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Sample records for acanthocephalan acanthocephalus lucii

  1. Comparative study of lead accumulation in different organs of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and its intestinal parasite Acanthocephalus lucii

    SciTech Connect

    Sures, B.; Taraschewski, H.; Jackwerth, E. )

    1994-02-01

    Lead is known as an important aquatic contaminant with different toxic effects on various organisms. Considerable data are available on lead in aquatic ecosystems including water, sediments, fishes and invertebrates. Until now, no quantitative investigations have been published comparing the heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Hg) content in parasites with that in their final or intermediate hosts, although such parasites are very prevalent in many fish and invertebrate populations. Only Brown and Pascoe (1989) reported that the amphipod Gammarus pulex parasitized with the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis was two or three times more sensitive to cadmium at low exposure concentrations (2.1 [mu]g 1[sup [minus]1]) than uninfected conspecifics. The objective of the present study was to combine trace analytical and parasitological methods to investigate lead concentrations in different tissues (muscle, liver and intestine) of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and in the palaeacanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii parasitizing the intestine of these fishes. The fish were caught in the river Ruhr which drains the densely populated and industrialized Ruhr-district. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Concentrations of 17 elements in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), in different tissues of perch (Perca fluviatilis), and in perch intestinal parasites (Acanthocephalus lucii) from the subalpine lake Mondsee, Austria

    SciTech Connect

    Sures, B.; Steiner, W.; Rydlo, M.; Taraschewski, H.

    1999-11-01

    Concentrations of the elements Al, Ag, Ba, ca, Cd, Co, Cr, cu, Fe, Ga, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Tl, and Zn were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii (Mueller); in its host, Perca fluviatilis (L.), and in the soft tissue of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas). All animals were collected from the same sampling site in a subalpine lake, Mondsee, in Austria. Most of the elements were found at significantly higher concentrations in the acanthocephalan than in different tissues (muscle, liver, and intestinal wall) of its perch host. Only Co was concentrated in the liver of perch to a level that was significantly higher than that found in the parasite. Most of the analyzed elements were also present at significantly higher concentrations in A. lucii than in D. polymorpha. Barium and Cr were the only elements recorded at higher concentrations in the mussel compared with the acanthocephalan. Thus, when comparing the accumulation of elements, the acanthocephalans appear to be even more suitable than the zebra mussels in terms of their use in the detection of metal contamination within aquatic biotopes. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the concentrations of several elements within the parasites decreased with increasing infrapopulation. Furthermore, the levels of some elements in the perch liver were negatively correlated with the weight of A. lucii in the intestine. Thus, it emerged that not only is there competition for elements between acanthocephalans inside the gut but there is also competition for these elements between the host and the parasites. The elevated element concentrations demonstrated here in the parasitic worm A. lucii provide support for further investigations of these common helminthes and of their accumulation properties.

  3. Concentrations of Zn, Mn, Cu and Cd in different tissues of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and in perch intestinal parasite (Acanthocephalus lucii) from the stream near Prague (Czech Republic)

    SciTech Connect

    Jankovska, Ivana; Miholova, Daniela; Lukesova, Daniela; Kalous, Lukas; Valek, Petr; Romocusky, Stepan; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Petrtyl, Miloslav; Langrova, Iva; Cadkova, Zuzana

    2012-01-15

    We monitored concentrations of Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn in acantocephalan parasites (Acanthocephalus lucii) and its final host (Perca fluviatilis). The concentrations in parasites were found to be significantly higher than those found in the muscle, gonads and liver of fish host. The bioaccumulation factor values were 194, 24.4, 2.2 and 4.7 for Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn, respectively. This suggests a benefit for the host due to the high accumulation of toxic cadmium.

  4. Ultrastructure and chemical composition of the proboscis hooks of Acanthocephalus lucii (Müller, 1776) (Acanthocephala: Palaeacanthocephala) using X-ray elemental analysis.

    PubMed

    Brázová, Tímea; Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Miss, Noemí Ramírez; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2014-12-01

    The ultrastructure and chemical composition of the proboscis hooks and surrounding tegument of Acanthocephalus lucii (Müller, 1776), a parasite of European perch, Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, were examined using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis (EDXA). The blade of middle hooks consists of three layers: an outer homogeneous layer, an inner heterogeneous layer and a central core. TEM observation revealed the presence of hollow tubes, which spaced the central core; fibrous inner hook layer surrounded by an electron-dense margin and the basal tegumental layer filled with electron-dense bodies and outer layer. We found for the first time that the so-called 'epidermal covering' surrounding of the exposed hook blade (outer hook layer) is a modified striped portion of the tegumental layer and there are no special contact sites between these two morphologically different structures, i.e. striped layer of the syncytial tegument and following proper outer hook layer, which is a homogeneous, moderately electron-dense layer of -0.3 μm in thickness. The hook root is embedded into subtegumental fibrous layer. X-ray microanalysis of both the surface and internal parts of A. lucii hooks demonstrated the presence of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and sulphur. The highest concentration of sulphur was recorded at the tip of hooks, whereas the middle part of the hooks was most rich in calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The proximal part of the hooks contained lower concentrations of sulphur, calcium and phosphorus. In the proboscis tegument, only two elements, calcium and silicon, were found. The differences observed in the chemical composition of the hook 'epidermal covering' and the proboscis tegument support our ultrastructural findings that the hook tegumental covering is a modified structure compared with that of the general proboscis tegument. PMID:25651697

  5. Intra-population variation in behavior modification by the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus dirus: are differences mediated by host condition?

    PubMed

    Caddigan, Sara C; Barkauskas, Rima T; Sparkes, Timothy C

    2014-11-01

    The acanthocephalan parasite Acanthocephalus dirus infects the freshwater isopod Caecidotea intermedius as an intermediate host before completing its life cycle in a fish. Male C. intermedius infected by A. dirus parasites are less likely to engage in mating behavior than uninfected males but there is a significant intra-population variation in the occurrence of this behavioral change. Previous studies on uninfected isopods have shown that glycogen content is a predictor of male mating behavior and we examined whether the intra-population variation in the mating behavior of infected male C. intermedius could be explained by this relationship. A field-based behavioral experiment was used to quantify intra-population variation in male mating behavior, which showed that 50% of infected males were responsive to females and 50% were not responsive. Biochemical analysis of responsive and non-responsive males revealed that glycogen content was a predictor of the mating behavior for uninfected males but was not a predictor of mating behavior for infected males. For infected males, parasite intensity was a predictor of mating behavior. Males that contained more A. dirus parasites were less likely to undergo modification of mating behavior. We propose that the intra-population variation in the mating behavior of infected C. intermedius identified in nature was not mediated by host condition. PMID:25238795

  6. Post-cyclic transmission in Acanthocephalus tumescens (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae).

    PubMed

    Rauque, Carlos A; Semenas, Liliana G; Viozzi, Gustavo P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the post-cyclic transmission of Acanthocephalus tumescens (von Linstow, 1896) from Galaxias maculatus Jenyns to Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Wild G. maculatus naturally infected with A. tumescens were fed to cultured rainbow trout, which were sacrificed at the second, third and fourth weeks post infection. Normally attached male and female acanthocephalans were recovered alive from the intestine of rainbow trout. Parasites survive at least four weeks post infection, growing and attaining full sexual maturity. Prevalence and mean intensity generally decreased after infection. A. tumescens is the eighth acanthocephalan species in which post-cyclic transmission has been proven. PMID:12194485

  7. Helminths from the giant mottled eel Anguilla marmorata Quoy & Gaimard in Japan, with a description of Acanthocephalus longiacanthus n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae).

    PubMed

    Katahira, Hirotaka; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2014-05-01

    Five helminths, including a new echinorhynchid acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus longiacanthus n. sp., are described based on specimens from the giant mottled eel Anguilla marmorata Quoy & Gaimard caught in a small river, western Japan. The new acanthocephalan is distinguished from the other congeners in terms of hook arrangement (8-9 longitudinal rows with 5-6 hooks per row) on proboscis, maximum length of hook blade (81-95 μm in male, 150-190 μm in female), lemnisci being longer than proboscis receptacle, and small-sized eggs (80-83 μm). Two monogeneans, Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae (Yin & Sproston, 1948) and P. bini (Kikuchi, 1929), and two acanthocephalans, Acanthocephalus gotoi Van Cleave, 1925 and Southwellina hispida (Van Cleave, 1925), were also found; this new material is described. The monogeneans are notorious as invasive parasites spreading worldwide via anthropogenic transportations of anguillid eels, but in Japanese waters A. marmorata appears to be an indigenous host for these parasites. Anguilla marmorata is a new host record for the acanthocephalans A. gotoi and S. hispida. PMID:24711116

  8. Acanthocephalan parasites of slimy sculpin, Cottus cognatus, and Ninespine Stickleback, Pungitius pungitius, from Lake Michigan, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muzzall, Patrick M.; Lima, Michael; Gentile, Alex; Gunn, Jacob; Jones, Amanda; Morrison, Jamie; French, John R. P., III

    2012-01-01

    In total, 288 slimy sculpins, Cottus cognatus, were collected in September 2003 from 6 Lake Michigan, U.S.A., ports, along with 220 ninespine sticklebacks, Pungitius pungitius, from 3 ports. The ports included Waukegan, Illinois; Port Washington (PW) and Sturgeon Bay (SB), Wisconsin; and Manistique (MS), Frankfort (FF), Ludington (LD), and Saugatuck, Michigan. Echinorhynchus salmonis infected sculpins from 6 ports, Acanthocephalus dirus infected sculpins from 4 ports, and Neoechinorhynchus pungitius infected sculpins from 3 ports. Echinorhynchus salmonis infected significantly more sculpins at PW and at FF than at MS and LD. There were several significant differences in the intensities and abundances of E. salmonis among ports. Acanthocephalus dirus significantly infected more sculpins and had significantly higher abundances at FF than at PW, MS, and LD. Echinorhynchus salmonis, A. dirus, and N. pungitius infected sticklebacks from SB, MS, and FF. Neoechinorhynchus pungitius significantly infected more sculpins and more sticklebacks, and it had significantly higher abundances at MS than at FF. Neoechinorhynchus pungitius was the most common acanthocephalan in C. cognatus and P. pungitius at MS. These acanthocephalan species infecting C. cognatus and P. pungitius corresponded in their occurrence to those organisms that serve as their intermediate hosts found in the stomachs of both fish species. Potential changes in the diet of C. cognatus played a role in significant differences found for E. salmonis and N. pungitius at MS. One of these acanthocephalan species was always the most numerous helminth species found in the digestive tracts of P. pungitius and C. cognatus from these Lake Michigan ports.

  9. Acanthocephalans from fishes and amphibians in Vietnam, with descriptions of five new species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Eight species of acanthocephalans are reported, and five are new. Specimens of Neoechinorhynchus (Hebesoma) manubrianus Amin, Ha & Ha, 2011 were similar to the original description. Neoechinorhynchus (Hebesoma) spiramuscularis n. sp. (Neoechinorhynchidae), from Xenocypris davidi, has a unique proboscis receptacle wrapped in a spiral muscular layer, and an undulating flask-shaped lemnisci, as well as double para-receptacle structures. Heterosentis mongcai n. sp. (Arhythmacanthidae), from Acreichthys sp., has a small fusiform trunk with an unarmed cone and anterior trunk spines, and a proboscis with two circles of rooted apical hooks and 3–4 circles of rooted posterior spines as well as a para-receptacle-like structure at the posterior end. The poorly known Filisoma indicum Van Cleave, 1928 is fully described and illustrated for the first time. Acanthocephalus parallelcementglandatus n. sp. (Echinorhynchidae), from Clarias batrachus, is distinguished from other species of Acanthocephalus by its small fusiform trunk and parallel tubular cement glands. Pseudoacanthocephalus coniformis n. sp. (Echinorhynchidae), from Hylarana sp., is distinguished from other species by having an anterior trunk collar and staggered prominent filiform cement glands, among other features. Cathayacanthus spinitruncatus n. sp. (Rhadinorhynchidae), from Leiognathus equulus, is distinguished from the only two known species of the genus by having a very long and slender proboscis with more than 50 hooks per row and a totally spined trunk. The generic diagnosis of Cathayacanthus Golvan, 1969 is emended. Rhadinorhynchus johnstoni Golvan, 1969 (Rhadinorhynchidae) perfectly fits the only complete description of that species from the Fiji Islands. PMID:25331738

  10. Acanthocephalans from fishes and amphibians in Vietnam, with descriptions of five new species.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar Mohamed; Heckmann, Richard Anderson; Van Ha, Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Eight species of acanthocephalans are reported, and five are new. Specimens of Neoechinorhynchus (Hebesoma) manubrianus Amin, Ha & Ha, 2011 were similar to the original description. Neoechinorhynchus (Hebesoma) spiramuscularis n. sp. (Neoechinorhynchidae), from Xenocypris davidi, has a unique proboscis receptacle wrapped in a spiral muscular layer, and an undulating flask-shaped lemnisci, as well as double para-receptacle structures. Heterosentis mongcai n. sp. (Arhythmacanthidae), from Acreichthys sp., has a small fusiform trunk with an unarmed cone and anterior trunk spines, and a proboscis with two circles of rooted apical hooks and 3-4 circles of rooted posterior spines as well as a para-receptacle-like structure at the posterior end. The poorly known Filisoma indicum Van Cleave, 1928 is fully described and illustrated for the first time. Acanthocephalus parallelcementglandatus n. sp. (Echinorhynchidae), from Clarias batrachus, is distinguished from other species of Acanthocephalus by its small fusiform trunk and parallel tubular cement glands. Pseudoacanthocephalus coniformis n. sp. (Echinorhynchidae), from Hylarana sp., is distinguished from other species by having an anterior trunk collar and staggered prominent filiform cement glands, among other features. Cathayacanthus spinitruncatus n. sp. (Rhadinorhynchidae), from Leiognathus equulus, is distinguished from the only two known species of the genus by having a very long and slender proboscis with more than 50 hooks per row and a totally spined trunk. The generic diagnosis of Cathayacanthus Golvan, 1969 is emended. Rhadinorhynchus johnstoni Golvan, 1969 (Rhadinorhynchidae) perfectly fits the only complete description of that species from the Fiji Islands. PMID:25331738

  11. Does fish reproduction and metabolic activity influence metal levels in fish intestinal parasites, acanthocephalans, during fish spawning and post-spawning period?

    PubMed

    Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Vardić Smrzlić, Irena; Raspor, Biserka

    2014-10-01

    Application of fish intestinal parasites, acanthocephalans, as bioindicators in metal exposure assessment usually involves estimation of their metal levels and bioconcentration factors. Metal levels in parasite final host, fishes, are influenced by fish physiology but there is no data for acanthocephalan metal levels. Gastrointestinal Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Ag levels in European chub (Squalius cephalus L.) from the Sava River were significantly higher during chub spawning (April/May) compared to the post-spawning period (September). In acanthocephalans (Pomphorhynchus laevis and Acanthocephalus anguillae) significantly higher metal levels during chub spawning were observed only for Zn in P. laevis. Bioconcentration factors were twice as high for Fe, Mn, Ag, Pb in the post-spawning period, probably as a consequence of lower gastrointestinal metal levels in fish rather than metal exposure. Therefore, bioconcentration factors should be interpreted with caution, due to their possible variability in relation to fish physiology. In addition, gastrointestinal Cu, Cd and Pb levels were lower in infected than uninfected chub, indicating that metal variability in fishes might be affected by the presence of acanthocephalans. PMID:25048939

  12. Effect of acanthocephalan infection on metal, total protein and metallothionein concentrations in European chub from a Sava River section with low metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Vardić Smrzlić, Irena; Raspor, Biserka

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, the importance of considering fish intestinal parasites i.e. the acanthocephalans in metal exposure assessment was estimated under low metal contamination conditions. Two acanthocephalan species, Pomphorhynchus laevis and Acanthocephalus anguillae were examined in 59 specimens of European chub (Squalius cephalus L.) sampled at 5 locations along the Sava River, Croatia. Concentrations of essential (Cu, Mn) and non-essential (Ag, Cd, Pb) metals were higher in intestinal parasites than chub gastrointestinal tissue, but levels of essential metals Fe and Zn were comparable or lower in parasites, respectively. The highest accumulation in both acanthocephalan species was found for non-essential metals and followed the order: Ag>Pb>Cd. Higher infection intensity with P. laevis allowed us to present their spatial metal distribution and evaluate the influence of P. laevis on metal levels and sub-cellular biological responses (total protein and metallothionein levels) in the host infected with P. laevis. Even in the river section with low metal contamination, parasitism affected metal levels, resulting in lower Cu, Cd and Pb concentrations in chub infected with P. laevis than in uninfected chub. Although total protein and metallothionein levels remained constant in infected and uninfected chub, acanthocephalans should be considered a potential confounding factor in metal exposure assessments. Moreover, P. laevis-chub system can be suggested as an appropriate tool in biomonitoring, since in both species increased Cu and Cd concentrations towards the downstream locations were found. Higher Cu and Cd levels in P. laevis suggest acanthocephalans to be sensitive bioindicators if low metal levels have to be detected. PMID:23856403

  13. On four species of echinorhynchid acanthocephalans from marine fish in Halong Bay, Vietnam, including the description of three new species and a key to the species of Gorgorhynchus.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Van Ha, Nguyen

    2011-09-01

    Four species of echinorhynchid acanthocephalans were collected from marine fish off Cat Ba Island, Halong Bay, Gulf of Tonkin, Vietnam, in the spring of 2009. Acanthocephalus halongensis n. sp. (Echinorhynchidae) from the redtail scad, Decapterus kurroides Bleeker 1855 (Carangidae), has a unique proboscis armature with a spiniform basal hook with lateral root and an incomplete receptacle wall posteriorly. Gorgorhynchus tonkinensis n. sp. (Rhadinorhynchidae) also from D. kurroides, has long, slender, winding lemnisci, many epidermal nuclei, and a narrow anterior trunk with a shoulder armed with 20 circles of tightly packed spines, the posterior four circles of which have abruptly larger spines than those in the anterior circles. Neorhadinorhynchus atypicalis n. sp. (Cavisomidae) from the rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens (Houttuyn 1782) (Siganidae), has the largest number of proboscis hooks per row, testes wider than long, and four clustered cement glands. Micracanthorhynchica kuwaitensis Amin and Sey 1996 (Rhadinorhynchidae) from the spottail needlefish Strongylura strongylura (van Hasselt 1823) (Belonidae) was similar to specimens originally described from the Arabian Gulf off the Kuwaiti coast. These acanthocephalans were collected in small numbers but stood out as uniquely and considerably different from their closest relatives to warrant their reporting. All species of acanthocephalans and their host and geographic distribution are described, and a key to the species of Gorgorhynchus is provided. PMID:21400117

  14. Pseudoacanthocephalus toshimai sp. nov. (Palaeacanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae), a common acanthocephalan of anuran and urodelan amphibians in Hokkaido, Japan, with a finding of its intermediate host.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    The Ezo brown frog (Rana pirica) and the Ezo salamander (Hynobius retardatus) are endemic species of Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. Intestinal adult acanthocephalans are common in these amphibians. A molecular identification based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers demonstrated that the parasites from the anuran and the urodelan are the same species. In the neighboring Honshu island, another acanthocephalan from ranid frogs (e.g. Rana japonica and Rana ornativentris) has been identified as Acanthocephalus lucidus. The counterpart species from the amphibians of Hokkaido was morphologically indistinguishable from A. lucidus. However, clear genetic distinctiveness between the two allopatric populations (separated by islands) indicated the entity of a cryptic species. A phylogenetic tree inferred from sequences of 28S ribosomal DNA showed that the acanthocephalans from Honshu and Hokkaido belong to the genus Pseudoacanthocephalus. Therefore, Pseudoacanthocephalus toshimai sp. nov. is proposed for the cryptic species in Hokkaido, together with the transfer of A. lucidus in Honshu to Pseudoacanthocephalus lucidus comb. nov. The present field survey further demonstrated Ligidium japonicum, an isopod crustacean living in the litter layer of forests, to be an intermediate host of the new species. PMID:27067227

  15. Acanthocephalan-related variation in the pattern of energy storage of a behaviorally and physiologically modified host: field data.

    PubMed

    Korkofigas, Evan; Park, Tracey; Sparkes, Timothy C

    2016-01-01

    The acanthocephalan parasite Acanthocephalus dirus infects the freshwater isopod Caecidotea intermedius as an intermediate host before completing its life cycle in a fish. Transmission to the definitive host occurs after the parasite has reached the cystacanth stage, and development into this stage is associated with changes in several behavioral and physiological traits of the host. Given the potential importance of host energy availability to trait modification, we examined the relationship between cystacanth-stage infection and energy storage of adult isopods. Six samples of infected and uninfected male C. intermedius were collected from a population in March, April, and May during which time cystacanth-stage A. dirus dominate infections and modification of behavior and physiology occurs in nature. Biochemical assays revealed that infected male C. intermedius contained more glycogen and more lipid than uninfected males and that this difference was present throughout the sampling period, which represents the entire adult phase of the host's life. Additional analysis revealed that infected and uninfected males differed in their pattern of allocation to each energy source and that host lipid levels were negatively correlated with parasite intensity. We propose that the typical pattern of allocation and storage of host energy appears to be disrupted by A. dirus infection and that the changes are more likely to favor the parasite than the host. PMID:26424730

  16. The acanthocephalan fauna of Iran, a check list.

    PubMed

    Tavakol, Sareh; Amin, Omar M; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Halajian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The acanthocephalan fauna of Iran is reported for the first time since the report of Pomphorhynchus perforator (von Linstow, 1908) Meyer, 1932 in 1964. The knowledge of the acanthocephalan biodiversity of Iran, with parasite-host and host-parasite checklists, is presented. The species of Acanthocephala are presented in alphabetical order, followed by the species of hosts, localities and references. A total of 30 known species of Acanthocephala from 21 genera, 12 families and 7 orders are reported from 80 species of different vertebrates of Iran. One species, Moniliformis moniliformis (Bremser, 1811) Travassos, 1915 was recorded from humans. The group of hosts with the largest number of reported species of acanthocephalan is Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes). PMID:26624401

  17. Component population study of Acanthocephalus tumescens (Acanthocephala) in fishes from Lake Moreno, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rauque, Carlos A; Viozzi, Gustavo P; Semenas, Liliana G

    2003-03-01

    Seasonal samples of all fish species from Lake Moreno were taken in order to determine the presence of paratenia, to evaluate the status of the hosts and to characterise the transmission of Acanthocephalus tumescens (von Linstow, 1896) at the component population level. Prevalence, mean abundance, mean intensity, numbers of gravid females, relative abundance of the different fish species, relative output of eggs and relative flow rates for each host species were computed. Acanthocephalus tumescens showed low host specificity, successfully parasitizing six out of eight fish species present in the lake. No paratenic infection was registered. If prevalence, mean abundance, and number of gravid females are considered, host species can be placed in a continuum from the most to least suitable as follows: Galaxias platei Steindachner, Diplomystes viedmensis (Mac Donagh), Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), Percichthys trucha (Cuvier et Valenciennes) and Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns). However, when parasite flow rates and egg output were calculated, including relative abundance of each fish species, the continuum was rearranged as follows: P. trucha, O. mykiss, G. platei / G. maculatus, S. fontinalis and D. viedmensis. The first four species would be the main contributors to the population of A. tumescens in this lake, P. trucha being the major one. Different regulatory and non-regulatory mechanisms are suggested. PMID:12735727

  18. Acanthocephalan infection and sparganosis in a green tree snake (Dendrelaphis punctulata).

    PubMed

    Hill, A G; Ladds, P W; Spratt, D M

    2014-09-01

    Acanthocephalan and spargana parasites were identified within a body wall mass during exploratory surgery in a wild green tree snake. Acanthocephalan parasites have not previously been reported in this species. Surgical excision, the treatment of choice, could not be achieved because of the extensive infiltration of the coelomic cavity. PMID:25156057

  19. Description of a new Echinorhynchid species (Acanthocephala) from the European eel, Anguilla anguilla, in Germany, with a key species of Acanthocephalus in Europe.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Thielen, F; Münderle, M; Taraschewski, H; Sures, B

    2008-12-01

    Acanthocephalus rhinensis n. sp. is described from the European eel. Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758), collected in the Rhine River near the city of Karlsruhe, Germany. It is the sixth species of Acanthocephalus Koelreuther, 1771 described from European fish. Four other species are known from amphibians. The new species is distinguished from the other 5 species infecting fish by having a 1.2-mm-long proboscis armed with 15-21 rows of 13-16 hooks each, lemnisci about as long as receptacle, oblong and slightly pre-equatorial testes, and thin fusiform eggs, measuring 85-95 X 15-18 micro. Testes in the other European species are usually round to ovate, except in Ac. anguillae (Müller, 1780) Lühe, 1911 where they are also elongated but postequatorial. It aslo has an orange-brown belt encircling the anterior end of the trunk. The comparative distribution of Acanthocephalus in Europe and North America, and the validity of 2 presumably questionable species are discussed, Acanthocephalus falcatus (Froelich, 1789) Lühe, 1911 and Ac. Paronai (Cendorelli, 1897) Meyer, 1932. A dichotomus key distinguishing Ac. rhinensis from the other 9 European species is also included. The new species was only found in 3 of 390 eels examined during 11 yr; this may be related to the changing benthos community in the Rhine River. PMID:18576852

  20. Introduced brown trout alter native acanthocephalan infections in native fish.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Rachel A; Townsend, Colin R; Poulin, Robert; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    1. Native parasite acquisition provides introduced species with the potential to modify native host-parasite dynamics by acting as parasite reservoirs (with the 'spillback' of infection increasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) or sinks (with the 'dilution' of infection decreasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) of infection. 2. In New Zealand, negative correlations between the presence of introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) and native parasite burdens of the native roundhead galaxias (Galaxias anomalus) have been observed, suggesting that parasite dilution is occurring. 3. We used a multiple-scale approach combining field observations, experimental infections and dynamic population modelling to investigate whether native Acanthocephalus galaxii acquisition by brown trout alters host-parasite dynamics in native roundhead galaxias. 4. Field observations demonstrated higher infection intensity in introduced trout than in native galaxias, but only small, immature A. galaxii were present in trout. Experimental infections also demonstrated that A. galaxii does not mature in trout, although parasite establishment and initial growth were similar in the two hosts. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that trout may serve as an infection sink for the native parasite. 5. However, dynamic population modelling predicts that A. galaxii infections in native galaxias should at most only be slightly reduced by dilution in the presence of trout. Rather, model exploration indicates parasite densities in galaxias are highly sensitive to galaxias predation on infected amphipods, and to relative abundances of galaxias and trout. Hence, trout presence may instead reduce parasite burdens in galaxias by either reducing galaxias density or by altering galaxias foraging behaviour. PMID:21426342

  1. The Meristogram: a neglected tool for acanthocephalan systematics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The hooks of the acanthocephalan proboscis exhibit serial variation in size and shape. The Meristogram was developed by Huffman and Bullock (1975) to provide a graphical representation of this positional variation in hook morphology. Initial studies demonstrated the ability of the Meristogram to discriminate species within the genera Echinorhynchus and Pomphorhynchus (Huffman and Bullock 1975, Huffman and Nickol 1978, Gleason and Huffman 1981). However, the reliability of the method for taxonomic work was questioned by Shostak et al. (1986) after they found intra-specific variation in two Echinorhynchus species. Uncertainty about the usefulness of the Meristogram and the absence of a readily available software implementation of the algorithm, might explain why this abstract proboscis character has yet to be adopted by acanthocephalan systematists. New information The Meristogram algorithm was implemented in the R language and a simple graphical user interface created to facilitate ease of use (the software is freely available from https://github.com/WaylandM/meristogram). The accuracy of the algorithm's formula for calculating hook cross-sectional area was validated by data collected using a digitizing tablet. Meristograms were created from data in public respositories for eight Echinorhynchus taxa: E. bothniensis, E. 'bothniensis', E. gadi spp. A, B and I, E. brayi, E. salmonis and E. truttae. In this preliminary analysis, the meristogram differentiated E. bothniensis, E. brayi, E. gadi sp. B, E. salmonis and E. truttae from each other, and from the remaining taxa in this study, but independent data will be required for validation. Sample sizes for E. 'bothniensis' and E. gadi spp. A and I were too small to identify diagnostic features with any degree of confidence. Meristogram differences among the sibling species of the E. gadi and E. bothniensis groups suggest that the 'intra-specfic' variation in meristogram previously reported for some

  2. Identifying a key host in an acanthocephalan-amphipod system.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Alexandre; Rigaud, Thierry

    2015-11-01

    Trophically transmitted parasites may use multiple intermediate hosts, some of which may be 'key-hosts', i.e. contributing significantly more to the completion of the parasite life cycle, while others may be 'sink hosts' with a poor contribution to parasite transmission. Gammarus fossarum and Gammarus roeseli are sympatric crustaceans used as intermediate hosts by the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis. Gammarus roeseli suffers higher field prevalence and is less sensitive to parasite behavioural manipulation and to predation by definitive hosts. However, no data are available on between-host differences in susceptibility to P. laevis infection, making it difficult to untangle the relative contributions of these hosts to parasite transmission. Based on results from estimates of prevalence in gammarids exposed or protected from predation and laboratory infections, G. fossarum specimens were found to be more susceptible to P. laevis infection. As it is more susceptible to both parasite infection and manipulation, G. fossarum is therefore a key host for P. laevis transmission. PMID:26303006

  3. The occurrence of acanthocephalans in teleost fish from the Bizerte lagoon, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, L; Antar, R; Zarrouk, F; Maamouri, F

    2016-01-01

    Seven species of acanthocephalans were identified for the first time in teleost fish from the Bizerte lagoon, Tunisia, including Neoechinorhynchus (Hebesoma) agilis (Rudolphi, 1819) Van Cleave, 1916; N. (Neoechinorhynchus) rutili Müller, 1780 (Neoechinorhynchidae); Acanthocephaloide propinquus (Dujardin, 1845) Meyer, 1932; A. incrassatus (Molin, 1858) Meyer, 1932 (Arhythmacanthidae); Longicollum pagrosomi Yamaguti, 1935 (Pomphorhynchidae); Rhadinorhynchus cadenati (Golvan et Houin, 1964) Golvan, 1969 (Rhadinorhynchidae); and Telosentis exiguus (von Linstow, 1901) Van Cleave, 1923 (Illiosentidae). Acanthocephaloide propinquus, N. (N.) rutili, L. pagrosomi and R. cadenati were restricted to the rectum and the posterior intestine, whereas the other species (A. incrassatus, T. exiguus and N. (H.) agilis) colonized two or three parts of the intestine. The most diverse acanthocephalan fauna was recorded in Lithognathus mormyrus, with three species; two species were reported from Trachurus trachurus; and a single species was recorded in Liza aurata and in Atherina boyeri. Neoechinorhynchus (N.) rutili, L. pagrosomi and R. cadenati attained the lowest prevalences of less than 6% and were considered as to be rare species. Acanthocephaloide incrassatus, A. propinquus, T. exiguus and N. (H.) agilis were satellite species. The diversity of the acanthocephalan fauna in the fish from the Bizerte lagoon is compared with previous studies from other localities. The report of A. incrassatus, A. propinquus and N. (N.) rutili in L. mormyrus presents new host records in Mediterranean waters. PMID:25726842

  4. Perch and Its Parasites as Heavy Metal Biomonitors in a Freshwater Environment: The Case Study of the Ružín Water Reservoir, Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Brázová, Tímea; Torres, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Miklisová, Dana; Šalamún, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations were determined in 43 perches (Perca fluviatilis) and in two of its most common parasites, the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii and the cestode Proteocephalus percae, collected in the period 2009–2010 from Ružín, a seriously polluted water reservoir in Slovakia. Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, brain, male and female reproductive organs and adipose tissue of fish and both parasites were analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, by ICP-MS. Mean concentrations of individual heavy metals in all fish samples decreased in the order zinc > copper > manganese > mercury > arsenic > chromium > cadmium > nickel > lead. Zinc was found to be the dominant element and its antagonistic interaction with copper was confirmed. The kidney was a key target organ receiving the highest mean concentrations of all analyzed metals, but some metals showed specific affinity for particular tissues. In terms of human health, concentration of Hg in fish muscle, which exceeded more than two-times its maximum level admitted in foodstuffs in European countries, is of great importance and should be taken into account. Bioaccumulation factors (C[parasite]/C[fish tissue]) calculated for all elements indicated much higher detection skills of A. lucii and P. percae parasites than fish organs and hence, present results allow proposing both parasite models as useful tools to monitor aquatic environmental quality. Acanthocephalans, however, seem to be superior for heavy metal monitoring, also demonstrated under experimental conditions. Present results also indicate the decreasing heavy metal burden of the reservoir and its gradual recovery in the course of time. PMID:22736993

  5. Perch and its parasites as heavy metal biomonitors in a freshwater environment: the case study of the Ružín water reservoir, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Brázová, Tímea; Torres, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Miklisová, Dana; Salamún, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations were determined in 43 perches (Perca fluviatilis) and in two of its most common parasites, the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii and the cestode Proteocephalus percae, collected in the period 2009-2010 from Ružín, a seriously polluted water reservoir in Slovakia. Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, brain, male and female reproductive organs and adipose tissue of fish and both parasites were analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, by ICP-MS. Mean concentrations of individual heavy metals in all fish samples decreased in the order zinc > copper > manganese > mercury > arsenic > chromium > cadmium > nickel > lead. Zinc was found to be the dominant element and its antagonistic interaction with copper was confirmed. The kidney was a key target organ receiving the highest mean concentrations of all analyzed metals, but some metals showed specific affinity for particular tissues. In terms of human health, concentration of Hg in fish muscle, which exceeded more than two-times its maximum level admitted in foodstuffs in European countries, is of great importance and should be taken into account. Bioaccumulation factors (C([parasite])/C([fish tissue])) calculated for all elements indicated much higher detection skills of A. lucii and P. percae parasites than fish organs and hence, present results allow proposing both parasite models as useful tools to monitor aquatic environmental quality. Acanthocephalans, however, seem to be superior for heavy metal monitoring, also demonstrated under experimental conditions. Present results also indicate the decreasing heavy metal burden of the reservoir and its gradual recovery in the course of time. PMID:22736993

  6. [Vertical distribution of acanthocephalans of the order Echinorhynchida in Lake Baikal].

    PubMed

    Baldanova, D R

    2008-01-01

    Vertical distribution of acanthocephalans of the order Echinorhynchida is studied in Lake Baikal. Four species and subspecies from cottid fishes (Perciformes: Cottoidei) were examined, namely Pseudoechinorhynchus borealis (Linstow, 1901), Metechinorhynchus salmonis salmonis (Muller, 1780), M.s. baicalensis Bogolepova, 1957, M. truttae (Schrank, 1788). In the littoral (0-5 m) and sublittoral (5-100 m) areas all these species and subspecies were occurred, white in the profundal (100-300 m) and abyssal (900-1600 m) areas only Metechinorhynchus salmonis baisalensis has been found. PMID:18727364

  7. Host-parasite relationships as determinants of heavy metal concentrations in perch (Perca fluviatilis) and its intestinal parasite infection.

    PubMed

    Brázová, Tímea; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Miklisová, Dana; Šalamún, Peter; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor M

    2015-12-01

    The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and their bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were determined in two intestinal parasites, an acanthocephalan, Acanthocephalus lucii, a tapeworm, Proteocephalus percae, present in the same host, the European perch (Perca fluviatilis, L.), in the heavily polluted Ružín reservoir in eastern Slovakia. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the fish organs and parasites was studied for acanthocephalan and tapeworm monoinfections or mixed infections by the two parasites and for the size of their parasitic infrapopulations. Bioconcentration factors (c[parasite]/c[muscle tissue]) showed that the concentrations of As, Ni, Pb and Zn were higher in mixed infections than in monoinfections. Negative correlations between heavy metal concentrations in perch organs and the parasites were found. For example, higher concentrations of Ni and Zn in both parasite species corresponded with lower metal concentrations in perch and hard roe. Likewise, significant negative relationships between metal concentrations in fish organs and number of parasites were noticed with lower levels of Pb in fish harbouring higher numbers of tapeworms. Similarly, in both parasite species the concentrations of some essential elements (Cr, Mn) were lower at high infection intensities compared to low intensities. Our study revealed that the differential concentration of heavy metals in perch organs was affected by the type of infection (mono- or mixed-infection), and needs to be considered in field ecotoxicological and parasitological studies as a potentially important factor influencing the pollutant concentrations in fish. PMID:26432028

  8. Altered host behaviour and brain serotonergic activity caused by acanthocephalans: evidence for specificity

    PubMed Central

    Tain, Luke; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Cézilly, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Manipulative parasites can alter the phenotype of intermediate hosts in various ways. However, it is unclear whether such changes are just by-products of infection or adaptive and enhance transmission to the final host. Here, we show that the alteration of serotonergic activity is functionally linked to the alteration of specific behaviour in the amphipod Gammarus pulex infected with acanthocephalan parasites. Pomphorhynchus laevis and, to a lesser extent, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis altered phototactism, but not geotactism, in G. pulex, whereas the reverse was true for Polymorphus minutus. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) injected to uninfected G. pulex mimicked the altered phototactism, but had no effect on geotactism. Photophilic G. pulex infected with P. laevis or P. tereticollis showed a 40% increase in brain 5-HT immunoreactivity compared to photophobic, uninfected individuals. In contrast, brain 5-HT immunoreactivity did not differ between P. minutus-infected and uninfected G. pulex. Finally, brain 5-HT immunoreactivity differed significantly among P. tereticollis-infected individuals in accordance with their degree of manipulation. Our results demonstrate that altered 5-HT activity is not the mere consequence of infection by acanthocephalans but is specifically linked to the disruption of host photophobic behaviour, whereas the alteration of other behaviours such as geotactism may rely on distinct physiological routes. PMID:17015346

  9. Using DNA barcoding to link cystacanths and adults of the acanthocephalan Polymorphus brevis in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alcántar-Escalera, F J; García-Varela, M; Vázquez-Domínguez, E; Pérez-Ponce de León, G

    2013-11-01

    In parasitic organisms, particularly helminths, the usage of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene as the standard DNA barcoding region for species identification and discovery has been very limited. Here, we present an integrated study, based on both DNA barcoding and morphological analyses, for acanthocephalans belonging to the genus Polymorphus, whose larvae (cystacanths) are commonly found in the mesentery of freshwater fishes, while adults are found in the intestine of fish-eating birds. The alpha taxonomy of parasitic helminths is based on adult morphological traits, and because of that larval forms cannot be identified to species level based on morphology alone. DNA barcoding offers an alternative tool for linking larval stages of parasitic organisms to known adults. We sequenced cystacanths collected from freshwater fishes in localities across central Mexico and adults obtained from fish-eating birds, to determine whether they were conspecific. To corroborate the molecular results, we conducted a morphometric analysis with 'Proboscis profiler', which is a software tool developed to detect heterogeneity in morphologically similar acanthocephalans based on the multivariate statistical analysis of proboscis hook dimensions. Both sources of information indicate that cystacanths infecting freshwater fishes in central Mexico belong to a single species, Polymorphus brevis. PMID:23480472

  10. First paleoparasitological record of acanthocephalan eggs from Northwestern Patagonia (Late Holocene, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Beltrame, María Ornela; Fernández, Fernando Julián; Sardella, Norma Haydeé

    2015-06-01

    Eggs representative of an acanthocephalan were found in an ancient fragment of raptor pellet, probably belonged to the barn owl, Tyto alba, from the archeological site named "Epullán Chica cave." This site is a cave located at the southern of Neuquén Province, Patagonia, Argentina. The fragment of pellet was found in a layer with charcoals dated at 1980±80 years B.P. A total of 56 eggs were found. Eggs were brown colored and thick-shelled, and presented four membranes, the outer lightly sculpted. The embryos presented hooks in one extremity. Measurements ranged from 87.5 to 107.5μm long and 50 to 57.5μm wide. Eggs were very well-preserved, and were identified as belonged to Class Archiacanthocephala, Order Oligacanthorhynchida, Family Oligacanthorhynchidae, probably Macracanthorhynchus Travassos, 1917, or an unidentified species. This is the first report of small mammal acanthocephalans from ancient material worldwide. PMID:25757369

  11. Intraspecific conflict over host manipulation between different larval stages of an acanthocephalan parasite.

    PubMed

    Dianne, L; Rigaud, T; Léger, E; Motreuil, S; Bauer, A; Perrot-Minnot, M-J

    2010-12-01

    Competitive interactions between coinfecting parasites are expected to be strong when they affect transmission success. When transmission is enhanced by altering host behaviour, intraspecific conflict can lead to 'coinfection exclusion' by the first-in parasite or to a 'sabotage' of behavioural manipulation by the youngest noninfective parasite. We tested these hypotheses in the acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus laevis, reversing phototaxis in its intermediate host Gammarus pulex. No evidence was found for coinfection exclusion in gammarids sequentially exposed to infection. Behavioural manipulation was slightly weakened but not cancelled in gammarids infected with mixed larval stages. Therefore, coinfecting infective and noninfective larvae both suffered competition, potentially resulting in delayed transmission and increased risk of mortality, respectively. Consequently, noninfective larva is not just a 'passive passenger' in the manipulated host, which raises interesting questions about the selective pressures at play and the mechanisms underlying manipulation. PMID:20964763

  12. Acanthocephalans of the genus Centrorhynchus (Palaeacanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) of birds of prey (Falconiformes) and owls (Strigiformes) in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Komorová, P; Špakulová, M; Hurníková, Z; Uhrín, M

    2015-06-01

    Three species of thorny-headed worms of the genus Centrorhynchus were found to parasitize birds of prey and owls in the territory of the Slovakia during the years 2012-2014. Out of 286 examined bird individuals belonging to 23 species, only Buteo buteo, Buteo rufinus, Falco tinnunculus (Falconiformes), Asio otus, Strix aluco, Strix uralensis and Tyto alba (Strigiformes) were infected by acanthocephalans. All the bird species except for S. aluco represent new host records for Slovakia. The most prevalent acanthocephalan Centrorhynchus aluconis was detected in all 15 examined birds of non-migratory Ural owl S. uralensis (P = 100%); however, it was found occasionally also in two individuals of the tawny owl S. aluco (P = 20%), one long-eared owl A. otus (P = 7.7%), one barn owl T. alba (P = 33.3%) and the common buzzard B. buteo (P = 0.8%). Two other thorny-headed worms occurred exclusively in Falconiformes in raw or mixed infections: Centrorhynchus buteonis was found in 11 individuals of B. buteo (P = 9.2%), and two birds (B. buteo and B. rufinus) were parasitized simultaneously by C. buteonis and the species Centrorhynchus globocaudatus. Moreover, the latest, relatively rare acanthocephalan was found alone in two common kestrels F. tinnunculus (P = 2.7%). Regarding intensity of infection, it ranged from a single female of C. buteonis, C. globocaudatus or C. aluconis per host (four cases) to a maximum of 82 C. aluconis per an Ural owl. The difference in acanthocephalan species spectrum between birds of prey and owls in Slovakia was apparent. PMID:25786606

  13. An acanthocephalan parasite increases the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli (Crustacea: Gammaridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piscart, Christophe; Webb, Dennis; Beisel, Jean Nicolas

    2007-09-01

    Studies of the influence of parasites on host fitness generally conclude that parasites have a strong negative effect on their hosts. In this study, we have investigated experimentally the role of Polymorphus minutus, an acanthocephalan parasite, on the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli, one of its intermediate hosts. Unexpectedly, P. minutus-infected gammarids were more tolerant to salinity stress than uninfected ones. The mean lethal salt concentrations for 50% mortality of hosts tested were 17.3 (infected) and 9.7 g/L (uninfected). The parasitic load (one or two parasites per host) did not affect the result. The size of hosts had no significant influence on the salinity tolerance of either infected or uninfected gammarids. The mobility of all types of gammarid decreased when the salinity exceeded 9.0 g/L, but there was no significant difference between infected and uninfected gammarids. We discuss the higher salinity tolerance of infected amphipods in relation to O2 consumption and osmoregulation. Finally, we demonstrate that the salinity tolerance is enhanced in the parasitized amphipod but without a significant change in behavior or an osmoregulatory adjustment.

  14. An acanthocephalan parasite boosts the escape performance of its intermediate host facing non-host predators.

    PubMed

    Medoc, V; Beisel, J-N

    2008-07-01

    Among the potential effects of parasitism on host condition, the 'increased host abilities' hypothesis is a counterintuitive pattern which might be predicted in complex-life-cycle parasites. In the case of trophic transmission, a parasite increasing its intermediate host's performance facing non-host predators improves its probability of transmission to an adequate, definitive host. In the present study, we investigated the cost of infection with the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus on the locomotor/escape performance of its intermediate host, the crustacean Gammarus roeseli. This parasite alters the behaviour of its intermediate host making it more vulnerable to predation by avian definitive hosts. We assessed the swimming speeds of gammarids using a stressful treatment and their escape abilities under predation pressure. Despite the encystment of P. minutus in the abdomen of its intermediate host, infected amphipods had significantly higher swimming speeds than uninfected ones (increases of up to 35%). Furthermore, when interacting with the non-host crustacean predator Dikerogammarus villosus, the highest escape speeds and greatest distances covered by invertebrates were observed for parasitized animals. The altered behaviour observed among the manipulated invertebrates supported the 'increased host abilities' hypothesis, which has until now remained untested experimentally. The tactic of increasing the ability of infected intermediate hosts to evade potential predation attempts by non-host species is discussed. PMID:18477417

  15. Acanthocephalan parasites: help or burden in gammarid amphipods exposed to cadmium?

    PubMed

    Gismondi, E; Cossu-Leguille, C; Beisel, J-N

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the influence of the acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus on the mortality of its intermediate host, Gammarus roeseli, exposed to cadmium, by the measure of LC(50-96h) values as well as the bioaccumulation of cadmium both in the host and in its parasite. LC(50) results revealed that infected G. roeseli males died less under cadmium stress than uninfected ones; while the converse has been observed in females. Cadmium resistance of infected males could be explained by a weaker bioconcentration factor (BCF) than in females. The lower BCF in infected individuals was closely related with an uptake of cadmium by P. minutus in its host. Nevertheless, although infected females had both weaker BCF and cadmium concentration in their body, the presence of P. minutus did not induce lower mortality than uninfected females. On the contrary, their sensitivity to cadmium was increased by the presence of P. minutus. We discuss the hypothesis that differences of mortality between uninfected and infected gammarids could be explained by a difference of cadmium bioconcentration in host, and by the cadmium bioaccumulation in the parasite. Indeed, results suggested that P. minutus could help G. roeseli to face with stress, what contributed to keep the host alive and favour the parasite transmission. PMID:22461071

  16. New morphological data on a sub-Antarctic acanthocephalan, Aspersentis johni (Baylis, 1929) (Palaeacanthocephala: Heteracanthocephalidae).

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Zdzisław; Zdzitowiecki, Krzysztof

    2004-09-01

    Aspersentis johni (Baylis, 1929) (Acanthocephala: Heteracanthocephalidae) is redescribed based on specimens collected from a sub-Antarctic nototheniid fish, Patagonotothen longipes. Hosts were caught in the Beagle Channel (Magellanic subregion). The redescription incorporates previously undescribed or poorly described features and complete measurements. Acanthocephalans of the genus Aspersentis have a strong dorso-ventrally asymmetrical armament of the proboscis (ventral hooks are much larger than dorsal), the presence of conspicuous spines on the anterior part of the trunk and smaller spines occurring more posteriorly and reaching the extremity of the body, and narrow lemnisci longer than the proboscis receptacle. Features useful to distinguish A. johni from A. megarhynchus (Linstow, 1892) are: 10-13 proboscis hooks in each row, the maximum length of the ventral hooks 77-108 microm, a narrower proboscis with a length/width ratio of 2.16-3.22:1 (mean 2.78:1), an egg length of 87-102 microm, and an unusual form of the posterior extremity of females (the presence of a terminal concavity between two lateral lobes). PMID:15318019

  17. An acanthocephalan parasite increases the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli (Crustacea: Gammaridae).

    PubMed

    Piscart, Christophe; Webb, Dennis; Beisel, Jean Nicolas

    2007-09-01

    Studies of the influence of parasites on host fitness generally conclude that parasites have a strong negative effect on their hosts. In this study, we have investigated experimentally the role of Polymorphus minutus, an acanthocephalan parasite, on the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli, one of its intermediate hosts. Unexpectedly, P. minutus-infected gammarids were more tolerant to salinity stress than uninfected ones. The mean lethal salt concentrations for 50% mortality of hosts tested were 17.3 (infected) and 9.7 g/L (uninfected). The parasitic load (one or two parasites per host) did not affect the result. The size of hosts had no significant influence on the salinity tolerance of either infected or uninfected gammarids. The mobility of all types of gammarid decreased when the salinity exceeded 9.0 g/L, but there was no significant difference between infected and uninfected gammarids. We discuss the higher salinity tolerance of infected amphipods in relation to O(2) consumption and osmoregulation. Finally, we demonstrate that the salinity tolerance is enhanced in the parasitized amphipod but without a significant change in behavior or an osmoregulatory adjustment. PMID:17487466

  18. Piscidins in the intestine of European perch, Perca fluviatilis, naturally infected with an enteric worm.

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, Bahram S; Lui, Alice; Giari, Luisa; Pironi, Flavio; Manera, Maurizio; Lorenzoni, Massimo; Noga, Edward J

    2013-11-01

    This study set out to determine how an enteric parasite, the thorny-headed worm Acanthocephalus lucii, affected the expression of antimicrobial peptides (piscidins) in its host population, the European perch (Perca fluviatilis) collected from Lake Piediluco in Central Italy. A total of 87 perch were examined; 44 (50.5%) were infected with A. lucii (1-18 worms fish(-1)). Pathological changes and immune response were assessed using histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The acanthocephalans only penetrated the surficial zone of the intestinal wall and induced only slight inflammation. The main damage was destruction of the mucosal epithelium covering the villi adjacent to the parasite's attachment site, and included necrosis and degeneration. Infected intestine had numerous mast cells (MCs), often in close proximity to, and within, the capillaries, and were associated with fibroblasts of the submucosal layer. Mast cells were irregular in shape with a cytoplasm filled by numerous electron-dense, membrane-bounded granules. Immunostaining of intestine with antibodies against the antimicrobial peptides piscidin 3 and piscidin 4 showed subpopulations of MCs that were positive. Piscidin-positive MCs were mainly observed among the epithelial cells of the intestine, but also within the submucosa. In both uninfected and parasite-infected perch, the number of MCs positive for piscidin 4 was higher than those immunoreactive with piscidin 3 (p < 0.05). For both piscidins, there was no significant difference in the number of positive MCs between parasite-infected and uninfected intestine (p > 0.05). However, uninfected fish showed higher immunostaining intensity for piscidin 3 than infected conspecifics (p < 0.05). PMID:24012748

  19. Population genetic structure of the acanthocephalan Acanthosentis cheni in anadromous, freshwater, and landlocked stocks of its fish host, Coilia nasus.

    PubMed

    Song, Rui; Li, Wen X; Wu, Shan G; Zou, Hong; Wang, Gui T

    2014-04-01

    The acanthocephalan Acanthosentis cheni was found in anadromous, freshwater, and landlocked stocks of its fish host, Coilia nasus. To examine the genetic variations of the acanthocephalan among the 3 populations with the adaptation of the host to the freshwater, the genetic structure of the helminth was investigated in anadromous (Zhoushan and Chongming islands, and Anqing), freshwater (Anqing, Ezhou, and Poyang Lake), and landlocked (Tian'ezhou Reserve) populations by sequencing intergenic transcribed spacers (ITS) of the ribosomal RNA coding genes. Low Fst values and high gene flow were found among the 7 populations (Fst = 0.0135, P = 0.2723; Nm = 36.48) and the 3 ecotypes of Acanthosentis cheni (Fst = 0.0178, P = 0.1044; Nm = 27.67). On the other hand, significant genetic differentiation of the C. nasus host populations was detected between the upstream and downstream areas of Xiaogu Mountain (Fst = 0.1961, P = 0.0030; Nm = 2.05), which is the farthest location of spawning migration for C. nasus . However, the migration break of the fish host appeared not to cause significant genetic differentiation of A. cheni populations between the upper and lower reaches of Xiaogu Mountain. Other factors might promote genetic exchange of A. cheni populations such as dispersal of the intermediate host by flooding or other fish species serving as the definitive or paratenic hosts. In Anqing, nucleotide diversity of the acanthocephalan was highest in the freshwater population (0.0038) and lower in the anadromous population (0.0026). This suggested that new mutations may have occurred in the freshwater A. cheni population in Anqing when adapting to a freshwater environment. PMID:24224788

  20. Proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in the intestine of Salmo trutta trutta naturally infected with an acanthocephalan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in the production of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a 36 kd protein involved in protein synthesis, within intestinal epithelia can provide an early indication of deviations to normal functioning. Inhibition or stimulation of cell proliferation and PCNA can be determined through immunohistochemical staining of intestinal tissue. Changes in the expression of PCNA act as an early warning system of changes to the gut and this application has not been applied to the fields of aquatic parasitology and fish health. The current study set out to determine whether a population of wild brown trout, Salmo trutta trutta (L.) harbouring an infection of the acanthocephalan Dentitruncus truttae Sinzar, 1955 collected from Lake Piediluco in Central Italy also effected changes in the expression of PCNA. Methods A total of 29 brown trout were investigated, 19 of which (i.e. 65.5%) were found to harbour acanthocephalans (5–320 worms fish-1). Histological sections of both uninfected and infected intestinal material were immunostained for PCNA. Results The expression of PCNA was observed in the epithelial cells in the intestinal crypts and within the mast cells and fibroblasts in the submucosa layer which is consistent with its role in cell proliferation and DNA synthesis. The number of PCNA-positive cells in both the intestinal epithelium and the submucosa layer in regions close to the point of parasite attachment were significantly higher than the number observed in uninfected individuals and in infected individuals in zones at least 0.7 cm from the point of parasite attachment (ANOVA, p < 0.05). Conclusions An infection of the acanthocephalan D. truttae within the intestinal tract of S. t. trutta effected a significant increase in the number of PCNA positive cells (mast cells and fibroblasts) at the site of parasite attachment when compared to the number of positive cells found in uninfected conspecifics and in tissue zones away from the point

  1. [PATTERNS IN CIRCULATION AND TRANSMISSION OF MARINE BIRD PARASITES IN HIGH ARCTIC: A CASE OF ACANTHOCEPHALAN POLYMORPHUS PHIPPSI (PALAEACANTHOCEPHALA, POLYMORPHIDAE)].

    PubMed

    Galaktionov, K V; Atrashkevich, G I

    2015-01-01

    This study, based on the materials on parasitic infection of marine birds and invertebrates in Frantz Josef Land (FJL) collected in 1991-1993, focussed on the acanthocephalan Polymorphus phippsi. We identified this parasite, confirmed its species status and analysed its circulation and transmission patterns in high Arctic. The causes of its erroneous identification as P. minutus in several studies were also examined. In contrast to P. minutus, the transmission of P. phippsi is realized in marine coastal ecosystems. Its' main intermediate host in the Arctic is the amphipod Gammarus (Lagunogammarus) setosus, commonin coastal. areas of the shelf zone throughout the Arctic basin. P. phippsi population in FJL and the entire European Arctic is on the whole maintained by a single obligate final host, the common eider Somateria mollissima. Prevalence (P) of P. phippsi in this bird reached 100 %, with the maximal infection intensity (IImax) of 1188 and the mean abundance (MA) of 492.1. Other species of birds found to be infected with P. phippsi (Arctic turn, black guillemot, purple sandpiper and several gulls) are facultative and/or eliminative hosts. The most heavily infected birds were Arctic terns (P = 72.7%, IImax = 227, MA = = 47.1), which contained single mature acanthocephalans. For one of the FJL regions, infections flows of P. phippsi through various host categories were calculated. Involvement of birds unrelated to the common eider into the circulation of P. phippsi is facilitated by their feeding character in the Arctic. While coastal crustaceans are abundant, fish food is relatively scarce (polar cod, snailfishes), and so amphipods make up a considerable part of the diet of marine birds in FJL, if not most of it, as for instance in case of Arctic tern. This promotes an easy entry of the larvae of crustaceans-parasitizing helminthes (cestodes and acanthocephalans, including cystacanths P. phippsi) into non-specific hosts and opens broad colonization possibilities

  2. Acanthocephalan Parasites (Acanthogyrus sp.) of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as Biosink of Lead (Pb) Contamination in a Philippine Freshwater Lake.

    PubMed

    Paller, Vachel Gay V; Resurreccion, Dan Jacob B; de la Cruz, Christian Paul P; Bandal, Modesto Z

    2016-06-01

    The potential use of acanthocephalans as bioindicators of Lead (Pb) pollution in Sampaloc Lake, Laguna, Philippines was investigated. Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) were collected and Pb concentrations were determined in fish tissues and in their acanthocephalan parasites, Acanthogyrus sp. Significantly higher levels of Pb were detected in the parasites relative to the fish host tissues (p = 0.001). Bioaccumulation capacity of the parasites against fish tissues were 102, 119, and 147 times higher than the fish intestine, liver, and muscles, respectively. Pb sensitivity of the parasites was quantified by exact logistic analysis showing higher odds of Pb detection ranging from 18 to 45 folds (p = 0.001-0.009). Interestingly, infected fish showed significantly lower Pb concentration in their tissues compared to uninfected fish (p = 0.001), suggesting parasites were able to sequester Pb and served as active biosinks. The Pb levels in the parasites were also hundred folds higher (988 times) relative to the ambient waters, indicating a potential role of fish parasites as metal biosinks in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27052033

  3. The acanthocephalan Paratenuisentis ambiguus as a sensitive indicator of the precious metals Pt and Rh from automobile catalytic converters.

    PubMed

    Sures, B; Zimmermann, S; Sonntag, C; Stüben, D; Taraschewski, H

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies revealed that intestinal acanthocephalans of fish can accumulate heavy metals to concentrations orders of magnitude higher than those in the host tissues or the aquatic environment. This significant heavy metal accumulation by acanthocephalans, even surpassing that of established free living accumulation bioindicators, encouraged us to study the bioavailability of the platinum-group-metals (PGM) Pt and Rh for parasites. These precious metals are used in catalytic converters of cars for exhaust gas purification in Europe since the early 1980s. In addition to the beneficial effect in reducing the emission of CHx, CO and NOx of cars there is an increasing emission of these metals. However, it still remains unclear if these elements become accumulated in the biosphere and whether they affect the health of organisms. The present study reveals that in European eels (Anguilla anguilla) naturally infected with the eoacanthocephalan parasite Paratenuisentis ambiguus and experimentally exposed to ground catalytic converter material, the parasites take up and accumulate the catalytic active metals Pt and Rh whereas in the examined host tissues we found no metal uptake. Compared with the PGM concentrations in the water the worms contained 1600 times higher Rh and 50 times higher Pt concentrations. Thus, the parasites can be used as sentinel organisms reflecting even very low levels of precious metals. PMID:12547529

  4. Comparison of the metal accumulation capacity between the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis and larval nematodes of the genus Eustrongylides sp. infecting barbel (Barbus barbus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metal uptake and accumulation in fish parasites largely depends on the parasite group with acanthocephalans showing the highest accumulation rates. Additionally, developmental stage (larvae or adult) as well as parasite location in the host are suggested to be decisive factors for metal bioconcentration in parasites. By using barbel (Barbus barbus) simultaneously infected with nematode larvae in the body cavity and adult acanthocephalans in the intestine, the relative importance of all of these factors was compared in the same host. Methods Eleven elements Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se), Tin (Sn), Vanadium (V) and Zinc (Zn) were analyzed in barbel tissues (muscle, intestine, liver) as well as in their acanthocephalan parasites Pomphorhynchus laevis and the larval nematode Eustrongylides sp. (L4) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results Nine elements were detected in significantly higher levels in the parasites compared to host tissues. The element composition among parasites was found to be strongly dependent on parasite taxa/developmental stage and localization within the host. Intestinal acanthocephalans accumulated mainly toxic elements (As, Cd, Pb), whereas the intraperitoneal nematodes bioconcentrated essential elements (Co, Cu, Fe, Se, Zn). Conclusion Our results suggest that in addition to acanthocephalans, nematodes such as Eustrongylides sp. can also be applied as bioindicators for metal pollution. Using both parasite taxa simultaneously levels of a wide variety of elements (essential and non essential) can easily be obtained. Therefore this host-parasite system can be suggested as an appropriate tool for future metal monitoring studies, if double infected fish hosts are available. PMID:23332036

  5. [Dependence of the structure of the capsule surrounding the acanthocephalan Corynosoma strumosum on the species of its natural paratenic host].

    PubMed

    Skorobrekhova, E M; Nikishin, V P

    2013-01-01

    The fine and ultrafine structure of the capsules surrounding the acanthocephalan Corynosoma strumosum in natural paratenic hosts of three species--the whitespotted greenling Hexagrammos stelleri, Steller's sculpin Myoxocephalus stelleri, and the saffron cod Eleginus gracilis--was studied. The results of this study, together with earlier data, support the hypothesis that the structure of the capsule depends on the paratenic host species. Three types of capsules differing in the ratio of fibroblasts and inflammatory cells have been identified: fibroblastic (in Japanese smelt, rainbow smelt, and saffron cod), intermediate (in whitespotted greenling), and leukocytic (in Steller's sculpin and the yellowfin sole). It was assumed that the structure of the capsule is determined by the degree of mutual adaptation of organisms in a given host-parasite system. PMID:25518556

  6. Acanthocephalan fish parasites (Rhadinorhynchidae Lühe, 1912) as potential biomarkers: Molecular-chemical screening by pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinertz, S.; Eckhardt, K.-U.; Theisen, S.; Palm, H. W.; Leinweber, P.

    2016-07-01

    The present study represents the first molecular-chemical screening by pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry applied on fish parasites. A total of 71 fishes from Balinese fish markets, 36 Auxis rochei (Risso, 1810) and 35 A. thazard (Lacepède, 1800), were studied for their acanthocephalan parasites. This is the first record of Rhadinorhynchus zhukovi in Balinese waters, Indonesia, and we describe for the first time A. rochei and A. thazard as R. zhukovi hosts. Using this method, small scale variations within the chemical compounds of acanthocephalans could be detected. Using this methodology it will be possible to generate additional, pollutant specific information from aquatic habitats in future with the potential of a new bioindicator application for parasite/host origin and/or environmental pollution.

  7. Effects of the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus and the microsporidian Dictyocoela duebenum on energy reserves and stress response of cadmium exposed Gammarus fossarum

    PubMed Central

    Nachev, Milen; Shih, Hsiu-Hui; Sures, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Amphipods are commonly parasitized by acanthocephalans and microsporidians and co-infections are found frequently. Both groups of parasites are known to have severe effects on their host. For example, microsporidians can modify host sex ratio and acanthocephalans can manipulate the behavior of the amphipod to promote transmission to the final host. These effects influence host metabolism in general and will also affect the ability of amphipods to cope with additional stressors such as environmental pollution, e.g., by toxic metals. Here we tested the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of cadmium on glycogen and lipid levels, as well as on the 70kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) response of field collected Gammarus fossarum, which were naturally infected with microsporidians and the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus. Infected and uninfected G. fossarum were exposed to a nominal Cd concentration of 4 µg/L, which resembled measured aqueous Cd concentration of 2.9 µg/L in reconstituted water for 7 d at 15 °C in parallel to an unexposed control. After exposure gammarids were snap frozen, weighed, sexed and tested for microsporidian infection by PCR. Only individuals containing the microsporidian Dictyocoela duebenum were used for the further biochemical and metal analyses. P. minutus infected amphipods were significantly smaller than their uninfected conspecifics. Mortality was insignificantly increased due to cadmium exposure, but not due to parasite infection. Microsporidian infection in combination with cadmium exposure led to increased glycogen levels in female gammarids. An increase of glycogen was also found due to interaction of acanthocephalan and microsporidian infection. Elevated lipid levels were observed in all groups infected with microsporidians, while acanthocephalans had the opposite effect. A positive correlation of lipid and glycogen levels was observed. The general stress response measured in form of hsp70 was significantly increased in

  8. Effects of the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus and the microsporidian Dictyocoela duebenum on energy reserves and stress response of cadmium exposed Gammarus fossarum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Yu; Grabner, Daniel S; Nachev, Milen; Shih, Hsiu-Hui; Sures, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Amphipods are commonly parasitized by acanthocephalans and microsporidians and co-infections are found frequently. Both groups of parasites are known to have severe effects on their host. For example, microsporidians can modify host sex ratio and acanthocephalans can manipulate the behavior of the amphipod to promote transmission to the final host. These effects influence host metabolism in general and will also affect the ability of amphipods to cope with additional stressors such as environmental pollution, e.g., by toxic metals. Here we tested the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of cadmium on glycogen and lipid levels, as well as on the 70kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) response of field collected Gammarus fossarum, which were naturally infected with microsporidians and the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus. Infected and uninfected G. fossarum were exposed to a nominal Cd concentration of 4 µg/L, which resembled measured aqueous Cd concentration of 2.9 µg/L in reconstituted water for 7 d at 15 °C in parallel to an unexposed control. After exposure gammarids were snap frozen, weighed, sexed and tested for microsporidian infection by PCR. Only individuals containing the microsporidian Dictyocoela duebenum were used for the further biochemical and metal analyses. P. minutus infected amphipods were significantly smaller than their uninfected conspecifics. Mortality was insignificantly increased due to cadmium exposure, but not due to parasite infection. Microsporidian infection in combination with cadmium exposure led to increased glycogen levels in female gammarids. An increase of glycogen was also found due to interaction of acanthocephalan and microsporidian infection. Elevated lipid levels were observed in all groups infected with microsporidians, while acanthocephalans had the opposite effect. A positive correlation of lipid and glycogen levels was observed. The general stress response measured in form of hsp70 was significantly increased in

  9. New and already known acanthocephalans mostly from mammals in Vietnam, with descriptions of two new genera and species in Archiacanthocephala.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Ha, Ngyuen Van; Heckmann, Richard A

    2008-02-01

    Adults of 2 new species and 2 new genera of acanthocephalans in class Archiacanthocephala, collected between 1998 and 2004 in Vietnam from the intestines of mammals, are described, i.e., Cucullanorhynchus constrictruncatus n. gen., n. sp. (Oligacanthorhynchidae) from a leopard Panthera pardus (Linnaeus) (Mammalia: Felidae) and Paraprosthenorchis ornatus n. gen. n. sp. (Oligacanthorhynchidae) from the Chinese pangolin Manis pentadactyla (Linnaeus) (Mammalia: Manidae). Adult Sphaerechinorhynchus macropisthospinus Amin, Wongsawad, Marayong, Saehoong, Suwattanacoupt, and Sey, 1998 (Plagiorhynchidae) are described for the first time from 2 females collected from a tiger Panthera tigris (Linnaeus) (Mammalia: Felidae) and from 1 male from a water monitor Varanus salvator Laurenti (Reptilia: Varanidae). Characteristic features distinguishing the new species or genera from related taxa are as follows. The trunk of C. constrictruncatus has an anterior hood in both sexes and a posterior constriction in females. The anterior trunk of P. ornatus has many small festoons and proboscis hooks are inserted in elevated papillae separated by beady, near hexagonal, ornate grids. PMID:18372641

  10. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the acanthocephalan Prosthenorchis elegans in Colombia based on cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequence

    PubMed Central

    Falla, Ana Carolina; Brieva, Claudia; Bloor, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Prosthenorchis elegans is a member of the Phylum Acanthocephala and is an important parasite affecting New World Primates in the wild in South America and in captivity around the world. It is of significant management concern due to its pathogenicity and mode of transmission through intermediate hosts. Current diagnosis of P. elegans is based on the detection of eggs by coprological examination. However, this technique lacks both specificity and sensitivity, since eggs of most members of the genus are morphologically indistinguishable and shed intermittently, making differential diagnosis difficult, and coprological examinations are often negative in animals severely infected at death. We examined sequence variation in 633 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequence in 37 isolates of P. elegans from New World monkeys (Saguinus leucopus and Cebus albifrons) in Colombia held in rescue centers and from the wild. Intraspecific divergence ranged from 0.0 to 1.6% and was comparable with corresponding values within other species of acanthocephalans. Furthermore, comparisons of patterns of sequence divergence within the Acanthocephala suggest that Prosthenorchis represents a separate genus within the Oligacanthorhynchida. Six distinct haplotypes were identified within P. elegans which grouped into one of two well-supported mtDNA haplogroups. No association between haplogroup/haplotype, holding facility and species was found. This information will help pave the way to the development of molecular-based diagnostic tools for the detection of P. elegans as well as furthering research into the life cycle, intermediate hosts and epidemiological aspects of the species. PMID:26759793

  11. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the acanthocephalan Prosthenorchis elegans in Colombia based on cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Falla, Ana Carolina; Brieva, Claudia; Bloor, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Prosthenorchis elegans is a member of the Phylum Acanthocephala and is an important parasite affecting New World Primates in the wild in South America and in captivity around the world. It is of significant management concern due to its pathogenicity and mode of transmission through intermediate hosts. Current diagnosis of P. elegans is based on the detection of eggs by coprological examination. However, this technique lacks both specificity and sensitivity, since eggs of most members of the genus are morphologically indistinguishable and shed intermittently, making differential diagnosis difficult, and coprological examinations are often negative in animals severely infected at death. We examined sequence variation in 633 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequence in 37 isolates of P. elegans from New World monkeys (Saguinus leucopus and Cebus albifrons) in Colombia held in rescue centers and from the wild. Intraspecific divergence ranged from 0.0 to 1.6% and was comparable with corresponding values within other species of acanthocephalans. Furthermore, comparisons of patterns of sequence divergence within the Acanthocephala suggest that Prosthenorchis represents a separate genus within the Oligacanthorhynchida. Six distinct haplotypes were identified within P. elegans which grouped into one of two well-supported mtDNA haplogroups. No association between haplogroup/haplotype, holding facility and species was found. This information will help pave the way to the development of molecular-based diagnostic tools for the detection of P. elegans as well as furthering research into the life cycle, intermediate hosts and epidemiological aspects of the species. PMID:26759793

  12. Bioaccumulation of six PCB indicator congeners in a heavily polluted water reservoir in Eastern Slovakia: tissue-specific distribution in fish and their parasites.

    PubMed

    Brázová, Tímea; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Miklisová, Dana

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of six indicator PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) were measured in several organs and adipose tissue of a freshwater predatory fishes (European perch, northern pike, pike perch, wels catfish) as well as in nonpredators (common carp, freshwater bream, goldfish, white bream) and in acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii from the water reservoir Zemplínska šírava (Eastern Slovakia), which is considered to be one of the most PCB-contaminated places in Europe. Concentration of PCBs was determined by capillary gas chromatography in samples from May to September 2009. The two-way main-effect ANOVA confirmed that feeding habits of fish (P < 0.00001) and peculiarity of individual fish organs (P < 0.01) affect PCB bioaccumulation. The total amount of PCBs was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in predators compared to nonpredators. Tissue-specific differences were found in PCB accumulation in both fish groups. PCBs were predominantly accumulated in the liver and hard roe. Individual congeners were not distributed homogeneously within the investigated organs and adipose tissue. PCB 153 was present in higher concentrations than the other congeners in all fish organs as well as in adipose tissue comprising an average 31 and 34 % of ΣPCB in predators and nonpredators, respectively. Acanthocephalans, attached to the intestine of perch, absorbed significantly higher concentrations of PCBs (P < 0.001) than the muscles, liver, kidney, brain, and adipose tissue of their host. About 20 times lower amount of PCBs was detected in the liver and almost 3 times in muscles of infected perch. Data on PCB accumulation in perch infected with acanthocephalans demonstrated a decline of PCB values in all organs as well as in adipose tissue compared to noninfected fish. About 20 times lower amount of PCBs was detected in the liver and almost 3 times in muscles of infected perch. Present results could indicate that some parasitic organisms may

  13. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the host-parasite system of the cod Gadus morhua and acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus gadi from the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Podolska, M; Nadolna, K; Szostakowska, B

    2014-02-15

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity measurement is widely used as a specific biomarker of neurotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate AChE activity in a host fish (the cod) and its acanthocephalan parasite Echinorhynchus gadi from the southern Baltic. AChE activity in hosts and parasites was inversely related: the highest cod AChE activity corresponded to the lowest E. gadi enzymatic activity and vice versa ("mirror effect"). This is the first report on the simultaneous application of this biomarker in cod and its acanthocephalan parasites. Results obtained for the host-parasite system are complementary and provide comprehensive information about the response of this biomarker. Analysis of the system allows for detection of a greater number of factors influencing AChE activity in the marine environment than separate analysis of the host and parasites. Thus, AChE activity measurement in a host-parasite system may be considered to be a promising tool for biomonitoring. PMID:24393378

  14. New and already known acanthocephalans from amphibians and reptiles in Vietnam, with keys to species of Pseudoacanthocephalus Petrochenko, 1956 (Echinorhynchidae) and Sphaerechinorhynchus Johnston and Deland, 1929 (Plagiorhynchidae).

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Ha, Ngyuen Van; Heckmann, Richard A

    2008-02-01

    Adults of 2 new species in 2 orders of acanthocephalans obtained from the intestines of terrestrial amphibians and reptiles collected between 1998 and 2004 in Vietnam are described here. Pseudoacanthocephalus nguyenthileae n. sp. (Palaeacnthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) was collected from 5 species of terrestrial amphibians: (1) the common Sunda toad Bufo melanostictus Schneider (Bufonidae); (2) Paa verucospinosa (Bourret); (3) Gunther's Amoy frog Rana guentheri Boulenger; (4) Taipei frog R. taipehensis Denburgh (Ranidae), and (5) the Burmese whipping frog Polypedates mutus (Smith) (Racophoridae); as well as from the Chinese cobra Naja atra Cantor (Reptilia: Elapidae) and house gecko Hemidactylus frenatus Dumeril and Bibron (Reptilia: Gekkonidae). Sphaerechinorhynchus maximesospinus n. sp. (Plagiorhynchidae: Sphaerechinorhynchinae) was isolated from a king cobra Ophiophagus hannah (cantor) (Reptilia: Elapidae). Cystacanths of Porrorchis houdemeri (Joyeux and Baer, 1935) Schmidt and Kuntz, 1967 (Plagiorhynchidae: Porrorchinae) obtained from the mesenteries of banded krait Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider) (Reptilia: Elapidae), a paratenic host, are reported for the first time. Keys to the species of Pseudoacanthocephalus and Sphaerechinorhynchus are included. Characteristic features distinguishing the new species from related taxa include: P. nguyenthileae has 15-19 (usually 16-18) proboscis hook rows, each with 5-6 hooks that progressively increase in length and size posteriorly. The largest, intermediate, and smallest proboscis hooks of S. maximesospinus are the middle, anterior, and posterior hooks, respectively; the proboscis and neck are enclosed in a membrane. Morphometric characteristics of P. nguyenthileae show host-related variability. PMID:18372639

  15. Acanthocephalan Cystacanths from Flatfish (Order Pleuronectiformes) in Tropical Australian Waters.

    PubMed

    Barton, Diane P; Smales, Lesley R

    2015-08-01

    Cystacanths of 4 species of Acanthocephala are reported for the first time from various species of fish belonging to the Order Pleuronectiformes from waters of the western Gulf of Carpentaria and the central coast of Queensland, Australia: Corynosoma cetaceum Johnston and Best, 1942 (Family Polymorphidae), Serrasentis cf. sagittifer (Linton, 1889) and Rhadinorhynchus sp. (Family Rhadinorhynchidae), and Gorgorhynchoides sp. (Family Isthmosacanthidae). Approximately 32% of the 515 individual fish belonging to 24 species were infected with at least 1 cystacanth. Serrasentis cf. sagittifer was the most-commonly encountered, infecting a total of 18 species of fish across both regions. Gorgorhynchoides sp. infected 7 fish species in the Gulf of Carpentaria only while Rhadinorhynchus sp. (1 fish species) and C. cetaceum (7 fish species) were only found on the central coast of Queensland. Most fish were infected with a single cystacanth of any species. There was no relationship between total length of fish and intensity of infection for any species. This paper provides information on parasite infections in fish hosts commonly caught as by-catch and outlines the need for further studies on these fish to be able to determine sustainability of such fish stocks. PMID:25807200

  16. Parasite Manipulation of Host Behaviour: Acanthocephalans and Shrimps in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, A. F.; Thompson, D. B. A.

    1986-01-01

    Describes three experiments for undergraduates which illustrate associations of parasites with their host. Includes a table of parasite-induced alterations of selected host species. Instructional suggestions are also provided. (ML)

  17. An acanthocephalan parasite increases the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli (Crustacea: Gammaridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. S.; Chan, J. C. L.; Cheng, W. C.; Tai, S. L.; Wong, P. W.

    2007-08-01

    This study examines the convection distribution associated with 18 TCs that made landfall along the South China coast during 1995 and 2005. Cloud-top temperatures from high-resolution satellite imageries of the Geosynchronous Meteorological Satellite 5 are used as proxy of strong convection. It is found that convection tends to be enhanced on the western side of the TC as it makes landfall in 10 of the cases, in agreement with the conclusion of some previous studies. Four cases have stronger convection on the eastern side. This “deviation” from the general rule appears to be related to the TCs being more slow-moving or their interaction of the TC with another land surface prior to its making landfall along the South China coast. For the remaining cases in which no significant asymmetries in convection can be identified, the vertical wind shear appears to enhance convection on the east side.

  18. Parasite-induced alteration of odour responses in an amphipod-acanthocephalan system.

    PubMed

    Stone, Charles F; Moore, Janice

    2014-11-01

    Odour-related behaviours in aquatic invertebrates are important and effective anti-predator behaviours. Parasites often alter invertebrate host behaviours to increase transmission to hosts. This study investigated the responses of the amphipod Hyalella azteca when presented with two predator chemical cues: (i) alarm pheromones produced by conspecifics and (ii) kairomones produced by a predatory Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus). We compared the responses of amphipods uninfected and infected with the acanthocepalan parasite Leptorhynchiodes thecatus. Uninfected amphipods reduced activity and increased refuge use after detecting both the alarm pheromones and predator kairomones. Infected amphipods spent significantly more time being active and less time on the refuge than uninfected amphipods, and behaved as if they had not detected the chemical stimulus. Therefore, L. thecatus infections disrupt the amphipods' anti-predator behaviours and likely make their hosts more susceptible to predation. PMID:25200352

  19. Human infection by acanthocephalan parasites belonging to the genus Corynosoma found from small bowel endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Tomoki; Waga, Eriko; Kitaoka, Keisuke; Imagawa, Takayuki; Komatsu, Yuuya; Takanashi, Kunihiro; Anbo, Fumie; Anbo, Tomonori; Katuki, Shinichi; Ichihara, Shin; Fujimori, Shunji; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Katahira, Hirotaka

    2016-10-01

    A 73-year-old man with a suspected ileus in January 2013 and subsequently suffered melena in February 2014 was endoscopically examined. As a result of the examinations, unidentified species of Corynosoma sp. and Corynosoma villosum were recovered from the small intestine, further endoscopic diagnosis suggested relevance between abdominal pain and the present infections in the small intestine. The recovered worms were composed of gravid females with developed eggs, suggesting that these parasites can survive for a long time in the intestine after infection. In this case, the short interval between infections appears to be due to the individual's eating habits which consist of regularly consuming uncooked seafood. PMID:27396515

  20. New morphological data on the acanthocephalan Hypoechinorhynchus magellanicus Szidat, 1950 (Palaeacanthocephala: Arhythmacanthidae).

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Zdzisław; Zdzitowiecki, Krzysztof

    2008-03-01

    Hypoechinorhynchus magellanicus Szidat, 1950 (Acanthocephala: Arhythmacanthidae) is redescribed based on specimens collected from a sub-Antarctic notothenioid fish, Champsocephalus esox (Günther). The host was caught in the Beagle Channel (Magellanic sub-region). H. magellanicus has a trunk with an antero-dorsal curvature, a spherical proboscis, spines on the anterior region of the trunk, narrow lemnisci which are considerably longer than the proboscis receptacle, six cement glands and a single vaginal sphincter. The proboscis is armed with 40 hooks, including 15 large hooks with roots and 25 rootless basal spines. The large hooks are arranged in 10 alternate rows of one and two hooks. Each single large hook is followed by two spines, and pairs of large hooks are followed by single spines. Ten single spines are also present at the base of the proboscis between the rows. The eggs have polar prolongations of the middle envelope. PMID:18210217

  1. Parasites of Bloater Coregonus hoyi (Salmonidae) from Lake Michigan, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Muzzall, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    In total, 158 bloaters Coregonus hoyi collected in September and October 2011 from 4 Lake Michigan, U.S.A., ports were examined for parasites. The ports included Waukegan (WK), Illinois; Port Washington (PW) and Sturgeon Bay (SB), Wisconsin; and Saugatuck (SG), Michigan. Parasites found in bloaters by port were cestodes Cyathocephalus truncatus (WK, PW, and SB) and Eubothrium salvelini (WK, PW, SB, and SG); the nematode Cystidicola farionis (WK, PW, SB, and SG); acanthocephalans Acanthocephalus dirus (WK and PW), Echinorhynchus salmonis (WK, PW, and SB), and Neoechinorhynchus tumidus (SB); and the copepod Salmincola corpulentus (WK and PW). Gravid individuals of all parasite species were found except for E. salvelini and A. dirus. Cystidicola farionis had the highest prevalence at each port, and the highest mean intensity and mean abundance at PW. The numbers of C. farionis at PW were significantly higher than those at WK and SB. Echinorhynchus salvelini had the highest mean intensities and mean abundances at WK, SB, and SG. The values for parasite species richness in bloaters were similar among ports. The total numbers of parasites were similar between WK and PW, but they were higher at these ports than at SB. The parasite faunas of bloaters were characterized by autogenic helminth species.

  2. Helminth parasite communities of two Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826 (Anura: Leiuperidae) populations under different conditions of habitat integrity in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, A; Toledo, G M; Anjos, L A; Silva, R J

    2015-11-01

    Adults of Physalaemus cuvieri were collected and necropsied between November 2009 and January 2010. This was carried out in order to report and compare the helminth fauna associated with two populations of this anuran species from the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest under different conditions of habitat integrity. The hosts from the disturbed area were parasitized with five helminth taxa: Cosmocerca parva, Aplectana sp., Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., Oswaldocruzia subauricularis (Nematoda) and Polystoma cuvieri (Monogenea) while those from the preserved area had four helminth taxa: C. parva, Aplectana sp., Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., and Acanthocephalus saopaulensis (Acanthocephala). Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance, mean richness, importance index and dominance frequency of helminth component communities were similar in both areas. The helminth community associated with anurans from the disturbed area had higher diversity than that from the preserved area. This study is the first to report on the acanthocephalan parasites of Ph. cuvieri, and the similarity between helminth fauna composition of two host populations under different selective pressures. PMID:26675914

  3. Invasive Ponto-Caspian Amphipods and Fish Increase the Distribution Range of the Acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis in the River Rhine

    PubMed Central

    Emde, Sebastian; Rueckert, Sonja; Palm, Harry W.; Klimpel, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Non-indigenous species that become invasive are one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. In various freshwater systems in Europe, populations of native amphipods and fish are progressively displaced by highly adaptive non-indigenous species that can perform explosive range extensions. A total of 40 Ponto-Caspian round gobies Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River near Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, were examined for metazoan parasites and feeding ecology. Three metazoan parasite species were found: two Nematoda and one Acanthocephala. The two Nematoda, Raphidascaris acus and Paracuaria adunca, had a low prevalence of 2.5%. The Acanthocephala, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis, was the predominant parasite species, reaching a level of 90.0% prevalence in the larval stage, correlated with fish size. In addition, four invasive amphipod species, Corophium curvispinum (435 specimens), Dikerogammarus villosus (5,454), Echinogammarus trichiatus (2,695) and Orchestia cavimana (1,448) were trapped at the sampling site. Only D. villosus was infected with P. tereticollis at a prevalence of 0.04%. The invasive goby N. melanostomus mainly preys on these non-indigenous amphipods, and may have replaced native amphipods in the transmission of P. tereticollis into the vertebrate paratenic host. This study gives insight into a potential parasite-host system that consists mainly of invasive species, such as the Ponto-Caspian fish and amphipods in the Rhine. We discuss prospective distribution and migration pathways of non-indigenous vertebrate (round goby) and invertebrates (amphipods) under special consideration of parasite dispersal. PMID:23300895

  4. A new acanthocephalan species (Archiacanthocephala: Oligacanthorhynchidae) from the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous ) in the Brazilian pantanal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ana Paula N; Olifiers, Natalie; Souza, Joyce G R; Barbosa, Helene S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2015-02-01

    A new species of Oligacanthorhynchidae (Acanthocephala) Prosthenorchis cerdocyonis n. sp. is described from 17 specimens collected from the small intestine of the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766 (Canidae: Carnivora) found in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands. Specimens were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. Characteristic features distinguishing the new species from others already described are presented, such as size of the body, the position of lemnisci, size of the eggs, host, and geographical distribution. Details of the body surface obtained by scanning electron microscopy, such as the presence of 2 lateral papillae in the proximal region of the proboscis, the presence of barbs in hooks, and a robust and festooned collar, helped to identify the species. Until now, specimens belonging to Prosthenorchis reported from Cerdocyon thous were not identified to species. Furthermore, the new species is the first to be recorded in C. thous found in the Pantanal wetlands. PMID:25291295

  5. Does the acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus modify the energy reserves and antitoxic defences of its intermediate host Gammarus roeseli?

    PubMed

    Gismondi, E; Cossu-Leguille, C; Beisel, J-N

    2012-07-01

    In disturbed environments, infected organisms have to face both parasitic and chemical stresses. Although this situation is common, few studies have been devoted to the effects of infection on hosts' energy reserves and antitoxic defence capacities, while parasite survival depends on host survival. In this study, we tested the consequences of an infection by Polymorphus minutus on the energy reserves (protein, lipid and glycogen) and antioxidant defence capacities (reduced glutathione, γ-glutamylcysteine ligase activity) of Gammarus roeseli males and females, in the absence of chemical stress. Moreover, malondialdehyde concentration was used as a toxicity biomarker. The results revealed that in infected G. roeseli, whatever their gender and the sampling month, protein and lipid contents were lower, but glycogen contents were higher. This could be explained by the fact that the parasite diverts part of the host's energy for its own development. Moreover, glutathione concentrations and γ-glutamylcysteine ligase activity were both lower, which could lead to lower antitoxic defence in the host. These results suggest negative effects on individuals in the case of additional stress (e.g. pollutant exposure). In the absence of chemical stress, the lower malondialdehyde level in infected gammarids could imply a probable protective effect of the parasite. PMID:22405348

  6. A new oligacanthorhynchid acanthocephalan described from the great horned owl, Bubo virginianus (Strigidae), and red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis (Accipitridae), from central Arizona, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Bolette, David P

    2007-02-01

    Oligacanthorhynchus nickoli n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Oligacanthorhynchidae) is described from the great-horned owl, Bubo virginianus (Gmelin, 1788) (type host), and red-tailed hawk, Buteojamaicensis (Gmelin, 1788), collected in central Arizona. The new species is most similar to Oligacanthorhynchus iheringi and Oligacanthorhynchus minor, but it differs from all congeners primarily by trunk length, proboscis size and armature, egg size, geographical range, and host species. It is distinguished from the 9 Oligacanthorhynchus species occurring in avian hosts from both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Descriptions of juvenile forms of O. nickoli from the intestine of B. jamaicensis are provided from recently ingested cystacanths with everted proboscides. PMID:17436950

  7. High serotonin levels due to the presence of the acanthocephalan Hexaglandula corynosoma could promote changes in behavior of the fiddler crab Uca spinicarpa.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Campos, Ruth A; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna; Pérez-Vega, Juan A; González-Salas, Carlos; Guillén-Hernández, Sergio

    2012-05-15

    Between February and June 2010, 113 fiddler crabs Uca spinicarpa were collected from the Chuburna lagoon system on the northern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, México. Of the 68 crabs gathered outside their burrows, 13 were infected with 25 cystacanths of Hexaglandula corynosoma (intensity of infection from 1 to 5) and the remaining 55 crabs were uninfected. The other 45 crabs were found inside their burrows and only one was found infected with 1 cystacanth of H. corynosoma. Serotonin (5-HT) levels were higher in the group of crabs infected with H. corynosoma in contrast to the group of uninfected crabs and the group of those infected with other parasites. A redundancy analysis corroborated a positive relationship between 5-HT and the intensity of infection with H. corynosoma. In contrast, dopamine levels remained similar among different groups of crabs. PMID:22585302

  8. Parasite communities in eels of the Island of Reunion (Indian Ocean): a lesson in parasite introduction.

    PubMed

    Sasal, Pierre; Taraschewski, Horst; Valade, Pierre; Grondin, Henri; Wielgoss, Sébastien; Moravec, Frantisek

    2008-05-01

    Eel populations from the small rivers on the Island of Reunion (French Overseas Department in the Indian Ocean) were investigated with respect to the occurrence and abundance of helminths during the autumn of 2005. The native species Anguilla marmorata (n = 80), Anguilla bicolor (n = 23), and Anguilla mossambica (n = 15) were studied. Six species of helminths were identified, four of them having a definitely nonnative status. Furthermore, unidentified intra-intestinal juvenile cestodes and extra-intestinal encapsulated anisakid nematode larvae were present in a few eels. We found that the invasive swim bladder nematode Anguillicoloides (Anguillicola) crassus had been introduced into the island. Six specimens were collected, four from A. marmorata, one from A. bicolor and one from A. mossambica. The maximum intensity of infection was two worms. The other helminths also showed a low abundance. These species were the monogenean gill worms Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae and Pseudodactylogyrus bini and the intestinal parasites Bothriocephalus claviceps (Cestodes), Paraquimperia africana (Nematodes), and the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus reunionensis Warner, Sasal, and Taraschewski, 2007. The latter species, found as intra-intestinal immatures, is thought to utilize amphibians as required hosts; its status, introduced or native, could not be determined. P. africana was described from A. mossambica in South Africa and has not been recorded outside Africa. The other species are known from populations of European and American eels. However, A. crassus and the two Pseudodactylogyrus species originate from East Asia, where they are indigenous parasites of Anguilla japonica. Both an assignment test based on seven specific microsatellite loci and subsequent sequencing of mitochondrial haplotypes of a partial fragment of cytochrome c oxidase 1 strongly suggest that the A. crassus may originated around the Baltic Sea. According to the results presented here, populations of the

  9. Metazoan parasites of Mystus vittatus (Bloch) of River Godavari with description of a new species of Acanthocephala, Raosentis godavarensis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Vankara, Anu Prasanna; Vijayalakshmi, C

    2009-12-01

    A total of 9 metazoan parasitic species were identified from Mystus vittatus (Bloch) in river Godavari during 2005-2007 including 2 monogeneans, 2 digeneans, 3 acanthocephalans and 2 copepods. Two species of monogeneans (Bifurcohaptor indicus and Thaparocleidus tengra), digeneans (Haplorchoides macrones and metacercariae of Isoparorchis hypselobagri), an acanthocephalan (Raosentis podderi) found during the present study are of common occurrence in this fish. M. vittatus constitutes a new host record for an acanthocephalan, Raosentis thapari and 2 copepods, Argulus striatus and Lamproglena hospetensis. The occurrence of A. striatus represents unusual for M. vittatus. A new species of acanthocephala, Raosentis godavarensis sp. nov is reported, described and illustrated. PMID:23129893

  10. A checklist of the helminth parasites of marine mammals from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús S; Viola, M Natalia Paso; García, Néstor A; Crespo, Enrique A; González, Raúl; García-Varela, Martín; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Based on published records and new data accumulated by the authors, we generated a list of the helminth parasites of marine mammals from off the coast of Argentina. We found 49 reports of helminths parasitizing cetaceans and pinnipeds from Argentina from 1952 to 2015. The list includes 54 taxa of helminths (8 acanthocephalans, 24 nematodes, 11 cestodes and 11 trematodes) associated with 18 species of cetaceans and 5 species of pinnipeds. Most of the records represent adults (5 acanthocephalans, 16 nematodes, 6 cestodes and 11 trematodes), followed by larvae (10 nematodes and 3 metacestodes) and juveniles (4 acanthocephalans and 2 cestodes). The checklist contains 24 named species (5 acanthocephalans, 8 nematodes, 4 cestodes and 7 trematodes) and 30 undetermined helminth taxa (3 acanthocephalans, 16 nematodes, 7 cestodes and 4 trematodes). The present account contains a parasite/host lists and information on the habitat, developmental stage and distribution of the parasites listed, repositories of their type and voucher specimens and references. A host-parasite list is also presented. The data compiled on the helminth of marine mammals from Argentina in the present study revealed gaps in the knowledge of their taxonomic identification, composition, distribution, host specificity and life cycles. These gaps are also briefly discussed in order to provide an outline for future research. PMID:25947439

  11. Comparison between lead accumulation of Pomphorhynchus laevis (Palaeacanthocephala) in the intestine of chub (Leuciscus cephalus) and in the body cavity of goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus).

    PubMed

    Sures, B; Siddall, R

    2001-05-15

    This experimental study assessed the role of the microhabitat in the uptake of metals by adult acanthocephalans. We examined the accumulation of lead by adult Pomphorhynchus laevis in the intestine of chub (Leuciscus cephalus) and compared it with that in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, in which the parasites penetrate the intestinal wall and enter the body cavity. Chub and goldfish experimentally infected with adult Pomphorhynchus laevis were exposed to 0.01 mg l(-1) Pb(2+) over 3 weeks. Lead was rapidly accumulated in the intestinal acanthocephalans reaching a mean concentration of 7.3 microg g(-1). This concentration was significantly greater than in the host muscle, liver and intestine and more than 730 times higher than the exposure concentration. Intraperitoneal P. laevis in goldfish exposed to lead did not accumulate the metal. Thus, it was conclusively shown that metal accumulation in acanthocephalans is associated with the intestinal location and does not occur in the body cavity. PMID:11336747

  12. Responses of Squalius cephalus intestinal mucous cells to Pomphorhynchus laevis.

    PubMed

    Bosi, Giampaolo; Sayyaf Dezfuli, Bahram

    2015-04-01

    Intestinal mucous cell numbers and their glycoconjugate composition were investigated by histochemical methods in uninfected chub, Squalius cephalus, and in conspecifics naturally parasitised with the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis. A sub-population of 42 chub from the River Tiber (Perugia, Italy) were sampled and screened for ecto and endoparasites. No parasites were found in gills and in other visceral organs of chub and P. laevis appeared to be the only enteric worm encountered. In all infected chub (twenty-eight out of 42) this acanthocephalan was encountered mainly in the mid-gut. In situ, an excessive yellowish mucus or catarrh was observed around each acanthocephalan. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the mucous cells were only evident near the site of P. laevis attachment where the total number of mucous cells and the number of those containing acidic, particularly non-sulphated mucins, or mixed glycoconjugates were significantly higher. In intestinal regions of infected fish far away from the point of parasite attachment, there were no statistical differences in the density of mucous cells in comparison to uninfected fish. Interestingly, in parasitised chub, the length of intestinal folds was significantly larger close to the sites at which P. laevis attach when compared to the length of the intestinal folds located further away from the acanthocephalans and/or in uninfected intestines. The effect of P. laevis on intestinal mucous cells of S. cephalus was compared to other parasite-host systems and the role of enhanced mucus production in parasitized intestines was discussed. PMID:25486440

  13. The occurrence of Echinorhynchus salmonis Müller, 1784 in benthic amphipods in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Benesh, Daniel P; Aura, Raija-Liisa; Andersin, Ann-Britt; Tellervo Valtonen, E

    2015-01-01

    The acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus salmonis Müller, 1784 is a common parasite of salmonid fish, but it has rarely been reported from an intermediate host. Samples of benthic amphipods, Monoporeia affinis (Lindström), were taken from multiple, deep sites (usually below 70 m) in the Gulf of Bothnia over the course of more than a decade and examined for acanthocephalans. Overall, only 0.44% of 23 296 amphipods were infected, all with just a single worm. This prevalence is consistent with several previous reports of acanthocephalans in deep-water, benthic amphipods, but it appears low compared to that often reported for acanthocephalan species infecting littoral amphipods. Parasite occurrence did not exhibit a clear regional pattern (i.e. northern vs southern sites) nor did it have any relationship with site depth. At sites sampled over multiple years, parasite abundance was consistently low (mostly < 0.01), though two spikes in abundance (over 0.06) were also observed, indicating that infection can be substantially higher at particular times or in particular places. The median density of E. salmonis in samples containing the parasite was estimated as 8.4 cystacanths per m(2). PMID:26373577

  14. EST based phylogenomics of Syndermata questions monophyly of Eurotatoria

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The metazoan taxon Syndermata comprising Rotifera (in the classical sense of Monogononta+Bdelloidea+Seisonidea) and Acanthocephala has raised several hypotheses connected to the phylogeny of these animal groups and the included subtaxa. While the monophyletic origin of Syndermata and Acanthocephala is well established based on morphological and molecular data, the phylogenetic position of Syndermata within Spiralia, the monophyletic origin of Monogononta, Bdelloidea, and Seisonidea and the acanthocephalan sister group are still a matter of debate. The comparison of the alternative hypotheses suggests that testing the phylogenetic validity of Eurotatoria (Monogononta+Bdelloidea) is the key to unravel the phylogenetic relations within Syndermata. The syndermatan phylogeny in turn is a prerequisite for reconstructing the evolution of the acanthocephalan endoparasitism. Results Here we present our results from a phylogenomic approach studying i) the phylogenetic position of Syndermata within Spiralia, ii) the monophyletic origin of monogononts and bdelloids and iii) the phylogenetic relations of the latter two taxa to acanthocephalans. For this analysis we have generated EST libraries of Pomphorhynchus laevis, Echinorhynchus truttae (Acanthocephala) and Brachionus plicatilis (Monogononta). By extending these data with database entries of B. plicatilis, Philodina roseola (Bdelloidea) and 25 additional metazoan species, we conducted phylogenetic reconstructions based on 79 ribosomal proteins using maximum likelihood and bayesian approaches. Our findings suggest that the phylogenetic position of Syndermata within Spiralia is close to Platyhelminthes, that Eurotatoria are not monophyletic and that bdelloids are more closely related to acanthocephalans than monogononts. Conclusion Mapping morphological character evolution onto molecular phylogeny suggests the (partial or complete) reduction of the corona and the emergence of a retractable anterior end (rostrum

  15. A check list of the helminths of guineafowls (Numididae) and a host list of these parasites.

    PubMed

    Junker, K; Boomker, J

    2007-12-01

    Published and personal records have been compiled into a reference list of the helminth parasites of guineafowls. Where data on other avian hosts was available these have been included for completeness' sake and to give an indication of host range. The parasite list for the Helmeted guineafowls, Numida meleagris, includes five species of acanthocephalans, all belonging to a single genus, three trematodes belonging to three different genera, 34 cestodes representing 15 genera, and 35 nematodes belonging to 17 genera. The list for the Crested guineafowls, Guttera edouardi, contains a single acanthocephalan together with 10 cestode species belonging to seven genera, and three nematode species belonging to three different genera. Records for two cestode species from genera and two nematode species belonging to a single genus have been found for the guineafowl genus Acryllium. Of the 70 helminths listed for N. meleagris, 29 have been recorded from domestic chickens. PMID:18453241

  16. Parasitism of prehistoric humans and companion animals from Antelope Cave, Mojave County, northwest Arizona.

    PubMed

    Fugassa, Martín H; Reinhard, Karl J; Johnson, Keith L; Gardner, Scott L; Vieira, Mônica; Araújo, Adauto

    2011-10-01

    Previously, we reported a tick recovered from Antelope Cave in extreme northwest Arizona. Further analyses of coprolites from Antelope Cave revealed additional parasitological data from coprolites of both human and canid origin. A second tick was found. This site is the only archaeological locality where ticks have been recovered. We also discovered an acanthocephalan in association with Enterobius vermicularis eggs in the same coprolite. This association shows that the coprolite was deposited by a human. This discovery expands our knowledge of the range of prehistoric acanthocephalan infection. In addition, findings from canid coprolites of Trichuris vulpis are reported. This is the first published discovery of T. vulpis from a North American archaeological context. The close association of dogs with humans at Ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi) sites raises the potential that zoonotic parasites were transferred to the human population. The archaeological occupation is associated with the Ancestral Pueblo culture 1,100 yr ago. PMID:21506807

  17. Pomphorhynchus laevis (Palaeacanthocephala) in the intestine of chub (Leuciscus cephalus) as an indicator of metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Sures, Bernd; Siddall, Roy

    2003-01-01

    Chub experimentally infected with the acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus laevis were exposed to 0.01 mg l(-1) Pb(2+) over 5 weeks. Lead was rapidly accumulated in the intestinal worms reaching a steady-state concentration after 4 weeks. This concentration was significantly greater than in the host muscle, liver and intestine and more than 9,000 times higher than the exposure concentration. Lead accumulation in P. laevis increased at a higher exposure concentration but was not correlated with either parasite intensity or with pooled or individual worm weight. The highest lead concentrations were recorded in those specimen of P. laevis that were attached in the posterior intestine. Interestingly, parasitised chub accumulated less lead in their own tissues than uninfected conspecifics. A mechanism of lead uptake by P. laevis and the application of acanthocephalans as accumulation indicators of metal pollution is discussed. PMID:12547347

  18. Gastrointestinal helminths of Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) from Stranger Point, 25 de Mayo/King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Julia Inés; Fusaro, Bruno; Longarzo, Lucrecia; Coria, Néstor Rubén; Vidal, Virginia; Jerez, Silvia; Ortiz, Juana; Barbosa, Andrés

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the knowledge of gastrointestinal parasites of the Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) from 25 de Mayo/King George Island (South Shetlands, Antarctica). Gastrointestinal tracts of 37 fresh dead individuals (21 chicks, 10 juveniles, and 6 adults) were collected from December 2006 to February 2012 and examined for macroparasites. Four adult parasite species were found: one Cestoda species (Parorchites zederi), two Nematoda species (Stegophorus macronectes and Tetrameres wetzeli), and one Acanthocephalan (Corynosoma shackletoni). Two species of immature acanthocephalans, Corynosoma hamanni and Corynosoma bullosum, were found in a single host. This is the first record of Tetrameres wetzeli in Gentoo penguins. The low parasite richness observed could be related to the stenophagic and pelagic diet of this host species which feeds almost exclusively on krill. PMID:23435921

  19. An annotated checklist of Acanthocephala from Australian fish.

    PubMed

    Smales, Lesley R; Weaver, Haylee J

    2015-01-01

    Thirty one genera, comprising 58 named species, 15 undetermined species and nine species known only as cystacanths from paratenic fish hosts were found infesting 144 marine, esturine and freshwater species of fish from Australian and Australian Antarctic waters. Host habitats are given and the distribution and records of the acanthocephalans are given. A key to these parasites at the generic level is provided. PMID:26250039

  20. Helminth parasites of the osprey, Pandion haliaetus, in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinsella, J.M.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Forrester, Donald J.; Roderick, Constance L.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 28 species of helminths (17 trematodes, 3 cestodes, 7 nematodes, and 1 acanthocephalan) was recovered from 17 ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) from the United States. Intensities of infection were low and no lesions were attributed to the parasites. Seven species appear to be specialists in ospreys, 2 species generalists in raptors, and the remainder generalists in other orders of fish-eating birds. Pandiontrema rjikovi, Diasiella diasi, and Contracaecum pandioni are reported for the first time from North America.

  1. [HELMINTH FAUNA OF WILD BOARS (SUS SCROFA L.1758) IN AZERBAIJAN].

    PubMed

    Fataliev, Q H

    2015-01-01

    A total of 41 wild boar specimens, including 19, 10, 10, and 2 specimens from the Lesser-Caucasus, the Greater Caucasus, the Kura-Araks lowland, and Lankaran natural region were studied. On the whole, 16 helminth species were revealed, including 2, 2, 1, and 11 species of trematodes, cestodes, acanthocephalans, and nematodes. The distribution of helminths in landscape-ecological zones of Azerbaijan is analyzed. PMID:27055329

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF RESPIRATORY AND GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES OF THREE SPECIES OF PINNIPEDS (ARCTOCEPHALUS AUSTRALIS, ARCTOCEPHALUS GAZELLA, AND OTARIA FLAVESCENS) IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Jacobus, Kristy; Marigo, Juliana; Gastal, Silvia Bainy; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Tseng, Florina

    2016-03-01

    In order to improve understanding of parasitism in South American pinnipeds, respiratory and gastrointestinal samples were collected from 12 Arctocephalus australis (South American fur seal), one Arctocephalus gazella (Antarctic fur seal), and one Otaria flavescens (South American sea lion). Ova and larvae were microscopically identified from fecal samples and respiratory secretions collected from live A. australis undergoing rehabilitation at Centro de Recuperação de Animais Marinhos (CRAM-FURG) in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil during June-July 2012. Adult parasites were collected from the lungs and gastrointestinal tracts of animals that died while undergoing treatment or were found dead along the southern Brazil coast. Parasites were identified by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing, microscopic examination, comparison with keys, and histologic examination of tissues. Lung parasites of the Parafilaroides genus (Metastrongyloidea, Filaroididae) were identified at necropsy in both A. australis and A. gazella and gastrointestinal parasites were found in all three species of pinniped studied. Gastrointestinal parasites identified in A. australis included the nematodes Contracaecum sp. and Pseudoterranova cattani, the cestodes Adenocephalus pacificus (previously Diphyllobothrium pacificum), one from the Tetrabothridae family and one undetermined, and the acanthocephalans Corynosoma sp. and Bolbosoma sp.; from A. gazella the nematode Contracaecum sp. and the acanthocephalan Corynosoma sp.; and from O. flavescens the acanthocephalan Corynosoma sp. Ova from fecal samples from A. australis represent ascarid nematodes, Parafilaroides sp., Adenocephalus pacificus, acanthocephalans, and an egg determined either to be a trematode or pseuophyllidean cestode. With limited information surrounding parasitism, these findings are an important contribution to knowledge of the health of Southern Hemisphere pinnipeds. PMID:27010274

  3. Transcriptome data reveal Syndermatan relationships and suggest the evolution of endoparasitism in Acanthocephala via an epizoic stage.

    PubMed

    Wey-Fabrizius, Alexandra R; Herlyn, Holger; Rieger, Benjamin; Rosenkranz, David; Witek, Alexander; Welch, David B Mark; Ebersberger, Ingo; Hankeln, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The taxon Syndermata comprises the biologically interesting wheel animals ("Rotifera": Bdelloidea + Monogononta + Seisonidea) and thorny-headed worms (Acanthocephala), and is central for testing superordinate phylogenetic hypotheses (Platyzoa, Gnathifera) in the metazoan tree of life. Recent analyses of syndermatan phylogeny suggested paraphyly of Eurotatoria (free-living bdelloids and monogononts) with respect to endoparasitic acanthocephalans. Data of epizoic seisonids, however, were absent, which may have affected the branching order within the syndermatan clade. Moreover, the position of Seisonidea within Syndermata should help in understanding the evolution of acanthocephalan endoparasitism. Here, we report the first phylogenomic analysis that includes all four higher-ranked groups of Syndermata. The analyzed data sets comprise new transcriptome data for Seison spec. (Seisonidea), Brachionus manjavacas (Monogononta), Adineta vaga (Bdelloidea), and Paratenuisentis ambiguus (Acanthocephala). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian trees for a total of 19 metazoan species were reconstructed from up to 410 functionally diverse proteins. The results unanimously place Monogononta basally within Syndermata, and Bdelloidea appear as the sister group to a clade comprising epizoic Seisonidea and endoparasitic Acanthocephala. Our results support monophyly of Syndermata, Hemirotifera (Bdelloidea + Seisonidea + Acanthocephala), and Pararotatoria (Seisonidea + Acanthocephala), rejecting monophyly of traditional Rotifera and Eurotatoria. This serves as an indication that early acanthocephalans lived epizoically or as ectoparasites on arthropods, before their complex lifecycle with arthropod intermediate and vertebrate definite hosts evolved. PMID:24520404

  4. Transcriptome Data Reveal Syndermatan Relationships and Suggest the Evolution of Endoparasitism in Acanthocephala via an Epizoic Stage

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Benjamin; Rosenkranz, David; Witek, Alexander; Welch, David B. Mark; Ebersberger, Ingo; Hankeln, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The taxon Syndermata comprises the biologically interesting wheel animals (“Rotifera”: Bdelloidea + Monogononta + Seisonidea) and thorny-headed worms (Acanthocephala), and is central for testing superordinate phylogenetic hypotheses (Platyzoa, Gnathifera) in the metazoan tree of life. Recent analyses of syndermatan phylogeny suggested paraphyly of Eurotatoria (free-living bdelloids and monogononts) with respect to endoparasitic acanthocephalans. Data of epizoic seisonids, however, were absent, which may have affected the branching order within the syndermatan clade. Moreover, the position of Seisonidea within Syndermata should help in understanding the evolution of acanthocephalan endoparasitism. Here, we report the first phylogenomic analysis that includes all four higher-ranked groups of Syndermata. The analyzed data sets comprise new transcriptome data for Seison spec. (Seisonidea), Brachionus manjavacas (Monogononta), Adineta vaga (Bdelloidea), and Paratenuisentis ambiguus (Acanthocephala). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian trees for a total of 19 metazoan species were reconstructed from up to 410 functionally diverse proteins. The results unanimously place Monogononta basally within Syndermata, and Bdelloidea appear as the sister group to a clade comprising epizoic Seisonidea and endoparasitic Acanthocephala. Our results support monophyly of Syndermata, Hemirotifera (Bdelloidea + Seisonidea + Acanthocephala), and Pararotatoria (Seisonidea + Acanthocephala), rejecting monophyly of traditional Rotifera and Eurotatoria. This serves as an indication that early acanthocephalans lived epizoically or as ectoparasites on arthropods, before their complex lifecycle with arthropod intermediate and vertebrate definite hosts evolved. PMID:24520404

  5. Helminth Collection and Identification from Wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Maria S; Kinsella, John M

    2013-01-01

    Wild animals are commonly parasitized by a wide range of helminths. The four major types of helminths are "roundworms" (nematodes), "thorny-headed worms" (acanthocephalans), "flukes" (trematodes), and "tapeworms" (cestodes). The optimum method for collecting helminths is to examine a host that has been dead less than 4-6 hr since most helminths will still be alive. A thorough necropsy should be conducted and all major organs examined. Organs are washed over a 106 μm sieve under running water and contents examined under a stereo microscope. All helminths are counted and a representative number are fixed (either in 70% ethanol, 10% buffered formalin, or alcohol-formalin-acetic acid). For species identification, helminths are either cleared in lactophenol (nematodes and small acanthocephalans) or stained (trematodes, cestodes, and large acanthocephalans) using Harris' hematoxylin or Semichon's carmine. Helminths are keyed to species by examining different structures (e.g. male spicules in nematodes or the rostellum in cestodes). The protocols outlined here can be applied to any vertebrate animal. They require some expertise on recognizing the different organs and being able to differentiate helminths from other tissue debris or gut contents. Collection, preservation, and staining are straightforward techniques that require minimal equipment and reagents. Taxonomic identification, especially to species, can be very time consuming and might require the submission of specimens to an expert or DNA analysis. PMID:24378960

  6. A new species of Spinicauda (Nematoda: Heterakidae) and other endoparasites in Platymantis pelewensis (Anura: Ranidae) from the Palau Islands, Republic of Belau, Oceanica.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R

    2004-12-01

    Spinicauda fisheri n. sp. from the intestine of Platymantis pelewensis collected in the Palau Islands, Republic of Belau, is described and illustrated. Spinicauda fisheri represents the 12th species assigned to the genus and the first from Oceanica. It is most similar to Spinicauda spinicauda in that the tail ends in a filament, but it has 19 pairs of caudal papillae as compared with 5 pairs in S. spinicauda. In addition to S. fisheri, 2 species of Cestoda, cysticercoids of Joyeuxiella sp. and tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides sp., 2 species of Nematoda, Oswaldocruzia bakeri and Physocephalus sp. (larvae in cysts), 1 species of Acanthocephala, Acanthocephalus bufonis, and 1 species of Pentastomida, nymphs of Kiricephalus pattoni were identified. PMID:15715239

  7. New data on freshwater psammic Gastrotricha from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garraffoni, André R S; Araujo, Thiago Q; Lourenço, Anete P; Balsamo, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Current knowledge of freshwater gastrotrich fauna from Brazil is underestimated as only two studies are available. The present communication is a taxonomic account of the first-ever survey of freshwater Gastrotricha in Minas Gerais State. Samplings were carried out yielding six species of three Chaetonotidae genera: Aspidiophorus cf. pleustonicus, Ichthydium cf. chaetiferum, Chaetonotus acanthocephalus, Chaetonotus heideri, Chaetonotus cf. succinctus, Chaetonotus sp., and also an undescribed species belonging to the genus Redudasys (incertae sedis): this is the first finding of specimens of Redudasys outside of original type locality. These preliminary observations suggest that the knowledge of the biodiversity of Gastrotricha in the Minas Gerais State, as well as in the whole Brazil, will certainly increase as further investigations are undertaken, and that freshwater Macrodasyida may be more common than previously thought. PMID:21594197

  8. New data on freshwater psammic Gastrotricha from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Garraffoni, André R. S.; Araujo, Thiago Q.; Lourenço, Anete P.; Balsamo, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Current knowledge of freshwater gastrotrich fauna from Brazil is underestimated as only two studies are available. The present communication is a taxonomic account of the first-ever survey of freshwater Gastrotricha in Minas Gerais State. Samplings were carried out yielding six species of three Chaetonotidae genera: Aspidiophorus cf. pleustonicus, Ichthydium cf. chaetiferum, Chaetonotus acanthocephalus, Chaetonotus heideri, Chaetonotus cf. succinctus, Chaetonotus sp., and also an undescribed species belonging to the genus Redudasys (incertae sedis): this is the first finding of specimens of Redudasys outside of original type locality. These preliminary observations suggest that the knowledge of the biodiversity of Gastrotricha in the Minas Gerais State, as well as in the whole Brazil, will certainly increase as further investigations are undertaken, and that freshwater Macrodasyida may be more common than previously thought. PMID:21594197

  9. Influence of site, season, silvering stage, and length on the parasites of the European eel Anguilla anguilla in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France using indicator species method.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Jean-José; Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Marchand, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    The parasites of 425 European eels, Anguilla anguilla, were studied between 2009 and 2012 in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France. An indicator value (IndVal) method was used for analysis, which combines measures of fidelity and specificity. Because of its resilience to detect changes in abundance, IndVal is an effective ecological bioindicator. The IndVal method demonstrated that site, season, silvering stage, and length could influence the occurrence of parasite species in European eel. A randomization test identified ten parasite species as having a significant indicator value for site (lagoons differed principally in salinity: oligohaline to polyhaline for the Biguglia lagoon and polyhaline to euhaline for the Urbino lagoon; the digeneans Bucephalus anguillae and Lecithochirium musculus, the cestodes Bothriocephalus claviceps, Proteocephalus macrocephalus, and larvae of Myzophyllobothrium sp., the nematodes Anguillicoloides crassus, and encysted larvae of Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan Acanthocephaloides incrassatus, the monogenean Pseudodactyogyrus anguillae, and the copepod Ergasilus gibbus); one parasite species for the spring season (the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus); six parasite species for silvering stage (yellow, pre-silver, silver; the trematodes B. anguillae and Deropristis inflata, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus, the monogenean P. anguillae, and the copepod E. gibbus); and three parasite species for some of the five length classes (the cestode P. macrocephalus, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., and the monogenean P. anguillae). Data for species composition and infection levels should help to improve the management of parasitism in the populations of European eels. PMID:23739809

  10. Comparative studies on Pb and Cd levels in parasites of terrestrial and aquatic animals

    SciTech Connect

    Sures, B.; Taraschewski, H.

    1995-12-31

    Several fish parasites (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Nematoda) and organs of their respective intermediate and final hosts were analyzed for heavy metals by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS). Pb and Cd were also quantified in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica as well as in different organs of the large intestinal roundworm Ascaris suum. The levels of these heavy metals in the parasites were compared to those of muscle, liver, kidney and intestine of the respective definitive hosts cattle and swine obtained from a slaughter house. Most parasites accumulated significantly higher levels of metals than their final hosts. This was most conspicuous in acanthocephalans which contained up to 3 {times} 10{sup 3} fold more lead than the muscle of their fish hosts and up to 1.1 {times} 10{sup 4} more lead than the water surrounding the fish. In these helminths cadmium was enriched up to 400 fold compared to the muscle of the fish and up to 2.7 {times} 10{sup 4} compared to the water. In contrast to the accumulation capacity of adult acanthocephalans their larvae contained about 30 to 180 times less Pb and Cd. Thus, the predominant accumulation of both metals appears in the adult worms. The cestodes of fish and the liver flukes of cattle accumulated the metals up to 200 fold compared to the muscle of their hosts. The nematodes did not contain higher levels of the metals than their hosts. Thus, parasites, especially acanthocephalans, seem to be sensitive bioindicators of Pb and Cd in their environments.

  11. [A comparative analysis of the helminth fauna of kittiwake Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) and glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus Gunnerus, 1767 from different parts of the Barents Sea].

    PubMed

    Kuklin, V V; Galaktionov, K V; Galkin, A K; Marasaev, S F

    2005-01-01

    The article is based on the results of helminthological observations made on kittiwake Rissa tridactyla and glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus in 1991-2001 in different areas of the Barents Sea (Eastern Murman coast, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya, Spitzbergen). 18 helminth species (2 trematodes, 11 cestodes, 4 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans) were recorded in the kittiwakes and 19 (3 trematodes, 9 cestodes, 5 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans) species were recorded in the glaucous gulls. Trematodes were absent in the birds collected at the Franz Josef Land and the northern island of Novaya Zemlya. 3 trematode species, namely Gymnophallus sp. (somateria?), Microphallus sp. 1 (M. pseudopygmaeus), and Cryptocotyle lingua were found in the glaucous gulls of western Spitzbergen. It was supposed that the life cycles of these parasites can be completed there. On the other hand, coastal ecosystems of Arctic archipelagoes turn out to be favourable for the transmission of some cestodes. This is closely connected with the regional traits in the marine bird diet, namely the increase of the amphipod (intermediate hosts of hymenolepidids and some dilepidids) and polar cod (supposed second intermediate host for some tetrabothriids) portion in Arctic. As a result, cestodes are the base of the helminth fauna of kittiwakes and glaucous gulls of the Barents Sea, by their species richness, prevalence and abundance. Nematodes and acanthocephalans were represented by a few species with low infection intensity. The main ecological factors affected the regional difference in the species richness and abundance of the helminths parasitising kittiwakes and glaucous gulls in the Barents Sea are proposed. Those are regional climatic features and regional traits in the behaviour and food priorities of birds, and also the distribution of the helminths intermediate hosts, invertebrates and fishes. The phenomenon of host specificity lowering with respect to the definitive host was recorded in some

  12. On a new species of Neoechinorhynchus Hamann, 1892 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchoidea Southwell et Macfie, 1925) from Indian threadfin fish, Leptomelanosoma indicum Shaw, 1804 from Visakhapatnam coast, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Gudivada, Mani; Chikkam, Vijayalakshmi; Vankara, Anu Prasanna

    2010-10-01

    A new acanthocephalan of the genus Neoechinorhynchus Hamman, 1892 (Acanthocephala: Neoaechinorhynchoidea Southwell et Macfie, 1925) parasitic on threadfin fish, Leptomelanosoma indicum Shaw, 1804 from Visakhapatnam coast, Andhra Pradesh, India is described. Neoechinorhynchus indicus sp. nov is characterized by an enormous body size, structural characteristics of the hooks on proboscis, presence of body annulations, two guard cells, unequal lemnisci, sub-terminal genital pore and the host. N. indicus sp.nov is included in the genus by the presence of three rows of six hooks each on the proboscis and a single layered proboscis receptacle. PMID:21966127

  13. [COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LIPID METABOLISM INDICES IN SOME PARASITES OF THE WHITE CHARR (SALVELINUS ALBUS) FROM THE LAKE KRINOTSKOE].

    PubMed

    Gordeev, I I; Mikryakov, D V; Silkina, N I

    2015-01-01

    Comparative study of lipid metabolism indices (total lipids, separate lipid fractions, level of the lipid peroxidation processes, and antioxidant protection) was carried out in three parasite species collected from the white char in the Lake Kronotskoe: Diphyllobothrium ditremum Crepin, 1825 (Cestoda), Philonema oncorhynchi Kuitunen-Ekbaum, 1933 (Nematoda) H Neoechinorhynchus salmonis Ching, 1984 (Acanthocephala). Acanthocephalans possessed significantly greater levels of total lipids, triacylglycerol, and malondialdehyde; nematodes, of cholesterol and sterol esters; and cestodes, in phospholipids and constants of the substrate oxidation. Dependence between lipid metabolism of helminths and their taxonomic affiliation, morpho-functional features, the stage of the life cycle, and the site of infection in the host are discussed. PMID:26314155

  14. A checklist of helminth parasite fauna in anuran Amphibia (frogs) of Nagaland, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Imkongwapang, R; Jyrwa, D B; Lal, P; Tandon, V

    2014-03-01

    An exhaustive exploratory survey on helminth parasite fauna of anuran frogs was carried out in several localities falling under 5 districts of western region of Nagaland state. Altogether 34 parasite species were recovered from a total of 29 host species surveyed. The parasite spectrum (represented in all the localities by at least one or more parasite species) comprises 2 monogenean, 15 trematode (13 adult and 2 metacercaria stages), 4 cestode (3 adult and 1 larval stages), 12 nematode and 1 acanthocephalan taxa. A checklist of both the parasite and host species with short remarks for each parasite species is provided herein. PMID:24505185

  15. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    PubMed

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard. PMID:27027551

  16. Monsters of the sea serpent: parasites of an oarfish, Regalecus russellii.

    PubMed

    Kuris, Armand M; Jaramillo, Alejandra G; McLaughlin, John P; Weinstein, Sara B; Garcia-Vedrenne, Ana E; Poinar, George O; Pickering, Maria; Steinauer, Michelle L; Espinoza, Magaly; Ashford, Jacob E; Dunn, Gabriela L P

    2015-02-01

    Examination of a small portion of the viscera of an oarfish ( Regalecus russellii ) recovered from Santa Catalina Island, southern California, revealed numerous tetraphyllidean tapeworm plerocercoids, Clistobothrium cf. montaukensis; 2 juvenile nematodes, Contracaecum sp.; and a fragment of an adult acanthocephalan, family Arhythmacanthidae. This suggests that the fish was relatively heavily parasitized. The presence of larval and juvenile worms suggests that oarfish are preyed upon by deep-swimming predators such as the shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus , known to be a definitive host for the adult tapeworm, and also by diving mammals such as sperm whales, Physeter catodon L., hosts of Contracaecum spp. nematodes. PMID:25220829

  17. Helminth parasites of the bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinsella, J.M.; Foster, Garry W.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Forrester, Donald J.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty species of helminths (9 trematodes, 9 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans), including 9 new host records, were collected from 40 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from Florida. Intensities of infection were low and no lesions were attributed to the parasites. No species were considered specialists in bald eagles; 5 species were considered raptor generalists and the remainder, generalists in other orders of fish-eating birds. An undescribed species of Hamatospiculum was found in 3 birds. Most of the common helminths were acquired from eating fish intermediate hosts.

  18. Correlations Between Emerita analoga and Profilicollis spp. as Influenced by Environmetal Factors at Ocean Beach, San Francisco CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S.; Garza, F.; Zhang, P.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2002 the Careers in Science (CiS) intern program has monitored Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California for the population of Emerita analoga (Pacific Mole Crab) as part of a partnership program with the Long-term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students (LiMPETS). LiMPETS is an organization that conducts citizen science with Bay Area youth such as the CiS interns. We specifically assist in the collection of Pacific Mole Crab population statistics at Ocean Beach during the summer from June through August. The purpose of collecting Pacific Mole Crabs is to monitor Acanthocephalan parasites (Profilicollis spp.) - to which Pacific Mole Crabs serve as intermediate hosts - and to learn more about our environment as Pacific Mole Crabs are indicator species. During our collections at Ocean Beach we record size, sex, and number of individuals at specific transects. We then take a random sample from the day, return to the lab, and record their sizes, sexes, and Acanthocephalan parasite load. The results of the collection and dissections are then entered into the LiMPETS online database for scientist and researchers to use. Our project will focus on correlations relating to the data collected (Pacific Mole Crab population, parasite load, abiotic and biotic factors, et cetera).

  19. Correlations Between Emerita analoga and Profilicollis spp. as Influenced by Environmental Factors at Ocean Beach, San Francisco CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, E.; Le, A.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2002 the Careers in Science (CiS) intern program has monitored Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California for the population of Emerita analoga (Pacific Mole Crab) as part of a partnership program with the Long-term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students (LiMPETS). LiMPETS is an organization that conducts citizen science with Bay Area youth such as the CiS interns. We specifically assist in the collection of Pacific Mole Crab population statistics at Ocean Beach during the summer from June through August. The purpose of collecting Pacific Mole Crabs is to monitor Profilicollis spp. (Acanthocephalan parasites) - to which Pacific Mole Crabs serve as intermediate hosts - and to learn more about our environment as Pacific Mole Crabs are indicator species. During our collections at Ocean Beach we record size, sex, and number of individuals at specific transects. We then take a random sample from the day, return to the lab, and record their sizes, sexes, and Acanthocephalan parasite load. The results of the collection and dissections are then entered into the LiMPETS online database for scientist and researchers to use. Our project will focus on correlations relating to the data collected (Pacific Mole Crab population, parasite load, abiotic and biotic factors, et cetera).

  20. Helminths of sympatric striped, hog-nosed, and spotted skunks in west-central Texas.

    PubMed

    Neiswenter, Sean A; Pence, Danny B; Dowler, Robert C

    2006-07-01

    Twenty-eight hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus leuconotus), 23 striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and nine spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis) from an area of sympatry in west-central Texas were examined for helminth parasites. Shared helminth species among all three host species were one nematode (Physaloptera maxillaris), two acanthocephalans (Pachysentis canicola, Macracanthorhynchus ingens), and one cestode (Mathevotaenia mephitis). Two nematodes (Gongylonema sp. and Filaria taxidaea) occurred in both the striped and hog-nosed skunks. One nematode (Filaroides milksi) and one acanthocephalan (Oncicola canis) were collected only from C. leuconotus. The most common helminth infections for striped and hog-nosed skunks were P. maxillaris and P. canicola. Helminth species richness was highest in hog-nosed skunks, but striped skunks had the highest prevalences and intensities of all the common helminth species. The helminth fauna of spotted skunks was markedly depauperate in terms of species richness and helminth abundance compared to the other two host species. Differences in helminth communities across these three sympatric skunks may be related to differences in their relative abundance, behavior, food habits, and geographic range. PMID:17092881

  1. Helminths of three species of opossums (Mammalia, Didelphidae) from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Virgen, Karla; López-Caballero, Jorge; García-Prieto, Luis; Mata-López, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    From August 2011 to November 2013, 68 opossums (8 Didelphis sp., 40 Didelphisvirginiana, 15 Didelphismarsupialis, and 5 Philanderopossum) were collected in 18 localities from 12 Mexican states. A total of 12,188 helminths representing 21 taxa were identified (6 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 3 acanthocephalans and 10 nematodes). Sixty-six new locality records, 9 new host records, and one species, the trematode Brachylaimadidelphus, is added to the composition of the helminth fauna of the opossums in Mexico. These data, in conjunction with previous records, bring the number of taxa parasitizing the Mexican terrestrial marsupials to 41. Among these species, we recognized a group of helminths typical of didelphids in other parts of the Americas. This group is constituted by the trematode Rhopaliascoronatus, the acanthocephalan Oligacanthorhynchusmicrocephalus and the nematodes Cruziatentaculata, Gnathostomaturgidum, and Turgidaturgida. In general, the helminth fauna of each didelphid species showed a stable taxonomic composition with respect to previously sampled sites. This situation suggests that the rate of accumulation of helminth species in the inventory of these 3 species of terrestrial marsupials in the Neotropical portion of Mexico is decreasing; however, new samplings in the Nearctic portion of this country will probably increase the richness of the helminthological inventory of this group of mammals. PMID:26257556

  2. Helminths of three species of opossums (Mammalia, Didelphidae) from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Virgen, Karla; López-Caballero, Jorge; García-Prieto, Luis; Mata-López, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Abstract From August 2011 to November 2013, 68 opossums (8 Didelphis sp., 40 Didelphis virginiana, 15 Didelphis marsupialis, and 5 Philander opossum) were collected in 18 localities from 12 Mexican states. A total of 12,188 helminths representing 21 taxa were identified (6 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 3 acanthocephalans and 10 nematodes). Sixty-six new locality records, 9 new host records, and one species, the trematode Brachylaima didelphus, is added to the composition of the helminth fauna of the opossums in Mexico. These data, in conjunction with previous records, bring the number of taxa parasitizing the Mexican terrestrial marsupials to 41. Among these species, we recognized a group of helminths typical of didelphids in other parts of the Americas. This group is constituted by the trematode Rhopalias coronatus, the acanthocephalan Oligacanthorhynchus microcephalus and the nematodes Cruzia tentaculata, Gnathostoma turgidum, and Turgida turgida. In general, the helminth fauna of each didelphid species showed a stable taxonomic composition with respect to previously sampled sites. This situation suggests that the rate of accumulation of helminth species in the inventory of these 3 species of terrestrial marsupials in the Neotropical portion of Mexico is decreasing; however, new samplings in the Nearctic portion of this country will probably increase the richness of the helminthological inventory of this group of mammals. PMID:26257556

  3. The natural history of Echinorhynchus bothniensis Zdzitowiecki and Valtonen, 1987 (Acanthocephala) in a high Arctic lake.

    PubMed

    Aura, Raija-Liisa; Benesh, Daniel P; Palomaki, Risto; Tellervo Valtonen, E

    2015-01-01

    The acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus bothniensis Zdzitowiecki and Valtonen, 1987 differs from most other species in the genus Echinorhynchus Zoega in Müller, 1776 by infecting mysids (order Mysida) instead of amphipods (order Amphipoda) as intermediate hosts. Here we report on the occurrence of E. bothniensis in mysids (Mysis segerstralei Audzijonytė et Väinölä) and in its fish definitive hosts in a high Arctic lake. Out of 15 907 sampled mysids, 4.8% were infected with a mean intensity of 1.05 worms (range 1-5), although there was notable variation between samples taken in different years and sites. Larger mysids appear more likely to be infected. Of five fish species sampled, charr,Salvelinus alpinus (Linnaeus), and a benthic-feeding whitefish morph, Coregonus lavaretus (Linnaeus), were the most heavily infected (mean abundances of 80 and 15, respectively). The adult parasite population in fish exhibited a female-biased sex ratio (1.78 : 1). Although E. bothniensis is rather unique in infecting mysids, many aspects of its natural history mirror that of other acanthocephalan species. PMID:26373432

  4. Metazoan parasites from herring (Clupea harengus L.) as biological indicators in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Unger, Patrick; Klimpel, Sven; Lang, Thomas; Palm, Harry Wilhelm

    2014-09-01

    Zoographical distribution of metazoan fish parasites in herring, Clupea harengus, from the Baltic Sea was analysed in order to use them as potential biological indicators. A total of 210 herring from six different sampling sites were investigated, harbouring 12 different parasite species [five digeneans (D), one cestode (C), three nematodes (N) and three acanthocephalans (A)]. The distribution of the parasite species differed according to region, with a distinct gradient of decreasing species richness towards the east of the Baltic Sea. The western localities at Kiel Bay, Rügen and Poland had the highest parasite diversity, including the marine parasite species Anisakis simplex (s.s.) (N), Brachyphallus crenatus and Hemiurus luehei (both D). The eastern localities had low parasite species richness, predominated by the freshwater digenean Diplostomum spathaceum. We could identify three different Baltic herring stocks, the spring-spawning herring of the western Baltic reaching from the Kattegat to the German and Polish coast, the stock of the central Baltic proper and the northern stock of C. harengus var. membras of the Gulf of Finland. The limited distribution of the herring parasites within the Baltic Sea enables their use as biological indicators for migration patterns and stock separation. The acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis that has already been used as an accumulation bioindicator for heavy metals was only recorded for the western herring stocks. However, the presence of mainly generalistic parasites and their uneven distribution patterns make their use as indicators for regional environmental and global change more difficult. PMID:25119368

  5. Parasitation of sea trout (Salmo trutta trutta L.) from the spawning ground and German coastal waters off Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Unger, Patrick; Palm, Harry W

    2016-01-01

    A total of 52 sea trouts, Salmo trutta trutta, were studied for parasites, originating from German freshwater streams and coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. While 35 specimens were caught mainly close to the shoreline in the Baltic Sea, 17 were sampled during their spawning migration in Warnow River and other neighboring rivers in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. A total of 12 different metazoan parasite species were found in sea trout originating from the Baltic Sea, including five digeneans, two cestodes, three nematodes, and two acanthocephalans. Marine and freshwater species were found. In the migratory trout, seven different parasite species were recorded (one digenean, two cestodes, one nematode, and one acanthocephalan), demonstrating lower parasite diversity and load during the spawning migration compared with the fish from the Baltic Sea. The anisakid nematodes Anisakis simplex (sensu stricto), Contraceacum rudolphii, and Hysterothylacium aduncum were identified by molecular analyses of the ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2, and flanking sequences of the rDNA. Together with the digenean Derogenes varicus, Hemiurus communis and H. luehei, and the cestode Diphyllobothrium dendriticum seven new host records for sea trout from the German part of the Baltic Sea are made. PMID:26374539

  6. Sexual segregation of Echinorhynchus borealis von Linstow, 1901 (Acanthocephala) in the gut of burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Tuomainen, Arto; Tellervo Valtonen, E; Benesh, Daniel P

    2015-01-01

    Helminths often occupy defined niches in the gut of their definitive hosts. In the dioecious acanthocephalans, adult males and females usually have similar gut distributions, but sexual site segregation has been reported in at least some species. We studied the intestinal distribution of the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus borealis von Linstow, 1901 (syn. of E. cinctulus Porta, 1905) in its definitive host, burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus). Over 80% of female worms were found in the pyloric caeca, whereas the majority of males were in the anterior two-thirds of the intestine. This difference was relatively consistent between individual fish hosts. Worms from different parts of the gut did not differ in length, so site segregation was not obviously related to worm growth or age. We found proportionally more males in the caeca when a larger fraction of the females were found there, suggesting mating opportunities influence gut distribution. However, this result relied on a single parasite infrapopulation and is thus tentative. We discuss how mating strategies and/or sexual differences in life history might explain why males and females occupy different parts of the burbot gut. PMID:26580557

  7. Phylogeny of Syndermata (syn. Rotifera): Mitochondrial gene order verifies epizoic Seisonidea as sister to endoparasitic Acanthocephala within monophyletic Hemirotifera.

    PubMed

    Sielaff, Malte; Schmidt, Hanno; Struck, Torsten H; Rosenkranz, David; Mark Welch, David B; Hankeln, Thomas; Herlyn, Holger

    2016-03-01

    A monophyletic origin of endoparasitic thorny-headed worms (Acanthocephala) and wheel-animals (Rotifera) is widely accepted. However, the phylogeny inside the clade, be it called Syndermata or Rotifera, has lacked validation by mitochondrial (mt) data. Herein, we present the first mt genome of the key taxon Seison and report conflicting results of phylogenetic analyses: while mt sequence-based topologies showed monophyletic Lemniscea (Bdelloidea+Acanthocephala), gene order analyses supported monophyly of Pararotatoria (Seisonidea+Acanthocephala) and Hemirotifera (Bdelloidea+Pararotatoria). Sequence-based analyses obviously suffered from substitution saturation, compositional bias, and branch length heterogeneity; however, we observed no compromising effects in gene order analyses. Moreover, gene order-based topologies were robust to changes in coding (genes vs. gene pairs, two-state vs. multistate, aligned vs. non-aligned), tree reconstruction methods, and the treatment of the two monogonont mt genomes. Thus, mt gene order verifies seisonids as sister to acanthocephalans within monophyletic Hemirotifera, while deviating results of sequence-based analyses reflect artificial signal. This conclusion implies that the complex life cycle of extant acanthocephalans evolved from a free-living state, as retained by most monogononts and bdelloids, via an epizoic state with a simple life cycle, as shown by seisonids. Hence, Acanthocephala represent a rare example where ancestral transitional stages have counterparts amongst the closest relatives. PMID:26702959

  8. Checklist of the species of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) in fishes and turtles in Middle-America, and their delimitation based on sequences of the 28S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Sereno-Uribe, Ana L; De León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce; García-Varela, Martín

    2015-01-01

    Among the acanthocephalans, Neoechinorhynchus is one of the most speciose genera, with 116 described species distributed worldwide. The adults of Neoechinorhynchus are found in the intestine of freshwater and brackish water fish, as well as in freshwater turtles. In this study, a checklist of the congeneric species of Neoechinorhynchus occurring in Middle-American fish and turtles is presented. The checklist contains the records established in all published accounts, as well as novel data from survey work conducted in the region comprising Neotropical areas of Mexico, as well as some localities in Central America. The species delimitation criteria used to discriminate among species is based on molecular data. In the last years, a large database derived from sequences of the D2 + D3 domains of the large subunit of rDNA (28S) was generated for 262 specimens corresponding to nine species of Neoechinorhynchus. This molecular marker has shown to be useful in establishing species limits within Neoechinorhynchus and in resolving phylogenetic relationships at species level. Based on our results, the domains D2 + D3 of the 28S rDNA could be considered as potential DNA barcodes to complement mitochondrial DNA to discriminate among acanthocephalan species. PMID:26250025

  9. Two New Species of the Genus Pallisentis Van Cleave, 1928 (Acanthocephala: Quadrigyridae) from the Intestine of Channa punctatus (Bloch, 1793) from the River Gomti at Lucknow, India

    PubMed Central

    GUPTA, Rahul; MAURYA, Ramakant; SAXENA, Anand Murari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acanthocephalans are fish parasites of worldwide distribution, penetrate their thorny proboscis into the intestinal wall of host and absorb nutrients. No diagnostic tool is available except postmortem investigations and identification by parasitologists. The aim of present study was to explore and assign taxonomical status to Pallisentis species prevalent in food fishes of river Gomti, Lucknow, India. Methods: A survey of fishes of river Gomti was carried out during the year 2011–2013. Acanthocephalans recovered from the intestine of Channa punctatus were kept in refrigerator for eversion of proboscis, fixed in A.F.A. fixative (50% alcohol, formalin and acetic acid in ratio of 100: 6: 2.5) for 24 hours further preserved in 70% ethanol. Camera Lucida diagrams of acetoalum carmine stained permanent mounts were made for morphometric studies. Results: Two new species of genus Pallisentis were identified and named as P. channai n. sp. and P. vinodai n. sp., their taxonomical status is based on major characters of proboscis hooks, spines of collar and trunk region, cement gland nuclei. On average 9 fishes were found infected with Pallisentis spp. out of 60 fishes examined randomly. Conclusion: Pallisentis spp. are important parasitic infection in Channidae fishes with the prevalence rate of 15%. Two new species of Pallisentis recognized from Channa punctatus of river Gomti, Lucknow, India and diagnostic features of genus are given. PMID:25904954

  10. Molecular Phylogeny of the Acanthocephala (Class Palaeacanthocephala) with a Paraphyletic Assemblage of the Orders Polymorphida and Echinorhynchida

    PubMed Central

    Verweyen, Lisa; Klimpel, Sven; Palm, Harry W.

    2011-01-01

    Acanthocephalans are attractive candidates as model organisms for studying the ecology and co-evolutionary history of parasitic life cycles in the marine ecosystem. Adding to earlier molecular analyses of this taxon, a total of 36 acanthocephalans belonging to the classes Archiacanthocephala (3 species), Eoacanthocephala (3 species), Palaeacanthocephala (29 species), Polyacanthocephala (1 species) and Rotifera as outgroup (3 species) were analyzed by using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses of nuclear 18S rDNA sequence. This data set included three re-collected and six newly collected taxa, Bolbosoma vasculosum from Lepturacanthus savala, Filisoma rizalinum from Scatophagus argus, Rhadinorhynchus pristis from Gempylus serpens, R. lintoni from Selar crumenophthalmus, Serrasentis sagittifer from Johnius coitor, and Southwellina hispida from Epinephelus coioides, representing 5 new host and 3 new locality records. The resulting trees suggest a paraphyletic arrangement of the Echinorhynchida and Polymorphida inside the Palaeacanthocephala. This questions the placement of the genera Serrasentis and Gorgorhynchoides within the Echinorhynchida and not the Polymorphida, necessitating further insights into the systematic position of these taxa based on morphology. PMID:22163005

  11. Ectoparasites and gastrointestinal helminths of southern flying squirrels in southeast Georgia.

    PubMed

    Pung, O J; Durden, L A; Patrick, M J; Conyers, T; Mitchell, L R

    2000-10-01

    Southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) from southeastern Georgia were examined for ectoparasites and gastrointestinal helminths. Ten species of ectoparasites were recovered, including 3 species of sucking lice (Hoplopleura trispinosa, Microphthirus uncinatus, and Neohaematopinus sciuropteri), 1 species of flea (Orchopeas howardi), 2 species of ticks (Amblyomma maculatum and Ixodes scapularis), 3 species of mesostigmatid mites (Androlaelaps casalis, A. fahrenholzi, and Haemogamasus ambulans), and 1 species of chigger (Leptotrombidium peromysci). Only the sucking lice and fleas were common on this host. M. uncinatus is reported for the first time from eastern North America. The 2 most commonly collected ectoparasites, N. sciuropteri (prevalence = 63%) and O. howardi (prevalence = 47%), have previously been shown to be vectors of the rickettsial zoonotic agent that causes sporadic epidemic typhus. Also, 3 nematodes (Citellinema bifurcatum, Strongyloides robusius, and Syphacia thompsoni), 1 unidentified cestode, and 1 acanthocephalan (Moniliformis clarki) were found in flying squirrel gastrointestinal tracts. With the exception of S. thompsoni, which was common and relatively abundant in the cecum (prevalence = 94%, intensity = 51+/-12), both the prevalence and intensity of helminth parasites were low. The nematode S. thompsoni and the acanthocephalan M. clarki are new state records for tree squirrels in Georgia. PMID:11128479

  12. Gastrointestinal Helminths of Magpies (Pica pica), Rooks (Corvus frugilegus) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone) in Mazandaran Province, North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Halajian, A; Eslami, A; Mobedi, I; Amin, O; Mariaux, J; Mansoori, J; Tavakol, S

    2011-01-01

    Background Corvidae is a cosmopolitan family of oscine birds including crows, rooks, magpies, jays, chough, and ravens. These birds are migratory species, especially in the shortage of foods, so they can act like vectors for a wide range of microorganisms. They live generally in temperate climates and in a very close contact with human residential areas as well as poultry farms. There is no available information in the literature concerning the parasitic infections of these three species of corvidae in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, so this study was conducted to clarify this. Methods As there are three species of corvid birds in Mazandaran Province, 106 birds including 79 magpies, 11 rooks, and 16 carrion crows were examined between winter 2007 and spring 2008 at post mortem for gastrointestinal helminths. The helminths were drawn and identified morphologically in the Laboratory of Parasitology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran and also partly in the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, based on the reference books and identification keys like Soulsby, Khalil et al. and Anderson et al. Results Four species of nematodes, 2 species of cestodes, 1 species of trematodes and 1 species of acanthocephalans were identified in these three corvid species. Conclusion Five species of the helminths are identified for the first time in Iran, and the acanthocephalan species is new host record for rooks. It is clear that these corvid birds have diverse range of helminths and can act as carriers for infecting the domestic fowls. PMID:22347286

  13. Effect of multiple parasitic infections on the tolerance to pollutant contamination.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Eric; Rigaud, Thierry; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Cossu-Leguille, Carole

    2012-01-01

    The horizontally-transmitted acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus and the vertically-transmitted microsporidian parasite Dictyocoela roeselum have both been shown to influence on the antitoxic responses of mono-infected Gammarus roeseli exposed to cadmium. The present study investigates the effect of this co-infection on the antitoxic defence responses of naturally infected females exposed to cadmium stress. Our results revealed that, depending on the cadmium dose, bi-infection induced only slight, significant increased cell damage in G. roeseli as compared to non-infection. In addition, the antitoxic defence pattern of cadmium-exposed bi-infected hosts was similar to the pattern of cadmium-exposed D. roeselum-infected hosts. Reduced glutathione concentrations, carotenoid levels and γ-glutamylcystein ligase activity decreased, while metallothionein concentrations increased. This similar pattern indicates that host physiology can be controlled to some extent by microsporidia under stress conditions. It supports the hypothesis of a disruption of acanthocephalan effects in the presence of microsporidia. However, the global negative effects of bi-infection on host condition should be tested on more biological models, since competition between parasites depends on life history trade-off. PMID:22844535

  14. Effect of Multiple Parasitic Infections on the Tolerance to Pollutant Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Gismondi, Eric; Rigaud, Thierry; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Cossu-Leguille, Carole

    2012-01-01

    The horizontally-transmitted acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus and the vertically-transmitted microsporidian parasite Dictyocoela roeselum have both been shown to influence on the antitoxic responses of mono-infected Gammarus roeseli exposed to cadmium. The present study investigates the effect of this co-infection on the antitoxic defence responses of naturally infected females exposed to cadmium stress. Our results revealed that, depending on the cadmium dose, bi-infection induced only slight, significant increased cell damage in G. roeseli as compared to non-infection. In addition, the antitoxic defence pattern of cadmium-exposed bi-infected hosts was similar to the pattern of cadmium-exposed D. roeselum-infected hosts. Reduced glutathione concentrations, carotenoid levels and γ-glutamylcystein ligase activity decreased, while metallothionein concentrations increased. This similar pattern indicates that host physiology can be controlled to some extent by microsporidia under stress conditions. It supports the hypothesis of a disruption of acanthocephalan effects in the presence of microsporidia. However, the global negative effects of bi-infection on host condition should be tested on more biological models, since competition between parasites depends on life history trade-off. PMID:22844535

  15. Parasite-induced changes in the diet of a freshwater amphipod: field and laboratory evidence.

    PubMed

    Médoc, V; Piscart, C; Maazouzi, C; Simon, L; Beisel, J-N

    2011-04-01

    Trophically transmitted parasites are likely to strongly influence food web-structure. The extent to which they change the trophic ecology of their host remains nevertheless poorly investigated and field evidence is lacking. This is particularly true for acanthocephalan parasites whose invertebrate hosts can prey on other invertebrates and contribute to leaf-litter breakdown. We used a multiple approach combining feeding experiments, neutral lipids and stable isotopes to investigate the trophic ecology of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli parasitized by the bird acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus. Infected compared to uninfected amphipods consumed as many dead isopods, but fewer live isopods and less leaf material. Infection had no influence on the total concentration of neutral lipids. Contrary to what we expected based on laboratory findings, the nitrogen isotope signature, which allows for the estimation of consumer's trophic position, was not influenced by infection status. Conversely, the carbon isotope signature, which is used to identify food sources, changed with infection and suggested that the diet of infected G. roeseli includes less perilithon (i.e. fixed algae on rocks, stones) but more terrestrial inputs (e.g. leaf material) than that of uninfected conspecifics. This study shows evidence of changes in the trophic ecology of P. minutus-infected G. roeseli and we stress the need to complement feeding experiments with field data when investigating top-down effects of infection in an opportunistic feeder which adapts its diet to the available food sources. PMID:21232173

  16. Parasite altered micro-distribution of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Calum; Fielding, Nina J; Hume, Kevin D; Dick, Jaimie T A; Elwood, Robert W; Hatcher, Melanie J; Dunn, Alison M

    2003-01-01

    In a river survey, Gammarus pulex amphipods both unparasitised and parasitised with the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus truttae were distributed similarly with respect to flow regimen, tending to be more abundant in faster, shallower, riffle patches. However, there was a higher prevalence of parasitism in faster, shallower areas than in slower, deeper areas and abundance correlated with macrophyte coverage for unparasitised but not parasitised amphipods, indicating subtle differences in habitat usage. A laboratory 'patch' simulation indicated that parasitism influenced micro-distribution. There were higher proportions of unparasitised amphipods in/under stone substrates and within weed. In contrast, there were higher proportions of parasitised amphipods in the water column and at the water surface. As the experiment progressed, unparasitised but not parasitised amphipod habitat usage shifted from those micro-habitats above the substrate and in the water column to those in/under the substrates. Experiments also demonstrated that parasitised amphipods were more active and had a greater preference for illumination. Previous studies of the effects of acanthocephalan parasitism of amphipod hosts have focussed on how drift behaviour is altered, now we show that subtle differences in micro-habitat usage could translate to greatly increased vulnerability to fish predation. We discuss how aggregation of parasitised individuals within specific habitats could promote parasite transmission. PMID:12547346

  17. Parasites in harbour seals ( Phoca vitulina) from the German Wadden Sea between two Phocine Distemper Virus epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K.; Raga, J. A.; Siebert, U.

    2007-12-01

    Parasites were collected from 107 harbour seals ( Phoca vitulina) found on the coasts of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, between 1997 and 2000. The prevalence of the parasites and their associated pathology were investigated. Eight species of parasites, primarily nematodes, were identified from the examined organs: two anisakid nematodes ( Pseudoterranova decipiens (sensu lato) , Contracaecum osculatum (sensu lato)) from the stomach, Otostrongylus circumlitus (Crenosomatidae) and Parafilaroides gymnurus (Filaroididae) from the respiratory tract, one filarioid nematode ( Acanthocheilonema spirocauda) from the heart, two acanthocephalans, Corynosoma strumosum and C. semerme (Polymorphidae), from the intestine and an ectoparasite, Echinophthirius horridus (Anoplura, Insecta). Lungworm infection was the most prominent parasitological finding and secondary bacterial bronchopneumonia the most pathogenic lesion correlated with the parasites. Heavy nematode burdens in the respiratory tract were highly age-related and more frequent in young seals. A positive correlation was observed between high levels of pulmonary infection and severity of bronchopneumonia. The prevalence of lungworms in this study was higher than in seals that died during the 1988/1989 Phocine Distemper Virus epidemic, and the prevalence of acanthocephalans and heartworms had decreased compared to findings from the first die-off.

  18. Helminth parasite communities in anuran amphibians of Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary (Haryana), India.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Anjum N; Bhutia, Pasang T

    2010-10-01

    Helminth parasite fauna in anuran amphibia were investigated during the general faunistic surveys of Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary, situated in Haryana state. Three species of amphibian hosts were found to harbour 12 genera of helminth parasites. The prevalence, intensity and abundance were studied. Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis harboured maximum parasite species followed by Fejervarya limnocharis and Duttaphrynus melanostictus. In E. cyanophlyctis, among nematode parasites, the genus Camallanus was most prevalent followed by Cosmocerca and Cosmocercoides, whereas, Rhabdias and Aplectana were the least prevalent genera. Among trematode parasites, Ganeo was the most prevalent genus and least was Diplodiscus. Acanthocephalus was recovered only once and no cestode infection was found. In F. limnocharis, the most prevalent nematode genus was Oxysomatium, followed by Cosmocerca and the only trematode recorded was Ganeo, whereas, cestode Proteocephalus was also recovered once. In D. melanostictus, only two nematode genera were recovered of which Oxysomatium was dominant followed by Cosmocerca. The helminth parasite community in anuran amphibia of Kalesar WLS comprised 52.9% of nematodes, 46.2% of trematodes, 0.58% cestodes and 0.29% acanthocephala. PMID:21966125

  19. A review of the genus Sclerocollum Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae) from rabbitfishes (Siganidae) in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

    PubMed

    Pichelin, Sylvie; Smales, Lesley R; Cribb, Thomas Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Seven of the eleven species of Siganus Richardson (Siganidae) collected off the coasts of Australia, New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Palau were infected with species of Sclerocollum Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae). A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Discriminant Analysis were performed on a morphometric dataset of specimens of Sclerocollum including borrowed type-specimens of Sc. rubrimaris Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 from the Indian Ocean and of Sc. robustum Edmonds, 1964, the only acanthocephalan species known previously from an Australian siganid. These analyses showed that the lengths of proboscis hooks were useful variables for separating specimens into groups and supported the presence of two known species (Sc. robustum and Sc. rubrimaris) and one new species (Sc. australis n. sp.) in Australian waters. We found Sc. robustum in Siganus lineatus (Valenciennes) from off Queensland and Sc. rubrimaris in S. fuscescens (Houttuyn) from off Western Australia and Queensland, S. punctatissimus Fowler & Bean from off Queensland and S. argenteus (Quoy & Gaimard), S. corallinus (Valenciennes), S. canaliculatus (Park) and S. doliatus Guérin-Méneville from off New Caledonia (all new host and locality records) which we compared with museum specimens of Sc. rubrimaris from S. rivulatus Forsskål & Niebuhr and S. argenteus [as S. rostratus (Valenciennes)] from the Red Sea. The third species, Sclerocollum australis n. sp., was found only in S. corallinus and S. doliatus from off Queensland. Sclerocollum australis n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by a unique combination of characters of the proboscis armature, including lengths of hooks 1-7. Specimens of Sclerocollum were also found in Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch) (Acanthuridae) from off Queensland, and Coradion altivelis McCulloch (Chaetodontidae) and Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus) (Chaetodontidae) from off New Caledonia. No acanthocephalans were found in siganids collected from

  20. Checklists of Parasites of Farm Fishes of Babylon Province, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Mhaisen, Furhan T; Al-Rubaie, Abdul-Razzak L

    2016-01-01

    Literature reviews of all references concerning the parasitic fauna of fishes in fish farms of Babylon province, middle of Iraq, showed that a total of 92 valid parasite species are so far known from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), and the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as well as from three freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus, Liza abu, and Heteropneustes fossilis) which were found in some fish farms of the same province. The parasitic fauna included one mastigophoran, three apicomplexans, 13 ciliophorans, five myxozoans, five trematodes, 45 monogeneans, five cestodes, three nematodes, two acanthocephalans, nine arthropods, and one mollusc. The common carp was found to harbour 81 species of parasites, the grass carp 30 species, the silver carp 28 species, L. abu 13 species, C. auratus one species, and H. fossilis one species. A host-parasite list for each fish species was also provided. PMID:27559480

  1. Site adaptations of Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) tilapiae: Observations through light and scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Hady, Osman K.; Osman, Hussein A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) tilapiae parasites were collected from the intestines of 300 fish belonging to three tilapia species sourced at the River Nile, Giza, Egypt. The proboscis of the parasite was characterized by three rows of hooks that curved towards the posterior of the body. The first row is supported by unmodified hooks. The parasite tegument has a series of alternative folds and a large number of pores. Sensory ganglia are located on the surface of the proboscis and body. Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) tilapiae provokes an aggressive host response indicated by hyperplasia of the intestinal goblet cells and focal eosinophil infiltrations. This acanthocephalan parasite shows a highly modified adaptation to its site of host infection. PMID:17106224

  2. Temporal and spatial patterns of nestedness in eel macroparasite communities.

    PubMed

    Norton, J; Lewis, J W; Rollinson, D

    2004-08-01

    A nested (non-random) species composition was observed among the intestinal macroparasite communities of European eels, Anguilla anguilla. Nestedness was observed in 8 out of 10 component community samples from the rivers Thames and Test between April 2000 and October 2001. Parasite component communities consisted of mainly generalist and specialist, but also accidental species, and included acanthocephalans, cestodes, nematodes and digeneans. Nestedness was observed when component population size differed markedly between all or most parasite species, but not when the majority of species present was similarly abundant. Nestedness could not be explained in terms of host weight, log normal distribution of parasite species, or mean intensity of infection. It is proposed that nestedness occurred as a result of a sufficiently graded abundance between parasite species, which was established early in the year by colonization processes. PMID:15376779

  3. Parasites of Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes in Paraíba state, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, Cristiane Maria Fernandes de; Oliveira, Jaqueline Bianque; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Dantas, Antônio Flávio Medeiros; Wagner, Paulo Guilherme Carniel; Febrônio, Andrei Brum

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the presence of gastrointestinal helminths in 97 captive birds (Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes) necropsied between June and December 2011 in the state of Paraiba, Brazil. Forty-three birds were infected. Psittaciformes were infected by nematode Ascaridia hermaphrodita (97.6%) and cestode Raillietina sp. (2.4%). A. hermaphrodita was found in all species of parrots and Raillietina sp. was found only in Amazona aestiva. A. hermaphrodita was the cause of death, by intestinal obstruction, in 14 of the 40 birds investigated. Accipitriformes were infected by nematode Synhimantus (Synhimantus) rectus (100%) and acantocephalan Centrorhynchus tumidulus (50%). In Brazil, Diopsittaca nobilis and A. aestiva are reported for the first time as hosts of A. hermaphrodita and Raillietina sp., respectively. We concluded that Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes in captivity are affected by nematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans and that implementation of control measures is essential. PMID:23856738

  4. Factors determining parasite community richness and species composition in black snook Centropomus nigrescens (Centropomidae) from coastal lagoons in Guerrero, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Violante-González, Juan; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín; Gil Guerrero, Salvador

    2010-06-01

    Species richness and composition were determined for parasite communities in the black snook Centropomus nigrescens collected from five coastal lagoons in the Guerrero state, Mexico. A total of 354 fish were collected between December 2007 and November 2008. Twenty-four species of parasite were identified: 2 monogeneans, 12 digeneans, 4 acanthocephalans, 1 cestode, 4 nematodes, and 1 pentastomid. The communities consisted mainly of autogenic parasites, and all were dominated by the digenean Paracrytogonimus yamagutii. Community species composition was similar among lagoons, although the influence of local conditions prevented them from being identical. Host traits such as predator feeding habits, body size, and vagility contributed to parasite community structure and species composition. PMID:20336316

  5. Helminths in an intensively stocked population of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muzzall, Patrick M.; Bowen, Charles A., II

    2000-01-01

    Eighty stocked lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (Salmonidae), collected from 2 locations in Lake Huron in May 1995, were examined for parasites. The parasite fauna of this top predator in Lake Huron was characterized by only 6 helminth species. Echinorhynchus salmonis infected all lake trout with a mean intensity of 163.9. The intensity of this acanthocephalan species significantly increased with host length and weight. Eubothrium salvelini infected 78 lake trout with a maximum number of 81 scoleces counted. Diplostomum sp., Cyathocephalus truncatus, Capillaria salvelini, and Neoechinorhynchus sp. infrequently infected lake trout. The low parasite species richness in these lake trout is believed to be due to their large size at stocking and to the loss of historical enzootic host-parasite relationships that followed the absence of this fish species in Lake Huron for 26 yr.

  6. Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus Eggs in Canine Coprolite from the Sasanian Era in Iran (4(th)/5(th) Century CE).

    PubMed

    Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Makki, Mahsasadat; Heidari, Zahra; Rezaeian, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Araujo, Adauto; Boenke, Nicole; Aali, Abolfazl; Stollner, Thomas; Mobedi, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Present paper is the second publication introducing the paleoparasitological findings from animal coprolites obtained from archeological site of Chehrabad salt mine in northwestern Iran. The current archeological site is located in northwest of Iran, dated to the Sassanian Era (4(th)/5(th) century CE). In the summer 2012 the carnivore coprolite was obtained within the layers in the mine and were thoroughly analyzed for parasites using TSP rehydration technique. Eggs of 0 were successfully retrieved from the examined coprolite and were confidently identified based on reliable references. Identifying of M. hirudinaceus eggs in paleofeces with clear appearance as demonstrated herein, is much due to appropriate preservation condition has been existed in the salt mine .The present finding could be regarded as the oldest acanthocephalan infection in Iran. PMID:26246822

  7. Population dynamics and parasitation of planktonic and epibenthic crustaceans in the Baltic Schlei fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollasch, S.; Zander, C. D.

    1995-03-01

    The planktonic and epibenthic crustacean fauna from two sites of the brackish Schlei fjord, Northern Germany, was investigated over a six-month period. Calanoid and cyclopoid copepods were more abundant in lower salinities, whereas, benthic decapods, isopods and amphipods prevailed in the site of higher salinity. Cestodan larvae were found only in spring which may be due to the timing of the respective life-cycles. Parasites of benthic crustaceans, mostly digenean metacercariae but also cestodans, acanthocephalans and nematodes, appeared from spring to late summer. Decreasing salinities caused lower intensities of the most abundant parasite, Maritrema subdolum; only the true brackish-water species among the hosts were more heavily infested than those found in higher salinities. The correlation of parasite size and host size at infestation became apparent. Therefore, Crangon crangon is an optimal host for the large Podocotyle atomon metacercariae. Coevolutive trends between some hosts and parasites are made evident.

  8. Helminth parasite spectrum of fishes in Meghalaya, Northeast India: a checklist.

    PubMed

    Jyrwa, Donald B; Thapa, Sunila; Tandon, Veena

    2016-06-01

    Fish constitute a major component of diet for the people of Northeast India and they are extensively used as a protein-rich food for human consumption. The present studies incorporate the spectrum, composition and diversity of the parasitic species in freshwater fishes in Meghalaya, Northeast India, with a view to identifying the species recovered by morphological criteria based on light microscopy. The collection sites included sixteen foci from eleven districts of Meghalaya for parasites occurring in the common food fishes (Cypriniformes, Channiformes, Silurformes, Symbranchiformes and Anguilliformes). The helminth parasite spectrum recovered from the various piscine host species in the study area comprised of a total of 19 taxa: 2 monogenean, 8 trematode (4 adult and 4 metacercarial stages), 12 cestode (11 adult and a metacestode stage), 6 nematode (3 adult and 3 larval stages) and a single acanthocephalan species. A checklist of the parasite species with short remarks for each is provided herein. PMID:27413300

  9. Changes in prevalence and intensity of infection of Profilicollis altmani (Perry, 1942) cystacanth (Acanthocephala) parasitizing the mole crab Emerita analoga (Stimpson, 1857): an El Niño cascade effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Marcelo E.; Barrios, Irene; Thatje, Sven; Laudien, Jürgen

    2008-03-01

    Prevalence and intensity changes in cystacanths of the acanthocephalan Profilicollis altmani parasitizing the mole crab Emerita analoga under El Niño (EN) and non-El Niño (non-EN) conditions are analyzed. Both, mean intensity and prevalence of infection by P. altmani differ significantly for the whole size range and for each size class of 10 mm intervals (except prevalence for size classes exceeding 18 mm carapace length) between EN (1998) and non-EN (2002) years, without observed size distribution differences in the intermediate host E. analoga under either condition. Significant difference in infestation rates of the intermediate host E. analoga is discussed as being an EN cascade effect on predators such as sea birds (i.e., Larus spp. and Calidris sp.), acting as definitive hosts of P. altmani, and which are known to decrease significantly in abundance during EN.

  10. First detailed data on metazoan parasites of the rare species short beaked garfish Belone svetovidovi (Teleostei: Belonidae) from Tunisian coast, Central Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Châari, Manel; Derbel, Hela; Neifar, Lassâd

    2016-01-01

    Forty five specimens of the short beaked garfish Belone svetovidovi, a rare belonid species largely confused with the garfish Belone belone from Tunisian coast Sea were examined for metazoan parasite. Nine metazoan parasites species were identified: one monogenean (Axine sp.), 4 digeneans (Lecithostaphylus retroflexus, Tergestia acanthocephala, Aponurus laguncula and Condylocotyla pilodora metacercaria), one copepod (Bomolochus bellones), one isopod (Irona nana), one acanthocephalan (Telosentis exiguus) and one nematod Hysterotylacium sp. Most of parasite species were new records for B. svetovidovi in Tunisia. In the parasite fauna of B. svetovidovi, digenean C. pilodora metacercaria was the most prevalent species (42%) followed by Monogenea Axine sp. (36%). The total length of the host did not influence parasitic infection in B. svetovidovi. The metazoan parasite composition of B. svetovidovi revealed great similarity than those of B. belone from Tunisia supporting same ecological behavior of both hosts. PMID:27262955

  11. Helmintofauna of turbot Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) from the southern Baltic Sea including new data.

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak, M; Rolbiecki, L

    2015-01-01

    Turbot Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) is a fish belonging to the Pleuronectiformes order. It is commonly observed in waters of the northern Atlantic, and also in the Baltic Sea. As an economically significant species, it is fished on an industrial scale, and also farmed in some European countries. Seventy-two turbots from the Gulf of Gdańsk (26th ICES zone) were examined for parasite presence in the years 2010-2012. The study revealed the presence of the tapeworm Bothriocephalus scorpii (Müller, 1776) and acanthocephalan Corynosoma semerme (Forssell, 1904). The overall (both parasites) prevalence of turbot infection was 100% with a mean intensity of 18.7. C. semerme is a parasite which has not been noted so far in turbot from the southern Baltic. The presence of C. semerme in turbot was emphasized in the context of possible infection of terrestrial mammals, including humans. PMID:26618593

  12. Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus Eggs in Canine Coprolite from the Sasanian Era in Iran (4th/5th Century CE)

    PubMed Central

    MOWLAVI, Gholamreza; MAKKI, Mahsasadat; HEIDARI, Zahra; REZAEIAN, Mostafa; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ARAUJO, Adauto; BOENKE, Nicole; AALI, Abolfazl; STOLLNER, Thomas; MOBEDI, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Present paper is the second publication introducing the paleoparasitological findings from animal coprolites obtained from archeological site of Chehrabad salt mine in northwestern Iran. The current archeological site is located in northwest of Iran, dated to the Sassanian Era (4th/5th century CE). In the summer 2012 the carnivore coprolite was obtained within the layers in the mine and were thoroughly analyzed for parasites using TSP rehydration technique. Eggs of 0 were successfully retrieved from the examined coprolite and were confidently identified based on reliable references. Identifying of M. hirudinaceus eggs in paleofeces with clear appearance as demonstrated herein, is much due to appropriate preservation condition has been existed in the salt mine .The present finding could be regarded as the oldest acanthocephalan infection in Iran. PMID:26246822

  13. The description of Centrorhynchus globirostris n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) from the pheasant crow, Centropus sinensis (Stephens) in Pakistan, with gene sequence analysis and emendation of the family diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Wilson, Eric; Keele, Brianna; Khan, Aly

    2015-06-01

    A new species of Centrorhynchus (Centrorhynchidae) with receptacle insertion at the posterior third of the proboscis is described from the pheasant crow Centropus sinensis (Stephens) (Cuculidae) in Pakistan. Centrorhynchu sglobirostris n. sp. is similar to the 98 other known species of Centrorhynchus Lühe, 1911 in having long cylindrical trunk with anterior dilation and transverse anastomoses of the secondary lacunar vessels. However, specimens of C. globirostris differ from all other species of the genus by having a unique globular proboscis not divided into anterior proboscis with rooted hooks and posterior proboscis with rootless spines. Posterior hooks of C. globirostris emerge at the level of the receptacle insertion and are uniquely fully rooted. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of C. globirostris 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes reveals the genetic and evolutionary relationships between C. globirostris and other members of Centrorhynchidae which have representative orthologs in public databases. Comparison to known acanthocephalans confirms appropriate inclusion in the genus Centrorhynchus. PMID:25804972

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Southwellina hispida supports monophyly of Palaeacanthocephala (Acanthocephala: Polymorphida).

    PubMed

    Gazi, Mohiuddin; Kim, Jiyeon; Park, Joong-Ki

    2015-08-01

    Acanthocephala is a relatively small, but distinct obligate parasitic group that includes 4 classes: Archiacanthocephala, Palaeacanthocephala, Polyacanthocephala, and Eoacanthocephala. The phylogenetic relationships of acanthocephalans are mainly based on nuclear ribosomal genes. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Southwellina hispida (Palaeacanthocephala: Polymorphida), and used this genome sequence along with other platyzoan species (including syndermatan groups) to assess its phylogenetic position within Acanthocephala. The S. hispida mtDNA is a 14,742 bp circular molecule that contains 36 genes (lacking atp8) encoded in the same direction. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences for 12 protein-coding genes suggested palaeacanthocephalan species to be monophyletic, and this group to be sister to Eoacanthocephala. These results confirm other morphological and molecular data supporting palaeacanthocephalan monophyly. PMID:25656507

  15. Helminth parasites of freshwater fishes from Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila, in the Chihuahuan Desert of Mexico: inventory and biogeographical implications.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Aguilar, Rogelio; Martínez-Aquino, Andrés; Espinosa-Pérez, Héctor; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2014-06-01

    As part of an ongoing inventory of the helminth parasites of freshwater fishes in Mexico, 570 individual fish were collected between Apr 2008 and Oct 2011 in 26 localities along the Cuatro Ciénegas region in Coahuila State, northern Mexico. Seventeen species of hosts, mostly corresponding to Nearctic freshwater elements, were studied. A total of 8324 individual worms were collected during this survey, representing 25 species of helminths, of which 9 were digeneans, 3 monogeneans, 3 acanthocephalans, 9 nematodes and 1 cestode. Most of the records in this checklist represent new host or locality records. The information provided in this checklist may be helpful for our understanding of the biodiversity and historical biogeography of this host-parasite system, because in the Cuatro Ciénegas region occur a Nearctic freshwater fish fauna, along with Neotropical and endemic elements, and from a biogeographical point of view, this may represent a transitional area. PMID:24952970

  16. Helminth parasites of the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) (Aves, Sturnidae), an invasive bird in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Valente, Romina; Ibañez, Lucía Mariel; Lorenti, Eliana; Fiorini, Vanina Dafne; Montalti, Diego; Diaz, Julia Inés

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the knowledge of gastrointestinal parasites of the European starling Sturnus vulgaris, an invasive bird from Argentina. Seventy-six birds were collected during the spring of 2007 and were examined for helminths. Six parasite species were found: one trematoda of the Echinostoma revolutum "group," four nematodes (Synhimantus nasuta, Microtetrameres sp., Pterothominx exilis, and Ornithocapillaria ovopunctata), and one acanthocephalan (Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus). All species found have been recorded in Eurasia and/or North America previously, although present reports enlarge their geographical distribution. As expected in an invasive host, the parasite community shows much lower species richness (n = 6) than those observed in their native area (79 and 35 in the Eurasia and North America, respectively). PMID:24804922

  17. Wild Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) Expel Foreign Matter from the Coelom via the Urinary Bladder in Response to Internal Injury, Endoparasites and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kelehear, Crystal; Jones, Hugh I.; Wood, Benjamin A.; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Dissections of >1,200 wild-caught cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia confirm a laboratory report that anurans can expel foreign objects from the coelom by incorporating them into the urinary bladder. The foreign objects that we found inside bladders included a diverse array of items (e.g., grass seeds, twigs, insect prey, parasites), many of which may have entered the coelom via rupture of the gut wall. In some cases, the urinary bladder was fused to other organs including liver, fat bodies, ovaries, Bidder’s organs, lungs, mesentery, stomach wall, gall bladder, and the abdominal wall. Acanthocephalan parasites (of a range of developmental stages) were identified from the walls of the urinary bladders of three cane toads. This organ may play a significant role in destroying or excreting metazoan parasites, as well as inanimate objects. PMID:26267862

  18. Acanthocephala of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, D.J.; Cole, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Examination of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) collected from several locations in North America contributed new information concerning the acanthocephalan fauna of this host. Representatives of Arythmorhynchus brevis, representing a new host record, were collected from eagles in Florida, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin. Plagiorhynchus sp. was collected from an eagle in Florida. Corynosoma strumosum was collected from an eagle in Alaska. Andracantha phalacrocoracis, representing a new host record, was collected from an eagle in Alaska. Southwellina hispida, representing a new host record, was collected from eagles in Maine and Virginia. The occurrence of gravid or mature females of A. brevis, Plagiorhynchus sp., and S. hispida suggests that the bald eagle may serve as a competent definitive host for these species.

  19. Checklists of Parasites of Farm Fishes of Babylon Province, Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubaie, Abdul-Razzak L.

    2016-01-01

    Literature reviews of all references concerning the parasitic fauna of fishes in fish farms of Babylon province, middle of Iraq, showed that a total of 92 valid parasite species are so far known from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), and the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as well as from three freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus, Liza abu, and Heteropneustes fossilis) which were found in some fish farms of the same province. The parasitic fauna included one mastigophoran, three apicomplexans, 13 ciliophorans, five myxozoans, five trematodes, 45 monogeneans, five cestodes, three nematodes, two acanthocephalans, nine arthropods, and one mollusc. The common carp was found to harbour 81 species of parasites, the grass carp 30 species, the silver carp 28 species, L. abu 13 species, C. auratus one species, and H. fossilis one species. A host-parasite list for each fish species was also provided. PMID:27559480

  20. Accumulation of the precious metals platinum, palladium and rhodium from automobile catalytic converters in Paratenuisentis ambiguus as compared with its fish host, Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, S; von Bohlen, A; Messerschmidt, J; Sures, B

    2005-03-01

    The platinum group metals (PGM) Pt, Pd and Rh are emitted into the environment mainly by catalytic exhaust gas converters of cars. As PGM accumulate in sediments of aquatic ecosystems, the study was focused on the uptake of the noble metals by European eels, Anguilla anguilla infected with the acanthocephalan Paratenuisentis ambiguus. Eels were exposed to ground catalytic converter material for six weeks. After exposure Pt and Pd were detected in the liver and kidney of the eels and in the parasites. Palladium was also found in fish muscle and intestine. No Rh uptake by the eel tissues and the parasites occurred. Paratenuisentis ambiguus contained the highest levels of both metals with 40 times higher Pt concentrations and four times higher Pd concentrations than the liver of its host. Due to its accumulation capacity for PGM, P. ambiguus can be applied as a sensitive accumulation indicator in field studies to assess the degree of environmental PGM contamination in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:15831118

  1. Helminths of foxes and other wild carnivores from rural areas in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papdopoulos, H; Himonas, C; Papazahariadou, M; Antoniadou-Sotiriadou, K

    1997-09-01

    Twenty species of helminth parasites were identified from fox, wolf, jackal and wild cat material collected in Greece. Of the 314 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) examined, 18 helminth species were recovered comprising one trematode, eight cestodes, seven nematodes and two acanthocephalans, with the cestode species Mesocestoides sp. (73.2%), Joyeuxiella echinorhynchoides (24.5%) and the nematode species Uncinaria stenocephala (43.9%), and Toxara canis (28.6%) being the most prevalent. Five cestode and three nematode species were reported from six wolves (CaniS lupus), together with one trematode, three cestode and four nematode species from five jackals (Canis aureus) and two cestode and three nematode species from four wild cats (Felis silvestris) examined. The species J. echinorhynchoides, Taenia crassiceps and Onicola canis and the genera Spirometra, Rictularia and Pachysentis are reported here for the first time in Greece. The results are discussed in the light of the feeding characteristics of wild carnivores in rural areas of Greece. PMID:9705680

  2. Parasitic helminths of red-bellied woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus) from the Apalachicola National Forest in Florida.

    PubMed

    Foster, Garry W; Kinsella, John M; Walters, Eric L; Schrader, Mathew S; Forrester, Donald J

    2002-12-01

    Seventy-four red-bellied woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus) from the Apalachicola National Forest (30 degrees 10'N, 84 degrees 40'W) in northwest Florida were examined for helminths. The most prevalent parasites were the nematode Aproctella stoddardi (11%) and the acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus centurorum (11%). New host records include Pseudaprocta samueli, A. stoddardi, Tridentocapillaria tridens, Diplotriaena americana, Dispharynx nasuta, Procyrnea pileata, Orthoskrjabinia rostellata, and Brachylaima fuscatum. The helminth fauna was characterized by low prevalences and intensities of infection and low numbers of species per bird (1.2). The frequency of prescribed burning and habitat understory flora composition did not influence the prevalences or intensities of helminths in red-bellied woodpeckers collected from 2 similar but differently managed sites within the forest. PMID:12537108

  3. Eutrophication, pollution and fragmentation: effects on the parasite communities in roach and perch in four lakes in central Finland.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, E T; Holmes, J C; Koskivaara, M

    1997-09-01

    Parasite communities in the four study lakes reflected the influences of habitat fragmentation, pollution and eutrophication. Discriminant analysis of communities at the individual host level reveal two major axes. One, characterized by reduced numbers of digeneans and myxosporeans and increased numbers of acanthocephalans and monogeneans, contrasts communities in a lake affected by chemical pollution from a pulp mill with two eutrophic, less polluted lakes. Changes in the density of intermediate hosts, direct effects on ectoparasites and impaired immune systems were regarded as important mechanisms. The second contrasts communities in an oligotrophic, unpolluted lake with the two eutrophic lakes, and was more complex, reflecting habitat fragmentation, and pollution or eutrophication, probably mediated by the same mechanisms as above. Monitoring easily seen discriminating parasites following 8 years of reduced pollutant loading showed some, but not all, of the effects of pollution could be reserved in a relatively short time. PMID:9802072

  4. Environmental parasitology: Parasites as accumulation bioindicators in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachev, Milen; Sures, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    Parasites can be used as effective monitoring tools in environmental impact studies as they are able to accumulate certain pollutants (e.g. metals) at levels much higher than those of their ambient environment and of free-living sentinels. Thus, they provide valuable information not only about the chemical conditions of their and their hosts' environment but also deliver insights into the biological availability of allochthonous substances. While a large number of different freshwater parasites (mainly acanthocephalans and cestodes) were investigated in terms of pollutant bioaccumulation, studies based on marine host-parasites systems remain scarce. However, available data show that different marine parasite taxa such as nematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans exhibit also an excellent metal accumulation capacity. The biological availability of metals and their uptake routes in marine biota and parasites differ from those of freshwater organisms. We assume that a large part of metals and other pollutants are also taken up via the digestive system of the host. Therefore, in addition to environmental conditions the physiology of the host also plays an important role for the accumulation process. Additionally, we highlight some advantages in using parasites as accumulation indicators in marine ecosystems. As parasites occur ubiquitously in marine food webs, the monitoring of metals in their tissues can deliver information about the spatial and trophic distribution of pollutants. Accordingly, parasites as indicators offer an ecological assessment on a broader scale, in contrast to established free-living marine indicators, which are mostly benthic invertebrates and therefore limited in habitat distribution. Globally distributed parasite taxa, which are highly abundant in a large number of host species, are suggested as worldwide applicable sentinels.

  5. Mycobacterial infections in striped bass from Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ottinger, C.A.; Brown, J.J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Starliper, C.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Weyers, H.S.; Beauchamp, K.A.; Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Gauthier, David T.; Vogelbein, W.K.

    2007-01-01

    Eighty striped bass Morone saxatilis were obtained from Delaware Bay using commercial gill nets set adjacent to Woodland Beach (n = 70) and Bowers Beach (n = 10) in December 2003. Fish were examined for gross lesions. Total lengths (TLs) and eviscerated weights were determined to calculate condition factors (K). Portions of spleens were aseptically harvested for bacterial culture, and portions of spleens, kidneys (anterior and posterior), livers, and gonads were obtained for histological examination. The size distribution of the striped bass was relatively homogeneous; the mean TL was about 600 mm for all samples. Mean K exceeded 0.95 in all samples and was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among samples. Significant differences in mycobacterial infection prevalence (P ??? 0.05) were observed among samples; samples obtained at Woodland Beach (WB) on December 10 (53.8%, n = 13) and December 17 (7.1%, n = 42) exhibited the most striking differences in prevalence. Mycobacterial infection intensity ranged from 1 ?? 102 to 1 ?? 107 colony-forming units per gram of spleen. Acanthocephalan infection prevalence and intensity, non-acid-fast bacterial infection prevalence, and fish sex ratio were also significantly different among the samples (P ??? 0.05). Similar to the mycobacterial infections, differences in sex ratio, acanthocephalan infection, and non-acid-fast bacterial infection were observed between the WB samples taken on December 10 and 17. However, no significant associations (P > 0.05) were observed between sex ratio or these infections and mycobacterial infection. The differences in bacterial and parasite infection prevalence and intensity and fish sex ratio in some samples indicate that these fish had a different history and that the epizootiology of mycobacterial infection in striped bass from Delaware Bay may be relatively complex. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  6. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively. PMID:24938826

  7. Influence of introduced vs. native parasites on the body condition of migrant silver eels

    PubMed Central

    Gérard, Claudia; Trancart, Thomas; Amilhat, Elsa; Faliex, Elisabeth; Virag, Laure; Feunteun, Eric; Acou, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Because parasitism is among the reasons invoked to explain the collapse of Anguilla anguilla, we evaluated the parasitic constraint on body condition (BC) of migrant silver eels as a proxy of fitness with inter-site comparisons. Metazoan parasites were studied in 149 silver eels from five sites (northern Europe). In total, 89% were infected by 13 species including Myxozoa, Monogenea, Cestoda, Nematoda, and Acanthocephala. Anguillicoloides crassus was most common (56%), then Acanthocephalus clavula (30%), and Pseudodactylogyrus sp. (17%). BC, calculated for 58 females, was negatively correlated by abundance of the introduced Pseudodactylogyrus sp. but not by other parasite taxa. Nevertheless, the introduced A. crassus was considered as a severe pathogen based on previous data, whereas the native A. clavula was supposed to have limited impact. Parasite component communities and BC were different between sites. Silver eels from Stockholm Archipelago (Sweden) were the least parasitized (40% vs. 90–95% for other sites) with no parasites on the gills. Burrishoole (Ireland) differed by the absence of A. crassus and high prevalence of A. clavula (84%) but without consequences on BC. Gudenaa (Denmark), Corrib (Ireland), and Frémur (France) were close due to high prevalence of A. crassus (89–93%). Gudenaa and Corrib were the most similar because Pseudodactylogyrus sp. was also highly prevalent (respectively 71% and 60%) whereas absent in Frémur. Our results suggest that the fitness loss induced by the introduced parasites could affect the spawning success of migrant silver eels from Gudenaa and Corrib, and to a lesser extent from Frémur, but probably not those from Stockholm Archipelago and Burrishoole. PMID:24135272

  8. Cooling water of power plant creates "hot spots" for tropical fishes and parasites.

    PubMed

    Emde, Sebastian; Kochmann, Judith; Kuhn, Thomas; Dörge, Dorian D; Plath, Martin; Miesen, Friedrich W; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Thermally altered water bodies can function as "hot spots" where non-native species are establishing self-sustaining populations beyond their tropical and subtropical native regions. Whereas many tropical fish species have been found in these habitats, the introduction of non-native parasites often remains undetected. Here, n = 77 convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata) were sampled by electro-fishing at two sites from a thermally altered stream in Germany and examined for parasite fauna and feeding ecology. Stomach content analysis suggests an opportunistic feeding strategy of A. nigrofasciata: while plant material dominated the diet at the warm water inlet (∼30 °C), relative contributions of insects, plants, and crustaceans were balanced 3 km downstream (∼27 °C). The most abundant non-native parasite species was the tropical nematode Camallanus cotti with P = 11.90 % and P = 80.00 % at the inlet and further downstream, respectively. Additionally, nematode larvae of Anguillicoloides crassus and one specimen of the subtropical species Bothriocephalus acheilognathi were isolated. A. nigrofasciata was also highly infected with the native parasite Acanthocephalus anguillae, which could be linked to high numbers of the parasite's intermediate host Asellus aquaticus. The aim of this study was to highlight the risk and consequences of the release and establishment of ornamental fish species for the introduction and spread of non-indigenous metazoan parasites using the convict cichlid as a model species. Furthermore, the spread of non-native parasites into adjacent fish communities needs to be addressed in the future as first evidence of Camallanus cotti in native fish species was also found. PMID:26374537

  9. Prevalence, morphology, and molecular analysis of Serrasentis sagittifer (Acanthocephala: Palaeacanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae), a parasite of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata (Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Morsy, Kareem; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mohammed, Sanna

    2014-07-01

    Seventy specimens of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata of the Red Sea were collected during the period from March to November 2013; they were dissected and examined for parasitic acanthocephalans. Only 40 (57.14%) specimens were found to be naturally infected with Serrasentis sagittifer belonging to family Rhadinorhynchidae. The infection was recorded in the intestine, pyloric ceca, and the external surfaces of some internal organs of the infected fish. Seasonally, the prevalence of infection was increased to 77.14% during summer season and decreased to 37.14% during winter. Light and scanning electron microscopic investigation revealed that the adult worm was elongated (with broad anterior and narrow posterior ends) and measured 6.9-8.6 (7.6 ± 0.2) × 0.57-0.73 (0.63 ± 0.02) mm for male and 10.2-12.1 (11.5 ± 0.2) × 0.71-0.82 (0.76 ± 0.02) mm for female. Proboscis was long and cylindrical with a length of 0.97-1.6 mm (1.2 ± 0.2) for male and 1.12-1.17 mm (1.14 ± 0.02) for female. It was covered with numerous uniform spines arranged longitudinally as 9-11 rows each equipped by 15-18 spines. Spines were triangular, arrow-shaped, strong, and covered with cuticular theca; they decreased in size from the apex to the base of the proboscis. The proboscis is followed by a short spineless neck region followed by the body proper which is supported by multiple combs of spines (16-20) on its ventral surface. Molecular analysis of 18S rDNA sequence for the parasite demonstrated a close identity (>83%) between the present acanthocephalan and other previously described species within class Palaeacanthocephala with 98% identity with the previously recorded S. sagittifer (acc. no. JX014227) which is supported by the morphological data and the presence of trunk spines arranged within rows (comb-like) and the presence of four cement glands in the males. So, according to the records of morphological and molecular analyses, the present parasite

  10. Contrasting parasite communities among allopatric colour morphs of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid Tropheus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adaptation to different ecological environments is thought to drive ecological speciation. This phenomenon culminates in the radiations of cichlid fishes in the African Great Lakes. Multiple characteristic traits of cichlids, targeted by natural or sexual selection, are considered among the driving factors of these radiations. Parasites and pathogens have been suggested to initiate or accelerate speciation by triggering both natural and sexual selection. Three prerequisites for parasite-driven speciation can be inferred from ecological speciation theory. The first prerequisite is that different populations experience divergent infection levels. The second prerequisite is that these infection levels cause divergent selection and facilitate adaptive divergence. The third prerequisite is that parasite-driven adaptive divergence facilitates the evolution of reproductive isolation. Here we investigate the first and the second prerequisite in allopatric chromatically differentiated lineages of the rock-dwelling cichlid Tropheus spp. from southern Lake Tanganyika (Central Africa). Macroparasite communities were screened in eight populations belonging to five different colour morphs. Results Parasite communities were mainly composed of acanthocephalans, nematodes, monogeneans, copepods, branchiurans, and digeneans. In two consecutive years (2011 and 2012), we observed significant variation across populations for infection with acanthocephalans, nematodes, monogeneans of the genera Gyrodactylus and Cichlidogyrus, and the copepod Ergasilus spp. Overall, parasite community composition differed significantly between populations of different colour morphs. Differences in parasite community composition were stable in time. The genetic structure of Tropheus populations was strong and showed a significant isolation-by-distance pattern, confirming that spatial isolation is limiting host dispersal. Correlations between parasite community composition and Tropheus genetic

  11. Intestinal helminth fauna of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and fur seal Arctocephalus australis from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Orts, J S; Montero, F E; Juan-García, A; García, N A; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 56 South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, and 5 South American fur seals, Arctocephalus australis, from northern Patagonia, Argentina. A total of 97,325 helminth specimens were collected from sea lions. Gravid individuals were represented by 6 species of parasites: 1 digenean (Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis), 1 cestode (Diphyllobothrium spp.), 3 nematodes (Uncinaria hamiltoni, Contracaecum ogmorhini s.s., Pseudoterranova cattani) and 1 acanthocephalan (Corynosoma australe). In addition, third-stage larvae of 2 nematodes (Contracaecum sp. and Anisakis sp. type I) and 3 juvenile acanthocephalans (Andracantha sp., Profilicollis chasmagnathi and Corynosoma cetaceum) were also collected. Andracantha sp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and P. chasmagnathi represent new host records. A total of 1516 helminth specimens were collected from fur seals. Gravid individuals were represented by three species of parasites, namely, Diphyllobothrium spp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and C. australe. In addition, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and P. cattani, juveniles of C. cetaceum and immature cestodes (Tetrabothriidae gen. sp.) were also collected. Corynosoma australe was the most prevalent and abundant parasite in both hosts, accounting for >90% of all specimens. Sea lions and furs seals from northern Patagonia harbour the intestinal helminth communities that could be predicted for otariids, i.e. the combination of species of the genera Corynosoma, Diphyllobothrium, Pseudoterranova, Contracaecum and, in pups, Uncinaria. Additionally, both species of otariid are apparently unsuitable hosts (i.e. non-hosts) for as many as five parasite taxa. The inclusion or exclusion of these species affects estimation of species richness at both component community (11 versus 6 species in sea lions; 7 versus 3 species in fur seals) and infracommunity (mean: 3.1 versus 2.6 in sea lions; 2.2 versus 1.7 species) levels. Information about the reproductive status of

  12. Endoparasites in common eiders Somateria mollissima from birds killed by an oil spill in the northern Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieltges, David W.; Hussel, Birgit; Baekgaard, Henrik

    2006-05-01

    Mass mortalities of common eiders Somateria mollissima have been ascribed to high parasite loads. However, the actual role of parasites in mortalities is disputed as in the case of a mass mortality of eiders in the Wadden Sea in the winter of 1999/2000. A critical evaluation of the role of parasites in eider mass mortalities is hampered by (1) a lack of data on actual parasite loads of the birds involved, (2) missing regional data for comparison, and (3) a lack of unbiased samples: investigations are often based on dead beached individuals, which are presumably the more heavily infected birds of a population and thus more likely to die and be washed ashore. Although published data on parasite loads in birds of the winter 1999/2000 mortality are available, no data on background parasitism in eiders from the Wadden Sea exist, making an evaluation of the potential role of parasites in this mortality event difficult. By investigating endoparasites of 102 eiders affected by an oil spill in the northern Wadden Sea in winter 1998/1999, we provide a data set of background parasitism in wintering eiders from the Wadden Sea. We found 13 different parasite taxa with high prevalence values (% infected birds) in the acanthocephalan Profilicollis botulus, the nematode Amidostomum acutum, cestodes and trematodes. In some taxa we observed pronounced differences in prevalence values between juvenile eiders and adults, as well as between adult sexes. The parasite composition shows that bivalves, crabs ( Carcinus maenas) and other crustaceans are important sources of infections by being intermediate hosts. This is partly mirrored in the food content of eider stomachs where bivalves and crabs were predominantly found. Intensities of the acanthocephalan P. botulus, suspected of causing eider mortalities, were especially high in juveniles (1112 ± 416 ind per infected host), but lower in adult males (40 ± 7) and adult females (81 ± 18). However, no extraordinary mortality event was

  13. Development and Validation of a Biodynamic Model for Mechanistically Predicting Metal Accumulation in Fish-Parasite Systems.

    PubMed

    Le, T T Yen; Nachev, Milen; Grabner, Daniel; Hendriks, A Jan; Sures, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Because of different reported effects of parasitism on the accumulation of metals in fish, it is important to consider parasites while interpreting bioaccumulation data from biomonitoring programmes. Accordingly, the first step is to take parasitism into consideration when simulating metal bioaccumulation in the fish host under laboratory conditions. In the present study, the accumulation of metals in fish-parasite systems was simulated by a one-compartment toxicokinetic model and compared to uninfected conspecifics. As such, metal accumulation in fish was assumed to result from a balance of different uptake and loss processes depending on the infection status. The uptake by parasites was considered an efflux from the fish host, similar to elimination. Physiological rate constants for the uninfected fish were parameterised based on the covalent index and the species weight while the parameterisation for the infected fish was carried out based on the reported effects of parasites on the uptake kinetics of the fish host. The model was then validated for the system of the chub Squalius cephalus and the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis following 36-day exposure to waterborne Pb. The dissolved concentration of Pb in the exposure tank water fluctuated during the exposure, ranging from 40 to 120 μg/L. Generally, the present study shows that the one-compartment model can be an effective method for simulating the accumulation of metals in fish, taking into account effects of parasitism. In particular, the predicted concentrations of Cu, Fe, Zn, and Pb in the uninfected chub as well as in the infected chub and the acanthocephalans were within one order of magnitude of the measurements. The variation in the absorption efficiency and the elimination rate constant of the uninfected chub resulted in variations of about one order of magnitude in the predicted concentrations of Pb. Inclusion of further assumptions for simulating metal accumulation in the infected chub

  14. Development and Validation of a Biodynamic Model for Mechanistically Predicting Metal Accumulation in Fish-Parasite Systems

    PubMed Central

    Le, T. T. Yen; Nachev, Milen; Grabner, Daniel; Hendriks, A. Jan; Sures, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Because of different reported effects of parasitism on the accumulation of metals in fish, it is important to consider parasites while interpreting bioaccumulation data from biomonitoring programmes. Accordingly, the first step is to take parasitism into consideration when simulating metal bioaccumulation in the fish host under laboratory conditions. In the present study, the accumulation of metals in fish-parasite systems was simulated by a one-compartment toxicokinetic model and compared to uninfected conspecifics. As such, metal accumulation in fish was assumed to result from a balance of different uptake and loss processes depending on the infection status. The uptake by parasites was considered an efflux from the fish host, similar to elimination. Physiological rate constants for the uninfected fish were parameterised based on the covalent index and the species weight while the parameterisation for the infected fish was carried out based on the reported effects of parasites on the uptake kinetics of the fish host. The model was then validated for the system of the chub Squalius cephalus and the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis following 36-day exposure to waterborne Pb. The dissolved concentration of Pb in the exposure tank water fluctuated during the exposure, ranging from 40 to 120 μg/L. Generally, the present study shows that the one-compartment model can be an effective method for simulating the accumulation of metals in fish, taking into account effects of parasitism. In particular, the predicted concentrations of Cu, Fe, Zn, and Pb in the uninfected chub as well as in the infected chub and the acanthocephalans were within one order of magnitude of the measurements. The variation in the absorption efficiency and the elimination rate constant of the uninfected chub resulted in variations of about one order of magnitude in the predicted concentrations of Pb. Inclusion of further assumptions for simulating metal accumulation in the infected chub

  15. Parasite fauna of bream Abramis brama and roach Rutilus rutilus from a man-made waterway and a freshwater habitat in northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Rückert, Sonja; Klimpel, Sven; Palm, Harry Wilhelm

    2007-03-13

    Fifty specimens each of bream Abramis brama and roach Rutilus rutilus were examined for metazoan parasite fauna and trichodinid ciliates; 25 specimens of each species were collected from the Kiel Canal, a man-made waterway, and a nearby freshwater lake, the Dieksee. This is the first detailed parasitological examination of A. brama and R. rutilus at these locations: 30 parasite species were found, comprising 4 protozoans, 4 myxozoans, 5 digeneans, 3 monogeneans, 2 cestodes, 6 nematodes, 2 acanthocephalans, 3 crustaceans and 1 hirudinean. The crustacean Caligus lacustris occurred in both habitats while 2 other crustacean species, 2 acanthocephalans and 1 hirudinean were recorded exclusively for the lake habitat. Larval as well as adult stages of the different parasite species were found, indicating that both fish species act as intermediate and final hosts in both habitats. The Kiel Canal (total of 17 parasite species) showed a lower parasite species richness for A. brama and R. rutilus (14 and 10 parasite species, respectively) than the lake (25 parasite species). A. brama had a higher parasite richness (22 species) than R. rutilus (16 species) in the lake habitat. Most parasites collected were of freshwater origin. Consequently, the observed infection pattern of both fish species in the waterway is mainly influenced by the limited salinity tolerance of freshwater parasites, which are negatively affected even by a salinity of 2.3 to 4.5. In the central Kiel Canal, neither fish species was infected with marine parasites of low host specifity. These parasites are either limited by the low salinity at this sampling site (<4.5 to 6.0) or they cannot enter the canal due to the environmental conditions prevailing in this artificial brackish water habitat. Thus, the canal may comprise a natural barrier preventing the distribution of North Sea parasites into the Baltic Sea. However, the brackish water Baltic Sea nematodes Paracuaria adunca and Cosmocephalus obvelatus were

  16. Spatiotemporal distributions of intestinal helminths in female lesser scaup Aythya affinis during spring migration from the upper Midwest, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    England, J. C.; Levengood, J.M.; Osborn, J. M.; Yetter, A. P.; Kinsella, J.M.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Cory D. Suski; Hagy, Heath M.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the associations between intestinal helminth infracommunity structure and infection parameters and the age, size, and year and region of collection of 130 female lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) during their 2014–2015 spring migrations through the upper Midwest, USA. We identified a total of 647,174 individual helminths from 40 taxa, including 20 trematodes, 14 cestodes, 4 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans parasitizing lesser scaup within the study area. Lesser scaup were each infected with 2–23 helminth taxa. One digenean, Plenosoma minimum, is reported for the first time in lesser scaup and in the Midwest. Mean trematode abundance and total helminth abundance was significantly less in 2015 than 2014, and we suspect that colder weather late in 2015 impacted the intermediate host fauna and caused the observed differences. Brillouin's species diversity of helminths was greatest in the northernmost region of the study area, which coincides with the range of a non-indigenous snail that indirectly causes annual mortality events of lesser scaup. While host age and size were not determined to be influential factors of helminth infracommunity structure, non-parametric ordination and permutational analysis of co-variance revealed that year and region of collection explained differences in helminth infracommunities. Our results suggest that spatiotemporal variations play an important role in the structure of intestinal helminth infracommunities found in migrating lesser scaup hosts, and may therefore impact host ability to build endogenous reserves at certain stopover locations in the Midwest.

  17. Checklist of the helminth parasites of South American bats.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cláudia Portes; Gibson, David I

    2015-01-01

    Although the Chiroptera represents a significant proportion (c.20%) of the mammalian fauna and South America has the highest diversity of bat species, only about a third of the known species in this region have had helminth parasites reported from them. This work represents the first comprehensive checklist of the helminth parasites (nematodes, acanthocephalans, trematodes and cestodes) of South American bats. The data were extracted from more than 120 references and are presented as a key to each group of parasites down to the generic level, with an indication of how the bats become infected, accompanied by a list of the species recorded for each genus. This is followed, in tabular form, by parasite-host and host-parasite checklists. The parasite-host list also includes their geographical distribution in South America (at the country level) and site data, plus the references in which the parasite records occur. The host-parasite list is arranged according to the classification of the hosts. In all, c.370 host-parasite associations are recorded, involving 114 nominal species of helminths from 92 named chiropteran taxa. PMID:25947481

  18. Survey on intestinal helminth fauna of woodcocks (Scolopax rusticola) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Barbara; Di Cesare, Angela; Iorio, Raffaella; Tavaglione, Domenico; Bartolini, Roberto; Gatti, Antonio

    2016-06-30

    Every year populations of the European woodcock (Scolopax rusticola) migrate from Central and Northern Europe to the Mediterranean basin. South of Italy is one of the most common wintering site for this species. Given that information on parasites of woodcocks is scarce, the present study aimed at identifying the parasitic species affecting woodcocks migrating in Italy. The gastrointestinal tract of 206 woodcocks hunted in Southern Italy was removed and examined for parasites. From each animal a faecal sample was analysed by flotation test. The necropsy showed the presence of cestodes, i.e. Paricterotaenia paradoxa (59.4%) and Aploparaksis filum (49.5%), and of acanthocephalan Prosthorhynchus scolopacidis (22.4%). In one bird we also detected Parastrigea robusta, which is a trematode until now reported only in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Mixed infections (i.e., polyspecific infections) were detected in 53 (27.6%) animals. The most common were those caused by A. filum and P. paradoxa (12.5%), and by P. paradoxa and P. scolopacidis (8.3%). Copromicroscopic examinations revealed the presence of eggs belonging to nematodes Syngamus spp. (1.94%) in 4 woodcocks and of eggs of cestodes Aploparaksis spp. (37.86%) in 78 woodcocks. The present results fill a gap in the knowledge on parasites affecting woodcocks. PMID:27188826

  19. Parasite community of wild and cultured Oreochromis niloticus from Lake Manzalah, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Soliman, Maha F M

    2011-12-01

    A total of 323 O. niloticus (168 wild fishes and 155 cultured fishes) were collected from Lake Manzala, Egypt from July to September 2010. The fish samples were examined for both ectoparasites and endoparasites. The parasite community of wild and cultured, O. niloticus consisted of ten parasitic species, one protozoon (Trichodina spp.), six monogenea (Cichlidogyrus sclerosus, C. thurstonae, C. halli typicus, C. tilapiae, C. ergensi, C. tiberianus), one acanthocephalan (Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) tilapiae) and two crustacean species (Lernaea cyprinacea and Ergasilus sp.). Mean parasite species richness significantly differed between wild (4.9 +/- 0.3) and cultured (6.6 +/- 0.8). The overall prevalence of infection in cultured O. niloticus (54.84%) was significantly higher as compared to that in wild fish (39.9%). The most prevalent parasite was C. thurstonae (37.46%) and C. sclerosus (35.91%) while the less prevalent one was Ergasilus sp. (14.55%). Host sex and host body size significantly affect parasitism in most parasite species. PMID:22435161

  20. Parasite infracommunity diversity in eels: a reflection of local component community diversity.

    PubMed

    Norton, J; Lewis, J W; Rollinson, D

    2003-11-01

    The intestinal macroparasite communities of freshwater eels (Anguilla anguilla) captured in the south of England from Windsor (River Thames) during August 2001, and Leckford (River Test) during late June/July 2000, are reported for the first time. Parasite component communities were among the most species rich and diverse recorded from European eels. A total of 13 intestinal macroparasite species were encountered during the study, 8 from each eel host population with 3 being common to both. Acanthocephalans, nematodes and cestodes were recovered from each host population. Eels from Windsor additionally harboured Nicolla gallica (Digenea), which was also the most prevalent and abundant macroparasite species in these hosts. Each component community followed a log normal rank abundance distribution and demonstrated reduced species dominance and increased species equitability compared with previous studies. As such, the study component communities were suitable for testing the hypothesis of low infracommunity diversity in European eel hosts. Specifically, this hypothesis predicts that the intestinal macroparasite infracommunities of European eels are species-poor, displaying low density and diversity with high dominance, irrespective of component community diversity, and that this may be more pronounced in UK host populations. This hypothesis was not upheld; study findings demonstrate that higher infracommunity diversity in eel hosts is possible, and suggest that infracommunity diversity in individual eel hosts may be a simple, stochastic reflection of component community diversity. PMID:14653536

  1. Helminths of guineafowls in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Junker, K; Boomker, J

    2007-12-01

    Between July 2005 and November 2006 the gastro-intestinal helminths of 15 Helmeted guineafowls and a single Crested guineafowl from Musina, Limpopo Province were examined, and in July and August 2005 helminths were collected from five Helmeted guineafowls from Mokopane in the same province. The acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus gallinarum, the cestodes Abuladzugnia gutterae, Davainea nana, Hymenolepis cantaniana, Numidella numida, Octopetalum numida, Ortleppolepis multiuncinata, Porogynia paronai, Raillietina angusta, Raillietina pintneri, Raillietina steinhardti and Raillietina sp. and the nematodes Ascaridia numidae, Cyrnea parroti, Gongylonema congolense, Hadjelia truncata, Sicarius caudatus, Subulura dentigera, Subulura suctoria, Subulura sp., Tetrameres numida and an unidentified subulurid were recovered. A single trematode species, Dicrocoelium macrostomum, was present in the liver. Mediorhynchus gallinarum, A. gutterae, O. multiuncinata, H. truncata and S. caudatus are recorded for the first time from Helmeted guineafowls, as well as from South Africa. South Africa is a new geographic record for D. macrostomum, G. congolense and D. nana. Subulura suctoria, G. congolense and H. truncata from the Crested guineafowl constitute new host-parasite associations. PMID:18453236

  2. Gastrointestinal parasites and prey items from a mass stranding of false killer whales, Pseudorca crassidens, in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade, A L; Pinedo, M C; Barreto, A S

    2001-02-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of 14 false killer whales, 6 males and 8 females, stranded in June 1995 in southern Brazil, with total standard lengths from 338 to 507 cm, were analysed for endoparasites and food items. A pregnant female had a male foetus of 77.5 cm. Parasites were found in all 14 false killer whales. The nematode Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) was found in the stomach of 57% of the animals and the acanthocephalan Bolbosoma capitatum (Linstow, 1889) Porta, 1908 was present in the intestine of all specimens and showed densities up to 600 m-1. An unidentified cestode (Tethrabothridae) was found also in the intestines of 14% of the individuals. The high infections of B. capitatum and A. simplex were not directly related with the cause of death. In the stomachs of four females, beaks of at least eight specimens of the oceanic and epipelagic species Ommastrephes bartramii (Lesueur, 1821) were found, with mantle lengths ranging from 189.8 to 360.9 mm. The distribution of O. bartramii in the coast of Rio Grande do Sul is consistent with false killer whales feeding in continental shelf waters. PMID:11340462

  3. Endohelminths in Bird Hosts from Northern California and an Analysis of the Role of Life History Traits on Parasite Richness.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Emily R; Kinsella, John M; Calhoun, Dana M; Joseph, Maxwell B; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2016-04-01

    The life history characteristics of hosts often influence patterns of parasite infection either by affecting the likelihood of parasite exposure or the probability of infection after exposure. In birds, migratory behavior has been suggested to affect both the composition and abundance of parasites within a host, although whether migratory birds have more or fewer parasites is unclear. To help address these knowledge gaps, we collaborated with airports, animal rescue/rehabilitation centers, and hunter check stations in the San Francisco Bay Area of California to collect 57 raptors, egrets, herons, ducks, and other waterfowl for parasitological analysis. After dissections of the gastrointestinal tract of each host, we identified 64 taxa of parasites: 5 acanthocephalans, 24 nematodes, 8 cestodes, and 27 trematodes. We then used a generalized linear mixed model to determine how life history traits influenced parasite richness among bird hosts, while controlling for host phylogeny. Parasite richness was greater in birds that were migratory with larger clutch sizes and lower in birds that were herbivorous. The effects of clutch size and diet are consistent with previous studies and have been linked to immune function and parasite exposure, respectively, whereas the effect of migration supports the hypothesis of "migratory exposure" rather than that of "migratory escape." PMID:26579621

  4. Helminth communities of two species of piscivorous birds, Ardea alba (Linnaeus) and Nyctanassa violacea (Gmelin) (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae), in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero state, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Violante-González, Juan; Monks, Scott; Gil-Guerrero, Salvador; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín A; Flores-Rodríguez, Pedro

    2012-07-01

    The composition and species richness in helminth communities of two species of heron, Ardea alba and Nyctanassa violacea, in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero, Mexico were examined. Nineteen species of helminth (7,804 individuals) were identified in 43 adult birds: 15 digeneans, 1 acanthocephalan, 1 cestode, and 2 nematodes. Eight species co-occurred in herons of both species and lagoons. The prevalence values of seven species and the mean abundance of five species varied significantly between species of birds and between lagoons. The heterophyid, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa, was the helminth numerically dominant in the helminth community of A. alba in both lagoons, while the cestode, Parvitaenia cochlearii, dominated the community of N. violacea. At the component community level, species richness varied significantly: 10 species in A. alba from Coyuca to 16 in N. violacea (Tres Palos). All of the birds examined were infected with helminth parasites: three to seven species per host in A. alba from Coyuca, and two to eight species in A. alba and N. violacea from Tres Palos. The results indicate that even though species composition was similar between both species of heron, the structure of their communities was not the same. Differences in the feeding behavior of the birds (day/night habits), as well as local differences in the abundance of species of fish, and infection levels of helminths in each lagoon are suggested as being responsible for the variations registered in the structure of the helminth communities. PMID:22314783

  5. Parasite communities of the neotropical cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin) (Aves, Phalacrocoracidae) from two coastal lagoons in Guerrero state, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Violante-González, Juan; Monks, Scott; Gil-Guerrero, Salvador; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín; Flores-Garza, Rafael; Larumbe-Morán, Edvino

    2011-11-01

    The parasite community structure of the neotropical cormorant, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, from two lagoons (Coyuca and Tres Palos) from Guerrero state, México, was examined. Fourteen species of adult helminths (6,391 individuals) from 48 cormorants were identified: 9 digeneans, 1 acanthocephalan, 1 cestode, and 3 nematodes. A total of 11 species were collected in Coyuca Lagoon and 12 in Tres Palos Lagoon. Nine species co-occurred in cormorants of both lagoons but, with the exception of Contracaecum multipapillatum and Drepanocephalus olivaceus, species were not equally common in both lagoons. The prevalence values of six species of helminth and the mean abundance of four species varied significantly between lagoons, and C. multipapillatum was numerically dominant in both lagoons. The qualitative similarity between the two communities at the component level was 64%. All cormorants examined were infected, and parasite species richness was 3-5 in Coyuca and 4-9 in Tres Palos lagoon. The results indicate that both communities presented a similar structure at the component level, probably because the cormorants of both lagoons feed on the same species of fish and thus acquire almost the same species of parasites. Differences observed at the infracommunity level were attributed to variations in the degree of dominance of the particular species. PMID:21503640

  6. Causes of mortality in sea ducks (Mergini) necropsied at the USGS-National Wildlife Health Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skerratt, L.F.; Franson, J.C.; Meteyer, C.U.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2005-01-01

    A number of factors were identified as causes of mortality in 254 (59%) of 431 sea ducks submitted for necropsy at the USGS-National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin from 1975 until 2003. Bacteria causing large outbreaks of mortality were Pasteurella multocida and Clostridium botulinum Type E. Starvation was responsible for large mortality events as well as sporadic deaths of individuals. Lead toxicity, gunshot and exposure to petroleum were important anthropogenic factors. Other factors that caused mortality were avian pox virus, bacteria (Clostridium botulinum Type C, Riemerella anatipestifer and Clostridium perfringens), fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus and an unidentified fungus), protozoans (unidentified coccidia), nematodes (Eustrongylides spp.), trematodes (Sphaeridiotrema globulus and Schistosoma spp.), acanthocephalans (Polymorphus spp.), predation, cyanide and trauma (probably due to collisions). There were also a number of novel infectious organisms in free-living sea ducks in North America, which were incidental to the death, including avipoxvirus and reovirus, bacteria Mycobacterium avium, protozoans Sarcocystis sp. and nematodes Streptocara sp. Apart from anthropogenic factors, the other important mortality factors listed here have not been studied as possible causes for the decline of sea ducks in North America.

  7. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of recent research on helminth parasites.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Robert

    2002-12-01

    Relationships between the species diversity of different taxa, the mean number of articles published per year on each taxon, and the mean impact factor of the journals in which they appear, were examined across six taxa of helminths: Nematomorpha, Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Trematoda, Cestoda and Nematoda, the latter including only animal parasitic nematodes. The mean annual output of scientific articles per taxon was not related to the species diversity of these taxa or, at least, not significantly. Thus, the large volume of publications on nematodes is not merely a reflection of their estimated diversity. There were significant differences among taxa in the mean impact factor of the journals in which papers on each taxon appeared, with nematodes having the highest mean score, followed by trematodes and cestodes. In addition, across the six taxa, the mean journal impact factor correlated positively and significantly with the mean annual number of papers published: not only are there more papers published on nematodes and trematodes than on nematomorphs or acanthocephalans, but they are also generally published in higher-ranking journals. These results suggest that there is an increasing gap in the quantity and general importance of the research carried out on different helminth taxa. PMID:12498645

  8. Helminth fauna of two species of Physalaemus (Anura: Leiuperidae) from an undisturbed fragment of the Atlantic rainforest, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Gislayne M; Aguiar, Aline; Silva, Reinaldo J; Anjos, Luciano A

    2013-10-01

    Two amphibian species, Physalaemus cuvieri and Physalaemus olfersii, from Serra do Mar State Park, which is an old-growth environment of the Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil, were surveyed for endoparasites. Hosts were sampled in 2 ponds; each was colonized by only 1 Physalaemus species. The overall prevalence of helminths was high and similar in both amphibian species. The mean intensity of infection in P. olfersii did not differ statistically from that in P. cuvieri . Nine helminth species were found: 2 acanthocephalans, 1 cestode, and 6 nematodes. Parasite richness in the 2 host species was similar. The composition of helminth fauna differed but the 2 hosts shared the most prevalent taxon of nematode (an unidentified species of Cosmocercidae). All helminth species exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern in the host species. The present results demonstrate relatively low species richness and the dominance of generalist parasite species. This study contributes to knowledge regarding the structure and composition of the helminth community in anurans. PMID:23409941

  9. Organochlorine pesticides and parasites in Mugil incilis collected in Cartagena Bay, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Colorado, Beatriz E; Arroyo-Salgado, Bárbara; Ruiz-Garcés, Luis Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Nematode parasites of the Anisakides family are often found in people living in countries where fish is consumed raw or partially cooked. This research shows the histological changes in the liver and spleen of Mugil incilis, collected in Cartagena Bay. These changes are associated with pollution by organochlorine pesticides and their possible influence on the parasite. Organochlorine compounds were extracted using the headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique. Residual amounts in the muscle of M. incilis such as β-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, endosulfan, 4,4'-DDE, and dieldrin, among others, were identified by gas chromatography connected to an electron capture detector, indicating that the fauna of Cartagena Bay are exposed to these pollutants. Histological analysis was carried out on liver and spleen samples of M. incilis which were fixed, processed, and embedded in paraffin. The presence of melano-macrophages, granulomes, and trematodes in the liver was the most important changes observed. Larval prevalence for the Anisakis spp. was determined to be 1.6%; for Pseudoterranova spp., 25.3%, and for Contracaecum spp., 57.8%. Other parasites such as acanthocephalans were also reported for a total of 15.3%. Nevertheless, no significant correlation between parasites and organochlorines was found. This study is the first to correlate the presence of organochlorine compounds and histological damage in the liver and spleen of M. incilis, with the presence of parasites in fish from Cartagena Bay (Colombia). PMID:26160124

  10. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Saeed, I; Maddox-Hyttel, C; Monrad, J; Kapel, C M O

    2006-06-30

    An epidemiological study of helminths in 1040 red foxes collected from various localities in Denmark during 1997-2002, revealed 21 helminth species at autopsy, including nine nematode species: Capillaria plica (prevalence 80.5%), Capillaria aerophila (74.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (17.4%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (48.6% from Northern Zealand (endemic area)), Toxocara canis (59.4%), Toxascaris leonina (0.6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (68.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (0.6%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.5%); seven cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. (35.6%), a number of Taeniid species (Taenia pisiformis, T. hydatigena, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and unidentified Taenia spp.) (22.8%), and Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%); four trematodes: Alaria alata (15.4%), Cryptocotyle lingua (23.8%), Pseudamphystomum truncatum (3.6% from Northern Zealand), and Echinochasmus perfoliatus (2.4% from Northern Zealand); one acanthocephalan: Polymorphus sp. (1.2%). Significant difference in prevalence was found for T. canis and A. vasorum according to host sex, and for T. canis, U. stenocephala, Mesocestoides sp., Taenia spp., A. alata, A. vasorum, and Capillaria spp. according to age groups (adult, young or cub). Prevalence and average worm intensity for each helminth species varied considerably according to geographical locality, season, and year. Aggregated distribution was found for several helminth species. The two species E. multilocularis and E. perfoliatus are first records for Denmark. PMID:16580775

  11. ENDOHELMINTHS IN BIRD HOSTS FROM NORTHERN CALIFORNIA AND AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF LIFE HISTORY TRAITS ON PARASITE RICHNESS

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Emily R.; Kinsella, John M.; Calhoun, Dana M.; Joseph, Maxwell B.; Johnson, Pieter T. J.

    2016-01-01

    The life history characteristics of hosts often influence patterns of parasite infection either by affecting the likelihood of parasite exposure or the probability of infection following exposure. In birds, migratory behavior has been suggested to affect both the composition and abundance of parasites within a host, although whether migratory birds have more or fewer parasites is unclear. To help address these knowledge gaps, we collaborated with airports, animal rescue/rehabilitation centers, and hunter check stations in the San Francisco Bay Area of California to collect 57 raptors, egrets, herons, ducks, and other waterfowl for parasitological analysis. Following dissections of the gastro-intestinal tract of each host, we identified 64 taxa of parasites: 5 acanthocephalans, 24 nematodes, 8 cestodes, and 27 trematodes. We then used a generalized linear mixed model to determine how life history traits influenced parasite richness among bird hosts, while controlling for host phylogeny. Parasite richness was greater in birds that were migratory with larger clutch sizes and lower in birds that were herbivorous. The effects of clutch size and diet are consistent with previous studies and have been linked to immune function and parasite exposure, respectively, whereas the effect of migration supports the hypothesis of ‘migratory exposure’ rather than that of ‘migratory escape’. PMID:26579621

  12. Morphological and molecular data reveal a new species of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from Dormitator maculatus in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Sereno-Uribe, Ana L; García-Varela, Martín

    2014-12-01

    Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) mexicoensis sp. n. is described from the intestine of Dormitator maculatus (Bloch 1792) collected in 5 coastal localities from the Gulf of Mexico. The new species is mainly distinguished from the other 33 described species of Neoechinorhynchus from the Americas associated with freshwater, marine and brackish fishes by having smaller middle and posterior hooks and possessing a small proboscis with three rows of six hooks each, apical hooks longer than other hooks and extending to the same level as the posterior hooks, 1 giant nucleus in the ventral body wall and females with eggs longer than other congeneric species. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal DNA including the domain D2+D3 were used independently to corroborate the morphological distinction among the new species and other congeneric species associated with freshwater and brackish water fish from Mexico. The genetic divergence estimated among congeneric species ranged from 7.34 to 44% for ITS and from 1.65 to 32.9% for LSU. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses with each dataset showed that the 25 specimens analyzed from 5 localities of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico parasitizing D. maculatus represent an independent clade with strong bootstrap support and posterior probabilities. The morphological evidence, plus the monophyly in the phylogenetic analyses, indicates that the acanthocephalans collected from intestine of D. maculatus from the Gulf of Mexico represent a new species, herein named N. (N.) mexicoensis sp. n. PMID:25064596

  13. Occurrence of immune cells in the intestinal wall of Squalius cephalus infected with Pomphorhynchus laevis.

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, Bahram S; Manera, Maurizio; Giari, Luisa; DePasquale, Joseph A; Bosi, Giampaolo

    2015-11-01

    A sub-population of 34 specimens of chub, Squalius cephalus, was sampled from the River Brenta (Northern Italy) and examined for ecto- and endo-parasites. Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala) was the only enteric helminth encountered. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural studies were conducted on the intestines of chub. Near the site of parasite's attachment, mucous cells, mast cells (MCs), neutrophils and rodlet cells (RCs) were found to co-occur within the intestinal epithelium. The numbers of mucous cells, MCs and neutrophils were significantly higher in infected fish (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.05). Dual immunofluorescence staining with the lectin Dolichos Biflorus Agglutinin (DBA) and the macrophage-specific MAC387 monoclonal antibody, with parallel transmission electron microscopy, revealed that epithelial MCs often made intimate contact with the mucous cells. Degranulation of a large number of MCs around the site of the acanthocephalan's attachment and in proximity to mucous cells was also documented. MCs and neutrophils were abundant in the submucosa. Immune cells of the intestinal epithelium have been described at the ultrastructural level and their possible functions and interactions are discussed. PMID:26434712

  14. Getting What Is Served? Feeding Ecology Influencing Parasite-Host Interactions in Invasive Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus

    PubMed Central

    Emde, Sebastian; Kochmann, Judith; Kuhn, Thomas; Plath, Martin; Klimpel, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are increasingly impacted by alien invasive species which have the potential to alter various ecological interactions like predator-prey and host-parasite relationships. Here, we simultaneously examined predator-prey interactions and parasitization patterns of the highly invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) in the rivers Rhine and Main in Germany. A total of 350 N. melanostomus were sampled between June and October 2011. Gut content analysis revealed a broad prey spectrum, partly reflecting temporal and local differences in prey availability. For the major food type (amphipods), species compositions were determined. Amphipod fauna consisted entirely of non-native species and was dominated by Dikerogammarus villosus in the Main and Echinogammarus trichiatus in the Rhine. However, the availability of amphipod species in the field did not reflect their relative abundance in gut contents of N. melanostomus. Only two metazoan parasites, the nematode Raphidascaris acus and the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus sp., were isolated from N. melanostomus in all months, whereas unionid glochidia were only detected in June and October in fish from the Main. To analyse infection pathways, we examined 17,356 amphipods and found Pomphorhynchus sp. larvae only in D. villosus in the river Rhine at a prevalence of 0.15%. Dikerogammarus villosus represented the most important amphipod prey for N. melanostomus in both rivers but parasite intensities differed between rivers, suggesting that final hosts (large predatory fishes) may influence host-parasite dynamics of N. melanostomus in its introduced range. PMID:25338158

  15. The Behavior Response of Amphipods Infected by Hedruris suttonae (Nematoda) and Pseudocorynosoma sp. (Acanthocephala).

    PubMed

    Casalins, Laura M; Brugni, Norma L; Rauque, Carlos A

    2015-12-01

    The manipulation of intermediate host behavior may increase chances of parasite transmission to the definitive host. In freshwater environments of the Neotropical Region, studies on behavioral manipulations by parasites are rare, and the majority of these consider only a single parasite species and/or 1 life stage of a particular parasite species. In Andean Patagonian lakes of Argentina, the amphipod Hyalella patagonica is infected by larvae of the fish nematode Hedruris suttonae and by the bird acanthocephalan Pseudocorynosoma sp. The 3 objectives of the present study were to determine whether H. suttonae and Pseudocorynosoma sp. differ in their effects on behavior of H. patagonica , whether such modification is associated with parasite development, and to assess the associations between behavioral traits. From naturally parasitized amphipods, activity (swimming levels) and phototaxis (light preference) was measured. Only in phototaxis trials did larvae of H. suttonae induce significantly higher levels of photophilia, suggesting that they are manipulative. Scores of activity and phototaxis were positive and significantly related for non-parasitized female amphipods and for amphipods parasitized by larvae of Pseudocorynosoma sp. but were not associated in amphipods parasitized with larvae of H. suttonae (infective and non-infective), suggesting that infection separated the relationship between these variables. PMID:26295566

  16. Correlation between Male Social Status, Testosterone Levels, and Parasitism in a Dimorphic Polygynous Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Negro, Sandra S.; Caudron, Abigail K.; Dubois, Michel; Delahaut, Philippe; Gemmell, Neil J.

    2010-01-01

    Life history trade-offs have often been assumed to be the consequence of restrictions in the availability of critical resources such as energy and nutrients, which necessitate the differential allocation of resources to costly traits. Here, we examined endocrine (testosterone) and health (parasite burdens) parameters in territorial and non-territorial New Zealand fur seal males. We documented intra-sexual differences in sexual behaviours, testosterone levels, and parasitism that suggest a trade-off exists between reproductive success and physical health, particularly susceptibility to helminths and acanthocephalans, in males displaying different mating tactics (i.e., territorial and non-territorial tactics). Levels of testosterone were higher in territorial males and correlated positively with reproductive effort (i.e., intra- and inter-sexual interactions). However, these territorial males also exhibited high levels of parasitic infection, which may impair survival in the long-term. Our study, while limited in sample size, provides preliminary evidence for a link between male mating tactics, testosterone levels and parasite loads, and potential effects on reproductive success and life history that should be explored further. PMID:20856933

  17. Effectiveness of various anthelmintics in the treatment of moniliformiasis in experimentally infected Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Dennis J; Brink, Cheryl D

    2011-08-01

    Humans occasionally become infected with acanthocephalans, particularly Moniliformis moniliformis. Although several anthelmintics have been used, no controlled studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of common anthelmintics in the treatment of moniliformiasis. The effectiveness of pyrantel pamoate, ivermectin, praziquantel, niclosamide, thiabendazole, and mebendazole was evaluated in the treatment of moniliformiasis in laboratory-infected female Wistar rats. Pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin were wholly unsuccessful in the treatment of moniliformiasis. A single dose of thiabendazole lead to a 40% reduction and two doses lead to a 57% reduction of worm burden after 2 weeks. The most effective drug in the treatment of moniliformiasis in rats was mebendazole, for which two doses resulted in a 69% reduction in worm burden after 2 weeks; however, 50% of the rats receiving the treatment died within 2 weeks after first administration of the drug. Two surviving rats that had been treated with mebendazole exhibited evidence of hepatic dysfunction characterized by extremely elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in conjuction with depressed serum albumin levels. It is hypothesized that Mo. moniliformis may metabolize the drug and release a metabolite that is highly toxic to the host. On the basis of these data, thiabendazole is recommended as the drug of choice for the treatment of human acanthocephaliasis until more extensive testing can be conducted. PMID:21254932

  18. Correlation between male social status, testosterone levels, and parasitism in a dimorphic polygynous mammal.

    PubMed

    Negro, Sandra S; Caudron, Abigail K; Dubois, Michel; Delahaut, Philippe; Gemmell, Neil J

    2010-01-01

    Life history trade-offs have often been assumed to be the consequence of restrictions in the availability of critical resources such as energy and nutrients, which necessitate the differential allocation of resources to costly traits. Here, we examined endocrine (testosterone) and health (parasite burdens) parameters in territorial and non-territorial New Zealand fur seal males. We documented intra-sexual differences in sexual behaviours, testosterone levels, and parasitism that suggest a trade-off exists between reproductive success and physical health, particularly susceptibility to helminths and acanthocephalans, in males displaying different mating tactics (i.e., territorial and non-territorial tactics). Levels of testosterone were higher in territorial males and correlated positively with reproductive effort (i.e., intra- and inter-sexual interactions). However, these territorial males also exhibited high levels of parasitic infection, which may impair survival in the long-term. Our study, while limited in sample size, provides preliminary evidence for a link between male mating tactics, testosterone levels and parasite loads, and potential effects on reproductive success and life history that should be explored further. PMID:20856933

  19. A Mitogenomic Re-Evaluation of the Bdelloid Phylogeny and Relationships among the Syndermata

    PubMed Central

    Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Molecular and morphological data regarding the relationships among the three classes of Rotifera (Bdelloidea, Seisonidea, and Monogononta) and the phylum Acanthocephala are inconclusive. In particular, Bdelloidea lacks molecular-based phylogenetic appraisal. I obtained coding sequences from the mitochondrial genomes of twelve bdelloids and two monogononts to explore the molecular phylogeny of Bdelloidea and provide insight into the relationships among lineages of Syndermata (Rotifera + Acanthocephala). With additional sequences taken from previously published mitochondrial genomes, the total dataset included nine species of bdelloids, three species of monogononts, and two species of acanthocephalans. A supermatrix of these 10–12 mitochondrial proteins consistently recovered a bdelloid phylogeny that questions the validity of a generally accepted classification scheme despite different methods of inference and various parameter adjustments. Specifically, results showed that neither the family Philodinidae nor the order Philodinida are monophyletic as currently defined. The application of a similar analytical strategy to assess syndermate relationships recovered either a tree with Bdelloidea and Monogononta as sister taxa (Eurotatoria) or Bdelloidea and Acanthocephala as sister taxa (Lemniscea). Both outgroup choice and method of inference affected the topological outcome emphasizing the need for sequences from more closely related outgroups and more sophisticated methods of analysis that can account for the complexity of the data. PMID:22927990

  20. Comparing mechanisms of host manipulation across host and parasite taxa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Shaw, Jenny C.

    2013-01-01

    Parasites affect host behavior in several ways. They can alter activity, microhabitats or both. For trophically transmitted parasites (the focus of our study), decreased activity might impair the ability of hosts to respond to final-host predators, and increased activity and altered microhabitat choice might increase contact rates between hosts and final-host predators. In an analysis of trophically transmitted parasites, more parasite groups altered activity than altered microhabitat choice. Parasites that infected vertebrates were more likely to impair the host’s reaction to predators, whereas parasites that infected invertebrates were more likely to increase the host’s contact with predators. The site of infection might affect how parasites manipulate their hosts. For instance, parasites in the central nervous system seem particularly suited to manipulating host behavior. Manipulative parasites commonly occupy the body cavity, muscles and central nervous systems of their hosts. Acanthocephalans in the data set differed from other taxa in that they occurred exclusively in the body cavity of invertebrates. In addition, they were more likely to alter microhabitat choice than activity. Parasites in the body cavity (across parasite types) were more likely to be associated with increased host contact with predators. Parasites can manipulate the host through energetic drain, but most parasites use more sophisticated means. For instance, parasites target four physiological systems that shape behavior in both invertebrates and vertebrates: neural, endocrine, neuromodulatory and immunomodulatory. The interconnections between these systems make it difficult to isolate specific mechanisms of host behavioral manipulation.

  1. First report of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from marine fish of the eastern seaboard of Vietnam, with the description of six new species

    PubMed Central

    Amin, O.M.; Ha, N.V.; Ha, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of acanthocephalans of the genus Neoechinorhynchus Stiles and Hassall, 1905 in Vietnamese waters is reported for the first time. Six new species are described from seven species of marine fish of the families Belonidae, Clupeidae, Megalopidae, Mugilidae, and Sciaenidae, collected in Halong Bay of the eastern seaboard of Vietnam in 2008 and 2009. These are Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) plaquensis n. sp. characterized by dermal plaques covering the entire trunk; Neoechinorhynchus manubriensis n. sp. with very long anterior proboscis hooks having roots with prominent anterior manubria and very small and equal middle and posterior hooks, two pseudoretractors in the receptacle, simple vagina, and terminal gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus pennahia n. sp. with equal anterior and middle proboscis and somewhat smaller posterior hooks, and terminal female gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus ampullata with many giant nuclei in the body wall and lemnisci and a parareceptacle structure complex which includes pumping ampullas reported for the first time; Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) longinucleatus n. sp. with very long giant nuclei in the Lemnisci, anteriorly twisted vagina, and subterminal female gonopore. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) ascus n. sp. is the second species of Neoechinorhynchus found with the parareceptacle structure/ampulla complex. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) johnii Yamaguti, 1929 of Bilqees, 1972 is not N. johnii because of proboscis armature and other discrepancies with the Yamaguti material. Notes on host distribution and feeding habits are also included. PMID:21395202

  2. The influence of changing prey availability on the prevalence of Diphyllobothrium in river otters from Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Crait, Jamie R; McIntosh, Antoinette D; Greiner, Ellis C; Ben-David, Merav

    2015-04-01

    Parasite prevalence in predatory mammals is influenced by numerous factors including diet, sex, season, and habitat. We examined the effect of such factors on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in North American river otters ( Lontra canadensis ) in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park. Otters in this ecosystem have recently experienced a decline in their main prey, Yellowstone cutthroat trout ( Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri), and have, in turn, increased consumption of alternative foods. Helminths were found in 13.2% of otter fecal samples. The dominant parasite was a Diphyllobothrium sp. ( Diphyllobothrium ditremum or Diphyllobothrium dendriticum ), a cestode acquired from cutthroat trout. Truttaedacnitis truttae and Contracaecum spp. nematodes were incidental parasites in otter feces, and acanthocephalan eggs were found in 1 sample. The prevalence of trout remains and a Diphyllobothrium sp. in otter feces was higher during the cutthroat trout spawning season. A Diphyllobothrium sp. was more prevalent in the feces of female otters. There was no relationship between annual declines in the frequency of trout in otter feces and prevalence of parasites. Helminth prevalence and species richness in Yellowstone otters was low and likely reflects low predator densities and few intermediate hosts. This is the first study reporting the helminth fauna of river otters in the Greater Yellowstone Area and confirms the otter as a definitive host for Diphyllobothrium sp. in this region. PMID:25192057

  3. Reef fishes have higher parasite richness at unfished Palmyra Atoll compared to fished Kiritimati Island.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Shaw, Jenny C; Kuris, Armand M

    2008-09-01

    We compared parasite communities at two coral atolls in the Line Islands chain of the central Pacific (Kiritimati Island and Palmyra Atoll). Palmyra Atoll is relatively pristine while Kiritimati Island is heavily fished. At each island, we sampled five fish species for helminth and arthropod endoparasites: Chromis margaritifer, Plectroglyphidodon dickii, Paracirrhites arcatus, Acanthurus nigricans, and Lutjanus bohar. The surveys found monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes, nematodes, acanthocephalans, and copepods. Parasite richness was higher at Palmyra compared to Kiritimati for all five fish species. Fishes from Palmyra also tended to have more parasites species per host, higher parasite prevalence, and higher parasite abundance than did fishes from Kiritimati. The lower parasitism at Kiritimati may result from a simplified food web due to over fishing. Low biodiversity could impair parasite transmission by reducing the availability of hosts required by parasites with complex life cycles. Most notably, the lower abundances of larval shark tapeworms at Kiritimati presumably reflect the fact that fishing has greatly depleted sharks there in comparison to Palmyra. PMID:18846315

  4. Survey of helminths, ectoparasites, and chytrid fungus of an introduced population of cane toads, Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae), from Grenada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, Michael C.; Zieger, Ulrike; Groszkowski, Andrew; Gallardo, Bruce; Sages, Patti; Reavis, Roslyn; Faircloth, Leslie; Jacobson, Krystin; Lonce, Nicholas; Pinckney, Rhonda D.; Cole, Rebecca Ann

    2014-01-01

    One hundred specimens of Rhinella marina, (Anura: Bufonidae) collected in St. George's parish, Grenada, from September 2010 to August 2011, were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and helminths. Ninety-five (95%) toads were parasitized by one or more parasite species. Nine species of parasites were found: 1 digenean, 2 acanthocephalans, 4 nematodes, 1 arthropod and 1 pentastome. The endoparasites represented 98.9% of the total number of parasite specimens collected. Grenada represents a new locality record for Mesocoelium monas, Raillietiella frenatus, Pseudoacanthacephalus sp., Aplectana sp., Physocephalus sp., Acanthacephala cystacanth and Physalopteridae larvae. The digenean M. monas occurred with the highest prevalence of 82%, contrasting many studies of R. marina where nematodes dominate the parasite infracommunity. Female toads were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of Amblyomma dissimile than male toads. Only two parasites exhibited a significant difference between wet and dry season with Parapharyngodon grenadensis prevalence highest in the wet season and A. dissimile prevalence highest during the dry season. Additionally, A. dissimile was significantly more abundant during the dry season.

  5. Parasitism in Pterois volitans (Scorpaenidae) from coastal waters of Puerto Rico, the Cayman Islands, and the Bahamas.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Ascherl, Zullaylee; Williams, Ernest H; Bunkley-Williams, Lucy; Tuttle, Lillian J; Sikkel, Paul C; Hixon, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    Recently, Pterois volitans, a Pacific species of lionfish, invaded the Atlantic Ocean, likely via the aquarium trade. We examined for internal and external parasites 188 individuals from 8 municipalities of Puerto Rico collected during 2009-2012, 91 individuals from Little Cayman, Cayman Islands, collected during the summers of 2010 and 2011, and 47 individuals from Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas, collected during the summer of 2009. In total, 27 parasite taxa were found, including 3 previously reported species from lionfish, the digenean Lecithochirium floridense, the leech Trachelobdella lubrica, and an Excorallana sp. isopod. We also report another 24 previously unreported parasite taxa from lionfish, including digeneans, monogeneans, cestodes, nematodes, isopods, a copepod, and an acanthocephalan. Among these parasites, several were previously unreported at their respective geographic origins: We report 5 new locality records from Puerto Rico, 9 from Cayman Islands, 5 from the Bahamas, 5 from the Caribbean, and 3 from the subtropical western Atlantic region. Three parasites are reported to associate with a fish host for the first time. The parasite faunas of P. volitans among our 3 study sites were quite different; most of the species infecting lionfish were generalists and/or species that infect carnivorous fishes. Although our study did not assess the impact of parasites on the fitness of invasive lionfish, it provides an important early step. Our results provide valuable comparative data for future studies at these and other sites throughout the lionfish's invaded range. PMID:25302790

  6. Diversity of gastrointestinal helminths among murid rodents from northern and northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaisiri, Kittipong; Chaeychomsri, Win; Siruntawineti, Jindawan; Ribas, Alexis; Herbreteau, Vincent; Morand, Serge

    2012-01-01

    The presence of gastrointestinal helminths (GI helminths) was investigated among 725 murid rodents, trapped in various habitats of Nan, Loei and Buri Ram Provinces, Thailand. The study revealed 17 species of rodents infected with 21 species or taxonomic groups of parasites (3 trematodes, 3 cestodes, 14 nematodes and 1 acanthocephalan). The overall prevalence of infection was 57.7% (418/725). Of the gastrointestinal (GI) helminths, the dominant parasitic group was members of the family Trichostrongylidae (24.3%), followed by the cestodes Raillietina sp (17.1%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (8.6%) and the nematode Syphacia muris (8.6%). The GI helminthic infection rates were highest in Mus caroli (81.8%), Mus cervicolor (76.5%), Leopoldamys edwardsi (75.0%), Bandicota indica (71.5%) and Bandicota savilei (71.4%). Highest rodent species richness (RSR) and helminth species richness (HSR) rates were found in Loei, followed by Nan and Buri Ram. The helminth prevalence rate was higher in rodents from Nan, followed by rodents from Loei and Buri Ram. Rodents from irrigated fields had the highest infection rates followed by rodents from upland or dry agricultural areas, forests and domestic habitats. Raillietina sp, Rodentolepis nana (syn. Hymenolepis nana), Hymenolepis diminuta, Moniliformis moniliformis and Cyclodontostomum purvisi, considered zoonotic parasites, were mainly found in rodents from domestic habitats and lowland irrigated fields. PMID:23082550

  7. Polymorphus minutus affects antitoxic responses of Gammarus roeseli exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Eric; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Cossu-Leguille, Carole

    2012-01-01

    The acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus is a manipulator of its intermediate host Gammarus roeseli, which favours its transmission to the final host, a water bird. In contaminated environments, G. roeseli have to cope with two stresses, i.e. P. minutus infection and pollutants. As P. minutus survival relies on its host's survival, we investigated the influence of P. minutus on the antitoxic defence capacities and the energy reserves of G. roeseli females after cadmium exposure. In parallel, malondialdehyde, a toxic effect biomarker, was measured in G. roeseli females and in P. minutus. The results revealed that infected females displayed higher cell damage than uninfected ones, despite an apparent increase in reduced glutathione and metallothionein production. In fact, the increase of these antitoxic systems could be counterbalanced by carotenoid intake by the parasite, so that the overall defence system seemed less efficient in infected females than in uninfected ones. In addition, we demonstrated that cadmium induced cell damage in P. minutus, probably linked with cadmium accumulation in the parasite. Altogether, we observed a paradoxical pattern of responses suggesting that P. minutus increases cadmium toxicity in G. roeseli females although (i) it tends to increase several host antitoxic defence capacities and (ii) it bears part of the pollutant, as reflected by cell damage in the parasite. PMID:22911795

  8. Polymorphus Minutus Affects Antitoxic Responses of Gammarus Roeseli Exposed to Cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Gismondi, Eric; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Cossu-Leguille, Carole

    2012-01-01

    The acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus is a manipulator of its intermediate host Gammarus roeseli, which favours its transmission to the final host, a water bird. In contaminated environments, G. roeseli have to cope with two stresses, i.e. P. minutus infection and pollutants. As P. minutus survival relies on its host's survival, we investigated the influence of P. minutus on the antitoxic defence capacities and the energy reserves of G. roeseli females after cadmium exposure. In parallel, malondialdehyde, a toxic effect biomarker, was measured in G. roeseli females and in P. minutus. The results revealed that infected females displayed higher cell damage than uninfected ones, despite an apparent increase in reduced glutathione and metallothionein production. In fact, the increase of these antitoxic systems could be counterbalanced by carotenoid intake by the parasite, so that the overall defence system seemed less efficient in infected females than in uninfected ones. In addition, we demonstrated that cadmium induced cell damage in P. minutus, probably linked with cadmium accumulation in the parasite. Altogether, we observed a paradoxical pattern of responses suggesting that P. minutus increases cadmium toxicity in G. roeseli females although (i) it tends to increase several host antitoxic defence capacities and (ii) it bears part of the pollutant, as reflected by cell damage in the parasite. PMID:22911795

  9. Gastrointestinal parasites of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the extreme Southwestern Atlantic, with notes on diet composition.

    PubMed

    Romero, María Alejandra; Fernández, Mercedes; Dans, Silvana L; García, Néstor A; González, Raúl; Crespo, Enrique A

    2014-02-01

    We surveyed the gastrointestinal tracts of 6 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from Patagonia to check for helminth parasites and characterize dolphin diet. All dolphins harbored parasites (6477 helminths). We recorded 7 species, including nematodes Anisakis simplex s.l., Pseudoterranova decipiens, acanthocephalans Corynosoma cetaceum, C. australe, and digeneans Braunina cordiformis, Pholeter gastrophilus and Synthesium tursionis. Among the gastric helminths, the most prevalent species were C. cetaceum and A. simplex while C. australe and S. tursionis inhabited the intestine at low prevalence. This is the first report of C. australe and P. decipiens in bottlenose dolphins. Regarding diet, 5 stomachs contained food remains (consisting of 103 prey items). The most important prey species were Geotria australis and Stromateus brasiliensis, but their role in parasite transmission is unclear. At the community level, the gastrointestinal parasite community of T. truncatus was depauperate and strongly overlapped the community described for pelagic dolphins inhabiting Patagonia, suggesting a strong local influence in shaping helminth communities. Nevertheless, these observations are at odds with the notion that oceanic cetaceans have comparatively poorer helminth fauna than neritic species such as bottlenose dolphins, due to the lower likelihood of parasite exchange. PMID:24492055

  10. Parasitic helminths of the American avocet Recurvirostra americana: four new species of the families Hymenolepididae and Acoleidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidae).

    PubMed

    Ahern, W B; Schmidt, G D

    1976-12-01

    Records are presented of 11 species of parasitic helminths recovered from 37 American avocets. Birds were collected in Kansas and Colorado from April 1973 to August 1974. Parsites found included 3 trematodes, 2 nematodes, 1 acanthocephalan and 5 cestodes, 4 of which are new species. Hymenolepis cervotestis sp.n. (Hymenolepididae) is described from the small intestine of 7 avocets. It exhibits extreme protandry with the testes appearing before external segmentation is evident. Sobolevicanthus coloradensis sp.n. (Hymenolepididae) is described from the small intestine of 4 avocets. This species is found to have its scolex embedded in the intesttinal mucosa of its host. Diorchis recurvirostrae sp.n. (Hymenolepididae) is described from specimens recovered from the small intestine of 5 avocets. Diplophallus coili sp.n. (Acoleidae) is described from the small intestine of all 37 avocets. The family Diploposthidae is suppressed and the family Acoleidae is emended to include the 4 genera previously placed in Diploposthidae. A key to the genera of Acoleidae is presented. PMID:1012753

  11. Additional records of metazoan parasites from Caribbean marine mammals, including genetically identified anisakid nematodes.

    PubMed

    Colón-Llavina, Marlene M; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Paoletti, Michela; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Williams, Ernest H

    2009-10-01

    Studies of marine mammal parasites in the Caribbean are scarce. An assessment for marine mammal endo- and ectoparasites from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, but extending to other areas of the Caribbean, was conducted between 1989 and 1994. The present study complements the latter and enhances identification of anisakid nematodes using molecular markers. Parasites were collected from 59 carcasses of stranded cetaceans and manatees from 1994 to 2006, including Globicephala macrorhynchus, Kogia breviceps, Kogia sima, Lagenodelphis hosei, Mesoplodon densirostris, Peponocephala electra, Stenella longirostris, Steno bredanensis, Trichechus manatus. Tursiops truncatus, and Ziphius cavirostris. Sixteen species of endoparasitic helminthes were morphologically identified, including two species of acanthocephalans (Bolbosoma capitatum, Bolbosoma vasculosum), nine species of nematodes (Anisakis sp., Anisakis brevispiculata, Anisakis paggiae, Anisakis simplex, Anisakis typica, Anisakis ziphidarium, Crassicauda anthonyi, Heterocheilus tunicatus, Pseudoterranova ceticola), two species of cestodes (Monorygma grimaldi, Phyllobothrium delphini), and three species of trematodes (Chiorchis groschafti, Pulmonicola cochleotrema, Monoligerum blairi). The nematodes belonging to the genus Anisakis recovered in some stranded animals were genetically identified to species level based on their sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA (629 bp of mtDNA cox 2). A total of five new host records and six new geographic records are presented. PMID:19582477

  12. Richness and diversity of helminth communities in the Japanese grenadier anchovy, Coilia nasus, during its anadromous migration in the Yangtze River, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen X; Zou, Hong; Wu, Shan G; Song, Rui; Wang, Gui T

    2012-06-01

    To determine the relationship between the species richness, diversity of helminth communities, and migration distance during upward migration from coast to freshwater, helminth communities in the anadromous fish Coilia nasus were investigated along the coast of the East China Sea, the Yangtze Estuary, and 3 localities on the Yangtze River. Six helminth species were found in 224 C. nasus . Changes in salinity usually reduced the survival time of parasites, and thus the number of helminth species and their abundance. Except for the 2 dominant helminths, the acanthocephalan Acanthosentis cheni and the nematode Contracaecum sp., mean abundance of other 4 species of helminths was rather low (<1.0) during the upward migration in the Yangtze River. Mean abundance of the 2 dominant helminths peaked in the Yangtze Estuary and showed no obvious decrease among the 3 localities on the Yangtze River. Mean species richness, Brillouin's index, and Shannon index were also highest in the estuary (1.93 ± 0.88, 0.28 ± 0.25, and 0.37 ± 0.34, respectively) and did not exhibit marked decline at the 3 localities on the Yangtze River. A significant negative correlation was not seen between the similarity and the geographical distance (R  =  -0.5104, P  =  0.1317). The strong salinity tolerance of intestinal helminths, relatively brief stay in the Yangtze River, and large amount of feeding on small fish and shrimp when commencing spawning migration perhaps were responsible for the results. PMID:22257179

  13. Novel foraging in the swash zone on Pacific sand crabs (Emerita analoga, Hippidae) by mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; McLaughlin, John P.; Dugan, Jenifer E.

    2013-01-01

    Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) have been observed foraging on intertidal Pacific sand crabs (Hippidae, Emerita analoga) in the swash zone of sandy beaches around Coal Oil Point Reserve, California, and several other beaches on the west coast since at least November 2010. Unlike foraging shorebirds, Mallards do not avoid incoming swashes. Instead, the incoming swash lifts and deposits them down the beach. Shorebirds and diving ducks commonly feed on sand crabs, but sand crabs appear to be a novel behavior and food source for Mallards. Previous surveys of beaches did not report foraging Mallards on regional beaches, whereas foraging Mallards were common in contemporary (recent) surveys and anecdotal reports. Observations of this potentially new behavior were separated by as much as 1,300 km, indicating that this was not a local phenomenon. Mallards foraged singly, in pairs, and in flocks. An expansion of diet to sand crabs carries risks of exposure to surf, human disturbance, high salt intake, and transmission of acanthocephalan and trematode parasites for Mallards but has the benefit of providing a dependable source of animal protein.

  14. Reprint of 'Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2016-07-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  15. Description of Pallisentis (Brevitritospinus) punctati n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Quadrigyridae) from Channa punctatus in Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    GUPTA, Neelima; GUPTA, Dileep K.; SINGHAL, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    Background: The genus Pallisentis is an endoparasitic acanthocephalan inhabiting the intestinal walls. Hooks and spines of the worm are significant taxonomical and adaptive tools. Methods: The parasites were fixed, dehydrated and examined under Olympus BX 53 Microscope with DIC attachment, digital camera and CELLSENS imaging system [Light microscopy (LM)] and fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer, dehydrated, rotary-coated with gold palladium in NeoCoater 100–240V and examined in Neo JCM-6000 [scanning electron microscopy (SEM)]. Results: P. punctati n. sp. (prevalence 65.51%; mean intensity 3–6 par/host) is described. Females almost twice as large as males; proboscis hooks small; collar spine rows similar [16] and constant in both sexes but number of spines per row greater in females [22] than males [14]; trunk spine rows 28–39 (spines per row 14–18) in females and 20–26 (spines per row 10–12) in males. spine length of females almost twice as long as males, spines extend up to posterior testis in males and ¾ of total body length in females, Saefftigen’s pouch present, nuclei in cement gland 10–11, seminal vesicle, bursa and egg size small. SEM indicated lack of micro sculptures, and spines embedded on pre-trunk and trunk. Sex-based differences apparent (hook sizes, greater number of spines per row and longer spines in pre-trunk and trunk of females). Male trunk spine was narrower and of lateral spine with characteristic hooked appearance. Conclusion: A new species of Pallisentis based on LM and SEM is described, sexual diversity in hook and spine structure is reported. PMID:26811728

  16. Differential gene expression analysis in European eels (Anguilla anguilla, L. 1758) naturally infected by macroparasites.

    PubMed

    Fazio, G; Moné, H; Lecomte-Finiger, R; Sasal, P

    2008-06-01

    We analyzed the relationships between the macroparasite community of the European eel and the expression of genes involved in the host physiology during its continental life. The genes studied are implicated in (1) host response to environmental stress, i.e., heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and metallothionein (MT); (2) osmoregulation, i.e., beta thyroid hormone receptor (betaTHR) and Na+/K+ATPase; and (3) silvering, i.e., betaTHR, freshwater rod opsin (FWO), and deep-sea rod opsin (DSO). All were enumerated by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The epizootiological results for 93 yellow eels caught in the Salses-Leucate Lagoon (France) included 11 species: 1 nematode, 2 acanthocephalans, 1 monogenean, and 7 digeneans. The molecular results revealed (1) a significant negative relationship between digenean abundance and the expression level of all the tested genes, except FWO; (2) a significant negative relationship between the abundance of the nematode Anguillicola crassus and the expression level of the Na+/K+ATPase gene; and (3) a significant positive relationship between the A. crassus abundance and the expression level of the MT gene. Eels infected with digeneans had, on average, a lower level of expressed genes. We hypothesize that the parasites may disturb the eel's ability to withstand environmental stress and delay their migration to the Sargasso Sea because of degeneration of the gut. We further propose that the effect of the invasive species, A. crassus, on the gene expression was mainly linked to an increased trophic activity of infected eels. Moreover, it is possible that the parasite may have an effect on the fish's migratory behavior, which is tied to reproductive purposes. Additional work, including an experimental approach, is required to confirm our hypotheses. PMID:18605780

  17. The ecology of Echinococcus multilocularis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. II. Helminth populations in the definitive host.

    PubMed

    Rausch, R L; Fay, F H; Williamson, F S

    1990-01-01

    The helminths of 1,579 arctic foxes from St. Lawrence Island were investigated by standard methods. The foxes, obtained mainly during the winter from fur trappers, harbored 22 species of helminths. Four of those were trematodes, viz., Maritrema afanassjewi Belopol'skaia, 1952, Orthosplanchnus pygmaeus Iurakhno, 1967, Plagiorchis elegans (Rudolphi, 1802) and Alaria marcianae (LaRue, 1917), each of which occurred in a single host. Two species of cestodes, Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitzsch, 1824) and Mesocestoides kirbyi Chandler, 1940, were uncommon (in 2.7 and 1.3% of the foxes, respectively). Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856 and Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 were present in about 80% of the foxes, and Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) in less than 10%. The specimens of Taenia spp. from the autumn-winter sample were usually destrobilate. In about 2% of the foxes, acanthocephalans of six species occurred. Four of those, of the genus Corynosoma Lühe, 1904, were common in marine mammals of the region; a fifth, Corynosoma clavatum Goss, 1940, has been reported previously only from marine birds of the Southern Hemisphere; and the sixth, Polymorphus cf. minutus (Goeze, 1782), has been found widely in waterfowl of the Northern Hemisphere. Of the nematodes, Sobolophyme baturini Petrov, 1930, Cylicospirura felineus (Chandler, 1925), and Physaloptera sp. were rare (with each in only one to three foxes). Trichinella nativa Boev et Britov, 1972 and Crenosoma vulpis (Dujardin, 1844) were uncommon (1.5 and 4%, respectively). The nematodes most often present were Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902) (89%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884) (40%). Several of the rare to uncommon helminths probably were transported to the island by foxes immigrating from the adjacent continents via the pack ice. PMID:2080830

  18. Helminth communities of herons (Aves: Ardeidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Barca, Lorella; Kinsella, John M; Aznar, Francisco J

    2016-08-01

    The helminth communities of nine species of herons from southern Italy were studied and compared. Of 24 taxa found including seven digeneans, seven nematodes, six cestodes and four acanthocephalans, only five taxa were found in more than one heron species, and five of the 21 taxa that could be identified to species level were classified as 'heron specialists'. The total number of helminth species per heron species ranged from 1 in Botaurus stellaris to 9 in Ixobrychus minutus with infection levels generally low. A statistical comparison was carried out for herons with a sample size >5. At the infracommunity level, only I. minutus clearly differed from other heron species. Diversity parameters of heminth infracommunities did not significantly differ among heron species. Species richness ranged from just 0.3 to 2.3 helminth taxa per individual host, and the Brillouin index, from 0 to 0.3. Total helminth abundance did not exceed 40 worms per host except in a single case of Ardeola ralloides. Infracommunities clearly were dominated by single helminth species. The present study confirms a depauperate helminth community in herons from southern Italy. Comparison with data from Spain and the Czech Republic showed strong quantitative similarities with values obtained in the present study. Results also suggest that the composition of local helminth communities are strongly variable depending on geographical location as is demonstrated by comparison with data from other European areas. However, whether herons in Europe naturally host depauperate helminth communities or these communities are depauperate because of other factors is unknown. PMID:27091547

  19. Morphological and molecular description of Tenuisentis niloticus (Meyer, 1932) (Acanthocephala: Tenuisentidae) from Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier) (Actinopterygii: Arapaimidae), in Burkina Faso, with emendation of the family diagnosis and notes on new features, cryptic genetic diversity and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Evans, R Paul; Boungou, Magloire; Heckmann, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Specimens described as Rhadinorhynchus niloticus Meyer, 1932 (Rhadinorhynchidae) from two male specimens collected from Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier) in the Egyptian Nile were later redescribed in the genus Tenuisentis Van Cleave, 1936 (Tenuisentidae) based on 12 specimens collected from the same host species in the White Nile. That redescription basically distinguished the two genera based on five traits but did not actually provide a formal description. His account left out information about cerebral ganglion, lemnisci, some reproductive structures, eggs, proboscis hook dissymmetry and roots, size of trunk and a few other structures. We provide (i) the first complete description of this species enhanced by SEM, molecular, and histo-pathological studies; (ii) expand the existing descriptions; (iii) correct questionable accounts advanced by Van Cleave on the cement gland and the hypodermal giant nuclei; and (iv) add descriptions of new features such as the para-receptacle structure which we also report from Paratenuisentis Bullock & Samuel, 1975, the only other genus in Tenuisentidae Van Cleave, 1936. The subsequent description of a few more specimens from the same host collected in Mali was more informative yet incomplete and at variance with our specimens from Burkina Faso. Genetic divergence and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase c subunit I; COI) and nuclear (18S ribosomal RNA) gene relationships uncovered a cryptic species complex containing two lineages. Based on our studies, the family diagnosis is emended. The acanthocephalan causes damage to the host intestine as depicted in histopathological sections. The invading worm can extend from the mucosal layer to the muscularis externa of the host with subsequent tissue necrosis, villi compression, haemorrhaging and blood loss. PMID:26790681

  20. Light and scanning electron microscopy on Serrasentis sagittifer Linton, 1889 (Acanthocephala): Palaeacanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) infecting the common sea bream in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mohamadain, Hoda Saady; Adel, Asmaa

    2015-04-01

    Serrasentis sagittifer is one of the most important acanthocephalan parasites parasitizing fish. This species attach to the intestinal wall via their armed proboscis which is anchored by rows of recurved spines. In the present study, Twenty two out of 50 fish specimens (44.0%) were found to be naturally infected by adult worms of Serrasentis Sagittifer Linton, 1889 (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) which were collected from the stomach and intestine of the common sea bream Pagrus pagrus (family: Sparidae) from locations along the Red Sea at Hurghada City, Egypt. The light and scanning microscopic study revealed that the adult worm possessed a proboscis which was long, cylindrical with a uniform width measured 0.81 ± 0.020 (0.77-0.84) mm in length and 0.48 ± 0.020 (0.33-0.69) mm in width. Claviform, armed with 25 (23-28) longitudinal rows of hooks which show a distinct dorsoventral asymmetry, with ventral hooks stouter, larger. Proboscis receptacle was 2.12 ± 0.30 (2.10-2.14) long, double-walled, with ganglion at mid-level; two unequal, long and thin lemnisci 2.9 ± 0.30(2.41-3.33) length, arised from the base of the neck, and extend up to the med-level of the trunk. The present species is compared morphologically and morphometrically with some of the previously recorded species isolated from different host species, which revealed that the present species should be classified as Serrasentis sagittifer with a new host record in Egypt. PMID:26012215

  1. Parasite-induced alteration of plastic response to predation threat: increased refuge use but lower food intake in Gammarus pulex infected with the acanothocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis.

    PubMed

    Dianne, Lucile; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Bauer, Alexandre; Guvenatam, Arnaud; Rigaud, Thierry

    2014-03-01

    Larvae of many trophically-transmitted parasites alter the behaviour of their intermediate host in ways that increase their probability of transmission to the next host in their life cycle. Before reaching a stage that is infective to the next host, parasite larvae may develop through several larval stages in the intermediate host that are not infective to the definitive host. Early predation at these stages results in parasite death, and it has recently been shown that non-infective larvae of some helminths decrease such risk by enhancing the anti-predator defences of the host, including decreased activity and increased sheltering. However, these behavioural changes may divert infected hosts from an optimal balance between survival and foraging (either seeking food or a mate). In this study, this hypothesis was tested using the intermediate host of the acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus laevis, the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex. We compared activity, refuge use, food foraging and food intake of hosts experimentally infected with the non-infective stage (acanthella), with that of uninfected gammarids. Behavioural assays were conducted in four situations varying in predation risk and in food accessibility. Acanthella-infected amphipods showed an increase in refuge use and a general reduction in activity and food intake. There was no effect of parasite intensity on these traits. Uninfected individuals showed plastic responses to water-borne cues from fish by adjusting refuge use, activity and food intake. They also foraged more when the food was placed outside the refuge. At the intra-individual level, refuge use and food intake were positively correlated in infected gammarids only. Overall, our findings suggest that uninfected gammarids exhibit risk-sensitive behaviour including increased food intake under predation risk, whereas gammarids infected with the non-infective larvae of P. laevis exhibit a lower motivation to feed, irrespective of predation risk

  2. The systematics of Echinorhynchus Zoega in Müller, 1776 (Acanthocephala, Echinorhynchidae) elucidated by nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data from eight European taxa

    PubMed Central

    Wayland, Matthew T.; Vainio, Jouni K.; Gibson, David I.; Herniou, Elisabeth A.; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Väinölä, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The acanthocephalan genus Echinorhynchus Zoega in Müller, 1776 (sensu Yamaguti 1963) is a large and widespread group of parasites of teleost fish and malacostracan crustaceans, distributed from the Arctic to the Antarctic in habitats ranging from freshwaters to the deep-sea. A total of 52 species are currently recognised based on the conventional morphological species concept; however, the true diversity in the genus is masked by cryptic speciation. The considerable diversity within Echinorhynchus is an argument for subdividing the genus if monophyletic groups with supporting morphological characters can be identified. With this objective in mind, partial sequences of two genes with different rates of evolution and patterns of inheritance (nuclear 28S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships among eight taxa of Echinorhynchus. These included representatives of each of three genus group taxa proposed in a controversial revision of the genus based on cement gland pattern, namely Echinorhynchus (sensu stricto), Metechinorhynchus Petrochenko, 1956 and Pseudoechinorhynchus Petrochenko, 1956. These groupings have previously been rejected by some authorities, because the diagnostic character is poorly defined; this study shows that Echinorhynchus (sensu stricto) and Metechinorhynchus are not natural, monophyletic groups. A revision of Echinorhynchus will require tandem molecular phylogenetic and morphological analyses of a larger sample of taxa, but this study has identified two morhological characters that might potentially be used to define new genera. The estimated phylogeny also provides insight into the zoogeographical history of Echinorhynchus spp. We postulate that the ancestral Echinorhynchus had a freshwater origin and the genus subsequently invaded the sea, probably several times. The freshwater taxa of the Echinorhynchus bothniensis Zdzitowiecki & Valtonen, 1987 clade may represent a

  3. Non-specific manipulation of gammarid behaviour by P. minutus parasite enhances their predation by definitive bird hosts.

    PubMed

    Jacquin, Lisa; Mori, Quentin; Pause, Mickaël; Steffen, Mélanie; Medoc, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Trophically-transmitted parasites often change the phenotype of their intermediate hosts in ways that increase their vulnerability to definitive hosts, hence favouring transmission. As a "collateral damage", manipulated hosts can also become easy prey for non-host predators that are dead ends for the parasite, and which are supposed to play no role in transmission strategies. Interestingly, infection with the acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus has been shown to reduce the vulnerability of its gammarid intermediate hosts to non-host predators, whose presence triggered the behavioural alterations expected to favour trophic transmission to bird definitive hosts. Whilst the behavioural response of infected gammarids to the presence of definitive hosts remains to be investigated, this suggests that trophic transmission might be promoted by non-host predation risk. We conducted microcosm experiments to test whether the behaviour of P. minutus-infected gammarids was specific to the type of predator (i.e. mallard as definitive host and fish as non-host), and mesocosm experiments to test whether trophic transmission to bird hosts was influenced by non-host predation risk. Based on the behaviours we investigated (predator avoidance, activity, geotaxis, conspecific attraction), we found no evidence for a specific fine-tuned response in infected gammarids, which behaved similarly whatever the type of predator (mallard or fish). During predation tests, fish predation risk did not influence the differential predation of mallards that over-consumed infected gammarids compared to uninfected individuals. Overall, our results bring support for a less sophisticated scenario of manipulation than previously expected, combining chronic behavioural alterations with phasic behavioural alterations triggered by the chemical and physical cues coming from any type of predator. Given the wide dispersal range of waterbirds (the definitive hosts of P. minutus), such a manipulation

  4. The life cycle of Sclerocollum saudii Al-Jahdali, 2010 (Acanthocephala: Palaeacanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) in amphipod and fish hosts from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Al-Jahdali, M O; Hassanine, R M El-Said; Touliabah, H El-S

    2015-05-01

    The rhadinorhynchid Sclerocollum saudii Al-Jahdali, 2010 was found in the intestine of its type host, Siganus rivulatus Forsskål & Niebuhr, 1775, a siganid fish permanently resident in a lagoon within the mangrove swamps found on the Egyptian coast of the Gulf of Aqaba (between 28°7'N and 28°18'N). Larval forms of this acanthocephalan (acanthors, acanthellae and cystacanths) were only found in Megaluropus agilis Hoek, 1889 (Crustacea: Gammaridae), a benthic amphipod abundant on algae and seagrasses in the lagoon. So, this life cycle of S. saudii was elucidated under semi-natural conditions: embryonated eggs of S. saudii were directly ingested by the amphipod and hatched in its intestine; the released acanthor penetrated the intestinal epithelium in 12-18 h to reach the connective tissue serosa, where it remained for about 3 days, then penetrated the intestinal wall and remained attached to its outer surface for 4 days. It then detached and dropped free in the amphipod haemocoel and transformed into an oval acanthella, growing for 16 days to reach the cystacanth stage. The cystacanth at 46 days post-infection was infective to fish (excysted in its intestine as an active juvenile). Male and female juveniles reached maturity 17 and 23 days post-infection. Recently copulated females first appeared 26 days post-infection and all females seemed to be copulated at 28 days post-infection; partially and fully gravid females first appeared 31 and 35 days post-infection. Mature males and fully gravid females started to die off naturally 31 and 43 days post-infection and were totally expelled from the fish intestine by 42 and 52 days post-infection. The cycle was completed in 89 days and is similar to other known palaeacanthocephalan life cycles, but has its own characteristics. PMID:24565051

  5. The systematics of Echinorhynchus Zoega in Müller, 1776 (Acanthocephala, Echinorhynchidae) elucidated by nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data from eight European taxa.

    PubMed

    Wayland, Matthew T; Vainio, Jouni K; Gibson, David I; Herniou, Elisabeth A; Littlewood, D Timothy J; Väinölä, Risto

    2015-01-01

    The acanthocephalan genus Echinorhynchus Zoega in Müller, 1776 (sensuYamaguti 1963) is a large and widespread group of parasites of teleost fish and malacostracan crustaceans, distributed from the Arctic to the Antarctic in habitats ranging from freshwaters to the deep-sea. A total of 52 species are currently recognised based on the conventional morphological species concept; however, the true diversity in the genus is masked by cryptic speciation. The considerable diversity within Echinorhynchus is an argument for subdividing the genus if monophyletic groups with supporting morphological characters can be identified. With this objective in mind, partial sequences of two genes with different rates of evolution and patterns of inheritance (nuclear 28S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships among eight taxa of Echinorhynchus. These included representatives of each of three genus group taxa proposed in a controversial revision of the genus based on cement gland pattern, namely Echinorhynchus (sensu stricto), Metechinorhynchus Petrochenko, 1956 and Pseudoechinorhynchus Petrochenko, 1956. These groupings have previously been rejected by some authorities, because the diagnostic character is poorly defined; this study shows that Echinorhynchus (sensu stricto) and Metechinorhynchus are not natural, monophyletic groups. A revision of Echinorhynchus will require tandem molecular phylogenetic and morphological analyses of a larger sample of taxa, but this study has identified two morhological characters that might potentially be used to define new genera. The estimated phylogeny also provides insight into the zoogeographical history of Echinorhynchus spp. We postulate that the ancestral Echinorhynchus had a freshwater origin and the genus subsequently invaded the sea, probably several times. The freshwater taxa of the Echinorhynchusbothniensis Zdzitowiecki & Valtonen, 1987 clade may represent a reinvasion of

  6. Non-Specific Manipulation of Gammarid Behaviour by P. minutus Parasite Enhances Their Predation by Definitive Bird Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Jacquin, Lisa; Mori, Quentin; Pause, Mickaël; Steffen, Mélanie; Medoc, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Trophically-transmitted parasites often change the phenotype of their intermediate hosts in ways that increase their vulnerability to definitive hosts, hence favouring transmission. As a “collateral damage”, manipulated hosts can also become easy prey for non-host predators that are dead ends for the parasite, and which are supposed to play no role in transmission strategies. Interestingly, infection with the acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus has been shown to reduce the vulnerability of its gammarid intermediate hosts to non-host predators, whose presence triggered the behavioural alterations expected to favour trophic transmission to bird definitive hosts. Whilst the behavioural response of infected gammarids to the presence of definitive hosts remains to be investigated, this suggests that trophic transmission might be promoted by non-host predation risk. We conducted microcosm experiments to test whether the behaviour of P. minutus-infected gammarids was specific to the type of predator (i.e. mallard as definitive host and fish as non-host), and mesocosm experiments to test whether trophic transmission to bird hosts was influenced by non-host predation risk. Based on the behaviours we investigated (predator avoidance, activity, geotaxis, conspecific attraction), we found no evidence for a specific fine-tuned response in infected gammarids, which behaved similarly whatever the type of predator (mallard or fish). During predation tests, fish predation risk did not influence the differential predation of mallards that over-consumed infected gammarids compared to uninfected individuals. Overall, our results bring support for a less sophisticated scenario of manipulation than previously expected, combining chronic behavioural alterations with phasic behavioural alterations triggered by the chemical and physical cues coming from any type of predator. Given the wide dispersal range of waterbirds (the definitive hosts of P. minutus), such a manipulation

  7. Genetic and morphological evidence reveals the existence of a new family, genus and species of Echinorhynchida (Acanthocephala).

    PubMed

    Braicovich, Paola E; Lanfranchi, Ana L; Farber, Marisa D; Marvaldi, Adriana E; Luque, José L; Timi, Juan T

    2014-08-01

    Gymnorhadinorhynchus gen. n. is proposed to accommodate its type species, G. decapteri sp. n., a parasite of the marine fish Decapterus punctatus (Cuvier), caught from the coastal waters of Brazil. Gymnorhadinorhynchus decapteri sp. n. was morphologically most similar to species of two echinorhynchid families, the Rhadinorhynchidae and the Cavisomidae, particularly in the structure of the proboscis and the absence of somatic spines, respectively. This combination of morphological features made it difficult to assign our specimen to an extant family of the Acanthocephala. Therefore, in order to clarify the systematic placement of G. decapteri, a molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the SSU and LSU rDNA and the mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences obtained for the new taxon and other 26 acanthocephalan species. The results of parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses, using individual, combined and concatenated sequence data, consistently indicate that the specimens do not belong to any known family of the Echinorhynchida. Rather, G. decapteri represents a distinct lineage that is closely related to the Transvenidae, but distantly related to both the Rhadinorhynchidae and the Cavisomidae. Gymnorhadinorhynchidae fam. n. is therefore erected. This newly described family can be distinguished from other families of Echinorhynchida by the combination of the following morphological characters: a proboscis cylindrical with 10 rows of 22-26 hooks, dorsoventral differences in proboscis hooks, basal hooks forming a ring and being abruptly larger than anterior hooks, absence of trunk spines and presence of four tubular cement glands. This combination, in addition to several molecular autapomorphies, justifies the erection of a new genus, Gymnorhadinorhynchus gen. n., in order to accommodate this new species. PMID:25185409

  8. Molecular characterisation and infection dynamics of Dentitruncus truttae from trout (Salmo trutta and Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Krka River, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Irena, Vardić Smrzlić; Damir, Valić; Damir, Kapetanović; Zrinka, Dragun; Emil, Gjurčević; Helena, Cetković; Emin, Teskeredžić

    2013-11-01

    Dentitruncus truttae (Acanthocephala, Palaeacanthocephala) is an intestinal parasite of fish that can cause extensive damage to the host digestive tract, yet little is known about its epidemiology and genetic variability. It is a member of the Illiosentidae family with a worldwide distribution restricted to parts of southeast Europe. Its usual host is brown trout (Salmo trutta), but we report here the first detection in the intestine of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We examined the physiology of D. truttae-infected S. trutta and O. mykiss, seasonal and spatial variability of D. truttae infections, and genetic variability of the parasite population in Krka River, Croatia. D. truttae was more abundant in both trout populations in the autumn, with no seasonal variation in prevalence. The parasite was more abundant in male than female trout (n=75, p<0.01). Analysis of the spatial distribution of the parasite across various sampling sites along the river showed the lowest prevalence and abundance of parasitic infections at the most downstream sampling site, which may reflect the predominance of female fish there and/or the smaller population of intermediate hosts. To provide the first molecular insights into D. truttae, we analysed sequences at three marker loci: the 18S rRNA gene, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene and the internal transcribed spacer region. Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA confirmed the taxonomic grouping of D. truttae in the Illiosentidae family, first made more than 50 years ago based on morphology. The COI haplotype network did not show discrete genetic clusters corresponding to the different sampling sites, suggesting a stable population. These insights into D. truttae haplotype frequency distribution and intrapopulation genetic variation revealed minimal genetic variability, compared to the other acanthocephalan species. PMID:23972767

  9. Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis), three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis) and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis) were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%), H. spumosum (29.8%) and H. nana (28.4%). Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site) and intrinsic (species, sex and age) factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection) and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential to infect humans

  10. Acanthocephala Parasite (Profilicollis spp.) Loads in Correlation to Pacific Mole Crab (Emerita analoga) Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, T.; Huang, S.; Galathe, M.; Jenkins, M.; Ramirez, A.; Crosby, L.; Barrera, J.; FitzHoward, S.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2002, San Francisco Bay students have been conducting marine ecosystem monitoring through a joint project with the Long-term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students (LiMPETS), in conjunction with the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Each year students collect population and demographic data on Pacific mole crabs (Emerita analoga), an indicator species that lives in the sandy beach habitat in temperate regions along the Pacific Ocean. Pacific mole crabs are filter feeding crustaceans that inhabit the intertidal swash zone and are known to be an intermediate host for parasitic ';spiny-headed' worms in the phylum Acanthocephala (Profilicollis spp.). Sampling takes place during their reproductive period, which occurs from spring to fall, and includes measuring total body length of the Pacific mole crabs and dissecting them to determine presence of Acanthocephalan parasites. We hypothesize that due to larger body mass, larger Pacific mole crabs will have a greater number of Acanthocephala parasites.We conducted several analyses using the LiMPETS long-term data. Specifically, we compared body length, crab gender, and parasite abundance from Pacific mole crabs sampled from four beaches located in the county and city of San Francisco. Our results indicated that larger Pacific mole crabs do not necessarily have more parasites, but are more likely to have at least one parasite, while female Pacific mole crabs carrying eggs, have more parasites than males or females without eggs. We also found that parasite loads per mole crab was highest in the spring. Further analysis will be conducted to determine factors affecting Pacific mole crab parasite loads. Studying Pacific mole crabs help evaluate the health of California's intertidal systems and how human activities, geologic changes, and climate changes all make huge impacts to the intertidal ecosystems.

  11. Direct and indirect causes of sex differences in mercury concentrations and parasitic infections in a marine bird.

    PubMed

    Provencher, J F; Gilchrist, H G; Mallory, M L; Mitchell, G W; Forbes, M R

    2016-05-01

    In many animal species, males and females differ in their levels of contaminants and/or parasitic infections. Most contaminants and gastro-intestinal parasites are obtained through prey ingestion, and thus the causes of sex differences in the distribution of these factors might follow similar pathways. We studied the northern common eider duck (Somateria molissima borealis) as an avian model, and used directed separation path analysis to explore the causes of sex differences in mercury (Hg) and gastro-intestinal helminths. Two trophically transmitted helminths were examined: a cestode (Lateriporus sp.) and an acanthocephalan (Polymorphus sp). We found that the number of Lateriporus sp. varied positively with stable isotope signature (as indicated by δ(15)N in eider breast muscle tissue), and negatively with crustaceans being present in the short term diet. We also found that Polymorphus sp. varied positively with eider tissue stable isotope signature. However, Polymorphus sp. varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass. Similarly, Hg concentrations also varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass, with both Polymorphus sp. intensity and Hg concentrations significantly higher in males. We found that model fit increased when a negative relationship between the two helminth species was included, suggesting a yet unknown causal mechanism linking these parasites. Our findings suggest that although Hg and gastro-intestinal parasites are both trophically transmitted through the eider's prey items, the factors that contribute towards bioaccumulation of these two burdens differ in source, likely caused by several different factors and may potentially influence each other. PMID:26896579

  12. Eurotatorian paraphyly: Revisiting phylogenetic relationships based on the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Rotaria rotatoria (Bdelloidea: Rotifera: Syndermata)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Syndermata (Rotifera+Acanthocephala) is one of the best model systems for studying the evolutionary origins and persistence of different life styles because it contains a series of lineage-specific life histories: Monogononta (cyclic parthenogenetic and free-living), Bdelloidea (entirely parthenogenetic and mostly benthic dweller), Seisonidea (exclusively bisexual and epizoic or ectoparasitic), and Acanthocephala (sexual and obligatory endoparasitic). Providing phylogenetic resolution to the question of Eurotatoria (Monogononta and Bdelloidea) monophyly versus paraphyly is a key factor for better understanding the evolution of different life styles, yet this matter is not clearly resolved. In this study, we revisited this issue based on comparative analysis of complete mitochondrial genome information for major groups of the Syndermata. Results We determined the first complete mitochondrial genome sequences (15,319 bp) of a bdelloid rotifer, Rotaria rotatoria. In order to examine the validity of Eurotatoria (Monogononta and Bdelloidea) monophyly/paraphyly, we performed phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences for eleven protein-coding genes sampled from a wide variety of bilaterian representatives. The resulting mitochondrial genome trees, inferred using different algorithms, consistently failed to recover Monogononta and Bdelloidea as monophyletic, but instead identified them as a paraphyletic assemblage. Bdelloidea (as represented by R. rotatoria) shares most common ancestry with Acanthocephala (as represented by L. thecatus) rather than with monogonont B. plicatilis, the other representative of Eurotatoria. Conclusion Comparisons of inferred amino acid sequence and gene arrangement patterns with those of other metazoan mtDNAs (including those of acanthocephalan L. thecatus and monogonont B. plicatilis) support the hypothesis that Bdelloidea shares most common ancestry with Acanthocephala rather than with Monogononta. From this finding, we

  13. Ecological consequences of manipulative parasites: chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic "puppet masters", with their twisted, self-serving life history strategies and impressive evolutionary takeovers of host minds, capture the imagination of listeners—even those that might not normally fi nd the topic of parasitism appealing (which includes most everyone). A favorite anecdote concerns the trematode Leucochloridium paradoxum migrating to the eyestalks of its intermediate host snail and pulsating its colored body, presumably to attract the predatory birds that are the final hosts for the worm. Identifying a parasite as “manipulative” infers that a change in host behavior or appearance is a direct consequence of the parasite’s adaptive actions that, on average, will increase the fi tness of the parasite. The list of parasites that manipulate their hosts is long and growing. Holmes and Bethel (1972) presented the earliest comprehensive review and brought the subject to mainstream ecologists. Over two decades ago, Andy Dobson (1988) listed seven cestodes, seven trematodes, ten acanthocephalans, and three nematodes that manipulated host behavior. Fifteen years later, Janice Moore (2002) filled a book with examples. The five infectious trophic strategies, typical parasites (macroparasites), pathogens, trophically transmitted parasites, parasitic castrators, and parasitoids (Kuris and Lafferty 2000; Lafferty and Kuris 2002, 2009) can modify host behavior, but the likelihood that a parasite manipulates behavior differs among strategies. The most studied infectious agents, non-trophically transmitted pathogens and macroparasites, have enormous public health, veterinary, and wildlife disease importance, yet few manipulate host behavior. The beststudied manipulative infectious agents are trophically transmitted parasites in their prey intermediate hosts. Parasitoids and parasitic castrators can also manipulate host behavior, but for different purposes and with different implications. Several studies of manipulative parasites conclude with

  14. The gastrointestinal helminths of Rattus niobe (Rodentia: Muridae) with descriptions of two new genera and three new species (Nematoda) from Papua New Guinea and Papua Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Smales, L R

    2016-01-01

    Cestodes, to be identified elsewhere, the acanthocephalan Moniliformis moniliformis and 15 species of nematode including 2 new genera, a new species and 2 putative new species from the families Heligmonellidae and Oxyuridae, as well as juveniles and a putative heligmonellid that could not be fully identified, were collected from the digestive tracts of 34 Rattus niobe (Muridae: Murinae: Rattini) from Papua, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The ascaridid, Toxocara mackerrasae, the chabertiid Cyclodontostomum purvisi, the heterakid Heterakis sp., the spirurids Protospirura kaindiensis and P. muricola the subulurid Subulura andersoni and the trichurids Eucoleus sp. and Trichuris muris have been reported previously from endemic Rattus spp. Syphacia (Syphacia) niobe n. sp. was distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters including a round cephalic plate, the lack of cervical and lateral alae, a longer male tail and an attenuated female tail. Nugininema titokis n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Heligmonellidae in the characters of the synlophe, 10-17 ridges orientated subfrontally at mid body and 2 right ventral ridges hypertrophied anteriorly. Rodentanema aenigma n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Heligmonellidae in the characters of the synlophe 6-7 ridges at mid body not symmetrical in relation to frontal axis. Species richness of the nematode assemblage was similar to that reported for Rattus leucopus in Papua New Guinea, with about 90% of possible species found as indicated by bootstrap analysis. Species composition included 6 species unique to R. niobe and 7 species reported from at least one other species of Rattus indigenous to New Guinea, as well as juvenile worms, probably ascaridids. PMID:27395168

  15. Bigger Is Better: Characteristics of Round Gobies Forming an Invasion Front in the Danube River

    PubMed Central

    Brandner, Joerg; Cerwenka, Alexander F.; Schliewen, Ulrich K.; Geist, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have systematically investigated differences in performance, morphology and parasitic load of invaders at different stages of an invasion. This study analyzed phenotype-environment correlations in a fish invasion from initial absence until establishment in the headwater reach of the second largest European river, the Danube. Here, the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) formed 73% of the fish abundance and 58% of the fish biomass in rip-rap bank habitats after establishment. The time from invasion until establishment was only about two years, indicating rapid expansion. Founder populations from the invasion front were different from longer established round goby populations in demography, morphology, feeding behaviour, sex ratio and parasitic load, indicating that plasticity in these traits determines invasion success. Competitive ability was mostly dependent on growth/size-related traits rather than on fecundity. As revealed by stable isotope analyses, specimens at the invasion front had a higher trophic position in the food web and seem to benefit from lower food competition. Somatic performance seems to be more important than investment in reproduction during the early stages of the invasion process and upstream-directed range expansion is not caused by out-migrating weak or juvenile individuals that were forced to leave high density areas due to high competition. This mechanism might be true for downstream introductions via drift. Greater abundance and densities of acanthocephalan endoparasites were observed at the invasion front, which contradicts the expectation that invasion success is determined by lower parasitic pressure in newly invaded areas. Overall, the pronounced changes in fish and invertebrate communities with a dominance of alien species suggest invasional meltdown and a shift of the upper Danube River towards a novel ecosystem with species that have greater resistance to goby predation. This seems to contribute to overcoming

  16. Endoparasite survey of free-swimming baleen whales (Balaenoptera musculus, B. physalus, B. borealis) and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) using non/minimally invasive methods.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M R; Kleinertz, Sonja; Prieto, Rui; Silva, Monica A; Taubert, Anja

    2016-02-01

    A number of parasitic diseases have gained importance as neozoan opportunistic infections in the marine environment. Here, we report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of three baleen whale species and one toothed whale: blue (Balaenoptera musculus), fin (Balaenoptera physalus), and sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) from the Azores Islands, Portugal. In total, 17 individual whale fecal samples [n = 10 (B. physalus); n = 4 (P. macrocephalus); n = 2 (B. musculus); n = 1 (B. borealis)] were collected from free-swimming animals as part of ongoing studies on behavioral ecology. Furthermore, skin biopsies were collected from sperm whales (n = 5) using minimally invasive biopsy darting and tested for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Besnoitia besnoiti DNA via PCR. Overall, more than ten taxa were detected in whale fecal samples. Within protozoan parasites, Entamoeba spp. occurred most frequently (64.7%), followed by Giardia spp. (17.6%) and Balantidium spp. (5.9%). The most prevalent metazoan parasites were Ascaridida indet. spp. (41.2%), followed by trematodes (17.7%), acanthocephalan spp., strongyles (11.8%), Diphyllobotrium spp. (5.9%), and spirurids (5.9%). Helminths were mainly found in sperm whales, while enteric protozoan parasites were exclusively detected in baleen whales, which might be related to dietary differences. No T. gondii, N. caninum, or B. besnoiti DNA was detected in any skin sample. This is the first record on Giardia and Balantidium infections in large baleen whales. PMID:26593736

  17. Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  18. Re-establishment of the fish parasite fauna in the Tisa River system (Slovakia) after a catastrophic pollution event.

    PubMed

    Oros, Mikulás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2009-06-01

    An extensive survey of helminth parasites in 1,316 freshwater fish representing 31 species from two aquatic ecosystems in southeastern Slovakia characterized by different level of environmental pollution was carried out. The helminth species diversity was compared between the Tisa River, heavily polluted with cyanides and heavy metals after a series of ecological disasters in 2000, and the less anthropogenically influenced Latorica River. A parasitological survey found 31 gastrointestinal helminths: Trematoda (11 species), Cestoda (14), Acanthocephala (3) and Nematoda (3). As many as 70 host-parasite combinations have been found. Twenty of them (28.6%) represent new host-parasite finding records for the territory of Slovakia. The component communities were species-poor in both rivers, with high dominance of one to three helminth species. Even though the fish communities were qualitatively similar (ICS = 81%) and the number of fish examined was approximately the same (676 and 640) in both localities, the helminth species richness and diversity of host-parasite combinations were two times lower in the more polluted Tisa River. The helminth communities were also much less abundant in the Tisa River. Based on the Czekanowski-Sørensen similarity index (ICS = 48.8%) and the Percentage similarity index (PI = 19.5%), the helminth communities were qualitatively and quantitatively different in the two rivers. The remarkable lack of species diversity in the Tisa River can be explained by the negative impact of residual contamination of the Tisa river bottom on certain freshwater invertebrates (bivalves and prosobranch mollusks, copepods and amphipods) which serve as obligatory intermediate hosts for the helminths. Four species, the aspidogastrean Aspidogaster limacoides Diesing, 1835, the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis (Rudolphi, 1809) tapeworms Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 and Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 are recorded in Slovakia for the first time

  19. Developmental Stage of Parasites Influences the Structure of Fish-Parasite Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bellay, Sybelle; de Oliveira, Edson Fontes; Almeida-Neto, Mário; Lima Junior, Dilermando Pereira; Takemoto, Ricardo Massato; Luque, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Specialized interactions tend to be more common in systems that require strong reciprocal adaptation between species, such as those observed between parasites and hosts. Parasites exhibit a high diversity of species and life history strategies, presenting host specificity which increases the complexity of these antagonistic systems. However, most studies are limited to the description of interactions between a few parasite and host species, which restricts our understanding of these systems as a whole. We investigated the effect of the developmental stage of the parasite on the structure of 30 metazoan fish-parasite networks, with an emphasis on the specificity of the interactions, connectance and modularity. We assessed the functional role of each species in modular networks and its interactions within and among the modules according to the developmental stage (larval and adult) and taxonomic group of the parasites. We observed that most parasite and host species perform a few interactions but that parasites at the larval stage tended to be generalists, increasing the network connectivity within and among modules. The parasite groups did not differ among each other in the number of interactions within and among the modules when considering only species at the larval stage. However, the same groups of adult individuals differed from each other in their interaction patterns, which were related to variations in the degree of host specificity at this stage. Our results show that the interaction pattern of fishes with parasites, such as acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans and nematodes, is more closely associated with their developmental stage than their phylogenetic history. This finding corroborates the hypothesis that the life history of parasites results in adaptations that cross phylogenetic boundaries. PMID:24124506

  20. Imported Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus) in North American live food markets: Potential vectors of non-native parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.

  1. Endoparasite Community Differences in Sunfish (Lepomis spp.) Above and Below Coal Mine Effluent in Southern Illinois.

    PubMed

    Claxton, Andrew; Laursen, Jeff

    2015-06-01

    Parasite assemblages acquired through trophic interactions in fish hosts are increasingly cited as a means to determine pollution effects on water quality and food web structure. We examined gastrointestinal parasite community changes above and below coal mine input from 597 individuals representing 3 species of sunfish: green sunfish ( Lepomis cyanellus ), bluegill ( L. macrochirus ), and longear sunfish ( L. megalotis ). Hosts were collected from 6 sites in or near the south fork of the Saline River Basin in southern Illinois in the spring and fall of 2006. Three sites received no known effluent from coal mines. An additional 3 sites received effluent termed acid mine drainage (AMD). We recovered 1,064 parasites from 12 genera. The parasite community in sunfish collected downstream nearest to the source of AMD was significantly different from 3 upstream sites. In addition, 2 sites farther downstream receiving AMD were different from 2 of 3 reference sites. However, there was also considerable variability in parasite assemblages between sites grouped as above or below coal mine effluent. Several parasite species responded to changes in water quality. Spinitectus sp. (Nematoda), which uses sensitive mayfly hosts to complete its life cycle, was less abundant at sites downstream of coal mine effluent in both green sunfish and bluegill. In contrast, 2 acanthocephalans ( Neoechinorhynchus sp. and Eocollis arcanus) and a nematode ( Spiroxys sp.) were found in green sunfish more frequently in areas downstream of AMD. This study further suggests metazoan parasites may be useful as indicators of water quality; however, variability among similar sites may limit their application. In addition, strong assemblage differences were found among the 3 sunfish species, suggesting variable habitat usage and potential resource partitioning among congeneric fish hosts in streams. PMID:25634342

  2. Is metal accumulation in Pomphorhynchus laevis dependent on parasite sex or infrapopulation size?

    PubMed

    Nachev, M; Zimmermann, S; Rigaud, T; Sures, B

    2010-07-01

    Concentrations of the elements As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, V, Zn were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis and its fish host Barbus barbus. A total of 27 barbels were collected from the Danube River in autumn 2006 close to the town Kozloduy (685 river kilometer) on the Bulgarian river bank. Fish were divided into 3 groups. According to their P. laevis infrapopulation size hosts were considered as heavily infected (>100 worms per fish) and lightly infected (<20 worms per fish). The third group was used to compare heavy metal concentrations between male and female P. laevis. The 5 elements As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were detected in significantly higher concentrations in parasites compared to host tissues (muscle, intestine, liver). According to the calculated mean bioconcentration factors, 3 more elements (Co, Mn, V) showed usually higher concentrations in P. laevis. Comparisons between heavily and lightly infected fish revealed significant differences only for V with higher concentrations for the heavily infected group. Concerning sex-specific metal accumulation V and Zn showed significant differences (V, at P<0.05; Zn, at P=0.05), with higher levels of both metals in females of P. laevis. Our results suggest that - for the metals analysed - the size of the parasite infrapopulation plays no role in the degree of metal accumulation. Similarly, parasite sex seems not to be a crucial factor for metal accumulation in the parasites. Thus, for metal monitoring purposes there is no need to take these aspects into account, which makes the use of parasites as bioindicators more applicable. PMID:20380766

  3. The description and histopathology of Leptorhynchoides polycristatus n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) from sturgeons, Acipenser spp. (Actinopterygii: Acipenseridae) in the Caspian Sea, Iran, with emendation of the generic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Halajian, Ali; El-Naggar, Atif M; Tavakol, Sareh

    2013-11-01

    to the host mucosa causing villi compression and necrosis of the epithelial lining with subsequent hemorrhaging and granulocyte migration. No encapsulation of the acanthocephalan is visible, and the worm can migrate deep into the smooth muscle layers of the muscularis extrema. The presence of L. polycristatus in the lumen of the host intestine obstructs and damages the absorbing surface of the host affecting the nutritional potential. Dead, necrotic host epithelial tissue and remnants of villi and crypts are visible. PMID:23974326

  4. Environmental conditions predict helminth prevalence in red foxes in Western Australia☆

    PubMed Central

    Dybing, Narelle A.; Fleming, Patricia A.; Adams, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most common and widely distributed wild carnivore worldwide. These predators harbour a wide range of parasites, many of which may have important conservation, agricultural and zoonotic repercussions. This project investigated the occurrence of helminth parasites from the intestines of 147 red foxes across 14 sampling localities of southwest Western Australia. Helminth parasites were detected in 58% of fox intestines: Dipylidium caninum (27.7% of foxes), Uncinaria stenocephala (18.2%), Toxocara canis (14.9%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (5.4%), Toxascaris leonina (4.7%), Taenia serialis (1.4%), Taenia hydatigena (0.7%), unidentified Taenia spp. (4.1%), Brachylaima cribbi (0.7%), Plagiorchis maculosus (0.7%) and an Acanthocephalan; family Centrorhynchidae (2.1%). Importantly, two cestodes of agricultural significance, Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia ovis, were not detected in red foxes in this study, despite the presence of suitable intermediate hosts in the diets of these animals. Parasite richness varied from 1–3 species per host, with average parasite number varying from 1–39 worms (across all helminth species). Regression analyses indicated that the presence of four helminth parasites was related to various environmental factors. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei (p < 0.001), T. leonina (p < 0.01) and U. stenocephala (p < 0.01) was positively associated with average relative humidity which may affect the longevity of infective stages in the environment. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with 5-y-average minimum temperature which could reflect poor survival of infective stages through cold winter conditions. The presence of T. canis and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with the percentage cover of native vegetation at each sampling location, which is likely to reflect transmission from native prey species acting as paratenic hosts

  5. Principal intestinal parasites of dogs in Tirana, Albania.

    PubMed

    Xhaxhiu, Dashamir; Kusi, Ilir; Rapti, Dhimitër; Kondi, Elisabeta; Postoli, Rezart; Rinaldi, Laura; Dimitrova, Zlatka M; Visser, Martin; Knaus, Martin; Rehbein, Steffen

    2011-02-01

    From 2004 to 2009, the digestive tracts of 111 dogs from suburban areas around Tirana, Albania, were examined for intestinal helminths. In addition, rectal faecal samples of all dogs were examined for protozoan infections and 48 faecal samples from dogs >6 months of age were processed with the Baermann technique to test for the excretion of lungworm larvae. The heart and pulmonary arteries of 30 dogs >6 months of age also were examined for nematode parasites. The intestinal parasite fauna of the dogs included three protozoan species (Cystoisospora canis, Cystoisospora ohioensis/burrowsi, Sarcocystis spp.), three cestode species (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia hydatigena, Echinococcus granulosus), five nematode species (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis) and one acanthocephalan (Centrorhynchus buteonis). Rates of infection were: 15.3% for C. canis, 31.5% for C. ohioensis/burrowsi, 1.8% for Sarcocystis spp., 65.8% for D. caninum, 16.2% for T. hydatigena, 2.7% for E. granulosus (genotype G1), 13.5% for A. caninum, 64.9% for U. stenocephala, 75.7% for T. canis, 0.9% for T. leonina, 21.6% for T. vulpis and 0.9% for C. buteonis. Up to six species of gastrointestinal parasites were found per dog. The 63 ≤ 6-month-old dogs harboured significantly (p<0.001) fewer gastrointestinal parasite species concurrently (mean 2.65 ± 1.25 species per animal) than the 48 older animals (mean 3.77 ± 1.45 species per animal). Dogs >6 months of age harboured significantly (p<0.05) more D. caninum, T. hydatigena, A. caninum, U. stenocephala and T. vulpis compared to younger dogs. Conversely, the younger dogs harboured significantly (p<0.001) more T. canis than the older ones. There was no difference in the male and female dogs' counts of individual intestinal helminth species apart from T. hydatigena in dogs >6 months of age: Male dogs harboured significantly (p<0.05) more tapeworms than female dogs. Based on faecal examination

  6. Salmon Life Histories, Habitat, and Food Webs in the Columbia River Estuary: An Overview of Research Results, 2002-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Bottom, Daniel L.; Anderson, Greer; Baptisa, Antonio

    2008-08-01

    From 2002 through 2006 we investigated historical and contemporary variations in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha life histories, habitat associations, and food webs in the lower Columbia River estuary (mouth to rkm 101). At near-shore beach-seining sites in the estuary, Chinook salmon occurred during all months of the year, increasing in abundance from January through late spring or early summer and declining rapidly after July. Recently emerged fry dispersed throughout the estuary in early spring, and fry migrants were abundant in the estuary until April or May each year. Each spring, mean salmon size increased from the tidal freshwater zone to the estuary mouth; this trend may reflect estuarine growth and continued entry of smaller individuals from upriver. Most juvenile Chinook salmon in the mainstem estuary fed actively on adult insects and epibenthic amphipods Americorophium spp. Estimated growth rates of juvenile Chinook salmon derived from otolith analysis averaged 0.5 mm d-1, comparable to rates reported for juvenile salmon Oncorhynchus spp. in other Northwest estuaries. Estuarine salmon collections were composed of representatives from a diversity of evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) from the lower and upper Columbia Basin. Genetic stock groups in the estuary exhibited distinct seasonal and temporal abundance patterns, including a consistent peak in the Spring Creek Fall Chinook group in May, followed by a peak in the Western Cascades Fall Chinook group in July. The structure of acanthocephalan parasite assemblages in juvenile Chinook salmon from the tidal freshwater zone exhibited a consistent transition in June. This may have reflected changes in stock composition and associated habitat use and feeding histories. From March through July, subyearling Chinook salmon were among the most abundant species in all wetland habitat types (emergent, forested, and scrub/shrub) surveyed in the lower 100 km of the estuary. Salmon densities

  7. Cystacanths of Acanthocephala in notothenioid fish from the Beagle Channel (sub-Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Zdzisław; Jezewski, Witold; Zdzitowiecki, Krzysztof

    2008-06-01

    The morphology of relaxed cystacanths of polymorphid acanthocephalans collected from notothenioid fishes in the Beagle Channel (Magellanic subregion of sub-Antarctica) is described. A parasite of birds, Andracantha baylisi (Zdzitowiecki, 1986), was found in Patagonotothen longipes and Champsocephalus esox. It has: a proboscis 0.82-0.89 mm long; a proboscis hook formula of 16 rows of 9/10-10/11, including 4-5 basal hooks; distal hooks with the longest blades; a fore-trunk not separated from the hind-trunk by a constriction; large somatic spines arranged in two zones separated by a zone of small, loosely dispersed spines; and only the anterior 36-40% of ventral side of the trunk is covered with spines. One male specimen of Corynosoma sp. was found in Patagonotothen tessellata. It differs from A. baylisi in that the distal proboscis hooks are similar in length to the prebasal hooks, it has a smaller proboscis (0.77 mm) and in the distribution of the somatic spines, which are contiguous with the genital spines on the ventral side of the trunk and lack a zone of small spines between zones of larger spines. A parasite of seals and fur seals, Corynosoma evae Zdzitowiecki, 1984, was found in P. longipes and Champsocephalus esox. It has: a proboscis 0.61-0.78 mm long; a proboscis hook formula of 20-22 rows of 12-13, including 3/4-4 basal hooks; prebasal hooks with the longest blades; a trunk divided into fore-trunk and hind-trunk; somatic spines covering the anterior 64-74% of the ventral side of the trunk; genital spines present only in males; and a terminal genital opening in both sexes. Corynosoma beaglense n. sp. was found in Champsocephalus esox. It has: an almost cylindrical proboscis (length 0.52-0.56 mm); a proboscis hook formula of 16 rows of 9/10-10/11, including 4-4/5 basal hooks; distal hooks shorter than the prebasal hooks; a fore-trunk not separated from the hind-trunk by a constriction; somatic spines contiguous with the genital spines on the ventral side of

  8. A revised six-kingdom system of life.

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, T

    1998-08-01

    A revised six-kingdom system of life is presented, down to the level of infraphylum. As in my 1983 system Bacteria are treated as a single kingdom, and eukaryotes are divided into only five kingdoms: Protozoa, Animalia, Fungi, Plantae and Chromista. Intermediate high level categories (superkingdom, subkingdom, branch, infrakingdom, superphylum, subphylum and infraphylum) are extensively used to avoid splitting organisms into an excessive number of kingdoms and phyla (60 only being recognized). The two 'zoological' kingdoms, Protozoa and Animalia, are subject to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the kingdom Bacteria to the International Code of Bacteriological Nomenclature, and the three 'botanical' kingdoms (Plantae, Fungi, Chromista) to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. Circumscriptions of the kingdoms Bacteria and Plantae remain unchanged since Cavalier-Smith (1981). The kingdom Fungi is expanded by adding Microsporidia, because of protein sequence evidence that these amitochondrial intracellular parasites are related to conventional Fungi, not Protozoa. Fungi are subdivided into four phyla and 20 classes; fungal classification at the rank of subclass and above is comprehensively revised. The kingdoms Protozoa and Animalia are modified in the light of molecular phylogenetic evidence that Myxozoa are actually Animalia, not Protozoa, and that mesozoans are related to bilaterian animals. Animalia are divided into four subkingdoms: Radiata (phyla Porifera, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Ctenophora), Myxozoa, Mesozoa and Bilateria (bilateral animals: all other phyla). Several new higher level groupings are made in the animal kingdom including three new phyla: Acanthognatha (rotifers, acanthocephalans, gastrotrichs, gnathostomulids), Brachiozoa (brachiopods and phoronids) and Lobopoda (onychophorans and tardigrades), so only 23 animal phyla are recognized. Archezoa, here restricted to the phyla Metamonada and Trichozoa, are treated as a subkingdom