Prospective randomized comparative case series. Eyes with cataract and corneal astigmatism (1.00 to 3.00 diopters [D]) had toric IOL implantation or peripheral corneal relaxing incisions. Outcome measures were visual outcomes, slitlamp assessment, digital toric IOL axis determination, spectacle need, and patient satisfaction. Three months postoperatively, the mean uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) was 0.13 ± 0.10 (SD) in the toric IOL group and 0.19 ± 0.12 in the relaxing incisions group; the UDVA was better than 0.20 in 75% of eyes and 60% of eyes, respectively. Refractive cylinder decreased significantly in both groups, with a mean residual refractive astigmatism of 0.61 ± 0.41 D in the toric IOL group and 1.32 ± 0.60 D in the relaxing incisions group (P<.01). The mean toric IOL rotation was 3.65 ± 2.96 degrees, with no significant differences between slitlamp and digital photograph measurements. There was a trend toward better mesopic contrast sensitivity with glare in the toric IOL group. There were no differences in VF-14 or patient satisfaction results; 15% of patients in the toric IOL group and 45% in the relaxing-incision group required distance spectacles postoperatively. Although refractive astigmatism decreased in both groups, toric IOL implantation was more effective and predictable, resulting in greater spectacle independence. Copyright © 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Wound stability and surgically induced corneal astigmatism after transconjunctival single-plane