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Sample records for acari em turdus

  1. Acari in archaeology.

    PubMed

    Baker, Anne S

    2009-10-01

    Mites and ticks (Acari) have been found in a variety of archaeological situations. Their identification has enabled data on habitat and dietary preferences to be obtained, and these have been used to interpret study sites. Despite this, Acari are not routinely considered in analyses in the way that other environmental components are. Like forensic science, archaeology draws on biological material to rebuild past human activity, and acarology has the potential to provide a much greater amount of evidence to both than is currently the case. As an aid to workers in these fields, an overview is presented of the Acari that have been extracted from archaeological samples, the situations in which they were found and the contribution their presence can make to the interpretation of sites.

  2. Usutu virus in blackbirds (Turdus merula), Czech Republic, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I; Čapek, M; Bakonyi, T; Betášová, L; Nowotny, N

    2014-06-01

    The central European lineage of Usutu virus was isolated from a blackbird (Turdus merula), which was found dead in the city of Brno, Czech Republic, in 2011. The virus RNA was detected in two other dead blackbirds in Brno during 2012.

  3. Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of Multiple Intrachromosomal Rearrangements in Two Representatives of the Genus Turdus (Turdidae, Passeriformes)

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer, Rafael; Gunski, Ricardo José; Garnero, Analía Del Valle; Furo, Ivanete de Oliveira; O'Brien, Patricia C. M.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa

    2014-01-01

    Turdus rufiventris and Turdus albicollis, two songbirds belonging to the family Turdidae (Aves, Passeriformes) were studied by C-banding, 18S rDNA, as well as the use of whole chromosome probes derived from Gallus gallus (GGA) and Leucopternis albicollis (LAL). They showed very similar karyotypes, with 2n = 78 and the same pattern of distribution of heterochromatic blocks and hybridization patterns. However, the analysis of 18/28S rDNA has shown differences in the number of NOR-bearing chromosomes and ribosomal clusters. The hybridization pattern of GGA macrochromosomes was similar to the one found in songbirds studied by Fluorescent in situ hybridization, with fission of GGA 1 and GGA 4 chromosomes. In contrast, LAL chromosome paintings revealed a complex pattern of intrachromosomal rearrangements (paracentric and pericentric inversions) on chromosome 2, which corresponds to GGA1q. The first inversion changed the chromosomal morphology and the second and third inversions changed the order of chromosome segments. Karyotype analysis in Turdus revealed that this genus has derived characteristics in relation to the putative avian ancestral karyotype, highlighting the importance of using new tools for analysis of chromosomal evolution in birds, such as the probes derived from L. albicollis, which make it possible to identify intrachromosomal rearrangements not visible with the use of GGA chromosome painting solely. PMID:25058578

  4. Eggshell colour does not predict measures of maternal investment in eggs of Turdus thrushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassey, Phillip; Ewen, John G.; Blackburn, Tim M.; Hauber, Mark E.; Vorobyev, Misha; Marshall, N. Justin

    2008-08-01

    The striking diversity of avian eggshell colour has long fascinated biologists. Recently, it has been proposed that the blue-green colour of some eggs may function as a post-mating sexually selected signal of female phenotypic quality to their mates to induce higher allocation of paternal care. It has been suggested that maternally deposited yolk carotenoids may be the specific aspect of reproductive quality that the female is signalling via eggshell colour. We use the known properties of the thrush visual system ( Turdus sp.) to calculate photon capture for the four single cone photoreceptors, and the principal member of the double cone class for eggs in clutches of two introduced European thrush species ( Turdus merula and Turdus philomelos) in New Zealand. We show that differences in the avian-perceived colours of individual eggs are not consistently correlated with different measures of maternal investment in the egg. Given the growing extent of the knowledge between maternal quality, parental investment and eggshell pigmentation across avian taxa, we encourage the use of avian perceptual modelling for testing alternative non-signalling explanations for the structural and physiological basis of these relationships.

  5. Phylogeography, inter-specific limits and diversification of Turdus ignobilis (Aves: Turdidae).

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Pablo Vieira; Santos, Marcos Pérsio Dantas; Aleixo, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    Turdus ignobilis is a widely distributed thrush species throughout northern South America and the Amazon, inhabiting a diverse set of habitats ranging from floodplain forests, white sand "campinas", to highland forests (Andes and Tepuis). There are currently six known subspecies of T. ignobilis, which vary extensively phenotypically and also ecologically, but whose interspecific limits and evolutionary history have never been investigated before. In this study, we used molecular data and plumage characters to review the taxonomy and uncover the evolutionary relationships of the six T. ignobilis subspecies described to date. We estimated gene and species trees based on both mitochondrial (ND2 and COI) and nuclear (TGFB2 and G3PDH) genes, which recovered, with high statistical support, the polyphyly of Turdus ignobilis, as currently defined. Therefore, based on our results, we propose a new taxonomic treatment that splits T. ignobilis into at least three separate species based on both molecular data and plumage characters. Each newly recognized species inhabit a distinct habitat type, with "true" T. ignobilis occurring in highland habitats of the Tepuis and the Andes, while T. arthuri and T. debilis are tied to "white-sand forest" and várzea floodplain forests in lowland Amazonia, respectively.

  6. Characterization and distribution of Isospora sabiai n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from thrushes Turdus spp. (Passeriformes: Turdidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Irlane Fde; Rodrigues, Mariana B; Silva, Lidiane M; Lopes, Brunodo B; Oliveira, Mariana S; Ferreira, Matheus A; Cardozo, Sergian V; Luz, Hermes R; Ferreira, Ildemar; Lopes, Carlos Wilson G; Berto, Bruno Pereira

    2017-03-20

    A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Isospora) is described parasitizing white-necked thrushes Turdus albicollis Vieillot, 1818, rufous-bellied thrushes Turdus rufiventris Vieillot, 1818, pale-breasted thrushes Turdus leucomelas Vieillot, 1818 and yellow-legged thrushes Turdus flavipes Vieillot, 1818 from 3 different localities in Brazil. Isospora sabiai n. sp. has oocysts that are sub-spherical to ellipsoidal, 20.9 × 18.6 µm, with smooth, delicate, bilayered wall, ~1.1 μm thick. Micropyle inconspicuous or imperceptible. Oocyst residuum absent, but small polar granules rounded or comma-shaped are present. Sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal to reniform, 16.5 × 9.2 µm. The Stieda body is knob-like. Sub-Stieda body rounded to conical, sometimes homogeneous with the Stieda body. Sporocyst residuum is present, usually as a cluster of numerous granules. Sporozoites are vermiform with 2 refractile bodies. The oocysts and sporocysts of I. sabiai n. sp. are uniform in the proportionality of width on length, but exhibited different patterns of size associated with each host species; therefore, an ecological discussion is introduced aimed at associating these morphometrical patterns of the oocysts with the habits of the different species of thrushes. This is the seventh isosporoid coccidian reported from New World turdids.

  7. Loss of migration and urbanization in birds: a case study of the blackbird (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Møller, Anders Pape; Jokimäki, Jukka; Skorka, Piotr; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2014-07-01

    Many organisms have invaded urban habitats, although the underlying factors initially promoting urbanization remain poorly understood. Partial migration may facilitate urbanization because such populations benefit from surplus food in urban environments during winter, and hence enjoy reduced fitness costs of migratory deaths. We tested this hypothesis in the European blackbird Turdus merula, which has been urbanized since the 19th century, by compiling information on timing of urbanization, migratory status, and population density for 99 cities across the continent. Timing of urbanization was spatially auto-correlated at scales up to 600 km. Analyses of timing of urbanization revealed that urbanization occurred earlier in partially migratory and resident populations than in migratory populations of blackbirds. Independently, this effect was most pronounced in the range of the distribution that currently has the highest population density, suggesting that urbanization facilitated population growth. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that timing of urbanization is facilitated by partial migration, resulting in subsequent residency and population growth.

  8. Long-term decline in the thickness of eggshells of thrushes, Turdus spp., in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Green, R. E.

    1998-01-01

    The thickness of eggshells of four species of thrush, Turdus spp., was estimated by an index based on the mass and linear dimensions of blown eggs in museum collections from Britain. Shell thickness was also measured directly for two species and was highly correlated with the index. Widespread declines in eggshell thickness since the nineteenth century were found in all species. There have been no previous reports of trends in eggshell thickness of this long duration and large spatial scale. The cause of the declines is unknown, but, for three of the four species, eggshell thinning began before the introduction of the organochlorine pesticide DDT, which caused eggshell thinning in predatory and fish-eating birds from 1947 onwards. The effect of acid deposition on the availability of calcium-rich prey is a plausible explanation.

  9. Septicemic salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Hessarek in wintering and migrating Song Thrushes (Turdus philomelos) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Velarde, Roser; Porrero, M Concepción; Serrano, Emmanuel; Marco, Ignasi; García, María; Téllez, Sonia; Domínguez, Lucas; Aymí, Raül; Lavín, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    We investigated two mortality events in wintering and migrating Song Thrushes (Turdus philomelos) in Catalonia, northeastern Spain in 2009 and 2010. Both episodes occurred in late February to mid-March during the spring migration. Salmonellosis produced by the serotype Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Hessarek (S. Hessarek) was identified as the cause of death in both episodes. Poor body condition, marked splenomegaly, and microscopic disseminated intravascular coagulation with numerous intravascular and tissular bacteria were the most consistent findings. Macro-restriction profiling by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using XbaI was performed for epidemiologic typing of the S. Hessarek isolates. Two clusters were discernible, that are possibly related, with a similarity of 82.8%. Analysis comparing pectoral muscle and subcutaneous fat scores from the Song Thrushes that died from S. Hessarek with those from healthy Song Thrushes from nearby areas during 2009 and 2010 suggest that poor body condition was associated with the S. Hessarek infection.

  10. DNA vaccination of American robins (Turdus migratorius) against West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, A Marm; Dupuis, Alan P; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Kramer, Laura D

    2010-05-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has caused at least 1150 cases of encephalitis, 100 deaths, and an estimated 30,000-80,000 illnesses in 6 of the last 7 years. Recent evidence from several regions has implicated American robins (Turdus migratorius) as an important host for feeding by Culex mosquitoes, and, when integrated with their host competence for WNV, demonstrates that they are a key WNV amplification host. We evaluated the efficacy of a DNA plasmid vaccine at reducing the viremia and infectiousness of hatch-year American robins. We found that a single dose of vaccine injected intramuscularly resulted in more than a 400-fold (10(2.6)) decrease in average viremia. Although sample sizes were small, these results suggest that vaccinated robins exhibit viremias that are likely to be mostly noninfectious to biting Culex mosquitoes. More broadly, if an orally effective formulation of this vaccine could be developed, new control strategies based on wildlife vaccination may be possible.

  11. Community of arthropod ectoparasites of two species of Turdus Linnaeus, 1758 (Passeriformes: Turdidae) in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Cunha Amaral, Hugo Leonardo; Bergmann, Fabiane Borba; dos Santos, Paulo Roberto Silveira; Krüger, Rodrigo Ferreira; Graciolli, Gustavo

    2013-02-01

    This study was aimed at describing the community of arthropod ectoparasites associated with sympatric populations of Turdus amaurochalinus and Turdus rufiventris and analyzing the aggregation patterns of the chewing lice species, during reproductive and nonreproductive periods, of both Turdus species in three areas of the Atlantic forest in southern Rio Grande do Sul state (RS), Brazil. Altogether, we captured 36 specimens of T. amaurochalinus and 53 specimens of T. rufiventris. We identified two families of chewing lice, Menoponidae and Philopteridae, with Myrsidea and Brueelia as the most prevalent and abundant on both host birds. The lowest aggregation levels of chewing lice Myrsidea and Brueelia occurred during the reproductive period of both host species, suggesting a reproductive synchronization and a dispersion period. The most prevalent feather mite on T. amaurochalinus was Proctophyllodes weigoldi, and on T. rufiventris, Trouessartia serrana. Analges sp. and Pteronyssoides sp. were not observed on T. rufiventris. We identified three species of ticks; Ixodes auritulus was the most prevalent and abundant on the birds. Ornithoica vicina was the only hippoboscid fly collected, and only on T. amaurochalinus. The richness of ectoparasites was greater on T. amaurochalinus than on T. rufiventris. For T. amaurochalinus, the mean richness was lesser in winter compared to spring and autumn; however, we observed no variation in the mean richness of ectoparasites for T. rufiventris during the same seasons.

  12. Inter-specific and intra-specific variability in fruit color preference in two species of Turdus.

    PubMed

    Larrinaga, Asier R

    2011-09-01

    One of the main hypotheses proposed to explain the evolution of fruit color deals with a preference of avian frugivores for specific colors, mainly black and red, which are the most common fruit colors in many of the studied habitats. I analyzed fruit color preferences by wild birds belonging to 2 species of the highly frugivorous genus Turdus (Eurasian Blackbird Turdus merula Linnaeus, 1758 and Redwing Turdus iliacus Linnaeus, 1758) by means of captivity experiments with artificial fruits. Despite important within-individual (i.e. temporal) and among-individual variability, consistent patterns of species-specific color preferences emerged. Eurasian Blackbirds tended to prefer red over blue, green and black, whereas Redwings seemed to prefer black over the rest. Green was systematically avoided by both species, suggesting that it might signal unripeness of fruits. Both preferred colors have been previously reported as the most common among fleshy-fruited plants. The high variability, both within and between individuals, in preferences suggests that they can be subject to changes through experience and learning and, therefore, are not likely to drive the evolution of fruit color. The main differences between both species could be related to the most common fruit color they fed upon during the last months before capture.

  13. DNA Vaccination of American Robins (Turdus migratorius) Against West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis, Alan P.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.; Kramer, Laura D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract West Nile virus (WNV) has caused at least 1150 cases of encephalitis, 100 deaths, and an estimated 30,000–80,000 illnesses in 6 of the last 7 years. Recent evidence from several regions has implicated American robins (Turdus migratorius) as an important host for feeding by Culex mosquitoes, and, when integrated with their host competence for WNV, demonstrates that they are a key WNV amplification host. We evaluated the efficacy of a DNA plasmid vaccine at reducing the viremia and infectiousness of hatch-year American robins. We found that a single dose of vaccine injected intramuscularly resulted in more than a 400-fold (102.6) decrease in average viremia. Although sample sizes were small, these results suggest that vaccinated robins exhibit viremias that are likely to be mostly noninfectious to biting Culex mosquitoes. More broadly, if an orally effective formulation of this vaccine could be developed, new control strategies based on wildlife vaccination may be possible. PMID:19874192

  14. Effects of fat reserves on annual apparent survival of blackbirds Turdus merula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.W.; Aradis, A.; Landucci, G.

    2003-01-01

    1. Fat reserves are stored energy that may help birds survive periods of harsh winter weather. This hypothesis predicts that annual apparent survival is higher for birds with large fat reserves than for birds with few or no fat reserves in winter. 2. Blackbirds (Turdus merula Linnaeus) were ringed in central Italy from 16 November to 20 February during 1990-2001. Fat scores were recorded for each bird. We used these capture-mark-recapture data for 1703 blackbirds to estimate the effect of large fat reserves on annual apparent survival, while controlling for transients, using computer programs surviv and mark. Probability of birds retaining large fat reserves, or retaining few fat reserves, over 2 successive years was also estimated. 3. Birds with large fat reserves did not have higher estimated annual apparent survival than birds with few fat reserves, inconsistent with our prediction. No effects of age, sex or year were detected on annual apparent survival. Birds with few fat reserves in any given year tended to have few fat reserves the following year. Birds with large fat reserves in any given year were unlikely to have large fat reserves the next year. 4. Large fat reserves may not increase annual survival of blackbirds wintering in central Italy. Winter weather in our study area may be too mild to effect survival. Alternatively, increased predation risk associated with large fat reserves may counteract any benefits of reduced starvation risk.

  15. Climate change may account for the decline in British ring ouzels Turdus torquatus.

    PubMed

    Beale, Colin M; Burfield, Ian J; Sim, Innes M W; Rebecca, Graham W; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Grant, Murray C

    2006-05-01

    1. Climate change is already affecting biodiversity, but the number of species for which reliable models relate weather and climate to demographic parameters is low. 2. We modelled the effect of temperature and rainfall on the breeding success and territory occupancy of ring ouzels Turdus torquatus (L.) in northern Britain, using data from a range of study areas, including one where there was a long-term decline in ring ouzel abundance. 3. Timing of breeding was significantly related to meteorological variables affecting birds in the early spring, though there was no evidence that laying dates had advanced. Breeding success was not significantly related to weather variables; instead, over 90% of annual variation in this parameter could be explained by density dependence. 4. Annual change in territory occupancy was linked to rainfall and temperature the preceding summer, after the main breeding season and to rainfall in the wintering grounds 24 months previously, coincident with the period of juniper Juniperus sp. (L.) flowering. High temperature in late summer, intermediate levels of late summer rainfall, and high spring rainfall in Morocco 24 months previously all had negative impacts on territory occupancy the following year. 5. All three weather variables have changed over recent decades, with a significant increase in summer temperature, a significant decrease in summer rainfall, and a nonsignificant decline in Moroccan spring rainfall. A model based on these trends alone predicted an annual decline in occupancy of 3.6% (compared with an observed decline of 1.2%), and suggested that increased summer temperatures may underlie declines in the British ring ouzel population. 6. Changes in summer temperature after the main breeding period could affect the survival rates of adult and/or juvenile birds. An improved understanding of the post-breeding ecology of ring ouzels is required to elucidate the mechanisms and causes of this relationship. Such knowledge might

  16. Energetics and metabolite profiles during early flight in American robins (Turdus Migratorius).

    PubMed

    Gerson, Alexander R; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2013-10-01

    Although birds use fat as the primary fuel for migratory flights, carbohydrate and protein catabolism could be significant in the early stages of flight while pathways of fatty acid transport and oxidation are induced. The fuel mixture of long distance migrant birds can also be affected by the rate of water loss, where birds catabolize more protein to increase endogenous water production under dehydrating flight conditions. Despite many studies investigating flight metabolism, few have focused on the metabolic response to flight during the switchover to fat catabolism in migrants, and none have examined the effect of ambient conditions on fuel selection during early flight. We investigated the effect of water loss on the metabolic response to short duration flight in the American robin (Turdus migratorius). Birds were flown in a climatic wind tunnel and changes in body composition and plasma metabolites were measured. As flight duration increased, there was a gradual switchover from carbohydrate and protein catabolism to fat catabolism. Plasma metabolite profiles indicate that the mobilization of fat occurred within 20 min of initiating flight. Plasma glucose decreased and uric acid increased with flight duration. Ambient humidity did not affect fuel mixture. Thus, it seems that the utilization of fat may be delayed as migrants initiate flight. Short-hop migrants may exploit high rates of endogenous water production resulting from carbohydrate and protein catabolism early in flight to offset high water loss associated with low humidity. Rapid catabolism of lean body components at the start of a flight also reduces mass quickly, and may reduce energy costs.

  17. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Light Pollution on Seasonal Functions of European Blackbirds (Turdus merula)

    PubMed Central

    Dominoni, Davide M.; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-01-01

    Light pollution is known to affect important biological functions of wild animals, including daily and annual cycles. However, knowledge about long-term effects of chronic exposure to artificial light at night is still very limited. Here we present data on reproductive physiology, molt and locomotor activity during two-year cycles of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) exposed to either dark nights or 0.3 lux at night. As expected, control birds kept under dark nights exhibited two regular testicular and testosterone cycles during the two-year experiment. Control urban birds developed testes faster than their control rural conspecifics. Conversely, while in the first year blackbirds exposed to light at night showed a normal but earlier gonadal cycle compared to control birds, during the second year the reproductive system did not develop at all: both testicular size and testosterone concentration were at baseline levels in all birds. In addition, molt sequence in light-treated birds was more irregular than in control birds in both years. Analysis of locomotor activity showed that birds were still synchronized to the underlying light-dark cycle. We suggest that the lack of reproductive activity and irregular molt progression were possibly the results of i) birds being stuck in a photorefractory state and/or ii) chronic stress. Our data show that chronic low intensities of light at night can dramatically affect the reproductive system. Future studies are needed in order to investigate if and how urban animals avoid such negative impact and to elucidate the physiological mechanisms behind these profound long-term effects of artificial light at night. Finally we call for collaboration between scientists and policy makers to limit the impact of light pollution on animals and ecosystems. PMID:24376865

  18. Long-term effects of chronic light pollution on seasonal functions of European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Dominoni, Davide M; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-01-01

    Light pollution is known to affect important biological functions of wild animals, including daily and annual cycles. However, knowledge about long-term effects of chronic exposure to artificial light at night is still very limited. Here we present data on reproductive physiology, molt and locomotor activity during two-year cycles of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) exposed to either dark nights or 0.3 lux at night. As expected, control birds kept under dark nights exhibited two regular testicular and testosterone cycles during the two-year experiment. Control urban birds developed testes faster than their control rural conspecifics. Conversely, while in the first year blackbirds exposed to light at night showed a normal but earlier gonadal cycle compared to control birds, during the second year the reproductive system did not develop at all: both testicular size and testosterone concentration were at baseline levels in all birds. In addition, molt sequence in light-treated birds was more irregular than in control birds in both years. Analysis of locomotor activity showed that birds were still synchronized to the underlying light-dark cycle. We suggest that the lack of reproductive activity and irregular molt progression were possibly the results of i) birds being stuck in a photorefractory state and/or ii) chronic stress. Our data show that chronic low intensities of light at night can dramatically affect the reproductive system. Future studies are needed in order to investigate if and how urban animals avoid such negative impact and to elucidate the physiological mechanisms behind these profound long-term effects of artificial light at night. Finally we call for collaboration between scientists and policy makers to limit the impact of light pollution on animals and ecosystems.

  19. Ontogenetic modification in the Tuckerellidae (Acari: Tetranychoidea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Tuckerellidae is the only a phytophagous family within the Tetranychoidea (Acari) that retains the ancestral prostigmatan condition of three nymphal stages during development; however it is only the female developmental sequence that retains a tritonymphal stage. Adult females develop from a tr...

  20. Integrating ecology and genetics to address Acari invasions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of their small size and tolerance to many of the control procedures used for a wide variety of commodities, Acari species have become one of the fastest, unwanted pest travelers since the beginning of this century. This special issue includes eleven studies on adventive and invasive Acari sp...

  1. Cryptic speciation in the Acari: a function of species lifestyles or our ability to separate species?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 55,000 described Acari species, accounting for almost half of all known Arachnida species, but total estimated Acari diversity is reckoned to be far greater. One important source of currently hidden Acari diversity is cryptic speciation, which poses challenges to taxonomists ...

  2. Blackbirds Turdus merula as competent reservoirs for Borrelia turdi and Borrelia valaisiana in Portugal: evidence from a xenodiagnostic experiment.

    PubMed

    Norte, Ana C; Lopes de Carvalho, Isabel; Núncio, Maria S; Ramos, Jaime A; Gern, Lise

    2013-08-01

    To confirm that thrushes, such as blackbirds Turdus merula, play a role as reservoir for some Borrelia genospecies, we performed a xenodiagnostic experiment with blackbirds captured in a mixed wood located in Western Portugal where Borrelia turdi, an uncommon genospecies in Europe, was the most prevalent genospecies associated with birds. Two out of five birds harboured B. turdi infected Ixodes frontalis at the time of capture. Four out of five birds transmitted spirochaetes to Ixodes ricinus xenodiagnostic ticks: two birds transmitted Borrelia valaisiana to 25.7% and 10.5% of ticks, and two transmitted B. turdi to 6.4% and 5.4% of ticks. Our results showed that blackbirds transmit B. valaisiana and B. turdi to I. ricinus feeding larvae, acting as reservoir hosts for these genospecies in nature.

  3. Flexibility in nest-site choice and nesting success of Turdus rufiventris (Turdidae) in a montane forest in northwestern argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lomascolo, S.B.; Monmany, A.C.; Malizia, A.; Martin, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the consequences of nest-site choice on nesting success under differing disturbance levels for the Rufous-bellied Thrush (Turdus rufiventris). We compared nest-site choice and nest success between a disturbed site and an undisturbed site in a montane subtropical forest in northwestern Argentina. We found no overall difference in daily predation rate (DPR) between the disturbed and undisturbed sites. However, DPR of nests on bromeliads was significantly lower at the microhabitat level than on other types of subtrates at the disturbed site. T. rufiventris used bromeliads for nesting more often than expected by chance at the disturbed site. DPR did not differ between substrates at the undisturbed site and T. rufiventris used all substrates according to their availability. Nests had higher predation at the disturbed site when DPR on non-bromeliad substrates was compared between disturbed and undisturbed sites. Nest fate was independent of nest height. Our results suggest T. rufiventris' flexibility in nest-site choice, as reflected by increased use of the safest sites, i.e., bromeliads, in the disturbed site compared to the undisturbed site, may allow this species to survive in an otherwise much riskier habitat. Our results illustrate how microhabitat-scale effects can mediate landscape scale effects. ?? 2010 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  4. Characterisation of Isospora lusitanensis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Eurasian blackbird Turdus merula Linnaeus (Passeriformes: Turdidae) in mainland Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Sergian Vianna; Berto, Bruno Pereira; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira; Tomás, André; Thode, Fátima Regina P B; Lopes, Carlos Wilson G

    2015-10-01

    A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is described from a specimen of the Eurasian blackbird Turdus merula Linnaeus held for rehabilitation and reintroduction into the wild in a centre for research and recovery of wild animals in Quinta de Marim, Olhão, Portugal. Isospora lusitanensis n. sp. has subspherical to ovoidal oöcysts, measuring on average 26.4 × 23.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.1 μm thick. Micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, measuring on average 16.0 × 10.9 µm. Stieda body is knob-like and sub-Stieda body is prominent and rounded. Sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered spherules. Sporozoites are vermiform, with one refractile body and a nucleus. The morphological and morphometric data for the new species were compared with those for species parasitising birds of the Muscicapidae, Turdidae, Timaliidae, Troglodytidae and Cinclidae, which are considered phylogenetically close. The original histograms of Isospora turdi Schwalbach, 1959 were redrawn for comparison with I. lusitanensis n. sp. and a linear regression of width against length of the oöcysts is presented for characterisation. This is the first isosporoid coccidian described from T. merula in mainland Portugal.

  5. Social cues are unlikely to be the single cause for early reproduction in urban European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Dominoni, Davide M; Van't Hof, Thomas J; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-04-01

    Despite urban ecology being an established field of research, there is still surprisingly little information about the relative contribution of specific environmental factors driving the observed changes in the behavior and physiology of city dwellers. One of the most reported effects of urbanization is the advanced phenology observed in birds. Many factors have been suggested to underline such effect, including warmer microclimate, anthropogenic food supply and light pollution. Since social stimuli are known to affect reproductive timing and breeding density is usually higher in urban populations compared to rural ones, we experimentally tested whether social interactions could advance the onset of reproduction in European blackbirds (Turdus merula). We housed male blackbirds of rural and urban origins with or without a conspecific female, and recorded their seasonal variation in gonadal size and production of luteinizing hormone (LH). Paired and unpaired males of both urban and rural origins did not significantly differ in their timing of gonadal growth. Moreover, rural and urban birds did not differ in their response to the social stimuli, rather they became reproductively active at the same time, a result that confirms previous studies that attributed the difference in reproductive timing observed in the field to phenotypic plasticity. We conclude that social stimuli do not contribute substantially to the observed early onset of reproductive physiology in urban bird species, rather other factors such as light pollution are likely to be stronger drivers of these physiological changes.

  6. An evaluation of inorganic toxicity reference values for use in assessing hazards to American robins (Turdus migratorius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Sample, Bradley E.

    2017-01-01

    When performing screening-level and baseline risk assessments, assessors usually compare estimated exposures of wildlife receptor species with toxicity reference values (TRVs). We modeled the exposure of American robins (Turdus migratorius) to 10 elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Se, Zn, and V) in spring and early summer, a time when earthworms are the preferred prey. We calculated soil benchmarks associated with possible toxic effects to these robins from 6 sets of published TRVs. Several of the resulting soil screening-level benchmarks were inconsistent with each other and less than soil background concentrations. Accordingly, we examined the derivations of the TRVs as a possible source of error. In the case of V, a particularly toxic chemical compound (ammonium vanadate) containing V, not normally present in soil, had been used to estimate a TRV. In the cases of Zn and Cu, use of uncertainty values of 10 in estimating TRVs led to implausibly low soil screening values. In the case of Pb, a TRV was calculated from studies demonstrating reductions in egg production in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to Pb concentrations well below than those causing toxic effects in other species of birds. The results on quail, which were replicated in additional trials, are probably not applicable to other, unrelated species, although we acknowledge that only a small fraction of all species of birds has been tested. These examples underscore the importance of understanding the derivation and relevance of TRVs before selecting them for use in screening or in ecological risk assessment.

  7. An evaluation of inorganic toxicity reference values for use in assessing hazards to American robins (Turdus migratorius).

    PubMed

    Beyer, W Nelson; Sample, Bradley E

    2017-03-01

    When performing screening-level and baseline risk assessments, assessors usually compare estimated exposures of wildlife receptor species with toxicity reference values (TRVs). We modeled the exposure of American robins (Turdus migratorius) to 10 elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Se, Zn, and V) in spring and early summer, a time when earthworms are the preferred prey. We calculated soil benchmarks associated with possible toxic effects to these robins from 6 sets of published TRVs. Several of the resulting soil screening-level benchmarks were inconsistent with each other and less than soil background concentrations. Accordingly, we examined the derivations of the TRVs as a possible source of error. In the case of V, a particularly toxic chemical compound (ammonium vanadate) containing V, not normally present in soil, had been used to estimate a TRV. In the cases of Zn and Cu, use of uncertainty values of 10 in estimating TRVs led to implausibly low soil screening values. In the case of Pb, a TRV was calculated from studies demonstrating reductions in egg production in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to Pb concentrations well below than those causing toxic effects in other species of birds. The results on quail, which were replicated in additional trials, are probably not applicable to other, unrelated species, although we acknowledge that only a small fraction of all species of birds has been tested. These examples underscore the importance of understanding the derivation and relevance of TRVs before selecting them for use in screening or in ecological risk assessment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:352-359. © 2016 SETAC.

  8. Dietary flavonoids advance timing of moult but do not affect redox status of juvenile blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Cecere, Jacopo G; Caprioli, Manuela; Carnevali, Chiara; Colombo, Graziano; Dalle-Donne, Isabella; Mancuso, Elisa; Milzani, Aldo; Parolini, Marco; Portanova, Antea; Saino, Nicola; Serra, Lorenzo; Rubolini, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Flavonoids are the most abundant plant polyphenols, widely occurring in fruits and berries, and show a strong antioxidant activity in vitro Studies of avian species feeding on berries suggest that dietary flavonoids have health-promoting effects and may enhance the expression of melanin-based plumage traits. These effects are probably mediated by the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. However, the effect of dietary flavonoids on oxidative status has never been investigated in any bird species. We analysed the effects of dietary flavonoids on blood non-enzymatic antioxidants and protein oxidative damage of juvenile European blackbirds (Turdus merula). In addition, we analysed the effects of flavonoid-enriched diet on body condition and on the timing of moult from juvenile to adult plumage. Dietary flavonoids did not significantly affect redox status but significantly advanced the onset of moult, hastening plumage development. Moulting birds showed higher protein oxidative damage compared with those that had not yet started moulting. The probability of initiating moult after 40 days of dietary treatment was higher for birds with low circulating levels of oxidizing agents and high glutathione concentration. The metabolization of flavonoids could have altered their redox potential, resulting in no net effects on redox status. However, flavonoid consumption before and during moult may contribute to enhance plumage development. Moreover, our findings suggest that moulting feathers may result in redox imbalance. Given their effect on moult and growth of melanin-rich feathers, fruit flavonoids may have contributed to shape plant fruiting time in relation to fruit consumption preferences by birds.

  9. A new genus and species of Nematalycidae (Acari: Endeostigmata)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osperalycus tenerphagus, a new genus and species of Nematalycidae (Acari: Endeostigmata), is described from Ohio, USA, using light microscopy and low temperature scanning electron microscopy. Specimens were extracted from two different loam soils. This genus can be readily distinguished from the oth...

  10. A list of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A species list of identified oribatid mite taxa (Acari, Oribatida) in the fauna of Vietnam is provided. During 1967–2015, a total of 535 species/subspecies from 222 genera and 81 families was registered. Of these, 194 species/subspecies were described as new for science from Vietnam. PMID:26798306

  11. A new genus and species Mangalaus krishianusandhanus (Acari: Eriophyidae) from India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mangalaus ikrishianusandhanus n. gen., n. sp., (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea), collected from erineum on the underside of leaves of Cordia dichotoma (Boraginaceae) is described and illustrated from specimens collected at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) in New Delhi, India....

  12. The Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) of Mexico: Parasite-Host and Host-Parasite Checklists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-20

    Clover J.R. (1998) Infestation of the southern alligator lizard (Squamata: Anguidae) by Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) and its susceptibility to Borrelia burgdorferi . Journal of Medical Entomology, 35, 1044–1049.

  13. Morphology and genetics reveal an intriguing pattern of differentiation at a very small geographic scale in a bird species, the forest thrush Turdus lherminieri

    PubMed Central

    Arnoux, E; Eraud, C; Navarro, N; Tougard, C; Thomas, A; Cavallo, F; Vetter, N; Faivre, B; Garnier, S

    2014-01-01

    Mobile organisms are expected to show population differentiation only over fairly large geographical distances. However, there is growing evidence of discrepancy between dispersal potential and realized gene flow. Here we report an intriguing pattern of differentiation at a very small spatial scale in the forest thrush (Turdus lherminieri), a bird species endemic to the Lesser Antilles. Analysis of 331 individuals from 17 sampling sites distributed over three islands revealed a clear morphological and genetic differentiation between these islands isolated by 40–50 km. More surprisingly, we found that the phenotypic divergence between the two geographic zones of the island of Guadeloupe was associated with a very strong genetic differentiation (Fst from 0.073–0.153), making this pattern a remarkable case in birds given the very small spatial scale considered. Molecular data (mitochondrial control region sequences and microsatellite genotypes) suggest that this strong differentiation could have occurred in situ, although alternative hypotheses cannot be fully discarded. This study suggests that the ongoing habitat fragmentation, especially in tropical forests, may have a deeper impact than previously thought on avian populations. PMID:24984605

  14. Plasma cholinesterase inhibition in the clay-colored robin (Turdus grayi) exposed to diazinon in maradol papaya crops in Yucatan, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cobos, V.M.; Mora, M.A.; Escalona, G.

    2006-01-01

    The use of organophosphorous pesticides in agriculture can result in intoxication of birds foraging in sprayed crops. Effects on birds resulting from pesticide intoxication are varied and include behavioral and reproductive effects, including death. One widely used insecticide in Maradol papaya crops is diazinon which has been associated with various incidents of intoxication and death of wild birds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of diazinon application to papaya crops on plasma cholinesterase activity of the clay-colored robin (Turdus grayi). We captured clay-colored robins foraging in a papaya crop the following day after the field had been sprayed with diazinon at a dose of 1.5 kg/ha during March and May, respectively. We took a blood sample from the brachialis vein of the birds captured and measured plasma enzymatic activity. The plasma samples from birds used as controls were taken during the same time period and were analyzed in a similar way. Enzymatic activity of males was greater than that of females (53,52%) and mean cholinesterase inhibition was 49.43%. Cholinesterase inhibition was greater during May than in March probably due to more continuous exposure and ingestion of the insecticide through food and possible absorption through the skin. This degree of enzymatic inhibition is possibly affecting the behavior of the clay-colored robin and could result in death in severe cases.

  15. Partitioning of Cd and Pb in the blood of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) from a smelter contaminated site and use for biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Coeurdassier, Michaël; Fritsch, Clémentine; Faivre, Bruno; Crini, Nadia; Scheifler, Renaud

    2012-06-01

    Blood composition is commonly measured to assess exposure to and effects of metals on birds. In most of passerine species, only small volumes of blood may be sampled safely (<500 μL), which limit the measure of several markers of health status and chemical residues. Here, we documented the partitioning of Cd and Pb in the blood of European Blackbirds Turdus merula in order to propose usable relationships between whole blood concentrations (for which toxicological benchmarks exist) and those measured in the erythrocytes. Sixty-two blackbirds were trapped along a pollution gradient (smelter of Metaleurop Nord, Northern France). Blood was sampled and Cd and Pb concentrations were measured both in whole blood and in the erythrocytes only. Birds coming from the most contaminated sites exhibited high residues for both Cd and Pb. We assessed that 73% and 99% of Cd and Pb, respectively, were associated to erythrocytes. Strong linear relationships, that were not influenced by neither the age nor the sex, were established between whole blood residues and those of erythrocytes for Cd and Pb (adj-R(2)=0.78 and 0.93, respectively). Present findings are promising to optimize the use of small blood samples in order to investigate several responses relative to wildlife health status.

  16. A review of quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) parasitising Kenyan birds.

    PubMed

    Klimovičová, Miroslava; Mikula, Peter; Kahure, Njoki; Hromada, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Two new species of quill mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) collected from passeriform and coraciiform birds from Kenya are described : Neoaulonastus apalis sp. nov. from Apalis porphyrolaema Reichenow and Neumann (Passeriformes: Cisticolidae) and Peristerophila upupi sp. nov. from Upupa epops Linnaeus (Coraciiformes: Upupidae). Additionally, 3 new host species: Cisticola hunteri Shelley, 1889; Acrocephalus baeticatus (Vieillot, 1817) and Ploceus xanthops (Hartlaub, 1862) from Kenya and two new localities are recorded for genera: Aulobia Kethley, 1970; Neoaulonastus Skoracki, 2004 and Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970. The previous and the latest knowledge about syringophilid mites from Kenya is summarized in tabular form. 

  17. Urbanization breaks up host-parasite interactions: a case study on parasite community ecology of rufous-bellied thrushes (Turdus rufiventris) along a rural-urban gradient.

    PubMed

    Calegaro-Marques, Cláudia; Amato, Suzana B

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization drastically alters natural ecosystems and the structure of their plant and animal communities. Whereas some species cope successfully with these environmental changes, others may go extinct. In the case of parasite communities, the expansion of urban areas has a critical effect by changing the availability of suitable substrates for the eggs or free-larval stages of those species with direct life cycles or for the range of hosts of those species with complex cycles. In this study we investigated the influence of the degree of urbanization and environmental heterogeneity on helminth richness, abundance and community structure of rufous-bellied thrushes (Turdus rufiventris) along a rural-urban gradient in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This common native bird species of southern Brazil hosts 15 endoparasite species at the study region. A total of 144 thrushes were collected with mist nets at 11 sites. The degree of urbanization and environmental heterogeneity were estimated by quantifying five landscape elements: buildings, woodlands, fields, bare lands, and water. Landscape analyses were performed at two spatial scales (10 and 100 ha) taking into account home range size and the potential dispersal distance of thrushes and their prey (intermediate hosts). Mean parasite richness showed an inverse relationship with the degree of urbanization, but a positive relationship with environmental heterogeneity. Changes in the structure of component communities along the rural-urban gradient resulted from responses to the availability of particular landscape elements that are compatible with the parasites' life cycles. We found that the replacement of natural environments with buildings breaks up host-parasite interactions, whereas a higher environmental (substrate) diversity allows the survival of a wider range of intermediate hosts and vectors and their associated parasites.

  18. Urbanization Breaks Up Host-Parasite Interactions: A Case Study on Parasite Community Ecology of Rufous-Bellied Thrushes (Turdus rufiventris) along a Rural-Urban Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Calegaro-Marques, Cláudia; Amato, Suzana B.

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization drastically alters natural ecosystems and the structure of their plant and animal communities. Whereas some species cope successfully with these environmental changes, others may go extinct. In the case of parasite communities, the expansion of urban areas has a critical effect by changing the availability of suitable substrates for the eggs or free-larval stages of those species with direct life cycles or for the range of hosts of those species with complex cycles. In this study we investigated the influence of the degree of urbanization and environmental heterogeneity on helminth richness, abundance and community structure of rufous-bellied thrushes (Turdus rufiventris) along a rural-urban gradient in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This common native bird species of southern Brazil hosts 15 endoparasite species at the study region. A total of 144 thrushes were collected with mist nets at 11 sites. The degree of urbanization and environmental heterogeneity were estimated by quantifying five landscape elements: buildings, woodlands, fields, bare lands, and water. Landscape analyses were performed at two spatial scales (10 and 100 ha) taking into account home range size and the potential dispersal distance of thrushes and their prey (intermediate hosts). Mean parasite richness showed an inverse relationship with the degree of urbanization, but a positive relationship with environmental heterogeneity. Changes in the structure of component communities along the rural-urban gradient resulted from responses to the availability of particular landscape elements that are compatible with the parasites' life cycles. We found that the replacement of natural environments with buildings breaks up host-parasite interactions, whereas a higher environmental (substrate) diversity allows the survival of a wider range of intermediate hosts and vectors and their associated parasites. PMID:25068271

  19. Long-term study of the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in ticks (Ixodes ricinus) feeding on blackbirds (Turdus merula) in NE Poland.

    PubMed

    Gryczyńska, Alicja; Welc-Falęciak, Renata

    2016-11-01

    Seeking evidence to confirm that blackbirds (Turdus merula) may be involved in environmental maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis), we conducted a long-term study over three separate 2-year periods, together embracing a span of almost 20 years, all in the same area in northeastern Poland. We examined a total of 78 blackbirds and collected 623 Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on them. The tick infestation prevalence was found to be very high (89.7 %). Among all ticks collected, 9.8 % individuals were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. spirochetes. We found statistically significant growth in the prevalence of infected ticks as well as an increasing proportion of blackbirds hosting them in subsequent years of study. Ticks feeding on blackbirds were infected mainly with B. garinii (45.7 %), a genospecies commonly encountered in birds, and with B. afzelii (28.6 %), until recently considered rodent-associated. We also identified B. turdi (22.9 %), frequently found in recent years in ticks feeding on birds, and B. spielmanii (2.8 %), which had previously not been found in infected ticks feeding on blackbirds. We also found that ticks infected with genospecies associated with avian reservoir groups (B. garinii and B. turdi) were not randomly distributed on blackbirds, but instead focused on certain bird specimens. We therefore conjecture that this is a result of ticks becoming infected either from the host blackbird itself, or from other infected ticks feeding on the same host blackbird. We did not find any similar dependency for the rodent specialist B. afzelii.

  20. Influence of landscape composition and diversity on contaminant flux in terrestrial food webs: a case study of trace metal transfer to European blackbirds Turdus merula.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Clémentine; Coeurdassier, Michaël; Faivre, Bruno; Baurand, Pierre-Emmanuel; Giraudoux, Patrick; van den Brink, Nico W; Scheifler, Renaud

    2012-08-15

    Although understanding the influence of the spatial arrangement of habitats and interacting communities on the processes of pollutant flux and impacts is critical for exposure and risk assessment, to date few studies have been devoted to this emergent topic. We tested the hypothesis that landscape composition and diversity affect the transfer of trace metals to vertebrates. Bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb in blood and feathers of European blackbirds Turdus merula (n=138) was studied over a smelter-impacted area (Northern France). Landscape composition (type and occurrence of the different habitats) and diversity (number of different habitat types and the proportional area distribution among habitat types) were computed around bird capture locations. Diet composition and contamination were assessed. No sex-related differences were detected, while age-related patterns were found: yearlings showed a sharper increase of tissue residues along the pollution gradient than older birds. Factors determining bird exposure acted at nested spatial scale. On a broad scale, environmental contamination mainly influenced metal levels in blackbirds, tissue residues increasing with soil contamination. At a finer grain, landscape composition and soil properties (pH, organic matter, clay) influenced metal transfer, while no influence of landscape diversity was detected. Landscape composition better explained metal transfer than soil properties did. Diet composition varied according to landscape composition, but diet diversity was not influenced by landscape diversity. Surprisingly, metal accumulation in some insect taxa was as high as in earthworms (known as hyper-accumulators). Results strongly suggested that variations in diet composition were the drivers through which landscape composition influenced metal transfer to blackbirds. This study shows that landscape features can affect pollutant transfer in food webs, partly through ecological processes related to spatial and foraging

  1. Toxicity of plant essential oils to acaricide-susceptible and -resistant Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Han, Jun; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Lee, Sang-Gyeu; Kim, Soon Il; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2010-08-01

    The toxicity of 10 plant essential oils to adults of acaricide-susceptible, chlorfenapyr-resistant (CRT-53), fenpropathrin-resistant (FRT-53), pyridaben-resistant (PRT-53), and abamectin-resistant (ART-53) strains of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and to female Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined using spray or vapor-phase mortality bioassays. In bioassay with the susceptible adults, lemon eucalyptus (19.3 microg/cm3) was the most toxic oil, followed by peppermint, citronella Java, thyme red, caraway seed, clove leaf, and pennyroyal oils (LC50, 20.6-23.7 microg/cm3). The toxicity of these oils was almost identical against adults from either of the susceptible and resistant strains, even though CRT-53, FRT-53, PRT-53, and ART-53 adults exhibited high levels of resistance to chlorfenapyr (resistance ratio [RR], > 9,140), fenpropathrin (RR, 94), pyridaben (RR, > 390), and abamectin (RR, 85), respectively. Against female N. californicus, lemon eucalyptus (LC50, 21.4 microg/cm3) was the most toxic oil, whereas the LC50 values of the other nine oils ranged from 23.2 to 72.6 microg/cm3. N. californicus was 1-2 times more tolerant than T. urticae to the test essential oils. Thus, these essential oils merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of acaricide-resistant T. urticae populations as fumigants.

  2. Myrmecophilous pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea) associated with Lasius flavus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Russia.

    PubMed

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2015-11-19

    Twenty four species of pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea: Neopygmephoridae, Scutacaridae, Microdispidae) are recorded from the ant Lasius flavus (Fabricius) or from its nests from Western Siberia and Crimea. Four of them of the genus Scutacarus Gros, 1845 (Acari: Scutacaridae), S. insolitus sp. nov., S. heterotrichus sp. nov., S. moseri sp. nov. and S. sibiriensis sp. nov. are described as new for science. Four species of scutacarid mites are recorded for the first time in Russia. The comparison of pygmephoroid mite communities associated with Lasius flavus from Crimean and West Siberian populations and notes on phoresy of pygmephoroid mites on ants are provided.

  3. Phytocystatins: Defense Proteins against Phytophagous Insects and Acari

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Manuel; Santamaria, Maria Estrella; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Arnaiz, Ana; Carrillo, Laura; Ortego, Felix; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This review deals with phytocystatins, focussing on their potential role as defence proteins against phytophagous arthropods. Information about the evolutionary, molecular and biochemical features and inhibitory properties of phytocystatins are presented. Cystatin ability to inhibit heterologous cysteine protease activities is commented on as well as some approaches of tailoring cystatin specificity to enhance their defence function towards pests. A general landscape on the digestive proteases of phytophagous insects and acari and the remarkable plasticity of their digestive physiology after feeding on cystatins are highlighted. Biotechnological approaches to produce recombinant cystatins to be added to artificial diets or to be sprayed as insecticide–acaricide compounds and the of use cystatins as transgenes are discussed. Multiple examples and applications are included to end with some conclusions and future perspectives. PMID:27775606

  4. Phytocystatins: Defense Proteins against Phytophagous Insects and Acari.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Manuel; Santamaria, Maria Estrella; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Arnaiz, Ana; Carrillo, Laura; Ortego, Felix; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-10-20

    This review deals with phytocystatins, focussing on their potential role as defence proteins against phytophagous arthropods. Information about the evolutionary, molecular and biochemical features and inhibitory properties of phytocystatins are presented. Cystatin ability to inhibit heterologous cysteine protease activities is commented on as well as some approaches of tailoring cystatin specificity to enhance their defence function towards pests. A general landscape on the digestive proteases of phytophagous insects and acari and the remarkable plasticity of their digestive physiology after feeding on cystatins are highlighted. Biotechnological approaches to produce recombinant cystatins to be added to artificial diets or to be sprayed as insecticide-acaricide compounds and the of use cystatins as transgenes are discussed. Multiple examples and applications are included to end with some conclusions and future perspectives.

  5. Mites (acari) infesting commensal rats in Suez Canal zone, Egypt.

    PubMed

    el Kady, G A; Shoukry, A; Ragheb, D A; el Said, A M; Habib, K S; Morsy, T A

    1995-08-01

    Mites are arthropods distinguished from ticks by usually being microscopical in size and have a hypostome unarmed with tooth-like anchoring processes. They are group in a number of suborders, each with super-families and families including many genera of medical and economic importance. In this paper, commensal rodents (Rattus norvegicus, R. r. alexandrinus and R. r. frugivorous) were surveyed in the Suez Canal Zone for their acari ectoparasites. Four species of mites were recovered. In a descending order of mite indices, they were Eulaelaps stabularis (4.83 on 6 rats), Laelaps nuttalli (3.11 on 27 rats), Ornithonyssus bacoti (1.66 on 9 rats) and Dermanyssus gallinae (0.66 on 24 rats). The overall mite indices in the three governorates were 3.66 in Suez, 2.82 in Ismailia and zero in Port Said. The medical and economic importance of the mites were discussed.

  6. Recent Discovery of Widespread Ixodes affinis (Acari: Ixodidae) Distribution in North Carolina With Implications for Lyme Disease Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    et al. 1998). Oliver et al. (1987) described the immature stages of I. affinis and provided distribution, phenology , and host records. Ixodes...Ixodes (Ixodes) scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae): Redescription of all active stages, distribution, hosts, geographical variation , and medical and

  7. Lead concentrations in feathers and blood of common blackbirds (Turdus merula) and in earthworms inhabiting unpolluted and moderately polluted urban areas.

    PubMed

    Scheifler, R; Coeurdassier, M; Morilhat, C; Bernard, N; Faivre, B; Flicoteaux, P; Giraudoux, P; Noël, M; Piotte, P; Rieffel, D; de Vaufleury, A; Badot, P-M

    2006-12-01

    Despite the dramatic decrease of atmospheric lead (Pb) concentrations in urban areas of most industrialised countries, we hypothesised that urban common blackbirds (Turdus merula) may still be contaminated by Pb concentrations of toxicological concern due to transfer from soil through the food chain. We sampled blackbirds and earthworms, one of their main preys, in Besançon, a middle-size city of Eastern France (where atmospheric Pb concentrations decreased from 0.5 microg/m(3) in 1987 to nearly 0 in 2002) and in a rural reference site. Lead concentrations were determined in the tissues of the different functional groups of earthworms (anecic, epigeous and endogeous) and in blood, washed and unwashed outermost tail feathers and breast feathers of blackbirds. Fresh masses and an index of individual body condition were measured in the two blackbird populations as biomarkers of possible toxic effects. Lead concentrations in earthworms did not differ among functional groups but were significantly higher in urban individuals than in rural ones. Concentrations in outermost tail feathers, breast feathers and blood were significantly higher in urban blackbirds (7.75+/-4.50, 3.15+/-1.77 and 0.15+/-0.09 microg/g, respectively) than in rural individuals. In urban blackbirds, concentrations in washed and unwashed outermost tail feathers allowed estimating the external contamination (probably due to deposition of dusts and/or to excretion of the uropygial gland) at 37% of the total Pb concentration of the unwashed feathers. Remaining 63% should be linked to food chain transfer of persistent Pb from urban soils. Among the 23 sampled blackbirds, 4 of them (3 in the urban site and 1 in the rural site) exhibited blood Pb concentrations higher than the benchmark value (0.20 microg/g) related to subclinical and physiological effects in birds. Variations in body condition index were not correlated to Pb concentrations in blackbird tissues. Present results suggest that Pb may still be

  8. Predation, development, and oviposition by the predatory mite Amblyseius swirkii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on tomato russet mite (Acari: Eriophyidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Hong-Hyun; Shipp, Les; Buitenhuis, Rosemarije

    2010-06-01

    Predation, development, and oviposition experiments were conducted to evaluate Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as a potential biological control agent for tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici (Massee) (Acari: Eriophyidae), which can be a serious pest of greenhouse tomatoes. Results showed that A. swirskii attacked all developmental stages of A. lycopersici and had a type II functional response at the prey densities tested. The attack rate and handling time estimates from the random predator equation were 0.1289/h and 0.2320 h, respectively, indicating that A. swirskii can consume 103.4 individuals per day. Predation rates of A. swirskii on A. lycopersici in the presence of alternative food sources such as pollen, first-instar thrips, or whitefly eggs were 74, 56, and 76%, respectively, compared with the predation rate on A. lycopersici alone. A. swirskii successfully completed their life cycle on either A. lycopersici or cattail (Typha latifolia L.) pollen. At 25 degrees C and 70% RH, developmental time of female A. swirskii fed on A. lycopersici or on cattail pollen was 4.97 and 6.16 d, respectively. For the first 10 d after molting to the adult stage, A. swirskii fed on A. lycopersici had higher daily oviposition rate (2.0 eggs per day) than on pollen (1.5 eggs per day). From this laboratory study, it can be concluded that A. swirskii has promising traits as a predator against A. lycopersici and that their populations can be maintained using alternative food sources such as cattail pollen. We suggest that the effectiveness of A. swirskii against A. lycopersici under field conditions needs next to be investigated.

  9. A New Species of Aculops Keifer (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) on Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigations have been conducted in Europe in the last decade in order to find potential agents for biological control of invasive teasels in North America. During surveys conducted in Serbia in May 2007, the new eriophyid mite species Aculops dipsaci n. sp. (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) was ...

  10. Evaluation of four bed bug traps for surveillances of brown dog ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The brown dog tick can be a serious residential pest due to its unique ability, among ticks, to complete its lifecycle indoors. A single engorged and fertilized female tick can oviposit around 4,000 eggs, allowing indoor establishment to be rapid and easy to miss in early-stage infestations. Acari...

  11. Effects of radiation (Cobalt-60) on the elimination of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) Cardinum endosymbiont

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is a polyphagous mite with worldwide distribution and it is also a vector of several plant viruses. In citrus, B. phoenicis transmits Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV), the causal agent of leprosis, a disease that costs millions of dollars/year for ...

  12. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mites (Arachnida: Acari)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of mites (Arachnida: Acari) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mite specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clearing, use...

  13. Arthropods (Acari, Mallophaga, Siphonaptera) collected from Procyon lotor (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mammalia, Carnivora, Procyonidae) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Haitlinger, Ryszard; Łupicki, Dariusz

    2009-01-01

    From 9 specimens of Procyon lotor collected in vicinity of Dobroszyn and Górzyca (Lubuskie province) 61 arthropods of 6 species were obtained: Siphonaptera (one specimen), Acari (3 species), Phthiraptera (one specimen--Trichodectes octomaculatus; new species to fauna of Poland) and one specimen of Psocoptera.

  14. Toxicity and efficacy of selected pesticides and new acaricides to stored product mites (Acari: Acaridida)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stored product mites (Acari: Acaridida) can often infest stored products, but currently there is little information regarding efficacy of insecticides or miticides that can be used for control. In this study we evaluated several common insecticides (chlorpyrifos, deltametrhin, beta-cyfluthrin, and a...

  15. A new species of the genus Achaemenothrombium (Acari: Achaemenothrombiidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Saboori, Alireza; Wohltmann, Andreas; Hakimitabar, Masoud; Shirvani, Asghar

    2013-01-01

    Achaemenothrombium dariusi Saboori, Wohltmann & Hakimitabar sp. nov. (Acari, Prostigmata: Trombidioidea) is described and illustrated from larvae ectoparasitic on Euxoafallax (Eversmann) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Sirch and Cheshmeh Bondar, Kerman province, Iran. It is the third species of this genus, which is recorded only from Iran. The status of this small family is discussed and a key to species of A chaemenothrombium (larvae) is presented.

  16. Description of a new species of Terminalichus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yun; Fan, Qing-Hai; Huang, Jian

    2014-01-07

    A new species Terminalichus sanya Xu & Fan sp. nov. (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae) from China is described and illustrated. The ontogenetic changes in ventral and leg chaetotaxy on the female, deutonymph, protonymph and larva are presented. The generic definition of Terminalichus is updated and a key to the world species is provided.

  17. The complete sequence of a West Nile virus lineage 2 strain detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in eastern Romania in 2013 revealed closest genetic relationship to strain Volgograd 2007.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Marinov, Mihai; Kiss, Botond J; Alexe, Vasile; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In this study the first complete sequence of the West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 strain currently circulating in Romania was determined. The virus was detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a juvenile song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in the Romanian Danube Delta close to the city of Tulcea, end of August 2013. Our finding emphasizes the role of ticks in introduction and maintenance of WNV infections. Sequence analyses revealed close genetic relationship of the Romanian WNV strain to strain Reb_Volgograd_07_H, which was isolated from human brain tissue during an outbreak of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) in Russia in 2007. In 2010 the Eastern European lineage 2 WNV caused an outbreak of human WNND in Romania. Partial sequences from subsequent years demonstrated that this WNV strain became endemic in Eastern Europe and has been causing outbreaks of varying sizes in southern Russia since 2007 and in Romania since 2010.

  18. New quill mites of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Cheyletoidea).

    PubMed

    Bochkov, A V; Fain, A; Skoracki, M

    2004-02-01

    Five new species and two new genera belonging to the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Cheyletoidea) are described from birds that died in the Antwerp Zoo during their quarantine: Charadriaulobia vanelli n. g., n. sp. from Vanellus chilensis (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) in Brazil; Fritschisyringophilus lonchurae n. g., n. sp. from Lonchura punctulata (Passeriformes: Estrildidae) in India; Mironovia coturnae n. sp. from Coturnix coturnix (Galliformes: Phasianidae) in Europe; Syringophiloidus daberti n. sp. from Passerina ciris (Passeriformes: Emberizidae) in Mexico; and S. serini n. sp. from Serinus mozambicus (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) in Central Africa. Charadriaulobia n. g. differs from the closely related Aulobia Kethley, 1970, in both sexes, by the divergent epimeres I; in females, by the absence of protuberances on the hypostomal apex and by the situation of the bases of setae l4 distinctly anterior the bases of setae d4. Fritschisyringophilus n. g. differs from the closely related Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1972, in both sexes, by the presence of setae vs ' on legs II, the absence of setae dT on legs III and IV; in females, by the presence of median hypostomal protuberances and by short setae l1, l2 and l3. The relationships between the Syringophilidae and their hosts are briefly discussed. A list of all known syringophilid genera and their distribution on bird families is provided.

  19. Interaction between acari ectoparasites and rodents in Suez Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Younis, T A; Fayad, M E; el Hariry, M A; Morsy, T A

    1995-08-01

    From the medical point of view, the relation between man and rodents comes in the priority. Some rodent populations are wild but others are commensal and live in close association with man. They steal his food and conveying many zoonotic diseases. Their arthropod ectoparasites play an important role in conveying or transmitting these zoonotic diseases. Several disorders and diseases of man are tick borne relapsing fever, Rocky mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and many others. Besides numerous species of mites occasionally infest man. They transmit several diseases as Rickettsia tsutsugamushi fever, epidemic haemorrhagic fever, and they cause severe allergic reaction. The results obtained are summarized in the following (1) Six species and subspecies of rodents were detected. In a descending order of abundance, they were (a) Rattus norvegicus, (b) Rattus rattus alexandrinus (c) Rattus rattus frugivorous (d) Acomys cahirinus (e) Gerbillus gerbillus asyutensis (f) Mus m. praetextus. (2) The most common rodent was R. norvegicus and the least common was M. musculus. (3) The collected ticks and mites were 2 genera of tick larvae; Rhipicephalus species and Hyalomma species. The collected mites were Ornithonyssus bacoti and Laelaps nuttali. (4) Most of the tick larvae were collected from wild rodents; Gerbillus g. asyutensis. (5) Most of the mites were collected from commensal rodents particularly R. norvegicus. Descriptive morphology and illustrations were given to the collected rodents and their acari ectoparasites.

  20. New Wolbachia supergroups detected in quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae).

    PubMed

    Glowska, Eliza; Dragun-Damian, Anna; Dabert, Miroslawa; Gerth, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Wolbachia is the most abundant intracellular bacterial genus infecting a wide range of arthropods and filarial nematodes. Wolbachia have evolved parasitic, mutualistic and commensal relationships with their hosts but in arthropods generally act as reproductive parasites, inducing a wide range of phenotypic effects such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, feminization and male-killing. Up to now, the genus has been divided into 14 supergroups successively named A-O. Here, we describe two new Wolbachia supergroups from syringophilid mites (Acari: Cheyletoidea). These obligatory ectoparasites of birds inhabit the quills of feathers in many avian groups. The species of this family reproduce in a haplodiploid mode sensu arrhenotoky and are usually strongly female-biased. Based on the sequences of four protein-coding genes (ftsZ, gltA and groEL and coxA) and the 16S rRNA we identified strains of three Wolbachia supergroups (F and two distinct, yet undescribed ones) in five quill mite species. Our results suggest that in some cases the distribution of the bacteria can be better correlated with the mite's bird host rather than with mite taxonomy as such. The discovery of two new Wolbachia supergroups not only broadens the knowledge of the diversity of this bacterium but also raises questions about potential effects induced in quill mites and transmission mechanisms of the endosymbionts in this peculiar bacteria-quill mite-bird system.

  1. Torrenticolid water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Torrenticolidae) from Malaysian Borneo.

    PubMed

    Pešić, Vladimir; Smit, Harry

    2014-07-23

    New records of water mites of the family Torrenticolidae (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from streams in two mountain ranges in northern Borneo are presented. Aims of this study were to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the newly collected torrenticolids using molecular methods, and describe all new species. A fragment of the mtCOI gene was successfully PCR-amplified from 18 torrenticolid specimens and 14 new species are described: Torrenticola (Torrenticola) borneoensis n. sp., T. (T.) kinabaluensis n. sp., T. (T.) sabahensis n. sp., T. (T.) neoindica n. sp., T. (T.) schilthuizeni n. sp., Neoatractides (Allotorrenticola) sundaensis n. sp., N. (Heteratractides) uniscutatus n. sp., Pseudotorrenticola borneoensis n. sp., Monatractides (Monatractides) epiales n. sp., M. (M.) morpheus n. sp., M. (M.) phantasos n. sp., M. (M.) phobetor n. sp., M. (M.) hercules n. sp. and M. (M.) minuta n. sp. Additionally, the first records for Borneo are given for Torrenticola (Megapalpis) cf. pugionirostris (K. Viets, 1939), Monatractides (Monatractides) longiventris (K. Viets, 1939), M. (M.) cf. macroporus (K. Viets, 1935) and M. (M.) oxystomus (K. Viets, 1935). Monatractides tobaensis (K. Viets, 1935) is transferred to the subgenus Vietsclio Pešić & Smit, 2014. A key to the species of Monatractides is presented.

  2. Description of a new species of Gaeolaelaps (Acari: Laelapidae) from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Saeidi, Zarir; Nemati, Alireza; Khalili-Moghadam, Arsalan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Gaeolaelaps (Acari, Mesostigmata, Laelapidae), Gaeolaelaps izajiensis sp. n. is described based on the morphological characters of adult females which were collected from soil sample in the Izeh and Ghaletol regions of the Khuzestan province, Iran. It can be distinguished from the other members of the genus by some morphological characteristics of dorsal shield, form and reticulation of epigynal shield, the exopodal plates, and the peritremes. PMID:27667922

  3. A review of myrmecophilous mites of the family Microdispidae (Acari, Heterostigmatina) of Western Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Khaustov, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Five species of myrmecophilous microdispid mites (Acari: Microdispidae) are recorded from Western Siberia, Russia. Unguidispus lasii Kurosa, 1979, Unguidispus japonicus Kurosa, 1979, Caesarodispus minutus (Sevastianov, 1981), and Caesarodispus samsinaki (Mahunka, 1967), comb. n. are reported from Russia for the first time. Unguidispus polyctenus (Sevastianov, 1969) and Caesarodispus samsinaki are redescribed. The keys to species of the genera Unguidispus Mahunka, 1970 and Caesarodispus Mahunka, 1977 are provided. PMID:25493064

  4. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (ACARI: IXODIDAE) BITING A HUMAN BEING IN PORTOALEGRE CITY, RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    MENTZ, Márcia Bohrer; TROMBKA, Marcelo; da SILVA, Guilherme Liberato; SILVA, Carlos Eugênio

    2016-01-01

    We report the finding of a female brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) on the scalp of a male patient in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Human parasitism by this tick is rare and has seldomly been reported in the literature, despite its recognized importance since it can act as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of spotted fever. PMID:27074329

  5. A new species and new record of Reticulolaelaps Costa (Acari: Laelapidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Alireza; Joharchi, Omid; Babaeian, Esmaeil; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of mite from Iran--Reticulolaelaps hallidayi Joharchi, Nemati & Babaeian sp. nov. (Acari: Laelapidae). The new species was collected in a nest of Tapinoma sp. (Hymnoptera: Formicidae) in Taleghan city, Alborz Province and in soil in Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. Reticulolaelapsfaini is reported for the first time from Iran. The genus Reticulolaelaps is redescribed, and Reticulolaelaps lativentris Karg is transferred to Pseudoparasitus Oudemans.

  6. [Ectoprasitic mites of the families Myocoptidae and Listrophoridae (Acari: Astigmata) infecting mammals in Poland].

    PubMed

    Labrzycka, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Mites of the family Myocoptidae and Listrophoridae (Acari: Astigmata) are permanent, mono- or oligoxenous ectoparasites of mammals. Only 9 species from 4 genera of Myocoptidae are reported in Poland, as well 6 species from 4 genera of Listrophoridae, which are only a small fraction of huge number of these mites known in the world. This paper summarize known data about morphological features being adaptation of Myocoptidae and Listrophoridae to parasitize fur of mammals.

  7. Development and reproduction of Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) feeding on pollen, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), and other microarthropods inhabiting coconuts in Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Daniel; Peña, Jorge E; Hoy, Marjorie A; Frank, J Howard

    2010-10-01

    The red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an important pest of palms (Arecaceae) and other species within the Zingiberaceae, Musaceae and Strelitziaceae families. Raoiella indica was discovered in the USA (Palm Beach and Broward counties, Florida) late in 2007, and it subsequently spread to other Florida counties. The predatory mite Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been found associated with R. indica in Florida. In order to verify whether A. largoensis can develop and reproduce when feeding exclusively on R. indica, the biology of this predator was evaluated on various food sources, including R. indica. Five diets [R. indica, Tetranychus gloveri Aonidiella orientalis, Nipaecocus nipae, oak (Quercus virginiana) pollen] and a no-food control were tested to determine the predators' development, survivorship, oviposition rate, sex ratio and longevity at 26.5 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 5% RH and a 12:12 L:D photophase. Amblyseius largoensis was able to complete its life cycle and reproduce when fed exclusively on R. indica. The development of immature stages of A. largoensis was faster and fecundity and survivorship were higher when fed on R. indica or T. gloveri compared to the other food sources. The intrinsic rate of natural increase of A. largoensis was significantly higher when fed on R. indica than on other diets. These results suggest that, despite earlier assessments, A. largoensis can play a role in controlling R. indica.

  8. Efficacy of indigenous predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) against the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Acari: Eriophyidae): augmentation and conservation biological control in Israeli citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Maoz, Yonatan; Gal, Shira; Argov, Yael; Domeratzky, Sylvie; Melamed, Eti; Gan-Mor, Samuel; Coll, Moshe; Palevsky, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The citrus rust mite (CRM), Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Acari: Eriophyidae) is a cosmopolitan key pest of citrus, inflicting severe economic damage if not controlled. In Israel, CRM damages all citrus cultivars. International regulation and increasing control failures of CRM led growers to seek sustainable biological control solutions such as acarine biological control agents. Laboratory studies conducted in Israel have indicated that the indigenous predator species Amblyseius swirskii, Iphiseius degenerans, Typhlodromus athiasae and Euseius scutalis (all Acari: Phytoseiidae) can potentially control CRM. Our general objective in the present study was to bridge the gap of knowledge between laboratory studies and the lack of control efficacy of these species in commercial orchards. Predator augmentation in the field showed that although predator populations increased immediately following releases they later decreased and did not affect CRM populations. When A. swirskii augmentation was combined with a series of maize pollen applications, A. swirskii populations were enhanced substantially and continuously but again CRM populations were not affected. Growth chamber studies with CRM-infested seedlings, with or without a maize pollen supplement, indicated that pollen provisioning led to population increase of E. scutalis and A. swirskii but only E. scutalis significantly lowered CRM populations. Control with E. scutalis was confirmed in the field on CRM infested seedlings with pollen provisioned by adjacent flowering Rhodes grass. While experiments in mature citrus orchard showed that pollen supplement usually increased predator populations they also indicated that other factors such as intraguild interactions and pesticide treatments should be taken into account when devising CRM biological control programs.

  9. Dispersal of Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on High-Tunnel Bell Peppers in Presence or Absence of Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, L.; Smith, H. A.; Hoy, M. A.; Cave, R. D.

    2017-01-01

    Amblyseius swirskiiAthias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a predatory mite used to control thrips (Thysanoptera), whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci Genn., Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), and broad mites (BMs) (Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks, Acari: Tarsonemidae). Dispersal of A. swirskii, using the ornamental pepper “Explosive Ember” as a banker plant was evaluated for control of BMs in high-tunnel peppers. Open-canopy plants (5 weeks old) versus closed-canopy plants (10-weeks old) were used to evaluate the effect of plant connectedness in A. swirskii dispersal, in the presence (two females per plant) and absence of BMs. Plots consisted of a single central banker plant and four bell peppers extending linearly north and south. Sets of all treatments were destructively sampled 1, 4, and 7 days after releasing A. swirskii. Within 24 h, A. swirskii dispersed four plants away from the banker plants (1 m), regardless of the state of the canopy. Canopy connectedness did increase the presence of A. swirskii on the crop plants. Predatory mite numbers on closed-canopy treatments doubled within the 7-day sampling period, whereas no significant increase was observed on open-canopy treatments. The presence of BMs had no significant effect on the movement of A. swirskii. The results suggest further experiments with A. swirskii and banker plants for control of BMs is warranted. PMID:28025305

  10. Development of Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on pollen or mite diets and predation on Aculops pelekassi (Keifer) (Acari: Eriophyidae) in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Raul T; Childers, Carl C

    2007-02-01

    Development and reproduction of Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks) were evaluated on single food diets of pollen (Malephora crocea Jacquin [ice plant] or Quercus sp. [oak]), spider mites, [Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor) or Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae)], or the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) (Acari: Eriophyidae). Experiments were conducted in an environmental chamber at 28 degrees +/- 1 degrees C, 14:10 (L:D) daylength, and 45% RH. I. quadripilis completed development and laid viable eggs that subsequently hatched on diets of either ice plant or oak pollen or eggs and motile stages of E. banksi. P. citri was acceptable as prey, but survival of larvae to adults was only 36%, whereas survival on E. banksi, ice plant pollen, and oak pollen was 48, 60, and 68%, respectively. The webbing produced by P. citri seemed to inhibit foraging behavior of I. quadripilis larvae and nymphs. Larvae of I. quadripilis developed only to the second nymphal instar on a diet of P. oleivora alone or water alone. Starved I. quadripilis females and deutonymphs were observed preying on the pink citrus rust mite, Aculops pelekassi (Keifer) (Eriophyidae). During 4-min observation trials, two series of I. quadripilis fed on 1.8 +/- 0.47 and 3.5 +/- 0.45 A. pelekassi motile stages after being starved for 6 and 24 h, respectively. I. quadripilis females did not prey on P. oleivora in arenas containing both rust mite species.

  11. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on wild carnivores in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from July 1998 to September 2004 in Brazil. Additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in Brazil. During field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 Puma concolor (puma), 26 Panthera onca (jaguar), 12 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 Speothos venaticus (bush dog), 6 Pseudalopex vetulus (hoary fox), 6 Nasua nasua (coati), 6 Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 2 Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla), 1 Leopardus wiedii (margay), 1 Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), 1 Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat), 1 Eira barbara (tayara), 1 Galictis vittata (grison), 1 Lontra longicaudis (neotropical otter), and 1 Potus flavus (kinkajou). Data obtained from the Acari Collection IBSP included a total of 381 tick specimens collected on 13 C. thous, 8 C. brachyurus, 3 P. concolor, 10 P. onca, 3 P. cancrivorus, 4 N. nasua, 1 L. pardalis, 1 L. wiedii, 4 H. yagouaroundi, 1 Galictis cuja (lesser grison), and 1 L. longicaudis. The only tick-infested carnivore species previously reported in Brazil, for which we do not present any field data are Pseudalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox), Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk), and Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk). We report the first tick records in Brazil on two Felidae species (O. colocolo, H. yagouaroundi), two Canidae species (P. vetulus, S. venaticus), one Procyonidae species (P. flavus) and one Mustelidae (E. barbara). Tick infestation remains unreported for 5 of the 26 Carnivora species native in Brazil: Oncifelis geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat), Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog), Pteronura brasiliensis (giant otter), Mustela africana (Amazon weasel), and Bassaricyon gabbii (olingo). Our field data comprise 16 tick species represented by the genera Amblyomma (12 species), Ixodes (1

  12. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different deg...

  13. A new genus and species of larval mite (Acari: Prostigmata: Microtrombidiidae) parasitising Orthoptera (Tettigoniidae) from the Sierra Nevada, Spain.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, Jaime G; Barranco, Pablo

    2012-09-01

    Nevada capileirarum n. g., n. sp. (Acari: Microtrombidiidae: Microtrombidiinae) is described from ectoparasitic larvae parasitising two endemic species of Orthoptera (Tettigoniidae), Baetica ustulata (Rambur) and Pycnogaster inermis (Rambur) from the Sierra Nevada mountain range, Granada, Spain. A key to the larvae of microtrombidiine genera with three dorsal scuta and a coxal setal formula of 2-1-1 is presented.

  14. A new genus of the Eutrombidiinae Thor, 1935 (Acari: Eutrombidiidae) parasitic on an endemic beetle from the south of Spain.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, Jaime G; Barranco, Pablo

    2005-10-01

    Alhamitrombium tetraseta n. g., n. sp. (Acari: Eutrombidiidae: Eutrombidiinae) is described from two larvae ectoparasitic on Trymosternus bolivari Mateu (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Almería, Spain. The new genus is distinguished from Hexathrombium Cooreman, 1944 and Beronium Southcott, 1986 on the basis of details of the coxalae. A key to the genera of larval Hexathrombiini is presented.

  15. Two new species of Pachylaelaps Berlese, 1888 from the Iberian Peninsula, with a key to European species (Acari, Gamasida, Pachylaelapidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mašán, Peter; Özbek, Hasan Hüseyin; Fenďa, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pachylaelaps (Pachylaelaps) pyrenaicus sp. n. and Pachylaelaps (Longipachylaelaps) brevipilis sp. n. (Acari, Pachylaelapidae) are described and illustrated based on specimens from litter and soil detritus of forest habitats in Spain (Pyrenees Mts) and Portugal (Serra da Labruja Mts), respectively. An identification key to European species of the genus Pachylaelaps Berlese, 1888 is provided. PMID:27551197

  16. A new species of the genus Promacrolaelaps (Acari: Laelapidae) associated with Propomacrus bimucronatus (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Joharchi, Omid; Halliday, Bruce; Beyzavi, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of mite from Iran - Pronacrolaelaps propomacrus sp. nov. (Acari: Laelapidae). The new species was collected in association with the beetle Propomacrus bimucronatus (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Euchirinae) in holes in the trunk of oak trees. The genus Promacrolaelaps is redescribed and distinguished from the related genus Hypoaspis Canestrini sells. strict.

  17. The oribatid mite subgenus Galumna (Galumna) (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae) in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.; Corpuz-Raros, Leonila; Tolstikov, Andrei V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Five species of the subgenus Galumna (Galumna) (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae) are registered in the Philippine oribatid mite fauna. A new species, Galumna (Galumna) makilingensis sp. n., is described; it is most similar morphologically to Galumna (Galumna) tokyoensis Aoki, 1966, but differs from the latter by the morphology of porose areas Aa and Ap, rostral setae, and length of interlamellar setae. Three species, Galumna (Galumna) crenata Deb & Raychaudhuri, 1975, Galumna (Galumna) cf. exigua Sellnick, 1925 and Galumna (Galumna) khoii Mahunka, 1989, are recorded in the Philippines for the first time. The species Galumna (Galumna) crenata is redescribed. An identification key to the Philippine species of Galumna (Galumna) is given. PMID:25493051

  18. A rare finding of mites (Arachnida: Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) parasitising a whip spider (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Hernandes, Fabio A

    2014-04-01

    Twelve larvae of unidentified species of Odontacarus Ewing, 1929 (Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) were found parasitising an adult male whip spider Charinus brasilianus Weygoldt (Charinidae) in Santa Teresa, mountainous region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. These larvae occurred in the intersegmental membrane of prosoma and legs. This is the first report of ectoparasitic mites infecting a charinid whip spider and the first record of leeuwenhoekiid mites parasitising an invertebrate host. We suggest that future studies are essential to understand the reasons why these events of parasitism are so rare in the order Amblypygi.

  19. Oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of plain area of the Southern European Russia.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, Natalia V; Poltavskaya, Marina P

    2013-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the fauna of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) mostly of a plain area of the Southern European Russia. The most updated taxonomic list of oribatid mite taxa compiled from the original authors' data collected after sam- pling soil, nests and plumage of birds, as well as published sources is presented. It includes 256 species of oribatid mites belonging to 72 families. Twenty species and one family of oribatid mites are recorded for the first time at the research territory. The abundance of mites in the soil is also provided for selected species.

  20. A genetic analysis of mancozeb resistance in Typhlodromus pyri (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Auger, Philippe; Bonafos, Romain; Kreiter, Serge; Delorme, Robert

    2005-01-01

    A field population of Typhlodromus pyri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) tolerant to mancozeb was selected in the laboratory. After 10 mancozeb selections the LC50 value for mancozeb was 73 times higher in the selected-10 strain compared to the standard susceptible strain. A genetic analysis using reciprocal crosses and backcrosses of female F1 progeny found no maternal effect. Resistance in the selected-10 strain was codominant in expression, dominance value was about -0.1. Backcrosses between F1 females and the susceptible strain indicate that the resistance to mancozeb could be principally conferred by a predominant gene, but additional factors would also be involved.

  1. A new genus and species of edaphic mite (Acari: esostigmata: Eviphididae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Joharchi, Omid; Mašán, Peter; Babaeian, Esmaeil

    2014-03-06

    The new genus Pedoniphis gen. nov. (Acari: Mesostigmata: Eviphididae) is described from soil detritus in Sabalan Mountains, northwest Iran, with P. persicus sp. nov. as type species. Among known eviphidid genera, the new genus is the most similar to Scamaphis Karg and Scarabacariphis Mašán and it can be distinguished especially by the dorsal chaetotaxy (setae J2 absent, setae J5 rudimentary) and the specific form of the peritrematal-dorsal scutal complex (peritrematal shields reduced; peritremes well developed, fused to lateral margins of dorsal shield).

  2. New species and records of Neopronematus (Acari: Iolinidae) from Iran with a key to world species.

    PubMed

    Darbemamieh, Maryam; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Khanjani, Mohammad; Kaźmierski, Andrzej

    2015-07-24

    In this paper, Neopronematus kamalii Darbemamieh and Hajiqanbar sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Iolinidae), collected from apricot leaves in Kermanshah province, Iran, is described and illustrated. Also, the following species were collected and identified from Kermanshah province, Iran: Neopronematus rapidus (Kuznetzov, 1972), Neopronematus solani Łaniecka and Kaźmierski, 2013; Neopronematus sepasgosariani Sadeghi, Łaniecka and Kaźmierski, 2012; Neopronematus lundqvisti Sadeghi, Łaniecka and Kaźmierski, 2012; and Neopronematus neglectus (Kuznetzov, 1972). Some information about the genus, morphologically close species, remarks and a key to Neopronematus species of the world are given as well.

  3. New species, new records and re-description of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Zeity, Mahran; Srinivasa, N; Gowda, C Chinnamade

    2016-03-03

    Two species of Tetranychidae (Acari), Oligonychus neotylus sp. nov. from Zea mays and Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae) and Tetranychus hirsutus sp. nov. from Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Apocynaceae) are described from Karnataka state, south India. Tetranychus bambusae Wang and Ma is recorded for the first time from India and re-described. Four other species are reported for the first time from India viz., Oligonychus coniferarum (McGregor), Oligonychus duncombei Meyer, Tetranychus marianae McGregor and Tetranychus okinawanus Ehara from Cupressus sp., an undetermined grass, Centrosema pubescens and Adenium obesum, respectively.

  4. New taxa of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) from African barbets and woodpeckers (Piciformes: Lybiidae, Picidae).

    PubMed

    Skorack, Maciej; Klimovičová, Miroslava; Muchai, Muchane; Hromada, Martin

    2014-02-25

    New taxa of quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) are described from African barbets and woodpeckers in the Ethiopian region. A new monotypic genus Picineoaulonastus gen. nov. is established for a new species Picineoaulonastus pogoniulus sp. nov., parasitising 2 lybiid species, Pogoniulus bilineatus (Sundevall) (type host) in Kenya and Tanzania and P. pusillus (Dumont) (Piciformes: Lybiidae) in Ethiopia. Additionally, 2 more new syringophilid species are described: Neosyringophilopsis lybidus sp. nov. from P. bilineatus in Kenya, and Syringophiloidus picidus sp. nov. from Dendropicos fuscescens (Vieillot) (Piciformes: Picidae) in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania.

  5. A new species of Rhipicephalus (Acari: Ixodidae), a parasite of giraffes in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Horak, Ivan G; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Kariuki, Edward K

    2013-07-01

    A new tick species belonging to the genus Rhipicephalus Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), namely, Rhipicephalus walkerae n. sp., is described. The male and female of this species are similar to those of several species in the Rhipicephalus appendiculatus group but can be distinguished from them by the very dense pattern of medium-sized punctations covering the conscutum and scutum, long and narrow dorsal prolongation of the spiracular plate, and relatively short dorsal cornua; in addition, the male has long and narrow adanal plates without a posterolateral angle. R. walkerae is known only from Kenya, where the adults were collected from giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis (L.).

  6. The residual and direct effects of reduced-risk and conventional miticides on twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Liburd, O.E.; White, J.C.; Rhodes, E.M.; Browdy, A.A.

    2007-03-15

    The residual effects of several reduced-risk and conventional miticides were evaluated in strawberries (Fragaria z ananassa Duchesne) on the twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and on 2 predatory mites, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse. The greenhouse experiments also tested the direct effects of the miticides on TSSM. The efficacy of conventional and reduced-risk miticides was evaluated on strawberry leaf discs and on whole plants for control of TSSM. Furthermore, the residual effects of these miticides were evaluated on whole strawberry plants against selective predatory mites. For TSSM, 5 treatments were evaluated: a conventional miticide; fenbutatin-oxide (Vendex[reg]) and 3 reduced-risk miticides; binfenazate (Acramite 50WP[reg]), activated garlic extract (Repel[reg]), sesame seed and castor oil (Wipeout[reg]), and a water-treated control. For predatory mites, the residual effects of only Acramite[reg] and Vendex[reg] were evaluated. Acramite[reg] was the most effective acaricide in reducing TSSM populations in both the laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Vendex[reg] and Wipeout[reg] were also effective in the laboratory, but did not cause significant reduction of TSSM in the greenhouse. Repel[reg] was the least effective of the 4 pesticides evaluated. Neither Acramite[reg] nor Vendex[reg] had a significant effect on either predatory mite species. However, there appeared to be more predatory mites on the Vendex[reg]-treated plants than on the Acramite[reg]-treated plants. There were significantly more predatory mites of both species on the cue plants, which were inoculated with TSSM versus the non-cue plants, which were not inoculated. (author) [Spanish] Los efectos residuales en poblaciones de la 'arana roja', Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranichidae) y de los acaros predadores

  7. Pyrethroid resistance in Phytoseiulus macropilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae): cross-resistance, stability and effect of synergists.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Maria Cristina Vitelli; Sato, Mario Eidi

    2016-01-01

    Phytoseiulus macropilis Banks (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is an effective predator of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). The objectives of this research were to study the stability of fenpropathrin resistance and the cross-resistance relationships with different pyrethroids, and also to evaluate the effect of synergists [piperonyl butoxide (PBO), diethyl maleate (DEM) and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF)] on fenpropathrin resistant and susceptible strains of this predaceous mite. The stability of fenpropathrin resistance was studied under laboratory conditions, using P. macropilis populations with initial frequencies of 75 and 50% of resistant mites. The percentages of fenpropathrin resistant mites were evaluated monthly for a period of up to 12 months. A trend toward decreased resistance frequencies was observed only during the first 3-4 months. After this initial decrease, the fenpropathrin resistance was shown to be stable, maintaining constant resistance frequencies (around 30%) until the end of the evaluation period. Toxicity tests carried out using fenpropathrin resistant and susceptible strains of P. macropilis indicated strong positive cross-resistance between fenpropathrin and the pyrethroids bifenthrin and deltamethrin. Bioassays with the synergists DEM, DEF and PBO were also performed. The maximum synergism ratio (SR = LC50 without synergist/LC50 with synergist) detected for the three evaluated synergists (PBO, DEM, DEF) was 5.86 (for DEF), indicating low influence of enzyme detoxification processes in fenpropathrin resistance.

  8. A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) associated with carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Trach, Viacheslav A; Seeman, Owen D

    2014-04-29

    A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata: Celaenopsoidea), Euroschizogynium calvum gen. nov. and sp. nov., associated with Scarites terricola Bonelli, 1813 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is described from Ukraine, representing the first record of the family from the Palaearctic. Fusura civica Valle & Fox, 1966 is moved out of the Schizogyniidae and placed into the Megacelaenopsidae. A new diagnosis for the family Schizogyniidae and a key to genera are provided.

  9. A new genus and species of Discozerconidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) from carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in New Zealand .

    PubMed

    Seeman, Owen D; Baker, Michelle R

    2013-12-18

    Berzercon ferdinandi gen. nov., sp. nov. (Acari: Mesostigmata: Discozerconidae) is described from carabid beetles in New Zealand. As in all Discozerconidae, Berzercon has large ventrally-directed opisthogastric suckers. However it is distinctive in its long marginal setae, tripartite gnathotectum, fused palp tibia and tarsus, the female's large dome-shaped genital shield and the male's highly modified hypostomal seta h1. This new species also represents the first Heterozerconina from an insect host. 

  10. First record of Spinturnix bechsteini (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) from Poland with remarks on the diagnostic value of some characters.

    PubMed

    Haitlinger, Ryszard; Piksa, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Spinturnix bechsteini Deunff et al., 2004 (Acari: Spinturnicidae) associated with Myotis bechsteinii (Kuhl, 1817) (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) is reported for the first time from Poland. The usefulness of some morphological features for differentiating S. bechsteini from other spinturnicid mites belonging to the myoti group was studied. The mite fauna occurring on M. bechsteinii, the only host of S. bechsteini, are very poorly known. In Poland only five species have been found.

  11. A new species of Parapygmephorus Cross, 1965 (Acari; Heterostigmatina; Neopygmephoridae) phoretic on Halictus quadricinctus (Fabricius, 1776) (Hym.; Halictidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Khaustov, Alexander; Kamali, Karim

    2011-01-01

    A new species of the genus Parapygmephorus Cross, 1965 (Acari: Heterostigmatina, Neopygmephoridae) is described from Northeastern Iran. A phoretic adult female of Parapygmephorus khorasanicus Hajiqanbar and Khaustov sp. n. was discovered clasping on hairs on the ventral body surface of Halictus quadricinctus (Fabricius, 1776) (Hymenoptera; Halictidae). It is the fifth representative among the known species of the genus Parapygmephorus in the world. Differentiation of new species from other species of the genus is discussed, and a key to known world species is provided.

  12. A review of Amblypalpus and Priscapalpus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae), including two new species of Amblypalpus from Iran.

    PubMed

    Farzan, Sadegh; Asadi, Mahdieh; Ueckermann, Edward A; Seeman, Owen D; Beard, Jennifer J

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Amblypalpus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) are described from Iran: Amblypalpus iraniensis sp. nov., from Wild Almond, Amygdalus scoparia (Rosaceae), and Amblypalpus thymus sp. nov., from Common Thyme, Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae). The new species are classified tentatively in Amblypalpus. The species Priscapalpus thomissus Meyer, 1979 is transferred to Amblypalpus and the genus concept of Priscapalpus is narrowed and therefore redefined. Similarly, we present an expanded concept of Amblypalpus. A key to brevipalpine genera and Amblypalpus species is provided.

  13. Prolixus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) newly recorded from New Zealand: A new species from Cyperaceae and its ontogenetic patterns in chaetotaxy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yun; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-12-19

    The genus Prolixus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) was represented by two species from Australian sedges prior to this study. A new species, Prolixus meyerae sp. nov., is here described and illustrated from leaves of Gahnia (Cyperaceae) in Auckland, New Zealand. In this paper, we present the ontogenetic additions in idiosomal and leg chaetotaxy from larva to adult. A key to world species of Prolixus is also proposed.

  14. Experimental Transmission of Karshi and Langat (Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Complex) Viruses by Ornithodoros Ticks (Acari: Argasidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    encephalitis virus complex) viruses by Onithodoros ticks (Acari: Argasidae), Journal of Medical Entomology 41:973 - 977 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...mosquitoes and Ornithodoros ticks were evaluated for their potential to transmit Karshi and Langat (tick-borne encephalitis virus complex) viruses in the...suckling mice. In addition, female O. tartakovskyi transmitted Karshi virus vertically to their progeny. In a continuation of a previous study, O. sonrai

  15. Efficacy of Plant-Derived and Synthetic Compounds on Clothing as Repellents Against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    concern (Gratz 1999). Lyme disease, caused by the spirocheteBorrelia burgdorferi , is themost commonly reported vector-borne disease in the United States...105 lence of Ehrlichia, Borrelia , and Rickettsial agents in Am- blyomma americanum collected from nine states within its range. J. Med. Entomol. 43... Borrelia , Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma in- fections inAmblyommaamericanum and Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks from central New Jersey. J. Med

  16. Development and reproduction of Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Acari: Laelapidae) with fungus gnat larvae (Diptera: Sciaridae), potworms (Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae) or Sancassania aff. sphaerogaster (Acari: Acaridae) as the sole food source.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Ana R; Cloyd, Raymond A; Zaborski, Edmond R

    2005-01-01

    Stratiolaelaps (=Hypoaspis) miles (Berlese) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) is a polyphagous soil-dwelling predatory mite that is widely marketed for use in greenhouse production systems to manage populations of dark-winged fungus gnats, Bradysia spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae) and for supplemental control of thrips. The suggestion by Walter and Campbell (2003, Biol. Control 26: 253-269) that North American commercial cultures of S. miles may actually be S. scimitus was confirmed. The development and reproduction at 21-23 degrees C of S. scimitus provided ad libidum with one of three different prey--the fungus gnat Bradysia aff. coprophila (Lintner), potworms (Enchytraeidae), or Sancassania aff. sphaerogaster (Zachvatkin, 1937) (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae)--were compared. Developmental duration of the egg and non-feeding larval stages were 2.47 and 1.11 days, respectively; mortalities were 8.3 and 5.5%. Stratiolaelaps scimitus failed to develop beyond the protonymphal stage when provided with S. aff. sphaerogaster alone, although some feeding was observed. Development and reproduction of S. scimitus was successful on both fungus gnat larvae and enchytraeids, with no influence of prey on protonymphal duration (4.70 days) and mortality (8.3%), or on deutonymphal duration (4.61 days) and mortality (6.1%). Adult female S. scimitus feeding on potworms, compared to those feeding on fungus gnat larvae, had a significantly shorter pre-oviposition period (2.69 vs. 4.59 days). However, diet did not influence other adult female developmental or reproductive characteristics (oviposition period, 18.6 days; post-oviposition period, 6.2 days; total adult longevity, 27.3 days; total number of eggs, 26.5). S. scimitus reared on potworms tended (p = 0.06) to have a higher intrinsic rate of increase, a higher finite rate of increase and a shorter doubling time (rm = 0.142 day(-1), lambda = 1.153, Dt = 4.85 days) than those reared on fungus gnat larvae (rm = 0.105 day(-1), lambda = 1

  17. Natural occurrence of lethal aspergillosis in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari:Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Miranda-Miranda, E; Cossio-Bayugar, R; Martínez-Ibañez, F; Casasanero-Orduña, R; Folch-Mallol, J

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe an unreported entomopathogenic fungus that naturally infects the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Engorged female ticks, showed symptoms of fungal infection after controlled tick infestation of cattle. Infected ticks developed a distinctive dark colour, a pale mould grew over the cuticle and the ticks eventually died covered with fungal conidiophores. The responsible fungus was isolated and cultured on mycological medium and submitted to microscopic morphology, biochemical phenotyping and 18S rRNA ribotyping analyses, which identified it as aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. Spores from the cultured fungus were experimentally sprayed over healthy engorged female ticks, obtaining an 80% prevalence of experimental infection of healthy ticks and their egg masses, the larval progeny after incubation under laboratory conditions was also infected. These results demonstrate that A. flavus is the causative agent of the natural fungal disease of the cattle tick R. microplus described here.

  18. Javanese species of the mite genus Macrocheles (Arachnida: Acari: Gamasina: Macrochelidae).

    PubMed

    Hartini, Sri; Takaku, Gen

    2003-10-01

    Twelve mite species of the genus Macrocheles (Acari: Macrochelidae) were collected from the body surface of dung beetles in Java, Indonesia. Of these, three species, i.e., Macrocheles jabarensis, M. jonggolensis, and M. sukabumiensis, were described as new to science. Female of M. dispar was redescribed. Two species, i.e., M. baliensis and M. sukaramiensis, were recorded from Java for the first time. The occurrence of five species previously recorded from Java, i.e., M. hallidayi, M. kraepelini, M. limue, M. oigru, and M. merdarius, were reconfirmed. Taxonomic status of M. sp. aff. glaber was not settled in the present study, because we could not obtain the male and immatures which are indispensable for exact identification. In total 15 species of the genus Macrocheles, including 3 species already recorded but not collected in this research (M. crispa, M. krantzi, and M. subbadius), are known from Java up to date.

  19. Citrus leprosis virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on citrus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J C V; Kitajima, E W; Childers, C C; Chagas, C M

    2003-01-01

    Citrus leprosis is caused by Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV) that is transmitted by mites in the genus Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). This disease directly reduces production and the life span of the citrus plant. The main symptoms of the disease include lesions on fruits, leaves, and twigs or small branches, causing premature fruit drop, defoliation, and death of the twigs or branches leading to serious tree decline. Leprosis is a highly destructive disease of citrus, wherever it occurs. The Brazilian citrus industry spends over 100 million US dollars annually on acaricides to control the vector, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes). This review contains information about the history of the etiology of citrus leprosis, its geographical distribution, host range, the role of the mite vectors, viral morphology and relationships with the infected cell, and transmissibility of the virus by the mite. In addition, data on the mite-virus-plant relationship, disease damage, and strategies for controlling disease spread are presented.

  20. Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra).

    PubMed

    Marques, Sandro; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho

    2002-12-01

    Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-pregui a" (sloth's giant tick) is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae), Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae). Based on the material examined, the states of Rond nia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil.

  1. Neozygites abacaridis sp. nov. (Entomophthorales), a new pathogen of phytophagous mites (Acari, Eriophyidae).

    PubMed

    Mietkiewski, R; Bałazy, S

    2003-07-01

    A new entomopathogenic fungus, described here as Neozygites abacaridis n. sp. (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales), has been found on the mites Abacarus hystrix, Aculodes dubius, and A. mckenziei (Acari: Eriophyidae). It differs from other Neozygites species affecting mites by its small, globose primary conidia, short-ovoid, smoky coloured capilliconidia, and very short capillary conidiophores-which are usually not longer than the spore length. This pathogen infected mite individuals in autumn (from mid-August until mid-November) on Lolium perenne, Agrostis stolonifera, and Festuca rubra. It caused 0.5-1% host's mortality in the vicinity of Siedlce (Eastern Poland) and up to 2-8%, on an average in Puszczykowo (Wielkopolski National Park near Poznań), where its prevalence on some plants reached 13%.

  2. A new podapolipid species (Acari) on Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) acuticollis (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Abdolazim; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza

    2012-08-01

    A new species of mites of the genus Tarsopolipus (Acari: Prostigmata: Podapolipidae) is described from southern Iran. Tarsopolipus husbandi Mortazavi and Hajiqanbar n. sp. is a sub-elytral ectoparasite of the scarabaeid beetle, Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) acuticollis. The new species is closely related to Tarsopolipus corrugatus Berlese 1911, but is distinguished from it by the following characters. Adult female: presence of vestigial setae v(2) and shorter setae sc(2). Adult male: presence of setae v' on tibia IV and shorter setae sc(2) and c(2). Larval female: shorter cheliceral stylets and longer distance between setae v(1) and ch. Species of Tarsopolipus are currently distributed in Afro-tropical, Palaearctic, and Oriental regions and parasitize species in 3 genera of scarabaeid beetles, i.e., Scarabaeus , Kheper, and Drepanopodes, all belonging to the tribe Scarabaeini.

  3. A new species of Ornithodoros (Acari: Argasidae), parasite of Microlophus spp. (Reptilia: Tropiduridae) from northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Venzal, José M; Nava, Santiago; González-Acuña, Daniel; Mangold, Atilio J; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Lado, Paula; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2013-02-01

    A new species, Ornithodoros microlophi (Acari: Argasidae), belonging to the subgenus Alectorobius is described from larvae collected on the lizards Microlophus atacamensis (Donoso-Barros, 1966) and Microlophus quadrivittatus (Tschudi, 1845) (Squamata: Tropiduridae) in continental and insular localities from northern Chile. Larvae of O. microlophi can be distinguished from other Neotropical species of the genus Ornithodoros by a combination of the following characters, namely 10 pairs of ventral setae, venter with 6 pairs of sternal setae, dorsal plate pyriform, 19-21 pairs of dorsal setae (typically 20), 13 pairs are dorsolateral and 7 pairs are central, and hypostome with dental formula 4/4 in medial portion and apex pointed. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences suggests that O. microlophi represents an independent lineage within Neotropical species of the Argasidae.

  4. Quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae).

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Kavetska, Katarzyna; Kaszewska, Katarzyna

    2014-03-01

    The paper contains a review of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae). Three new species are described: Picobia mentalis Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Picus mentalis Temminck, Neopicobia ea Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Celeus flavus (St. Mueller) (type host), C. elegans (St. Mueller), C. torquatus (Boddaert), and Neopicobia freya Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Dryocopus galeatus (Temminck) (type host) and Piculus rubiginosus (Swainson). Additionally, six new host species for Picobia heeri Haller, 1878 and 12 new host species for Picobia dryobatis (Fritsch, 1956) are reported. A complete list of the picobiines parasitising birds of the family Picidae is presented in the tabular form.

  5. Plant water stress, leaf temperature, and spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) outbreaks in California vineyards.

    PubMed

    Stavrinides, Menelaos C; Daane, Kent M; Lampinen, Bruce D; Mills, Nicholas J

    2010-08-01

    We evaluated the relationships between plant water status and leaf temperature, and between leaf temperature and spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) and predatory mite (Acari: Phytoseiidae) populations in eight vineyards in California in 2006 and 2007. Temperature of south-facing leaves increased significantly by 0.8°C for every 1.0°C increase in ambient air temperature, and by 5.3°C for every one MPa drop in leaf water potential. Peak population densities of Pacific spider mite, Tetranychus pacificus McGregor, increased significantly with increasing frequency of leaf temperatures above 31°C. In contrast, peak population densities of Willamette spider mite, Eotetranychus willamettei (McGregor), showed no relationship with the frequency of leaf temperatures above 31°C. This differential relationship between the two mite species and high leaf temperatures is consistent with their upper thresholds for development, which are 40°C for T. pacificus and 31°C for E. willamettei, as identified in a previous study. Predatory mite population densities showed no relationship with peak population densities of either spider mite species during the analysis period, but decreased with the frequency of leaf temperatures above 31°C. In addition, predatory mite population densities were significantly higher on south-facing than interior leaves after adjusting for the effect of leaf temperature. These results help to explain why outbreaks of T. pacificus occur in warmer or water-stressed vineyards, whereas E. willamettei develops higher populations in cooler or well-irrigated vineyards. In addition, these results suggest that regulated deficit irrigation should be implemented with caution, especially in those vineyards with a high risk of T. pacificus outbreaks.

  6. Potential of astigmatid mites (Acari: Astigmatina) as prey for rearing edaphic predatory mites of the families Laelapidae and Rhodacaridae (Acari: Mesostigmata).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Marina F C; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2016-07-01

    Laelapidae and Rhodacaridae are important families of edaphic predatory mites and species of these families have been considered for use in biological control programs of soil pests. Mites of Cohort Astigmatina (Acari: Sarcoptiformes) have been largely used as factitious prey in the mass rearing of various edaphic or plant-inhabiting predatory mites. Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley) (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) (widely commercialized for the control of fungus gnats and thrips) and Protogamasellopsis zaheri Abo-Shnaf, Castilho and Moraes (Mesostigmata: Rhodacaridae) (not available commercially but promising for the control of thrips and nematodes) are known to be reared on Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Astigmatina: Acaridae), but the possibility to find a perhaps more efficient prey has not been evaluated. The objective of this paper was to evaluate different astigmatid species as prey for these predators. S. scimitus and P. zaheri oviposited on all evaluated astigmatids and the acarid mites T. putrescentiae and Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Tropeau) were the most suitable prey; to confirm the effect of prey on oviposition rates, pregnant females of the predators were kept under starvation conditions and oviposition was negligible or null. Survivorship was always higher than 78 % and was not influenced by prey species or starvation.

  7. A dispersal model for the range expansion of blacklegged tick (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Madhav, Nita K; Brownstein, John S; Tsao, Jean I; Fish, Durland

    2004-09-01

    The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, a vector for the agents of Lyme borreliosis and other diseases, has expanded its range dramatically over the past 20 yr. However, the relative contributions of different vertebrate host species to this expansion have remained largely unexplored. To address this issue, we simulated the expansion of a theoretical tick population across a simple landscape by using a deterministic, spatially explicit, cellular automata model. The model incorporates the ecology of ticks and three vertebrate hosts: white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann; white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque; and American robin, Turdus migratorius L. Host contribution to tick dispersal is modeled as a function of tick burden, home range size, and population density. These parameters were determined using published and unpublished data. Our results suggest that 1) hosts with high tick burdens and large home ranges (e.g., deer) play a critical role in I. scapularis range expansion; 2) hosts with small home ranges (e.g., mice) can limit range expansion if they divert a sufficient number of ticks from feeding on more mobile hosts; and (3) birds that migrate annually (e.g., robins) can play a crucial role in tick range expansion.

  8. A new species of Aculops (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) from Serbia on Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae), a weed target of classical biological control in the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new eriophyid mite species Aculops dipsaci n. sp. (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) collected from Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae) in northern Serbia is described and illustrated. Differential diagnosis is provided in comparison with Aculops salixis Xue, Song and Hong. This is the first e...

  9. Evaluation of corn plant as potential banker plant for supporting predatory gall Midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in greenhouse vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most important and highly polyphagous pests of vegetables and other crops worldwide. In this study, several experiments were conducted under laboratory and greenhouse conditions to evaluate whether corn plant ...

  10. Effects of Powdery Mildew Fungicide Programs on Twospotted Spider Mite (Acari: Tetranychidae), Hop Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae), and Their Natural Enemies in Hop Yards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari:Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Homoptera:Aphidiae), are the most important arthropod pests of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in the Northern Hemisphere. A potential barrier for greater adoption of conservation biological c...

  11. Description of a new species of Gaeolaelaps (Acari: Laelapidae) from Iran, with a key to world species of the genus with short peritremes.

    PubMed

    Vatankhah, Farzaneh; Nemati, Alireza; Esfandiari, Mehdi; Shishehbor, Parviz

    2016-06-13

    A new species of Gaeolaelaps (Acari, Mesostigmata, Laelapidae) is described based on morphological characters of adult females collected from nest of Formica sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Shahrekord Region, Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran. A key for the identification of species of Gaeolaelaps with short peritremes is presented.

  12. Two new species and one new record of larvae of the family Johnstonianidae (Acari: Prostigmata) from Iran with a key to species of the genus Diplothrombium.

    PubMed

    Noei, Javad; Saboori, Alireza; Hajizadeh, Jalil

    2014-04-03

    Diplothrombium sahragardi sp. nov. and Diplothrombium ostovani sp. nov. (Acari: Johnstonianidae) collected from soil samples (off host) in a forest near Asalem city (Iran) are described. Another species of this family Johnstoniana parva Wendt, Wohltmann, Eggers and Otto, 1994 is reported for the first time from Iran. A larva-based key to Diplothrombium is provided.

  13. Acaricidal activity of the essential oils from three Lamiaceae plant species on Rhipicephalus turanicus Pom. (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Aydın, Levent; Cetin, Huseyin

    2012-10-01

    Acaricidal effects of three Labiatae essential oils extracted from ariel parts of Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus, Mentha longifolia L., and Dorystoechas hastata Boiss. & Heldr. ex Bentham on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus turanicus Pom. (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae were evaluated by using the larval packet test bioassay. Serial dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting concentration of 1-0.1% (1.0, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.1% w/v). Results showed that all essential oils had very similar activity, producing complete mortality (100%) in all tested concentrations on 10-day-old R. turanicus tick larvae.

  14. Water mites of the genus Brachypoda Lebert, 1879 (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Aturidae) from South Korea and the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Pešić, Vladimir; Semenchenko, Ksenia

    2014-01-08

    In this study, four water mites of the genus Brachypoda (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Aturidae) are reported from South Korea and the Far East of Russia. Brachypoda (Ocybrachypoda) milicaae sp. n. (South Korea), B. (Ocybrachypoda) sokolowi sp. n. (Russia) and B. (Eubrachypoda) rossica sp. n. (Russia) are described as new for science. The latter species is the second representative of the subgenus Eubrachypoda Tuzovskij, 2004, previously known only from Lake Biwa in Japan. A new record of Brachypoda rubidata Kim & Chung, 1996, a species so far known only from a pond in Bosung (South Korea), is given. 

  15. A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aceria tripuraensis sp. n. (Acari: Eriophyoidea), on Hibiscus macrophyllus from India.

    PubMed

    Menon, Pratibha; Joshi, Sushila; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor Venkataraman

    2014-02-04

    A new species of Eriophyidae (Acari: Prostigmata: E riophyoidea) mite, Aceria tripuraensis n. sp., is described from the closed bud galls of Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. ex Hornem. (Malvaceae) in India. Aceria tripuraensis n. sp. is distinguished by having a prodorsal shield with distinct rounded lobes on the postero-lateral margins and two pairs of submedian lines. The tarsal solenidia with unusual transverse sculptures, are 2.5x longer than the empodia. Twenty Aceria species are now known to inhabit malvaceous plant hosts and those are listed here along with type localities and host plant details. A key to all known species of Aceria recorded from Hibiscus spp. is also provided.

  16. Note on Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and "Borrelia lonestari" infection in lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae), Nebraska, USA.

    PubMed

    Maegli, Amanda; Loy, J Dustin; Cortinas, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae), is established in southeastern Nebraska yet the prevalence of tick-associated microorganisms is not known. An initial PCR-based analysis for Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Borrelia infection in host-seeking adult ticks collected in southeast Nebraska was conducted. A total of 251 adult ticks collected in six sites in southeast Nebraska were tested. E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and Borrelia spp. were present, and the prevalence of each was approximately 1.6%. This study demonstrates that Ehrlichia spp. are present in Nebraska lone star tick populations.

  17. A new species group and species of the genus Pavania (Acari: Dolichocybidae), phoretic on Onthophagus vitulus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Loghmani, Amir; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Talebi, Ali Asghar

    2013-01-01

    Pavania setiformis Loghmani & Hajiqanbar sp. nov. (Acari: Heterostigmatina: Dolichocybidae) associated with Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) vitulus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is described from northeastern Iran. This remarkable new species represents a new setiformis species group characterized by seta-like sc(1), instead of capitate trichobothria. The genus Pavania is thus divided into three species groups: the fusiformis group (15 species), the gymnopleuri group (3 species) and the setiformis group (1 species). We also found P. sabzevarensis Hajiqanbar & Khaustov, 2010 and P. onthophagi Hajiqanbar & Khaustov, 2010 phoretic on Gymnopleurus mopsus (Pallas) and Onthophagus (Euonthophagus) amyntas alces (Fabricius), respectively.

  18. Spring migratory birds (Aves) extend the northern occurrence of blacklegged tick (Acari:Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Klich, M; Lankester, M W; Wu, K W

    1996-07-01

    Birds that had migrated northward across Lake Superior were captured upon reaching landfall at Thunder Cape (48 degrees 18' N, 88 degrees 56' W) at the southwestern tip of the Sibley Peninsula, northwestern Ontario, from 9 May to 9 June 1995. Twenty-one of 530 birds examined (6 of 55 species) had a total of 34 ticks; 1 blue jay, Cyanocitta cristata, had a northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago). Four blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, larvae were found on an American robin, Turdus migratorius, and 2 on a chipping sparrow, Spizella passerina. This tick was not found on small mammals at Thunder Cape. Twenty-six larvae and a nymph of the rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard) were found on 1 American robin, 2 Swainson's thrushes, Catharus ustulatus, 1 white-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, 1 common yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas, 1 blue jay, and 12 chipping sparrows. A nymph of H. chordeilis (Packard) occurred on 1 chipping sparrow. Results demonstrate that northward migrating birds transport larvae of I. scapularis to areas of Ontario where the tick does not appear to have become established in small mammal populations. Spring migrants may be more involved in the dispersal of I. scapularis larvae than previously thought. Cooler temperatures and shorter seasons experienced in the more northerly, continental parts of the established distribution of this tick may extend the life cycle, resulting in a predominance of larvae rather than nymphs being acquired by northward-bound birds in early spring. Consequently, the role of spring migrating birds in the northward spread of I. scapularis and of borreliosis should be reevaluated.

  19. Residual bioassay to assess the toxicity of Acaricides against Aceria guerreronis (Acari: Eriophyidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Vaneska B; Lima, Debora B; Gondim, Manoel G C; Siqueira, Herbert A A

    2012-08-01

    Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) is considered a major pest of the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), and the use of pesticides is the current method to control it. However, no standard toxicological tests exist to select and assess the efficiency of molecules against the coconut mite. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology that allows for the evaluation of the relative toxicity of acaricides to A. guerreronis through rapid laboratory procedures. We confined A. guerreronis on arenas made out of coconut leaflets and tested two application methods: immersing the leaf fragments in acaricides and spraying acaricides on the leaf fragments under a Potter spray tower. In the latter application method, we sprayed leaf fragments both populated with and devoid of mites. We evaluated the comparative toxicity of two populations (Itamaracá and Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil) by spraying on leaflets without mites and submitted the mortality data to probit analysis after 24 h of exposure. No difference was observed in the LC50, regardless of whether the leaflets were immersed or sprayed with acaricide (abamectin, chlorfenapyr or fenpyroximate). The toxicity of chlorfenapyr and fenpyroximate did not differ, irrespective of whether it was applied directly to the leaflet or to the mite; however, the toxicity of abamectin was higher when applied directly to the mite. Chlorpyrifos and abamectin toxicities were lower for the Petrolina population than for the Itamaracá population. Immersing and spraying coconut leaflets can be used to assess the mortality of A. guerreronis under laboratory conditions.

  20. Seasonal changes in tolerance to cold and desiccation in Phauloppia sp. (Acari, Oribatida) from Finse, Norway.

    PubMed

    Sjursen; Sømme

    2000-10-01

    In the alpine region at Finse, Norway, Phauloppia spp. (Acari, Oribatida) inhabit lichens on top of boulders. Adult mites are about 0.5 mm in length and have a mean weight of ca. 15 µg. Temperatures in the lichens may drop below -35 degrees C in winter and increase to 55 degrees C in the summer. Large seasonal variations were recorded in supercooling points and body fluid osmolality. Mean January values of SCPs and osmolality were -35.3 degrees C and 3756 mOsm, while July values were -9.4 degrees C and 940 mOsm, respectively. Thermal hysteresis proteins were present in both summer and winter acclimated mites. In mid-winter, some of the mites survived more than 49 days in a water vapor saturated atmosphere at -19 degrees C, and more than 42 days enclosed in ice at the same temperature.The mites showed high tolerance to desiccation. Specimens collected in October survived up to 23 days at 22 degrees C and 5% RH. The tolerance to desiccation was lower in specimens collected during the winter. Some mites survived the loss of up to 90% of their total water content and were reactivated when given access to water. Length measurements of individual Phauloppia sp. showed that both male and female mites are clearly divided in two size groups, suggesting that they belong to two closely related species or different populations.

  1. Effect of temperature on development and reproduction of Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed on Aleuroglyphus ovatus.

    PubMed

    Xia, Bin; Zou, Zhiwen; Li, Pengxin; Lin, Peng

    2012-01-01

    The effect of five constant temperatures (16, 20, 24, 28 and 32°C) on the development, survival and reproduction of Neoseiulus barkeri Hughes fed on Aleuroglyphus ovatus Toupeau (Acari: Acaridae) was examined in the laboratory at 85% relative humidity. Development time of different immature stages decreased with increasing temperature, total egg-to-adult development time varied from 5.0 ± 0.13 to 17.5 ± 0.29 days. The lower thermal threshold for development was 9.7 ± 2.48°C and the thermal constant from egg to adult was 111.1 ± 12.34 degree-days. Pre- and post-oviposition period and female longevity all shortened as temperature increased. The longest oviposition period was observed at 24°C with 20.4 ± 1.13 days. At 20, 24, 28 and 32°C, mated females laid on average 0.7 ± 0.08, 1.5 ± 0.04, 1.6 ± 0.11 and 1.5 ± 0.11 eggs per day, respectively, but no eggs were laid at 16°C. Both the maximum fecundity (30.9 eggs per female) and the highest intrinsic rate of increase (r (m) = 0.166) were obtained at 28°C. The results of this study indicated that a mass rearing of N. barkeri with A. ovatus as prey is feasible at the appropriate temperature.

  2. Influence of prescribed burns on the abundance of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Missouri Ozarks.

    PubMed

    Allan, Brian F

    2009-09-01

    The increasingly widespread use of prescribed burns to manage oak (Quercus spp.)-hickory (Carya spp.) forests in the Missouri Ozarks, USA, has considerable potential to alter the abundance of Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae), the lone star tick, an important vector of several emerging pathogens. In particular, responses of important tick hosts, primarily white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), to fire management and the resultant changes in the distribution and abundance of A. americanum are largely unknown. Using several large burn units (61-242 ha) within the Ozark ecosystem, I measured the effect of the time elapsed since sites were burned on the density of white-tailed deer and the larval life stage of A. americanum. Larval tick densities were highest in areas that were 2 yr postburn and were > 6 times higher than tick densities in control units. Deer densities were highest in sites that were burned in the same year as this study and decreased significantly with time since burn. These results suggest that intensive use of postburn sites by white-tailed deer may increase the abundance of A. americanum to levels greater than occurs in sites that remain unburned. Thus, fire management, although beneficial in many aspects of ecosystem management, may bear the unintended cost of locally increasing abundance of A. americanum.

  3. A review of picobiine mites (Acari: Syringophilidae: Picobiinae) parasitising African birds.

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej; Hromada, Martin

    2013-07-01

    A fauna of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with African birds is revised. Two new monotypic genera are proposed, Gunabopicobia gen. n. for Picobia zumpti Lawrence, 1959 and Lawrencipicobia gen. n. for Picobia poicephali Skoracki et Dabert, 2002. These new genera differ from other genera of the subfamily by the following features: in females of Gunabopicobia, propodonotal setae vi are situated anterior to the level of setae ve; the narrow lateral propodonotal shields bear bases of setae vi, ve, si and se; the bases of setae 1a-1a are coalesced; the genital setae and the opisthosomal lobes are absent; the leg I with full set of solenidia and apodemes I are devoid of the thorn-like protuberances in the middle part. In females of Lawrencipicobia, the bases of setae 1a-1a are not coalesced; the propodonotal shield is entire; the genital setae are present; legs I are with full set of solenidia. Additionally, two new species belonging to Picobia Haller, 1878 are described, Picobia illadopsae sp. n. parasitising Illadopsis rufipennis (Sharpe) (Passeriformes: Pellorneidae) in Kenya and Picobia phoenicuri sp. n. infecting Phoenicurus moussieri (Olphe-Galliard) in Tunisia. The following species are redescribed, Columbiphilus alectoris (Fain, Bochkov et Mironov, 2000), Lawrencipicobia poicephali (Skoracki et Dabert, 2001) comb. n. and Picobia phoeniculi (Fain, Bochkov et Mironov, 2000). The key to the genera of the Picobiinae is provided.

  4. Practical sampling plans for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies and apiaries.

    PubMed

    Lee, K V; Moon, R D; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Spivak, M

    2010-08-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) is arguably the most detrimental pest of the European-derived honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Unfortunately, beekeepers lack a standardized sampling plan to make informed treatment decisions. Based on data from 31 commercial apiaries, we developed sampling plans for use by beekeepers and researchers to estimate the density of mites in individual colonies or whole apiaries. Beekeepers can estimate a colony's mite density with chosen level of precision by dislodging mites from approximately to 300 adult bees taken from one brood box frame in the colony, and they can extrapolate to mite density on a colony's adults and pupae combined by doubling the number of mites on adults. For sampling whole apiaries, beekeepers can repeat the process in each of n = 8 colonies, regardless of apiary size. Researchers desiring greater precision can estimate mite density in an individual colony by examining three, 300-bee sample units. Extrapolation to density on adults and pupae may require independent estimates of numbers of adults, of pupae, and of their respective mite densities. Researchers can estimate apiary-level mite density by taking one 300-bee sample unit per colony, but should do so from a variable number of colonies, depending on apiary size. These practical sampling plans will allow beekeepers and researchers to quantify mite infestation levels and enhance understanding and management of V. destructor.

  5. Flagging versus dragging as sampling methods for nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rulison, Eric L.; Kuczaj, Isis; Pang, Genevieve; Hickling, Graham J.; Tsao, Jean I.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    The nymphal stage of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), is responsible for most transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, to humans in North America. From 2010 to fall of 2012, we compared two commonly used techniques, flagging and dragging, as sampling methods for nymphal I. scapularis at three sites, each with multiple sampling arrays (grids), in the eastern and central United States. Flagging and dragging collected comparable numbers of nymphs, with no consistent differences between methods. Dragging collected more nymphs than flagging in some samples, but these differences were not consistent among sites or sampling years. The ratio of nymphs collected by flagging vs dragging was not significantly related to shrub density, so habitat type did not have a strong effect on the relative efficacy of these methods. Therefore, although dragging collected more ticks in a few cases, the numbers collected by each method were so variable that neither technique had a clear advantage for sampling nymphal I. scapularis.

  6. Comparing oxalic acid and sucrocide treatments for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) control under desert conditions.

    PubMed

    Sammataro, D; Finley, J; Underwood, R

    2008-08-01

    The effectiveness of oxalic acid (OA) and Sucrocide (S) (AVA Chemical Ventures, L.L.C., Portsmouth, NH) in reducing populations of the varroa mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies was measured under the desert conditions of Arizona, USA. OA and S were applied three times 7 d apart. A 3.2% solution of OA was applied in sugar syrup via a large volume syringe, trickling 5 ml per space between frames in the colony. S was applied at a concentration of 0.625% (mixed with water), according to the label directions, using a compressed air Chapin sprayer at 20 psi to apply 59 ml per frame space. Varroa mites, collected on a sticky board before, during, and after the treatments, were counted to assess the effectiveness of the treatments. This study showed that a desert climate zone did not confer any positive or negative results on the acaricidal properties of OA. Even with brood present in colonies, significant varroa mite mortality occurred in the OA colonies. In contrast, we found that Sucrocide was not effective as a mite control technique. Despite its ability to increase mite mortality in the short-term, varroa mite populations measured posttreatment were not affected any more by Sucrocide than by no treatment at all.

  7. Passion fruit green spot virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on passion fruit in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, E W; Rezende, J A M; Rodrigues, J C V

    2003-01-01

    Passion fruit green spot disease was first identified in 1997 after a severe outbreak at Vera Cruz County, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Mature yellow fruits of Passiflora edulis Simms f. flavicarpa Degener showed characteristic green spots, 2-5 mm in diameter and patches of green tissues were present on senescent leaves. The devastating effect to passion flower is caused by necrotic lesions that encircle the stems and kill the plant. In severe cases, entire orchards of a few hectares in size have been completely destroyed. The disease was always preceded by heavy infestations of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Transmission electron microscopy of affected tissues (fruits, leaves, and stems) consistently revealed the presence of short, bacilliform particles (50-70 nm x 100-120 nm) in the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as the presence of a dense viroplasm in the cytoplasm. This cytopathic effect has been found in several other Brevipalpus-transmitted or associated viruses and is classified as a cytoplasmic type of disease. Experimental reproduction of the leaf and stem symptoms was achieved by transferring B. phoenicis collected from affected field passion flower plants onto healthy plants. The evidence supports a viral etiology for the disease and the agent was named passion fruit green spot virus. Its relationship with other B. phoenicis related viruses continues to be studied. The disease was also found in the Brazilian states of Bahia, Sergipe, Rondonia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and in the Federal District. Use of one or more of the following acaricides (hexythiazox, fenbutatin-oxide, propargite, quinomethionate, or dicofol) has significantly reduced the incidence of the disease.

  8. Prevalence of Ehrlichia, Borrelia, and Rickettsial agents in Amblyomma americanum (Acari : Ixodidae) collected from nine states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mixson, T.R.; Campbell, S.R.; Gill, J.S.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Reichard, M.V.; Schultz, T.L.; Dasch, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Ambyomma antericanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) is an aggressive tick that feeds on humans during all postembryonic life stages. In many regions of the United States, it is the tick most commonly found attached to humans. Public health interest has grown recently, due to the recognition of new human pathogens transmitted by A. antericanum and the expanding distribution of the tick. A. americanum is a vector of several bacteria pathogenic to humans. Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii cause moderate-to-severe febrile illness. 'Rickettsia amblyommii,' a member of the spotted fever group Rickettsia, also has recently been implicated as a possible human pathogen based on serologic evidence from persons recovering from illness after a tick bite. We have determined the prevalence of infection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, E. ewingii, 'Borrelia lonestari,' and R. amblyommii within A. americanum ticks from 29 sites in nine states. Overall infection prevalences were 4.7% for E. chaffeensis (range, 0-27%), 3.5% for E. ewingii (range, 0-18.6%), 2.5% for B. lonestari (range, 0-12.2%), and 41.2% for R. amblyommii (range, 0-84.0%). In addition, 87 ticks (4.3%) were infected with two or more bacteria. This report documents new distribution records for E. ewingii, B. lonestari, and R. amblyommii and underscores the nonhomogeneous distribution of pathogen foci of infection. Additional surveillance throughout the range of A. antericanum is warranted to increase physician and public awareness of the risk of disease to humans from exposure to the agents transmitted by this tick.

  9. Developmental parameters and seasonal phenology of Calepitrimerus vitis (Acari: Eriophyidae) in wine grapes of western Oregon.

    PubMed

    Walton, V M; Dreves, A J; Coop, L B; Jones, G V; Skinkis, P A

    2010-12-01

    Developmental parameters of protogyne Calepitrimerus vitis (Nalepa) (Acari: Eriophyidae) were determined at 12, 15, 17, 22, 25, 28, 31, and 34 °C to better understand seasonal activity, population growth, and ultimately more effectively manage pest mites in wine grapes. Net reproductive rate (R(o)) was greater than zero at all temperatures with the maximum R(o) (9.72) at 25 °C. The lowest estimated R(o) (0.001) occurred at 34 °C. There was a gradual decrease in mean generation time (T) as temperatures increased from 17 to 31 °C. The shortest and longest generation time was recorded at 31 °C (T = 5.5 d) and 17 °C (T = 17.5 d). Rates of natural increase were lowest at 17°C (0.035) and increased with increasing temperatures, respectively. The peak rate of natural increase value (0.141) was at 25 °C. Estimations for minimum and maximum developmental thresholds were 10.51 and 39.19 °C, respectively, while the optimum developmental temperature was 26.9 °C. The thermal constant for egg to adult development was estimated at 87.7DD. The highest fecundity was observed at 25 °C. These parameters indicated that mites begin feeding at the onset of shoot growth when tissue is most susceptible in spring. Historical weather data showed that vines are in this susceptible growth stage for longer periods in the cool Willamette Valley compared with warmer Umpqua and Applegate/Rogue Valley regions. Estimation of degree-days indicated when deutogyne mites move to overwintering refuge sites. Degree-day accumulations indicated up to 14 generations per growing season.

  10. Bacterial diversity in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) with a focus on members of the genus Rickettsia.

    PubMed

    Heise, Stephanie R; Elshahed, M S; Little, S E

    2010-03-01

    The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae), is commonly reported from people and animals throughout the eastern U.S. and is associated with transmission of a number of emerging diseases. To better define the microbial communities within lone star ticks, 16S rRNA gene based analysis using bacteria-wide primers, followed by sequencing of individual clones (n = 449) was used to identify the most common bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) present within colony-reared and wild A. americanum. The colony-reared ticks contained primarily sequence affiliated with members of the genus Coxiella (89%; 81/91), common endosymbionts of ticks, and Brevibacterium (11%; 10/91). Similarly, analysis of clones from unfed wild lone star ticks revealed that 96.7% (89/92) of all the OTUs identified were affiliated with Coxiella-like endosymbionts, as compared with only 5.1-11.7% (5/98-9/77) of those identified from wild lone star ticks after feeding. In contrast, the proportion of OTUs identified as Rickettsia sp. in wild-caught ticks increased from 2.2% (2/92) before feeding to as high as 46.8% (36/77) after feeding, and all Rickettsia spp. sequences recovered were most similar to those described from the spotted fever group Rickettsia, specifically R. amblyommii and R. massiliae. Additional characterization of the Rickettsiales tick community by polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing of 17 kDa and gltA genes confirmed these initial findings and suggested that novel Rickettsia spp. are likely present in these ticks. These data provide insight into the overall, as well as the rickettsial community of wild lone star ticks and may ultimately aid in identification of novel pathogens transmitted by A. americanum.

  11. Pest management systems affect composition but not abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Árpád; Pénzes, Béla; Sipos, Péter; Hegyi, Tamás; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Markó, Viktor

    2014-04-01

    We examined the faunal composition and abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards under different pest management systems in Hungary. A total of 30 apple orchards were surveyed, including abandoned and organic orchards and orchards where integrated pest management (IPM) or broad spectrum insecticides (conventional pest management) were applied. A total of 18 phytoseiid species were found in the canopy of apple trees. Species richness was greatest in the organic orchards (mean: 3.3 species/400 leaves) and the least in the conventional orchards (1.4), with IPM (2.1) and abandoned (2.7) orchards showing intermediate values. The phytoseiid community's Rényi diversity displayed a similar pattern. However, the total phytoseiid abundance in the orchards with different pest management systems did not differ, with abundance varying between 1.8 and 2.6 phytoseiids/10 leaves. Amblyseius andersoni, Euseius finlandicus, and Typhlodromus pyri were the three most common species. The relative abundance of A. andersoni increased with the pesticide load of the orchards whereas the relative abundance of E. finlandicus decreased. The abundance of T. pyri did not change in the apple orchards under different pest management strategies; regardless of the type of applied treatment, they only displayed greater abundance in five of the orchards. The remaining 15 phytoseiid species only occurred in small numbers, mostly from the abandoned and organic orchards. We identified a negative correlation between the abundance of T. pyri and the other phytoseiids in the abandoned and organic orchards. However, we did not find any similar link between the abundance of A. andersoni and E. finlandicus.

  12. Bloodmeal Size and Spirochete Acquisition of Ornithodoros hermsi (Acari: Argasidae) During Feeding

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Brandi N.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Lopez, Job E.; Schwan, Tom G.

    2011-01-01

    Ornithodoros hermsi Wheeler (Acari: Argasidae) is the vector of Borrelia hermsii, the primary cause of tick-borne relapsing fever in North America. This tick is one of the smallest Ornithodoros species involved with the biological transmission of spirochetes; yet, the amount of blood ingested while feeding is unknown. Therefore, we determined the amount of blood O. hermsi ingested during a bloodmeal to establish its potential for spirochete acquisition while feeding on an infected host. Ticks at different developmental stages were weighed before and after feeding and the volume of blood ingested was calculated. Females ingested the most blood, averaging ≈15 µl per meal, but late-stage nymphs took in the most blood in proportion to unfed body weight. A cohort of nymphs was weighed three more times during the 48 h after feeding, which demonstrated that O. hermsi may have excreted coxal fluid ranging from 24 –36% of the bloodmeal weight. We also developed a quantitative polymerase chain reaction method to determine the number of spirochetes ingested and maintained within the ticks after feeding. The density of spirochetes in ticks having just engorged was slightly less than in the host’s blood. In the first 5 d after feeding, the number of spirochetes within the ticks declined from the number initially ingested but then remained constant through 15 d. These observations establish a basis for future studies to determine the minimum number of spirochetes required in the host’s blood to allow O. hermsi to become persistently infected and transmit during subsequent bloodmeals. PMID:21175068

  13. Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Demodecidae) parasitizing Castor fiber (Rodentia), and other parasitic arthropods associated with Castor spp.

    PubMed

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Fryderyk, Sławomira; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2016-02-11

    A new species of demodecid mite, Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Demodecidae), is described based on adult stages from the skin of the nasal region of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758, collected in Poland. This is the first detection of a representative demodecid mite in rodents of the suborder Castorimorpha and also represents the first detection of a skin mite in Eurasian beavers. The new species is a small skin mite (average 173 µm in length) characterized by sexual dimorphism related to body proportions. D. castoris sp. nov. was observed in 4 out of 6 beavers examined (66.6%), with a mean intensity of 10.8 and an intensity range of 2-23 ind. host(-1). This paper also contains a checklist of parasitic arthropods known from Castor spp.

  14. Genetics and mechanisms of permethrin resistance in the Santa Luiza strain of Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Andrew Y; Davey, Ronald B; Miller, Robert J; Guerrero, Felix D; George, John E

    2008-05-01

    The Santa Luiza strain of the southern cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae), is resistant to both permethrin and amitraz. A study was conducted at the USDA Cattle Fever Tick Research Laboratory in Texas to investigate the genetic basis of permethrin resistance with cross-mating experiments, and to determine the mechanisms of permethrin resistance through synergist bioassays and biochemical analysis of esterase profiles. The Muñoz strain, an acaricide-susceptible reference strain, was used as the susceptible parent and the Santa Luiza strain, originating in Brazil, was used as the resistant parent. The Food and Agriculture Organization larval packet test was used to measure the levels of susceptibility of larvae of the parental strains, F1, backcross, F2, and F3 generations to permethrin. Results of reciprocal crossing experiments suggested that permethrin resistance was inherited as an incomplete recessive trait. There was no significant maternal effect on larval progeny's susceptibility to permethrin in the F1 and subsequent generations. The values of the degree of dominance were estimated at -0.700 and -0.522 for the F1 larvae with resistant and susceptible female parents, respectively. Results of bioassays on larval progeny of the F1 backcrossed with the resistant parent strain and of the F2 generations suggested that one major gene was responsible for permethrin resistance in the Santa Luiza strain. Selection of F3 larvae with either permethrin or amitraz led to significantly increased resistance to both permethrin and amitraz, indicating a close linkage between genes responsible for permethrin and amitraz resistance. The possible involvement of metabolic enzymes in permethrin resistance in the Santa Luiza strain of B. microplus was dismissed by the lack of enhanced synergism by TPP or PBO, as observed in synergist bioassays, as well as by the lack of enhanced esterase activity in the Santa Luiza strain relative to the susceptible

  15. Amblyomma aureolatum and Ixodes auritulus (Acari: Ixodidae) on birds in southern Brazil, with notes on their ecology.

    PubMed

    Arzua, Márcia; Navarro Da Silva, Mário Antonio; Famadas, Kátia Maria; Beati, Lorenza; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes

    2003-01-01

    Between January 1999 and December 2000, 876 bird specimens were captured in three different ecological environments from the Reinhard Maack Park, Curitiba, State of Paraná, southern Brazil. A total of 142 birds (16.2%) were infested with Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas 1772) (N=699) and/or Ixodes auritulus Neumann, 1904 (N=18) ticks. Questing A. aureolatum nymphs (N=2) and adults (N=5) were also collected from the soil and the vegetation. None of the I. auritulus were collected off-host. We collected only immatures of A. aureolatum on birds, but all life stages of I. auritulus. The latter species was collected on Turdus rufiventris and on Synallaxis ruficapilla, which is herein recognized as a host of I. auritulus for the first time. Moreover, this is also the first report of A. aureolatum infesting birds, and 16 different bird species were found infested. It was observed that larval infestation was positively correlated with the dry and cold season, while nymphal infestation was positively correlated with the warm and rainy season. Although only 2-years worth of data is provided, our results suggest the infestation of birds by ticks was significantly higher at the biotopes formed by forest at its first stage of regeneration 'capoeira' and the original Araucaria forest habitat 'mata' than the ecotone between forest and urban areas 'peripheral area'.

  16. A Preliminary Investigation on Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Infesting Birds in Kızılırmak Delta, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Adem; Erciyas-Yavuz, Kiraz

    2016-01-01

    Ticks are mandatory blood-feeding ectoparasites of mammals, birds, reptiles, and even amphibians. Turkey has a rich bird fauna and is located on the main migration route for many birds. However, information on ticks infesting birds is very limited. In the present study, we aimed to determine ticks infesting birds in Kızılırmak Delta, Turkey. In 2014 autumn bird migration season, a total of 7,452 birds belonging to 79 species, 52 genera, 35 families, and 14 orders were examined for tick infestation. In total, 287 (234 larvae, 47 nymphs, 6♀) ticks were collected from 54 passerine birds (prevalence = 0.72%) belonging to 12 species. Ticks were identified as Amblyomma sp., Dermacentor marginatus (Sulzer), Haemaphysalis concinna Koch, Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini and Fanzago, Hyalomma sp., Ixodes frontalis (Panzer), and Ixodes ricinus (L). The most common tick species were I. frontalis (223 larvae, 23 nymphs, 6♀) followed by I. ricinus (3 larvae, 12 nymphs) and H. concinna (4 larvae, 6 nymphs). Based on our results, it can be said that Erithacus rubecula (L.) is the main host of immature I. frontalis, whereas Turdus merula L. is the most important carrier of immature stages of some ticks in Kızılırmak Delta, Turkey. To the best of our knowledge, most of the tick-host associations found in this study have never been documented in the literature.

  17. [The first report of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1907 (Acari Ixodidae) on the lizard Tupinambis teguixin (L.) at the Municipality of Glorinha, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Martins, João R; Monticelli, Elida C; Onofrio, Valéria C; Barros-Battesti, Darcy M; Doyle, Rovaina L

    2007-01-01

    Amblyomma fuscum known only from Brazil has been described as a rare tick species with few reports of its occurrence in South and Southeast region. This is a new records this tick species (9 females) parasitizing lizard (Tupinambis teguixin) at the Municipality of Glorinha, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The females were deposited in the tick collection of Veterinary Research Institute Desiderio Finamor (7 specimens), Eldorado do Sul, RS and in the Acari collection from Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, State of São Paulo (2 specimens). The finding confirms establishment de A. fuscum in the South of Brazil.

  18. First record of the myzus species group (Acari: Podapolipidae: Eutarsopolipus Berlese, 1911) from Asia, with the description of two new species parasitising carabid beetles.

    PubMed

    Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Mortazavi, Abdolazim

    2012-11-01

    Two new species of Eutarsopolipus Berlese, 1911 (Acari: Heterostigmatina: Podapolipidae), belonging to the myzus species group, are described from the subelytra of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in Iran. Eutarsopolipus anichtchenkoi n. sp. was found on Pterostichus sp. and E. terricolae n. sp. on Scarites terricola Bonelli. This is the first record of the myzus species group from Asia. A key to the adult females of this species group worldwide is provided, and the distribution and host range of all representatives of the group are discussed.

  19. A spotted fever group Rickettsia from an exotic tick species, Amblyomma exornatum (Acari: Ixodidae), in a reptile breeding facility in the United States.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Will K; Durden, Lance A; Dasch, Gregory A

    2006-09-01

    Adults and nymphs of Amblyomma exornatum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae), an exotic African tick of monitor lizards, were collected from a Gray's monitor lizard, Varanus olivaceus Hallowell, that died in a reptile facility in Alabama. Nine adult ticks were tested by polymerase chain reaction for rickettsial agents. DNA from a novel spotted fever group Rickettsia was amplified and sequenced from one of the nine ticks. The novel Rickettsia was most similar to "Rickettsia anan," which is associated with Amblyomma from Asia. The detection of a spotted fever group Rickettsia in exotic ticks emphasizes the potential threat posed by the importation and propagation of exotic animals in the United States.

  20. Detection of two Bartonella tamiae-like sequences in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) using 16S-23S intergenic spacer region-specific primers.

    PubMed

    Billeter, Sarah A; Miller, Melissa K; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Levy, Michael G

    2008-01-01

    Four hundred and sixty-six questing Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) from Carolina County, VA, and 98 questing A. americanum from Chatham County, NC, were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. Two amplicons, approximately 270-280 bp, were detected in two ticks from Virginia. Based upon PCR and sequencing, an adult male and adult female tick harbored DNA sequences closely related to Bartonella tamiae (DQ395180). Bartonella DNA was not detected in A. americanum from North Carolina. Potential transmission of Bartonella spp. by A. americanum should be the focus of future experimental studies.

  1. Otoacariasis due to Edentalges bradypus Fonseca 1954 (Acari; Psoroptidae) infestation in the brown-throated three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Clarissa Pimentel; Verocai, Guilherme Gomes; de Arruda, Julio Almeida Alencar Matos; Pires, Jeferson Rocha; Takitani, Andréa Yuri; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the first description of gross pathological aspects of otoacariasis due to Edentalges bradypus Fonseca 1954 (Acari; Psoroptidae) infestation in the brown-throated three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825 (Xenarthra; Bradypodidae) in Brazil. Mites were collected from massive skin crusts seen in both external ear canals and around both eyes of an extremely debilitated advanced-aged female sloth brought to the Wildlife Care Section of Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  2. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in larval Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) feeding on blackbirds in northwestern Italy.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, Alessandro; Nebbia, Patrizia; Tramuta, Clara; Grego, Elena; Tomassone, Laura; Ainardi, Romina; Venturini, Lucia; De Meneghi, Daniele; Meneguz, Pier Giuseppe

    2005-03-01

    Birds belonging to 59 species (n = 1,206) were live captured in Piemonte, northwestern Italy, in 2001. Ixodes ricinus (L.) larvae were collected from 59 birds belonging to nine species, and nymphs were recovered on 79 birds belonging to 10 species. Eurasian blackbirds, Turdus merula L., had significantly higher levels of infestation by ticks than other passerine species. Larval I. ricinus of blackbirds peaked in summer, when prevalence was 39% (95% confidence interval 24.2-55.5) and mean number of ticks per host was 3.3 (1.6-7.2), whereas nymphs peaked in spring, when prevalence was 72.2% (54.8-85.8) and mean number of ticks per host was 6.9 (4.4-10.7). Immature I. ricinus were coincidentally aggregated on blackbirds, with 15 blackbirds feeding 67.4% of nymphs and 40.3% of larvae, and coinfestation by both stages was relatively high in summer: Kappa = 0.64 (0.40-0.88). Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 58.3% (35.9-78.5) of larvae with engorgement ratio > or = 3 that were collected from blackbirds. Larvae that were collected from other passerine species gave negative PCR results. Sixteen of 21 PCR-positive samples belonged to B. garinii (76.2%), and five (23.8%) were Borrelia valaisiana. Results of this study suggest that blackbirds play an important role as hosts for immature I. ricinus and as reservoir of Borrelia garinii in northwestern Italy.

  3. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Irish, Brian M

    2012-08-01

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different degrees by R. indica infestation throughout the Caribbean. Genetic resistance in the host and the proximity of natural sources of mite infestation has been suggested as two of the main factors affecting R. indica densities in Musa spp. plantations. Greenhouse experiments were established to try to determine what effect coconut palm proximities and planting densities had on R. indica populations infesting Musa spp. plants. Trials were carried out using potted Musa spp. and coconut palms plants at two different ratios. In addition, fourteen Musa spp. hybrid accessions were evaluated for their susceptibility/resistance to colonization by R. indica populations. Differences were observed for mite population buildup for both the density and germplasm accession evaluations. These results have potential implications on how this important pest can be managed on essential agricultural commodities such as bananas and plantains.

  4. The role of the bacterial community in the nutritional ecology of the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae).

    PubMed

    Zindel, Renate; Ofek, Maya; Minz, Dror; Palevsky, Eric; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Aebi, Alexandre

    2013-04-01

    The biology of many arthropods can only be understood when their associated microbiome is considered. The nutritional requirements of the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini Claparede (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae) in the laboratory have been shown to be very easily satisfied, and in the field the mites prefer fungus-infected over uninfected plants. To test whether symbiotic bacteria facilitate the survival of R. robini on a temporarily nutritionally unbalanced diet, we investigated the composition of its microbiome. Using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments, 3 genera were found to dominate the bacterial community: Myroides (41.4%), Serratia (11.4%), and Alcaligenes (4.5%); the latter 2 are known to include chitinase-producing species. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that mite fecundity is significantly higher (2 times) on fungus than on controls (sterilized potato dextrose agar and filter paper). Also, when mite homogenate was applied to a chitin layer, the halo produced through degradation was clearly visible, while the saline control did not produce a halo. We thus concluded that R. robini utilizes fungal chitin, at least to a certain extent, as a food source with the help of its associated bacteria. This information supports the general concept of multigenome organisms and the involvement of bacteria in the mite's nutritional ecology.

  5. Community structure variability of Uropodina mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) in nests of the common mole, Talpa europaea, in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Napierała, Agnieszka; Mądra, Anna; Leszczyńska-Deja, Kornelia; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Gołdyn, Bartłomiej; Błoszyk, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    Underground nests of Talpa europaea, known as the common mole, are very specific microhabitats, which are also quite often inhabited by various groups of arthropods. Mites from the suborder Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata) are only one of them. One could expect that mole nests that are closely located are inhabited by communities of arthropods with similar species composition and structure. However, results of empirical studies clearly show that even nests which are close to each other can be different both in terms of the species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities. So far, little is known about the factors that can cause these differences. The major aim of this study was to identify factors determining species composition, abundance, and community structure of Uropodina communities in mole nests. The study is based on material collected during a long-term investigation conducted in western parts of Poland. The results indicate that the two most important factors influencing species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities in mole nests are nest-building material and depth at which nests are located. Composition of Uropodina communities in nests of moles was also compared with that of other microhabitats (e.g. rotten wood, forest litter, soil) based on data from 4421 samples collected in Poland. Communities of this habitat prove most similar to these of open areas, especially meadows, as well as some forest types.

  6. Relative contribution of biotic and abiotic factors to the population density of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Rêgo, Adriano S; Teodoro, Adenir V; Maciel, Anilde G S; Sarmento, Renato A

    2013-08-01

    The cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa, is a key pest of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), and it may be kept in check by naturally occurring predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae. In addition to predatory mites, abiotic factors may also contribute to regulate pest mite populations in the field. Here, we evaluated the population densities of both M. tanajoa and the generalist predatory mite Euseius ho DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) over the cultivation cycle (11 months) of cassava in four study sites located around the city of Miranda do Norte, Maranhão, Brazil. The abiotic variables rainfall, temperature and relative humidity were also recorded throughout the cultivation cycle of cassava. We determined the relative importance of biotic (density of E. ho) and abiotic (rainfall, temperature and relative humidity) factors to the density of M. tanajoa. The density of M. tanajoa increased whereas the density of E. ho remained constant throughout time. A hierarchical partitioning analysis revealed that most of the variance for the density of M. tanajoa was explained by rainfall and relative humidity followed by E. ho density and temperature. We conclude that abiotic factors, especially rainfall, were the main mechanisms driving M. tanajoa densities.

  7. Prey preference and life tables of the predatory mite Parasitus bituberosus (Acari: Parasitidae) when offered various prey combinations.

    PubMed

    Szafranek, Piotr; Lewandowski, Mariusz; Kozak, Marcin

    2013-09-01

    Parasitus bituberosus Karg (Acari: Parasitidae) is one of the predatory mite species inhabiting mushroom houses. It is known to accept a wide range of prey, suggesting that it may be a promising candidate for the biological control of key pests of mushroom culture. In our study it did not show any prey preference among four groups of small organisms often occurring in mushroom growth medium, namely rhabditid nematodes, pygmephorid mites, and sciarid and phorid fly larvae. Nevertheless, the type of food these predators fed on affects their development. The shortest egg-to-adult development time was obtained on a nematode diet. On a diet of phorid larvae, mite development stopped at the deutonymph stage; none reached adulthood. All other diets sufficed to reach the adult phase. Female fecundity when fed nematodes and sciarid larvae did not differ, but it was much lower when fed pygmephorid mites. Other life table parameters confirmed that pygmephorid mites constituted the worst diet for P. bituberosus. The highest intrinsic rate of population increase (r m = 0.34) was obtained on the nematode diet; when fed sciarid larvae and pygmephorid mites it was 0.25 and 0.14, respectively. Our study provides good reasons to further test P. bituberosus as biocontrol agent of especially sciarid flies and nematodes, especially when the compost is well colonized by mushroom mycelium (which retards nematode growth).

  8. Regional factors rather than forest type drive the community structure of soil living oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida).

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Georgia; Scheu, Stefan; Maraun, Mark

    2012-06-01

    Most European forests are managed by humans. However, the manner and intensity of management vary. While the effect of forest management on above-ground communities has been investigated in detail, effects on the below-ground fauna remain poorly understood. Oribatid mites are abundant microarthropods in forest soil and important decomposers in terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we investigated the effect of four forest types (i.e., managed coniferous forests; 30 and 70 years old managed beech forests; natural beech forests) on the density, diversity and community structure of oribatid mites (Acari). The study was replicated at three regions in Germany: the Swabian Alb, the Hainich and the Schorfheide. To relate changes in oribatid mite community structure to environmental factors, litter mass, pH, C and N content of litter, fine roots and C content of soil were measured. Density of oribatid mites was highest in the coniferous forests and decreased in the order 30 years old, 70 years old, and natural beech forests. Mass of the litter layer and density of oribatid mites were strongly correlated indicating that the litter layer is an important factor regulating oribatid mite densities. Diversity of oribatid mites was little affected by forest type indicating that they harbor similar numbers of niches. Species composition differed between the forest types, suggesting different types of niches. The community structure of oribatid mites differed more strongly between the three regions than between the forest types indicating that regional factors are more important than effects associated with forest type.

  9. Screening of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) for reproductive endosymbionts reveals links between co-infection and evolutionary history

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Kai; Chen, Ya-Ting; Yang, Kun; Qiao, Ge-Xia; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive endosymbionts have been shown to have wide-ranging effects on many aspects of their hosts’ biology. A first step to understanding how these endosymbionts interact with their hosts is to determine their incidences. Here, we screened for four reproductive endosymbionts (Wolbachia, Cardinium, Spiroplasma and Rickettsia) in 28 populations of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) representing 12 species. Each of the four endosymbionts were identified in at least some of the tested specimens, and their infection patterns showed variations at the species-level and population-level, suggesting their distributions can be correlated with both the phylogeny and ecology of the hosts. Co-infections of unrelated bacteria, especially double infections of Wolbachia and Cardinium within the same individuals were common. Spiroplasma and Rickettsia infections were specific to particular host species, respectively. Further, the evolutionary histories of these endosymbionts were inferred by comparing the phylogenies of them and their hosts. These findings can help to clarify the interactions between endosymbionts and arthropods. PMID:27291078

  10. Three new species of oribatid mites of the family Punctoribatidae (Acari, Oribatida) from alpine bogs of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Minor, Maria A

    2016-03-15

    Three new species of oribatid mites of the family Punctoribatidae (Acari, Oribatida) are described from alpine bogs of the Central Otago region in the South Island of New Zealand. Macrogena hexasetosa sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to M. brevisensilla Ermilov & Minor, 2015, however, it differs from the latter by larger body size, the presence of six pairs of genital setae, notogastral and ano-adanal setae of medium size, setiform rostral setae, narrower tutorial cusps, the absence of antero-ventral teeth on genua I, II and femora II, and by the absence of striae on the subcapitular mentum. Porallozetes badamdorji sp. nov. differs from the type species-P. dispar (Hammer, 1973)-by larger body length, the presence of interlamellar setae, short and clavate bothridial setae, anterior notogastral margin, notogastral setae of medium size, semi-oval dorsophragmata, and by the position of notogastral porose areas A2 posteriorly to A1. Safrobates gerdi sp. nov. differs from the type species-S. miniporus Mahunka, 1989-by larger body size, the presence of setiform rostral setae, and by notogastral setae of medium length. Porallozetes and Safrobates are recorded in New Zealand for the first time. Generic diagnoses for Macrogena, Porallozetes and Safrobates are given.

  11. Avian hosts of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) and the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in larvae feeding on the Oregon junco.

    PubMed

    Wright, S A; Tucker, J R; Donohue, A M; Castro, M B; Kelley, K L; Novak, M G; Macedo, P A

    2011-07-01

    Larval and nymphal western blacklegged tick, Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls (Acari: Ixodidae), were collected from birds, rodents, and lizards at Quail Ridge Reserve located in Napa County in northwestern California. Species from three vertebrate classes were sampled simultaneously from two transects during two consecutive spring seasons. Feeding larval and nymphal ticks were removed and preserved for counting, examination and testing for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner. Mean infestations with I. pacificus subadults on lizards were 10.0, on birds 2.9, and on rodents 1.3. I. pacificus larvae (204) collected from 10 avian species and (215) collected from two rodent species were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.s. via real-time polymerase chain reaction. Three B. burgdorferi-infected larvae were taken from two Junco hyemalis and two infected larvae from one Neotoma fuscipes Baird. This is the detection of B. burgdorferi ss in an Ixodes pacificus larvae feeding on a Junco hyemalis L., [corrected] in western North America.

  12. New Miticides for Integrated Pest Management of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Honey Bee Colonies on the Canadian Prairies.

    PubMed

    Vandervalk, L P; Nasr, M E; Dosdall, L M

    2014-12-01

    Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman 2000 (Acari: Varroidae) is an ectoparasitic mite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Honey bee colonies require extensive management to prevent mortality caused by varroa mites and the viruses they vector. New miticides (Thymovar and HopGuard) to manage varroa mites were evaluated during the spring and fall treatment windows of the Canadian prairies to determine their effectiveness as part of an integrated management strategy. Thymovar and HopGuard were evaluated alongside the currently used industry standards: Apivar and formic acid. Results demonstrated that Apivar and formic acid remain effective V. destructor management options under spring and fall conditions. Applications of Thymovar during spring were associated with a reduction in brood area, and therefore should be limited to the fall season. The miticide HopGuard was not effective in managing V. destructor, and alteration of the current delivery system is necessary. This study demonstrates the potential for new effective treatment options to supplement currently used V. destructor integrated pest management systems.

  13. Amblyomma boeroi n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), a parasite of the Chacoan peccary Catagonus wagneri (Rusconi) (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Nava, Santiago; Mangold, Atilio J; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Venzal, José M; Oscherov, Elena B; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2009-07-01

    All parasitic stages of Amblyomma boeroi n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae) are described here from Catagonus wagneri (Rusconi) in Argentina. The diagnostic characters for the male are a combination of orbited eyes, a 2/2 dental formula, coxa IV considerably larger than coxae I-III and with a long, sickle-shaped, medially directed spur arising from its internal margin, a scutum which is light grey to very pale ivory in colour, and the absence of a postanal groove. The diagnostic characters for the females are a combination of orbited eyes, a central pair and two marginal pairs of short, coarse notal setae, a 2/2 dental formula, and the absence of a postanal groove. The nymph has short palpi and a 2/2 dental formula arranged in 6 rows, its eyes are convex and orbited, and it has no postanal groove. The dorsally rectangular basis capituli of the larva, its bulging eyes and slightly sinuous posterior scutal margin all serve to distinguish it from the larva of other species of the genus. The principal host for all parasitic stages is C. wagneri (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae). Phylogenetically A. boeroi appears to represent an independent lineage within Amblyomma Koch, 1844.

  14. The international trade in reptiles (Reptilia)--the cause of the transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) to Poland.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Magdalena

    2010-05-11

    The problem of the unnatural transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on reptiles (Reptilia) imported to Poland is presented. In the period from 2003 to 2007, 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: Testudo, Iguana, Varanus, Gongylophis, Python, Spalerosophis, Psammophis. The reptiles most infested with ticks are imported to Poland from Ghana in Africa, and are the commonly bred terrarium reptiles: Varanus exanthematicus and Python regius. As a result of the investigations, the transfer of exotic ticks on reptiles to Poland was confirmed. There were 2104 specimens of the genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma. The following species were found: Amblyomma exornatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma flavomaculatum (Lucas, 1846), Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma nuttalli Donitz, 1909, Amblyomma quadricavum (Schulze, 1941), Amblyomma transversale (Lucas, 1844), Amblyomma varanense (Supino, 1897), Amblyomma sp. Koch, 1844, Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758). All the species of ticks of genus Amblyomma revealed have been discovered in Poland for the first time. During the research, 13 cases of anomalies of morphological structure were confirmed in the ticks A. flavomaculatum, A. latum and H. aegyptium. The expanding phenomenon of the import of exotic reptiles in Poland and Central Europe is important for parasitological and epidemiological considerations, and therefore requires monitoring and wide-ranging prophylactic activities to prevent the inflow of exotic parasites to Poland.

  15. Host plant mediates foraging behavior and mutual interference among adult Stethorus gilvifrons (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) preying on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Bayoumy, Mohamed H; Osman, Mohamed A; Michaud, J P

    2014-10-01

    Physical plant characteristics can influence predator foraging and their behavioral responses to each other. This study examined the searching efficiency and functional response of adult female Stethorus gilvifrons Mulsant foraging for Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on castor bean, common bean, and cucumber leaves. Experiments conducted on leaf discs in arenas for 12 h revealed a type II functional response for S. gilvifrons on all host plants. Per capita searching efficiency and killing power decreased with increasing predator density on all plants, but most notably on common bean, the plant with the highest prey consumption rates, due to greater mutual interference. Attack rates were highest on common bean and lowest on castor bean, whereas handling times were shortest on common bean and longest on cucumber, such that the daily predation rate was maximal on common bean. Host plant interacted with predator and prey densities to affect searching efficiency and functional response, the differences in mite consumption among host plants increasing with predator and prey densities. The waxy layers of castor bean leaves and high trichome counts of cucumber leaves appeared to reduce predator foraging efficiency. Thus, the efficacy of S. gilvifrons against T. urticae is likely to be greatest on plants such as Phaeseolus vulgaris L. that have relatively smooth leaves.

  16. Molecular identification of blood meal sources of ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) using cytochrome b gene as a genetic marker

    PubMed Central

    Che Lah, Ernieenor Faraliana; Yaakop, Salmah; Ahamad, Mariana; Md Nor, Shukor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Blood meal analysis (BMA) from ticks allows for the identification of natural hosts of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). The aim of this study is to identify the blood meal sources of field collected on-host ticks using PCR analysis. DNA of four genera of ticks was isolated and their cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene was amplified to identify host blood meals. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on data of Cyt b sequences using Neighbor Joining (NJ) and Maximum Parsimony (MP) analysis using MEGA 5.05 for the clustering of hosts of tick species. Twenty out of 27 samples showed maximum similarity (99%) with GenBank sequences through a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) while 7 samples only showed a similarity range of between 91–98%. The phylogenetic trees showed that the blood meal samples were derived from small rodents (Leopoldamys sabanus, Rattus tiomanicus and Sundamys muelleri), shrews (Tupaia glis) and mammals (Tapirus indicus and Prionailurus bengalensis), supported by 82–88% bootstrap values. In this study, Cyt b gene as a molecular target produced reliable results and was very significant for the effective identification of ticks’ blood meal. The assay can be used as a tool for identifying unknown blood meals of field collected on-host ticks. PMID:25685009

  17. Life history of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed with castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) pollen in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Marafeli, P P; Reis, P R; Silveira, E C da; Souza-Pimentel, G C; de Toledo, M A

    2014-08-01

    The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the development of fast resistance making it hard to control it. The objective of this work was to study the life history of the predatory mite N. californicus as a contribution to its mass laboratory rearing, having castor bean plant [Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae)] pollen as food, for its subsequent use as a natural enemy of T. urticae on a cultivation of greenhouse rosebushes. The studies were carried out in the laboratory, at 25 ± 2°C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14 hour photophase. The biological aspects and the fertility life table were appraised. Longevity of 32.9 days was verified for adult females and 40.4 days for males. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.2 and the mean generation time (T) was 17.2 days. The population doubled every 4.1 days. The results obtained were similar to those in which the predatory mite N. californicus fed on T. urticae.

  18. Surveys for ectoparasites on wildlife associated with Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae)-infested livestock in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Corn, Joseph L; Berger, Patrick; Mertins, James W

    2009-11-01

    Surveys in 2001, 2005, and 2006 attempted to determine the role of wildlife in maintenance and dissemination of the tropical bont tick, Amblyomma variegatum (F.) (Acari: Ixodidae), in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Small mammals; birds; white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann); and feral cattle, Bos taurus L., were examined at nine premises, in mountainous rain forest, and in surrounding areas in western St. Croix, an area including and central to all known bont tick-infested premises on the island. Small Asian mongooses, Herpestes javanicus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire), yielded 1,566 ectoparasite specimens, representing five species, and including larvae of a soft tick, Carios puertoricensis (Fox); the tropical horse tick, Anocentor nitens (Neumann); and the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini). Black rats, Rattus rattus L., yielded 144 specimens, representing six ectoparasite species, including C. puertoricensis. Of 25 bird species examined, seven yielded 116 ectoparasite specimens representing at least 14 different species of lice and mites, but no ticks. White-tailed deer and feral cattle yielded only various stages of A. nitens and R. microplus ticks. A. variegatum was not encountered on any potential wildlife host sampled, reflecting its low occurrence in St. Croix during the survey period. One collection of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) from a spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularia (L.), and collections of feather mites (Acari: Astigmata: Trouessartiidae) from both bananaquits, Coereba flaveola (L.), and black-faced grassquits, Tiaris bicolor (L.), may represent new, undescribed species.

  19. [Morphological adaptations of acariform mites (Acari: Acariformes) to permanent parasitism on mammals].

    PubMed

    Bochkov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The external morphological adaptations to parasitism in acariform mites (Acari: Acariformes), permanently parasiting mammals, are briefly summated and analyzed. According to several external morphological criteria (structures of gnathosoma, idiosoma, setation, legs and life cycle), the following six morphoecotypes were established: skin mites (i)-- Cheyletidae, Chirorhynchobiidae, Lobalgidae, Myobiidae, Myocoptidae (the most part), Rhyncoptidae, Psoroptidae; fur mites (ii)--Atopomelidae, Clirodiscidae, Listrophoridae, Myocoptidae (Trichoecius only); skin burrowing mites (iii)--Sarcoptidae; intradermal mites (iv) - sorergatidae and Demodicidae; interstitial mites (v) - pimyodicidae; respiratory mites (vi) - reynetidae, Gastronyssidae, Lemurnyssidae, Pneumocoptidae. In the case of prostigmatic mites, the detailed reconstruction of the origin and evolution of "parasitic" morphoecotypes is possible due to the tentative phylogenetic hypotheses, which were proposed for the infraorder Eleutherengon, a, including the most part of the permanent mammalian parasites among prostigmatic mites (Kethley in Norton, 1993; Bochkov, 2002). The parasitism of Speleognathinae (Ereynetidae) in the mammalian respiratory tract arose independently of the other prostigmats. It is quite possible that these mites switched on mammals from birds, because they are more widely represented on these hosts than on mammals. The prostigmatic parasitism on mammalian skin seems to be originated independently in myobiids, in the five cheyletid tribes, Cheyletiellini, Niheliini, and Teinocheylini, Chelonotini, Cheyletini, and, probably, in a cheyletoid ansector of the sister families Psorergatidae-Demodicidae (Bochkov, Fain, 2001; Bochkov, 2002). Demodicids and psorergatids developed adaptations to parasitism in the skin gland ducts and directly in the epithelial level, respectively in the process of the subsequent specialization. Mites of the family Epimyodicidae belong to the phylogenetic line

  20. Amblyomma hadanii n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), a tick from northwestern Argentina previously confused with Amblyomma coelebs Neumann, 1899.

    PubMed

    Nava, Santiago; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Mangold, Atilio J; Martins, Thiago F; Venzal, José M; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2014-07-01

    All stages of Amblyomma hadanii n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae) are described from northwestern Argentina. The diagnostic characters for males are a combination of the pattern of scutal ornamentation, basis capituli dorsally rectangular with cornua, coxa I with two subequal spurs (the internal wider, the external longer), coxae II-III with a single spur, coxa IV with a single spur not reaching level of anus, ventral plates irregular in shape (larger and sometimes with a small incision on festoons 4, 5 and 6) and hypostome spatulate with dental formula 3/3 in 7-8 rows. The diagnostic characters for the females are a combination of scutal ornamentation, postero-lateral margins of scutum slightly convex, coxa I with two subequal spurs (the internal wider, the external longer), basis capituli dorsally rectangular, porose areas rounded, genital aperture U-shaped, and hypostome spatulate with dental formula 3/3 in 7-8 rows. Diagnosis of nymphs can be performed by a combination of basis capituli rectangular, scutum with large punctations in the lateral fields and small punctations in the central field, and cervical groove short and ending as a small shallow depression at the eye level. Larvae are diagnosed by the shape of basis capituli, scutum with with posterior margin slightly convex, and legs with coxa I with 2 triangular spur (the external longer than the internal), and with coxae II and III each with 1 triangular spur. The hosts recorded for this new tick species are Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus), horse, cattle, dog and humans. Analyses of a 410 bp fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene and the complete sequence of the nuclear 18S rRNA gene supported the description of A. hadanii as a new species.

  1. Phylogeny and species delineation in European species of the genus Steganacarus (Acari, Oribatida) using mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    PubMed

    Kreipe, Victoria; Corral-Hernández, Elena; Scheu, Stefan; Schaefer, Ina; Maraun, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Species of the genus Steganacarus are soil-living oribatid mites (Acari, Phthiracaridae) with a ptychoid body. The phylogeny and species status of the species of Steganacarus are not resolved, some authors group all ten German species of Steganacarus within the genus Steganacarus whereas others split them into three subgenera, Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus. Additionally, two species, S. magnus and T. carinatus, comprise morphotypes of questionable species status. We investigated the phylogeny and species status of ten European Steganacarus species, i.e. S. applicatus, S. herculeanus, S. magnus forma magna, S. magnus forma anomala, S. spinosus, Tropacarus brevipilus, T. carinatus forma carinata, T. carinatus forma pulcherrima, Atropacarus striculus and Rhacaplacarus ortizi. We used two molecular markers, a 251 bp fragment of the nuclear gene 28S rDNA (D3) and a 477 bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI region. The phylogeny based on a combined analysis of D3 and COI separated four subgenera (Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus, Rhacaplacarus) indicating that they form monophyletic groups. The COI region separated all ten species of the genus Steganacarus and showed variation within some species often correlating with the geographic origin of the species. Resolution of the more conserved D3 region was limited, indicating that radiation events are rather recent. Overall, our results indicate that both genes alone cannot be used for phylogeny and barcoding since variation is too low in D3 and too high in COI. However, when used in combination these genes provide reliable insight into the phylogeny, radiation and species status of taxa of the genus Steganacarus.

  2. Distribution, hosts, 16S rDNA sequences and phylogenetic position of the Neotropical tick Amblyomma parvum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Nava, S; Szabó, M P J; Mangold, A J; Guglielmone, A A

    2008-07-01

    The hosts, distribution, intraspecific genetic variation and phylogenetic position of Amblyomma parvum (Acari: Ixodidae) have recently been re-assessed. Data on this tick's hosts and distribution were obtained not only from existing literature but also from unpublished records. Sequences of the ticks' mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used to evaluate genetic variation among specimens of A. parvum from different localities in Argentina and Brazil, and to explore the phylogenetic relationships between this tick and other Amblyomma species. Although several species of domestic and wild mammal act as hosts for adult A. parvum, most collected adults of this species have come from cattle and goats. Caviid rodents of the subfamily Caviinae appear to be the hosts for the immature stages. So far, A. parvum has been detected in 12 Neotropical biogeographical provinces (Chaco, Cerrado, Eastern Central America, Venezuelan Coast, Pantanal, Parana Forest, Caatinga, Chiapas, Venezuelan Llanos, Monte, Western Panamanian Isthmus, and Roraima) but the Chaco province has provided significantly more specimens than any other (P<0.0001). The 16S rDNA sequences showed just 0.0%-1.1% divergence among the Argentinean A. parvum investigated and no more than 0.2% divergence among the Brazilian specimens. The observed divergence between the Argentinean and Brazilian specimens was, however, greater (3.0%-3.7%). Although there is now molecular and morphological evidence to indicate that A. parvum, A. pseudoparvum, A. auricularium and A. pseudoconcolor are members of a natural group, previous subgeneric classifications do not reflect this grouping. The subgeneric status of these tick species therefore needs to be re-evaluated. The 16S-rDNA-based evaluation of divergence indicates that the gene flow between Argentinean and Brazilian 'A. parvum' is very limited and that the Argentinean 'A. parvum' may be a different species to the Brazilian.

  3. Laboratory evaluation of a native strain of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Immediato, Davide; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Puttilli, Maria Rita; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2015-09-15

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae) is one of the most economically important ectoparasites of laying hens worldwide. Chemical control of this mite may result in environmental and food contamination, as well as the development of drug resistance. High virulence of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato strains isolated from naturally infected hosts or from their environment has been demonstrated toward many arthropod species, including ticks. However, a limited number of studies have assessed the use of B. bassiana for the control of D. gallinae s.l. and none of them have employed native strains. This study reports the pathogenicity of a native strain of B. bassiana (CD1123) against nymphs and adults of D. gallinae. Batches of nymph and adult mites (i.e., n=720 for each stage) for treated groups (TGs) were placed on paper soaked with a 0.1% tween 80 suspension of B. bassiana (CIS, 10(5), 10(7) and 10(9) conidia/ml), whilst 240 untreated control mites for each stage (CG) were exposed only to 0.1% tween 80. The mites in TG showed a higher mortality at all stages (p<0.01) when compared to CG, depending on the time of exposure and the conidial concentration. A 100% mortality rate was recorded using a CIS of 10(9) conidia/ml 12 days post infection (DPI) in adults and 14 DPI in nymphs. B. bassiana suspension containing 10(9) conidia/ml was highly virulent towards nymph and adult stages of D. gallinae, therefore representing a possible promising natural product to be used in alternative or in combination to other acaricidal compounds currently used for controlling the red mite.

  4. Removal of drone brood from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and retain adult drones.

    PubMed

    Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R

    2009-12-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population.

  5. Tick infestation (Acari: Ixodidae) in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from northwestern Spain: population dynamics and risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Luís; Panadero, Rosario; Dacal, Vicente; Pato, Francisco Javier; López, Ceferino; Díaz, Pablo; Arias, María Sol; Fernández, Gonzalo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2011-04-01

    During the 2007 and 2008 hunting seasons (April-October) the skin of 367 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.), hunted in different preserves from Galicia (Northwestern Spain), were examined for ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). The overall prevalence of infestation by ticks was 83.1%. The predominant species was Ixodes ricinus (83.1%), whereas a single Dermacentor marginatus specimen appeared in one roe deer. All developmental stages of I. ricinus were found parasitizing roe deer, the adults being the most frequent (82.2%), followed by nymphs (45.6%) and larvae (27.2%). The mean intensity of infestation by I. ricinus was 43.2 ± 49.85; most of them were adults (30.7 ± 31.64) and in a lesser extend nymphs (16.9 ± 24.74) and larvae (10.7 ± 29.90). Ixodes ricinus was present all over the study with percentages that oscillated between 100% in spring and 57.4% in autumn. CHAID algorithm showed the sex of roe deer as the most influential factor in tick prevalence, followed by the climatic area. The different developmental stages of I. ricinus were more frequent in males than in females, and the prevalence of adults and larvae were higher in roe deer from coastal areas than in those from mountainous and central areas, whereas nymphs were more frequent in mountainous areas. Host age and density were not determinants for tick infestation. Our results confirm that roe deer are important hosts for I. ricinus in northwestern Spain, serving as a vehicle for the geographic distribution of these ticks.

  6. Prevalence and Diversity of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Eastern National Parks.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tammi L; Graham, Christine B; Boegler, Karen A; Cherry, Cara C; Maes, Sarah E; Pilgard, Mark A; Hojgaard, Andrias; Buttke, Danielle E; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2016-12-27

    Tick-borne pathogens transmitted by Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), also known as the deer tick or blacklegged tick, are increasing in incidence and geographic distribution in the United States. We examined the risk of tick-borne disease exposure in 9 national parks across six Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States and the District of Columbia in 2014 and 2015. To assess the recreational risk to park visitors, we sampled for ticks along frequently used trails and calculated the density of I. scapularis nymphs (DON) and the density of infected nymphs (DIN). We determined the nymphal infection prevalence of I. scapularis with a suite of tick-borne pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti Ixodes scapularis nymphs were found in all national park units; DON ranged from 0.40 to 13.73 nymphs per 100 m(2) Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, was found at all sites where I. scapularis was documented; DIN with B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.06 to 5.71 nymphs per 100 m(2) Borrelia miyamotoi and A. phagocytophilum were documented at 60% and 70% of the parks, respectively, while Ba. microti occurred at just 20% of the parks. Ixodes scapularis is well established across much of the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States, and our results are generally consistent with previous studies conducted near the areas we sampled. Newly established I. scapularis populations were documented in two locations: Washington, D.C. (Rock Creek Park) and Greene County, Virginia (Shenandoah National Park). This research demonstrates the potential risk of tick-borne pathogen exposure in national parks and can be used to educate park visitors about the importance of preventative actions to minimize tick exposure.

  7. A novel spotted fever group Rickettsia infecting Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae) in highlands of Argentina and Chile.

    PubMed

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Marcili, Arlei; Nava, Santiago; González-Acuña, Daniel; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Ruiz-Arrondo, Ignacio; Venzal, José M; Mangold, Atilio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-04-01

    The tick Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae) has established populations in Andean and Patagonic environments of South America. For the present study, adults of A. parvitarsum were collected in highland areas (elevation >3500 m) of Argentina and Chile during 2009-2013, and tested by PCR for rickettsial infection in the laboratory, and isolation of rickettsiae in Vero cell culture by the shell vial technique. Overall, 51 (62.2%) out of 82 A. parvitarsum adult ticks were infected by spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, which generated DNA sequences 100% identical to each other, and when submitted to BLAST analysis, they were 99.3% identical to corresponding sequence of the ompA gene of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated in Vero cell culture from two ticks, one from Argentina and one from Chile. DNA extracted from the third passage of the isolates of Argentina and Chile were processed by PCR, resulting in partial sequences for three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompB, ompA). These sequences were concatenated and aligned with rickettsial corresponding sequences available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. pavitarsum rickettsial agent grouped under high bootstrap support in a clade composed by the SFG pathogens R. sibirica, R. africae, R. parkeri, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, and two unnamed SFG agents of unknown pathogenicty, Rickettsia sp. strain NOD, and Rickettsia sp. strain ApPR. The pathogenic role of this A. parvitarsum rickettsia cannot be discarded, since several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that were considered nonpathogenic for decades are now associated with human infections.

  8. Seasonal variation of North American form of Gigantolaelaps mattogrossensis (Acari: Laelapidae) on marsh rice rat in southern coastal Texas.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Joseph A; Strauss, Richard E; McIntyre, Nancy E

    2007-01-01

    The ectoparasites of a small mammal community within an intertidal zone in the upper Gulf coast region of Texas were studied to assess the seasonal variation in abundances of the mite Gigantolaelaps mattogrossensis (Fonseca) (Acari: Laelapidae) on the marsh rice rat, Oryzomys palustris (Harlan). Further study into the ecology and dynamics of this parasite-host relationship was deemed to be necessary to expand the understanding of these potential participants in the ecology of Bayou Hantavirus, an important causative agent of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of five predictor variables on mite abundance: prevalences of hosts, relative humidity, precipitation, temperature, and length of daylight. Mite abundance was modeled as a function of the five variables with analyses of variance and multiple regressions; however, because the predictor variables pertain to the sampling period rather than to the individual rodent host, the effective sample size was small and thus the sums of squares and cross products matrix was singular. We therefore developed and used a new method for estimating regression coefficients based on the "noise-addition method" (random residual variation) combined with a bootstrap step converting the reduced rank data to full rank, providing realistic estimates of confidence intervals for the regression statistics. The population abundances of mites fluctuated significantly across collecting periods. Humidity and precipitation were the most influential variables in explaining the variation in abundances of mites. Model interpretation suggests that G. mattogrossensis is a nidicolous parasite. These results provide a baseline understanding of the seasonal interactions between parasite and host.

  9. EMS Student Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Patrick

    This student guide is one of a series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in an emergency medical services (EMS) training program. Discussed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the purpose and history of EMS professionals; EMS training, certification and examinations (national and state certification and…

  10. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  11. Revision of the genus Andreacarus (Acari: Laelapidae) with description of seven new species and a new genus for Australian species formerly placed in Andreacarus.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Ashley P G; Bochkov, Andre V; O'Connor, Barry M

    2007-05-01

    The mesostigmatid genus Andreacarus Radford, 1953 (Acari: Laelapidae), species of which are obligatory parasites of small mammals, is revised. Andreacarus includes 11 species, four species previously recognized and seven new species described from Madagascar hosts: A. brachyuromys sp. n. from Brachyuromys betsileoensis Bartlett, A. eliurus sp. n. from Eliurus species, A. gymnuromys sp. n. from Gymnuromys roberti Major, A. voalavo sp. n. from Voalavo gymnocaudus Carleton & Goodman, A. nesomys sp. n. from Nesomys rufus Peters-all from nesomyid rodents; A. tenrec sp. n. from Tenrec ecaudatus Schreber (Afrosoricida: Tenrecidae); and A. galidia from Galidia elegans I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (Carnivora: Viverridae). An amended generic diagnosis and key to females are also given. Six species described in Andreacarus from Australian and New Guinean hosts are removed and transferred to the new genus, Juxtalaelaps.

  12. Acaricidal activity of Origanum bilgeri P.H. Davis (Lamiaceae) essential oil and its major component, carvacrol against adults Rhipicephalus turanicus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cinbilgel, Ilker; Aydin, Levent; Cetin, Huseyin

    2013-03-31

    The acaricidal activity of an essential oil obtained from aerial parts of Origanum bilgeri P.H. Davis (Lamiaceae), an endemic species in Turkey, and its major constituents, carvacrol was evaluated against unfed adults Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from Kepez, Antalya. The composition of the essential oil was analyzed by GC/MS. The major compound identified in the oil was carvacrol (93.02%). Generally, tick mortalities to the O. bilgeri distillate and carvacrol increased with concentrations. O. bilgeri oil produced >83% mortality at 48h at a concentration of 0.8% and mortality was higher than 63% at a carvacrol concentration of 0.4%. Our results have shown that O. bilgeri essential oil and its major component, carvacrol, may have potential as acaricidal agents against R. turanicus.

  13. Taxonomic value of morphological and morphometrical characters in the immature stages of four species of Kampimodromus Nesbitt (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Italy and Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cargnus, Elena; Zandigiacomo, Pietro

    2014-08-28

    The immature stages of four species of Kampimodromus Nesbitt (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Italy and Croatia have been studied and identified both at stage and species level. Larval stages of Kampimodromus corylosus Kolodochka and all immature stages of Kampimodromus ericinus Ragusa di Chiara & Tsolakis and Kampimodromus langei Wainstein & Arutunjan are described for the first time. The relative length of the posterior dorsal setae Z4 make the larvae of Kampimodromus aberrans (Oudemans) easy to separate from those of the other three species. Nymphs of each species had similar diagnostics to the adults of the respective species. Ontogeny of the idiosomal and leg setation of the Kampimodromus immatures studied in comparison to the available data from immatures of other phytoseiid species is discussed. The length of seta Z4 in the K. aberrans larva, and the number of setae on leg IV of the deutonymphs of the four Kampimodromus species, are proposed as additional taxonomic traits for Phytoseiidae. 

  14. Active surveillance of Anaplasma marginale in populations of arthropod vectors (Acari: Ixodidae; Diptera: Tabanidae) during and after an outbreak of bovine anaplasmosis in southern Manitoba, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Yunik, Matthew E.M.; Galloway, Terry D.; Lindsay, L. Robbin

    2016-01-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is the disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma marginale. It can cause production loss and death in cattle and bison. This was a reportable disease in Canada until April 2014. Before then, infected herds were quarantined and culled, removing infected animals. In North America, A. marginale is biologically vectored by hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae), Dermacentor variabilis and D. andersoni. Biting flies, particularly horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae), can also act as mechanical vectors. An outbreak of bovine anaplasmosis, consisting of 14 herds, was detected in southern Manitoba in 2008. This outbreak lasted multiple rounds of testing and culling before eradication in 2011, suggesting local maintenance of the pathogen was occurring. We applied novel approaches to examine the vector ecology of this disease in this region. We did not detect A. marginale by screening of 2056 D. variabilis (2011 and 2012) and 520 horse flies (2011) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PMID:27127345

  15. Prevalence, mean intensity of infestation and host specificity of Spinturnicidae mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Camila de Lima; Graciolli, Gustavo

    2013-06-01

    Acari ectoparasites were collected from bats during 12 months in the Rio Negro farm (19°34'22″S and 56°14'36″W), Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 654 bats belonging to the families Phyllostomidae, Noctilionidae, Molossidae, Vespertilionidae and Emballonuridae were captured. Only 136 bats of nine genera and 11 species were parasitised. Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans was the most abundant mite species, and this prevalence may be related to the low degree of host specificity of this species and due to the broad geographical distribution of its hosts. The greatest mean intensity was found to Periglischrus torrealbai Machado-Allison on Phyllostomus discolor Wagner (Phyllostomidae) and Periglischrus tonatii Herrin and Tipton associated with Lophostoma silviculum d'Orbigny (Phyllostomidae), which also had the highest prevalence of infestation.

  16. Expression analysis of Drosophila doublesex, transformer-2, intersex, fruitless-like, and vitellogenin homologs in the parahaploid predator Metaseiulus occidentalis (Chelicerata: Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Aaron F; Hoy, Marjorie A

    2015-01-01

    Characterization and expression analyses are essential to gain insight into sex-determination pathways in members of the Acari. Little is known about sex determination at the molecular level in the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Arachnida: Acari: Phytoseiidae), a parahaploid species. In this study, eight genes previously identified as putative homologs to genes involved in the sex-determination pathway in Drosophila melanogaster were evaluated for sex-specific alternative splicing and sex-biased expression using reverse-transcriptase PCR and quantitative real-time PCR techniques, respectively. The homologs evaluated in M. occidentalis included two doublesex-like genes (Moccdsx1 and Moccdsx2), transformer-2 (Mocctra-2), intersex (Moccix), two fruitless-like genes (MoccBTB1 and MoccBTB2), as well as two vitellogenin-like genes (Moccvg1 and Moccvg2). Single transcripts of equal size were detected in males and females for Moccdsx1, Moccdsx2, Mocctra-2, Moccix, and MoccBTB2, suggesting that their pre-mRNAs do not undergo alternative splicing in a sex-specific manner. Three genes, Moccdsx1, Moccdsx2 and MoccBTB2, displayed male-biased expression relative to females. One gene, Moccix, displayed female-biased expression relative to males. Two genes, Mocctra-2 and MoccBTB1, did not display detectable differences in transcript abundance in males and females. Expression of Moccvg1 and Moccvg2 were detected in females only, and transcript levels were up-regulated in mated females relative to unmated females. To our knowledge, this represents the first attempt to elucidate expression patterns of putative sex-determination genes in an acarine. This study is an initial step towards understanding the sex-determination pathway in the parahaploid M. occidentalis.

  17. Acaricidal activity of the essential oil from Tetradenia riparia (Lamiaceae) on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari; Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiani; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Amorim, Ana Carolina L; Hovell, Ana Maria C; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Ferreira, Gilberto Alves; de Lima, Edson Luiz; de Cosmo, Fábio Antunes; Cortez, Diogenes Aparício Garcia

    2011-10-01

    Tetradenia riparia (Lamiaceae) is a well-known herbal medicine with a variety of useful properties, including its acaricidal effect. This experiment was carried out to study the bioacaricidal activity of T. riparia essential oil (EO) against engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari; Ixodidae). For this purpose, nine serial concentrations (12.50%, 6.25%, 3.75%, 1.80%, 0.90%, 0.45%, 0.22%, 0.11%, and 0.056% w/v) of T. riparia were used for the adult immersion test (AIT). For the larval packet test (LPT), we used 14 serial concentrations (100.00%, 50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25%, 3.65%, 1.82%, 0.91%, 0.45%, 0.228%, 0.114%, 0.057%, 0.028%, and 0.014% w/v). The results for AIT showed 100.00% and 2.05% mortality, 19.00 and 90.20% for the total number of eggs, egg-laying inhibition of 0.00% and 90.20%, hatchability inhibition of 0.00% and 70.23%, and product effectiveness of 100.00% and 2.89%, respectively. The AIT indicated that the LC(50) and LC(99.9), calculated using the Probit test, were for mortality (%) 0.534g/mL (0.436-0.632) and 1.552g/mL (1.183-1.92); for total number of eggs were 0.449g/mL (0.339-0.558) and 1.76g/mL (1.27-2.248); and for hatchability inhibition were 0.114g/mL (0.0-0.31) and 2.462g/mL (1.501-3.422), respectively. Larvae between 14 and 21days old were fasted and placed in each envelope. Bioassays were performed at 27°±1°C, RH⩾80%. Larval mortality was observed 24h after treatment and showed 10.60-100% mortality in the LPT bioassay. The LPT showed that the LC(50) and LC(99.9) were 1.222g/mL (0.655-1.788) and 11.382g/mL (7.84-14.91), respectively. A positive correlation between T. riparia EO concentration and tick control, was observed by the strong acaricidal effects against R. (B.) microplus, and the mortality rate of ticks was dose-dependent. Our results showed that T. riparia is a promising candidate as an acaricide against resistant strains of R. (B.) microplus.

  18. Effects of Temperature on Development and Voltinism of Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae): Implications for Climate Change Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jeong Joon; Son, Youngsoo; He, Yaqian; Lee, Eungul; Park, Yong-Lak

    2016-01-01

    Temperature plays an important role in the growth and development of arthropods, and thus the current trend of climate change will alter their biology and species distribution. We used Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae), a cleptoparasitic mite associated with Osmia bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), as a model organism to investigate how temperature affects the development and voltinism of C. krombeini in the eastern United States. The effects of temperature on the stage-specific development of C. krombeini were determined at seven constant temperatures (16.1, 20.2, 24.1, 27.5, 30.0, 32.4 and 37.8°C). Parameters for stage-specific development, such as threshold temperatures and thermal constant, were determined by using empirical models. Results of this study showed that C. krombeini eggs developed successfully to adult at all temperatures tested except 37.8°C. The nonlinear and linear empirical models were applied to describe quantitatively the relationship between temperature and development of each C. krombeini stage. The nonlinear Lactin model estimated optimal temperatures as 31.4, 32.9, 32.6 and 32.5°C for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. In the linear model, the lower threshold temperatures were estimated to be 9.9, 14.7, 13.0 and 12.4°C for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. The thermal constant for each stage completion were 61.5, 28.1, 64.8 and 171.1 degree days for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. Under the future climate scenarios, the number of generations (i.e., voltinism) would increase more likely by 1.5 to 2.0 times by the year of 2100 according to simulation. The findings herein firstly provided comprehensive data on thermal development of C. krombeini and implications for the management of C. krombeini populations under global warming were discussed. *Scientific Article No. 3278 of the West Virginia Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Morgantown, West Virginia PMID

  19. Identification and characterization of microRNAs by deep-sequencing in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jin; Liu, Guang-Yuan; Chen, Ze; Ren, Qiao-Yun; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jian-Xun; Wang, Hui

    2015-06-15

    Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (H.a. anatolicum) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks are globally distributed ectoparasites with veterinary and medical importance. These ticks not only weaken animals by sucking their blood but also transmit different species of parasitic protozoans. Multiple factors influence these parasitic infections including miRNAs, which are non-coding, small regulatory RNA molecules essential for the complex life cycle of parasites. To identify and characterize miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum, we developed an integrative approach combining deep sequencing, bioinformatics and real-time PCR analysis. Here we report the use of this approach to identify miRNA expression, family distribution, and nucleotide characteristics, and discovered novel miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum. The result showed that miR-1-3p, miR-275-3p, and miR-92a were expressed abundantly. There was a strong bias on miRNA, family members, and nucleotide compositions at certain positions in H.a. anatolicum miRNA. Uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at positions 1, 6, 16, and 18, which were located approximately at the beginning, middle, and end of conserved miRNAs. Analysis of the conserved miRNAs indicated that miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum were concentrated along three diverse phylogenetic branches of bilaterians, insects and coelomates. Two possible roles for the use of miRNA in H.a. anatolicum could be presumed based on its parasitic life cycle: to maintain a large category of miRNA families of different animals, and/or to preserve stringent conserved seed regions with active changes in other places of miRNAs mainly in the middle and the end regions. These might help the parasite to undergo its complex life style in different hosts and adapt more readily to the host changes. The present study represents the first large scale characterization of H.a. anatolicum miRNAs, which could further the understanding of the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, as well as initiate miRNA studies

  20. Leveraging EMS and VPP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Elements of EMS  International Standards Organization ( ISO ) 14001 , Environmental Management Systems  The Key Elements of EMS: - Policy - Planning...wingman-- ON and OFF duty Fully Conforming vs. Fully Implemented  “Fully Conforming”  Meets standards established in ISO 14001  ESOH council...e n c e Every airman looking out for his wingman-- ON and OFF duty EMS & VPP Commonalities Environmental Management System ISO 14001 : 2004 Voluntary

  1. A systematic review of the subfamily Syringophilinae (Acari: Syringophilidae) of the Nearctic region. Part 1: quill mites associated with passerines (Aves: Passeriformes).

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej; Spicer, Greg S; Oconnor, Barry M

    2016-02-29

    Quill mites belonging to the subfamily Syringophilinae Lavoipierre, 1953 associated with the Nearctic passeriform birds are revised. All of the 49 known species, which are grouped in seven genera, are recorded. Among them, four new species are described: Syringophiloidus audubioni sp. nov. from Spizella breweri (Cassini) (Emberizidae), Syringophilopsis catesbyi sp. nov. from Vireo olivaceus (Linnaeus) (Vireonidae), S. wilsoni sp. nov. from Pheucticus melanocephalus (Swainson) (Cardinalidae), and S. bartrami sp. nov. from Spizella passerina (Bechstein) (Emberizidae). The species Syringophilopsis hylocichlae Clark, 1964 syn. nov. is synonymized with Syringophilopsis turdus (Fritsch, 1958), and Syringophiloidus zonotrichia syn. nov. is synonymized with Betasyringophiloidus seiuri (Clark, 1964) comb. nov. Six species are recorded from the Nearctic region for the first time: Syringophiloidus delichonum Bochkov, 2001, S. glandarii (Fritsch, 1958), S. weiszii Skoracki et al., 2001, S. bombycillae Skoracki, 2002, Syringophilopsis mimidus Sikora et al., 2011, and Torotrogla merulae Skoracki et al., 2000. Data on Nearctic syringophiline species, their hosts and distribution are summarized and the keys to all species are constructed.

  2. EMS in the pueblos.

    PubMed

    Vigil, M A

    1994-02-01

    Imagine creating a movie by excerpting scenes from "Dances With Wolves," splicing it with footage from "Code 3" or "Emergency Response" and then flavoring the script with the mystery of a Tony Hillerman novel. A film producer would probably find it quite difficult to choreograph a finished product from such a compilation of material. To hundreds of Native American EMS providers, however, such a movie is played out every day in Indian country. And with this movie come some real-life problems, including trauma, which is the number-one cause of premature death among Native Americans. But a high trauma rate is just one of the challenges facing tribal EMS responders. There's also prolonged response and transport, the problems involved in maintaining the unique culture and standard of care, the challenges of tribal EMS administration and EMS education of Native American students, and the unsure future of Native American EMS. Beyond that, there's the fact that EMS is a s unique to each Indian reservation as are the cultures of the native peoples who reside on these lands. Yet while no two systems are alike, most tribal EMS providers face similar challenges.

  3. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the storage mite pest Tyrophagus longior (Gervais) (Acari: Acaridae) and comparative mitogenomic analysis of four acarid mites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Banghe; Li, Chaopin

    2016-02-01

    Mites of the genus Tyrophagus are economically important polyphagous pest commonly living on stored products and also responsible for allergic reactions to humans. Complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) and the gene features therein are widely used as molecular markers in the study of population genetics, phylogenetics as well as molecular evolution. However, scarcity on the sequence data has greatly impeded the studies in these areas pertaining to the Acari (mites and ticks). Information on the Tyrophagus mitogenomes is quite critical for phylogenetic evaluation and molecular evolution of the mitogenomes within Acariformes. Herein, we reported the complete mitogenome of the allergenic acarid storage mite Tyrophagus longior (Astigmata: Acaridae), an important member of stored food pests, and compared with those of other three acarid mites. The complete mitogenome of T. longior was a circular molecule of 13,271 bp. Unexpectedly, only 19 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs) were present, lacking trnF, trnS1 and trnQ. Furthermore, it also contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 2 genes for rRNA (rrnS and rrnL) commonly detected in metazoans. The four mitogenomes displayed similar characteristics with respect to the gene content, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Yet, the gene order of T. longior was different from that in other Acari. The J-strands of the four mitogenomes possessed high A+T content (67.4-70.0%), and exhibited positive GC-skews and negative AT-skews. Most inferred tRNAs of T. longior were extremely truncated, lacking either a D- or T-arm, as found in other acarid mites. In T. longior mitogenome the A+T-rich region was just 50 bp in length and can be folded as a stable stem-loop structure, whereas in the region some structures of microsatellite-like (AT)n and palindromic sequences was not present. Besides, reconstructing of the phylogenetic relationship based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 13 PCGs supported that monophyly of the family

  4. Syringophilid mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with the rails (Aves: Rallidae) and a key to the species of the genus Rafapicobia Skoracki, 2011.

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Skorupski, Maciej; Kavetska, Katarzyna

    2014-07-01

    The fauna of quill mites of the family Syringophilidae Lavoipierre, 1953 (Acari: Prostigmata Cheyletoidea) parasitising birds of the family Rallidae Vigors (Gruiformes) is updated. A new species, Rafapicobia melzeri n. sp. (subfamily Picobiinae), is described from four host species: Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus (type-host) from Germany, Pardirallus sanguinolentus (Swainson) from Chile, Porzana porzana (Linnaeus) from France and P. parva (Scopoli) from Kirghizia. The new species is most similar to R. lepidocolaptesi Skoracki & Solarczyk, 2012 but differs in the absence of agenital plates and the length ratios of setae ag2:g1 and vi:ve:si in females and in the punctate ornament on the hysteronotal and the pygidial shields in males. A key to the species of the genus Rafapicobia is proposed. This is the first record of a representative of the subfamily Picobiinae on gruiform birds. Additionally, new rallid hosts are reported for Charadriphilus ralli Skoracki & Bochkov, 2010 (subfamily Syringophilinae): Gallinula melanops (Vieillot) from Chile, Laterallus melanophaius (Vieillot) from Paraguay, and P. parva (Scopoli) from Kirghizia.

  5. Relative abundance and prevalence of selected Borrelia infections in Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) from publicly owned lands in Monmouth County, New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Terry L; Jordan, Robert A; Healy, Sean P; Roegner, Vivien E; Meddis, Michael; Jahn, Margaret B; Guthrie, Douglas L

    2006-11-01

    To evaluate their potential importance in the transmission of ixodid tick-borne borrelioses in Monmouth County, NJ, we collected host-seeking Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) adults and nymphs to determine relative encounter frequencies and the infection prevalence of selected Borrelia spp. in their respective tick vectors. We also reviewed records of all ticks submitted for identification by the public in Monmouth County during 2001-2005. Relative abundance of the two species varied markedly among sites. Adult encounter frequencies for the two species were similar; however, A. americanum nymphs were encountered 3 times more frequently than I. scapularis nymphs. Of 435 ticks submitted by the public, 50.1 and 38.9% were I. scapularis and A. americanum, respectively. However, during May through August, the peak Lyme disease transmission season in New Jersey, significantly more submitted ticks were A. americanum (55.9%), compared with I. scapularis (34.1%). Polymerase chain reaction analysis of 94 1. scapularis and 103 A. americanum adults yielded infection prevalences of 31.9% for B. burgdorferi and 5.8% for B. lonestari, respectively. Although the infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi in I. scapularis was considerably higher than the infection prevalence of B. lonestari in A. americanum, the higher encounter frequencies for A. americanum compared with I. scapularis observed in this and other studies may result in increased risk of acquiring exposure to A. americanum-transmitted pathogens. The potential public health implications of these results are discussed.

  6. Diversity of Quill Mites of the Family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) Parasitizing Owls (Aves: Strigiformes) With Remarks on the Host-Parasite Relationships.

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Marciniak, Natalia; Sikora, Bozena

    2016-07-01

    The quill mite fauna of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) associated with owls (Aves: Strigiformes) is reviewed. A new genus is proposed, Neobubophilus Skoracki & Unsoeld gen. nov. It differs from closely related Bubophilus (Bubophilus Philips and Norton, 1978) by the absence of leg setae vsII in the both sexes. In addition, four new species are described: (1) Neobubophilus cunicularius Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782) (Strigidae) from Paraguay; (2) Neobubophilus atheneus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769) and Athene brama (Temminck, 1821) (Strigidae), both from India; (3) Bubophilus tytonus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Tyto alba affinis (Blyth, 1862) (Tytonidae) from Cameroon, and (4) Megasyringophilus dalmas Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817) (Strigidae) from Venezuela. The following new host species are given: Bubo bubo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Strigidae) from Nepal for Bubophilus ascalaphus (Philips and Norton 1978) and Strix woodfordii (Smith, 1834) (Strigidae) from Tanzania for Bubophilus aluconis (aluconis Nattress and Skoracki 2009). A key for syringophilid genera and species associated with owls is constructed. The host-parasite relationships of syringophilid mites and owls are discussed.

  7. Molecular characterization and evolutionary insights into potential sex-determination genes in the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Chelicerata: Arachnida: Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Aaron F; Hoy, Marjorie A; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the process of sex determination at the molecular level in species belonging to the subclass Acari, a taxon of arachnids that contains mites and ticks. The recent sequencing of the transcriptome and genome of the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis allows investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying the biological processes of sex determination in this predator of phytophagous pest mites. We identified four doublesex-and-mab-3-related transcription factor (dmrt) genes, one transformer-2 gene, one intersex gene, and two fruitless-like genes in M. occidentalis. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted to infer the molecular relationships to sequences from species of arthropods, including insects, crustaceans, acarines, and a centipede, using available genomic data. Comparative analyses revealed high sequence identity within functional domains and confirmed that the architecture for certain sex-determination genes is conserved in arthropods. This study provides a framework for identifying potential target genes that could be implicated in the process of sex determination in M. occidentalis and provides insight into the conservation and change of the molecular components of sex determination in arthropods.

  8. Acaricidal properties of vetiver essential oil from Chrysopogon zizanioides (Poaceae) against the tick species Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Campos, Roseane Nunes de Santana; Nascimento Lima, Cecília Beatriz; Passos Oliveira, Alexandre; Albano Araújo, Ana Paula; Fitzgerald Blank, Arie; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Nascimento Lima, Rafaely; Albano Araújo, Vinícius; Santana, Alisson Silva; Bacci, Leandro

    2015-09-15

    Ticks are arthropods widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, which can transmit infectious agents also responsible for zoonoses. Excessive use of conventional acaricides has resulted in the onset of drug resistance by these parasites, thus the need to use alternative methods for their control. This study evaluated the acaricidal activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) essential oils containing different zizanoic and khuzimol (high and low acidity) acid concentrations on Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). To this aims, toxicity tests of different concentrations of examined essential oils were conducted on adult females and larval stages. Results showed that the essential oils of C. zizanioides with high and low acidity reduced oviposition of females, eggs hatch and larval survival, being more effective than some commercial products widely used to control these ectoparasites. These results indicate that the C. zizanoides essential oils are promising candidates as acaricidal agents and represent also an add value to vetiver oil with high acidity, which is commercially undervalued in the cosmetic industry.

  9. Effect of Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) Saliva on the Acute Cutaneous Immune Response to Rickettsia parkeri Infection in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Banajee, K. H.; Verhoeve, V. I.; Harris, E. K.; Macaluso, K. R.

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia parkeri Luckman (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) is a pathogenic spotted fever group Rickettsia transmitted by Amblyomma maculatum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae) in the United States. The acute innate immune response to this pathogen and the effect of tick feeding or salivary components on this response is largely unknown. We hypothesized that A. maculatum saliva enhances R. parkeri infection via downregulation of the acute cellular and cytokine immune response. C3H/HeN mice were intradermally inoculated with R. parkeri both with and without A. maculatum saliva. Flow cytometry and microscopic evaluation of inoculation site skin suspensions revealed that neutrophils and macrophages predominated at 6 and 24 h post R. parkeri inoculation, respectively. This cellular influx was significantly downregulated when A. maculatum saliva was inoculated along with R. parkeri. Inflammatory cytokines (interferon γ and interleukins 6 and 10) were significantly elevated after R. parkeri inoculation. However, cytokine concentration and rickettsial load were not significantly modified by A. maculatum saliva during the acute phase of infection. These results revealed that tick saliva inhibits the cutaneous cellular influx during the acute phase of rickettsial infection. Further study is needed to determine the overall impact of this effect on the establishment of rickettsiosis in the host and development of disease. PMID:27521760

  10. How Diverse Is the Genus Wolbachia? Multiple-Gene Sequencing Reveals a Putatively New Wolbachia Supergroup Recovered from Spider Mites (Acari: Tetranychidae)▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Vera I. D.; Fleming, Vicki M.; Feil, Edward J.; Breeuwer, Johannes A. J.

    2009-01-01

    At least 20% of all arthropods and some nematode species are infected with intracellular bacteria of the genus Wolbachia. This highly diverse genus has been subdivided into eight “supergroups” (A to H) on the basis of nucleotide sequence data. Here, we report the discovery of a new Wolbachia supergroup recovered from the spider mite species Bryobia species V (Acari: Tetranychidae), based on the sequences of three protein-coding genes (ftsZ, gltA, and groEL) and the 16S rRNA gene. Other tetranychid mites possess supergroup B Wolbachia strains. The discovery of another Wolbachia supergroup expands the known diversity of Wolbachia and emphasizes the high variability of the genus. Our data also clarify the existing supergroup structure and highlight the use of multiple gene sequences for robust phylogenetic analysis. In addition to previous reports of recombination between the arthropod-infecting supergroups A and B, we provide evidence for recombination between the nematode-infecting supergroups C and D. Robust delineation of supergroups is essential for understanding the origin and spread of this common reproductive parasite and for unraveling mechanisms of host adaptation and manipulation across a wide range of hosts. PMID:19098217

  11. Description of the life stages of quill mite Mironovia lagopus sp. nov. (Acari: Syringophilidae) parasitizing the rock ptarmigan Lagopus muta (Phasianidae) from Iceland.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Skirnisson, Karl

    2011-03-01

    A new species of syringophilid mites, Mironovia lagopus sp. nov. (Acari: Syringophilidae) is described from feather quills of the rock ptarigman Lagopus muta (Montin) (Phasianidae) from Iceland. Females of this new species differ from the closely related Mironovia rouloul Skoracki and Sikora by setae d2, which are subequal or 1.1-1.2 times shorter than setae e2 (vs. d2 1.4-1.5 times longer than e2 in Mironovia rouloul) and by setae ag1, which are 1.3-1.5 times shorter than ag2 (vs. ag1 1.7-1.8 times shorter than ag2). The postembryonic stages of this new species are figured and described in details. In ontogeny of Mironovia spp., the observed pattern of setal appearance is not different from the pattern in other galliform-associated genera such as Syringophilus and Colinophilus, with exception for tarsal setae p'I, II which are absent in protonymphs. The key to all four species of the genus Mironovia is also provided.

  12. Differences between populations of Spinturnix myoti (Acari: Mesostigmata) in breeding and non-breeding colonies of Myotis myotis (Chiroptera) in central Europe: the effect of roost type.

    PubMed

    Postawa, Tomasz; Szubert-Kruszyńska, Agnieszka; Ferenc, Hanna

    2014-12-01

    We studied variations in the abundance of parasitic spinturnicid mites in relation to the gender, age and body condition of bats living in different habitats. Populations of Spinturnix myoti Kolenati, 1856 (Acari: Spinturnicidae), an ectoparasite of the bat Myotis myotis (Borkhausen) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), were investigated in two types of roosts differing in microclimatic conditions: caves (low temperature and high humidity) and attics (high temperature and low humidity). Our data suggest that bats from cave nursery colonies harbour more parasites than those from attic colonies, irrespective of host sex or age. In underground colonies, adult females and their young differ in the mean abundance of parasites, whereas no such differences were found in attic colonies. Non-lactating females from underground roosts and lactating females from attic colonies had similar parasite loads, were lower than those of adult lactating females from caves. A negative correlation between the host body condition index and parasite load was found only in the most infected sex/age group of bats. In spite of significant differences in parasite load, the mean abundance of particular life stages of mites seems to be independent of the type of roost occupied by the host, its sex or age. However, in attic colonies the number of female deutonymphs was twice that of male deutonymphs, whereas in cave colonies the proportions of the sexes were similar. We suggest that the microclimate of the host's roosts may influence ectoparasite abundance through pressure on the sex ratio in the nymphal stages of mites.

  13. Analysis of gamasid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) associated with the Asian house rat, Rattus tanezumi (Rodentia: Muridae) in Yunnan Province, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Qin; Guo, Xian-Guo; Speakman, John R; Dong, Wen-Ge

    2013-05-01

    During a survey lasting from 1990 to 2008, we captured 4,113 Asian house rats, Rattus tanezumi Temminck 1844 (Rodentia: Muridae) from 28 counties of Yunnan Province in southwestern China. From these rats, a total of 19,304 gamasid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) were collected and identified as comprising 50 different species. The species diversity of gamasid mites from this single rat species is higher than that reported previously from multiple hosts within a given geographical region. Of the 50 mite species, 31 species belonged to ectoparasites and 19 species belonged to free-living mites. The species diversity of the mites from rats trapped outdoors was much higher than from rats trapped indoors. The parameter K from the negative binomial distribution was used to measure the spatial distribution patterns of the dominant mite species and revealed that all the mites had an aggregated distribution among the rat hosts. Most mite species showed a predominantly female-biased population structure with many more females than males.

  14. Secondary structure prediction for complete rDNA sequences (18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA) of Demodex folliculorum, and comparison of divergent domains structures across Acari.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ya-E; Wang, Zheng-Hang; Xu, Yang; Wu, Li-Ping; Hu, Li

    2013-10-01

    According to base pairing, the rRNA folds into corresponding secondary structures, which contain additional phylogenetic information. On the basis of sequencing for complete rDNA sequences (18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2 and 28S rDNA) of Demodex, we predicted the secondary structure of the complete rDNA sequence (18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA) of Demodex folliculorum, which was in concordance with that of the main arthropod lineages in past studies. And together with the sequence data from GenBank, we also predicted the secondary structures of divergent domains in SSU rRNA of 51 species and in LSU rRNA of 43 species from four superfamilies in Acari (Cheyletoidea, Tetranychoidea, Analgoidea and Ixodoidea). The multiple alignment among the four superfamilies in Acari showed that, insertions from Tetranychoidea SSU rRNA formed two newly proposed helixes, and helix c3-2b of LSU rRNA was absent in Demodex (Cheyletoidea) taxa. Generally speaking, LSU rRNA presented more remarkable differences than SSU rRNA did, mainly in D2, D3, D5, D7a, D7b, D8 and D10.

  15. EMS in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ramalanjaona, Georges; Brogan, Gerald X

    2009-02-01

    Mauritius lies in the southwest Indian Ocean about 1250 miles from the African coast and 500 miles from Madagascar. Mauritius (estimated population 1,230,602) became independent from the United Kingdom in 1968 and has one of the highest GDP per capita in Africa. Within Mauritius there is a well established EMS system with a single 999 national dispatch system. Ambulances are either publicly or privately owned. Public ambulances are run by the Government (SAMU). Megacare is a private subscriber only ambulance service. The Government has recently invested in new technology such as telemedicine to further enhance the role of EMS on the island. This article describes the current state of EMS in Mauritius and depicts its development in the context of Government effort to decentralise and modernise the healthcare system.

  16. Deer browse resistant exotic-invasive understory: an indicator of elevated human risk of exposure to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in southern coastal Maine woodlands.

    PubMed

    Elias, Susan P; Lubelczyk, Charles B; Rand, Peter W; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Holman, Mary S; Smith, Robert P

    2006-11-01

    We evaluated the relationships between forest understory structure and the abundance of questing adult and nymphal blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), in three Maine towns endemic for Lyme disease, 2001-2003. In fragmented New England woodlands, over-abundant white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman, overbrowse palatable species, allowing browse-resistant exotic-invasive species to replace native forest understory structures. We predicted there would be more ticks in plots dominated by exotic-invasive shrubs (such as Japanese barberry, Berberis thunbergii DC) than in plots dominated by native shrubs, ferns, or open understory. We assessed canopy composition and closure, tree basal area, litter composition, percentage of coverage and stem density of understory species, litter depth, soil moisture, and abundance of small mammals and white-tailed deer pellet groups. We used generalized linear mixed model analysis of covariance to determine the effect of understory structure on tick counts, controlling for continuous habitat and host covariates and adjusting for random spatial effects. There were twice as many adults and nearly twice as many nymphs in plots dominated by exotic-invasives than in plots dominated by native shrubs. Both adult and nymphal counts were lowest in open understory with coniferous litter. Adults were positively associated with increasing litter depth, medium soil moisture, and increasing abundance of white-footed deer mice, Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque, and deer pellet group counts. Nymphs were positively associated with increasing litter depth, moderately wet soil, and mice. We concluded that deer browse-resistant exotic-invasive understory vegetation presented an elevated risk of human exposure to the vector tick of Lyme disease.

  17. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic) (Liliaceae) against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari).

    PubMed

    Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-12-02

    Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98) with increasing concentration (40.03% - 86.96%) yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks) and 87.5% (female ticks) in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  18. Responses of Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae) and Menacanthus stramineus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) to gradients of temperature, light, and humidity, with comments on microhabitat selection on chickens.

    PubMed

    Halbritter, D A; Mullens, B A

    2011-03-01

    Responses of the northern fowl mite (NFM), Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago) (Acari: Macronyssidae), and the chicken body louse (CBL), Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzsch) (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae), to variation in temperature, light, and humidity were assessed in bioassays. The location on a continuous thermal gradient at which each ectoparasite arrested was recorded and analyzed. NFM adults arrested at an average temperature of 30.09 +/- 0.34 degrees C. Adult CBL and first-instar CBL nymphs arrested at 33.69 +/- 0.20 degrees C and 34.99 +/- 0.26 degrees C, respectively. Groups of each ectoparasite were placed into clear glass vials (n = 10/vial) with one half shaded, and vials were exposed to three light levels, as follows: high (200 micromolm(-2)s(-1)), low (4 micromolm(-2)s(-1)), and nearly no light (0 micromolm(-2)s(-1)). The vial cap edges provided an opportunity to assess the interactive effect of light with harborage. NFM avoided light and sought harborage. In low light, the harborage preference overrode the tendency to avoid light. CBL avoided the harborage and showed a minimal preference for light. A four-level humidity gradient was established in two separate experimental arenas for NFM and CBL. Trials were run in ambient light (4 micromolm(-2)s(-1)) for the NFM and in nearly no light for the CBL. The NFM gradient used 38 +/- 2%, 54 +/- 7%, 73 +/- 3%, and 90 +/- 4% RH, whereas the CBL gradient used 42 +/- 5%, 48 +/- 7%, 63 +/- 4%, and 73 +/- 5% RH. NFM showed no humidity response in the walking bioassay, but the CBL settled at the lowest humidity level. Temperature and humidity on different hen body regions were related to the bioassay results and observed on-host ectoparasite distributions.

  19. Effects of reduced deer density on the abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) and Lyme disease incidence in a northern New Jersey endemic area.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Robert A; Schulze, Terry L; Jahn, Margaret B

    2007-09-01

    We monitored the abundance of Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae) and the Lyme disease incidence rate after the incremental removal of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, within a suburban residential area to determine whether there was a measurable decrease in the abundance of ticks due to deer removal and whether the reduction in ticks resulted in a reduction in the incidence rate within the human population. After three seasons, the estimated deer population was reduced by 46.7%, from the 2002 postfawning estimate of 2,899 deer (45.6 deer per km2) to a 2005 estimate of 1,540 deer (24.3 deer per km2). There was no apparent effect of the deer culling program on numbers of questing I. scapularis subadults in the culling areas, and the overall numbers of host-seeking ticks in the culling areas seemed to increase in the second year of the program. The Lyme disease incidence rate generated by both passive and active surveillance systems showed no clear trend among years, and it did not seem to vary with declining deer density. Given the resources required to mount and maintain a community-based program of sufficient magnitude to effectively reduce vector tick density in ecologically open situations where there are few impediments to deer movement, it may be that deer reduction, although serving other community goals, is unlikely to be a primary means of tick control by itself. However, in concert with other tick control interventions, such programs may provide one aspect of a successful community effort to reduce the abundance of vector ticks.

  20. Sampling method evaluation and empirical model fitting for count data to estimate densities of Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on 'Hass' avocado leaves in southern California.

    PubMed

    Lara, Jesús R; Saremi, Naseem T; Castillo, Martin J; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-04-01

    Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) is an important foliar spider mite pest of 'Hass' avocados in several commercial production areas of the world. In California (USA), O. perseae densities in orchards can exceed more than 100 mites per leaf and this makes enumerative counting prohibitive for field sampling. In this study, partial enumerative mite counts along half a vein on an avocado leaf, an industry recommended practice known as the "half-vein method", was evaluated for accuracy using four data sets with a combined total of more than 485,913 motile O. perseae counted on 3849 leaves. Sampling simulations indicated that the half-vein method underestimated mite densities in a range of 15-60 %. This problem may adversely affect management of this pest in orchards and potentially compromise the results of field research requiring accurate mite density estimation. To address this limitation, four negative binomial regression models were fit to count data in an attempt to rescue the half-vein method for estimating mite densities. These models were incorporated into sampling plans and evaluated for their ability to estimate mite densities on whole leaves within 30-tree blocks of avocados. Model 3, a revised version of the original half-vein model, showed improvement in providing reliable estimates of O. perseae densities for making assessments of general leaf infestation densities across orchards in southern California. The implications of these results for customizing the revised half-vein method as a potential field sampling tool and for experimental research in avocado production in California are discussed.

  1. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  2. EMS & the DEA.

    PubMed

    Beeson, Jeff; Ayres, Chris

    2010-01-01

    It's clear that EMS medical directors and management staff must be vigilant in their oversight of implementation, administration and monitoring of controlled substances within their agencies to best serve the public and avoid running afoul of investigation and incurring significant penalties. Those potentially affected by the need for individual registrations of both emergency vehicles and central inventory systems should carefully monitor upcoming developments in the interpretation od DEA regulations.

  3. Description of a new species of Ixodes Latreille, 1795 (Acari: Ixodidae) and redescription of I. lasallei Méndez & Ortiz, 1958, parasites of agoutis and pacas (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, Cuniculidae) in Central and South America.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Bermúdez, Sergio E

    2017-05-01

    Ixodes bocatorensis n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), is described based on adults ex agoutis (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae), pacas (Rodentia: Cuniculidae) and "tapir and sloth" (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae and Pilosa) from Colombia, Panama and Venezuela. Adults of I. bocatorensis n. sp. are similar to those of I. lasallei Méndez & Ortiz, 1958 but can be distinguished by the scutum dimensions, punctation pattern, gnathosoma and palpi measurements and their ratios, basis capituli anterior angle and shape of the spur of palpal segment I ventrally. For comparative purposes the female of I. lasallei is redescribed and the true male of this species is described for the first time. Studied adults of I. lasallei were found on agoutis, pacas and ocelot (Carnivora: Felidae) in Colombia, Peru and Venezuela.

  4. First description of the male and redescription of the female of Ixodes tapirus Kohls, 1956 (Acari: Ixodidae), a parasite of tapirs (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) from the mountains of Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Domínguez, Lillian G; Torres, Sugeys S; Bernal, Juan A; Montenegro, Victor M; Bermúdez, Sergio E

    2017-03-01

    The male of Ixodes tapirus Kohls, 1956 (Acari: Ixodidae) is described for the first time and the female is redescribed in greater detail. Adults of I. tapirus are similar to those of Ixodes guatemalensis Kohls, 1956, Ixodes lasallei Méndez & Ortiz, 1958, Ixodes montoyanus Cooley, 1944 and Ixodes venezuelensis Kohls, 1953 but can be distinguished by their overall size, the amount of sclerotisation of the conscutum and accessory plates, the shape of the scutum, the number of punctations and their pattern on the conscutum and scutum, the depth of the punctations on the basis capituli dorsally, the shape and size of the porose areas and the size and shape of the auriculae. Adults of I. tapirus were collected from tapirs and vegetation in the mountains of Colombia, Panama and recorded from Costa Rica for the first time.

  5. Eupalopsellidae and Stigmaeidae (Acari: Prostigmata) within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines, and ground cover plants.

    PubMed

    Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A

    2014-10-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs were sampled for predacious mites in the families Eupalopsellidae and Stigmaeidae (Acari: Prostigmata) in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruit, twigs, and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between August 1994 and January 1996. Open flowers were sampled in March from five of the sites. Two species of eupalopsellid mites (Exothorhis caudata Summers and Saniosulus harteni (van-Dis and Ueckermann)) were identified from 252 specimens collected within citrus tree canopies within the seven citrus orchards of which 249 were E. caudata. Only two E. caudata were collected from ground cover plants within five of the seven orchards. Eight species of Stigmaeidae were identified from 5,637 specimens: Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, A. terminalis Gonzalez, Eustigmaeus arcuata (Chandhri), E. sp. near arcuata, E. segnis (Koch), Mediostigmaeus citri (Rakha and McCoy), Stigmaeus seminudus Wood, and Zetzellia languida Gonzalez were collected from within citrus tree canopies from seven orchard sites. Agistemus floridanus was the only species in either family that was abundant with 5,483 collected from within citrus tree canopies compared with only 39 from vine or ground cover plants. A total of 431 samples from one or more of 82 vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996 in five of these orchards and one or more eupalopsellids or stigmaeids were collected from 19 of these plants. Richardia brasiliensis (Meg.) Gomez had nine A. floridanus from 5 of 25 samples collected from this plant. Solanum sp. had five A. floridanus from three samples taken. Both eupalopsellid and stigmaeid species numbers represented <1 % of the total numbers of phytoseiid species taken from the same plants. The two remaining orchards were on full herbicide programs and ground cover plants were absent. Agistemus floridanus was more abundant in the citrus orchards

  6. Resistance of grapevine to the erineum strain of Colomerus vitis (Acari: Eriophyidae) in western Iran and its correlation with plant features.

    PubMed

    Khederi, Saeid Javadi; de Lillo, Enrico; Khanjani, Mohammad; Gholami, Mansur

    2014-05-01

    The interaction of grape erineum mite (GEM), Colomerus vitis Pagenstecher (Acari: Eriophyidae), with grape was investigated in the laboratory. We studied some plant morphological biochemical features potentially related to vine resistance/tolerance of eight native grapevine cultivars, extensively cultivated in western Iran, and two non-native cultivars. Free-choice experiments indicated that the cultivars Shahani, Flame seedless and Yaghuti were colonized by lower levels of GEM, whereas Muscat Gordo, Gazne and White Thompson seedless hosted denser populations. These differences between cultivars may be due to differential attractiveness to GEM, possibly associated with plant biochemical and morphological traits. In no-choice assays with six grapevine cultivars, mite population development and some cultivar features were assessed. Mite populations grew fastest on Gazne and Muscat Gordo, and slowest on Yaghuti and Shahani. The degree of mite infestation was associated with reduction of leaf area, increase of leaf weight, shortening of shoots and more numerous erinea: these features were larger on the most infested Gazne, whereas morphological features of Shahani and Yaghuti were scarcely affected by GEM infestation. Also trichome type and density of the assayed cultivars appeared to be related to mite density: the most infested cultivars (Gazne and Muscat Gordo) displayed higher ranks of blade and vein hairs and lower ranks of blade and vein bristles and domatia. No correlation was found between mite density and leaf thickness of mature leaves. The amount of leaf waxes was highest in Shahani and Yaghuti, which displayed the lowest mite density, the fewest erinea and the largest leaves. Carbohydrate amount of uninfested leaves was lowest on the least infested Shahani and highest on the most infested Gazne; phenols increased in leaves of Shahani and decreased in those of Gazne after mite infestation. Finally, cultivars also appeared to influence some morphological

  7. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  8. EPA LABORATORIES IMPLEMENT EMS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the breadth and magnitude of carrying out an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) program at the U.S. EPA's research and development laboratories. Federal research laboratories have unique operating challenges compared to more centralized industr...

  9. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 < i' < 25 observou-se que estas galáxias estão localizadas próximas a um dos quasares e há indícios de que estejam aglomeradas dentro de um área de ~ 6 arcmin2. Se esse for o caso, estes objetos seriam membros de uma estrutura em grande escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  10. Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... a rural EMS unit find funding for major equipment, such as an ambulance? The following programs can ... EMS units. Grants may be used to purchase equipment (including vehicles), provide training, establish wellness and fitness ...

  11. (4E)-dehydrocitrals [(2E,4E)- and (2Z,4E )-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienals] from acarid mite Histiogaster sp. A096 (Acari: Acaridae).

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, H; Mori, N; Nishida, R; Kuwahara, Y

    2001-12-01

    A mixture of two monoterpenes was obtained as the opisthonotal gland secretion from unidentified Histiogaster sp. A096 (Acari: Acaridae), and their structures were elucidated to be (4E)-dehydrocitrals [(2E,4E)- and (2Z,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienals] by GC/MS, GC/FT-IR, UV and 1H-NMR spectra. Both isomers of (4E)-dehydrocitral prepared by syntheses in 4 steps from 3-methyl-2-butenal with 34.2% yields (based on the ylide) were separated by column chromatography into the (2E,4E)- and (2Z,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienal. Mass spectra together with GC retention times of the purified natural (4E)-dehydrocitrals were identical with those of synthetic (2E,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienal and (2Z,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienal. The geometry at the 2-C position of both synthetic (4E)-dehydrocitrals was confirmed by NOESY analyses. This is the first identification of (4E)-dehydrocitrals from the animal kingdom.

  12. Sequencing for complete rDNA sequences (18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2, and 28S rDNA) of Demodex and phylogenetic analysis of Acari based on 18S and 28S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping; Hu, Li; Xu, Yang; Wang, Zheng-Hang; Liu, Wen-Yan

    2012-11-01

    Due to the difficulty of DNA extraction for Demodex, few studies dealt with the identification and the phyletic evolution of Demodex at molecular level. In this study, we amplified, sequenced, and analyzed a complete (Demodex folliculorum) and an almost complete (D12 missing) (Demodex brevis) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence and also analyzed the primary sequences of divergent domains in small-subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of 51 species and in large-subunit rRNA of 43 species from four superfamilies in Acari (Cheyletoidea, Tetranychoidea, Analgoidea, and Ixodoidea). The results revealed that 18S rDNA sequence was relatively conserved in rDNA-coding regions and was not evolving as rapidly as 28S rDNA sequence. The evolutionary rates of transcribed spacer regions were much higher than those of the coding regions. The maximum parsimony trees of 18S and 28S rDNA appeared to be almost identical, consistent with their morphological classification. Based on the fact that the resolution capability of sequence length and the divergence of the 13 segments (D1-D6, D7a, D7b, and D8-D12) of 28S rDNA were stronger than that of the nine variable regions (V1-V9) of 18S rDNA, we were able to identify Demodex (Cheyletoidea) by the indels occurring in D2, D6, and D8.

  13. The European Mobile System (EMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongejans, A.; Rogard, R.; Mistretta, I.; Ananasso, F.

    1993-01-01

    The European Space Agency is presently procuring an L band payload in order to promote a regional European L band system coping with the specific needs of the European market. The payload, and the two communications systems to be supported, are described below. The potential market for EMS in Europe is discussed.

  14. Vertical transmission of feather lice between adult blackbirds Turdus merula and their nestlings: a lousy perspective.

    PubMed

    Brooke, M de L

    2010-12-01

    There is limited information about the natural history of the transmission of feather lice (Phthiraptera) from parent birds to their young. This article therefore examines the transmission of 4 species of feather lice from parent blackbirds to their nestlings in an English population, and addresses questions formulated from the perspective of the lice. The lice that disperse onto the several young in the nest were mostly found on the larger chicks, those with higher survival prospects. The lice dispersing to chicks were overwhelmingly nymphs, which cannot be sexed morphologically, and so the prediction that the adult lice dispersing would be disproportionately female, potential founders of a new population, was only supported for the most numerous species, Brueelia merulensis. There was no evidence that louse dispersal to chicks was density dependent and more likely when the parents were more heavily infested. Finally, I predicted that lice might aggregate on female blackbirds, which undertake more brooding, to increase their chance of transmission to nestlings. For 1 louse species, B. merulensis, prevalence, but not louse intensity, was higher on female than male blackbirds. For 2 other louse species, Philopterus turdi and Menacanthus eurysternus, no differences between male and female blackbirds were detected.

  15. Complaints against an EMS system.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Christopher B; Pons, Peter T; Pi, Randy

    2003-11-01

    Complaints against Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies represent a concerning and potentially time-consuming problem for all involved in the delivery of prehospital emergency medical care. The objective of this study was to identify the source of complaints against an EMS system to help focus quality and performance improvement and customer service efforts. We conducted a retrospective review of complaints filed against a busy urban EMS agency over a 6-year period. All complaints were included, totaled by season and by year, and categorized by originator and nature of the complaint. A total of 286 complaints were registered during the 6-year period, with an average of 48 per year and 9.3 per 10,000 responses. The most common originators of complaints were patients (53%) followed by medical personnel (19%) and family members or friends (12%). Rude behavior accounted for 23% of the complaints registered, followed by technical skills (20%), transport problems (18%), and loss of belongings (13%). The identification of areas of dissatisfaction will allow focused quality and performance improvement programs directed at customer service and risk management.

  16. Infection and co-infection rates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum variants, Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, and the rickettsial endosymbiont in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) from sites in Indiana, Maine, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Fresia E; Pinger, Robert R; Vann, Carolyn N; Grindle, Nate; Civitello, David; Clay, Keith; Fuqua, Clay

    2008-03-01

    In total, 394 questing adult blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), collected at four sites were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for five microbial species: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Babesia odocoilei, Borrelia burgdorferi, and the rickettsial I. scapularis endosymbiont. Identities of genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum were determined by sequencing a portion of the 16S DNA. In 55% of infected ticks (193/351), a single agent was detected. In 45% (158/351), two or more agents were detected; 37% harbored two agents and 8% harbored three agents. One male tick, collected from Ft. McCoy, WI, harbored all four microbial genera The highest rates of co-infection were by the Ixodes endosymbiont and B. burgdorferi (95/351). Two species of Babesia co-occurred within a single tick population in Wells National Estuarine Research Reserve, Wells, ME, whereas only B. odocoilei was found in other tick populations. Only A. phagocytophilum human anaplasmosis variant was detected in questing ticks from Tippecanoe River State Park, IN; from Wells; and Ft. McCoy, whereas a single infected tick from Presque Isle, PA, was infected by AP-Variant 1. Partially engorged ticks from deer in Tippecanoe River State Park were all infected with AP-Variant 1. Frequency of infections with each agent varied among populations. Rates and types of co-infections were not significantly different from random except for the Ixodes endosymbiont and B. burgdorferi in male ticks, which co-occurred less frequently than expected. Thus, I. scapularis hosts an array of pathogenic and symbiotic agents and potential evidence of interactions among microbial species was observed.

  17. Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole (1836) and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    de Assis Lage, Tiago Coelho; Montanari, Ricardo Marques; Fernandes, Sergio Antonio; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; de Oliveira Souza Senra, Tatiane; Zeringota, Viviane; da Silva Matos, Renata; Daemon, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (common name "alecrim-do-campo" in Brazil) is a plant with widespread distribution in South America that is the botanical origin of green propolis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of B. dracunculifolia and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on unengorged larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). The essential oil yield was 0.8% of dry mass and the major constituents were nerolidol (22.3%), germacrene D (7.2%), limonene (6.9%), β-pinene (6.7) and bicyclogermacrene (6.5%). The acaricidal activity of the essential oil and the pure compounds nerolidol and (R)-(+)-limonene were assessed in the laboratory through the modified larval packet test (LPT) and the female immersion test (FIT). In the LPT, the essential oil and nerolidol were both active, causing more than 90% mortality at concentrations from 15.0 and 10.0 mg mL(-1), respectively, whereas (R)-(+)-limonene was not active. In the FIT, the oil and nerolidol caused reduction in the quantity and quality of eggs produced, with control percentages of 96.3% and 90.3% at concentrations of 60.0 and 50.0 mg mL(-1), respectively. It can be concluded that the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of B. dracunculifolia and its major component nerolidol have high activity on R. microplus larvae and engorged females.

  18. In vitro activity of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis and ecdysis of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; de Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodriguez

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis, as a larvicide and on ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae). On the oogenesis' test, 48 engorged females were divided into three groups, evaluated at 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment. Half of the females were treated with 0.01% 3β-O-tigloylmelianol diluted in distilled water and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), while the other half (controls) were exposed to distilled water and 5% DMSO. After treatment, the ovaries were weighed in order to measure the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and were also subjected to standard histological technical tests. On the larvicide and ecdysis' tests, 3β-O-tigloylmelianol was tested at concentrations of 0.01, 0.005, 0.0025 and 0.00125%. Compared with the controls, there was a reduction of GSI of approximately 50% on the treated group, which started at 48 h post treatment. Overall, the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol has caused a significant reduction in the number of oocytes. It has also caused alteration of the cytoplasmic and germinal vesicle diameters. Morphological changes, such as vacuolization, chorion irregularity which has modified the oocytes' morphology as well as alterations on the yolk's granules were also observed. The compound was not larvicide, however, interfered in the ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs. This study shows that the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from G. kunthiana acts on oogenesis and ecdysis of R. (B.) microplus, but not as larvicide, indicating that it acts on the endocrine system of the tick.

  19. DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM

  20. EMS provider determinations of necessity for transport and reimbursement for EMS response, medical care, and transport: combined resource document for the National Association of EMS Physicians position statements.

    PubMed

    Millin, Michael G; Brown, Lawrence H; Schwartz, Brian

    2011-01-01

    With increasing demands for emergency medical services (EMS), many EMS jurisdictions are utilizing EMS provider-initiated nontransport policies as a method to offload potentially nonemergent patients from the EMS system. EMS provider determination of medical necessity, resulting in nontransport of patients, has the potential to avert unnecessary emergency department visits. However, EMS systems that utilize these policies must have additional education for the providers, a quality improvement process, and active physician oversight. In addition, EMS provider determination of nontransport for a specific situation should be supported by evidence in the peer-reviewed literature that the practice is safe. Further, EMS systems that do not utilize these programs should not be financially penalized. Payment for EMS services should be based on the prudent layperson standard. EMS systems that do utilize nontransport policies should be appropriately reimbursed, as this represents potential cost savings to the health care system.

  1. School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

  2. Side mounted EMS for aluminium scrap melters

    SciTech Connect

    Eidem, M.; Tallbaeck, G.; Hanley, P.J.

    1996-10-01

    Normally the electromagnetic stirrer (EMS) is placed below the furnace. However it has recently been found that the EMS can also be placed at the side of the furnace, still giving good stirring. This makes it possible to install EMS on most existing furnaces. The side-mounted EMS is compared with the standard bottom-mounted stirrer with respect to installation, melting time and flow pattern in the melt. The major conclusion is that a side-mounted EMS is practical and will give about as good a performance as the bottom-mounted. Melting time estimates are based upon 3-D fluid flow and heat transfer predictions in combination with a simplified scrap melting theory. Predicted melting times are in fair agreement with operational data for mechanically stirred and electromagnetically bottom stirred furnaces.

  3. EM International, July 1994, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking out and leveraging foreign technology, data, and resources in keeping with EM`s mandate to protect public health and the environment through the safe and cost-effective remediation of the Department`s nuclear weapons sites. EM works closely with foreign governments, industry, and universities to obtain innovative environmental technologies, scientific and engineering expertise, and operations experience that will support EM`s objectives. Where appropriate, these international resources are used to manage the more urgent risks at our sites, secure a safe workplace, help build consensus on critical issues, and strengthen our technology development program. Through international agreements EM engages in cooperative exchange of information, technology, and individuals. Currently, we are managing agreements with a dozen countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia. These agreements focus on environmental restoration, waste management, transportation of radioactive wastes, and decontamination and decommissioning. This publication contains the following articles: in situ remediation integrated program; in-situ characterization and inspection of tanks; multimedia environmental pollutant assessment system (MEPAS); LLNL wet oxidation -- AEA technology. Besides these articles, this publication covers: EU activities with Russia; technology transfer activities; and international organization activities.

  4. Project X RFQ EM Design

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Gennady; Hoff, Matthew; Li, Derun; Staples, John; Virostek, Steve; /LBNL

    2012-05-09

    Project X is a proposed multi-MW proton facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The Project X front-end would consist of an H- ion source, a low-energy beam transport (LEBT), a CW 162.5 MHz radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a medium-energy beam transport (MEBT). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and FNAL collaboration is currently developing the designs for various components in the Project X front end. This paper reports the detailed EM design of the CW 162.5 MHz RFQ that provides bunching of the 1-10 mA H- beam with acceleration from 30 keV to 2.1 MeV.

  5. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs.

  6. Reassessing training levels for prehospital EMS personnel.

    PubMed

    Briese, G L

    1983-01-01

    One of the major questions confronting prehospital care services today concerns determining the appropriate level of training for EMS personnel that will provide the most cost effective systems. Unfortunately there are no studies which assess this problem. Various communities have modified or expanded the roles of prehospital personnel beyond the traditional training of EMTs and paramedics. Continuing education and skills maintenance are ongoing problems faced by all EMS systems, which have been addressed in various ways by individual locales.

  7. SOFIS FTS EM test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soucy, Marc-Andre A.; Levesque, Luc E.; Tanii, Jun; Kawashima, Takahiro; Nakajima, Hideaki

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Occultation FTS for Inclined-orbit Satellite (SOFIS) is a solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer developed by the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) in Japan for the Global Change Observation Mission-A1 (GCOM-A1) satellite. GCOM-A1 will be placed in a 650 km non-sun-synchronous orbit, with an inclination angle of 69 degrees. ABB-Bomem is a sub-contractor of NTSpace (NEC-Toshiba Space) for the design and manufacturing of the FTS Engineering Model of SOFIS. SOFIS measures the vertical profile of the atmospheric constituents with 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution for the spectral range covering 3-13 μm. The atmospheric vertical resolution of SOFIS is 1 km. The target of SOFIS measurements is a global distribution of O3, HNO3, NO2, N2O, CH4, H2O, CO2, CFC-11, CFC-12, ClONO2, aerosol extinction, atmospheric pressure and temperature. NTSpace in Japan is the prime contractor of SOFIS. The spectrometer is an adapted version of the classical Michelson interferometer using an optimized optical layout and moving retro-reflectors. A solid-state laser diode operating at 1550 nm is used as metrology source of the interferometer. Its highly folded optical design results in a high performance instrument with a compact size. SOFIS FTS implements high performance control techniques to achieve outstanding speed stability of the moving mechanism. This paper describes the test activities of the SOFIS-FTS Engineering Model (EM) and preliminary results. The performances of the FTS are presented in terms of key parameters like signal-to-noise ratio, modulation efficiency and stability. Spectra acquired are shown and test methodology and analyses are presented. Lessons learned during assembly, integration and testing are described as well as improvements planned to be implemented in the Flight Model.

  8. EMS adaptation for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

  9. Filter banks and the EM algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Mair, B.A.; Carroll, R.B.; Anderson, J.M.M.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we present a wavelet based modification of the ML-EM algorithm for reconstructing positron emission tomography images. By using the filter bank implementation of the wavelet transform, this algorithm has the flexibility to incorporate a priori information, while maintaining the same computational complexity as the standard ML-EM algorithm. Thus, it has a significant computational advantage over usual Bayesian methods. It differs from recent wavelet-based Bayesian methods as it achieves {open_quotes}regularization{close_quotes} by an adaptive, wavelet-based method of thresholding which minimizes Stein`s Unbiased Estimate of Risk. The basic method consists of applying Donoho and Johnstone`s SureShrink wavelet denoising of the Poisson data, and then applying the standard ML-EM algorithm to the denoised data. A more elaborate method is discussed in which a wavelet denoising step is inserted after each EM iteration. This technique differs from previous smoothing techniques applied to the ML-EM algorithm since it is able to recover edges in discontinuous images.

  10. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  11. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  12. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  13. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  14. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  15. Integrating Green Purchasing Into Your Environmental Management System (EMS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The goal of this report is to help Federal facilities integrate green purchasing into their EMS. The intended audience includes those tasked with implementing an EMS, reducing environmental impacts, meeting green purchasing requirements.

  16. Risk Communication Within the EM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, M.

    2003-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a placeholder for other concepts. Thus ''risk'' communication

  17. Structural Composites With Tuned EM Chirality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-23

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0018 STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES WITH TUNED EM CHIRALITY Siavouche Nemat Nasser UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO Final Report 12/23...REPORT Grant/Contract  Title:        STRUCTURAL  COMPOSITES  WITH  TUNED  EM   CHIRALITY     Grant  No.:  FA9550-­‐09-­‐1...structural   composites  with   tunable   chiral   elements   has   produced   some   impressive   results   in   the

  18. Lessons Learned: Integrating EMS and Environmental Compliance Auditing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-06

    audit an EMS against the – ISO 14001 :2004 Standard – Installation’s own commitments and procedures established under their EMS (i.e. are they doing...what they said they would do?) – Army Policy • Findings are documented in a Word report (external audits) • ISO 14001 conformance is determined by...regulatory requirements • EMS Findings – Conformance: management system conforms to ISO 14001 standard – Major Nonconformance: EMS is missing element

  19. 7 CFR 1945.35 - Special EM loan training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., District and County employees, provided there has not been a recent training meeting in that State. (b... employees in administering the EM loan program. (d) Comprehensive EM loan training package. A comprehensive EM loan training package has been developed for use by National Office and Staff Office personnel...

  20. EMS response to an airliner crash.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Shuvra; French, Simone; Williams-Johnson, Jean; Hutson, Rhonda; Hart, Nicole; Wong, Mark; Williams, Eric; Espinosa, Kurdell; Maycock, Celeste; Edwards, Romayne; McCartney, Trevor; Cawich, Shamir; Crandon, Ivor

    2012-06-01

    This report of an aircraft crash at a major airport in Kingston, Jamaica examines the response of the local Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Factors that impacted the response are discussed, and the need for more disaster simulation exercises is highlighted. The objective of this case report was to document the response of EMS personnel to the crash of American Airlines Flight 331, and to utilize the information to examine and improve the present protocol. While multiple errors can occur during a mass-casualty event, these can be reduced by frequent simulation exercises during which various personnel practice and learn designated roles. Efficient triage, proper communication, and knowledge of the roles are important in ensuring the best possible outcome. While the triage system and response of the EMS personnel were effective for this magnitude of catastrophe, more work is needed in order to meet predetermined standards. Ways in which this can be overcome include: (1) hosting more disaster simulation exercises; (2) encouraging more involvement with first responders; and (3) strengthening the links in the local EMS system. Vigorous public education must be instituted and maintained.

  1. Accuracy of EMS Trauma Transport Destination Plans in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Moss, Chailee; Cowden, Christopher S; Atterton, Laurie Meyer; Arasaratnam, Meredith H; Fernandez, Antonio R; Evarts, Jeff S; Barrier, Brian; Lerner, E Brooke; Mann, N Clay; Lohmeier, Chad; Shofer, Frances S; Brice, Jane H

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Planning for time-sensitive injury may allow emergency medical services (EMS) systems to more accurately triage patients meeting accepted criteria to facilities most capable of providing life-saving treatment. In 2010, North Carolina (NC) implemented statewide Trauma Triage and Destination Plans (TTDPs) in all 100 of North Carolina's county-defined EMS systems. Each system was responsible for identifying the specific destination hospitals with appropriate resources to treat trauma patients. We sought to characterize the accuracy of their hospital designations. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we collected TTDPs for each county-defined EMS system, including their assigned hospital capabilities (i.e., trauma center or community hospital). We conducted a survey with each EMS system to determine how their TTDP was constructed and maintained, as well as with each TTDP-designated hospital to verify their capabilities. We determined the accuracy of the EMS assigned hospital designations by comparing them to the hospital's reported capabilities. Results. The 100 NC EMS systems provided 380 designations for 112 hospitals. TTDPs were created by EMS administrators and medical directors, with only 55% of EMS systems engaging a hospital representative in the plan creation. Compared to the actual hospital capabilities, 97% of the EMS TTDP designations were correct. Twelve hospital designations were incorrect and the majority (10) overestimated hospital capabilities. Of the 100 EMS systems, 7 misclassified hospitals in their TTDP. EMS systems that did not verify their local hospitals' capabilities during TTDP development were more likely to incorrectly categorize a hospital's capabilities (p = 0.001). Conclusions. A small number of EMS systems misclassified hospitals in their TTDP, but most plans accurately reflected hospital capabilities. Misclassification occurred more often in systems that did not consult local hospitals prior to developing their

  2. Ultraviolet reflection of berries attracts foraging birds. A laboratory study with redwings (Turdus iliacus) and bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus)

    PubMed Central

    Siitari, H.; Honkavaara, J; Viitala, J.

    1999-01-01

    Unlike humans, birds perceive ultraviolet (UV) light (320 to 400 nm), a waveband which is known to play a role in avian mate choice. However, less attention has been paid to the role of UV light in avian foraging. Some blue, violet and black berries reflect UV light. The colour of berries might be an effective advertisement for avian seed dispersers and indicate the stage of fruit ripeness. We conducted an experiment to test how the UV reflection of berries affects birds' foraging. Redwings were allowed to choose between UV-reflecting bilberries and rubbed bilberries (UV reduced) in the presence and absence of UV light. We used wild-caught adult and hand-raised juvenile birds to assess possible differences between experienced and naive birds. We found that adult redwings preferred UV-reflecting berries when UV illumination was present, but when UV illumination was absent, they did not distinguish between the two berry types. Our study therefore shows, for the first time, that UV wavelengths are used when birds feed on fruit. However, naive birds showed no preferences, suggesting that age and/or learning may affect frugivore preference for UV reflectance.

  3. Does light pollution alter daylength? A test using light loggers on free-ranging European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Dominoni, Davide M; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-05-05

    Artificial light at night is one of the most apparent environmental changes accompanying anthropogenic habitat change. The global increase in light pollution poses new challenges to wild species, but we still have limited understanding of the temporal and spatial pattern of exposure to light at night. In particular, it has been suggested by several studies that animals exposed to light pollution, such as songbirds, perceive a longer daylength compared with conspecifics living in natural darker areas, but direct tests of such a hypothesis are still lacking. Here, we use a combination of light loggers deployed on individual European blackbirds, as well as automated radio-telemetry, to examine whether urban birds are exposed to a longer daylength than forest counterparts. We first used activity data from forest birds to determine the level of light intensity which defines the onset and offset of daily activity in rural areas. We then used this value as threshold to calculate the subjective perceived daylength of both forest and urban blackbirds. In March, when reproductive growth occurs, urban birds were exposed on average to a 49-min longer subjective perceived daylength than forest ones, which corresponds to a 19-day difference in photoperiod at this time of the year. In the field, urban blackbirds reached reproductive maturity 19 day earlier than rural birds, suggesting that light pollution could be responsible of most of the variation in reproductive timing found between urban and rural dwellers. We conclude that light at night is the most relevant change in ambient light affecting biological rhythms in avian urban-dwellers, most likely via a modification of the perceived photoperiod.

  4. Does light pollution alter daylength? A test using light loggers on free-ranging European blackbirds (Turdus merula)

    PubMed Central

    Dominoni, Davide M.; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-01-01

    Artificial light at night is one of the most apparent environmental changes accompanying anthropogenic habitat change. The global increase in light pollution poses new challenges to wild species, but we still have limited understanding of the temporal and spatial pattern of exposure to light at night. In particular, it has been suggested by several studies that animals exposed to light pollution, such as songbirds, perceive a longer daylength compared with conspecifics living in natural darker areas, but direct tests of such a hypothesis are still lacking. Here, we use a combination of light loggers deployed on individual European blackbirds, as well as automated radio-telemetry, to examine whether urban birds are exposed to a longer daylength than forest counterparts. We first used activity data from forest birds to determine the level of light intensity which defines the onset and offset of daily activity in rural areas. We then used this value as threshold to calculate the subjective perceived daylength of both forest and urban blackbirds. In March, when reproductive growth occurs, urban birds were exposed on average to a 49-min longer subjective perceived daylength than forest ones, which corresponds to a 19-day difference in photoperiod at this time of the year. In the field, urban blackbirds reached reproductive maturity 19 day earlier than rural birds, suggesting that light pollution could be responsible of most of the variation in reproductive timing found between urban and rural dwellers. We conclude that light at night is the most relevant change in ambient light affecting biological rhythms in avian urban-dwellers, most likely via a modification of the perceived photoperiod. PMID:25780232

  5. What Do They Want from Us? A Survey of EM Program Directors on EM Application Criteria

    PubMed Central

    King, Kevin; Kass, Dara

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Although a relatively young specialty, emergency medicine (EM) is popular among medical students and is one of the most competitive large specialties. Consequently, students increasingly seek more opportunity to differentiate themselves from their colleagues by pursuing more clerkships at the cost of taking out additional loans: this despite the fact that those who match in EM typically do so in their top three choices. We sought to ascertain what factors EM program directors seek in their typical candidate. Methods We recruited EM program directors via the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors email listserv to participate in an anonymous survey regarding the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), the number of standardized letters of evaluation (SLOE), and the number of EM rotations during the fourth year. Results 135 respondents completed the anonymous survey: 59% of respondents stated their program did not have a minimum USMLE Step 1 score, but 39% reported a minimum score of 210 or higher; 95% of programs do not require Step 2 to grant an interview, but 46% require it to place the student on the rank list; 80% require only one EM rotation to grant an interview and none require more than two; 95% of programs will accept two SLOEs for both application and rank list placement. Conclusion For the typical EM applicant, there is likely little benefit to performing more than two rotations and obtaining more than two SLOEs. Students can defer USMLE Step 2 but must complete it by the time rank lists are due. Our study was limited by the anonymity of the survey, and comments by the respondents revealed the questions did not account for some nuances programs apply to their application review process. PMID:28116023

  6. The E-MS Algorithm: Model Selection with Incomplete Data.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiming; Nguyen, Thuan; Rao, J Sunil

    2015-04-04

    We propose a procedure associated with the idea of the E-M algorithm for model selection in the presence of missing data. The idea extends the concept of parameters to include both the model and the parameters under the model, and thus allows the model to be part of the E-M iterations. We develop the procedure, known as the E-MS algorithm, under the assumption that the class of candidate models is finite. Some special cases of the procedure are considered, including E-MS with the generalized information criteria (GIC), and E-MS with the adaptive fence (AF; Jiang et al. 2008). We prove numerical convergence of the E-MS algorithm as well as consistency in model selection of the limiting model of the E-MS convergence, for E-MS with GIC and E-MS with AF. We study the impact on model selection of different missing data mechanisms. Furthermore, we carry out extensive simulation studies on the finite-sample performance of the E-MS with comparisons to other procedures. The methodology is also illustrated on a real data analysis involving QTL mapping for an agricultural study on barley grains.

  7. Cryo-EM: Spinning the Micelles Away.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satinder K; Sigworth, Fred J

    2015-09-01

    Structural characterization of integral membrane proteins (MPs) demands that the samples be pure, monodisperse, and stable. Detergents are required to extract MPs from the lipid bilayer in which they reside and to stabilize them for downstream biophysical analyses. Some of the best MP-stabilizing detergents pose problems for cryo-EM studies, but in this issue of Structure, Hauer et al. (2015) now offer a solution called GraDeR.

  8. Leukocyte Recognition Using EM-Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colunga, Mario Chirinos; Siordia, Oscar Sánchez; Maybank, Stephen J.

    This document describes a method for classifying images of blood cells. Three different classes of cells are used: Band Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Lymphocytes. The image pattern is projected down to a lower dimensional sub space using PCA; the probability density function for each class is modeled with a Gaussian mixture using the EM-Algorithm. A new cell image is classified using the maximum a posteriori decision rule.

  9. Intense EM filamentation in relativistic hot plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiang-Lin; Chen, Zhong-Ping; Mahajan, Swadesh M.

    2017-03-01

    Through 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we demonstrate that the nature of filamentation of a high intensity electromagnetic (EM) pulse propagating in an underdense plasma, is profoundly affected at relativistically high temperatures. The "relativistic" filaments are sharper, are dramatically extended (along the direction of propagation), and live much longer than their lower temperature counterparts. The thermally boosted electron inertia is invoked to understand this very interesting and powerful phenomenon.

  10. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R.H.; Dougherty, M.K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R.A.; Griffith, C.A.; Gurvits, L.I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M.R.; Lunine, J.I.; McKay, C.P.; Moussas, X.; Muller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T.C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E.C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E.P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J.H.; Baines, K.H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A.J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R.D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C.C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J.C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D.H.; Benilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G.L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M.T.; Chassefiere, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J.F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I.A.; de Angelis, E.; De Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F.M.; Fortes, A.D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Kuppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le, Mouelic S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, J.; Livengood, T.A.; Lopes, R.M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. -J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Salvan, C.M.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D.G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, C.D.; Nixon, C.A.; Mvondo, D.N.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F.T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Bermejo, M.R.; Sarris, E.T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L.J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D.F.; Szego, K.; Szopa,

    2009-01-01

    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfi??re) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.

  11. The US DOE EM international program

    SciTech Connect

    Elmetti, Rosa R.; Han, Ana M.; Roach, Jay A.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) conducts international collaboration activities in support of U.S. policies and objectives regarding the accelerated risk reduction and remediation of environmental legacy of the nations' nuclear weapons program and government sponsored nuclear energy research. The EM International Program supported out of the EM Office of the Associate Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary pursues collaborations with foreign government organizations, educational institutions and private industry to assist in identifying technologies and promote international collaborations that leverage resources and link international experience and expertise. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, the International Program awarded eight international collaborative projects for work scope spanning waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) and nuclear materials disposition initiatives to seven foreign organizations. Additionally, the International Program's scope and collaboration opportunities were expanded to include technical as well as non-technical areas. This paper will present an overview of the on-going tasks awarded in FY 2012 and an update of upcoming international activities and opportunities for expansion into the remainder of FY 2013 and beyond. (authors)

  12. The State of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Systems in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Dixon, Julia M; Sefa, Nana; Yancey, Arthur; Hollong, Bonaventure G; Hagahmed, Mohamed; Ginde, Adit A; Wallis, Lee A

    2017-02-23

    Introduction Little is known about the existence, distribution, and characteristics of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems in Africa, or the corresponding epidemiology of prehospital illness and injury.

  13. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  14. Recruitment and retention in rural and urban EMS: results from a national survey of local EMS directors.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Victoria A; Slifkin, Rebecca T; Patterson, P Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining an adequate staff is a challenge for rural emergency medical services (EMS) providers. This national survey of local EMS directors finds that rural EMS are more likely to be freestanding, that is, not affiliated with other public services, to employ only emergency medical technician-basics (EMT-Bs), and to be all volunteer. Rural EMS directors are more likely than urban ones to report that they are not currently fully staffed. The most common barriers to recruitment of EMTs in both urban and rural areas include unwillingness of community members to volunteer and lack of certified EMTs in the area. In rural areas, barriers to EMT training were noted more often than in urban areas as was the lack of employer support for employee volunteers. Similar rural training barriers affected retention of staff. Rural respondents reported that they lose staff to burnout and to difficulty in meeting continuing education requirements. Among rural respondents, those who direct all-volunteer EMS were the most likely to report recruitment and retention problems. The results suggest areas for further study including how volunteer EMS agencies can transition to paid agencies, how to bring EMS education to rural areas, and how EMS can work with other agencies to ensure EMS viability.

  15. Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman

    2004-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS

  16. Improving Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in the United States Through Improved and Centralized Federal Coordination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    other emergencies. 4 • Public Awareness of the EMS Discipline. The public at large is not aware of the EMS structure in its community or at a higher...regard for its imperative role in community service. For this reason, placing EMS under the USFA at the federal level would cause EMS to still be...service to include EMS is appropriate, and in some cases, it is not. Not all communities have a dedicated fire service, which can make EMS provision

  17. EM threat analysis for wireless systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, R. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Mariano, Robert J.; Schniter, P. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Gupta, I. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory)

    2006-06-01

    Modern digital radio systems are complex and must be carefully designed, especially when expected to operate in harsh propagation environments. The ability to accurately predict the effects of propagation on wireless radio performance could lead to more efficient radio designs as well as the ability to perform vulnerability analyses before and after system deployment. In this report, the authors--experts in electromagnetic (EM) modeling and wireless communication theory--describe the construction of a simulation environment that is capable of quantifying the effects of wireless propagation on the performance of digital communication.

  18. Interspecific interactions involving Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis (Acari: Stigmaeidae) as predators of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcos Zatti; Sato, Mário Eidi; de Oliveira, Carlos Amadeu Leite; Nicastro, Roberto Lomba

    2015-03-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) is associated with the transmission of Citrus leprosis which is considered the main viral disease for the Brazilian citrus production. Mites of the families Stigmaeidae and Phytoseiidae coexist in various agricultural crops, often promoting the biological control of pest mites. The aim of this work was to study the interactions of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Stigmaeidae), in the presence or absence of B. phoenicis. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, a N. californicus female was placed in each leaf disc arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and A. brasiliensis as food sources. In the second, an A. brasiliensis female was placed in each arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and N. californicus as food sources. Adults of both predators were able to consume both types of eggs available as food sources, but they fed on considerably higher proportions of B. phoenicis than on eggs of the predator. Eggs of A. brasiliensis were not a suitable food source for N. californicus, which produced only 0.1 egg per female per day when only eggs of that species were present in the experimental unit. The results suggest that eggs of N. californicus were a suitable food source for A. brasiliensis, which oviposited 1.12 eggs per day, when only eggs of N. californicus were provided to the stigmaeid mite. The possible interactions among N. californicus, A. brasiliensis and B. phoenicis in citrus orchards are discussed.

  19. CryoEM at IUCrJ: a new era

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Sriram; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Henderson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this overview, we briefly outline recent advances in electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and explain why the journal IUCrJ, published by the International Union of Crystallography, could provide a natural home for publications covering many present and future developments in the cryoEM field. PMID:26870375

  20. Genetic-based EM algorithm for learning Gaussian mixture models.

    PubMed

    Pernkopf, Franz; Bouchaffra, Djamel

    2005-08-01

    We propose a genetic-based expectation-maximization (GA-EM) algorithm for learning Gaussian mixture models from multivariate data. This algorithm is capable of selecting the number of components of the model using the minimum description length (MDL) criterion. Our approach benefits from the properties of Genetic algorithms (GA) and the EM algorithm by combination of both into a single procedure. The population-based stochastic search of the GA explores the search space more thoroughly than the EM method. Therefore, our algorithm enables escaping from local optimal solutions since the algorithm becomes less sensitive to its initialization. The GA-EM algorithm is elitist which maintains the monotonic convergence property of the EM algorithm. The experiments on simulated and real data show that the GA-EM outperforms the EM method since: 1) We have obtained a better MDL score while using exactly the same termination condition for both algorithms. 2) Our approach identifies the number of components which were used to generate the underlying data more often than the EM algorithm.

  1. Light curve analysis of southern eclipsing binary EM Car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćiçek, C.; Bulut, I.; Bulut, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, ASAS light curve of the eclipsing binary EM Car (Sp = O8V, P = 3.4 days) has been analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney method. The light curve analyses have found that EM Car is a detached eclipsing binary system with small eccentric orbit

  2. New Pergalumna (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae) from Peru.

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Friedrich, Stefan

    2016-03-11

    Six species of oribatid mites of the genus Pergalumna (Oribatida, Galumnidae) are collected from the German Expedition to Amazonian Peru in 2013; of these, three are new for science, described from upper soil and leaf litter in the primary evergreen lowland rainforest. Pergalumna (Pergalumna) parapassimpunctata sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to P. (P.) passimpunctata Balogh & Mahunka, 1969, but differs from the latter by the presence of foveolate body surface, two pairs of porose areas Aa and minute interlamellar setae, and the absence of porose areas A3. Pergalumna (Pergalumna) krisperi sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to P. (P.) cardosensis Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio, 1986, but differs from the latter by the smaller body size, rostral and lamellar setae of medium size and the presence of four pairs of notogastral porose areas. Pergalumna (Pergalumna) lenticulata sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to P. (P.) decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977, but differs from the latter by the larger body size and the presence of lenticulus and bidentate rostrum. The species Pergalumna (Pergalumna) bryani Jacot, 1934 is recorded for the first time in Peru.

  3. Hard ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) of Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Krčmar, Stjepan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The present paper is based on original and literature data. In Croatia the first studies on the occurrence of ixodid species were made about 80 years ago. The number of tick species recorded in Croatia considerably increased during the 1950s, 60s, 70s and 80s of the past century. A total of 21 species of hard tick belonging to 5 genera have been recorded in Croatia. Ixodes is the best represented genus, with seven species recorded. Haemaphysalis is represented by six species, followed by Rhipicephalus with four species. Dermacentor and Hyalomma are represented by two species each. The ticks were collected on 47 different host species. Eleven tick species were collected on Bos taurus and Ovis aries, followed by Capra hircus and Equus caballus with 8 species and Canis lupus familiaris with 6 species. On the remaining 42 host species one, two or three tick species were collected. The most widespread tick is Ixodes ricinus which was found on 25 different host species. PMID:23372407

  4. Review of the genus Tenuipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tenuipalpus Donnadieu is the most speciose genus of the family Tenuipalpidae, with over 300 described species. The descriptions of many of these species are incomplete, and lack important information necessary for accurate species identification. The objective of this study was to re-describe specie...

  5. Ecology of Amblyomma neumanni (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Nava, Santiago; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2009-09-01

    The life cycle of Amblyomma neumanni was described studying the seasonal distribution of free-living stages and parasitic phases during two consecutive years. Development periods of engorged ticks under different photoperiod conditions were recorded. Larvae of A. neumanni have the peak of abundance in autumn. Nymphs reach the peak in winter. Females were collected on cattle from autumn to late spring. The seasonal distribution pattern of females showed a bimodal curve, with a peak in autumn and other during early and middle spring. The engorged females exposed at shortest photoperiod regimen (10 h light-14 h dark) under both laboratory and field conditions undergo morphogenetic diapause, expressed as a delay in the oviposition. It is concluded that females of A. neumanni that feed and copulate in autumn undergo morphogenetic diapause, and they will lay eggs in spring, simultaneously with the females that feed and copulate in this season. Climate niche analysis shows that adequate suitability for A. neumanni depends mainly from temperature (mean, absolute maximum and minimum, and mean temperature in wettest and driest quarters) as well as from rainfall in warmest and coldest quarters. Sequences of 16S rDNA gene belonging to different populations of A. neumanni, showed no intraspecific genetic differentiation.

  6. [Relative humidity and acari. An intervention study].

    PubMed

    Pascual Izaola, A; Sánchez Milla, J J; Mateo Garmilla, J I; Antépara, I

    1995-01-01

    In this work we collect the results of the variation of the variable "rechange of the wind with the exterior" in the three possibilities of a bedroom: --close window, semi close and totally open. And we unite the relation that we already know between the prevail of acariens (Dermatophagoides) and the relative humidity of the wind in a Bilbao city's house.

  7. The Post-LBV Supernova 2001em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Chornock, R.; Filippenko, A. V.; Foley, R. J.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Li, W.; Panagia, N.; Pooley, D.; Stockdale, C. J.; Weiler, K. W.

    2009-12-01

    The supernova (SN) 2001em in UGC 11794 was classified early as Type Ib/c, i.e., as one arising from a hydrogen-stripped star. As part of a radio survey with the Very Large Array of SNe Ib/c at late times (Stockdale et al. 2003, BAAS, 35, 1346), SN 2001em was detected as a highly luminous radio source ˜2 years after explosion. The SN was also subsequently discovered with Chandra to be a very luminous X-ray source. The properties of both the radio and X-ray emission are more characteristic of the Type II-narrow (IIn) SNe, where the SN shock is interacting with dense, massive circumstellar matter, resulting in bright radio synchrotron emission and thermal bremsstrahlung from the interaction region. In fact, SN 2001em has shown to have spectroscopically transformed to a SN IIn. The premise that this might indicate an off-axis gamma-ray burst has been presented (Granot & Ramirez-Ruiz 2004, ApJ, 609, L9) and later, rather convincingly, refuted (e.g., Schinzel et al. 2009, ApJ, 691, 1380). Chugai & Chevalier (2006, ApJ, 641, 1051) have interpreted the spectral transformation and radio/X-ray emission as the SN shock overtaking the detached hydrogen envelope of the progenitor star, which was shed in a superwind episode many years prior to explosion. Chevalier (2007, RMxAC, 30, 41) has further pointed to the required mass-loss rate in the event being equivalent to what would occur in the eruption of a luminous blue variable (LBV). The optical (ground-based and HST) and radio/X-ray data, together with mid-infrared Spitzer observations, tend to support this scenario of a very massive star that experienced a powerful LBV outburst prior to explosion. Such an event may not be unique, with possible parallels in the cases of SNe 2005bf and 2006jc, and may provide valuable new information about massive stellar evolution.

  8. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K.; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-01-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5–4.5 Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders’ overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127

  9. EMS incident management: emergency medical logistics.

    PubMed

    Maniscalco, P M; Christen, H T

    1999-01-01

    If you had to get x amount of supplies to point A or point B, or both, in 10 minutes, how would you do it? The answer lies in the following steps: 1. Develop a logistics plan. 2. Use emergency management as a partner agency for developing your logistics plan. 3. Implement a push logistics system by determining what supplies/medications and equipment are important. 4. Place mass casualty/disaster caches at key locations for rapid deployment. Have medication/fluid caches available at local hospitals. 5. Develop and implement command caches for key supervisors and managers. 6. Anticipate the logistics requirements of a terrorism/tactical violence event based on a community threat assessment. 7. Educate the public about preparing a BLS family disaster kit. 8. Test logistics capabilities at disaster exercises. 9. Budget for logistics needs. 10. Never underestimate the importance of logistics. When logistics support fails, the EMS system fails.

  10. A new preparedness policy for EMS logistics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seokcheon

    2017-03-01

    Response time in emergency medical services (EMS) is defined as the interval for an ambulance to arrive the scene after receipt of a 911 call. When several ambulances are available upon the receipt of a new call, a decision of selecting an ambulance has to be made in an effort to reduce response time. Dispatching the closest unit available is commonly used in practice; however, recently the Preparedness policy was designed that is in a simplistic form yet being capable of securing a long-term efficiency. This research aims to improve the Preparedness policy, resolving several critical issues inherent in the current form of the policy. The new Preparedness policy incorporates a new metric of preparedness based on the notion of centrality and involves a tuning parameter, weight on preparedness, which has to be appropriately chosen according to operational scenario. Computational experiment shows that the new policy significantly improves the former policy robustly in various scenarios.

  11. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability.

  12. Epidemiology of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Utilization in Four Indian Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Wijesekera, Olindi; Reed, Amanda; Chastain, Parker S; Biggs, Shauna; Clark, Elizabeth G; Kole, Tamorish; Chakrapani, Anoop T; Ashish, Nandy; Rajhans, Prasad; Breaud, Alan H; Jacquet, Gabrielle A

    2016-12-01

    Introduction Without a universal Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system in India, data on the epidemiology of patients who utilize EMS are limited. This retrospective chart review aimed to quantify and describe the burden of disease and patient demographics of patients who arrived by EMS to four Indian emergency departments (EDs) in order to inform a national EMS curriculum.

  13. Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522). Annual report, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522) is one of three divisions within the Office of Technology Integration and Environmental Education and Development (EM-52) in Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) Office of Technology Development (EM-50). The primary design criterion for EM-522 education activities is directly related to meeting EM`s goal of environmental compliance on an accelerated basis and cleanup of the 1989 inventory of inactive sites and facilities by the year 2019. Therefore, EM-522`s efforts are directed specifically toward stimulating knowledge and capabilities to achieve the goals of EM while contributing to DOE`s overall goal of increasing scientific, mathematical, and technical literacy and competency. This report discusses fiscal year 1993 activities.

  14. Near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM for molecular virology.

    PubMed

    Hryc, Corey F; Chen, Dong-Hua; Chiu, Wah

    2011-08-01

    Electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is a technique in structural biology that is widely used to solve the three-dimensional structures of macromolecular assemblies, close to their biological and solution conditions. Recent improvements in cryo-EM and single-particle reconstruction methodologies have led to the determination of several virus structures at near-atomic resolution (3.3 - 4.6 Å). These cryo-EM structures not only resolve the Cα backbones and side-chain densities of viral capsid proteins, but also suggest functional roles that the protein domains and some key amino acid residues play. This paper reviews the recent advances in near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM for probing the mechanisms of virus assembly and morphogenesis.

  15. Classification of ASASSN-17em/AT2017cts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersier, David

    2017-04-01

    We obtained a spectrum of the candidate supernova ASASSN-17em/AT2017cts (ATEL #10241), using the SPRAT spectrograph mounted on the robotic 2m Liverpool Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos observatory (La Palma).

  16. DOE-EM Science of Safety Robotics Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Rimando, Rodrigo; Watts, Alex; Bobbitt, John; McLaughlin, Doug; Quigley, Morgan; Gladwell, Scott; McLoughlin, Mike; Kinnamon, Tony; Garcia, Joe; Ansari, Alex; Voyles, Richard; Chambers, David; Pryor, Mitch; Workman, Theresa; Mehling, Joshua; Browning, Kimberly; Deuel, Jake; Profitt, Bryan; Reibold, Marty

    2016-09-20

    During the week of August 22nd, 2016, over 150 technologists, stakeholders, and Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management workers, met at DOE’s Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Ohio, for the EM Science of Safety Robotics Challenge.

  17. E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with FLUKA

    SciTech Connect

    Battistoni, G.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ranft, J.; Rubbia, A.; Sala, P.R.; /INFN, Milan /SLAC /CERN /Siegen U. /Zurich, ETH

    2005-10-03

    A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.

  18. NASA EM Followup of LIGO-Virgo Candidate Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Lindy L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a strategy for a follow-up of LIGO-Virgo candidate events using offline survey data from several NASA high-energy photon instruments aboard RXTE, Swift, and Fermi. Time and sky-location information provided by the GW trigger allows for a targeted search for prompt and afterglow EM signals. In doing so, we expect to be sensitive to signals which are too weak to be publicly reported as astrophysical EM events.

  19. STEME: efficient EM to find motifs in large data sets.

    PubMed

    Reid, John E; Wernisch, Lorenz

    2011-10-01

    MEME and many other popular motif finders use the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to optimize their parameters. Unfortunately, the running time of EM is linear in the length of the input sequences. This can prohibit its application to data sets of the size commonly generated by high-throughput biological techniques. A suffix tree is a data structure that can efficiently index a set of sequences. We describe an algorithm, Suffix Tree EM for Motif Elicitation (STEME), that approximates EM using suffix trees. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of suffix trees to EM. We provide an analysis of the expected running time of the algorithm and demonstrate that STEME runs an order of magnitude more quickly than the implementation of EM used by MEME. We give theoretical bounds for the quality of the approximation and show that, in practice, the approximation has a negligible effect on the outcome. We provide an open source implementation of the algorithm that we hope will be used to speed up existing and future motif search algorithms.

  20. EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Gabelmann

    2005-11-15

    This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. This new electromagnetic telemetry system provides a wireless communication link between sensors deployed deep within oil and gas wells and data acquisition equipment located on the earth's surface. EM based wireless telemetry is a highly appropriate technology for oil and gas exploration in that it avoids the need for thousands of feet of wired connections. In order to achieve the project performance objectives, significant improvements over existing EM telemetry systems were made. These improvements included the development of new technologies that have improved the reliability of the communications link while extending operational depth. A key element of the new design is the incorporation of a data-fusion methodology which enhances the communication receiver's ability to extract very weak signals from large amounts of ambient environmental noise. This innovative data-fusion receiver based system adapts advanced technologies, not normally associated with low-frequency communications, and makes them work within the harsh drilling environments associated with the energy exploration market. Every element of a traditional EM telemetry system design, from power efficiency to reliability, has been addressed. The data fusion based EM telemetry system developed during this project is anticipated to provide an EM tool capability that will impact both onshore and offshore oil and gas exploration operations, for conventional and underbalanced drilling applications.

  1. A History and Informal Assessment of the <em>Slacker Astronomyem> Podcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron; Gay, Pamela; Searle, Travis; Brissenden, Gina

    Slacker Astronomyem> is a weekly podcast that covers a recent astronomical news event or discovery. The show has a unique style consisting of irreverent, over-the-top humor combined with a healthy dose of hard science. According to our demographic analysis, the combination of this style and the unique podcasting distribution mechanism allows the show to reach audiences younger and busier than those reached via traditional channels. We report on the successes and challenges of the first year of the show, and provide an informal assessment of its role as a source for astronomical news and concepts for its approximately 15,500 weekly listeners.

  2. A HF EM installation allowing simultaneous whole body and deep local EM hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Mazokhin, V N; Kolmakov, D N; Lucheyov, N A; Gelvich, E A; Troshin, I I

    1999-01-01

    The structure and main features of a HF EM installation based upon a new approach for creating electromagnetic fields destined for whole body (WBH) and deep local (DLH) hyperthermia are discussed. The HF EM field, at a frequency of 13.56 MHz, is created by a coplanar capacity type applicator positioned under a distilled water filled bolus that the patient is lying on. The EM energy being released directly in the deep tissues ensures effective whole body heating to required therapeutic temperatures of up to 43.5 degrees C, whereas the skin temperature can be maintained as low as 39-40.5 degrees C. For DLH, the installation is equipped with additional applicators and a generator operating at a frequency of 40.68 MHz. High efficiency of the WBH applicator makes it possible to carry out the WBH procedure without any air-conditioning cabin. Due to this, a free access to the patient's body during the WBH treatment is provided and a simultaneous WBH/DLH or WBH/LH procedure by means of additional applicators is possible. Controllable power output in the range of 100-800 W at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and 50-350 W at a frequency of 40.68 MHz allows accurate temperature control during WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures. SAR patterns created by the WBH and DLH applicators in a liquid muscle phantom and measured by means of a non-perturbing E-dipole are investigated. The scattered EM field strength measured in the vicinity of the operating installation during the WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures does not exceed security standards. Examples of temperature versus time graphs in the course of WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures in clinics are presented. The installation is successfully used in leading oncological institutions of Russia and Belarus, though combined WBH/DLH procedures are evidently more complicated and demand thorough planning and temperature measurements to avoid overheating.

  3. Airborne EM for mine infrastructure planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijns, Chris

    2016-08-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys with near-surface vertical resolution provide rapid and comprehensive coverage of a mine site ahead of infrastructure planning. In environments of sufficient electrical conductivity contrast, the data will map variations in the depth to bedrock, providing guidance for expected excavation depths for solid building foundations, or mine pre-strip volumes. Continuous coverage overcomes the severe areal limitation of relying only on drilling and test pits. An AEM survey in northern Finland illustrates the success of this approach for guiding the placement of a mine crusher and related infrastructure. The cost of the EM data collection and interpretation is insignificant in comparison to the US$300 million capital cost of the mine infrastructure. This environment of shallow glacial cover challenges the limits of AEM resolution, yet analysis of subsequently collected three-dimensional (3D) surface seismic data and actual pre-strip excavation depths reinforces the predictive, but qualitative, mapping capability of the AEM. It also highlights the need to tune the modelling via petrophysics for the specific goal of the investigation, and exposes the limitations of visual drill core logging.

  4. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

  5. Databases and archiving for cryoEM

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Ardan; Lawson, Catherine L.

    2017-01-01

    Cryo-EM in structural biology is currently served by three public archives – EMDB for 3DEM reconstructions, PDB for models built from 3DEM reconstructions and EMPIAR for the raw 2D image data used to obtain the 3DEM reconstructions. These archives play a vital role for both the structural community and the wider biological community in making the data accessible so that results may be reused, reassessed and integrated with other structural and bioinformatics resources. The important role of the archives is underpinned by the fact that many journals mandate the deposition of data to PDB and EMDB on publication. The field is currently undergoing transformative changes where on the one hand high-resolution structures are becoming a routine occurrence while on the other hand electron tomography is enabling the study of macromolecules in the cellular context. Concomitantly the archives are evolving to best serve their stakeholder communities. In this chapter we describe the current state of the archives, resources available for depositing, accessing, searching, visualising and validating data, on-going community-wide initiatives and opportunities and challenges for the future. PMID:27572735

  6. Analysis of EM dataset with several sensor configurations obtained by the loop-loop EM survey on magnetic anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHOI, J.; Yi, M. J.; Sasaki, Y.; Son, J.; Nam, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Most of mineral mines in Korea are located in rugged mountain area embedding small-scale anomalies. Loop-loop EM survey system can be a better choice for exploring those mines because no ground contact is required and portable loops are freely positioned. Survey design is very important for detecting small amount of mineral deposits efficiently and spatial limits of survey lines should be considered. Along a same survey line, surveys with different separations between a transmitter and a receiver are applicable. EM responses are calculated in a layered-earth model embedding magnetic anomalies and analyses considering electric conductivity and magnetic permeability are made for the loop-loop EM survey data. Combining EM dataset with multi-frequency and multi-separation slightly enhanced a reconstructed image. Loop-loop EM survey using PROMOIS system was conducted on a small magnetite mine. Inversion with and without considering magnetic permeability was conducted for EM data with multi-frequency and multi-separation between a transmitter and a receiver.

  7. Image segmentation by EM-based adaptive pulse coupled neural networks in brain magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Fu, J C; Chen, C C; Chai, J W; Wong, S T C; Li, I C

    2010-06-01

    We propose an automatic hybrid image segmentation model that integrates the statistical expectation maximization (EM) model and the spatial pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation. In addition, an adaptive mechanism is developed to fine tune the PCNN parameters. The EM model serves two functions: evaluation of the PCNN image segmentation and adaptive adjustment of the PCNN parameters for optimal segmentation. To evaluate the performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN, we use it to segment MR brain image into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN is compared with that of the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and Bias Corrected Fuzzy C-Means (BCFCM) algorithms. The result is four sets of boundaries for the GM and the brain parenchyma (GM+WM), the two regions of most interest in medical research and clinical applications. Each set of boundaries is compared with the golden standard to evaluate the segmentation performance. The adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and BCFCM algorithms in gray mater segmentation. In brain parenchyma segmentation, the adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the BCFCM only. However, the adaptive EM-PCNN is better than the non-adaptive EM-PCNN and EM on average. We conclude that of the three approaches, the adaptive EM-PCNN yields the best results for gray matter and brain parenchyma segmentation.

  8. Degradation of Benzodiazepines after 120 Days of EMS Deployment

    PubMed Central

    McMullan, Jason T.; Jones, Elizabeth; Barnhart, Bruce; Denninghoff, Kurt; Spaite, Daniel; Zaleski, Erin; Silbergleit, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction EMS treatment of status epilepticus improves outcomes, but the benzodiazepine best suited for EMS use is unclear, given potential high environmental temperature exposures. Objective To describe the degradation of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam as a function of temperature exposure and time over 120 days of storage on active EMS units. Methods Study boxes containing vials of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam were distributed to 4 active EMS units in each of 2 EMS systems in the southwestern United States during May–August 2011. The boxes logged temperature every minute and were stored in EMS units per local agency policy. Two vials of each drug were removed from each box at 30-day intervals and underwent high-performance liquid chromatography to determine drug concentration. Concentration was analyzed as mean (and 95%CI) percent of initial labeled concentration as a function of time and mean kinetic temperature (MKT). Results 192 samples were collected (2 samples of each drug from each of 4 units per city at 4 time-points). After 120 days, the mean relative concentration (95%CI) of diazepam was 97.0% (95.7–98.2%) and of midazolam was 99.0% (97.7–100.2%). Lorazepam experienced modest degradation by 60 days (95.6% [91.6–99.5%]) and substantial degradation at 90 days (90.3% [85.2-95.4%]) and 120 days (86.5% [80.7–92.3%]). Mean MKT was 31.6°C (95%CI 27.1–36.1). Increasing MKT was associated with greater degradation of lorazepam, but not midazolam or diazepam. Conclusions Midazolam and diazepam experienced minimal degradation throughout 120 days of EMS deployment in high-heat environments. Lorazepam experienced significant degradation over 120 days and appeared especially sensitive to higher MKT exposure. PMID:24548058

  9. Emergency medical service (EMS): A unique flight environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay

    1993-01-01

    The EMS flight environment is unique in today's aviation. The pilots must respond quickly to emergency events and often fly to landing zones where they have never been before . The time from initially receiving a call to being airborne can be as little as two to three minutes. Often the EMS pilot is the only aviation professional on site, they have no operations people or other pilots to aid them in making decisons. Further, since they are often flying to accident scenes, not airports, there is often complete weather and condition information. Therefore, the initial decision that the pilot must make, accepting or declining a flight, can become very difficult. The accident rate of EMS helicopters has been relatively high over the past years. NASA-Ames research center has taken several steps in an attempt to aid EMS pilots in their decision making and situational awareness. A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed to aid pilots in their decision making, and was tested at an EMS service. The resutls of the study were promising and a second version incorporating the lessons learned is under development. A second line of research was the development of a low cost electronic chart display (ECD). This is a digital map display to help pilots maintain geographical orientation. Another thrust was undertaken in conjunction with the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). This involved publicizing the ASRS to EMS pilots and personnel, and calling each of the reporters back to gather additional information. This paper will discuss these efforts and how they may positively impact the safety of EMS operations.

  10. The EM-POGO: A simple, absolute velocity profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terker, S. R.; Sanford, T. B.; Dunlap, J. H.; Girton, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic current instrumentation has been added to the Bathy Systems, Inc. POGO transport sondes to produce a free-falling absolute velocity profiler called EM-POGO. The POGO is a free-fall profiler that measures a depth-averaged velocity using GPS fixes at the beginning and end of a round trip to the ocean floor (or a preset depth). The EM-POGO adds a velocity profile determined from measurements of motionally induced electric fields generated by the ocean current moving through the vertical component of the Earth's magnetic field. In addition to providing information about the vertical structure of the velocity, the depth-dependent measurements improve transport measurements by correcting for the non-constant fall-rate. Neglecting the variable fall rate results in errors O (1 cm s-1). The transition from POGO to EM-POGO included electrically isolating the POGO and electric-field-measuring circuits, installing a functional GPS receiver, finding a pressure case that provided an optimal balance among crush-depth, price and size, and incorporating the electrodes, electrode collar, and the circuitry required for the electric field measurement. The first EM-POGO sea-trial was in July 1999. In August 2006 a refurbished EM-POGO collected 15 absolute velocity profiles; relative and absolute velocity uncertainty was ˜1cms-1 and 0.5-5 cm s-1, respectively, at a vertical resolution of 25 m. Absolute velocity from the EM-POGO compared to shipboard ADCP measurements differed by ˜ 1-2 cm s-1, comparable to the uncertainty in absolute velocity from the ADCP. The EM-POGO is thus a low-cost, easy to deploy and recover, and accurate velocity profiler.

  11. Refinement of Atomic Structures Against cryo-EM Maps.

    PubMed

    Murshudov, G N

    2016-01-01

    This review describes some of the methods for atomic structure refinement (fitting) against medium/high-resolution single-particle cryo-EM reconstructed maps. Some of the tools developed for macromolecular X-ray crystal structure analysis, especially those encapsulating prior chemical and structural information can be transferred directly for fitting into cryo-EM maps. However, despite the similarities, there are significant differences between data produced by these two techniques; therefore, different likelihood functions linking the data and model must be used in cryo-EM and crystallographic refinement. Although tools described in this review are mostly designed for medium/high-resolution maps, if maps have sufficiently good quality, then these tools can also be used at moderately low resolution, as shown in one example. In addition, the use of several popular crystallographic methods is strongly discouraged in cryo-EM refinement, such as 2Fo-Fc maps, solvent flattening, and feature-enhanced maps (FEMs) for visualization and model (re)building. Two problems in the cryo-EM field are overclaiming resolution and severe map oversharpening. Both of these should be avoided; if data of higher resolution than the signal are used, then overfitting of model parameters into the noise is unavoidable, and if maps are oversharpened, then at least parts of the maps might become very noisy and ultimately uninterpretable. Both of these may result in suboptimal and even misleading atomic models.

  12. Breaking Cryo-EM Resolution Barriers to Facilitate Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Merk, Alan; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Banerjee, Soojay; Falconieri, Veronica; Rao, Prashant; Davis, Mindy I; Pragani, Rajan; Boxer, Matthew B; Earl, Lesley A; Milne, Jacqueline L S; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2016-06-16

    Recent advances in single-particle cryoelecton microscopy (cryo-EM) are enabling generation of numerous near-atomic resolution structures for well-ordered protein complexes with sizes ≥ ∼200 kDa. Whether cryo-EM methods are equally useful for high-resolution structural analysis of smaller, dynamic protein complexes such as those involved in cellular metabolism remains an important question. Here, we present 3.8 Å resolution cryo-EM structures of the cancer target isocitrate dehydrogenase (93 kDa) and identify the nature of conformational changes induced by binding of the allosteric small-molecule inhibitor ML309. We also report 2.8-Å- and 1.8-Å-resolution structures of lactate dehydrogenase (145 kDa) and glutamate dehydrogenase (334 kDa), respectively. With these results, two perceived barriers in single-particle cryo-EM are overcome: (1) crossing 2 Å resolution and (2) obtaining structures of proteins with sizes < 100 kDa, demonstrating that cryo-EM can be used to investigate a broad spectrum of drug-target interactions and dynamic conformational states.

  13. International Space Station (ISS) Emergency Mask (EM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Hahn, Jeffrey; Fowler, Michael; Young, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Emergency Mask (EM) is considered a secondary response emergency Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) designed to provide respiratory protection to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers in response to a post-fire event or ammonia leak. The EM is planned to be delivered to ISS in 2012 to replace the current air purifying respirator (APR) onboard ISS called the Ammonia Respirator (AR). The EM is a one ]size ]fits ]all model designed to fit any size crewmember, unlike the APR on ISS, and uses either two Fire Cartridges (FCs) or two Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 3M(Trademark). Ammonia Cartridges (ACs) to provide the crew with a minimum of 8 hours of respiratory protection with appropriate cartridge swap ]out. The EM is designed for a single exposure event, for either post ]fire or ammonia, and is a passive device that cannot help crewmembers who cannot breathe on their own. The EM fs primary and only seal is around the wearer fs neck to prevent a crewmember from inhaling contaminants. During the development of the ISS Emergency Mask, several design challenges were faced that focused around manufacturing a leak free mask. The description of those challenges are broadly discussed but focuses on one key design challenge area: bonding EPDM gasket material to Gore(Registered Trademark) fabric hood.

  14. Acaricidal activity of eugenol on Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    de Monteiro, Caio Márcio; Maturano, Ralph; Daemon, Erik; Catunda-Junior, Francisco Eduardo Aragão; Calmon, Fernanda; Senra, Tatiane de Souza; Faza, Aline; de Carvalho, Mário Geraldo

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity of eugenol, with different solubilizations and concentrations, on Rhipicephalus microplus and Dermacentor nitens larvae and to determine the lethal time. The study consisted of four experiments, and the mortality was assessed using the larval packet test with adaptations. The mortality observed in the first experiment was 100 % for all the groups treated with eugenol solubilized in different solvents. In the second, the hydroethanolic formulation of eugenol was used, and the mortality rates for R. microplus and D. nitens was 100 % starting from the concentration of 5.0 μl/ml. In the third experiment, the mortality was 100 % for larvae of both R. microplus and D. nitens after 1 h of contact. And in the fourth experiment, the mortality was above 90 % and statistically similar (p > 0.05) for the four methods the test evaluated.

  15. Management of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in strawberry fields with Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and acaricides.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mário Eidi; Da Silva, Marcos Zatti; De Souza Filho, Miguel Francisco; Matioli, André Luís; Raga, Adalton

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) for the control of Tetranychus urticae Koch in commercial strawberry fields, under greenhouse conditions, in association or not with the use of acaricides. The N. californicus strain used in this study was tolerant or resistant to several pesticides. Three experiments were carried out in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. For the first experiment, the initial infestation of T. urticae was 87.1 active stages per leaflet. Two applications of propargite were made on the first and the 14th day of the experiment. Approximately 2 h after each propargite application, N. californicus was released at a rate of 3.0 and 1.9 adult mites per plant, respectively, for each application. The population of T. urticae decreased from 87.1 to 2.8 mites per leaflet in the first three weeks. After this period, the population of T. urticae was maintained at low levels (

  16. EMS Stretcher “Misadventures” in a Large, Urban EMS System: A Descriptive Analysis of Contributing Factors and Resultant Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Goodloe, Jeffrey M.; Crowder, Christopher J.; Arthur, Annette O.; Thomas, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. There is a paucity of data regarding EMS stretcher-operation-related injuries. This study describes and analyzes characteristics associated with undesirable stretcher operations, with or without resultant injury in a large, urban EMS agency. Methods. In the study agency, all stretcher-related “misadventures” are required to be documented, regardless of whether injury results. All stretcher-related reports between July 1, 2009 and June 30, 2010 were queried in retrospective analysis, avoiding Hawthorne effect in stretcher operations. Results. During the year studied, 129,110 patients were transported. 23 stretcher incidents were reported (0.16 per 1,000 transports). No patient injury occurred. Four EMS providers sustained minor injuries. Among contributing aspects, the most common involved operations surrounding the stretcher-ambulance safety latch, 14/23 (60.9%). From a personnel injury prevention perspective, there exists a significant relationship between combative patients and crew injury related to stretcher operation, Fisher's exact test 0.048. Conclusions. In this large, urban EMS system, the incidence of injury related to stretcher operations in the one-year study period is markedly low, with few personnel injuries and no patient injuries incurred. Safety for EMS personnel and patients could be advanced by educational initiatives that highlight specific events and conditions contributing to stretcher-related adverse events. PMID:22606379

  17. Recent technical advancements enabled atomic resolution CryoEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueming, Li

    2016-01-01

    With recent breakthroughs in camera and image processing technologies single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (CryoEM) has suddenly gained the attention of structural biologists as a powerful tool able to solve the atomic structures of biological complexes and assemblies. Compared with x-ray crystallography, CryoEM can be applied to partially flexible structures in solution and without the necessity of crystallization, which is especially important for large complexes and assemblies. This review briefly explains several key bottlenecks for atomic resolution CryoEM, and describes the corresponding solutions for these bottlenecks based on the recent technical advancements. The review also aims to provide an overview about the technical differences between its applications in biology and those in material science. Project supported by Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, China.

  18. Lietuvos Teritorijos Gravimetrinio Žemėlapio Tikslumo Vertinimas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birvydienė, Rosita; Krikštaponis, Boleslovas; Obuchovski, Romuald; Paršeliūnas, Eimuntas; Petroškevičius, Petras; Šlikas, Dominykas

    2010-01-01

    Remiantis matavimų, atliktų Lietuvos gravimetrinio tinklo punktuose, duomenimis, įvertintas Lietuvos teritorijos 1:200 000 mastelio Bouguer anomalijų gravimetrinio žemėlapio tikslumas. Vertinimui naudota 686 gravimetrinių punktų sunkio pagreičio reikšmės, kurių vidutinė kvadratinė paklaida neviršija 9 μGal. Nustatytos teritorijos, kuriose sunkio pagreitis, apskaičiuotas pagal žemėlapį, turi sistemingąsias paklaidas. Gautas vidutinis skirtumas tarp žemėlapyje taikomos Potsdamo sunkio sistemos ir IGSN 71 sistemos, apibrėžtos Lietuvos gravimetriniame tinkle atliktais absoliučiaisiais gravimetriniais matavimais.

  19. EMS-induced cytomictic variability in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, P; Kumar, G

    2011-01-01

    Seeds of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) were subjected to three treatment durations (3h, 5h and 7h) of 0.5 % Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS). Microsporogenesis was carried out in the control as well as in the treated materials. EMS treated plants showed interesting feature of partial inter-meiocyte chromatin migration through channel formation, beak formation or direct cell fusion. Another interesting feature noticed during the study was the fusion among tetrads due to wall dissolution. The phenomenon of cytomixis was recorded at nearly all the stages of microsporogenesis connecting from a few to several meiocytes. Other abnormalities such as laggards, precocious movement, bridge and non-disjunction of chromosomes were also recorded but in very low frequencies. The phenomenon of cytomixis increased along with the increase in treatment duration of EMS. Cells with these types of cytomictic disturbances may probably result in uneven formation of gametes or zygote, heterogenous sized pollen grains or even loss of fertility in future.

  20. Low Bandwidth Vocoding using EM Sensor and Acoustic Signal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Holzrichter, J F; Larson, P E

    2001-10-25

    Low-power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference [1]. By combining these data with the corresponding acoustic signal, we've demonstrated an almost 10-fold bandwidth reduction in speech compression, compared to a standard 2.4 kbps LPC10 protocol used in the STU-III (Secure Terminal Unit, third generation) telephone. This paper describes a potential EM sensor/acoustic based vocoder implementation.

  1. Speaker verification using combined acoustic and EM sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Gable, T J; Holzrichter, J F

    2000-11-10

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantity of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. SOC. Am . 103 ( 1) 622 (1998). By combining the Glottal-EM-Sensor (GEMS) with the Acoustic-signals, we've demonstrated an almost 10 fold reduction in error rates from a speaker verification system experiment under a moderate noisy environment (-10dB).

  2. The photon: EM fields, electrical potentials, and AC charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulenberg, A.; Hudgins, W. R.; Penland, R. F.

    2015-09-01

    Photons are here considered to be resonant oscillations (solitons) in four dimensions (space/time) of an undefined `field' otherwise generally existing at a local energy minimum. The photons' constituent EM fields result in elevated energy, and therefore potentials, within that field. It is in the context of the standing waves of and between photons that the EM fields and potentials lead to a description of alternating (AC) `currents' (of some form) of unquantized alternating `charge' (of some sort). The main topic of this paper is the alternating charge.

  3. Geospatial Analysis of Pediatric EMS Run Density and Endotracheal Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Matthew; Loker, William; Warden, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between geographic factors, including transport distance, and pediatric emergency medical services (EMS) run clustering on out-of-hospital pediatric endotracheal intubation is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if endotracheal intubation procedures are more likely to occur at greater distances from the hospital and near clusters of pediatric calls. Methods This was a retrospective observational study including all EMS runs for patients less than 18 years of age from 2008 to 2014 in a geographically large and diverse Oregon county that includes densely populated urban areas near Portland and remote rural areas. We geocoded scene addresses using the automated address locator created in the cloud-based mapping platform ArcGIS, supplemented with manual address geocoding for remaining cases. We then use the Getis-Ord Gi spatial statistic feature in ArcGIS to map statistically significant spatial clusters (hot spots) of pediatric EMS runs throughout the county. We then superimposed all intubation procedures performed during the study period on maps of pediatric EMS-run hot spots, pediatric population density, fire stations, and hospitals. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to determine if distance traveled to the hospital was associated with intubation after controlling for several confounding variables. Results We identified a total of 7,797 pediatric EMS runs during the study period and 38 endotracheal intubations. In univariate analysis we found that patients who were intubated were similar to those who were not in gender and whether or not they were transported to a children’s hospital. Intubated patients tended to be transported shorter distances and were older than non-intubated patients. Increased distance from the hospital was associated with reduced odds of intubation after controlling for age, sex, scene location, and trauma system entry status in a multivariate logistic regression. The

  4. A emissão em 8mm e as bandas de Merrill-Sanford em estrelas carbonadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, A. B.; Lorenz-Martins, S.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas carbonadas possuem bandas moleculares em absorção no visível e, no infravermelho (IR) as principais características espectrais se devem a emissão de grãos. Recentemente foi detectada a presença de bandas de SiC2 (Merrill-Sanford, MS) em emissão sendo atribuída à presença de um disco rico em poeira. Neste trabalho analisamos uma amostra de 14 estrelas carbonadas, observadas no telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO em 4 regiões espectrais diferentes, a fim de detectar as bandas de MS em emissão. Nossa amostra é composta de estrelas que apresentam além da emissão em 11.3 mm, outra em 8 mm. Esta última emissão, não usual nestes objetos, tem sido atribuída ou a moléculas de C2H2, ou a um composto sólido ainda indefinido. A detecção de emissões de MS e aquelas no IR, simultaneamente, revelaria um cenário mais complexo que o habitualmente esperado para os ventos destes objetos. No entanto como primeiro resultado, verificamos que as bandas de Merrill-Sanford encontram-se em absorção, não revelando nenhuma conexão com a emissão a 8 mm. Assim, temos duas hipóteses: (a) a emissão a 8 mm se deve à molécula C2H2 ou (b) essa emissão é resultado da emissão térmica de grãos. Testamos a segunda hipótese modelando a amostra com grãos não-homogêneos de SiC e quartzo, o qual emite em aproximadamente 8mm. Este grão seria produzido em uma fase evolutiva anterior a das carbonadas (estrelas S) e por terem uma estrutura cristalina são destruídos apenas na presença de campos de radiação ultravioleta muito intensos. Os modelos para os envoltórios utilizam o método de Monte Carlo para descrever o problema do transporte da radiação. As conclusões deste trabalho são: (1) as bandas de Merrill-Sanford se encontram em absorção, sugerindo um cenário usual para os ventos das estrelas da amostra; (2) neste cenário, a emissão em 8 mm seria resultado de grãos de quartzo com mantos de SiC, indicando que o quartzo poderia sobreviver a fase

  5. An EM System with Dynamic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    FINAL REPORT An EM System With Dynamic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver SERDP Project MR-1534 JUNE 2011 David C...2006- 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An EM System with Dynamic Multi-Axis transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer W91 2HQ-06-C-0050...239.18 EM Tensor Gradiometer SERDP MM-1532 i Contents Contents

  6. Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to…

  7. Implementing an Air Force Major Command-Level EMS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    n c e 7 Required ISO Elements for AF Organizational-Level EMS  MAJCOMs Are Required to Have the Following ISO Elements:  Scope and Policy...systems - Satisfy requirements of Execut ive Orders 13423 and 13514 and the I SO 14001 environmental management standard - Integrate ESOH tools and

  8. Symmetry-restrained flexible fitting for symmetric EM maps

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kwok-Yan; Gumbart, James; McGreevy, Ryan; Watermeyer, Jean M.; Sewell, B. Trevor; Schulten, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Summary Many large biological macromolecules have inherent structural symmetry, being composed of a few distinct subunits, repeated in a symmetric array. These complexes are often not amenable to traditional high-resolution structural determination methods, but can be imaged in functionally relevant states using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). A number of methods for fitting atomic-scale structures into cryo-EM maps have been developed, including the molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF) method. However, quality and resolution of the cryo-EM map are the major determinants of a method’s success. In order to incorporate knowledge of structural symmetry into the fitting procedure, we developed the symmetry-restrained MDFF method. The new method adds to the cryo-EM map-derived potential further restraints on the allowed conformations of a complex during fitting, thereby improving the quality of the resultant structure. The benefit of using symmetry-based restraints during fitting, particularly for medium to low-resolution data, is demonstrated for three different systems. PMID:21893283

  9. DOE-EM Science of Safety Robotics Challenge

    ScienceCinema

    Rimando, Rodrigo; Watts, Alex; Bobbitt, John; McLaughlin, Doug; Quigley, Morgan; Gladwell, Scott; McLoughlin, Mike; Kinnamon, Tony; Garcia, Joe; Ansari, Alex; Voyles, Richard; Chambers, David; Pryor, Mitch; Workman, Theresa; Mehling, Joshua; Browning, Kimberly; Deuel, Jake; Profitt, Bryan; Reibold, Marty

    2016-10-19

    During the week of August 22nd, 2016, over 150 technologists, stakeholders, and Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management workers, met at DOE’s Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Ohio, for the EM Science of Safety Robotics Challenge.

  10. EM-63 Decay Curve Analysis for UXO Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    rectangular with 25% duty cycle , 15 amps maximum. The EM bottom sensor coil is a circular 50 cm diameter multiturn air cored coil, co- planar with the...to discriminate metal objects (both UXO and non- UXO) from magnetic rocks /soil, 32% of target excavations, over 3,800 targets, would have been

  11. Functionalized Anatomical Models for EM-Neuron Interaction Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in-vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions. PMID:27224508

  12. Functionalized anatomical models for EM-neuron Interaction modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions.

  13. <em>An Amphibious Magnetotelluric Investigation of the Cascadian Seismogenic and ETS zones.em>

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parris, B. A.; Livelybrooks, D.; Bedrosian, P.; Egbert, G. D.; Key, K.; Schultz, A.; Cook, A.; Kant, M.; Wogan, N.; Zeryck, A.

    2015-12-01

    The amphibious Magnetotelluric Observations of Cascadia using a Huge Array (MOCHA) experiment seeks to address unresolved questions about the seismogenic locked zone and down-dip transition zone where episodic tremor and slip (ETS) originates. The presence of free fluids is thought to be one of the primary controls on ETS behavior within the Cascadia margin. Since the bulk electrical conductivity in the crust and mantle can be greatly increased by fluids, magnetotelluric(MT) observations can offer unique insights on the fluid distribution and its relation to observed ETS behavior. Here we present preliminary results from the 146 MT stations collected for the MOCHA project. MOCHA is unique in that it is the first amphibious array of MT stations occupied to provide for 3-D interpretation of conductivity structure of a subduction zone. The MOCHA data set comprises 75 onshore stations and 71 offshore stations, accumulated over a two-year period, and located on an approximate 25km grid, spanning from the trench to the Eastern Willamette Valley, and from central Oregon into middle Washington. We present the results of a series of east-west (cross-strike) oriented, two-dimensional inversions created using the MARE2DEM software that provide an initial picture of the conductivity structure of the locked and ETS zones and its along strike variations. Our models can be used to identify correlations between ETS occurrence rates and inferred fluid concentrations. Our modeling explores the impact of various parameterizations on 2-D inversion results, including inclusion of a smoothness penalty reduction along the inferred slab interface. This series of 2-D inversions can then be used collectively to help make and guide an a priori 3-D inversion. In addition we will present a preliminary 3-D inversion of the onshore stations created using the ModEM software. We are currently working on modifying ModEM to support inversion of offshore data. The more computationally intensive 3-D

  14. GPS computer navigators to shorten EMS response and transport times.

    PubMed

    Ota, F S; Muramatsu, R S; Yoshida, B H; Yamamoto, L G

    2001-05-01

    GPS (global positioning satellite system to determine one's position on earth) units have become inexpensive and compact. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a GPS enhanced computer street map navigator to improve the ability of EMS drivers in an urban setting to locate their destination and shorten response times. For part I, residential addresses in the city were randomly selected from a telephone directory. Two driver/navigator teams were assigned to drive to the address adhering to speed limits. One team used a standard street map, whereas the other team used a GPS computer navigator. The travel time and distance of the runs were compared. For part II, the computer GPS navigator was placed on an ambulance to supplement their normal methods of navigation to find the address requesting EMS. After the run was completed, EMS providers were interviewed to determine their opinion of whether the GPS navigator was helpful. For part I the results showed that in the 29 initial test runs, comparing the GPS team versus the standard map team, the mean distances traveled were 8.7 versus 9.0 kilometers (not significant) and the mean travel times were 13.5 versus 14.6 minutes (P=.02), respectively. The GPS team arrived faster in 72% runs. For part II the results showed that most EMS providers surveyed noted that the GPS computer navigator enhanced their ability to find the destination and all EMS providers acknowledged that it would enhance their ability to find a destination in an area in which they were unfamiliar. These results suggest that a portable GPS computer navigator system is helpful and can enhance the ability of prehospital care providers to locate their destination. Because these units are accurate and inexpensive, GPS computer navigators may be a valuable tool in reducing pre-hospital transport times.

  15. The B and Be States of the Star EM Cepheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, Diana; Marchev, Dragomir; Sigut, T. A. A.; Dimitrov, Dinko

    2016-09-01

    We present 11 yr of high-resolution, spectroscopic observations for the star EM Cep. EM Cep switches between B and Be star states, as revealed by the level of Hα emission, but spends most of its time in the B star state. EM Cep has been considered to be an eclipsing, near-contact binary of nearly equal-mass B stars in order to reproduce regular photometric variations; however, this model is problematic due to the lack of any observed Doppler shift in the spectrum. Our observations confirm that there are no apparent Doppler shifts in the wide spectral lines Hα and He i λ6678 in either the B or Be star states. The profiles of He i λ6678 typically exhibited a filled-in absorption core, but we detected weak emission in this line during the highest Be state. Given the lack of observed Doppler shifts, we model EM Cep as an isolated Be star with a variable circumstellar disk. We can reproduce the observed Hα emission profiles over the 11 yr period reasonably well with disk masses on the order of 3{--}10× {10}-11 {M}* in the Be state with the circumstellar disk seen at an inclination of 78° to the line of sight. From a disk ejection episode in 2014, we estimate a mass-loss rate of ≈ 3× {10}-9 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. The derived disk density parameters are typical of those found for the classical Be stars. We therefore suggest that the EM Cep is a classical Be star and that its photometric variations are the result of β Cep or nonradial pulsations.

  16. Application of Electromagnetic (EM) Separation Technology to Metal Refining Processes: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Wang, Shengqian; Dong, Anping; Gao, Jianwei; Damoah, Lucas Nana Wiredu

    2014-12-01

    Application of electromagnetic (EM) force to metal processing has been considered as an emerging technology for the production of clean metals and other advanced materials. In the current paper, the principle of EM separation was introduced and several schemes of imposing EM field, such as DC electric field with a crossed steady magnetic field, AC electric field, AC magnetic field, and traveling magnetic field were reviewed. The force around a single particle or multi-particles and their trajectories in the conductive liquid under EM field were discussed. Applications of EM technique to the purification of different liquid metals such as aluminum, zinc, magnesium, silicon, copper, and steel were summarized. Effects of EM processing parameters, such as the frequency of imposed field, imposed magnetic flux density, processing time, particle size, and the EM unit size on the EM purification efficiency were discussed. Experimental and theoretical investigations have showed that the separation efficiency of inclusions from the molten aluminum using EM purification could as high as over 90 pct. Meanwhile, the EM purification was also applied to separate intermetallic compounds from metal melt, such as α-AlFeMnSi-phase from the molten aluminum. And then the potential industrial application of EM technique was proposed.

  17. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P < 0.05) compared to compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P < 0.05) than in the compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

  18. ATTRACT-EM: A New Method for the Computational Assembly of Large Molecular Machines Using Cryo-EM Maps

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Zacharias, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Many of the most important functions in the cell are carried out by proteins organized in large molecular machines. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is increasingly being used to obtain low resolution density maps of these large assemblies. A new method, ATTRACT-EM, for the computational assembly of molecular assemblies from their components has been developed. Based on concepts from the protein-protein docking field, it utilizes cryo-EM density maps to assemble molecular subunits at near atomic detail, starting from millions of initial subunit configurations. The search efficiency was further enhanced by recombining partial solutions, the inclusion of symmetry information, and refinement using a molecular force field. The approach was tested on the GroES-GroEL system, using an experimental cryo-EM map at 23.5 Å resolution, and on several smaller complexes. Inclusion of experimental information on the symmetry of the systems and the application of a new gradient vector matching algorithm allowed the efficient identification of docked assemblies in close agreement with experiment. Application to the GroES-GroEL complex resulted in a top ranked model with a deviation of 4.6 Å (and a 2.8 Å model within the top 10) from the GroES-GroEL crystal structure, a significant improvement over existing methods. PMID:23251350

  19. Development of the Emergency Medical Services Role Identity Scale (EMS-RIS).

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Elizabeth A; Siebert, Darcy; Siebert, Carl

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the theoretically grounded Emergency Medical Services Role Identity Scale (EMS-RIS), which measures four domains of EMS role identity. The EMS-RIS was developed using a mixed methods approach. Key informants informed item development and the scale was validated using a representative probability sample of EMS personnel. Factor analyses revealed a conceptually consistent, four-factor solution with sound psychometric properties as well as evidence of convergent and discriminant validities. Social workers work with EMS professionals in crisis settings and as their counselors when they are distressed. The EMS-RIS provides useful information for the assessment of and intervention with distressed EMS professionals, as well as how role identity may influence occupational stress.

  20. Nonlinear Smoothing and the EM Algorithm for Positive Integral Equations of the First Kind

    SciTech Connect

    Eggermont, P. P. B.

    1999-01-15

    We study a modification of the EMS algorithm in which each step of the EMS algorithm is preceded by a nonlinear smoothing step of the form Nf-exp(S*log f) , where S is the smoothing operator of the EMS algorithm. In the context of positive integral equations (a la positron emission tomography) the resulting algorithm is related to a convex minimization problem which always admits a unique smooth solution, in contrast to the unmodified maximum likelihood setup. The new algorithm has slightly stronger monotonicity properties than the original EM algorithm. This suggests that the modified EMS algorithm is actually an EM algorithm for the modified problem. The existence of a smooth solution to the modified maximum likelihood problem and the monotonicity together imply the strong convergence of the new algorithm. We also present some simulation results for the integral equation of stereology, which suggests that the new algorithm behaves roughly like the EMS algorithm.

  1. An economic toolkit for identifying the cost of emergency medical services (EMS) systems: detailed methodology of the EMS Cost Analysis Project (EMSCAP).

    PubMed

    Lerner, E Brooke; Garrison, Herbert G; Nichol, Graham; Maio, Ronald F; Lookman, Hunaid A; Sheahan, William D; Franz, Timothy R; Austad, James D; Ginster, Aaron M; Spaite, Daniel W

    2012-02-01

    Calculating the cost of an emergency medical services (EMS) system using a standardized method is important for determining the value of EMS. This article describes the development of a methodology for calculating the cost of an EMS system to its community. This includes a tool for calculating the cost of EMS (the "cost workbook") and detailed directions for determining cost (the "cost guide"). The 12-step process that was developed is consistent with current theories of health economics, applicable to prehospital care, flexible enough to be used in varying sizes and types of EMS systems, and comprehensive enough to provide meaningful conclusions. It was developed by an expert panel (the EMS Cost Analysis Project [EMSCAP] investigator team) in an iterative process that included pilot testing the process in three diverse communities. The iterative process allowed ongoing modification of the toolkit during the development phase, based upon direct, practical, ongoing interaction with the EMS systems that were using the toolkit. The resulting methodology estimates EMS system costs within a user-defined community, allowing either the number of patients treated or the estimated number of lives saved by EMS to be assessed in light of the cost of those efforts. Much controversy exists about the cost of EMS and whether the resources spent for this purpose are justified. However, the existence of a validated toolkit that provides a standardized process will allow meaningful assessments and comparisons to be made and will supply objective information to inform EMS and community officials who are tasked with determining the utilization of scarce societal resources.

  2. Differences in the timing of reproduction between urban and forest European blackbirds (Turdus merula): result of phenotypic flexibility or genetic differences?

    PubMed

    Partecke, Jesko; Van't Hof, Thomas; Gwinner, Eberhard

    2004-10-07

    Species which have settled in urban environments are exposed to different conditions from their wild conspecifics. A previous comparative study of an urban and a forest-living European blackbird population had revealed a three weeks earlier onset of gonadal growth in urban individuals. These physiological adjustments are either the result of genetic differences that have evolved during the urbanization process, or of phenotypic flexibility resulting from the bird's exposure to the different environmental conditions of town or forest. To identify which of these two mechanisms causes the differences in reproductive timing, hand-reared birds originating from the urban and the forest populations were kept in identical conditions. The substantial differences in the timing of reproduction between urban and forest birds known from the field did not persist under laboratory conditions, indicating that temporal differences in reproductive timing between these two populations are mainly a result of phenotypic flexibility. Nevertheless, urban males initiated plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and testicular development earlier than forest males in their first reproductive season. Moreover, plasma LH concentration and follicle size declined earlier in urban females than in forest females, suggesting that genetic differences are also involved and might contribute to the variations in the timing of reproduction in the wild.

  3. Differences in the timing of reproduction between urban and forest European blackbirds (Turdus merula): result of phenotypic flexibility or genetic differences?

    PubMed Central

    Partecke, Jesko; Van't Hof, Thomas; Gwinner, Eberhard

    2004-01-01

    Species which have settled in urban environments are exposed to different conditions from their wild conspecifics. A previous comparative study of an urban and a forest-living European blackbird population had revealed a three weeks earlier onset of gonadal growth in urban individuals. These physiological adjustments are either the result of genetic differences that have evolved during the urbanization process, or of phenotypic flexibility resulting from the bird's exposure to the different environmental conditions of town or forest. To identify which of these two mechanisms causes the differences in reproductive timing, hand-reared birds originating from the urban and the forest populations were kept in identical conditions. The substantial differences in the timing of reproduction between urban and forest birds known from the field did not persist under laboratory conditions, indicating that temporal differences in reproductive timing between these two populations are mainly a result of phenotypic flexibility. Nevertheless, urban males initiated plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and testicular development earlier than forest males in their first reproductive season. Moreover, plasma LH concentration and follicle size declined earlier in urban females than in forest females, suggesting that genetic differences are also involved and might contribute to the variations in the timing of reproduction in the wild. PMID:15451688

  4. Translation of EMS: clinical practice and system oversight from core content study guide to best practices implementation in an Urban EMS system.

    PubMed

    Tataris, Katie; Mercer, Mary; Brown, John

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, the seminal text in emergency medical services (EMS) medicine has been used to guide the academic development of the new subspecialty but direct application of the material into EMS oversight has not been previously described. The EMS/Disaster Medicine fellowship program at our institution scheduled a monthly meeting to systematically review the text and develop a study guide to assist the fellow and affiliated faculty in preparation for the board examination. In addition to the summary of chapter content, the review included an assessment of areas from each chapter subject where our EMS system did not exhibit recommended characteristics. A matrix was developed in the form of a gap analysis to include specific recommendations based on each perceived gap. Initial review and completion dates for each identified gap enable tracking and a responsible party. This matrix assisted the fellow with development of projects for EMS system improvement in addition to focusing and prioritizing the work of other interested physicians working in the system. By discussing expert recommendations in the setting of an actual EMS system, the faculty can teach the fellow how to approach system improvements based on prior experiences and current stakeholders. This collaborative environment facilitates system-based practice and practice-based learning, aligning with ACGME core competencies. Our educational model has demonstrated the success of translating the text into action items for EMS systems. This model may be useful in other systems and could contribute to the development of EMS system standards nationwide.

  5. EM susceptibility studies and measurements on electro explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, G. K.; Mukherjee, M.

    Electroexplosive devices (EEDs) are susceptible to stray electromagnetic (EM) fields near high-power communications and radar transmitters. Experiments have been carried out to measure the exact susceptibility of EED resistive squibs in pulsed and continuous EM environments, respectively. The susceptibility test procedure consisted of individual measurements of direct current sensitivity (mA); impulse sensitivity; RF impedance measurements; and safety margin calculations. A stray energy monitor was used to evaluate the safe performance of a hybrid weapons system. It is found that the RF sensitivity of the squib was influenced by the transmission characteristics of the transmission line connected to it. RF absorption peaks were observed above the EED sensitivity threshold of 120 MHz. Methods of EMI control are discussed, including: low-pass pin filters; lossy line filters for all dc power line interconnections; and twisting and shielding of the wires.

  6. Superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) system for Grumman Maglev concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalsi, Swarn S.

    1994-01-01

    The Grumman developed Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev system has the following key characteristics: a large operating airgap--40 mm; levitation at all speeds; both high speed and low speed applications; no deleterious effects on SC coils at low vehicle speeds; low magnetic field at the SC coil--less than 0.35 T; no need to use non-magnetic/non-metallic rebar in the guideway structure; low magnetic field in passenger cabin--approximately 1 G; low forces on the SC coil; employs state-of-the-art NbTi wire; no need for an active magnet quench protection system; and lower weight than a magnet system with copper coils. The EMS Maglev described in this paper does not require development of any new technologies. The system could be built with the existing SC magnet technology.

  7. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This booklet introduces the reader to the mission and functions of a major new unit within the US Department of Energy (DOE): the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The Secretary of Energy established EM in November 1989, implementing a central purpose of DOE's first annual Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan, which had appeared three months earlier. The contents of this booklet, and their arrangement, reflect the annual update of the Five-Year Plan. The Five-Year Plan supports DOE's strategy for meeting its 30-year compliance and cleanup goal. This strategy involves: focusing DOE's activities on eliminating or reducing known or recognized potential risks to worker and public health and the environment, containing or isolating, removing, or detoxifying onsite and offsite contamination, and developing technology to achieve DOE's environmental goals.

  8. Generalized single-particle cryo-EM--a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Frank, Joachim

    2016-02-01

    This is a brief account of the earlier history of single-particle cryo-EM of biological molecules lacking internal symmetry, which goes back to the mid-seventies. The emphasis of this review is on the mathematical concepts and computational approaches. It is written as the field experiences a turning point in the wake of the introduction of digital cameras capable of single electron counting, and near-atomic resolution can be reached even for smaller molecules.

  9. Principles of cryo-EM single-particle image processing

    PubMed Central

    Sigworth, Fred J.

    2016-01-01

    Single-particle reconstruction is the process by which 3D density maps are obtained from a set of low-dose cryo-EM images of individual macromolecules. This review considers the fundamental principles of this process and the steps in the overall workflow for single-particle image processing. Also considered are the limits that image signal-to-noise ratio places on resolution and the distinguishing of heterogeneous particle populations. PMID:26705325

  10. Range Condition and ML-EM Checkerboard Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    You, Jiangsheng; Wang, Jing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2007-01-01

    The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm for the maximum likelihood (ML) image reconstruction criterion generates severe checkerboard artifacts in the presence of noise. A classical remedy is to impose an a priori constraint for a penalized ML or maximum a posteriori probability solution. The penalty reduces the checkerboard artifacts and also introduces uncertainty because a priori information is usually unknown in clinic. Recent theoretical investigation reveals that the noise can be divided into two components: one is called null-space noise and the other is range-space noise. The null-space noise can be numerically estimated using filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. By the FBP algorithm, the null-space noise annihilates in the reconstruction while the range-space noise propagates into the reconstructed image. The aim of this work is to investigate the relation between the null-space noise and the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstruction from noisy projection data. Our study suggests that removing the null-space noise from the projection data could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the projection data and, therefore, reduce the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstructed images. This study reveals an in-depth understanding of the different noise propagations in analytical and iterative image reconstructions, which may be useful to single photon emission computed tomography, where the noise has been a major factor for image degradation. The reduction of the ML-EM checkerboard artifacts by removing the null-space noise avoids the uncertainty of using a priori penalty. PMID:18449363

  11. EMS Mutagenesis in the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Tagu, Denis; Le Trionnaire, Gaël; Tanguy, Sylvie; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Huynh, Jean-René

    2014-01-01

    In aphids, clonal individuals can show distinct morphologic traits in response to environmental cues. Such phenotypic plasticity cannot be studied with classical genetic model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans or Drosophila melanogaster. The genetic basis of this biological process remain unknown, as mutations affecting this process are not available in aphids. Here, we describe a protocol to treat third-stage larvae with an alkylating mutagen, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), to generate random mutations within the Acyrthosiphon pisum genome. We found that even low concentrations of EMS were toxic for two genotypes of A. pisum. Mutagenesis efficiency was nevertheless assessed by estimating the occurrence of mutational events on the X chromosome. Indeed, any lethal mutation on the X-chromosome would kill males that are haploid on the X so that we used the proportion of males as an estimation of mutagenesis efficacy. We could assess a putative mutation rate of 0.4 per X-chromosome at 10 mM of EMS. We then applied this protocol to perform a small-scale mutagenesis on parthenogenetic individuals, which were screened for defects in their ability to produce sexual individuals in response to photoperiod shortening. We found one mutant line showing a reproducible altered photoperiodic response with a reduced production of males and the appearance of aberrant winged males (wing atrophy, alteration of legs morphology). This mutation appeared to be stable because it could be transmitted over several generations of parthenogenetic individuals. To our knowledge, this study represents the first example of an EMS-generated aphid mutant. PMID:24531730

  12. Color a bright energy picture with EMS controls

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    After 80 years in the crayon-manufacturing business, Binney and Smith found that more than 50% of their staggering annual utility costs were being generated by non-production loads. To curtail waste, they installed an expandable EMS which controls energy in the company's two separate, multi-building facilities from one central location. The system selected was an AI2100/MAX System manufactured by American Auto-Matrix, Export, PA.

  13. Love 'em or they'll leave: motivating volunteers.

    PubMed

    McDowell, D

    1999-11-01

    Running a successful volunteer-based service does not begin and end with the recruitment of volunteers. You need to first consider what is in it for the prospective volunteer, define why you want volunteers and then decide exactly what you want those volunteers to do. Then you recruit them, face-to-face, ensuring that every prospect is offered something specific to do and is welcomed into your EMS family.

  14. Forward Genetics by Sequencing EMS Variation-Induced Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Addo-Quaye, Charles; Buescher, Elizabeth; Best, Norman; Chaikam, Vijay; Baxter, Ivan; Dilkes, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    In order to leverage novel sequencing techniques for cloning genes in eukaryotic organisms with complex genomes, the false positive rate of variant discovery must be controlled for by experimental design and informatics. We sequenced five lines from three pedigrees of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized Sorghum bicolor, including a pedigree segregating a recessive dwarf mutant. Comparing the sequences of the lines, we were able to identify and eliminate error-prone positions. One genomic region contained EMS mutant alleles in dwarfs that were homozygous reference sequences in wild-type siblings and heterozygous in segregating families. This region contained a single nonsynonymous change that cosegregated with dwarfism in a validation population and caused a premature stop codon in the Sorghum ortholog encoding the gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthetic enzyme ent-kaurene oxidase. Application of exogenous GA rescued the mutant phenotype. Our method for mapping did not require outcrossing and introduced no segregation variance. This enables work when line crossing is complicated by life history, permitting gene discovery outside of genetic models. This inverts the historical approach of first using recombination to define a locus and then sequencing genes. Our formally identical approach first sequences all the genes and then seeks cosegregation with the trait. Mutagenized lines lacking obvious phenotypic alterations are available for an extension of this approach: mapping with a known marker set in a line that is phenotypically identical to starting material for EMS mutant generation. PMID:28040779

  15. Improving EM&V for Energy Efficiency Programs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy Uniform Methods Project to bring consistency to energy savings calculations in U.S. energy efficiency programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining gross energy savings from energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. They have been written by technical experts within the field and reviewed by industry experts. Current EM&V practice allows for multiple methods for calculating energy savings. These methods were developed to meet the needs of energy efficiency program administrators and regulators. Although they served their original objectives well, they have resulted in inconsistent and incomparable savings results - even for identical measures. The goal of the Uniform Methods Project is to strengthen the credibility of energy savings determinations by improving EM&V, increasing the consistency and transparency of how energy savings are determined.

  16. Debris Avalanche Formation at Kick'em Jenny Submarine Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdsson, H.; Carey, S. N.; Wilson, D.

    2005-12-01

    Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano near Grenada is the most active volcanic center in the Lesser Antilles arc. Multibeam surveys of the volcano by NOAA in 2002 revealed an arcuate fault scarp east of the active cone, suggesting flank collapse. More extensive NOAA surveys in 2003 demonstrated the presence of an associated debris avalanche deposit, judging from their surface morphologic expression on the sea floor, extending at least 15 km and possibly as much as 30 km from the volcano, into the Grenada Basin to the west. Seismic air-gun profiles of the region show that these are lobate deposits, that range in thickness from tens to hundreds of meters. The debris avalanche deposit is contained within two marginal levees, that extend symmetrically from the volcano to the west. A conservative estimate of the volume of the smaller debris avalanche deposit is about 10 km3. Age dating of the deposits and the flank failure events is in progress, by analysis of gravity cores collected during the 2003 survey. Reconstruction of the pre-collapse volcanic edifice suggests that the ancestral Kick'em Jenny volcano might have been at or above sea level. Kick'em Jenny is dominantly supplied by basalt to basaltic andesite magmas, that are extruded now as submarine pillow lavas and domes or ejected as tephra in relatively minor phreatomagmatic explosions. Geochemical evolution of this volcano has not, however, reached the stage of generation of volatile-rich silicic magmas that might form highly explosive eruptions.

  17. A study on characteristics of EM radiation from stripline structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayano, Yoshiki; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, effective methods for predicting and suppressing electromagnetic interference over a broad band are required. In this paper, we focus on the prediction of electromagnetic (EM) radiation from a stripline structure with a ground thin wire by an equivalent circuit model. First, frequency responses of common-mode (CM) current on the printed circuit board and EM radiation are studied with finite difference time domain modeling. Secondly, an equivalent circuit model for predicting CM current is proposed. The equivalent circuit model for prediction is based on the concepts of CM antenna impedance, distributed constant circuit, and electric coupling between the power plane and the thin ground wire. Good agreement between the predicted and full-wave analysis results indicates the validity of the proposed equivalent circuit model. The frequency response of EM radiation from the stripline structure can be identified using our proposed model. In addition, the equivalent circuit model provides enough flexibility for different geometric parameters and can be used to develop physical insights and design guidelines.

  18. Essential ethics for EMS: cardinal virtues and core principles.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Gregory Luke; Fowler, Raymond Logan

    2002-11-01

    Dutiful attention to virtue, teamwork, beneficence, justice, and respect for patient autonomy provides a coherent approach to addressing many ethical dilemmas in the out-of-hospital setting. Most of the great risks of EMS--abandonment, competence, and safe-driving skills--lie at the ethike or character of those who ply the prehospital art. Proactively fostering the personal and professional virtue of team members may be a kind of moral vaccination against the ethical pitfalls inherent in emergency medical service provision. Future training, education, disaster preparedness drills, and related exercises must include opportunities for character and team building before optimal performance and accountability can be assured. In the steady, almost glacial, maturation of the specialty of EMS medicine, truly the character of those who serve in the "line of fire" of evaluation, management, and transport in the out-of-hospital arena must be girded with more than the armor and shields of technology. Since September 11, 2001, it has become increasingly clear that EMS workers must strengthen their ability to bear the "slings and arrows of outrageous fortune," armed with swords of discipline, virtue, and character to provide the breadth of care that only a well orchestrated team can deliver. Ultimately, humans perform best when they share themselves unselfconsciously, surrendering to an enterprise and cause far greater than themselves. Our citizens, patients, and heroic colleagues deserve no less.

  19. Integrated GW-EM Follow-up Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackley, Kendall; Eikenberry, Stephen; Klimenko, Sergey; LSC Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Advanced Gravitational-Wave (GW) detectors such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo are expected to become operational for observation runs in 2015, with an expected ultimate improvement in sensitivity over previous configurations by a factor of 10 by 2019. There are many potential electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to GWs including short and long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and kilonovae. While SGRBs and LGRBs predominantly emit in the X-ray, and the recently-observed kilonova primarily in the infrared, all three sources are expected to have detectable traces in the optical band, albeit requiring very sensitive optical telescopes. In order to aid in the optimization of GW trigger follow-up procedures, we perform an end-to-end analysis feasibility study using synthesized Advanced detector data simulating a GW detection with a theoretical EM counterpart injected into archival optical images. We use images from Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) and Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), and inject candidate events following observed lightcurves of SGRBs, LGRBs, and kilonovae. The use of Zernike PSF decomposition on candidate objects offers a fast way to identify point sources, speeding up the automated identification of transient sources in the images. We present our method of transient recovery and the latest results of our feasibility study of a joint GW-EM observation.

  20. The US DOE-EM International Program - 13004

    SciTech Connect

    Elmetti, Rosa R.; Han, Ana M.; Williams, Alice C.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) conducts international collaboration activities in support of U.S. policies and objectives regarding the accelerated risk reduction and remediation of environmental legacy of the nations' nuclear weapons program and government sponsored nuclear energy research. The EM International Program supported out of the EM Office of the Associate Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary pursues collaborations with foreign government organizations, educational institutions and private industry to assist in identifying technologies and promote international collaborations that leverage resources and link international experience and expertise. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, the International Program awarded eight international collaborative projects for work scope spanning waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) and nuclear materials disposition initiatives to seven foreign organizations. Additionally, the International Program's scope and collaboration opportunities were expanded to include technical as well as non-technical areas. This paper will present an overview of the on-going tasks awarded in FY 2012 and an update of upcoming international activities and opportunities for expansion into FY 2013 and beyond. (authors)

  1. Bayesian Modeling of Biomolecular Assemblies with Cryo-EM Maps

    PubMed Central

    Habeck, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A growing array of experimental techniques allows us to characterize the three-dimensional structure of large biological assemblies at increasingly higher resolution. In addition to X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance in solution, new structure determination methods such cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), crosslinking/mass spectrometry and solid-state NMR have emerged. Often it is not sufficient to use a single experimental method, but complementary data need to be collected by using multiple techniques. The integration of all datasets can only be achieved by computational means. This article describes Inferential structure determination, a Bayesian approach to integrative modeling of biomolecular complexes with hybrid structural data. I will introduce probabilistic models for cryo-EM maps and outline Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for sampling model structures from the posterior distribution. I will focus on rigid and flexible modeling with cryo-EM data and discuss some of the computational challenges of Bayesian inference in the context of biomolecular modeling. PMID:28382301

  2. EMS-STARS: Emergency Medical Services "Superuser" Transport Associations: An Adult Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Hall, M Kennedy; Raven, Maria C; Hall, Jane; Yeh, Clement; Allen, Elaine; Rodriguez, Robert M; Tangherlini, Niels L; Sporer, Karl A; Brown, John F

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Emergency medical services (EMS) "superusers" -those who use EMS services at extremely high rates -have not been well characterized. Recent interest in the small group of individuals who account for a disproportionate share of health-care expenditures has led to research on frequent users of emergency departments and other health services, but little research has been done regarding those who use EMS services. To inform policy and intervention implementation, we undertook a descriptive analysis of EMS superusers in a large urban community. In this paper we compare EMS superusers to low, moderate, and high users to characterize factors contributing to EMS use. We also estimate the financial impact of EMS superusers. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study based on 1 year of data from an urban EMS system. Data for all EMS encounters with patients age ≥18 years were extracted from electronic records generated on scene by paramedics. We identified demographic and clinical variables associated with levels of EMS use. EMS users were characterized by the annual number of EMS encounters: low (1), moderate (2-4), high (5-14), and superusers (≥15). In addition, we performed a financial analysis using San Francisco Fire Department (SFFD) 2009 charge and reimbursement data. Results. A total of 31,462 adults generated 43,559 EMS ambulance encounters, which resulted in 39,107 transports (a 90% transport rate). Encounters for general medical reasons were common among moderate and high users and less frequent among superusers and low users, while alcohol use was exponentially correlated with encounter frequency. Superusers were significantly younger than moderate EMS users, and more likely to be male. The superuser group created a significantly higher financial burden/person than any other group, comprising 0.3% of the study population, but over 6% of annual EMS charges and reimbursements. Conclusions. In this retrospective study, adult

  3. EM absorption reduction in wireless mobile antenna using printed paper-based metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Touhidul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Kibria, Salehin; Cho, Mengu; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a printed negative index metamaterial for electromagnetic (EM) absorption reduction in portable wireless antenna. The perceptible novelty exhibited in this paper is that EM absorption reduction toward the human head with paper-based metamaterial attachment. This research has been performed using human head phantom integrated in the commercially available CST Microwave Studio software package. The EM absorption has been reduced by 13.2 and 6% at 900 and 1800 MHz, respectively.

  4. An EM System With Dramatic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    FINAL REPORT An EM System With Dramatic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver SERDP Project MR-1534 JUNE 2011 David C...Technical 2006-20 10 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An EM System with Dynamic Multi-Axis transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer W912HQ-06-C-0050...ANSI Std. Z39. 18 EM Tensor Gradiometer SERDP MM-1532 i Contents Contents

  5. Multi-frequency electromagnetic sounding tool EMS. Archaeological discoveries. Case stories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Zeid, N.; Balkov, E.; Chemyakina, M.; Manstein, A.; Manstein, Y.; Morelli, G.; Santarato, G.

    2003-04-01

    EMS is the new patented tool for shallow-depth (up to 7 m) induction frequency sounding. The tool is developed in Institute of Geophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy, Novosibirsk, RUSSIA. Few years of application of EMS prototypes in archaeological prospection gave us the well described picture of possibilities and limitations of EM sounding for archaeological purpose. We would like to present several archaeological case stories including paleolitic, bronze and iron ages, antique and medieval targets discovery. The cases include complex geophysical works using GPR, Vertical DC sounding and magnetometry together with EM sounding. Archaeological proofs of geophysical prospection will be presented. The last September in Italy we have done the comparative work at few Italian archaeological sites. The second EMS prototype has been compared with commercially available tools for EM prospection such as EM mappers, georadars and DC electrical resistivity tomography. In the comparison EMS feature good noise immunity, high sensibility and resolution. In some cases only EMS data shows the buried targets and it was proved immediately by excavation. The researches were done with financial support of RFBR grant # 00-06-80421

  6. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Mitra, Alok K.; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 Å resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination.

  7. Modeling of MHD edge containment in strip casting with ELEKTRA and CaPS-EM codes

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, F. C.

    2000-01-12

    This paper presents modeling studies of magnetohydrodynamics analysis in twin-roll casting. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and ISPAT Inland Inc. (Inland), formerly Inland Steel Co., have worked together to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) computer model that can predict eddy currents, fluid flows, and liquid metal containment of an electromagnetic (EM) edge containment device. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid metal containment and fluid flow in EM edge dams (EMDs) that were designed at Inland for twin-roll casting. This mathematical model can significantly shorten casting research on the use of EM fields for liquid metal containment and control. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a 3-D finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA can predict the eddy-current distribution and the EM forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM can model fluid flows with free surfaces. The computed 3-D magnetic fields and induced eddy currents in ELEKTRA are used as input to temperature- and flow-field computations in CaPS-EM. Results of the numerical simulation compared well with measurements obtained from both static and dynamic tests.

  8. Emergency medical services and "psych calls": Examining the work of urban EMS providers.

    PubMed

    Prener, Christopher; Lincoln, Alisa K

    2015-11-01

    Emergency medical technicians and paramedics form the backbone of the United States' Emergency Medical Service (EMS) system. Despite the frequent involvement of EMS with people with mental health and substance abuse problems, the nature and content of this work, as well as how EMS providers think about this work, have not been fully explored. Using data obtained through observations and interviews with providers at an urban American EMS agency, this paper provides an analysis of the ways in which EMS providers interact with people with mental illness and substance abuse problems, as well as providers' experiences with the mental health care system. Results demonstrate that EMS providers share common beliefs and frustrations about "psych calls" and the types of calls that involve people with behavioral health problems. In addition, providers described their understandings of the ways in which people with mental health and substance use problems "abuse the system" and the consequences of this abuse. Finally, EMS providers discuss the system-level factors that impact their work and specific barriers and challenges to care. These results suggest that additional work is needed to expand our understanding of the role of EMS providers in the care of people with behavioral health problems and that mental health practitioners and policy makers should include consideration of the important role of EMS and prehospital care in providing community-based supports for people with behavioral health needs. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Accuracy of EMS-Reported Last Known Normal Times in Suspected Acute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Curfman, David; Connor, Lisa Tabor; Moy, Hawnwan Philip; Heitsch, Laura; Panagos, Peter; Lee, Jin-Moo; Tan, David K.; Ford, Andria L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The last known normal (LKN) time is a critical determinant of IV tPA eligibility; however, the accuracy of EMS-reported LKN times is unknown. We determined the congruence between EMS-reported and neurologist-determined LKN times and identified predictors of incongruent LKN times. Methods We prospectively collected EMS-reported LKN times for patients brought into the ED with suspected acute stroke and calculated the absolute difference between the EMS-reported and neurologist-determined LKN times (|ΔLKN|). We determined the rate of inappropriate IV tPA use if EMS-reported times had been used in place of neurologist-determined times. Univariate and multivariable linear regression assessed for any predictors of prolonged |ΔLKN|. Results Of 251 patients, mean and median |ΔLKN| were 28 and 0 minutes, respectively. |ΔLKN| was <15 min in 91% of the entire cohort and was <15 min in 80% of patients with a diagnosis of stroke (n=86). Of patients who received IV tPA, none would have been incorrectly excluded from IV tPA if the EMS LKN time had been used. Conversely, of patients who did not receive IV tPA, 6% would have been incorrectly included for IV tPA consideration had the EMS time been used. In patients with wake-up stroke symptoms, EMS underestimated LKN times: mean EMS LKN time - neurologist LKN time = −208 minutes. The presence of wake-up stroke symptoms (p<0.0001) and older age (p=0.019) were independent predictors of prolonged |ΔLKN|. Conclusions EMS-reported LKN times were largely congruent with neurologist-determined times. Focused EMS training regarding wake-up stroke symptoms may further improve accuracy. PMID:24643409

  10. EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.

    2009-04-10

    EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions.

  11. Covariance Matrix Estimation for the Cryo-EM Heterogeneity Problem.

    PubMed

    Katsevich, E; Katsevich, A; Singer, A

    2015-01-22

    In cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a microscope generates a top view of a sample of randomly oriented copies of a molecule. The problem of single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-EM is to use the resulting set of noisy two-dimensional projection images taken at unknown directions to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the molecule. In some situations, the molecule under examination exhibits structural variability, which poses a fundamental challenge in SPR. The heterogeneity problem is the task of mapping the space of conformational states of a molecule. It has been previously suggested that the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the 3D molecules can be used to solve the heterogeneity problem. Estimating the covariance matrix is challenging, since only projections of the molecules are observed, but not the molecules themselves. In this paper, we formulate a general problem of covariance estimation from noisy projections of samples. This problem has intimate connections with matrix completion problems and high-dimensional principal component analysis. We propose an estimator and prove its consistency. When there are finitely many heterogeneity classes, the spectrum of the estimated covariance matrix reveals the number of classes. The estimator can be found as the solution to a certain linear system. In the cryo-EM case, the linear operator to be inverted, which we term the projection covariance transform, is an important object in covariance estimation for tomographic problems involving structural variation. Inverting it involves applying a filter akin to the ramp filter in tomography. We design a basis in which this linear operator is sparse and thus can be tractably inverted despite its large size. We demonstrate via numerical experiments on synthetic datasets the robustness of our algorithm to high levels of noise.

  12. Perda de massa em ventos empoeirados de estrelas supergigantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.

    2003-08-01

    Em praticamente todas as regiões do diagrama HR, as estrelas apresentam evidências observacionais de perda de massa. Na literatura, pode-se encontrar trabalhos que tratam tanto do diagnóstico da perda de massa como da construção de modelos que visam explicá-la. O amortecimento de ondas Alfvén tem sido utilizado como mecanismo de aceleração de ventos homogêneos. Entretanto, sabe-se que os envelopes de estrelas frias contêm grãos sólidos e moléculas. Com o intuito de estudar a interação entre as ondas Alfvén e a poeira e a sua conseqüência na aceleração do vento estelar, Falceta-Gonçalves & Jatenco-Pereira (2002) desenvolveram um modelo de perda de massa para estrelas supergigantes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos um estudo do modelo acima proposto para avaliar a dependência da taxa de perda de massa com alguns parâmetros iniciais como, por exemplo, a densidade r0, o campo magnético B0, o comprimento de amortecimento da onda L0, seu fluxo f0, entre outros. Sendo assim, aumentando f0 de 10% a partir de valores de referência, vimos que aumenta consideravelmente, enquanto que um aumento de mesmo valor em r0, B0 e L0 acarreta uma diminuição em .

  13. Covariance Matrix Estimation for the Cryo-EM Heterogeneity Problem*

    PubMed Central

    Katsevich, E.; Katsevich, A.; Singer, A.

    2015-01-01

    In cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a microscope generates a top view of a sample of randomly oriented copies of a molecule. The problem of single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-EM is to use the resulting set of noisy two-dimensional projection images taken at unknown directions to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the molecule. In some situations, the molecule under examination exhibits structural variability, which poses a fundamental challenge in SPR. The heterogeneity problem is the task of mapping the space of conformational states of a molecule. It has been previously suggested that the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the 3D molecules can be used to solve the heterogeneity problem. Estimating the covariance matrix is challenging, since only projections of the molecules are observed, but not the molecules themselves. In this paper, we formulate a general problem of covariance estimation from noisy projections of samples. This problem has intimate connections with matrix completion problems and high-dimensional principal component analysis. We propose an estimator and prove its consistency. When there are finitely many heterogeneity classes, the spectrum of the estimated covariance matrix reveals the number of classes. The estimator can be found as the solution to a certain linear system. In the cryo-EM case, the linear operator to be inverted, which we term the projection covariance transform, is an important object in covariance estimation for tomographic problems involving structural variation. Inverting it involves applying a filter akin to the ramp filter in tomography. We design a basis in which this linear operator is sparse and thus can be tractably inverted despite its large size. We demonstrate via numerical experiments on synthetic datasets the robustness of our algorithm to high levels of noise. PMID:25699132

  14. Testing For EM Upsets In Aircraft Control Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of transient electrical signals evaluated in laboratory tests. Method of evaluating nominally fault-tolerant, aircraft-type digital-computer-based control system devised. Provides for evaluation of susceptibility of system to upset and evaluation of integrity of control when system subjected to transient electrical signals like those induced by electromagnetic (EM) source, in this case lightning. Beyond aerospace applications, fault-tolerant control systems becoming more wide-spread in industry; such as in automobiles. Method supports practical, systematic tests for evaluation of designs of fault-tolerant control systems.

  15. Theme park EMS. It's no Mickey Mouse operation.

    PubMed

    Philips, J H

    1995-07-01

    In a single shift, they can rescue someone trapped in a time warp, perform CPR while menacing monsters look over their shoulders or calmly watch as a motorboat chase ends in a huge ball of fire. It's just another routine day for EMS providers in America's theme parks, where getting ready for unusual calls is the norm. JEMS went behind the scenes with theme park responders to explore the unique challenges of their service environment. What we found was a group of super-dedicated professionals who place genuine hospitality right alongside quality patient care.

  16. Unravelling the structures of biological macromolecules by cryo-EM

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Leiro, Rafael; Scheres, Sjors H.W.

    2016-01-01

    Preface Understanding how proteins and other biological macromolecules perform their complicated tasks in the living cell is often aided by knowledge of their three-dimensional structures. Because many tasks involve the cleavage or formation of chemical bonds, structural characterisation at the atomic level is most useful. Recent developments in electron microscopy of frozen hydrated samples (cryo-EM) have provided unprecedented opportunities for the structural characterization of biological macromolecules. This is resulting in a wave of new information about biological processes that were impossible to characterize with previously existing techniques in structural biology. PMID:27629640

  17. The White Dwarf in EM Cygni: Beyond the Veil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-10

    reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. THE WHITE DWARF IN EM CYGNI: BEYOND THE VEIL∗ Patrick Godon1,4, Edward M. Sion1, Paul E. Barrett2, and Albert P. Linnell3 1...However, more recent full three-dimensional hydrodynami- cal simulations, e.g., (Blondin 1998; Kunze et al. 2001; Bisikalo et al. 2003), have followed...deflection is believed to cause X-ray absorption in CVs (and LMXBs) around orbital phase 0.7, if the inclination is at least 65◦ ( Kunze et al. 2001

  18. Single-particle cryo-EM at crystallographic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Until only a few years ago, single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) was usually not the first choice for many structural biologists due to its limited resolution in the range of nanometer to subnanometer. Now, this method rivals X-ray crystallography in terms of resolution and can be used to determine atomic structures of macromolecules that are either refractory to crystallization or difficult to crystallize in specific functional states. In this review, I discuss the recent breakthroughs in both hardware and software that transformed cryo-microscopy, enabling understanding of complex biomolecules and their functions at atomic level. PMID:25910205

  19. State of the Art in EM Field Computation

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, C.; Akcelik, V.; Candel, A.; Chen, S.; Folwell, N.; Ge, L.; Guetz, A.; Jiang, H.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.-Q.; Li, Z.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.; Xiao, L.; Ko, K.; /SLAC

    2006-09-25

    This paper presents the advances in electromagnetic (EM) field computation that have been enabled by the US DOE SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology project which supports the development and application of a suite of electromagnetic codes based on the higher-order finite element method. Implemented on distributed memory supercomputers, this state of the art simulation capability has produced results which are of great interest to accelerator designers and with realism previously not possible with standard codes. Examples from work on the International Linear Collider (ILC) project are described.

  20. Demonstrate a Leap-Ahead EM Gun Armament System that Proves the Maturity of the Technology for Future Combat Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-26

    This report, comprised of viewgraphs, discusses the Army EM program and the challenges it faces. Topics include pulsed power, hypervelocity lethality plans, systems and technology integration , and the army EM gun program.

  1. Method for evaluating compatibility of commercial electromagnetic (EM) microsensor tracking systems with surgical and imaging tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafis, Christopher; Jensen, Vern; von Jako, Ron

    2008-03-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems have been successfully used for Surgical Navigation in ENT, cranial, and spine applications for several years. Catheter sized micro EM sensors have also been used in tightly controlled cardiac mapping and pulmonary applications. EM systems have the benefit over optical navigation systems of not requiring a line-of-sight between devices. Ferrous metals or conductive materials that are transient within the EM working volume may impact tracking performance. Effective methods for detecting and reporting EM field distortions are generally well known. Distortion compensation can be achieved for objects that have a static spatial relationship to a tracking sensor. New commercially available micro EM tracking systems offer opportunities for expanded image-guided navigation procedures. It is important to know and understand how well these systems perform with different surgical tables and ancillary equipment. By their design and intended use, micro EM sensors will be located at the distal tip of tracked devices and therefore be in closer proximity to the tables. Our goal was to define a simple and portable process that could be used to estimate the EM tracker accuracy, and to vet a large number of popular general surgery and imaging tables that are used in the United States and abroad.

  2. Developing State and National Evaluation Infrastructures- Guidance for the Challenges and Opportunities of EM&V

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2011-06-24

    Evaluating the impacts and effectiveness of energy efficiency programs is likely to become increasingly important for state policymakers and program administrators given legislative mandates and regulatory goals and increasing reliance on energy efficiency as a resource. In this paper, we summarize three activities that the authors have conducted that highlight the expanded role of evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V): a study that identified and analyzed challenges in improving and scaling up EM&V activities; a scoping study that identified issues involved in developing a national efficiency EM&V standard; and lessons learned from providing technical assistance on EM&V issues to states that are ramping up energy efficiency programs. The lessons learned are summarized in 13 EM&V issues that policy makers should address in each jurisdiction and which are listed and briefly described. The paper also discusses how improving the effectiveness and reliability of EM&V will require additional capacity building, better access to existing EM&V resources, new methods to address emerging issues and technologies, and perhaps foundational documents and approaches to improving the credibility and cross jurisdictional comparability of efficiency investments. Two of the potential foundational documents discussed are a national EM&V standard or resource guide and regional deemed savings and algorithm databases.

  3. Global Convergence of the EM Algorithm for Unconstrained Latent Variable Models with Categorical Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Convergence of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to a global optimum of the marginal log likelihood function for unconstrained latent variable models with categorical indicators is presented. The sufficient conditions under which global convergence of the EM algorithm is attainable are provided in an information-theoretic context by…

  4. EMS Instructor Training Program. National Standard Curriculum. Instructor Guide. Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This guide for teaching a course to prepare emergency medical service (EMS) trainers focuses on the skills necessary to present any of the Department of Transportation (DOT), National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) EMS courses. Course topics are as follows: (1) introduction; (2) instructor roles and responsibilities; (3) legal…

  5. Broadband EM radiation amplification by means of a monochromatically driven two-level system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, Andrey V.

    2017-02-01

    It is shown that a two-level quantum system possessing dipole moment operator with permanent non-equal diagonal matrix elements and driven by external semiclassical monochromatic high-frequency electromagnetic (EM) (laser) field can amplify EM radiation waves of much lower frequency.

  6. Covariance Structure Model Fit Testing under Missing Data: An Application of the Supplemented EM Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li; Lee, Taehun

    2009-01-01

    We apply the Supplemented EM algorithm (Meng & Rubin, 1991) to address a chronic problem with the "two-stage" fitting of covariance structure models in the presence of ignorable missing data: the lack of an asymptotically chi-square distributed goodness-of-fit statistic. We show that the Supplemented EM algorithm provides a…

  7. The Effect of Older Age on EMS Use for Transportation to an Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Jones, Courtney M C; Wasserman, Erin B; Li, Timmy; Amidon, Ashley; Abbott, Marissa; Shah, Manish N

    2017-02-13

    Introduction Previous studies have found that older adults are more likely to use Emergency Medical Services (EMS) than younger adults, but the reasons for this remain understudied. Hypothesis/Problem This study aimed to determine if older age is associated with using EMS for transportation to an emergency department (ED) after controlling for confounding variables.

  8. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions. This protocol addresses only HVAC-related equipment and the energy savings estimation methods associated with installing such control systems as an energy efficiency measure. The affected equipment includes: Air-side equipment (air handlers, direct expansion systems, furnaces, other heating- and cooling-related devices, terminal air distribution equipment, and fans); Central plant equipment (chillers, cooling towers, boilers, and pumps). These controls may also operate or affect other end uses, such as lighting, domestic hot water, irrigation systems, and life safety systems such as fire alarms and other security systems. Considerable nonenergy benefits, such as maintenance scheduling, system component troubleshooting, equipment failure alarms, and increased equipment lifetime, may also be associated with these systems. When connected to building utility meters, these systems can also be valuable demand-limiting control tools. However, this protocol does not evaluate any of these additional capabilities and benefits.

  9. Surgical treatment of moyamoya disease in children: which is more effective procedure, EDAS or EMS?

    PubMed

    Fujita, K; Tamaki, N; Matsumoto, S

    1986-01-01

    At present, encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) and encephalomyosynangiosis (EMS) are the treatments of choice for moyamoya disease in children, but no attempts have been made to determine which is the more effective procedure, for the ischemic lesions in moyamoya disease. Ten patients (seven children and three adults) underwent EDAS and/or EMS: three patients EDAS on both sides; seven patients EDAS on one side and EMS on the other. These ten patients were followed up with a neurological examination and r-CBF and angiographic studies. Postoperative angiograms and r-CBF studies demonstrated more revascularization from the external carotid artery in sides treated with EDAS than with sides treated with EMS. From these results, it is concluded that the EDAS surgical procedure is superior to that of EMS for moyamoya disease.

  10. Fabrication and EM shielding properties of electrospining PANi/MWCNT/PEO fibrous membrane and its composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhichun; Jiang, Xueyong; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, Polyaniline-based fibrous membranes were fabricated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and polyethylene oxide (PEO) by the electrospinning method. And then PANi/PEO/MWCNT fibrous membranes reinforced epoxy based nanocomposite was then fabricated. The morphology and electrical properties of PANi /MWCNT /PEO fibrous membrane was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphologies of the membranes indicate that the electrospining method can fabricate well nano structures fibrous membrane. The EM properties of the composite reinforced with the electrospining fibrous membrane were measured by vector network analyzer. The results show that the permittivity real, image parts and permeability real part of the composite increase by filling with PANI/PEO and PANI/CNT/PEO membrane. The EM shielding and absorb performance is base on the dielectric dissipation. And different membranes made of different materials show different EM parameter, and different EM shielding performance, which can be used to the EM shielding and stealth material design and fabrication.

  11. A Generalized Fast Frequency Sweep Algorithm for Coupled Circuit-EM Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rockway, J D; Champagne, N J; Sharpe, R M; Fasenfest, B

    2004-01-14

    Frequency domain techniques are popular for analyzing electromagnetics (EM) and coupled circuit-EM problems. These techniques, such as the method of moments (MoM) and the finite element method (FEM), are used to determine the response of the EM portion of the problem at a single frequency. Since only one frequency is solved at a time, it may take a long time to calculate the parameters for wideband devices. In this paper, a fast frequency sweep based on the Asymptotic Wave Expansion (AWE) method is developed and applied to generalized mixed circuit-EM problems. The AWE method, which was originally developed for lumped-load circuit simulations, has recently been shown to be effective at quasi-static and low frequency full-wave simulations. Here it is applied to a full-wave MoM solver, capable of solving for metals, dielectrics, and coupled circuit-EM problems.

  12. The EM/MPM algorithm for segmentation of textured images: analysis and further experimental results.

    PubMed

    Comer, M L; Delp, E J

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present new results relative to the "expectation-maximization/maximization of the posterior marginals" (EM/MPM) algorithm for simultaneous parameter estimation and segmentation of textured images. The EM/MPM algorithm uses a Markov random field model for the pixel class labels and alternately approximates the MPM estimate of the pixel class labels and estimates parameters of the observed image model. The goal of the EM/MPM algorithm is to minimize the expected value of the number of misclassified pixels. We present new theoretical results in this paper which show that the algorithm can be expected to achieve this goal, to the extent that the EM estimates of the model parameters are close to the true values of the model parameters. We also present new experimental results demonstrating the performance of the EM/MPM algorithm.

  13. Estudo em microondas do aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em explosões solares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosal, A. C.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação rápida e intensa do brilho que ocorre nas chamadas regiões ativas da atmosfera, constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética. Os modelos de explosões solares atuais, discutidos na literatura, apresentam características de aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em ambientes magnéticos simplificados. Neste trabalho, nos propusemos a separar a emissão dos elétrons aprisionados da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação apenas a partir da emissão em microondas, melhorando portanto o controle sobre o conjunto de parâmetros inferidos. A emissão em microondas da população em precipitação é bastante fraca e portanto da nossa base de dados de 130 explosões observadas pelo Rádio Polarímetro de Nobeyama, em sete freqüências, apenas para 32 foi possível separar as duas componentes de emissão com uma boa razão sinal/ruído. A partir de estudos das escalas de tempo das emissões devidas à variação gradual da emissão no aprisionamento e da variação rápida da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação foi possível obter a separação utilizando um filtro temporal nas emissões resultantes. Em nossa análise destas explosões estudamos os espectros girossincrotrônicos da emissão gradual, a qual associamos provir do topo dos arcos magnéticos e da emissão de variação rápida associada aos elétrons em precipitação. Estes espectros foram calculados e dos quais inferimos que a indução magnética efetiva do topo e dos pés foi em média, Btopo = 236 G e Bpés = 577 G, inferidas das freqüências de pico dos espectros em ntopo = 11,8 GHz e npés = 14,6 GHz com leve anisotropia (pequeno alargamento espectral). O índice espectral da distribuição não-térmica de elétrons d, inferido do índice espectral de fótons da emissão em regime opticamente fino, foi de dtopo = 3,3 e dpés = 3,9. Estes parâmetros são típicos da maioria das análises realizadas em ambiente único de

  14. The EM SSAB Annual Work Plan Process: Focusing Board Efforts and Resources - 13667

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Ralph

    2013-07-01

    One of the most daunting tasks for any new member of a local board of the Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB) is to try to understand the scope of the clean-up activities going on at the site. In most cases, there are at least two or three major cleanup activities in progress as well as monitoring of past projects. When planning for future projects is added to the mix, the list of projects can be long. With the clean-up activities involving all major environmental media - air, water, soils, and groundwater, new EM SSAB members can find themselves totally overwhelmed and ineffective. Helping new members get over this initial hurdle is a major objective of EM and all local boards of the EM SSAB. Even as members start to understand the size and scope of the projects at a site, they can still be frustrated at the length of time it takes to see results and get projects completed. Many project and clean-up timelines for most of the sites go beyond 10 years, so it's not unusual for an EM SSAB member to see the completion of only 1 or 2 projects over the course of their 6-year term on the board. This paper explores the annual work planning process of the EM SSAB local boards, one tool that can be used to educate EM SSAB members into seeing the broader picture for the site. EM SSAB local work plans divide the site into projects focused on a specific environmental issue or media such as groundwater and/or waste disposal options. Projects are further broken down into smaller segments by highlighting major milestones. Using these metrics, local boards of the EM SSAB can start to quantify the effectiveness of the project in achieving the ultimate goal of site clean-up. These metrics can also trigger board advice and recommendations for EM. At the beginning of each fiscal year, the EM SSAB work plan provides a road map with quantifiable checkpoints for activities throughout the year. When the work plans are integrated with site-specific, enforceable

  15. Main error factors, affecting inversion of EM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, M. A.; Magomedov, M.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Inversions of EM data are complicated by a number of factors that need to be taken into account. These factors might contribute by tens of percents in data values, concealing responses from target objects, which usually contribute at the level of few percents only. We developed the exact analytical solutions of the EM wave equations that properly incorporate the contributions of the following effects: 1) A finite source size effect, where conventional dipole (zero-size) approximation brings 10-40% error compare to a real size source, needed to provide adequate signal-to-noise ratio. 2) Complex topography. A three-parametrical approach allows to keep the data misfits in 0.5% corridor while topography effect might be up to 40%. 3) Grounding shadow effect, caused by return ground currents, when Tx-line vicinity is horizontally non-uniform. By keeping survey setup within some reasonable geometrical ratios, the shadow effect comes to just one frequency-independent coefficient, which can be excluded from processing by using logarithmical derivatives. 4) Layer's wide spectral range effect. This brings to multi-layer spectral overlapping, so each frequency is affected by many layers; that requires wide spectral range processing, making the typical 'few-frequency data acquisition' non-reliable. 5) Horizontal sensitivity effect. The typical view at the target signal, reflected from a Tx-Rx mid-point is valid only for a ray approximation, reliable in a far-field zone. Unlike this, the real EM surveys usually work in near-field zone. Thus Tx-Rx mid-point does not represent the layer, so a sensitivity distribution function must be computed for each layer for the following 3D-unification process. 6) Wide range Rx-directions from mid-line Tx. Survey terrain often prevents placing Rx perpendicular to Tx-line, and even small deviations without proper corrections cause a significant inaccuracy. A radical simplification of the effect's description becomes possible after applying a

  16. THE WHITE DWARF IN EM CYGNI: BEYOND THE VEIL

    SciTech Connect

    Godon, Patrick; Sion, Edward M.; Barrett, Paul E.; Linnell, Albert P. E-mail: edward.sion@villanova.edu E-mail: linnell@astro.washington.edu

    2009-07-10

    We present a spectral analysis of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra of the eclipsing double-line spectroscopic binary EM Cygni (EM Cyg), a Z Cam DN system. The FUSE spectrum, obtained in quiescence, consists of four individual exposures (orbits): two exposures, at orbital phases {phi} {approx} 0.65 and {phi} {approx} 0.90, have a lower flux; and two exposures, at orbital phases {phi} = 0.15 and 0.45, have a relatively higher flux. The change of flux level as a function of the orbital phase is consistent with the stream material (flowing over and below the disk from the hot spot region to smaller radii) partially masking the white dwarf. We carry out a spectral analysis of the FUSE data, obtained at phase 0.45 (when the flux is maximal), using synthetic spectra generated with the codes TLUSTY and SYNSPEC. Using a single white dwarf spectral component, we obtain a white dwarf temperature of 40, 000 K {+-} 1000 K, rotating at 100 km s{sup -1}. The white dwarf, or conceivably, the material overflowing the disk rim, shows suprasolar abundances of silicon, sulphur, and possibly nitrogen. Using a white dwarf+disk composite model, we obtain that the white dwarf temperature could be even as high as 50,000 K, contributing more than 90% of the FUV flux, and the disk contributing less than 10% must have a mass accretion rate reaching 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. The single white dwarf model fits the absorption lines better than the white dwarf+disk model, but the white dwarf+disk model fits better the continuum in the shorter wavelengths. In both cases, however, we obtain that the white dwarf temperature is much higher than previously estimated. We emphasize the importance of modeling the spectra of EM Cyg around phase {phi} < 0.5, when the white dwarf and disk are facing the observer, and we suggest that the discrepancy between the present analysis and previous spectral analysis might be due to the occulting effect of the stream veiling the white

  17. Linear array implementation of the EM algorithm for PET image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, K.; Patnaik, L.M.; Ramakrishna, J.

    1995-08-01

    The PET image reconstruction based on the EM algorithm has several attractive advantages over the conventional convolution back projection algorithms. However, the PET image reconstruction based on the EM algorithm is computationally burdensome for today`s single processor systems. In addition, a large memory is required for the storage of the image, projection data, and the probability matrix. Since the computations are easily divided into tasks executable in parallel, multiprocessor configurations are the ideal choice for fast execution of the EM algorithms. In tis study, the authors attempt to overcome these two problems by parallelizing the EM algorithm on a multiprocessor systems. The parallel EM algorithm on a linear array topology using the commercially available fast floating point digital signal processor (DSP) chips as the processing elements (PE`s) has been implemented. The performance of the EM algorithm on a 386/387 machine, IBM 6000 RISC workstation, and on the linear array system is discussed and compared. The results show that the computational speed performance of a linear array using 8 DSP chips as PE`s executing the EM image reconstruction algorithm is about 15.5 times better than that of the IBM 6000 RISC workstation. The novelty of the scheme is its simplicity. The linear array topology is expandable with a larger number of PE`s. The architecture is not dependant on the DSP chip chosen, and the substitution of the latest DSP chip is straightforward and could yield better speed performance.

  18. EM Properties of Magnetic Minerals at RADAR Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stillman, D. E.; Olhoeft, G. R.

    2005-01-01

    Previous missions to Mars have revealed that Mars surface is magnetic at DC frequency. Does this highly magnetic surface layer attenuate RADAR energy as it does in certain locations on Earth? It has been suggested that the active magnetic mineral on Mars is titanomaghemite and/or titanomagnetite. When titanium is incorporated into a maghemite or magnetite crystal, the Curie temperature can be significantly reduced. Mars has a wide range of daily temperature fluctuations (303K - 143K), which could allow for daily passes through the Curie temperature. Hence, the global dust layer on Mars could experience widely varying magnetic properties as a function of temperature, more specifically being ferromagnetic at night and paramagnetic during the day. Measurements of EM properties of magnetic minerals were made versus frequency and temperature (300K- 180K). Magnetic minerals and Martian analog samples were gathered from a number of different locations on Earth.

  19. Integrated EM & Thermal Simulations with Upgraded VORPAL Software

    SciTech Connect

    D.N. Smithe, D. Karipides, P. Stoltz, G. Cheng, H. Wang

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear physics accelerators are powered by microwaves which must travel in waveguides between room-temperature sources and the cryogenic accelerator structures. The ohmic heat load from the microwaves is affected by the temperature-dependent surface resistance and in turn affects the cryogenic thermal conduction problem. Integrated EM & thermal analysis of this difficult non-linear problem is now possible with the VORPAL finite-difference time-domain simulation tool. We highlight thermal benchmarking work with a complex HOM feed-through geometry, done in collaboration with researchers at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory, and discuss upcoming design studies with this emerging tool. This work is part of an effort to generalize the VORPAL framework to include generalized PDE capabilities, for wider multi-physics capabilities in the accelerator, vacuum electronics, plasma processing and fusion R&D fields, and we will also discuss user interface and algorithmic upgrades which facilitate this emerging multiphysics capability.

  20. EM modeling of RF drive in DTL tank 4

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, Sergey S.

    2012-06-19

    A 3-D MicroWave Studio model for the RF drive in the LANSCE DTL tank 4 has been built. Both eigensolver and time-domain modeling are used to evaluate maximal fields in the drive module and RF coupling. The LANSCE DTL tank 4 has recently been experiencing RF problems, which may or may not be related to its replaced RF coupler. This situation stimulated a request by Dan Rees to provide EM modeling of the RF drive in the DTL tank 4 (T4). Jim O'Hara provided a CAD model that was imported into the CST Microwave Studio (MWS) and after some modifications became a part of a simplified MWS model of the T4 RF drive. This technical note describes the model and presents simulation results.

  1. Telescópio de patrulhamento solar em 12 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsumi, F.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    O telescópio de patrulhamento solar é um instrumento dedicado à observação de explosões solares com início de suas operações em janeiro de 2002, trabalhando próximo ao pico de emissão do espectro girossincrotrônico (12 GHz). Trata-se de um arranjo de três antenas concebido para a detecção de explosões e determinação em tempo real da localização da região emissora. Porém, desde sua implementação em uma montagem equatorial movimentada por um sistema de rotação constante (15 graus/hora) o rastreio apresentou pequenas variações de velocidade e folgas nas caixas de engrenagens. Assim, tornou-se necessária a construção de um sistema de correção automática do apontamento que era de fundamental importância para os objetivos do projeto. No segundo semestre de 2002 empreendemos uma série de tarefas com o objetivo de automatizar completamente o rastreio, a calibração, a aquisição de dados, controle de ganhos, offsets e transferência dos dados pela internet através de um projeto custeado pela FAPESP. O rastreio automático é realizado através de um inversor que controla a freqüência da rede de alimentação do motor de rastreio podendo fazer micro-correções na direção leste-oeste conforme os radiômetros desta direção detectem uma variação relativa do sinal. Foi adicionado também um motor na direção da declinação para correção automática da variação da direção norte-sul. Após a implementação deste sistema a precisão do rastreio melhorou para um desvio máximo de 30 segundos de arco, o que está muito bom para este projeto. O Telescópio se encontra em funcionamento automático desde março de 2003 e já conta com várias explosões observadas após a conclusão desta fase de automação. Estamos apresentando as explosões mais intensas do período e com as suas respectivas posições no disco solar.

  2. Updated bathymetric survey of Kick-'em-Jenny submarine volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watlington, R. A.; Wilson, W. D.; Johns, W. E.; Nelson, C.

    High-resolution bathymetric data obtained in July 1996 during a survey of the Kick-'em-Jenny submarine volcano north of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles revealed changes in the structure of the volcanic edifice compared to previously available surveys. The volcano's summit, at 178 m below sea level, was found to be approximately 18 m farther from the surface than was reported by Bouysse et al. (1988) and others. No dome was observed. Instead, an open crater, surrounded by walls that dropped significantly in elevation from one side to the opposite, suggest that eruptions, earthquakes, rockfalls or explosions may have altered the structure since the last detailed survey. The deepest contour of the volcano's crater was found 106 m below the summit.

  3. GW astronomy, EM observations, and the interactions between them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essick, Reed; LIGO-Virgo Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    I present an overview of the types of low latency searches operated by the LIGO-Virgo collaboration, focusing on the products produced by each and how they tie into the broader astronomical community. This includes both automated and manual follow-up to characterize the source localization as well as statements about the data quality surrounding the candidate. In broad strokes, I'll also describe the internal and external communication mechanisms put in place to announce candidates and report follow-up activities, with particular emphasis placed on how GW and EM data are mutually beneficial. Time permitting, I will also describe some consequences of observed diurnal cycles governing when the LIGO detectors are likely to record data and studies comparing localizations from different algorithms.

  4. Detection of karst structures using airborne EM and VLF

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, L.P. Nyquist, J.E.; Carpenter, P.J.

    1994-12-31

    Through the combined use of multi-frequency helicopter electromagnetic and VLF data, it is possible to detect and delineate a wide variety of karst structures and possibly to assess their interconnectedness. Multi-frequency EM Can detect karst features if some element of the structure is conductive. This conductive aspect may derive from thick, moist soils in the depression commonly associated with a doline, from conductive fluids in the cavity, or from conductive sediments in the cavity if these occupy a significant portion of it. Multiple loop configurations may also increase the likelihood of detecting karst features. Preliminary evidence indicates total field VLF measurements may be able to detect interconnected karst pathways, so long as the pathways are water or sediment filled. Neither technique can effectively detect dry, resistive air-filled cavities.

  5. Development of A New Electromagnetic Sounding System, Em-across

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, T.; Kunitomo, T.; Kumazawa, M.; Yokoyama, Y.

    We developed and tested a new electromagnetic sounding system. It is called EM- ACROSS (ElectroMagnetic - Accurately Controlled Routinely Operated Signal Sys- tem), and originally Ogawa and Kumazawa (1996) proposed. The essential points of this method are the transmission of accurately controlled electromagnetic waves, and precise synchronization between the source and observation points, and acquisition the transfer function between the source and receivers. This transfer function includes the information of the area where the electromagnetic waves propagates. We developed hardware to establish an EM-ACROSS system. To generate the accu- rately controlled source signal and to synchronize the receivers with the source, we utilize GPS clock. The time-keeping for the transmission and data recordings is better than micro seconds. We examined this system by the transmission from the current dipole (moment 200Am) at the frequencies below 100Hz and the observations at the distances up to 3km in Tono area. We transmitted the controlled source signal which the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrum from 200 seconds data attained up to 104. The accuracy of the synchronization was ascertained in data stacking of the received signal. The longer stacking reduced the error of the received signal as theoretically expected. From the observed transfer function, the resistivity of the experimental site was estimated as about 100 m, which is the typical value at the test site. We represent that the exploration using the accurately controlled electromagnetic sig- nal is realized. We come to convince ACROSS has a potential for explorations.

  6. Quantitative performance evaluation of the EM algorithm applied to radiographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brailean, James C.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Sullivan, Barry J.

    1991-07-01

    In this study, the authors evaluate quantitatively the performance of the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm as a restoration technique for radiographic images. The 'perceived' signal-to-nose ratio (SNR), of simple radiographic patterns processed by the EM algorithm are calculated on the basis of a statistical decision theory model that includes both the observer's visual response function and a noise component internal to the eye-brain system. The relative SNR (ratio of the processed SNR to the original SNR) is calculated and used as a metric to quantitatively compare the effects of the EM algorithm to two popular image enhancement techniques: contrast enhancement (windowing) and unsharp mask filtering.

  7. DNA-ligase activities appear normal in the CHO mutant EM9.

    PubMed

    Chan, J Y; Thompson, L H; Becker, F F

    1984-01-01

    The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutant strain EM9 was previously shown to be hypersensitive to killing by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), to have a 12-fold increased baseline incidence of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE), and to be defective in rejoining DNA strand breaks after treatment with EMS, MMS, or X-rays. A study was performed to determine if the primary biochemical defect might be a DNA ligase. DNA-ligase activities were assayed and compared after separation of the multiple forms of ligase by AcA 34 gel-filtration chromatography of total cellular extracts. In EM9 cells the levels of the presumptive replicative forms, DNA ligase Ia (480 kd) and ligase Ib (240 kd) were about 50% and 60%, respectively, of those in the parental AA8 cells, whereas DNA ligase II (80 kd) was unaltered in EM9 . In a phenotypic revertant line ( 9R1 ) ligases Ia, Ib and II levels were 35%, 37% and 100%, respectively, of those in AA8 . The reduced levels of ligases Ia and Ib in EM9 and 9R1 cells are apparently not related directly to the mutant phenotype and may be attributable to the somewhat slower growth rates of these strains compared with those of AA8 . To determine if the repair defect in EM9 might reside in the ability to induce DNA-ligase activity after treatment with a DNA-damaging agent, AA8 and EM9 cells were treated with MMS at 30 micrograms/ml for 60 min before preparing fractions for ligase assays. Under these conditions the activities of ligases Ia and Ib decreases 70-80% in both cell lines, but ligase II increased 2.0- and 2.6-fold, respectively, in AA8 and EM9 . As a further test of defective ligase activities in EM9 , assays were performed in the presence of 0.1 M NaCl or after heating the fractions for 10 min at 50 degrees C. Although all 3 forms of ligase showed altered activity under both of these conditions, there were no significant differences between EM9 and AA8 cells. These data combined with the above results provide strong

  8. Investigating the source of contaminated plumes downstream of the Alborz Sharghi coal washing plant using EM34 conductivity data, VLF-EM and DC-resistivity geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraz, Farzin Amirkhani; Ardejani, Faramarz Doulati; Moradzadeh, Ali; Arab-Amiri, Ali Reza

    2013-01-01

    Coal washing factories may create serious environmental problems due to pyrite oxidation and acid mine drainage generation from coal waste piles on nearby land. Infiltration of pyrite oxidation products through the porous materials of the coal waste pile by rainwater cause changes in the conductivity of underground materials and groundwater downstream of the pile. Electromagnetic and electrical methods are effective for investigation and monitoring of the contaminated plumes caused by coal waste piles and tailings impoundments. In order to investigate the environmental impact from a coal waste pile at the Alborz Sharghi coal washing plant, an EM34 ground conductivity meter was used on seven parallel lines in an E-W direction, downstream of the waste pile. Two-dimensional resistivity models obtained by the inversion of EM34 conductivity data identified conductive leachate plumes. In addition, quasi-3D inversion of EM34 data has confirmed the decreasing resistivity at depth due to the contaminated plumes. Comparison between EM34, VLF and DC-resistivity datasets, which were acquired for similar survey lines, agree well in identifying changes in the resistivity trend. The EM34 and DC-resistivity sections have greater similarity and better smoothness rather than those of the VLF model. Two-dimensional inversion models of these methods have shown some contaminated plumes with low resistivity.

  9. Life cycle of Nosomma monstrosum (Acari: Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Bandaranayaka, K O; Apanaskevich, D A; Rajakaruna, R S

    2016-05-01

    Nosomma monstrosum (Nuttall & Warburton) is a hard tick infesting mainly buffalo and cattle in Sri Lanka. Biological data on the life cycle pattern of N. monstrosum were collected using experimental infestation on New Zealand white rabbits under laboratory conditions. The three-host life cycle was completed within 64-102 days. Eggs hatched after 20-29 days of incubation and the larvae hatched out started feeding which lasted for 2-4 days. After a moulting period of 8-11 days nymphs emerge and they actively fed for 2-4 days. Subsequently the nymphs took 15-18 days for moulting before emerging as adults. Freshly moulted females fed for 7-8 days and remained latent for 4-5 days before starting the oviposition. Females laid 3864-12,520 eggs for 11-17 days. The male: female sex ratio was 8:3 in the adults which were moulted under laboratory conditions. Strong positive correlations were found in female weight with number of eggs laid and REI. Females raised from the first generation of eggs had higher oviposition periods, higher REI, laid ten times more eggs, and lower pre-oviposition periods compared to those collected from the wild. When a suitable host is given, N. monstrosum could successfully complete its three-host life cycle under laboratory conditions.

  10. Life cycle of Amblyomma integrum (Acari: Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Bandaranayaka, K O; Apanaskevich, D A; Rajakaruna, R S

    2016-07-01

    Amblyomma integrum is a hard tick infesting mainly buffalo and cattle and has been identified as an agent of human otoacariasis in Sri Lanka. Data on the life cycle pattern of A. integrum were collected by experimental infestation on New Zealand white rabbits under laboratory conditions. Wild-caught females laid 55-7389 eggs for 2-35 days after spending a latent period of 10-25 days. Egg incubation period was 31-105 days and the newly emerged larvae started feeding after 4-11 days. Larvae dropped off after feeding and they moulted into nymphs after 10-16 days. Nymphs actively fed on rabbits for 4-8 days and dropped off. Engorged nymphs took 11-25 days for moulting before emerging as adults. The male:female sex ratio of the adults moulted under laboratory conditions was 11:9. All the stages showed periodicity in engorgement and dropping off. The three-host life cycle was completed within 74-245 days with an average of 152.9 days. The mean Reproductive Efficiency Index (REI) and Reproductive Aptitude Index (RAI) were 3.6 and 1.1, respectively. Females hatched in the laboratory did not successfully feed on New Zealand white rabbits. The wild-caught females which fed on buffaloes had prolonged pre-oviposition and oviposition periods, low REI, low RAI and low eclosion under controlled laboratory conditions compared to other tick species. Although larva and nymphs of A. integrum successfully fed on New Zealand white rabbits under laboratory conditions, full life cycle was not completed because the adult females did not feed on rabbits.

  11. Two new species of Daidalotarsonemus (Acari: Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) from Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new tarsonemid species of the genus Daidalotarsonemus found on both native and crop plants in Brazil are described herein, based on adult females: Daidalotarsonemus esalqi sp. n. and Daidalotarsonemus savanicus sp. n. A key is provided to distinguish females of Daidalotarsonemus species known to...

  12. A Proteomic Analysis of Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae).

    PubMed

    Morgan, Marjorie S; Arlian, Larry G; Rider, S Dean; Grunwald, William C; Cool, David R

    2016-05-01

    The pruritic skin disease scabies is caused by the burrowing of the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei (De Geer). It is difficult to diagnose this disease because its symptoms often resemble those of other skin diseases. No reliable blood or molecular diagnostic test is available. The aim of this project was to begin to characterize the scabies proteome to identify scabies mite proteins, including those that may be useful in the development of a diagnostic test or vaccine. Various scabies mite extracts were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and 844 Coomassie Blue-stained protein spots were excised, subjected to trypsin digestion, and analyzed by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight/Time-Of-Flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Tryptic fragment sequences determined by MS were searched against the recently completed S. scabiei annotated genome, leading to the identification of >150 proteins. Only 10 proteins hit to previously identified scabies proteins including actin, tropomyosin, and several ABC transporters. Thirteen proteins had homology to dust mite allergens (members of groups 8, 10, 13, 17, 20, 25, and 28). Most other sequences showed some homology to proteins in other mites and ticks including homologs of calmodulin, calreticulin, lipocalin, and glutathione-S-transferase. These data will now allow the identification of the proteins to which scabies patients produce antibodies, including those that may be good candidates for inclusion in a diagnostic test and vaccine.

  13. The oribatid mite genus Benoibates (Acari, Oribatida, Oripodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Kontschán, Jenő; Retana-Salazar, Axel P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two species of oribatid mites of the genus Benoibates (Oribatida, Oripodidae), i.e., Benoibates bolivianus Balogh & Mahunka, 1969(a) and Benoibates minimus Mahunka, 1985, are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica. Both are redescribed in details, using drawings, images and SEM micrographs, on the basis of Costa Rican specimens. An identification key to the known species of Benoibates is given. PMID:25349489

  14. Contribution to the Uropodina mites of Peru (Acari: Mesostigmata).

    PubMed

    Kontschán, Jenő; Friedrich, Stefan

    2017-02-27

    Soil dwelling Uropodina mites were collected from a primary lowland rainforest in Amazonian Peru. The species found belong to three different families. A new diagnosis and the type genus of Tetrasejaspidae fam. nov. are given, and the family is recorded from Peru for the first time on the basis of Tetrasejaspis sellnicki Hirschmann, 1973. Two rotundabaloghid mites were collected (Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) magna Hirschmann, 1992 and Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) iquitosensis Hirschmann, 1992), both already reported from Peru. A new species (Origmatrachys peruensis sp. nov.) from the family Trachyuropodidae was collected in large numbers from soil, and is described on the basis of females, males, nymphs and larvae. This is the first description of the protonymphs and larvae of Origmatrachys. The new species differs from the previously described ones in the basis of sculptural pattern of dorsal, ventral, sternal shields and the length of the setae in the central part of the dorsal shield. A new key to the known adults and deutonymphs of Origmatrachys is given.

  15. Southeast Asian ticks (Acari: Ixodida): a Historical Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Warburton 1911), Haemaphysalis (Nuttall and Warburton 1915), Amblyomma (Robinson 1926) and the works of Neumann (e.g., 1899, 1901, 1911). Most of these...synonymy). Although dated, the only one of these that is of real value today is that on Amblyomma , both for its keys to the adult stages and its fine...1993 Ixodidae Amblyomma 12 Petney 1993 Aponommaa 9 Petney 1993 Boophilusb 1 Petney and Keirans 1996 Dermacentor 5 Petney and Keirans 1996 Haemaphysalis

  16. Climate change and the genus Rhipicephalus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Africa.

    PubMed

    Olwoch, J M; Van Jaarsveld, A S; Scholtz, C H; Horak, I G

    2007-03-01

    The suitability of present and future climates for 30 Rhipicephalus species in Africa are predicted using a simple climate envelope model as well as a Division of Atmospheric Research Limited-Area Model (DARLAM). DARLAM's predictions are compared with the mean outcome from two global circulation models. East Africa and South Africa are considered the most vulnerable regions on the continent to climate-induced changes in tick distributions and tick-borne diseases. More than 50% of the species examined show potential range expansion and more than 70% of this range expansion is found in economically important tick species. More than 20% of the species experienced range shifts of between 50 and 100%. There is also an increase in tick species richness in the south-western regions of the sub-continent. Actual range alterations due to climate change may be even greater since factors like land degradation and human population increase have not been included in this modelling process. However, these predictions are also subject to the effect that climate change may have on the hosts of the ticks, particularly those that favour a restricted range of hosts. Where possible, the anticipated biological implications of the predicted changes are explored.

  17. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Mastropaolo, Mariano; Beltrán-Saavedra, L Fabián; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2014-03-01

    The tick species reported in Bolivia are reviewed here as (1) endemic or established: Ornithodoros echimys, O. guaporensis, O. hasei, O. kohlsi, O. mimon, O. peropteryx, O. rostratus, Otobius megnini, Amblyomma auricularium, A. cajennense, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. dubitatum, A. humerale, A. incisum, A. longirostre, A. naponense, A. nodosum, A. oblongoguttatum, A. ovale, A. parvitarsum, A. parvum, A. pecarium, A. pseudoconcolor, A. rotundatum, A. scalpturatum, A. tigrinum, A. triste, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, H. leporispalustris, I. boliviensis, I. cooleyi, I. luciae, Rhipicephalus microplus, R. sanguineus, and (2) erroneously reported: Ornithodoros puertoricensis, O. talaje, O. turicata, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, A. multipunctum, Ixodes ricinus, I. scapularis, Rhipicephalus annulatus. Many of these records are lacking locality and/or host, and some of them need new findings for confirmation. Some of the species recorded may represent a threat for human and animal health, therefore would be of great value to make a countrywide survey of ticks in order to update the information presented in this work.

  18. Gregarines in Dermatophagoides spp. (Acari: Pyroglyphidae): light microscopy observation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Doganci, Levent; Iraola, Victor

    2009-03-01

    Recently there has been an increasing interest in studying arthropods that live close to humans, such as cockroaches and mites, for their potential as vectors. Gregarines observed under light microscopy in intestinal extracts of house dust mites (Dermatophagoides spp.) are described for the first time in scientific literature.

  19. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan.

  20. Hypopi (Acari: Hypoderatidae) of the wood stork (Aves: Ciconiiformes: Ciconiidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pence, Danny B.; Thomas, N.J.

    1995-01-01

    A new species is described and additional host records are presented for 2 other species of deutonymphs of the family Hypoderatidae from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of the wood stork, Mycteria americana L. Phalacrodectes (Phalacrodectes) mycteria n. sp. appears to share affinities with species from both pelicaniform and ciconiiform hosts, but it most closely resembles P. (P.) punctatissimus (Černý) Pence & Courtney from pelicans in idiosomal chaetotaxy, cutdcular sclerotization, and posteriorly divergent, widely separated genital openings. The new species differs from this and other species of the genus by its small size, the degree of separation of the genital openings with papillae, no secondary sclerotization in the perigenital area or surrounding the genital openings, and the long filiform setae s and w on genu III. There was a mixed infection of Neottialges kutzeri Fain and N. mycteriae Pence in all of 7 wood storks examined from Florida and Georgia; P. (P) mycteria was found in 4 of these hosts. This is the 7th species described as a deutonymph in the genus Phalacrodectes. The apparent close affinity of P. (P.) mycteria with P. (P.) punctatissimus and allied species from pelicaniform versus ciconiiform birds appears to be inconsistent with the established host-parasite relationships based on classical avian taxonomic relationships. However, this apparent affinity may be more reflective of the close relationships between the families of pelicans, ibises and spoonbills, and storks as recently proposed by DNA-DNA hybridization studies.

  1. Revision of the genus Raoiella (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) of the world.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flat mites in the genus Raoiella have attracted recent world-wide interest due to the rapid spread of a major pest of various palm trees and other monocot species, the red palm mite, R. indica. This focus on the species R. indica has created a need to better understand the genus. Despite the econo...

  2. Infestation of grasses by eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains incomplete. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study on grass-infesting eriophyoid mites in Turkey. The aim of this study was to collect...

  3. Contribution to the knowledge of Galumnoidea (Acari, Oribatida) of Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.; Tolstikov, Andrei V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An annotated checklist of identified oribatid mites of the superfamily Galumnoidea collected from Cuba, including ten species from four genera and two families, is provided. Galumna flabellifera Hammer, 1958, Pergalumna bifissurata Hammer, 1972, Pergalumna bryani (Jacot, 1934), Pergalumna decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977 and Galumnopsis secunda Sellnick, 1923 are recorded for the first time in the Cuban fauna. A new species of Pergalumna, Pergalumna cubaensis sp. n., is described; it is morphologically similar to Pergalumna decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977, but differs from the latter by the larger body size, heavily granulated prodorsum and well-developed interlamellar setae. The adult of Allogalumna cubana Balogh & Mahunka, 1979 is redescribed. PMID:26798237

  4. Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) is more than one species.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D L; Trueman, J W

    2000-03-01

    Varroa jacobsoni was first described as a natural ectoparasitic mite of the Eastern honeybee (Apis cerana) throughout Asia. It later switched host to the Western honeybee (A. mellifera) and has now become a serious pest of that bee worldwide. The studies reported here on genotypic, phenotypic and reproductive variation among V. jacobsoni infesting A. cerana throughout Asia demonstrate that V. jacobsoni is a complex of at least two different species. In a new classification V. jacobsoni is here redefined as encompassing nine haplotypes (mites with distinct mtDNA CO-I gene sequences) that infest A. cerana in the Malaysia Indonesia region. Included is a Java haplotype, specimens of which were used to first describe V. jacobsoni at the beginning of this century. A new name, V. destructor n. sp., is given to six haplotypes that infest A. cerana on mainland Asia. Adult females of V. destructor are significantly larger and less spherical in shape than females of V. jacobsoni and they are also reproductively isolated from females of V. jacobsoni. The taxonomic positions of a further three unique haplotypes that infest A. cerana in the Philippines is uncertain and requires further study. Other studies reported here also show that only two of the 18 different haplotypes concealed within the complex of mites infesting A. cerana have become pests of A. mellifera worldwide. Both belong to V. destructor, and they are not V. jacobsoni. The most common is a Korea haplotype, so-called because it was also found parasitizing A. cerana in South Korea. It was identified on A. mellifera in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Less common is a Japan/Thailand haplotype, so-called because it was also found parasitizing A. cerana in Japan and Thailand. It was identified on A. mellifera in Japan, Thailand and the Americas. Our results imply that the findings of past research on V. jacobsoni are applicable mostly to V. destructor. Our results will also influence quarantine protocols for bee mites, and may present new strategies for mite control.

  5. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Paraguay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    tapir , locality unknown, 1917, coll. E. Joukowsky). The other Paraguayan specimens of Am. triste in the USNTC, all collected in Estancia Faro Moro by...Experimental Station and Filadelfia, and has been found on cattle and horses in Villarica and on tapir in Colonia Risso (Berlese, 1888; Tonelli Rondelli, 1931

  6. Development of Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tucci, E C; Prado, A P; Araújo, R P

    2008-08-01

    The development, viability, and life cycle parameters of Dermanyssus gallinae at five different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C), and at relative humidity 70-85% were evaluated. Life cycle duration was 690.75 h (28 days) at 15 degrees C, 263.12h (11 days) at 20 degrees C, 164.63 h (7 days) at 25 degrees C, 140.69 h (6 days) at 30 degrees C and 172.04 h (7 days) at 35 degrees C. The optimal development temperature for D. gallinae was 30 degrees C, with the greatest survival in all stages and the shortest development time. High mortality at 35 degrees C indicated that this temperature had adverse effects on development of D. gallinae, and that in field conditions D. gallinae populations may decrease or even disappear due to the negative impact of high temperature on development. There were no significant differences in the pre-oviposition period among the four temperatures 20-35 degrees C, indicating that temperature did not affect this part of the life cycle.

  7. Thermal requirements of Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Tucci, Edna Clara; do Prado, Angelo P; de Araújo, Raquel Pires

    2008-01-01

    The thermal requirements for development of Dermanyssus gallinae were studied under laboratory conditions at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C, a 12h photoperiod and 60-85% RH. The thermal requirements for D. gallinae were as follows. Preoviposition: base temperature 3.4 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 562.85 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.59, regression equation: Y= -0.006035 + 0.001777x. Egg: base temperature 10.60 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 689.65 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.94, regression equation: Y= -0.015367 + 0.001450x. Larva: base temperature 9.82 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 464.91 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.87, regression equation: Y= -0.021123 + 0.002151x. Protonymph: base temperature 10.17 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 504.49 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.90, regression equation: Y= -0.020152 + 0.001982x. Deutonymph: base temperature 11.80 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 501.11 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.99, regression equation: Y= -0.023555 + 0.001996x. The results obtained showed that 15 to 42 generations of Dermanyssus gallinae may occur during the year in the State of São Paulo, as estimated based on isotherm charts. Dermanyssus gallinae may develop continually in the State of São Paulo, with a population decrease in the winter. There were differences between the developmental stages of D. gallinae in relation to thermal requirements.

  8. The oribatid mite genus Benoibates (Acari, Oribatida, Oripodidae).

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Kontschán, Jenő; Retana-Salazar, Axel P

    2014-01-01

    Two species of oribatid mites of the genus Benoibates (Oribatida, Oripodidae), i.e., Benoibatesbolivianus Balogh & Mahunka, 1969(a) and Benoibatesminimus Mahunka, 1985, are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica. Both are redescribed in details, using drawings, images and SEM micrographs, on the basis of Costa Rican specimens. An identification key to the known species of Benoibates is given.

  9. Two new species of Gaeolaelaps (Acari: Laelapidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Alireza; Mohseni, Mastaneh

    2013-12-17

    This paper reports on two new species of mites of the genus Gaeolaelaps in soil from Iran, G. farajii sp. nov., and G. orbiculatus sp. nov.. A key to the species of Gaeolaelaps with short peritremes is presented.

  10. [Control of Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897) (Acari: Ixodidae) on equines].

    PubMed

    Bello, Ana Cristina P De P; Da Cunha, Arildo P; Leite, Romário C; Oliveira, Paulo R; Ribeiro, Antônio Cândido C L; Domingues, Luisa N; De Freitas, Carolina Maria V; Bastianetto, Eduardo; Dalla Rosa, Ricardo C

    2008-09-01

    This trial evaluated control practices of Anocentor nitens on equines, using spraying devices and application of acaricide paste formulation in the auricular pavilion and nasal diverticulum. The study was carried out from October 2003 to March of 2008 and the evaluations had been divided in the following stages: Phase 1--out/03 mar/04 and Phases 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively, correspondents to the month's periods until março/08. It was used score of 0 to 3 to classify infestation levels. From abr/04 to mar/06 was implanted a schedule of acaricide sprayings every seven days and divided in two series. The first one beginning in April 2004 and the second beginning in July, both using six sprayings treatments with pyrethroid chemical base--cypermethrin 0,015%, plus topical treatments applied monthly in the auricular pavilions (powder acaricide). From abril/06 to março/08 was carried out similar schedule treatments, each two months, using an experimental acaricide paste in the auricular pavilion and nasal diverticulum. Phases 2 and 3 did not showed reduction of the parasitic loads of A. nitens compared to the control period. Whereas in Phases 4 and 5 registered significant reduction compared control period and also with the results of Phases 2 and 3, characterizing the effectiveness of the treatment with the acaricide paste formulation. Results demonstrated of A. nitens populations present in the nasal diverticulum are important in the maintenance of the infestations on equines, and necessary attention to this anatomical structure when controlling ticks.

  11. Apparent tick paralysis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Ramos, Rafael Antonio do Nascimento; Stanneck, Dorothee; Baneth, Gad; de Caprariis, Donato

    2012-09-10

    Certain tick species including Ixodes holocyclus can inoculate neurotoxins that induce a rapid, ascending flaccid paralysis in animals. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the most widespread tick of dogs, is recognized as a vector of several pathogens causing diseases in dogs and humans. A single report suggests its role as cause of paralysis in dogs. This study presents the clinical history of 14 young dogs heavily infested by R. sanguineus (intensity of infestation, 63-328) in an endemic area of southern Italy. During May to June of 2011, dogs were presented at the clinical examination with neurological signs of different degrees (e.g., hind limb ataxia, generalized lethargy, and difficulty in movements). All animals were treated with acaricides and by manual tick removal but ten of them died within a day, displaying neurological signs. The other 4 dogs recovered within 3 days with acaricidal and supportive treatment. Twelve dogs were positive by blood smear examination for Hepatozoon canis with a high parasitemia, two also for Babesia vogeli and two were negative for hemoparasites. Low-grade thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and pancytopenia were the haematological alterations most frequently recorded. Other causes of neurological disease in dogs were excluded and the diagnosis of tick paralysis by R. sanguineus was confirmed (ex juvantibus) by early and complete recovery of 4 dogs following acaricidal treatment and tick removal.

  12. Discrimination of Oribotritia species by oil gland chemistry (Acari, Oribatida).

    PubMed

    Raspotnig, Günther; Leutgeb, Verena; Krisper, Günther; Leis, Hans-Jörg

    2011-07-01

    The chemical composition of secretions from opisthonotal (oil) glands in four species of the oribatid mite genus Oribotritia (Mixonomata, Euphthiracaroidea, Oribotritiidae) was compared by means of gas chromatography--mass spectrometry. The secretions of all, O. banksi (from North America) and three Austrian oribotritiids (O. berlesei, O. hermanni, O. storkani), are shown to be based on certain unusual compounds, the iridoid monoterpenes chrysomelidial and epi-chrysomelidial and the diterpene β-springene. These components probably represent general chemical characteristics of oribotriid oil glands. Their relative abundance in the secretions along with further components (mainly saturated and unsaturated C(13)-, C(15)-, C(17)-hydrocarbons, and the tentatively identified octadecadienal) led to well-distinguishable, species-specific oil gland secretions profiles. In addition a reduced set of "Astigmata compounds" (sensu Sakata and Norton in Int J Acarol 27:281-291, 2001)--namely the two monoterpenes neral and geranial--could be detected in extracts of O. banksi nevertheless indicating the classification of euphthiracaroids within the (monophyletic) group of "Astigmata compounds-bearing"-Oribatida. These compounds are considered to be apomorphically reduced in all Austrian species. Our findings emphasize the potential of chemosystematics using oil gland secretion profiles in the discrimination of morphologically very similar, syntopically living or even cryptic oribatid species.

  13. Ticks (Acari: Argasidae, Ixodidae) parasitizing bats in the central Balkans.

    PubMed

    Burazerović, J; Ćakić, S; Mihaljica, D; Sukara, R; Ćirović, D; Tomanović, S

    2015-06-01

    Ticks parasitizing bats have been largely understudied, especially in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula, where the last data from the field research date from almost 25 years ago. Bats are hosts to a large number of ectoparasites, including ticks, which can act as vectors of zoonotic agents. For this reason, it is important to identify the distribution of ticks and their relationship to different hosts, including wild animals, bats in particular. The present research was conducted at 16 localities throughout Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). We examined 475 individuals of bats belonging to 13 species. A total of three tick species were identified, I. simplex being the most numerous and widespread, followed by I. vespertilionis and A. vespertilionis. To the best of our knowledge, the presented data include the first records of I. simplex in Serbia and Montenegro, I. vespertilionis for Montenegro and A. vespertilionis in FYROM. Also, we identify a new possible host/parasite association between I. simplex and Rhinolophus euryale.

  14. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) associated with Compositae in Iran.

    PubMed

    Lotfollahi, Parisa; Irani-Nejad, Karim Haddad; Khanjani, Mohamad; Moghadam, Mohamad; De Lillo, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Five species of eriophyoid mites were identified during surveys of mite fauna associated with plant species of the family Compositae from Southwest of East Azerbaijan province during 2010 and 2011. Two of them, Aceria virgatae n. sp. from Centaurea virgata Lam. and Aceria xeranthenzis n. sp. from Xeranthemumn squarrosum Boiss., were found to be new to science. No damage symptoms were observed on their host plants. Aceria xeranthemis n. sp. is the first eriophyoid collected from the plant genus Xeranthenun. Aculops centaureae (Farkas, 1960) from Centaurea albonitens Turrill and Aceria cichorii Petanović et al. 2000 from Cichorium intybus L. are new records for Iranian mite fauna. The deutogyne female of Aceria anthocoptes (Nalepa) was recorded for the first time in Iran, too. A key to the species collected on Compositae in Iran is given.

  15. The tick (Acari: Ixodidae) fauna of Herald's Beacon Islet, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Mackenzie L; Mintram, Kate

    2017-01-01

    A rare opportunity to travel to Herald's Beacon Islet with permission from the Australian government to collect ticks allowed for a survey of the tick fauna of the island to be undertaken for the first time. The avian fauna of the island, which serve as hosts, was also recorded and includes one new species record for the island. The seabird soft tick Ornithodoros capensis Neumann and the seabird hard tick Amblyomma loculosum Neumann were found to be present on the island. Images of the ticks present on the island are presented along with morphological characters for their identification.

  16. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise

    2015-07-28

    Predatory phytoseiid mites have been intensively studied and surveyed in the last decades because of their economic importance as biocontrol agents of agricultural pests. However, many regions of the world remain unexplored and the diversity of the family worldwide is still fragmentary. Up to date no phytoseiid species have been collected in the southernmost part of the Earth down to latitude 45º S. In this study Phytoseiidae were sampled from native vegetation in southern Argentina and Chile in the regions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island. Thirteen species were collected, five of which were previously described and eight, Chileseius australis n. sp., Neoseiulus mapuche n. sp., Typhlodromips valdivianus n. sp., T. fissuratus n. sp., Amblyseius grandiporus n. sp., A. caliginosus n. sp., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) anomalos n. sp. and Metaseiulus parabrevicollis n. sp. are proposed as new to science and are described and diagnosed.

  17. Does Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acari: Ixodidae) really occur in China?

    PubMed

    Chen, Ze; Li, Youquan; Ren, Qiaoyun; Liu, Zhijie; Luo, Jin; Li, Kai; Guan, Guiquan; Yang, Jifei; Han, Xueqing; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2015-02-01

    Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann has been considered to exist in China, especially in the southern part of the country. However, H. bispinosa referred to in many Chinese research papers may in fact be H. longicornis, which is widely distributed in most regions of China. In order to clarify the occurrence of H. bispinosa, Haemaphysalis ticks collected from 18 of 23 provinces of China (Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Guangxi, Gansu, Yunnan, Xinjiang, Anhui, Zhejiang, Shannxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, Shanxi, Shandong, Ningxia, Fujian, Qinghai and Jiangxi) were examined based on morphological and molecular characteristics. We found no evidence of H. bispinosa being present in China. Our results indicate that all of the so called "H. bispinosa" ticks reported in China are in fact H. longicornis.

  18. Relative humidity and activity patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.

  19. Simulating Suspended Silt Concentrations in the Ems Estuary, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasmeijer, B. T.

    2009-04-01

    1 Introduction The Ems Estuary is situated in the North-east Netherlands on the border with Germany. Its area, including the tidal river and excluding the outer delta, is ± 500 km2. The area of the outer delta is ± 100 km2. The length of the estuary from the inlet to the town of Leer in Germany is approximately 75 km. The mean tidal range varies over years (de Jonge, 1992), but is approximately 2.3 m near the island of Borkum (tidal inlet) and approximately 3.2 m near the town of Emden in Germany. The estuary receives water from the rain-fed River Ems (approximately 115 m3/s on average). A second much smaller freshwater input emanates from the small canalized river Westerwoldsche Aa (12.5 m3/s on average). These discharges vary strongly within and between years. The result of the interaction between freshwater discharge and seawater brought in by the tide is a salinity gradient, the length and position of which is strongly dependent on the water discharge by the rivers. The present morphology of the estuary is the result of natural processes such as tidal currents, wind and wave driven currents and river discharge, resulting in sediment trans-port and sedimentation and erosion patterns. These natural processes are affected by human interferences like maintenance dredging of the navigation channels, land reclamation, building of dikes, etc. The greatest changes in the last 50 years in the physical functioning of the Ems estuary have been the increased sea level and tidal range, the increased amplitude and frequency of storm surge, and greatly increased turbidity and sediment concentrations (particularly near the estuarine turbidity maximum). Much of the changes can be traced directly or indirectly to anthropogenic influence. 2 Aim and approach We studied the hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of the Ems estuary. One of the aims was to gain more insight in the behaviour of the suspended silt concentrations in the estuary and the anthropogenic influence thereon. We

  20. Factors that Influence the Formation and Stability of Thin, Cryo-EM Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Glaeser, Robert M.; Han, Bong-Gyoon; Csencsits, Roseann; Killilea, Alison; Pulk, Arto; Cate, Jamie H.D.

    2016-01-01

    Poor consistency of the ice thickness from one area of a cryo-electron microscope (cryo-EM) specimen grid to another, from one grid to the next, and from one type of specimen to another, motivates a reconsideration of how to best prepare suitably thin specimens. Here we first review the three related topics of wetting, thinning, and stability against dewetting of aqueous films spread over a hydrophilic substrate. We then suggest that the importance of there being a surfactant monolayer at the air-water interface of thin, cryo-EM specimens has been largely underappreciated. In fact, a surfactant layer (of uncontrolled composition and surface pressure) can hardly be avoided during standard cryo-EM specimen preparation. We thus suggest that better control over the composition and properties of the surfactant layer may result in more reliable production of cryo-EM specimens with the desired thickness. PMID:26386606

  1. cryoSPARC: algorithms for rapid unsupervised cryo-EM structure determination.

    PubMed

    Punjani, Ali; Rubinstein, John L; Fleet, David J; Brubaker, Marcus A

    2017-03-01

    Single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) is a powerful method for determining the structures of biological macromolecules. With automated microscopes, cryo-EM data can often be obtained in a few days. However, processing cryo-EM image data to reveal heterogeneity in the protein structure and to refine 3D maps to high resolution frequently becomes a severe bottleneck, requiring expert intervention, prior structural knowledge, and weeks of calculations on expensive computer clusters. Here we show that stochastic gradient descent (SGD) and branch-and-bound maximum likelihood optimization algorithms permit the major steps in cryo-EM structure determination to be performed in hours or minutes on an inexpensive desktop computer. Furthermore, SGD with Bayesian marginalization allows ab initio 3D classification, enabling automated analysis and discovery of unexpected structures without bias from a reference map. These algorithms are combined in a user-friendly computer program named cryoSPARC (http://www.cryosparc.com).

  2. 3D parallel inversion of time-domain airborne EM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun-He; Yin, Chang-Chun; Ren, Xiu-Yan; Qiu, Chang-Kai

    2016-12-01

    To improve the inversion accuracy of time-domain airborne electromagnetic data, we propose a parallel 3D inversion algorithm for airborne EM data based on the direct Gauss-Newton optimization. Forward modeling is performed in the frequency domain based on the scattered secondary electrical field. Then, the inverse Fourier transform and convolution of the transmitting waveform are used to calculate the EM responses and the sensitivity matrix in the time domain for arbitrary transmitting waves. To optimize the computational time and memory requirements, we use the EM "footprint" concept to reduce the model size and obtain the sparse sensitivity matrix. To improve the 3D inversion, we use the OpenMP library and parallel computing. We test the proposed 3D parallel inversion code using two synthetic datasets and a field dataset. The time-domain airborne EM inversion results suggest that the proposed algorithm is effective, efficient, and practical.

  3. Aquisição de Estreptococos Mutans e Desenvolvimento de Cárie Dental em Primogênitos

    PubMed Central

    NOCE, Erica; RUBIRA, Cassia Maria Fischer; da Silva ROSA, Odila Pereira; da SILVA, Salete Moura Bonifácio; BRETZ, Walter Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo Avaliar o momento de aquisição de estreptococos mutans (EM), desenvolvimento de cárie dental e as variáveis a eles associadas no decorrer de 23 meses, em primogênitos de famílias de baixo nível socioeconômico, desde os sete meses de idade. Método A amostra foi selecionada com base em mães densamente colonizadas por EM, incluindo todos os membros de 14 famílias que conviviam na mesma casa. Foram envolvidos no estudo 14 mães, pais e primogênitos e 8 parentes, na maioria avós. Exames clínicos e radiográficos iniciais determinaram os índices de cárie e condição periodontal dos adultos. Contagens de EM foram feitas em todos os adultos nas duas primeiras visitas. Nas crianças foram avaliados os níveis de EM, o número de dentes e de cáries, em quatro visitas. Resultados A prevalência de EM nos adultos foi alta, estando ausente em apenas um dos pais. EM foram detectados em 1, 2, 3 e 10 crianças, respectivamente nas visitas #1, 2, 3 e 4. A cárie dental foi detectada em apenas três crianças na última visita (aos 30 meses de idade), as quais apresentaram escores de EM significantemente maiores que as crianças sem cárie, na mesma visita. Conclusão Exclusivamente a condição social de baixa renda e mães densamente colonizadas por EM não são sinônimo de colonização precoce e alta atividade de cárie em crianças cuidadas em casa. O desenvolvimento de cárie está significantemente associado a escores elevados de EM nas crianças. PMID:22022218

  4. Quantify Lateral Dispersion and Turbulent Mixing by Spatial Array of chi-EM-APEX Floats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    before being transported to the northeast, with strong south-east/north- west gradients. The other assets were moved northward immediately, causing an...experiments. REFERENCES Kunze, E., and Sanford, T. B., 1993, Submesoscale Dynamics near a Seamount . Part I: Measurements of Ertel Vorticity, American...EM-APEX Floats and Moorings (N00014-08-1-0560) as a part of the ITOP DRI. Fourteen EM-APEX floats were air-deployed into two W. Pacific typhoons

  5. Light curve analysis of beta Lyrae type binary star EM TrA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkardeş, B.

    2017-02-01

    An analysis of photometric observations of the eclipsing binary system EM TrA (TYC 9258-211-1=CD-67 1660) is presented in this study. The V light curve of the system from All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) was solved using the Wilson-Devinney code. The final solution describes EM TrA as a detached system. The absolute parameters of the components of the system were estimated.

  6. The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 S&T Roadmap Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-11

    The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 Science and Technology Roadmap Project is a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies and technology for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by EM-20 Roadmap Project staff.

  7. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key points Similar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone. Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident. S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance. No improvement occurred in linear

  8. The development of cryo-EM into a mainstream structural biology technique

    PubMed Central

    Nogales, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has emerged over the last two decades as a technique capable of studying challenging systems that otherwise defy structural characterization. Recent technical advances have resulted in a ‘quantum leap’ in applicability, throughput and achievable resolution that has gained this technique worldwide attention. Here I discuss some of the major historical landmarks in the development of the cryo-EM field, ultimately leading to its present success. PMID:27110629

  9. Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

  10. Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O. I.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

  11. Self-assembled monolayers improve protein distribution on holey carbon cryo-EM supports

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Joel R.; Rao, Prashant; Kumar, Janesh; Chittori, Sagar; Banerjee, Soojay; Pierson, Jason; Mayer, Mark L.; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Poor partitioning of macromolecules into the holes of holey carbon support grids frequently limits structural determination by single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Here, we present a method to deposit, on gold-coated carbon grids, a self-assembled monolayer whose surface properties can be controlled by chemical modification. We demonstrate the utility of this approach to drive partitioning of ionotropic glutamate receptors into the holes, thereby enabling 3D structural analysis using cryo-EM methods. PMID:25403871

  12. Prehospital recognition of severe sepsis: development and validation of a novel EMS screening tool

    PubMed Central

    Polito, Carmen C.; Isakov, Alex; Yancey, Arthur H.; Wilson, Duncan K.; Anderson, Blake A.; Bloom, Ingrid; Martin, Greg S.; Sevransky, Jonathan E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To derive and validate a predictive model and novel Emergency Medical Services (EMS) screening tool for severe sepsis (SS). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting A single EMS system and an urban, public hospital. Patients Sequential adult, non-trauma, non-arrest, at-risk, EMS-transported patients between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012. At-risk patients were defined as having all 3 of the following criteria present in the EMS setting: heart rate >90bpm, 2) respiratory rate >20bpm, and 3) systolic blood pressure <110mmHg. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Among 66,439 EMS encounters, 555 met criteria for analysis. Fourteen percent (n=75) of patients had SS, of which 19% (n=14) were identified by EMS clinical judgment. In-hospital mortality for patients with SS was 31% (n=23). Six EMS characteristics were found to be predictors of SS: older age, transport from nursing home, Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) 9-1-1 chief complaint category of “Sick Person”, hot tactile temperature assessment, low systolic blood pressure, and low oxygen saturation. The final predictive model showed good discrimination in derivation and validation subgroups (AUC 0.843 and 0.820, respectively). Sensitivity of the final model was 91% in the derivation group and 78% in the validation group. At a pre-defined threshold of 2 or more points, prehospital severe sepsis (PRESS) score sensitivity was 86%. Conclusions The PRESS score is a novel EMS screening tool for SS that demonstrates a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 47%. Additional validation is needed before this tool can be recommended for widespread clinical use. PMID:26070235

  13. Using PAs in prehospital environments to reduce ED and EMS overuse.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Katherine M; Tozier, William L

    2017-04-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) and EDs in large cities are burdened with a significant number of patients with chronic disease who have limited options for receiving proper care. Despite their relatively small numbers, these "superusers" can have a significant effect on EMS, particularly in large cities. Additionally, EDs are not designed to provide chronic and continuous healthcare. This article describes how several organizations use physician assistants to manage these patients.

  14. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key pointsSimilar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone.Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident.S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance.No improvement occurred in linear sprint

  15. EMS Provider Attitudes and Perceptions of Enrolling Patients without Consent in Prehospital Emergency Research.

    PubMed

    Jasti, Jamie; Fernandez, Antonio R; Schmidt, Terri A; Lerner, E Brooke

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the attitudes and opinions of a broad population of EMS providers on enrolling patients in research without consent. A survey was conducted in 2010 of all EMS providers who participated in the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) reregistration process, which included half of all registered providers. Each reregistration packet included our optional survey, which had nine 6-point Likert scale questions concerning their opinion of research studies without consent as well as 8 demographic questions. Responses were collapsed to agree and disagree and then analyzed using descriptive statistics with 99% confidence intervals. A total of 65,993 EMS providers received the survey and 23,832 (36%) participated. Most respondents agreed (98.4%, 99%CI: 98.2-98.6) that EMS research is important, but only 30.9% (99%CI: 30.1-31.6) agreed with enrolling patients without their consent when it is important to learn about a new treatment. Only 46.6% (99%Cl: 45.7-47.4) were personally willing to be enrolled in a study without their consent. A majority (68.5% [99%Cl: 67.7-69.3]) of respondents believed that EMS providers should have the individual right to refuse to enroll patients in EMS research. While the majority of respondents agreed that EMS research is important, considerably less agree with enrolling patients without consent and less than half would be willing to be enrolled in a study without their consent. Prior to starting an Exception from Informed Consent (EFIC) study, researchers should discuss with EMS providers their perceptions of enrolling patients without consent and address their concerns.

  16. Pre-flight risk assessment in emergency medical service (EMS) helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed at NASA-Ames Research Center for civil EMS operations to assist pilots in making a decision objectively to accept or decline a mission. The ability of the SAFE system to predict risk profiles was examined at an EMS operator. Results of this field study showed that the usefulness of SAFE was largely dependent on the type of mission flown.

  17. Two SERK Receptor-Like Kinases Interact with EMS1 to Control Anther Cell Fate Determination1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao; Ahsan, Nagib; Biener, Gabriel; Paprocki, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Cell signaling pathways mediated by leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) are essential for plant growth, development, and defense. The EMS1 (EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1) LRR-RLK and its small protein ligand TPD1 (TAPETUM DETERMINANT1) play a fundamental role in somatic and reproductive cell differentiation during early anther development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, it is unclear whether other cell surface molecules serve as coregulators of EMS1. Here, we show that SERK1 (SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1) and SERK2 LRR-RLKs act redundantly as coregulatory and physical partners of EMS1. The SERK1/2 genes function in the same genetic pathway as EMS1 in anther development. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation, Förster resonance energy transfer, and coimmunoprecipitation approaches revealed that SERK1 interacted biochemically with EMS1. Transphosphorylation of EMS1 by SERK1 enhances EMS1 kinase activity. Among 12 in vitro autophosphorylation and transphosphorylation sites identified by tandem mass spectrometry, seven of them were found to be critical for EMS1 autophosphorylation activity. Furthermore, complementation test results suggest that phosphorylation of EMS1 is required for its function in anther development. Collectively, these data provide genetic and biochemical evidence of the interaction and phosphorylation between SERK1/2 and EMS1 in anther development. PMID:27920157

  18. EM techniques for archaeological laboratory experiments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Raffaele, Luongo; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic techniques (EM) are based on the investigation of subsoil geophysical parameters and in the archaeological framework they involve in studying contrasts between the buried cultural structures and the surrounding materials. Unfortunately, the geophysical contrast between archaeological features and surrounding soils sometimes are difficult to define due to problems of sensitivity and resolution both related on the characteristic of the subsoil and the geophysical methods. For this reason an experimental activity has been performed in the Hydrogeosite laboratory addressed on the assessment of the capability of geophysical techniques to detect archeological remains placed in the humid/saturated subsoil. At Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA, a large scale sand-box is located, consisting on a pool shape structures of 230m3 where archaeological remains have been installed . The remains are relative to a living environment and burial of Roman times (walls, tombs, roads, harbour, etc.) covered by sediments. In order to simulate lacustrine and wetland condition and to simulate extreme events (for example underwater landslide, fast natural erosion coast, etc.) the phreatic level was varied and various acquisitions for the different scenarios were performed. In order to analyze the EM behavior of the buried small archaeological framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomographies were performed. With GPR, analysis in time domain and frequency domain were performed and coupled to information obtained through resistivity analysis with the support of numerical simulations used to compare the real data with those modeled. A dense grid was adopted for 400 and 900 MHz e-m acquisitions in both the directions, the maximum depth of investigation was limited and less than 3 meters. The same approach was used for ERT acquisition where different array are employed, in particular 3D configuration was used to carry out a 3D resistivity

  19. Operation Protective Edge - A Unique Challenge for a Civilian EMS Agency.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Eli; Strugo, Refael; Wacht, Oren

    2015-10-01

    During July through August 2014, Operation Protective Edge, a military conflict between Israel and the Hamas regime in Gaza, dramatically affected both populations. Magen David Adom (MDA), the Israeli national Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and a member of the Red Cross, faced a unique challenge during the conflict: to continue providing crucial service to the entire civilian population of Israel, which was under constant missile threat. This challenge included not only providing immediate care for routine EMS calls under missile threat, but also preparing and delivering immediate care to civilians injured in attacks on major cities, as well as small communities, in Israel. This task is a challenge for a civilian EMS agency that normally operates in a non-military environment, yet, in an instant, must enhance its capability to respond to a considerable threat to its population. During Operation Protective Edge, MDA provided care for 842 wounded civilians and utilized a significant amount of its resources. Providing EMS services for a civilian population in a mixed civilian/military scenario is a challenging task on a national level for an EMS system, especially when the threat lasts for weeks. This report describes MDA's preparedness and operations during Operation Protective Edge, and the unique EMS challenges and dilemmas the agency faced.

  20. Fusion to a homo-oligomeric scaffold allows cryo-EM analysis of a small protein

    PubMed Central

    Coscia, Francesca; Estrozi, Leandro F.; Hans, Fabienne; Malet, Hélène; Noirclerc-Savoye, Marjolaine; Schoehn, Guy; Petosa, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Recent technical advances have revolutionized the field of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). However, most monomeric proteins remain too small (<100 kDa) for cryo-EM analysis. To overcome this limitation, we explored a strategy whereby a monomeric target protein is genetically fused to a homo-oligomeric scaffold protein and the junction optimized to allow the target to adopt the scaffold symmetry, thereby generating a chimeric particle suitable for cryo-EM. To demonstrate the concept, we fused maltose-binding protein (MBP), a 40 kDa monomer, to glutamine synthetase, a dodecamer formed by two hexameric rings. Chimeric constructs with different junction lengths were screened by biophysical analysis and negative-stain EM. The optimal construct yielded a cryo-EM reconstruction that revealed the MBP structure at sub-nanometre resolution. These findings illustrate the feasibility of using homo-oligomeric scaffolds to enable cryo-EM analysis of monomeric proteins, paving the way for applying this strategy to challenging structures resistant to crystallographic and NMR analysis. PMID:27485862

  1. Streptavidin crystals as nanostructured supports and image-calibration references for cryo-EM data collection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liguo; Ounjai, Puey; Sigworth, Fred J

    2008-11-01

    For cryo-EM structural studies, we seek to image membrane proteins as single particles embedded in proteoliposomes. One technical difficulty has been the low density of liposomes that can be trapped in the approximately 100nm ice layer that spans holes in the perforated carbon support film of EM grids. Inspired by the use of two-dimensional (2D) streptavidin crystals as an affinity surface for biotinylated DNA (Crucifix et al., 2004), we propose to use the crystals to tether liposomes doped with biotinylated lipids. The 2D crystal image also serves as a calibration of the image formation process, providing an absolute conversion from electrostatic potentials in the specimen to the EM image intensity, and serving as a quality control of acquired cryo-EM images. We were able to grow streptavidin crystals covering more than 90% of the holes in an EM grid, and which remained stable even under negative stain. The liposome density in the resulting cryo-EM sample was uniform and high due to the high-affinity binding of biotin to streptavidin. Using computational methods, the 2D crystal background can be removed from images without noticeable effect on image properties.

  2. Anisotropic 3D inversion of towed streamer EM data from the Troll West oil province (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, J.; Midgley, J.; Zhdanov, M. S.; ENDO, M.

    2013-12-01

    Obviating the need for ocean bottom receivers, the towed streamer EM system enables CSEM data to be acquired simultaneously with seismic over very large areas in frontier and mature basins for higher production rates and more cost effective than conventional marine CSEM. The towed streamer EM data are currently processed and delivered as a spectrum of frequency-domain responses. We apply a 3D anisotropic inversion methodology for towed streamer EM data that includes a moving sensitivity domain. Our implementation is based on the 3D contraction integral equation method for computing the EM responses and Fréchet derivatives, and uses the re-weighted regularized conjugate gradient method for minimizing the objective functional with focusing regularization. We present an actual case study for the 3D anisotropic inversion of towed streamer EM data from the Troll West oil province in the North Sea, and demonstrate our ability to image the Troll West Oil and Gas Provinces. We conclude that 3D anisotropic inversion of the data from the current generation of towed streamer EM system can adequately recover both the vertical and horizontal resistivities in anisotropic hydrocarbon-bearing formations.

  3. Cryo-EM Data Are Superior to Contact and Interface Information in Integrative Modeling

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Chauvot de Beauchêne, Isaure; Schindler, Christina E.M.; Zacharias, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions carry out a large variety of essential cellular processes. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is a powerful technique for the modeling of protein-protein interactions at a wide range of resolutions, and recent developments have caused a revolution in the field. At low resolution, cryo-EM maps can drive integrative modeling of the interaction, assembling existing structures into the map. Other experimental techniques can provide information on the interface or on the contacts between the monomers in the complex. This inevitably raises the question regarding which type of data is best suited to drive integrative modeling approaches. Systematic comparison of the prediction accuracy and specificity of the different integrative modeling paradigms is unavailable to date. Here, we compare EM-driven, interface-driven, and contact-driven integrative modeling paradigms. Models were generated for the protein docking benchmark using the ATTRACT docking engine and evaluated using the CAPRI two-star criterion. At 20 Å resolution, EM-driven modeling achieved a success rate of 100%, outperforming the other paradigms even with perfect interface and contact information. Therefore, even very low resolution cryo-EM data is superior in predicting heterodimeric and heterotrimeric protein assemblies. Our study demonstrates that a force field is not necessary, cryo-EM data alone is sufficient to accurately guide the monomers into place. The resulting rigid models successfully identify regions of conformational change, opening up perspectives for targeted flexible remodeling. PMID:26846888

  4. An Uncertainty Analysis for Predicting Soil Profile Salinity Using EM Induction Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingyi; Monteiro Santos, Fernando; Triantafilis, John

    2016-04-01

    Proximal soil sensing techniques such as electromagnetic (EM) induction have been used to identify and map the areal variation of average soil properties. However, soil varies with depth owing to the action of various soil forming factors (e.g., parent material and topography). In this work we collected EM data using an EM38 and EM34 meter along a 22-km transect in the Trangie District, Australia.We jointly inverted these data using EM4Soil software and compare our 2-dimensional model of true electrical conductivity (sigma - mS/m) with depth against measured electrical conductivity of a saturated soil-paste extract (ECe - dS/m) at depth of 0-16 m. Through the use of a linear regression (LR) model and by varying forward modelling algorithms (cumulative function and full solution), inversion algorithms (S1 and S2), and damping factor (lambda) we determined a suitable electromagnetic conductivity image (EMCI) which was optimal when using the full solution, S2 and lambda = 0.6. To evaluate uncertainty of the inversion process and the LR model, we conducted an uncertainty analysis. The distribution of the model misfit shows the largest uncertainty caused by inversion (mostly due to EM34-40) occurs at deeper profiles while the largest uncertainty of the LR model occurs where the soil profile is most saline. These uncertainty maps also illustrate us how the model accuracy can be improved in the future.

  5. Stroke savvy. The accuracy of EMS-reported last known normal times.

    PubMed

    Wesley, Keith; Wesley, Karen

    2014-09-01

    We collected EMS-reported "last known normal" (LKN) times for patients brought to the ED with suspected acute stroke and calculated the absolute difference between the neurologist-determined and EMS-reported LKN times (deltaLKN). We determined the rate of inappropriate IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) use if the EMS-reported times were used instead of the neurologist-determined times. Of 251 patients, mean and median deltaLKN were 28 and 0 minutes, respectively. deltaLKN was < 15 minutes in 91% of the entire group and < 15 minutes in 80% of patients with a diagnosis of stroke. Of patients who received IV tPA, none would've been incorrectly excluded from IV tPA if the EMS LKN time had been used. Conversely, of patients who didn't receive IV tPA, 6% would have been incorrectly included for IV tPA consideration had the EMS time been used. In patients with wake-up stroke symptoms, EMS underestimated LKN times by an average of 208 minutes. All of the potentially incorrectly included patients would've been wake-up strokes.

  6. Abundâncias em estrelas de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de Bário apresentam linhas intensas de elementos produzidos pelo processos (ex: Ba, Y, Sr, Zr) e bandas intensas de CN, C2 e CH. A hipótese mais aceita sobre a origem deste grupo peculiar é a de que essas estrelas façam parte de sistemas binários, tendo recebido material enriquecido em elementos pesados da companheira mais evoluída. Apresentamos neste trabalho uma análise detalhada de uma amostra de estrelas desta classe, incluindo determinação de parâmetros atmosféricos e cálculo de abundâncias. As temperaturas efetivas foram determinadas a partir de dados fotométricos obtidos com o Fotrap instalado no telescópio Zeiss do LNA (Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica) (B-V, V-I, R-I, V-R), e coletados na literatura nos catálogos Hipparcos (B-V), 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) (V-K) e The General Catalogue Photometric Data (sistema Geneva). Obtivemos uma faixa de temperaturas de 4400 £ Tef £ 6500. As metalicidades foram determinadas a partir de linhas de Fe I e Fe II, estando os resultados no intervalo -1 £ [Fe/H] £ +0.1. O log g foi determinado pelo equilíbrio de ionização e pela relação com a magnitude bolométrica, a temperatura e a massa, sendo os resultados na faixa 1.5 £ log g £ 4.5. As distâncias utilizadas foram determinadas com o auxílio das paralaxes Hipparcos, e as massas determinadas por modelos de isócronas. Os espectros utilizados foram obtidos com o espectrógrafo FEROS no Telescópio de 1,5m do ESO (European Southern Observatory). As abundâncias foram calculadas por meio de síntese espectral de linhas individuais incluindo elementos alfa, pico do Fe, s e r. Encontramos um excesso de elementos pesados em relação ao Fe, como esperado para estrelas de Bário.

  7. [Can Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) prey on Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) in coconut palm?].

    PubMed

    Melo, José W da S; Domingos, Cleiton A; Gondim, Manoel G C; Moraes, Gilberto J de

    2009-01-01

    Mites of the genus Euseius are generally considered specialist as pollen feeders. Euseius alatus DeLeon is one of the six species of phytoseiid mites most commonly found on coconut plants in northeast Brazil associated with Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Although the morphology of E. alatus does not favor the exploitation of the meristematic area of the fruit inhabited by A. guerreronis, the predator may have some role in the control of this eriophyid during the dispersion process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and reproduction of E. alatus on the following diets: A. guerreronis, Ricinus communis pollen (Euphorbiaceae), and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) + R. communis pollen + honey solution 10%. Euseius alatus developed slightly faster and had slightly higher oviposition rate when feeding on the diet composed of T. urticae + pollen + honey. However, life table parameters were very similar on all diets, suggesting that E. alatus may contribute in reducing the population of A. guerreronis in the field.

  8. Acaricidal activity of hydroethanolic formulations of thymol against Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Daemon, Erik; Maturano, Ralph; Monteiro, Caio Márcio de Oliveira; Goldner, Márcio Scoralik; Massoni, Tainara

    2012-05-25

    The aim of this study was to assess the acaricidal activity of hydroethanolic formulations of thymol at varying concentrations on Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor nitens larvae. The larval packet test was used and the thymol concentrations tested were 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0 mg/ml. The control group was exposed only to water and ethanol (50/50%) and there were 10 repetitions for each treatment. The mortality was evaluated after 24 h. For the R. sanguineus larvae, the mortality rates were 47.5, 50.2, 96.7, 95.9 and 98.1%, while for D. nitens the rates were 14.1, 75.0, 90.2, 90.3 and 99.5%, at respective thymol concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0 mg/ml. The results indicate that the hydroethanolic formulations of thymol tested have acaricidal activity on R. sanguineus and D. nitens larvae exposed topically, causing mortality greater than 90% 24 h post-treatment starting at the concentration of 10 mg/ml.

  9. Effect of photoperiod on development and demographic parameters of Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed on Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae).

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhiwen; Min, Qiang; Xiao, Shungen; Xin, Tianrong; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Effects of five photoperiods (Light:Dark = 4:20, 8:16; 12:12, 16:8, 20:4) on the development, survival and reproduction of Neoseiulus barkeri Hughes fed on storage mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) were examined under laboratory conditions at 85 % relative humidity and 24 °C. Development time of almost all immature stages in N. barkeri was the shortest (5.43 ± 0.12 days) under 12 h of daylight. Total duration of immature stages was as high as 8.55 ± 0.16 days during the longest photoperiod. Photoperiod had no effect on hatching rate, but did affect survival of larvae, protonymphs and deutonymphs. Total survivorship ranged from 20 (4:20) to 60 % (12:12). Under 12 h daylight, female adults had the shortest pre- and post-oviposition period, longest oviposition period and longevity, largest total number of eggs (15.95) and and highest daily egg production (1.43) per female. Under 12 h light, N. barkeri experienced its highest net reproductive rate (R 0  = 11.791), intrinsic rate of increase (r m  = 0.180), and finite rate of increase (λ = 1.197), and lowest mean generation time (t = 13.71 days) and population doubling time (DT = 3.86 days). All demographic parameters displayed a parabolic relationship with photoperiod. The results of the present study indicated that the photoperiod of 12:12 is optimal for the development and reproduction of N. barkeri fed on T. putrescentiae, and that N. barkeri may serve most efficiently as a biological control agent under this regime.

  10. Comparison of bacterial microbiota of the predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and its factitious prey Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae).

    PubMed

    Pekas, Apostolos; Palevsky, Eric; Sumner, Jason C; Perotti, M Alejandra; Nesvorna, Marta; Hubert, Jan

    2017-12-01

    Neoseiulus cucumeris is a predatory mite used for biological control of arthropod pests. Mass-reared predators are fed with factitious prey mites such as Tyrophagus putrescentiae. Although some information on certain endosymbionts of N. cucumeris and T. putrescentiae exists, it is unclear whether both species share bacterial communities. The bacterial communities in populations of predator and prey mites, as well as the occurence of potential acaropathogenic bacteria were analyzed. The comparisons were based on the following groups: (i) N. cucumeris mass-production; (ii) N. cucumeris laboratory population with disease symptoms; (iii) T. putrescentiae pure populations and; (iv) T. putrescentiae from rearing units of N. cucumeris. Only 15% of OTUs were present in all samples from predatory and prey mite populations (core OTUs): the intracellular symbionts Wolbachia, Cardinium, plus other Blattabacterium-like, Solitalea-like, and Bartonella-like symbionts. Environmental bacteria were more abundant in predatory mites, while symbiotic bacteria prevailed in prey mites. Relative numbers of certain bacterial taxa were significantly different between the microbiota of prey mites reared with and without N. cucumeris. No significant differences were found in the bacterial communities of healthy N. cucumeris compared to N. cucumeris showing disease symptoms. We did not identify any confirmed acaropathogenic bacteria among microbiota.

  11. An EM Induction Hi-Speed Rotation Angular Rate Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Li, Yuan; Han, Yan

    2017-01-01

    A hi-speed rotation angular rate sensor based on an electromagnetic induction signal is proposed to provide a possibility of wide range measurement of high angular rates. An angular rate sensor is designed that works on the principle of electromagnetism (EM) induction. In addition to a zero-phase detection technique, this sensor uses the feedback principle of magnetic induction coils in response to a rotating magnetic field. It solves the challenge of designing an angular rate sensor that is suitable for both low and high rotating rates. The sensor was examined for angular rate measurement accuracy in simulation tests using a rotary table. The results show that it is capable of measuring angular rates ranging from 1 rps to 100 rps, with an error within 1.8‰ of the full scale (FS). The proposed sensor is suitable to measurement applications where the rotation angular rate is widely varied, and it contributes to design technology advancements of real-time sensors measuring angular acceleration, angular rate, and angular displacement of hi-speed rotary objects. PMID:28304348

  12. PREFACE: EmQM13: Emergent Quantum Mechanics 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    These proceedings comprise the invited lectures of the second international symposium on Emergent Quantum Mechanics (EmQM13), which was held at the premises of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, Austria, 3-6 October 2013. The symposium was held at the ''Theatersaal'' of the Academy of Sciences, and was devoted to the open exploration of emergent quantum mechanics, a possible ''deeper level theory'' that interconnects three fields of knowledge: emergence, the quantum, and information. Could there appear a revised image of physical reality from recognizing new links between emergence, the quantum, and information? Could a novel synthesis pave the way towards a 21st century, ''superclassical'' physics? The symposium provided a forum for discussing (i) important obstacles which need to be overcome as well as (ii) promising developments and research opportunities on the way towards emergent quantum mechanics. Contributions were invited that presented current advances in both standard as well as unconventional approaches to quantum mechanics. The EmQM13 symposium was co-organized by Gerhard Grössing (Austrian Institute for Nonlinear Studies (AINS), Vienna), and by Jan Walleczek (Fetzer Franklin Fund, USA, and Phenoscience Laboratories, Berlin). After a very successful first conference on the same topic in 2011, the new partnership between AINS and the Fetzer Franklin Fund in producing the EmQM13 symposium was able to further expand interest in the promise of emergent quantum mechanics. The symposium consisted of two parts, an opening evening addressing the general public, and the scientific program of the conference proper. The opening evening took place at the Great Ceremonial Hall (Grosser Festsaal) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, and it presented talks and a panel discussion on ''The Future of Quantum Mechanics'' with three distinguished speakers: Stephen Adler (Princeton), Gerard 't Hooft (Utrecht) and Masanao Ozawa (Nagoya). The articles contained in

  13. If EM waves don't interfere, what causes interferograms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellard, Stanley J.

    2012-10-01

    Photonics engineers involved in designing and operating Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) often rely on Maxwell's wave equations and time-frequency (distance-wavenumber) Fourier theory as models to understand and predict the conversion of optical energy to electrical signals in their instruments. Dr. Chandrasekhar Roychoudhuri and his colleagues, at last year's conference, presented three significant concepts that might completely change the way we comprehend the interaction of light and matter and the way interference information is generated. The first concept is his non-interaction of waves (NIW) formulation, which puts in place an optical wave description that more accurately describe the properties of the finite time and spatial signals of an optical system. The second is a new description for the cosmic EM environment that recognizes that space is really filled with the ether of classical electromagnetics. The third concept is a new metaphysics or metaphotonics that compares the photon as a particle in a void against the photon as a wave in a medium to see which best explain the twelve different aspects of light. Dr. Henry Lindner presents a compelling case that photons are waves in a medium and particles (electrons, protons, atoms) are wave-structures embedded in the new ether. Discussion of the three new principles is intended to increase the curiosity of photonics engineers to investigate these changes in the nature of light and matter.

  14. EM modeling for GPIR using 3D FDTD modeling codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.D.

    1994-10-01

    An analysis of the one-, two-, and three-dimensional electrical characteristics of structural cement and concrete is presented. This work connects experimental efforts in characterizing cement and concrete in the frequency and time domains with the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) modeling efforts of these substances. These efforts include Electromagnetic (EM) modeling of simple lossless homogeneous materials with aggregate and targets and the modeling dispersive and lossy materials with aggregate and complex target geometries for Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar (GPIR). Two- and three-dimensional FDTD codes (developed at LLNL) where used for the modeling efforts. Purpose of the experimental and modeling efforts is to gain knowledge about the electrical properties of concrete typically used in the construction industry for bridges and other load bearing structures. The goal is to optimize the performance of a high-sample-rate impulse radar and data acquisition system and to design an antenna system to match the characteristics of this material. Results show agreement to within 2 dB of the amplitudes of the experimental and modeled data while the frequency peaks correlate to within 10% the differences being due to the unknown exact nature of the aggregate placement.

  15. CryoEM structure of the spliceosome immediately after branching

    PubMed Central

    Galej, Wojciech P.; Wilkinson, Max E.; Fica, Sebastian M.; Oubridge, Chris; Newman, Andrew J.; Nagai, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing proceeds by two consecutive trans-esterification reactions via a lariat-intron intermediate. We present the 3.8Å cryoEM structure of the spliceosome immediately after lariat formation. The 5’-splice site is cleaved but remains close to the catalytic Mg2+ site in the U2/U6 snRNA triplex, and the 5’-phosphate of the intron nucleotide G(+1) is linked to the branch adenosine 2’OH. The 5’-exon is held between the Prp8 N-terminal and Linker domains, and base-pairs with U5 snRNA loop 1. Non-Watson-Crick interactions between the branch helix and 5’-splice site dock the branch adenosine into the active site, while intron nucleotides +3 to +6 base-pair with the U6 snRNA ACAGAGA sequence. Isy1 and the step one factors Yju2 and Cwc25 stabilise docking of the branch helix. The intron downstream of the branch site emerges between the Prp8 RT and Linker domains and extends towards Prp16 helicase, suggesting a plausible mechanism of remodelling before exon ligation. PMID:27459055

  16. Primary Mechanism of EM Interaction with the Live Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musakhanyan, Viktor

    There is a prevailing opinion that the theoretical explanation of electromagnetic (EM) fields influence on live organisms is impossible to explain theoretically and even the play between parameters of waves and tissues is unknown to us. The explanation of mechanism of this influence is vitally important owing to the development of new types of electronic devices operating in different frequency ranges and due to the still continuing controversy about their adverse health effect. It is shown that the application of newly developed procedure of shutting-on of the interaction of charged particles with electromagnetic fields allows explaining their influence on live tissue by origination of macroscopic polarization currents due to the joint action of electric and magnetic components of electromagnetic waves. The currents originate in the case of resonance between the proper frequency of the medium and of frequency of external electromagnetic fields. Thus, the experiments to measure these polarization currents can provide information about dangerous frequency ranges and these ranges, with maximal polarization currents, should be excluded during construction of electronic devices.

  17. Specimen preparation for high-resolution cryo-EM

    PubMed Central

    Passmore, Lori A.; Russo, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging a material with electrons at near-atomic resolution requires a thin specimen that is stable in the vacuum of the transmission electron microscope. For biological samples, this comprises a thin layer of frozen aqueous solution containing the biomolecular complex of interest. The process of preparing a high-quality specimen is often the limiting step in the determination of structures by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Here we describe a systematic approach for going from a purified biomolecular complex in aqueous solution to high-resolution electron micrographs that are suitable for 3D structure determination. This includes a series of protocols for the preparation of vitrified specimens on various specimen supports, including all-gold and graphene. We also describe techniques for troubleshooting when a preparation fails to yield suitable specimens, and common mistakes to avoid during each part of the process. Finally, we include recommendations for obtaining the highest quality micrographs from prepared specimens with current microscope, detector and support technology. PMID:27572723

  18. An EM Induction Hi-Speed Rotation Angular Rate Sensor.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Li, Yuan; Han, Yan

    2017-03-17

    A hi-speed rotation angular rate sensor based on an electromagnetic induction signal is proposed to provide a possibility of wide range measurement of high angular rates. An angular rate sensor is designed that works on the principle of electromagnetism (EM) induction. In addition to a zero-phase detection technique, this sensor uses the feedback principle of magnetic induction coils in response to a rotating magnetic field. It solves the challenge of designing an angular rate sensor that is suitable for both low and high rotating rates. The sensor was examined for angular rate measurement accuracy in simulation tests using a rotary table. The results show that it is capable of measuring angular rates ranging from 1 rps to 100 rps, with an error within 1.8‰ of the full scale (FS). The proposed sensor is suitable to measurement applications where the rotation angular rate is widely varied, and it contributes to design technology advancements of real-time sensors measuring angular acceleration, angular rate, and angular displacement of hi-speed rotary objects.

  19. Orthogonalizing EM: A design-based least squares algorithm.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shifeng; Dai, Bin; Huling, Jared; Qian, Peter Z G

    We introduce an efficient iterative algorithm, intended for various least squares problems, based on a design of experiments perspective. The algorithm, called orthogonalizing EM (OEM), works for ordinary least squares and can be easily extended to penalized least squares. The main idea of the procedure is to orthogonalize a design matrix by adding new rows and then solve the original problem by embedding the augmented design in a missing data framework. We establish several attractive theoretical properties concerning OEM. For the ordinary least squares with a singular regression matrix, an OEM sequence converges to the Moore-Penrose generalized inverse-based least squares estimator. For ordinary and penalized least squares with various penalties, it converges to a point having grouping coherence for fully aliased regression matrices. Convergence and the convergence rate of the algorithm are examined. Finally, we demonstrate that OEM is highly efficient for large-scale least squares and penalized least squares problems, and is considerably faster than competing methods when n is much larger than p. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.

  20. Orthogonalizing EM: A design-based least squares algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Shifeng; Dai, Bin; Huling, Jared; Qian, Peter Z. G.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an efficient iterative algorithm, intended for various least squares problems, based on a design of experiments perspective. The algorithm, called orthogonalizing EM (OEM), works for ordinary least squares and can be easily extended to penalized least squares. The main idea of the procedure is to orthogonalize a design matrix by adding new rows and then solve the original problem by embedding the augmented design in a missing data framework. We establish several attractive theoretical properties concerning OEM. For the ordinary least squares with a singular regression matrix, an OEM sequence converges to the Moore-Penrose generalized inverse-based least squares estimator. For ordinary and penalized least squares with various penalties, it converges to a point having grouping coherence for fully aliased regression matrices. Convergence and the convergence rate of the algorithm are examined. Finally, we demonstrate that OEM is highly efficient for large-scale least squares and penalized least squares problems, and is considerably faster than competing methods when n is much larger than p. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. PMID:27499558

  1. Expert witness qualifications and ethical guidelines for emergency medical services litigation: resource document for the National Association of EMS Physicians position statement.

    PubMed

    Maggiore, W Ann Winnie; Kupas, Douglas F; Glushak, Cai

    2011-01-01

    The clinical provision of medical care by emergency medical services (EMS) providers in the out-of-hospital environment and the operation of EMS systems to provide that care are unique in the medical arena. There is a substantive difference in the experience of individuals who provide medical care in the out-of-hospital setting and the experience of those who provide similar care in the hospital or other clinical settings. Furthermore, physicians who provide medical direction for EMS personnel have a clinical and oversight relationship with EMS personnel. This relationship uniquely qualifies EMS medical directors to provide expert opinions related to care provided by nonphysician EMS personnel. Physicians without specific EMS oversight experience are not uniformly qualified to provide expert opinion regarding the provision of EMS. This resource document reviews the current issues in expert witness testimony in cases involving EMS as these issues relate to the unique qualifications of the expert witness, the standard of care, and the ethical expectations.

  2. Monitoring Survivability and Infectivity of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDv) in the Infected On-Farm Earthen Manure Storages (EMS)

    PubMed Central

    Tun, Hein M.; Cai, Zhangbin; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) has caused major epidemics, which has been a burden to North America’s swine industry. Low infectious dose and high viability in the environment are major challenges in eradication of this virus. To further understand the viability of PEDv in the infected manure, we longitudinally monitored survivability and infectivity of PEDv in two open earthen manure storages (EMS; previously referred to as lagoon) from two different infected swine farms identified in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Our study revealed that PEDv could survive up to 9 months in the infected EMS after the initial outbreak in the farm. The viral load varied among different layers of the EMS with an average of 1.1 × 105 copies/ml of EMS, independent of EMS temperature and pH. In both studied EMS, the evidence of viral replication was observed through increased viral load in the later weeks of the samplings while there was no new influx of infected manure into the EMS, which was suggestive of presence of potential alternative hosts for PEDv within the EMS. Decreasing infectivity of virus over time irrespective of increased viral load suggested the possibility of PEDv evolution within the EMS and perhaps in the new host that negatively impacted virus infectivity. Viral load in the top layer of the EMS was low and mostly non-infective suggesting that environmental factors, such as UV and sunlight, could diminish the replicability and infectivity of the virus. Thus, frequent agitation of the EMS that could expose virus to UV and sunlight might be a potential strategy for reduction of PEDv load and infectivity in the infected EMS. PMID:27014197

  3. Monitoring Survivability and Infectivity of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDv) in the Infected On-Farm Earthen Manure Storages (EMS).

    PubMed

    Tun, Hein M; Cai, Zhangbin; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) has caused major epidemics, which has been a burden to North America's swine industry. Low infectious dose and high viability in the environment are major challenges in eradication of this virus. To further understand the viability of PEDv in the infected manure, we longitudinally monitored survivability and infectivity of PEDv in two open earthen manure storages (EMS; previously referred to as lagoon) from two different infected swine farms identified in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Our study revealed that PEDv could survive up to 9 months in the infected EMS after the initial outbreak in the farm. The viral load varied among different layers of the EMS with an average of 1.1 × 10(5) copies/ml of EMS, independent of EMS temperature and pH. In both studied EMS, the evidence of viral replication was observed through increased viral load in the later weeks of the samplings while there was no new influx of infected manure into the EMS, which was suggestive of presence of potential alternative hosts for PEDv within the EMS. Decreasing infectivity of virus over time irrespective of increased viral load suggested the possibility of PEDv evolution within the EMS and perhaps in the new host that negatively impacted virus infectivity. Viral load in the top layer of the EMS was low and mostly non-infective suggesting that environmental factors, such as UV and sunlight, could diminish the replicability and infectivity of the virus. Thus, frequent agitation of the EMS that could expose virus to UV and sunlight might be a potential strategy for reduction of PEDv load and infectivity in the infected EMS.

  4. Employee retention: applying hospital strategies to EMS. With increasing demand for and decreasing supply of EMTs and paramedics, retention strategies should be a priority for EMS organizations.

    PubMed

    Powers, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Retention strategies are a priority for EMS organizations. These strategies must be broad and varied to address the variety of reasons employees leave healthcare organizations. The value of creating these programs should manifest itself through increased employee satisfaction and an increased sense of belonging to the organization.

  5. Accurate 2D/3D electromagnetic modeling for time-domain airborne EM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, C.; Hodges, G.

    2012-12-01

    The existing industry software cannot deliver correct results for 3D time-domain airborne EM responses. In this paper, starting from the Fourier transform and convolution, we compare the stability of different modeling techniques and analyze the reason for instable calculations of the time-domain airborne EM responses. We find that the singularity of the impulse responses of EM systems at very early time that are used in the convolution is responsible for the instability of the modeling (Fig.1). Based on this finding, we put forward an algorithm that uses step response rather than impulse response of the airborne EM system for the convolution and create a stable algorithm that delivers precise results and maintains well the integral/derivative relationship between the magnetic field B and the magnetic induction dB/dt. A three-step transformation procedure for the modeling is proposed: 1) output the frequency-domain EM response data from the existing software; 2) transform into step-response by digital Fourier/Hankel transform; 3) convolve the step response with the transmitting current or its derivatives. The method has proved to be working very well (Fig. 2). The algorithm can be extended to the modeling of other time-domain ground and airborne EM system responses.Fig. 1: Comparison of impulse and step responses for an airborne EM system Fig. 2: Bz and dBz/dt calculated from step (middle panel) and impulse responses (lower panel) for the same 3D model as in Fig.1.

  6. EM-54 Technology Development In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. EM manages remediation of all DOE sites as well as wastes from current operations. The goal of the EM program is to minimize risks to human health, safety and the environment, and to bring all DOE sites into compliance with Federal, state, and local regulations by 2019. EM-50 is charged with developing new technologies that are safer, more effective and less expensive than current methods. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (the subject of this report) is part of EM-541, the Environmental Restoration Research and Development Division of EM-54. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: Significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces; in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP tends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years.

  7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Ohio EMS Providers: A Statewide Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Robert C; Hoet, Armando E; Bell, Christopher; Kelley, Christina; Lu, Bo; Anderson, Sarah E; Stevenson, Kurt B

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine the nasal carriage prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among emergency medical service (EMS) personnel and the associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Ohio EMS personnel randomly sampled from 84 urban and rural agencies. Surveys assessing demographics, occupational history, health, cohabitation status, and hygiene practice were collected with nasal swabs from those who enrolled. Survey weight adjusted analysis was performed (1) to estimate MRSA nasal carriage prevalence of Ohio EMS providers, and (2) to identify variables associated with MRSA. MRSA was detected in 4.6% (13/280) EMS personnel sampled. After employing a survey-weighted analysis the following risk factors associated with MRSA carriage were identified: those who did not practice frequent hand hygiene after glove use (OR, 10.51; 95% CI, 2.54-43.45; P = 0.0012), living with someone with a recent staphylococcal infection (OR, 9.02; 95% CI, 1.03-78.98; P = 0.0470), and individuals with low frequency of hand washing (< 8 times per shift) (OR, 4.20; 95% CI 1.02-17.27; P = 0.0468). An additional risk factor identified through the logistic regression analysis on the study population was EMS workers with an open wound or skin infection (OR, 6.75; 95% CI, 1.25-36.36; P = 0.0262). However, this was not significant in the survey-weighted analysis. The high prevalence of MRSA in Ohio EMS personnel is both an occupational hazard and patient safety concern. Implementing methods to reinforce CDC guidelines for proper hygiene could decrease MRSA found in the EMS setting. Previous literature suggests that a reduction in MRSA colonization can lead to decreases in transmission and improved health for both patients and personnel.

  8. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  9. Assessing the environmental performance of construction materials testing using EMS: An Australian study.

    PubMed

    Dejkovski, Nick

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the audit findings of the waste management practices at 30 construction materials testing (CMT) laboratories (constituting 4.6% of total accredited CMT laboratories at the time of the audit) that operate in four Australian jurisdictions and assesses the organisation's Environmental Management System (EMS) for indicators of progress towards sustainable development (SD). In Australia, waste indicators are 'priority indicators' of environmental performance yet the quality and availability of waste data is poor. National construction and demolition waste (CDW) data estimates are not fully disaggregated and the contribution of CMT waste (classified as CDW) to the national total CDW landfill burden is difficult to quantify. The environmental and human impacts of anthropogenic release of hazardous substances contained in CMT waste into the ecosphere can be measured by construing waste indicators from the EMS. An analytical framework for evaluating the EMS is developed to elucidate CMT waste indicators and assess these indicators against the principle of proportionality. Assessing against this principle allows for: objective evaluations of whether the environmental measures prescribed in the EMS are 'proportionate' to the 'desired' (subjective) level of protection chosen by decision-makers; and benchmarking CMT waste indicators against aspirational CDW targets set by each Australian jurisdiction included in the audit. Construed together, the EMS derived waste indicators and benchmark data provide a composite indicator of environmental performance and progress towards SD. The key audit findings indicate: CMT laboratories have a 'poor' environmental performance (and overall progress towards SD) when EMS waste data are converted into indicator scores and assessed against the principle of proportionality; CMT waste recycling targets are lower when benchmarked against jurisdictional CDW waste recovery targets; and no significant difference in the average

  10. Immune protection of microneme 7 (EmMIC7) against Eimeria maxima challenge in chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Menghui; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, the immune protective effects of recombinant microneme protein 7 of Eimeria maxima (rEmMIC7) and a DNA vaccine encoding this antigen (pVAX1-EmMIC7) on experimental challenge were evaluated. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. Experimental groups of chickens were immunized with 100 μg DNA vaccine pVAX1-MIC7 or 200 μg rEmMIC7, while control groups of chickens were injected with pVAX1 plasmid or sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results showed that the anti-EmMIC7 antibody titres in chickens of both rEmMIC7 and pVAX1-MIC7 groups were significantly higher as compared to PBS and pVAX1 control (P < .05). The splenocytes from both vaccinated groups of chickens displayed significantly greater proliferation response compared with the controls (P < .05). Serum from chickens immunized with pVAX1-MIC7 and rEmMIC7 displayed significantly high levels of interleukin-2, interferon-γ, IL-10, IL-17, tumour growth factor-β and IL-4 (P < .05) compared to those of negative controls. The challenge experiment results showed that both the recombinant antigen and the DNA vaccine could obviously alleviate jejunum lesions, body weight loss and enhance oocyst decrease ratio. The anti-coccidial index (ACI) of the pVAX1-MIC7 group was 167.84, higher than that of the recombinant MIC7 protein group, 167.10. Our data suggested that immunization with EmMIC7 was effective in imparting partial protection against E. maxima challenge in chickens and it could be an effective antigen candidate for the development of new vaccines against E. maxima.

  11. National Prehospital Evidence-Based Guidelines Strategy: A Summary for EMS Stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gill, Christian; Gaither, Joshua B; Bigham, Blair L; Myers, J Brent; Kupas, Douglas F; Spaite, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    Multiple national organizations have recommended and supported a national investment to increase the scientific evidence available to guide patient care delivered by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and incorporate that evidence directly into EMS systems. Ongoing efforts seek to develop, implement, and evaluate prehospital evidence-based guidelines (EBGs) using the National Model Process created by a multidisciplinary panel of experts convened by the Federal Interagency Committee on EMS (FICEMS) and the National EMS Advisory Council (NEMSAC). Yet, these and other EBG efforts have occurred in relative isolation, with limited direct collaboration between national projects, and have experienced challenges in implementation of individual guidelines. There is a need to develop sustainable relationships among stakeholders that facilitate a common vision that facilitates EBG efforts. Herein, we summarize a National Strategy on EBGs developed by the National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP) with involvement of 57 stakeholder organizations, and with the financial support of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the EMS for Children program. The Strategy proposes seven action items that support collaborative efforts in advancing prehospital EBGs. The first proposed action is creation of a Prehospital Guidelines Consortium (PGC) representing national medical and EMS organizations that have an interest in prehospital EBGs and their benefits to patient outcomes. Other action items include promoting research that supports creation and evaluates the impact of EBGs, promoting the development of new EBGs through improved stakeholder collaboration, and improving education on evidence-based medicine for all prehospital providers. The Strategy intends to facilitate implementation of EBGs by improving guideline dissemination and incorporation into protocols, and seeks to establish standardized evaluation methods for prehospital EBGs. Finally, the Strategy

  12. Overexpression of OsEm1 encoding a group I LEA protein confers enhanced drought tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Lai, Yongmin; Wu, Xi; Wu, Gang; Guo, Changkui

    2016-09-16

    Drought is the greatest threat for crops, including rice. In an effort to identify rice genes responsible for drought tolerance, a drought-responsive gene OsEm1 encoding a group I LEA protein, was chosen for this study. OsEm1 was shown at vegetative stages to be responsive to various abiotic stresses, including drought, salt, cold and the hormone ABA. In this study, we generated OsEm1-overexpressing rice plants to explore the function of OsEm1 under drought conditions. Overexpression of OsEm1 increases ABA sensitivity and enhances osmotic tolerance in rice. Compared with wild type, the OsEm1-overexpressing rice plants showed enhanced plant survival ratio at the vegetative stage; moreover, over expression of OsEm1 in rice increased the expression of other LEA genes, including RAB16A, RAB16C, RAB21, and LEA3, likely protecting organ integrity against harsh environments. Interestingly, the elevated level of OsEm1 had no different phenotype compared with wild type under normal condition. Our findings suggest that OsEm1 is a positive regulator of drought tolerance and is potentially promising for engineering drought tolerance in rice.

  13. Rock 'Em, Sock 'Em!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2011-01-01

    K-12-level competitive robotics is growing in popularity around the country and worldwide. According to one of the leading organizers of these events, FIRST--For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology--250,000 students from 56 countries take part in its competitions. FIRST Tech Challenge (FTC) is a yearly event the organization puts…

  14. Does contamination buildup limit throughput for automated cryoEM?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Anchi; Fellmann, Denis; Pulokas, James; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget

    2006-06-01

    The development of automated systems for data acquisition in cryo electron microscopy has enabled the possibility of acquiring very large number of images from a single specimen grid. We have demonstrated that over images of 250,000 single particles can be acquired in a 24 h period. This has raised questions as to whether contamination buildup on the specimen limits the quality of the data that can be acquired during these long duration experiments and also whether the data acquisition session could be extended to allow acquisition of more than 1,000,000 particles. We report here a systematic characterization of contamination of specimens maintained for long periods of time at liquid nitrogen temperatures using standard side entry cryo stages. As part of this characterization we developed a more reliable method for accurately estimating specimen ice thickness. Using the method, we were able to calibrate image contrast against ice thickness under a variety of magnifications, objective aperture positions, and defoci, and demonstrated the strong dependence of the calibration curve on these parameters. The results show the anti-contamination aperture is, as expected, critical to the prevention of contamination and that loading film into the microscope dramatically increases the contamination rate, particularly in the first 3 h after the insertion of the film box. In the absence of film, we were able to reproducibly demonstrate that the contamination rate can be limited to a rate of approximately 1 angstrom/h providing reassurance that contamination will not be a major limiting factor for long term cryoEM experiments if a CCD camera is used for the imaging.

  15. Elimination of error factors, affecting EM and seismic inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct

  16. Pre-flight risk assessment in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Emergency Medical Service (EMS) industry has been the subject of several television and newspaper articles (Harvey and Jensen, 1987) which emphasized the negative aspects, (e.g., fatalities and high accident rates), rather than the life saving services performed. Until recently, the accident rate of the EMS industry has been five times as high as that of other civil helicopters. This high accident rate has been coupled with the dramatic rise in the number of programs. The industry has built from a single service at its inception in 1972, to over 180 in 1987 (Spray, 1987), to the point that 93 percent of the contiguous U.S. is now covered by some type of EMS service. These factors prompted the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) to study the accidents that occurred between May 11, 1978 and December 3, 1986 (NTSB, 1988). The NTSB report concluded that 'Sound pilot judgment is central to safe flight operations.' They further stated that '... factors unique to EMS helicopter operations--such as the influence of the mission itself, program competition, and EMS program management perspectives--can drastically influence pilot judgment during the EMS mission.' One of the most difficult decisions that a pilot must make is whether to accept or decline a mission. A pre-flight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed at NASA-Ames Research Center for civil EMS operations to aid pilots in making this decision objectively. The ability of the SAFE system to predict mission risk profiles was tested at an EMS facility. The results of this field study demonstrated that the usefulness of SAFE was highly dependent on the type of mission flown. SAFE is now being modified so that it can 'learn' with each mission flown. For example, after flying a mission to a particular site, an EMS pilot would input information about this mission into the system, such as new buildings, wires, or approach procedures. Then, the next time a pilot flew a similar mission or one to the same

  17. Incubator embedded cell culture imaging system (EmSight) based on Fourier ptychographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; Lester, Henry A; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-08-01

    Multi-day tracking of cells in culture systems can provide valuable information in bioscience experiments. We report the development of a cell culture imaging system, named EmSight, which incorporates multiple compact Fourier ptychographic microscopes with a standard multiwell imaging plate. The system is housed in an incubator and presently incorporates six microscopes. By using the same low magnification objective lenses as the objective and the tube lens, the EmSight is configured as a 1:1 imaging system that, providing large field-of-view (FOV) imaging onto a low-cost CMOS imaging sensor. The EmSight improves the image resolution by capturing a series of images of the sample at varying illumination angles; the instrument reconstructs a higher-resolution image by using the iterative Fourier ptychographic algorithm. In addition to providing high-resolution brightfield and phase imaging, the EmSight is also capable of fluorescence imaging at the native resolution of the objectives. We characterized the system using a phase Siemens star target, and show four-fold improved coherent resolution (synthetic NA of 0.42) and a depth of field of 0.2 mm. To conduct live, long-term dopaminergic neuron imaging, we cultured ventral midbrain from mice driving eGFP from the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. The EmSight system tracks movements of dopaminergic neurons over a 21 day period.

  18. dbEM: A database of epigenetic modifiers curated from cancerous and normal genomes.

    PubMed

    Singh Nanda, Jagpreet; Kumar, Rahul; Raghava, Gajendra P S

    2016-01-18

    We have developed a database called dbEM (database of Epigenetic Modifiers) to maintain the genomic information of about 167 epigenetic modifiers/proteins, which are considered as potential cancer targets. In dbEM, modifiers are classified on functional basis and comprise of 48 histone methyl transferases, 33 chromatin remodelers and 31 histone demethylases. dbEM maintains the genomic information like mutations, copy number variation and gene expression in thousands of tumor samples, cancer cell lines and healthy samples. This information is obtained from public resources viz. COSMIC, CCLE and 1000-genome project. Gene essentiality data retrieved from COLT database further highlights the importance of various epigenetic proteins for cancer survival. We have also reported the sequence profiles, tertiary structures and post-translational modifications of these epigenetic proteins in cancer. It also contains information of 54 drug molecules against different epigenetic proteins. A wide range of tools have been integrated in dbEM e.g. Search, BLAST, Alignment and Profile based prediction. In our analysis, we found that epigenetic proteins DNMT3A, HDAC2, KDM6A, and TET2 are highly mutated in variety of cancers. We are confident that dbEM will be very useful in cancer research particularly in the field of epigenetic proteins based cancer therapeutics. This database is available for public at URL: http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/dbem.

  19. Single-Particle Cryo-EM of the Ryanodine Receptor Channel in an Aqueous Environment

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Mariah R.; Fan, Guizhen

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated Ca2+ release channels that are responsible for the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration leading to muscle contraction. Our current understanding of RyR channel gating and regulation is greatly limited due to the lack of a high-resolution structure of the channel protein. The enormous size and unwieldy shape of Ca2+ release channels make X-ray or NMR methods difficult to apply for high-resolution structural analysis of the full-length functional channel. Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is one of the only effective techniques for the study of such a large integral membrane protein and its molecular interactions. Despite recent developments in cryo-EM technologies and break-through single-particle cryo-EM studies of ion channels, cryospecimen preparation, particularly the presence of detergent in the buffer, remains the main impediment to obtaining atomic-resolution structures of ion channels and a multitude of other integral membrane protein complexes. In this review we will discuss properties of several detergents that have been successfully utilized in cryo-EM studies of ion channels and the emergence of the detergent alternative amphipol to stabilize ion channels for structure-function characterization. Future structural studies of challenging specimen like ion channels are likely to be facilitated by cryo-EM amenable detergents or alternative surfactants. PMID:26913144

  20. Single-particle cryo-EM of the ryanodine receptor channel in an aqueous environment

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Mariah R.; Fan, Guizhen; Serysheva, Irina I.

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated Ca2+ release channels that are responsible for the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration leading to muscle contraction. Our current understanding of RyR channel gating and regulation is greatly limited due to the lack of a high-resolution structure of the channel protein. The enormous size and unwieldy shape of Ca2+ release channels make X-ray or NMR methods difficult to apply for high-resolution structural analysis of the full-length functional channel. Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is one of the only effective techniques for the study of such a large integral membrane protein and its molecular interactions. Despite recent developments in cryo-EM technologies and break-through single-particle cryo-EM studies of ion channels, cryospecimen preparation, particularly the presence of detergent in the buffer, remains the main impediment to obtaining atomic-resolution structures of ion channels and a multitude of other integral membrane protein complexes. In this review we will discuss properties of several detergents that have been successfully utilized in cryo-EM studies of ion channels and the emergence of the detergent alternative amphipol to stabilize ion channels for structure-function characterization. Future structural studies of challenging specimen like ion channels are likely to be facilitated by cryo-EM amenable detergents or alternative surfactants. PMID:25844145

  1. dbEM: A database of epigenetic modifiers curated from cancerous and normal genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Nanda, Jagpreet; Kumar, Rahul; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a database called dbEM (database of Epigenetic Modifiers) to maintain the genomic information of about 167 epigenetic modifiers/proteins, which are considered as potential cancer targets. In dbEM, modifiers are classified on functional basis and comprise of 48 histone methyl transferases, 33 chromatin remodelers and 31 histone demethylases. dbEM maintains the genomic information like mutations, copy number variation and gene expression in thousands of tumor samples, cancer cell lines and healthy samples. This information is obtained from public resources viz. COSMIC, CCLE and 1000-genome project. Gene essentiality data retrieved from COLT database further highlights the importance of various epigenetic proteins for cancer survival. We have also reported the sequence profiles, tertiary structures and post-translational modifications of these epigenetic proteins in cancer. It also contains information of 54 drug molecules against different epigenetic proteins. A wide range of tools have been integrated in dbEM e.g. Search, BLAST, Alignment and Profile based prediction. In our analysis, we found that epigenetic proteins DNMT3A, HDAC2, KDM6A, and TET2 are highly mutated in variety of cancers. We are confident that dbEM will be very useful in cancer research particularly in the field of epigenetic proteins based cancer therapeutics. This database is available for public at URL: http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/dbem.

  2. Incubator embedded cell culture imaging system (EmSight) based on Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinho; Henley, Beverley M.; Kim, Charlene H.; Lester, Henry A.; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-01-01

    Multi-day tracking of cells in culture systems can provide valuable information in bioscience experiments. We report the development of a cell culture imaging system, named EmSight, which incorporates multiple compact Fourier ptychographic microscopes with a standard multiwell imaging plate. The system is housed in an incubator and presently incorporates six microscopes. By using the same low magnification objective lenses as the objective and the tube lens, the EmSight is configured as a 1:1 imaging system that, providing large field-of-view (FOV) imaging onto a low-cost CMOS imaging sensor. The EmSight improves the image resolution by capturing a series of images of the sample at varying illumination angles; the instrument reconstructs a higher-resolution image by using the iterative Fourier ptychographic algorithm. In addition to providing high-resolution brightfield and phase imaging, the EmSight is also capable of fluorescence imaging at the native resolution of the objectives. We characterized the system using a phase Siemens star target, and show four-fold improved coherent resolution (synthetic NA of 0.42) and a depth of field of 0.2 mm. To conduct live, long-term dopaminergic neuron imaging, we cultured ventral midbrain from mice driving eGFP from the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. The EmSight system tracks movements of dopaminergic neurons over a 21 day period. PMID:27570701

  3. Cryo-EM studies of the structure and dynamics of vacuolar-type ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T.; Rubinstein, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has significantly advanced our understanding of molecular structure in biology. Recent innovations in both hardware and software have made cryo-EM a viable alternative for targets that are not amenable to x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cryo-EM has even become the method of choice in some situations where x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are possible but where cryo-EM can determine structures at higher resolution or with less time or effort. Rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are crucial to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. These enzymes couple the synthesis or hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to the use or production of a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient, respectively. However, the membrane-embedded nature and conformational heterogeneity of intact rotary ATPases have prevented their high-resolution structural analysis to date. Recent application of cryo-EM methods to the different types of rotary ATPase has led to sudden advances in understanding the structure and function of these enzymes, revealing significant conformational heterogeneity and characteristic transmembrane α helices that are highly tilted with respect to the membrane. In this Review, we will discuss what has been learned recently about rotary ATPase structure and function, with a particular focus on the vacuolar-type ATPases. PMID:27532044

  4. Facility location: a review of context-free and EMS models.

    PubMed Central

    ReVelle, C; Bigman, D; Schilling, D; Cohon, J; Church, R

    1977-01-01

    EMS location models are those formulated to address specific problems of emergency medical services systems; context-free location models are those developed without reference to particular applications. The literature on these two types of public facility location models is reviewed, and the development of the maximal covering model from several earlier context-free models is described, with emphasis on problem statements and articulation of service objectives. An application of the maximal covering model to fire truck location points up the ability of this model to handle multiple objectives; its ability to compare alternative solutions gives it great utility for planning and evaluating EMS systems of a wide range of complexity. Potential applications of the maximal covering model are discussed regarding EMS problems involving multiple time standards and service objectives, location of special equipment, and siting of fixed facilities. PMID:885725

  5. Physics-based simulation of EM and SM in TSV-based 3D IC structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kteyan, Armen; Sukharev, Valeriy; Zschech, Ehrenfried

    2014-06-19

    Evolution of stresses in through-silicon-vias (TSVs) and in the TSV landing pad due to the stress migration (SM) and electromigration (EM) phenomena are considered. It is shown that an initial stress distribution existing in a TSV depends on its architecture and copper fill technology. We demonstrate that in the case of proper copper annealing the SM-induced redistribution of atoms results in uniform distributions of the hydrostatic stress and concentration of vacancies along each segment. In this case, applied EM stressing generates atom migration that is characterized by kinetics depending on the preexisting equilibrium concentration of vacancies. Stress-induced voiding in TSV is considered. EM induced voiding in TSV landing pad is analyzed in details.

  6. Genome Sequence of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica EM1, Isolated from a Patient with a Bloodstream Infection

    PubMed Central

    Soehnlen, Marty; Walker, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    Elizabethkingia meningoseptica EM1 was isolated from a whole-blood sample from a female patient. The draft genome sequence of Em1 contains 4,038,467 bp, with a G+C content of 36.37%. A preliminary genome analysis showed that Em1 contains genes conferring resistance to β-lactams. The bacterium has hemolysin genes and a set of genes involved in heme uptake and heme utilization, showing its potential to cause bloodstream infections. A clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) system was identified. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis assigned the bacterium to the species E. meningoseptica (ANI, >95%). The annotated genome sequence provides the genetic basis for revealing its role as a pathogen in humans. PMID:27789634

  7. Fabs enable single particle cryoEM studies of small proteins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shenping; Avila-Sakar, Agustin; Kim, JungMin; Booth, David S; Greenberg, Charles H; Rossi, Andrea; Liao, Maofu; Li, Xueming; Alian, Akram; Griner, Sarah L; Juge, Narinobu; Yu, Yadong; Mergel, Claudia M; Chaparro-Riggers, Javier; Strop, Pavel; Tampé, Robert; Edwards, Robert H; Stroud, Robert M; Craik, Charles S; Cheng, Yifan

    2012-04-04

    In spite of its recent achievements, the technique of single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) has not been widely used to study proteins smaller than 100 kDa, although it is a highly desirable application of this technique. One fundamental limitation is that images of small proteins embedded in vitreous ice do not contain adequate features for accurate image alignment. We describe a general strategy to overcome this limitation by selecting a fragment antigen binding (Fab) to form a stable and rigid complex with a target protein, thus providing a defined feature for accurate image alignment. Using this approach, we determined a three-dimensional structure of an ∼65 kDa protein by single particle cryoEM. Because Fabs can be readily generated against a wide range of proteins by phage display, this approach is generally applicable to study many small proteins by single particle cryoEM.

  8. Direct and indirect measures of speech articulator motions using low power EM sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T; Burnett, G; Gable, T; Holzrichter, J F; Ng, L

    1999-05-12

    Low power Electromagnetic (EM) Wave sensors can measure general properties of human speech articulator motions, as speech is produced. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). Experiments have demonstrated extremely accurate pitch measurements (< 1 Hz per pitch cycle) and accurate onset of voiced speech. Recent measurements of pressure-induced tracheal motions enable very good spectra and amplitude estimates of a voiced excitation function. The use of the measured excitation functions and pitch synchronous processing enable the determination of each pitch cycle of an accurate transfer function and, indirectly, of the corresponding articulator motions. In addition, direct measurements have been made of EM wave reflections from articulator interfaces, including jaw, tongue, and palate, simultaneously with acoustic and glottal open/close signals. While several types of EM sensors are suitable for speech articulator measurements, the homodyne sensor has been found to provide good spatial and temporal resolution for several applications.

  9. Robust estimation for class averaging in cryo-EM Single Particle Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenxi; Tagare, Hemant D

    2014-01-01

    Single Particle Reconstruction (SPR) for Cryogenic Electron Microscopy (cryo-EM) aligns and averages the images extracted from micrographs to improve the Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR). Outliers compromise the fidelity of the averaging. We propose a robust cross-correlation-like w-estimator for combating the effect of outliers on the average images in cryo-EM. The estimator accounts for the natural variation of signal contrast among the images and eliminates the need for a threshold for outlier rejection. We show that the influence function of our estimator is asymptotically bounded. Evaluations of the estimator on simulated and real cryo-EM images show good performance in the presence of outliers.

  10. Network Analysis of Students' Representation Use in Mechanics and E&M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPadden, Daryl; Brewe, Eric

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the representational tools that students in the Modeling Instruction-Introductory E&M (MI-E&M) course use on introductory physics problems. Representational competence is a critical skill needed for students to develop and communicate a sophisticated understanding of science topics, particularly in physics where multiple representations are often used within a single problem. The Modeling Instruction curriculum highlights representation development as a part of the modeling process, making the MI-E&M course a rich context to collect data. In the Spring 2015 and Spring 2016 semesters, over 150 students total (from 3 sections of MI-E&M) were given a survey of 25 physics problem statements both pre- and post- instruction, covering both Newtonian Mechanics and Electricity and Magnetism (E&M), and asked which representations they would use in that given situation. Using network analysis, we compare how students use representations in Mechanics and E&M contexts.

  11. EM algorithm applied for estimating non-stationary region boundaries using electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khambampati, A. K.; Rashid, A.; Kim, B. S.; Liu, Dong; Kim, S.; Kim, K. Y.

    2010-04-01

    EIT has been used for the dynamic estimation of organ boundaries. One specific application in this context is the estimation of lung boundaries during pulmonary circulation. This would help track the size and shape of lungs of the patients suffering from diseases like pulmonary edema and acute respiratory failure (ARF). The dynamic boundary estimation of the lungs can also be utilized to set and control the air volume and pressure delivered to the patients during artificial ventilation. In this paper, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is used as an inverse algorithm to estimate the non-stationary lung boundary. The uncertainties caused in Kalman-type filters due to inaccurate selection of model parameters are overcome using EM algorithm. Numerical experiments using chest shaped geometry are carried out with proposed method and the performance is compared with extended Kalman filter (EKF). Results show superior performance of EM in estimation of the lung boundary.

  12. A comparative study of the PIFA and printed monopole antenna EM absorption.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Ikbal; Iqbal Faruque, Mohammad Rashed; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

    2017-02-01

    This paper represents a comparative study on electromagnetic (EM) absorption in the human head between a printed monopole antenna and a planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA). The specific absorption rate (SAR) values and total absorbed power in the human head phantom are used to evaluate EM absorption for both antennae. Moreover, antenna performances in terms of return loss, radiation efficiency, and gain are also investigated in this study. The finite integration technique (FIT) based on CST Microwave studio and SAM head phantom are used in this study. The antenna performances are measured in an anechoic chamber and the SAR is tested using COMOSAR measurement system. The obtained results indicate that the printed monopole antenna lead to higher EM absorption in the human head as compared to PIFA for both GSM frequencies.

  13. Next-Generation Sequencing for Identification of EMS-Induced Mutations in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Lehrbach, Nicolas J; Ji, Fei; Sadreyev, Ruslan

    2017-01-05

    Forward genetic analysis using chemical mutagenesis in model organisms is a powerful tool for investigation of molecular mechanisms in biological systems. In the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, mutagenesis screens using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) have led to important insights into genetic control of animal development and physiology. A major bottleneck to this approach is identification of the causative mutation underlying a phenotype of interest. In the past, this has required time-consuming genetic mapping experiments. More recently, next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed development of new methods for rapid mapping and identification of EMS-induced lesions. In this unit we describe a protocol to map and identify EMS-induced mutations in C. elegans. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. EM Safety Innovations Aim Toward Safer Technologies and Better Information for Users

    SciTech Connect

    Lankford, M.; Geiger, J.; Carpenter, C.

    2002-02-26

    Beginning in 2000, the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Science and Technology (OST) has substantially re-examined and improved our approach to worker safety and health. Consistent with OST's responsibilities for safety, these initiatives can be categorized generally as: (1) Making our technologies inherently safer to use; and (2) Providing useful safety and health information about our technologies to the sites and technology operators. This evolved through a collaborative process by the EM Office of Safety, Health and Security, the EM Office of Science and Technology, EM Focus Areas and others. It was, initially, largely in response to a set of eight recommendations by the Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB) and to lessons learned from a serious accident in August, 2000 involving an OST-funded new technology. The cornerstone of this effort is the Policy for Occupational Safety and Health in EM's Science and Technology Program, issued in January 2001. DOE Focus Areas are focusing more attention on worker safety and health in their solicitations and procurement documents for new technology research and development (R&D) projects. EM Headquarters is working with Focus Areas, site environmental contractors, technology developers, and their respective DOE field organizations to ensure that roles and responsibilities for worker safety and health are clearly defined when a new technology is demonstrated at an environmental management site. The peer review process administered by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) now requires technology developers to think through their approach to safety and health in a more detailed, focused way than previously. In Innovative Technology Summary Reports (ITSRs), developers are comparing their new technologies to baseline technologies on the basis of safety and health. Technology Safety Data Sheets (TSDSs) are being prepared for new technologies when they reach the

  15. Mass Gathering Medical Care: Resource Document for the National Association of EMS Physicians Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Brian; Nafziger, Sarah; Milsten, Andrew; Luk, Jeffrey; Yancey, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Mass gatherings are heterogeneous in terms of size, duration, type of event, crowd behavior, demographics of the participants and spectators, use of recreational substances, weather, and environment. The goals of health and medical services should be the provision of care for participants and spectators consistent with local standards of care, protection of continuing medical service to the populations surrounding the event venue, and preparation for surge to respond to extraordinary events. Pre-event planning among jurisdictional public health and EMS, acute care hospitals, and event EMS is essential, but should also include, at a minimum, event security services, public relations, facility maintenance, communications technicians, and the event planners and organizers. Previous documented experience with similar events has been shown to most accurately predict future needs. Future work in and guidance for mass gathering medical care should include the consistent use and further development of universally accepted consistent metrics, such as Patient Presentation Rate and Transfer to Hospital Rate. Only by standardizing data collection can evaluations be performed that link interventions with outcomes to enhance evidence-based EMS services at mass gatherings. Research is needed to evaluate the skills and interventions required by EMS providers to achieve desired outcomes. The event-dedicated EMS Medical Director is integral to acceptable quality medical care provided at mass gatherings; hence, he/she must be included in all aspects of mass gathering medical care planning, preparations, response, and recovery. Incorporation of jurisdictional EMS and community hospital medical leadership, and emergency practitioners into these processes will ensure that on-site care, transport, and transition to acute care at appropriate receiving facilities is consistent with, and fully integrated into the community's medical care system, while fulfilling the needs of event

  16. Influence of motivations for seeking ISO 14001 certification on perceptions of EMS effectiveness in China.

    PubMed

    Fryxell, Gerald E; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Chung, Shan Shan

    2004-02-01

    This study examines the motivations of mainland Chinese facilities in seeking ISO 14001 certification and examines the linkages between these motivations and self-reports of the effectiveness of major environmental management system (EMS) components. In a sample of 128 facilities in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, the main drivers for certification were reported to be to ensure regulatory compliance, to enhance the firm's reputation, and to improve environmental performance, in that order. Although motivation to achieve cost reductions were least emphasized, a broad range of motivations appears to be considered in the decision to seek certification to ISO 14001. Regression models linking these motivations to the EMS components suggests that internal motivations have an influence on most EMS components. One interesting exception to this, however, is that no significant relationship was observed between internal motivations and the promulgation of environmental objectives and targets. The relationships associated with external motivations for certification (i.e., those in response to customer and other stakeholder pressures) and EMS components, on the other hand, are weaker and tend to occur earlier in the process cycle. No significant relationships were found between motivations to reduce costs and perceptions of the effectiveness of EMS components. Overall, these findings suggest that ISO 14001, as currently being implemented in mainland China, may have a modestly useful role when used in combination with other policy mechanisms to move the Chinese economy toward more sustainable practices. It is asserted that the ISO standard could provide even greater benefits if Chinese registrars were more proactive in developing EMS in conjunction with even more rigorous third-party audits.

  17. Análise da medição do raio solar em ultravioleta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, A. C. V.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Costa, J. E. R.; Selhorst, C. L.; Simões, P. J. A.

    2003-08-01

    A medição acurada do raio solar em qualquer banda do espectro eletromagnético é de relevância na formulação e calibração de modelos da estrutura e atmosfera solar. Esses modelos atribuem emissão do contínuo do Sol calmo em microondas à mesma região da linha Ha do Hell. Apresentamos a medição do raio solar em UV com imagens do EIT (Extreme Ultraviolet Image Telescope) entre 1996 e 2002, no comprimento de onda 30,9 nm (Ha do Hell), que se forma na região de transição/cromosfera solar. A técnica utilizada para o cálculo do raio UV foi baseada na transformada Wavelet B3spline. Fizemos um banco de dados com 1 imagem por dia durante o período citado. Obtivemos como resultado o raio médio da ordem de 975.61" e uma diminuição do mesmo para o período citado variando em média -0,45" /ano. Comparamos estes dados com os valores obtidos pelo ROI (Radio Observatório de Itapetinga) em 22/48 GHz e Nobeyama Radio Heliograph em 17 GHz mostrando que os raios médios são muito próximos o que indica que a região de formação nessas freqüências é a mesma conforme os modelos. Comparamos os resultados também com outros índices de atividade solar.

  18. Recidivism Among Licensed-Released Prisoners Who Participated in the EM Program in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shoham, Efrat; Yehosha-Stern, Shirley; Efodi, Rotem

    2015-08-01

    Toward the end of 2006, a pilot program was launched in Israel wherein licensed-released prisoners were put under electronic monitoring (EM). In addition to EM, the pilot program, operated by the Prisoners' Rehabilitation Authority, provides programs of occupational supervision and personal therapy and is designed to allow for early release of those prisoners who, without increased supervision, would have been found unsuitable for early release. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether participation in the EM program among licensed-released prisoners in Israel might bring about lessened recidivism. For that matter, rates of arrests and incarceration were examined during a follow-up period of up to 4 years, among the entirety of licensed-released prisoners participating in the EM program between the years 2007 and 2009 (n = 155). To compare recidivism rates, a control group was assembled from among the entirety of released prisoners who were found unsuitable for early release in judicial conditions, and had therefore served the full term of their incarceration, to be released between the years 2005 and 2006 (a period of time during which an EM program was not yet operated among licensed-released prisoners in Israel). Study findings clearly show that while among the control group, 42% of released prisoners were re-incarcerated, at the end of a 4-year follow-up period, only 15% among the study group had returned to prison. These findings can be explained by combining the Social Control theory and the Self-Control theory which consider the period of time under EM program and the occupational and familial integration tools for reducing criminal connections and enhancing pro-social behavior.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Elizabethkingia anophelis Strain EM361-97 Isolated from the Blood of a Cancer Patient

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Yang, Chih-Hui; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Huang, Yi-Han

    2016-01-01

    Elizabethkingia anophelis EM361-97 was isolated from the blood of a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and lung cancer. We report the draft genome sequence of EM361-97, which contains a G+C content of 35.7% and 3,611 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:27789647

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Elizabethkingia anophelis Strain EM361-97 Isolated from the Blood of a Cancer Patient.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Yang, Chih-Hui; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Huang, Yi-Han; Lin, Hsi-Hsun

    2016-10-27

    Elizabethkingia anophelis EM361-97 was isolated from the blood of a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and lung cancer. We report the draft genome sequence of EM361-97, which contains a G+C content of 35.7% and 3,611 candidate protein-encoding genes.