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Sample records for acari tarsonemidae sobre

  1. Three new species of Xenotarsonemus (Acari: Tarsonemidae) from the northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pitton, Thafarel; Lofego, Antonio C; Rezende, José M

    2016-07-18

    Three new species of Xenotarsonemus Beer (Acari, Tarsonemidae), X. demitei n. sp., X. kaingang n. sp. and X. luziae n. sp., are described based on specimens collected from plants in native vegetation in the northwestern region of the São Paulo State, Brazil.

  2. Three new species of Xenotarsonemus (Acari: Tarsonemidae) from the northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pitton, Thafarel; Lofego, Antonio C; Rezende, José M

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Xenotarsonemus Beer (Acari, Tarsonemidae), X. demitei n. sp., X. kaingang n. sp. and X. luziae n. sp., are described based on specimens collected from plants in native vegetation in the northwestern region of the São Paulo State, Brazil. PMID:27470778

  3. New species of Daidalotarsonemus and Excelsotarsonemus (Acari, Tarsonemidae) from the Brazilian rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Rezende, José Marcos; Lofego, Antonio Carlos; Ochoa, Ronald; Bauchan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Tarsonemidae, Daidalotarsonemus oliveirai Rezende, Lofego & Ochoa, sp. n., Excelsotarsonemus caravelis Rezende, Lofego & Ochoa, sp. n. and Excelsotarsonemus tupi Rezende, Lofego & Ochoa, sp. n. are described and illustrated. Measurements for these species are provided, as well as drawings, phase contrast (PC), differential interference contrast (DIC) and low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM) micrographs. Some characters, which have not been used or clearly understood, are described herein. Biological, ecological and agricultural aspects about the role of these species in the rainforest and its surrounding environment are briefly discussed. PMID:25684996

  4. Cold hardiness of the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae).

    PubMed

    Luypaert, Gil; Witters, Johan; Berkvens, Nick; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; De Riek, Jan; De Clercq, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    The cold hardiness of the broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus, a key pest in Rhododendron simsii hybrid production in northwestern Europe, was investigated in the laboratory. Survival of eggs, larvae and female adults and reproduction capacity of female P. latus were evaluated following cold exposure at 7 °C. Adult females were also exposed to temperatures of 2 and -3 °C. Further, the supercooling point and lower lethal times of adult females were determined. No eggs survived exposure to 7 °C for 17 or more days. Larval survival upon the cold treatment decreased from 53 to 13% when exposed to 7 °C for 14 and 49 days, respectively. Two-day-old adult females exposed to 7 °C for up to 42 days did not suffer significant mortality, but when returned to 25 °C their oviposition rates were lower than those of mites maintained at 25 °C. Less than 40% of females exposed for 13 days to 2 °C survived; only 20% of these females was able to reproduce upon recovery. Subzero temperatures dramatically decreased survival and reproduction capacity of adult females. The supercooling point of female adults was -16.5 °C. Median lethal times averaged 61.2 h and 9.3 days at -3 and 2 °C, respectively. In conclusion, a long term exposure (up to 6 weeks) of R. simsii plants infested with P. latus to a temperature of 7 °C, which is required for breaking dormancy of the flowers, is not expected to have detrimental effects on the survival and reproductive performance of the female mites.

  5. New species of Daidalotarsonemus and Excelsotarsonemus (Acari: Tarsonemidae) from the Brazilian rainforest including new morphological characters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new species, Daidalotarsonemus oliveirai Rezende, Lofego & Ochoa, sp. nov.,Excelsotarsonemus caravelis Rezende, Lofego & Ochoa, sp. nov. and E. tupi Rezende, Lofego & Ochoa, sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Measurements for these species are provided, as well as drawings, phase contrast...

  6. Host preference, population growth and injuries assessment of Polyphagotarsonemus latus (banks) (ACARI: Tarsonemidae) on Capsicum annuum L. Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Breda, M O; de Oliveira, J V; Esteves Filho, A B; Barbosa, D R S; de Santana, M F

    2016-10-01

    Despite the continued efforts on the search for different genotypes, Capsicum annuum (L.) is quite susceptible to attack by pest arthropods, especially the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks. Thus, the host preference, population growth and the injuries assessment of P. latus was studied on six C. annuum genotypes used in Brazil (Atlantis, California Wonder, Impact, Palloma, Rubia and Tendence). Host preference was accessed in choice tests, pairing the several genotypes, and the population growth was observed through non-choice tests in laboratory. The injuries assessments were evaluated in the greenhouse, comparing the injury level among the six genotypes. The results indicate that California Wonder and Palloma genotypes were more preferred by P. latus, and Impact and Tendence were less preferred. P. latus presented positive population growth rates (ri) on all the genotypes, however, Palloma and California Wonder showed the highest values of population growth rate (ri = 0.344 and ri = 0.340, respectively), while Impact had the lowest value (ri = 0.281). All the evaluated C. annuum genotypes showed low tolerance to P. latus and exhibited several injuries, but there was no statistical difference between them. California Wonder had the highest average number of mites/leaf (57.15), while Impact and Tendence obtained the lowest values (36.67 and 35.12, respectively) at the end of the evaluation period. The total average of injuries notes at the end of the bioassay did not differ between the genotypes. The number of mites/leaf was growing for the injury scale to the note 3.0, but when the injury scale approached the note 4.0, there was observed a decrease in the number of mites/leaf for all the genotypes.

  7. Selection and characterization of Beauveria spp. isolates to control the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904) (Acari: Tarsonemidae).

    PubMed

    Martins, C C; Alves, L F A; Mamprim, A P; Souza, L P A

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed under laboratory conditions to identify isolates of the fungus Beauveria spp. that can control Polyphagotarsonemus latus in the greenhouse and field. Thirty Beauveria spp. isolates were tested by spraying 1 mL conidia (1 × 108 conidia/mL) on pepper leaf discs containing 15 mites. Evaluations were performed on the 3rd and 6th day post application by counting the number of dead mites. Vegetative growth and conidial production were measured from the selected isolates, and bioassays were conducted in the greenhouse on bean seedlings in plastic pots. The isolate Unioeste 53 was selected, and a conidial suspension (1 × 108 conidia/mL) was applied with a backpack sprayer. The evaluation consisted of pre- and post-treatment counts of the number of live mites on ten leaflets in both the plots treated with the fungus and control plots, and the same procedure was followed for the field experiment. In the laboratory, the Unioeste 53 isolate resulted in total and confirmed mortality rates of 70% and 57.7%, respectively. In the greenhouse, the population decreased by 76.71% by the 16th day after application. In the field, the population decreased by 66% by the 12th day after application, demonstrating the potential of this fungus for mite management. PMID:27332672

  8. Inheritance of resistance to Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae) in first-generation crosses of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Danka, R G; Villa, J D

    2000-12-01

    The tendency of honey bees, Apis mellifera L, to become infested with tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi (Rennie), was measured in six different types of F1 colonies. The colonies were produced by mating a stock (Buckfast) known to resist mite infestation to each of five commercially available stocks and to a stock known to be susceptible to mites. Young uninfested bees from progeny and parent colonies were simultaneously exposed to mites in infested colonies, then retrieved and dissected to determine resultant mite infestations. Reduced infestations similar to but numerically greater than those of the resistant parent bees occurred in each of the six crosses made with resistant bees regardless of the relative susceptibility of the other parental stock. Reciprocal crosses between resistant and susceptible queens and drones proved equally effective in improving resistance. Therefore, allowing resistant stock queens to mate naturally with unselected drones, or nonresistant queens to mate with drones produced by pure or outcrossed resistant queens, can be used for improving resistance of production queens. PMID:11142287

  9. Acari in archaeology.

    PubMed

    Baker, Anne S

    2009-10-01

    Mites and ticks (Acari) have been found in a variety of archaeological situations. Their identification has enabled data on habitat and dietary preferences to be obtained, and these have been used to interpret study sites. Despite this, Acari are not routinely considered in analyses in the way that other environmental components are. Like forensic science, archaeology draws on biological material to rebuild past human activity, and acarology has the potential to provide a much greater amount of evidence to both than is currently the case. As an aid to workers in these fields, an overview is presented of the Acari that have been extracted from archaeological samples, the situations in which they were found and the contribution their presence can make to the interpretation of sites.

  10. Inheritance of resistance to Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae) in crosses between selected resistant Russian and selected susceptible u.s. honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Villa, José D; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2008-12-01

    The pattern of inheritance of tracheal mite resistance in selected Russian bees was determined in bioassays and in samples from field colonies. Resistant colonies of Russian origin and colonies selected for high susceptibility in the United States were used to generate divergent parental populations. Seven groups of F1 colonies were produced by crossing queens and drones from these selected resistant Russian and selected susceptible populations. In a series of bioassays with young workers exposed in infested colonies, average mite abundance (female mites per worker) in F1 colonies was intermediate (1.04 +/- 0.13 [mean +/- SE]) and significantly different from that of both resistant Russian (0.74 +/- 0.13) and selected susceptible (1.57 +/- 0.13) colonies. Colonies representing the three populations were established in two apiaries in July 2005. Colonies surviving with original queens after 10 mo had mite prevalences supporting the findings of the bioassay. All three resistant colonies had undetectable mite levels, whereas prevalences in four F1 colonies ranged from 0 to 53%, and in 10 susceptible colonies ranged from 0 to 90%. Tracheal mite resistance in Russian bees is likely polygenic, but there may be a number of genes with major dominance interacting with minor genes. Use of selected Russian queens mated with Russian drones or with drones from unknown sources is beneficial for beekeeping in areas with persistent problems with tracheal mite infestation. PMID:19133453

  11. Comparative laboratory toxicity of neem pesticides to honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), their mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) and Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae), and brood pathogens Paenibacillus larvae and Ascophaera apis.

    PubMed

    Melathopoulos, A P; Winston, M L; Whittington, R; Smith, T; Lindberg, C; Mukai, A; Moore, M

    2000-04-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate neem oil and neem extract for the management of key honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pests. Neem pesticides inhibited the growth of Paenibacillus larvae (Ash, Priest & Collins) in vitro but had no effect on the growth of Ascophaera apis (Olive & Spiltoir). Azadirachtin-rich extract (neem-aza) was 10 times more potent than crude neem oil (neem oil) against P. larvae suggesting that azadirachtin is a main antibiotic component in neem. Neem-aza, however, was ineffective at controlling the honey bee mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Ouduemans) and Acarapis woodi (Rennie). Honey bees also were deterred from feeding on sucrose syrup containing > 0.01 mg/ml of neem-aza. However, neem oil applied topically to infested bees in the laboratory proved highly effective against both mite species. Approximately 50-90% V. jacobsoni mortality was observed 48 h after treatment with associated bee mortality lower than 10%. Although topically applied neem oil did not result in direct A. woodi mortality, it offered significant protection of bees from infestation by A. woodi. Other vegetable and petroleum-based oils also offered selective control of honey bee mites, suggesting neem oil has both a physical and a toxicological mode of action. Although oils are not as selective as the V. jacobsoni acaricide tau-fluvalinate, they nonetheless hold promise for the simultaneous management of several honey bee pests. PMID:10826163

  12. Mesoplophoroidea (Acari, Oribatida) of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The oribatid mite superfamily Mesoplophoroidea (Acari, Oribatida) is reviewed. Seven species in four genera of Mesoplophoroidea from China, including a new species, Mesoplophora (Mesoplophora) heterotricha sp. nov. from Hainan Province, are identified. Tritonymph of Apoplophora pantotrema (Berlese, 1913) is described based on material from China. A comprehensive, fully referenced checklist of all known species and keys to all known species worldwide are provided to facilitate the further study on this group. PMID:27394279

  13. Ontogenetic modification in the Tuckerellidae (Acari: Tetranychoidea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Tuckerellidae is the only a phytophagous family within the Tetranychoidea (Acari) that retains the ancestral prostigmatan condition of three nymphal stages during development; however it is only the female developmental sequence that retains a tritonymphal stage. Adult females develop from a tr...

  14. Cryptic speciation in the Acari: a function of species lifestyles or our ability to separate species?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 55,000 described Acari species, accounting for almost half of all known Arachnida species, but total estimated Acari diversity is reckoned to be far greater. One important source of currently hidden Acari diversity is cryptic speciation, which poses challenges to taxonomists ...

  15. A list of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A species list of identified oribatid mite taxa (Acari, Oribatida) in the fauna of Vietnam is provided. During 1967–2015, a total of 535 species/subspecies from 222 genera and 81 families was registered. Of these, 194 species/subspecies were described as new for science from Vietnam. PMID:26798306

  16. A new species of Brevipalpus Donnadieu (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) and key to the Egyptian species.

    PubMed

    Halawa, Alaa M; Fawzy, Magdy M

    2014-01-20

    A new species, Brevipalpus noranae sp. nov. (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is described and illustrated from females collected on Malus domestica Borkh and Citrus aurantium L. A key to the species of the genus Brevipalpus present in Egypt is provided.

  17. A new species of Brevipalpus Donnadieu (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) and key to the Egyptian species.

    PubMed

    Halawa, Alaa M; Fawzy, Magdy M

    2014-01-01

    A new species, Brevipalpus noranae sp. nov. (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is described and illustrated from females collected on Malus domestica Borkh and Citrus aurantium L. A key to the species of the genus Brevipalpus present in Egypt is provided. PMID:24869810

  18. A new genus and species Mangalaus krishianusandhanus (Acari: Eriophyidae) from India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mangalaus ikrishianusandhanus n. gen., n. sp., (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea), collected from erineum on the underside of leaves of Cordia dichotoma (Boraginaceae) is described and illustrated from specimens collected at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) in New Delhi, India....

  19. A review of quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) parasitising Kenyan birds.

    PubMed

    Klimovičová, Miroslava; Mikula, Peter; Kahure, Njoki; Hromada, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Two new species of quill mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) collected from passeriform and coraciiform birds from Kenya are described : Neoaulonastus apalis sp. nov. from Apalis porphyrolaema Reichenow and Neumann (Passeriformes: Cisticolidae) and Peristerophila upupi sp. nov. from Upupa epops Linnaeus (Coraciiformes: Upupidae). Additionally, 3 new host species: Cisticola hunteri Shelley, 1889; Acrocephalus baeticatus (Vieillot, 1817) and Ploceus xanthops (Hartlaub, 1862) from Kenya and two new localities are recorded for genera: Aulobia Kethley, 1970; Neoaulonastus Skoracki, 2004 and Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970. The previous and the latest knowledge about syringophilid mites from Kenya is summarized in tabular form. 

  20. Teratological Nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) From Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Larson, Scott R; Paskewitz, Susan M

    2016-03-01

    Abnormalities of physiological development (teratological forms) in ticks are rare. The occurrence of gigantism, dwarfism, gynandromorphs, missing legs, extra legs, and asymmetries is most often reported from lab-reared specimens, but has been observed in field-collected specimens. All morphologically anomalous ticks (besides gynandromorphy) described to date are from species other than Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae). Here we describe four teratological I. scapularis nymphs collected while dragging vegetation in Wisconsin in 2015, including two asymmetrical ticks, one with a missing leg, and one with an extra leg. PMID:26681790

  1. Evaluation of predatory mite (Acari: Phytoseiidae) releases to suppress spruce spider mites, Oligonychus ununguis (Acari: Tetranychidae), on juniper.

    PubMed

    Shrewsbury, Paula M; Hardin, Mark R

    2003-12-01

    A laboratory trial evaluated four phytoseiid species for their potential as biological control agents of spruce spider mite, Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) (Acari: Tetranychidae). An augmentative biological control approach, using the predatory mites Neoseiulus fallacis Garman and Galendromus occidentalis Nesbitt (Acari: Phytoseiidae), was evaluated for reducing pest mite densities and injury, and economic costs on Juniperus chinensis 'Sargentii' A. Henry (Cupressaceae) in an outdoor nursery. Sequential releases of predator species, individually and in combination, were tested and compared with two commonly used miticides, a low-toxicity miticide, horticultural oil, and a conventional miticide, hexythiazox. Timing of treatments was based on grower-determined need, and predator release rates were based on guidelines in literature received from producers of beneficial organisms. Predator releases were more expensive and provided less effective suppression of spruce spider mites, resulting in greater spider mite injury to plants, compared with conventional pesticides. However, spider mite damage to plants did not differ in an economically meaningful way between treatments. Unsatisfactory levels of control seem related to under estimations of actual spider mite abundance based on grower perceptions and the beat sampling technique used to estimate predator release rates. These data suggest that when initial populations of spruce spider mite are high, it is unlikely that sequential releases of predator species, individually or in combination, will suppress spider mite populations. In this trial, augmentative biological control control was 2.5-7 times more expensive than chemical controls.

  2. Comparison of two populations of the pantropical predator Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) for biological control of Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Domingos, Cleiton A; Oliveira, Leandro O; de Morais, Elisângela G F; Navia, Denise; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), was recently introduced in the Americas. It spread quickly throughout coconut palm growing areas, expanding considerably its host range. The invasion of this species has caused high economic impact in several countries. In Brazil, extensive areas are expected to be affected. For logistical reasons and other concerns, chemical control does not seem desirable for the control of this pest in most Latin American countries. Biological control of R. indica by introducing exotic natural enemies seems to be an important control measure to be considered. Surveys in many countries have shown that Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a very common predator on coconut palms. This study compared the biology of a population of A. largoensis found for a long time in association with R. indica in La Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) with a population from Roraima State (northern Brazil), where R. indica was first found about two and a half years ago. No significant differences were observed between populations in relation to the duration of different immature stages or total survivorship. However, the oviposition period, prey consumption and net reproductive rate were significantly higher for the La Reunion population, warranting further investigation to determine whether that population should be released in Roraima to control the pest.

  3. Prey-stage preferences and functional and numerical responses of Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Daniel; Peña, Jorge E

    2012-08-01

    Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is a phytophagous mite that recently invaded the Western Hemisphere. This mite is a multivoltine and gregarious species that can reach very high population densities and cause significant damage to various palm species (Arecaceae). The predatory mite Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been found associated with R. indica in Florida. This study evaluated A. largoensis for potential to control R. indica by (1) determining predator preferences among developmental stages of R. indica, and (2) estimating predator functional and numerical responses to varying densities of its most preferred prey-stage. Under no-choice conditions A. largoensis consumed significantly more eggs than other stages of R. indica. In choice tests A. largoensis showed a significant preference for R. indica eggs over all other prey stages. Amblyseius largoensis displayed a type II functional response showing an increase in number of prey killed with an increase in prey population density. Consumption of prey stabilized at approximately 45 eggs/day, the level at which oviposition by the predator was maximized (2.36 ± 0.11 eggs/day; mean ± SEM). Results of this study suggest that A. largoensis can play a role in controlling R. indica populations, particularly when prey densities are low.

  4. Prey-stage preferences and functional and numerical responses of Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Daniel; Peña, Jorge E

    2012-08-01

    Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is a phytophagous mite that recently invaded the Western Hemisphere. This mite is a multivoltine and gregarious species that can reach very high population densities and cause significant damage to various palm species (Arecaceae). The predatory mite Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been found associated with R. indica in Florida. This study evaluated A. largoensis for potential to control R. indica by (1) determining predator preferences among developmental stages of R. indica, and (2) estimating predator functional and numerical responses to varying densities of its most preferred prey-stage. Under no-choice conditions A. largoensis consumed significantly more eggs than other stages of R. indica. In choice tests A. largoensis showed a significant preference for R. indica eggs over all other prey stages. Amblyseius largoensis displayed a type II functional response showing an increase in number of prey killed with an increase in prey population density. Consumption of prey stabilized at approximately 45 eggs/day, the level at which oviposition by the predator was maximized (2.36 ± 0.11 eggs/day; mean ± SEM). Results of this study suggest that A. largoensis can play a role in controlling R. indica populations, particularly when prey densities are low. PMID:21915681

  5. Comparison of two populations of the pantropical predator Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) for biological control of Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Domingos, Cleiton A; Oliveira, Leandro O; de Morais, Elisângela G F; Navia, Denise; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), was recently introduced in the Americas. It spread quickly throughout coconut palm growing areas, expanding considerably its host range. The invasion of this species has caused high economic impact in several countries. In Brazil, extensive areas are expected to be affected. For logistical reasons and other concerns, chemical control does not seem desirable for the control of this pest in most Latin American countries. Biological control of R. indica by introducing exotic natural enemies seems to be an important control measure to be considered. Surveys in many countries have shown that Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a very common predator on coconut palms. This study compared the biology of a population of A. largoensis found for a long time in association with R. indica in La Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) with a population from Roraima State (northern Brazil), where R. indica was first found about two and a half years ago. No significant differences were observed between populations in relation to the duration of different immature stages or total survivorship. However, the oviposition period, prey consumption and net reproductive rate were significantly higher for the La Reunion population, warranting further investigation to determine whether that population should be released in Roraima to control the pest. PMID:23100107

  6. Myrmecophilous pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea) associated with Lasius flavus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Russia.

    PubMed

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2015-11-19

    Twenty four species of pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea: Neopygmephoridae, Scutacaridae, Microdispidae) are recorded from the ant Lasius flavus (Fabricius) or from its nests from Western Siberia and Crimea. Four of them of the genus Scutacarus Gros, 1845 (Acari: Scutacaridae), S. insolitus sp. nov., S. heterotrichus sp. nov., S. moseri sp. nov. and S. sibiriensis sp. nov. are described as new for science. Four species of scutacarid mites are recorded for the first time in Russia. The comparison of pygmephoroid mite communities associated with Lasius flavus from Crimean and West Siberian populations and notes on phoresy of pygmephoroid mites on ants are provided.

  7. Myrmecophilous pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea) associated with Lasius flavus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Russia.

    PubMed

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    Twenty four species of pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea: Neopygmephoridae, Scutacaridae, Microdispidae) are recorded from the ant Lasius flavus (Fabricius) or from its nests from Western Siberia and Crimea. Four of them of the genus Scutacarus Gros, 1845 (Acari: Scutacaridae), S. insolitus sp. nov., S. heterotrichus sp. nov., S. moseri sp. nov. and S. sibiriensis sp. nov. are described as new for science. Four species of scutacarid mites are recorded for the first time in Russia. The comparison of pygmephoroid mite communities associated with Lasius flavus from Crimean and West Siberian populations and notes on phoresy of pygmephoroid mites on ants are provided. PMID:26624715

  8. Phytocystatins: Defense Proteins against Phytophagous Insects and Acari

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Manuel; Santamaria, Maria Estrella; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Arnaiz, Ana; Carrillo, Laura; Ortego, Felix; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This review deals with phytocystatins, focussing on their potential role as defence proteins against phytophagous arthropods. Information about the evolutionary, molecular and biochemical features and inhibitory properties of phytocystatins are presented. Cystatin ability to inhibit heterologous cysteine protease activities is commented on as well as some approaches of tailoring cystatin specificity to enhance their defence function towards pests. A general landscape on the digestive proteases of phytophagous insects and acari and the remarkable plasticity of their digestive physiology after feeding on cystatins are highlighted. Biotechnological approaches to produce recombinant cystatins to be added to artificial diets or to be sprayed as insecticide–acaricide compounds and the of use cystatins as transgenes are discussed. Multiple examples and applications are included to end with some conclusions and future perspectives. PMID:27775606

  9. Two new species of the genus Syringophilopsis Kethley, 1970 (Acari: Syringophilidae) parasitizing quills of true shrikes (Aves: Laniidae).

    PubMed

    Skoracki, M; Tryjanowski, P; Hromada, M

    2002-03-01

    Two new species of syringophilid mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) are described from quills of true shrikes (Passeriformes: Laniidae): Syringophilopsis kristini sp. n. from Lesser Grey Shrike, Lanius minor, from Slovakia, and Syringophiopsis yosefi sp. n. from Lanius sp. from Cameroun.

  10. Predation, development, and oviposition by the predatory mite Amblyseius swirkii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on tomato russet mite (Acari: Eriophyidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Hong-Hyun; Shipp, Les; Buitenhuis, Rosemarije

    2010-06-01

    Predation, development, and oviposition experiments were conducted to evaluate Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as a potential biological control agent for tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici (Massee) (Acari: Eriophyidae), which can be a serious pest of greenhouse tomatoes. Results showed that A. swirskii attacked all developmental stages of A. lycopersici and had a type II functional response at the prey densities tested. The attack rate and handling time estimates from the random predator equation were 0.1289/h and 0.2320 h, respectively, indicating that A. swirskii can consume 103.4 individuals per day. Predation rates of A. swirskii on A. lycopersici in the presence of alternative food sources such as pollen, first-instar thrips, or whitefly eggs were 74, 56, and 76%, respectively, compared with the predation rate on A. lycopersici alone. A. swirskii successfully completed their life cycle on either A. lycopersici or cattail (Typha latifolia L.) pollen. At 25 degrees C and 70% RH, developmental time of female A. swirskii fed on A. lycopersici or on cattail pollen was 4.97 and 6.16 d, respectively. For the first 10 d after molting to the adult stage, A. swirskii fed on A. lycopersici had higher daily oviposition rate (2.0 eggs per day) than on pollen (1.5 eggs per day). From this laboratory study, it can be concluded that A. swirskii has promising traits as a predator against A. lycopersici and that their populations can be maintained using alternative food sources such as cattail pollen. We suggest that the effectiveness of A. swirskii against A. lycopersici under field conditions needs next to be investigated.

  11. Effects of radiation (Cobalt-60) on the elimination of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) Cardinum endosymbiont

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is a polyphagous mite with worldwide distribution and it is also a vector of several plant viruses. In citrus, B. phoenicis transmits Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV), the causal agent of leprosis, a disease that costs millions of dollars/year for ...

  12. Description of a new species of Terminalichus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yun; Fan, Qing-Hai; Huang, Jian

    2014-01-07

    A new species Terminalichus sanya Xu & Fan sp. nov. (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae) from China is described and illustrated. The ontogenetic changes in ventral and leg chaetotaxy on the female, deutonymph, protonymph and larva are presented. The generic definition of Terminalichus is updated and a key to the world species is provided.

  13. Description of a new species of Terminalichus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yun; Fan, Qing-Hai; Huang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    A new species Terminalichus sanya Xu & Fan sp. nov. (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae) from China is described and illustrated. The ontogenetic changes in ventral and leg chaetotaxy on the female, deutonymph, protonymph and larva are presented. The generic definition of Terminalichus is updated and a key to the world species is provided. PMID:24872294

  14. Evaluation of four bed bug traps for surveillances of brown dog ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The brown dog tick can be a serious residential pest due to its unique ability, among ticks, to complete its lifecycle indoors. A single engorged and fertilized female tick can oviposit around 4,000 eggs, allowing indoor establishment to be rapid and easy to miss in early-stage infestations. Acari...

  15. Post larval stages of Tanytydeus beyzavii sp. nov. (Acari: Paratydeidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Khanjani, Mohammad; Nadri, Ali Reza; Khanjani, Masoumeh; Seeman, Owen D

    2014-01-01

    A new species Tanytydeus beyzavii sp. nov. (Acari: Paratydeidae) is described and illustrated from soil under plants in Iran. Leg setation is presented for the genus, as is a key to species. The genus Hexatydeus syn. nov. is synonymised with Tanytydeus because the former represent nymphal stages of Tanytydeus. 

  16. New Wolbachia supergroups detected in quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae).

    PubMed

    Glowska, Eliza; Dragun-Damian, Anna; Dabert, Miroslawa; Gerth, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Wolbachia is the most abundant intracellular bacterial genus infecting a wide range of arthropods and filarial nematodes. Wolbachia have evolved parasitic, mutualistic and commensal relationships with their hosts but in arthropods generally act as reproductive parasites, inducing a wide range of phenotypic effects such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, feminization and male-killing. Up to now, the genus has been divided into 14 supergroups successively named A-O. Here, we describe two new Wolbachia supergroups from syringophilid mites (Acari: Cheyletoidea). These obligatory ectoparasites of birds inhabit the quills of feathers in many avian groups. The species of this family reproduce in a haplodiploid mode sensu arrhenotoky and are usually strongly female-biased. Based on the sequences of four protein-coding genes (ftsZ, gltA and groEL and coxA) and the 16S rRNA we identified strains of three Wolbachia supergroups (F and two distinct, yet undescribed ones) in five quill mite species. Our results suggest that in some cases the distribution of the bacteria can be better correlated with the mite's bird host rather than with mite taxonomy as such. The discovery of two new Wolbachia supergroups not only broadens the knowledge of the diversity of this bacterium but also raises questions about potential effects induced in quill mites and transmission mechanisms of the endosymbionts in this peculiar bacteria-quill mite-bird system.

  17. Water mites of the genus Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Hygrobatidae) from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Pešić, Vladimir; Smit, Harry

    2015-01-20

    New records of water mites of the genus Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Hygrobatidae) from streams in Ghana are presented. Six species are reported, one of these, Atractides (Atractides) ghanaensis n. sp., is described as new for science. First records for Ghana are given for A. (Atractides) damkoehleri (K. Viets, 1916), A. (A.) latisetus (K. Viets, 1916), A. (Polymegapus) kuehnei (K. Viets, 1911) and A. (Tympanomegapus) tuberipalpis (K. Viets, 1913).

  18. A review of myrmecophilous mites of the family Microdispidae (Acari, Heterostigmatina) of Western Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Khaustov, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Five species of myrmecophilous microdispid mites (Acari: Microdispidae) are recorded from Western Siberia, Russia. Unguidispus lasii Kurosa, 1979, Unguidispus japonicus Kurosa, 1979, Caesarodispus minutus (Sevastianov, 1981), and Caesarodispus samsinaki (Mahunka, 1967), comb. n. are reported from Russia for the first time. Unguidispus polyctenus (Sevastianov, 1969) and Caesarodispus samsinaki are redescribed. The keys to species of the genera Unguidispus Mahunka, 1970 and Caesarodispus Mahunka, 1977 are provided. PMID:25493064

  19. Description of a new species of Gaeolaelaps (Acari: Laelapidae) from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Saeidi, Zarir; Nemati, Alireza; Khalili-Moghadam, Arsalan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Gaeolaelaps (Acari, Mesostigmata, Laelapidae), Gaeolaelaps izajiensis sp. n. is described based on the morphological characters of adult females which were collected from soil sample in the Izeh and Ghaletol regions of the Khuzestan province, Iran. It can be distinguished from the other members of the genus by some morphological characteristics of dorsal shield, form and reticulation of epigynal shield, the exopodal plates, and the peritremes. PMID:27667922

  20. Description of a new species of Gaeolaelaps (Acari: Laelapidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Saeidi, Zarir; Nemati, Alireza; Khalili-Moghadam, Arsalan

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Gaeolaelaps (Acari, Mesostigmata, Laelapidae), Gaeolaelaps izajiensis sp. n. is described based on the morphological characters of adult females which were collected from soil sample in the Izeh and Ghaletol regions of the Khuzestan province, Iran. It can be distinguished from the other members of the genus by some morphological characteristics of dorsal shield, form and reticulation of epigynal shield, the exopodal plates, and the peritremes. PMID:27667922

  1. Description of a new species of Gaeolaelaps (Acari: Laelapidae) from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Saeidi, Zarir; Nemati, Alireza; Khalili-Moghadam, Arsalan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Gaeolaelaps (Acari, Mesostigmata, Laelapidae), Gaeolaelaps izajiensis sp. n. is described based on the morphological characters of adult females which were collected from soil sample in the Izeh and Ghaletol regions of the Khuzestan province, Iran. It can be distinguished from the other members of the genus by some morphological characteristics of dorsal shield, form and reticulation of epigynal shield, the exopodal plates, and the peritremes.

  2. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (ACARI: IXODIDAE) BITING A HUMAN BEING IN PORTOALEGRE CITY, RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    MENTZ, Márcia Bohrer; TROMBKA, Marcelo; da SILVA, Guilherme Liberato; SILVA, Carlos Eugênio

    2016-01-01

    We report the finding of a female brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) on the scalp of a male patient in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Human parasitism by this tick is rare and has seldomly been reported in the literature, despite its recognized importance since it can act as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of spotted fever. PMID:27074329

  3. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cypermethrin, amitraz, and piperonyl butoxide mixtures for the control of resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Mexican tropics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini), is a haematophagous arachnid (Acari: Ixodidae) recognized globally as an economically important ectoparasite of cattle in tropical and subtropical agroecosystems. Populations of this invasive tick species around the wo...

  4. Development and reproduction of Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) feeding on pollen, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), and other microarthropods inhabiting coconuts in Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Daniel; Peña, Jorge E; Hoy, Marjorie A; Frank, J Howard

    2010-10-01

    The red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an important pest of palms (Arecaceae) and other species within the Zingiberaceae, Musaceae and Strelitziaceae families. Raoiella indica was discovered in the USA (Palm Beach and Broward counties, Florida) late in 2007, and it subsequently spread to other Florida counties. The predatory mite Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been found associated with R. indica in Florida. In order to verify whether A. largoensis can develop and reproduce when feeding exclusively on R. indica, the biology of this predator was evaluated on various food sources, including R. indica. Five diets [R. indica, Tetranychus gloveri Aonidiella orientalis, Nipaecocus nipae, oak (Quercus virginiana) pollen] and a no-food control were tested to determine the predators' development, survivorship, oviposition rate, sex ratio and longevity at 26.5 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 5% RH and a 12:12 L:D photophase. Amblyseius largoensis was able to complete its life cycle and reproduce when fed exclusively on R. indica. The development of immature stages of A. largoensis was faster and fecundity and survivorship were higher when fed on R. indica or T. gloveri compared to the other food sources. The intrinsic rate of natural increase of A. largoensis was significantly higher when fed on R. indica than on other diets. These results suggest that, despite earlier assessments, A. largoensis can play a role in controlling R. indica.

  5. Development and reproduction of Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) feeding on pollen, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), and other microarthropods inhabiting coconuts in Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Daniel; Peña, Jorge E; Hoy, Marjorie A; Frank, J Howard

    2010-10-01

    The red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an important pest of palms (Arecaceae) and other species within the Zingiberaceae, Musaceae and Strelitziaceae families. Raoiella indica was discovered in the USA (Palm Beach and Broward counties, Florida) late in 2007, and it subsequently spread to other Florida counties. The predatory mite Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been found associated with R. indica in Florida. In order to verify whether A. largoensis can develop and reproduce when feeding exclusively on R. indica, the biology of this predator was evaluated on various food sources, including R. indica. Five diets [R. indica, Tetranychus gloveri Aonidiella orientalis, Nipaecocus nipae, oak (Quercus virginiana) pollen] and a no-food control were tested to determine the predators' development, survivorship, oviposition rate, sex ratio and longevity at 26.5 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 5% RH and a 12:12 L:D photophase. Amblyseius largoensis was able to complete its life cycle and reproduce when fed exclusively on R. indica. The development of immature stages of A. largoensis was faster and fecundity and survivorship were higher when fed on R. indica or T. gloveri compared to the other food sources. The intrinsic rate of natural increase of A. largoensis was significantly higher when fed on R. indica than on other diets. These results suggest that, despite earlier assessments, A. largoensis can play a role in controlling R. indica. PMID:20333446

  6. Efficacy of indigenous predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) against the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Acari: Eriophyidae): augmentation and conservation biological control in Israeli citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Maoz, Yonatan; Gal, Shira; Argov, Yael; Domeratzky, Sylvie; Melamed, Eti; Gan-Mor, Samuel; Coll, Moshe; Palevsky, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The citrus rust mite (CRM), Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Acari: Eriophyidae) is a cosmopolitan key pest of citrus, inflicting severe economic damage if not controlled. In Israel, CRM damages all citrus cultivars. International regulation and increasing control failures of CRM led growers to seek sustainable biological control solutions such as acarine biological control agents. Laboratory studies conducted in Israel have indicated that the indigenous predator species Amblyseius swirskii, Iphiseius degenerans, Typhlodromus athiasae and Euseius scutalis (all Acari: Phytoseiidae) can potentially control CRM. Our general objective in the present study was to bridge the gap of knowledge between laboratory studies and the lack of control efficacy of these species in commercial orchards. Predator augmentation in the field showed that although predator populations increased immediately following releases they later decreased and did not affect CRM populations. When A. swirskii augmentation was combined with a series of maize pollen applications, A. swirskii populations were enhanced substantially and continuously but again CRM populations were not affected. Growth chamber studies with CRM-infested seedlings, with or without a maize pollen supplement, indicated that pollen provisioning led to population increase of E. scutalis and A. swirskii but only E. scutalis significantly lowered CRM populations. Control with E. scutalis was confirmed in the field on CRM infested seedlings with pollen provisioned by adjacent flowering Rhodes grass. While experiments in mature citrus orchard showed that pollen supplement usually increased predator populations they also indicated that other factors such as intraguild interactions and pesticide treatments should be taken into account when devising CRM biological control programs.

  7. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different deg...

  8. Two new species of Pachylaelaps Berlese, 1888 from the Iberian Peninsula, with a key to European species (Acari, Gamasida, Pachylaelapidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mašán, Peter; Özbek, Hasan Hüseyin; Fenďa, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pachylaelaps (Pachylaelaps) pyrenaicus sp. n. and Pachylaelaps (Longipachylaelaps) brevipilis sp. n. (Acari, Pachylaelapidae) are described and illustrated based on specimens from litter and soil detritus of forest habitats in Spain (Pyrenees Mts) and Portugal (Serra da Labruja Mts), respectively. An identification key to European species of the genus Pachylaelaps Berlese, 1888 is provided. PMID:27551197

  9. Two new species of Pachylaelaps Berlese, 1888 from the Iberian Peninsula, with a key to European species (Acari, Gamasida, Pachylaelapidae).

    PubMed

    Mašán, Peter; Özbek, Hasan Hüseyin; Fenďa, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Pachylaelaps (Pachylaelaps) pyrenaicus sp. n. and Pachylaelaps (Longipachylaelaps) brevipilis sp. n. (Acari, Pachylaelapidae) are described and illustrated based on specimens from litter and soil detritus of forest habitats in Spain (Pyrenees Mts) and Portugal (Serra da Labruja Mts), respectively. An identification key to European species of the genus Pachylaelaps Berlese, 1888 is provided. PMID:27551197

  10. New and little known species of Halolaelaps (Acari: Mesostigmata: Halolaelapidae) from Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Trach, Viacheslav A

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the family Halolaelapidae (Acari: Mesostigmata), Halolaelaps euxinus sp. nov. is described from Black Sea coast. Adult mites were found in seaweed, while deutonymphs were collected from the amphipod Talorchestia deshayesii and from seaweed. The adult female of Halolaelaps saproincisus Hirschmann & Götz, 1968 is recorded in new localities of Ukraine for the first time, in soil and bird faeces in chicken coops, and new morphological information is provided. The adult male (collected from chicken coops) and the deutonymph (collected from chicken coops and on dung-beetles) of H. saproincisus are described for the first time. PMID:27615850

  11. A new species of Rhipicephalus (Acari: Ixodidae), a parasite of giraffes in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Horak, Ivan G; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Kariuki, Edward K

    2013-07-01

    A new tick species belonging to the genus Rhipicephalus Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), namely, Rhipicephalus walkerae n. sp., is described. The male and female of this species are similar to those of several species in the Rhipicephalus appendiculatus group but can be distinguished from them by the very dense pattern of medium-sized punctations covering the conscutum and scutum, long and narrow dorsal prolongation of the spiracular plate, and relatively short dorsal cornua; in addition, the male has long and narrow adanal plates without a posterolateral angle. R. walkerae is known only from Kenya, where the adults were collected from giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis (L.).

  12. Two new Meitingsunes species (Acari: Syringophilidae) from Indonesian doves (Columbiformes: Columbidae).

    PubMed

    Kaszewska, Katarzyna; Skoracki, Maciej; Kavetska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    We describe two new quill mite species of the genus Meitingsunes Glowska and Skoracki, 2010 (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) parasitizing columbiform birds (Columbiformes: Columbidae): M. chalcophaps sp. nov. collected from the Emerald Dove, Chalcophaps indica (Linnaeus) and M. turacoenas sp. nov. from the White-faced Cuckoo Dove, Turacoena manadensis (Quoy and Gaimard) (type host) and the Black Cuckoo-Dove, Turacoena modesta (Temminck). All host species were collected in Indonesia. These represent two new genus-level host records for Meitingsunes. In addition, we summarize the diversity of Meitingsunes and present a key to species in this genus. PMID:27394880

  13. New species, new records and re-description of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Zeity, Mahran; Srinivasa, N; Gowda, C Chinnamade

    2016-01-01

    Two species of Tetranychidae (Acari), Oligonychus neotylus sp. nov. from Zea mays and Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae) and Tetranychus hirsutus sp. nov. from Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Apocynaceae) are described from Karnataka state, south India. Tetranychus bambusae Wang and Ma is recorded for the first time from India and re-described. Four other species are reported for the first time from India viz., Oligonychus coniferarum (McGregor), Oligonychus duncombei Meyer, Tetranychus marianae McGregor and Tetranychus okinawanus Ehara from Cupressus sp., an undetermined grass, Centrosema pubescens and Adenium obesum, respectively. PMID:27394311

  14. Oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of plain area of the Southern European Russia.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, Natalia V; Poltavskaya, Marina P

    2013-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the fauna of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) mostly of a plain area of the Southern European Russia. The most updated taxonomic list of oribatid mite taxa compiled from the original authors' data collected after sam- pling soil, nests and plumage of birds, as well as published sources is presented. It includes 256 species of oribatid mites belonging to 72 families. Twenty species and one family of oribatid mites are recorded for the first time at the research territory. The abundance of mites in the soil is also provided for selected species.

  15. Redescription of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1907 (Acari: Ixodidae), a rare South America tick confirmed in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Onofrio, Valeria C; Labruna, Marcelo B; Martins, João R; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2005-06-01

    The species Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1907 is a rare tick found on the Neotropical Region, but it has not been recorded as a valid taxon in some lists proposed by current taxonomists. After a comparison between the Brazilian material of A. fuscum deposited in the Acari Collection of the Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil, and the male type deposited in Leiden Museum of Natural History, The Netherlands, we confirm the taxonomic validity of A. fuscum and redescribe the adult specimens based on light and scanning electron microscope studies.

  16. Further studies on water mites from Korea, with description of two new species (Acari, Hydrachnidia)

    PubMed Central

    Pešić, Vladimir; Semenchenko, Ksenia A.; Lee, Wonchoel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from streams in South Korea are presented. Two species are described as new to science: Torrenticola neodentifera sp. n. (Torrenticolidae) and Atractides ermilovi sp. n. (Hygrobatidae). Five species are reported as first records for Korea: Wandesia (Wandesia) reducta Tuzovskij, 1987, Wandesia (Wandesia) cf. rara Tuzovskij, 1990, Sperchon (Sperchon) orientalis Tuzovskij, 1990, Feltria (Feltria) kuluensis Tuzovskij, 1988 and Atractides (Atractides) constrictus (Sokolow, 1934). The latter species is redescribed and elevated to species rank based on new material from the Russian Far East. PMID:26155068

  17. A rare finding of mites (Arachnida: Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) parasitising a whip spider (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Hernandes, Fabio A

    2014-04-01

    Twelve larvae of unidentified species of Odontacarus Ewing, 1929 (Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) were found parasitising an adult male whip spider Charinus brasilianus Weygoldt (Charinidae) in Santa Teresa, mountainous region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. These larvae occurred in the intersegmental membrane of prosoma and legs. This is the first report of ectoparasitic mites infecting a charinid whip spider and the first record of leeuwenhoekiid mites parasitising an invertebrate host. We suggest that future studies are essential to understand the reasons why these events of parasitism are so rare in the order Amblypygi.

  18. A new species of Rhipicephalus (Acari: Ixodidae), a parasite of giraffes in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Horak, Ivan G; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Kariuki, Edward K

    2013-07-01

    A new tick species belonging to the genus Rhipicephalus Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), namely, Rhipicephalus walkerae n. sp., is described. The male and female of this species are similar to those of several species in the Rhipicephalus appendiculatus group but can be distinguished from them by the very dense pattern of medium-sized punctations covering the conscutum and scutum, long and narrow dorsal prolongation of the spiracular plate, and relatively short dorsal cornua; in addition, the male has long and narrow adanal plates without a posterolateral angle. R. walkerae is known only from Kenya, where the adults were collected from giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis (L.). PMID:23926765

  19. New species and records of Neopronematus (Acari: Iolinidae) from Iran with a key to world species.

    PubMed

    Darbemamieh, Maryam; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Khanjani, Mohammad; Kaźmierski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, Neopronematus kamalii Darbemamieh and Hajiqanbar sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Iolinidae), collected from apricot leaves in Kermanshah province, Iran, is described and illustrated. Also, the following species were collected and identified from Kermanshah province, Iran: Neopronematus rapidus (Kuznetzov, 1972), Neopronematus solani Łaniecka and Kaźmierski, 2013; Neopronematus sepasgosariani Sadeghi, Łaniecka and Kaźmierski, 2012; Neopronematus lundqvisti Sadeghi, Łaniecka and Kaźmierski, 2012; and Neopronematus neglectus (Kuznetzov, 1972). Some information about the genus, morphologically close species, remarks and a key to Neopronematus species of the world are given as well. PMID:26250230

  20. Catalogue of the mite family Tydeidae (Acari: Prostigmata) with the world key to the species.

    PubMed

    Silva, Guilherme Liberato Da; Metzelthin, Maicon Henrique; Silva, Onilda Santos Da; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Tydeidae are cosmopolitan, soft-bodied, striated or reticulated mites that are reported to be mainly phytophages, mycophages, pollenophages, insect parasites or scavengers. This catalogue includes 328 species belonging to 30 genera, and their distributions and type habitat. Until now, Brachytydeus comprises the largest number of species with 200, followed by Tydeus, with 50 species, and Pretydeus and Pseudolorryia, with 12 species each. An updated list of the Tydeidae (Acari: Prostigmata), a world key to the species and data on the zoogeographical distribution of the species are presented. PMID:27395702

  1. The residual and direct effects of reduced-risk and conventional miticides on twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Liburd, O.E.; White, J.C.; Rhodes, E.M.; Browdy, A.A.

    2007-03-15

    The residual effects of several reduced-risk and conventional miticides were evaluated in strawberries (Fragaria z ananassa Duchesne) on the twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and on 2 predatory mites, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse. The greenhouse experiments also tested the direct effects of the miticides on TSSM. The efficacy of conventional and reduced-risk miticides was evaluated on strawberry leaf discs and on whole plants for control of TSSM. Furthermore, the residual effects of these miticides were evaluated on whole strawberry plants against selective predatory mites. For TSSM, 5 treatments were evaluated: a conventional miticide; fenbutatin-oxide (Vendex[reg]) and 3 reduced-risk miticides; binfenazate (Acramite 50WP[reg]), activated garlic extract (Repel[reg]), sesame seed and castor oil (Wipeout[reg]), and a water-treated control. For predatory mites, the residual effects of only Acramite[reg] and Vendex[reg] were evaluated. Acramite[reg] was the most effective acaricide in reducing TSSM populations in both the laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Vendex[reg] and Wipeout[reg] were also effective in the laboratory, but did not cause significant reduction of TSSM in the greenhouse. Repel[reg] was the least effective of the 4 pesticides evaluated. Neither Acramite[reg] nor Vendex[reg] had a significant effect on either predatory mite species. However, there appeared to be more predatory mites on the Vendex[reg]-treated plants than on the Acramite[reg]-treated plants. There were significantly more predatory mites of both species on the cue plants, which were inoculated with TSSM versus the non-cue plants, which were not inoculated. (author) [Spanish] Los efectos residuales en poblaciones de la 'arana roja', Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranichidae) y de los acaros predadores

  2. Repellent efficacy of DEET, Icaridin, and EBAAP against Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis nymphs (Acari, Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Büchel, Kerstin; Bendin, Juliane; Gharbi, Amina; Rahlenbeck, Sibylle; Dautel, Hans

    2015-06-01

    Repellent efficacy of 10% EBAAP (3-[N-butyl-N-acetyl]-aminopropionic acid, ethyl ester) and 10% Icaridin ((2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 1-methylpropyl ester)) were evaluated against 20% DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) in human subject trials against ticks. Responses of host-seeking nymphs of the European castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus L.; Acari: Ixodidae) and the North American blacklegged tick (I. scapularis Say; Acari: Ixodidae) were compared. Tests were carried out according to the US-EPA standard protocol with ethanolic solutions of the active ingredients of repellents being applied to the forearm of 10 volunteers. The upward movement of ticks was monitored until repellent failure taking up to 12.5 h. Application of 20% DEET resulted in median complete protection times (CPT; Kaplan-Meier median) between 4 and 4.5 h, while 10% EBAAP yielded CPTs of 3.5-4h. No significant differences were found between the efficacies of two repellents nor between the two species tested. The median of the CPT of a 10% Icaridin solution was 5h in nymphs of I. scapularis, but 8h in those of I. ricinus (P<0.01). Based on these studies, EBAAP and Icaridin are efficacious alternatives to DEET in their repellent activity against nymphs of the two Ixodes ticks with Icaridin demonstrating particularly promising results against I. ricinus. Future research should investigate whether similar results occur when adult Ixodes ticks or other tick species are tested. PMID:25936273

  3. Pyrethroid resistance in Phytoseiulus macropilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae): cross-resistance, stability and effect of synergists.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Maria Cristina Vitelli; Sato, Mario Eidi

    2016-01-01

    Phytoseiulus macropilis Banks (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is an effective predator of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). The objectives of this research were to study the stability of fenpropathrin resistance and the cross-resistance relationships with different pyrethroids, and also to evaluate the effect of synergists [piperonyl butoxide (PBO), diethyl maleate (DEM) and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF)] on fenpropathrin resistant and susceptible strains of this predaceous mite. The stability of fenpropathrin resistance was studied under laboratory conditions, using P. macropilis populations with initial frequencies of 75 and 50% of resistant mites. The percentages of fenpropathrin resistant mites were evaluated monthly for a period of up to 12 months. A trend toward decreased resistance frequencies was observed only during the first 3-4 months. After this initial decrease, the fenpropathrin resistance was shown to be stable, maintaining constant resistance frequencies (around 30%) until the end of the evaluation period. Toxicity tests carried out using fenpropathrin resistant and susceptible strains of P. macropilis indicated strong positive cross-resistance between fenpropathrin and the pyrethroids bifenthrin and deltamethrin. Bioassays with the synergists DEM, DEF and PBO were also performed. The maximum synergism ratio (SR = LC50 without synergist/LC50 with synergist) detected for the three evaluated synergists (PBO, DEM, DEF) was 5.86 (for DEF), indicating low influence of enzyme detoxification processes in fenpropathrin resistance. PMID:26530989

  4. A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) associated with carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Trach, Viacheslav A; Seeman, Owen D

    2014-04-29

    A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata: Celaenopsoidea), Euroschizogynium calvum gen. nov. and sp. nov., associated with Scarites terricola Bonelli, 1813 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is described from Ukraine, representing the first record of the family from the Palaearctic. Fusura civica Valle & Fox, 1966 is moved out of the Schizogyniidae and placed into the Megacelaenopsidae. A new diagnosis for the family Schizogyniidae and a key to genera are provided.

  5. Prolixus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) newly recorded from New Zealand: A new species from Cyperaceae and its ontogenetic patterns in chaetotaxy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yun; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-12-19

    The genus Prolixus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) was represented by two species from Australian sedges prior to this study. A new species, Prolixus meyerae sp. nov., is here described and illustrated from leaves of Gahnia (Cyperaceae) in Auckland, New Zealand. In this paper, we present the ontogenetic additions in idiosomal and leg chaetotaxy from larva to adult. A key to world species of Prolixus is also proposed.

  6. A review of Amblypalpus and Priscapalpus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae), including two new species of Amblypalpus from Iran.

    PubMed

    Farzan, Sadegh; Asadi, Mahdieh; Ueckermann, Edward A; Seeman, Owen D; Beard, Jennifer J

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Amblypalpus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) are described from Iran: Amblypalpus iraniensis sp. nov., from Wild Almond, Amygdalus scoparia (Rosaceae), and Amblypalpus thymus sp. nov., from Common Thyme, Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae). The new species are classified tentatively in Amblypalpus. The species Priscapalpus thomissus Meyer, 1979 is transferred to Amblypalpus and the genus concept of Priscapalpus is narrowed and therefore redefined. Similarly, we present an expanded concept of Amblypalpus. A key to brevipalpine genera and Amblypalpus species is provided.

  7. Prolixus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) newly recorded from New Zealand: A new species from Cyperaceae and its ontogenetic patterns in chaetotaxy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yun; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The genus Prolixus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) was represented by two species from Australian sedges prior to this study. A new species, Prolixus meyerae sp. nov., is here described and illustrated from leaves of Gahnia (Cyperaceae) in Auckland, New Zealand. In this paper, we present the ontogenetic additions in idiosomal and leg chaetotaxy from larva to adult. A key to world species of Prolixus is also proposed. PMID:25543721

  8. A review of Amblypalpus and Priscapalpus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae), including two new species of Amblypalpus from Iran.

    PubMed

    Farzan, Sadegh; Asadi, Mahdieh; Ueckermann, Edward A; Seeman, Owen D; Beard, Jennifer J

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Amblypalpus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) are described from Iran: Amblypalpus iraniensis sp. nov., from Wild Almond, Amygdalus scoparia (Rosaceae), and Amblypalpus thymus sp. nov., from Common Thyme, Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae). The new species are classified tentatively in Amblypalpus. The species Priscapalpus thomissus Meyer, 1979 is transferred to Amblypalpus and the genus concept of Priscapalpus is narrowed and therefore redefined. Similarly, we present an expanded concept of Amblypalpus. A key to brevipalpine genera and Amblypalpus species is provided. PMID:26106764

  9. Ten new species of Daidalotarsonemus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) from Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten new tarsonemid species of the genus Daidalotarsonemus found on native plants in Costa Rica are described herein: Daidalotarsonemus alas sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus azofeifai sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus bauchani sp. n. Rezende, Ochoa & Lofego; Daidalota...

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae): high genome rearrangement and extremely truncated tRNAs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The family Tetranychidae (Chelicerata: Acari) includes ~1200 species, many of which are of agronomic importance. To date, mitochondrial genomes of only two Tetranychidae species have been sequenced, and it has been found that these two mitochondrial genomes are characterized by many unusual features in genome organization and structure such as gene order and nucleotide frequency. The scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks). Information on Tetranychidae mitochondrial genomes is quite important for phylogenetic evaluation and population genetics, as well as the molecular evolution of functional genes such as acaricide-resistance genes. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Panonychus citri (Family Tetranychidae), a worldwide citrus pest, and provide a comparison to other Acari. Results The mitochondrial genome of P. citri is a typical circular molecule of 13,077 bp, and contains the complete set of 37 genes that are usually found in metazoans. This is the smallest mitochondrial genome within all sequenced Acari and other Chelicerata, primarily due to the significant size reduction of protein coding genes (PCGs), a large rRNA gene, and the A + T-rich region. The mitochondrial gene order for P. citri is the same as those for P. ulmi and Tetranychus urticae, but distinctly different from other Acari by a series of gene translocations and/or inversions. The majority of the P. citri mitochondrial genome has a high A + T content (85.28%), which is also reflected by AT-rich codons being used more frequently, but exhibits a positive GC-skew (0.03). The Acari mitochondrial nad1 exhibits a faster amino acid substitution rate than other genes, and the variation of nucleotide substitution patterns of PCGs is significantly correlated with the G + C content. Most tRNA genes of P. citri are extremely truncated and atypical (44-65, 54.1 ± 4.1 bp), lacking either the T- or D-arm, as

  11. Development and reproduction of Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Acari: Laelapidae) with fungus gnat larvae (Diptera: Sciaridae), potworms (Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae) or Sancassania aff. sphaerogaster (Acari: Acaridae) as the sole food source.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Ana R; Cloyd, Raymond A; Zaborski, Edmond R

    2005-01-01

    Stratiolaelaps (=Hypoaspis) miles (Berlese) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) is a polyphagous soil-dwelling predatory mite that is widely marketed for use in greenhouse production systems to manage populations of dark-winged fungus gnats, Bradysia spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae) and for supplemental control of thrips. The suggestion by Walter and Campbell (2003, Biol. Control 26: 253-269) that North American commercial cultures of S. miles may actually be S. scimitus was confirmed. The development and reproduction at 21-23 degrees C of S. scimitus provided ad libidum with one of three different prey--the fungus gnat Bradysia aff. coprophila (Lintner), potworms (Enchytraeidae), or Sancassania aff. sphaerogaster (Zachvatkin, 1937) (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae)--were compared. Developmental duration of the egg and non-feeding larval stages were 2.47 and 1.11 days, respectively; mortalities were 8.3 and 5.5%. Stratiolaelaps scimitus failed to develop beyond the protonymphal stage when provided with S. aff. sphaerogaster alone, although some feeding was observed. Development and reproduction of S. scimitus was successful on both fungus gnat larvae and enchytraeids, with no influence of prey on protonymphal duration (4.70 days) and mortality (8.3%), or on deutonymphal duration (4.61 days) and mortality (6.1%). Adult female S. scimitus feeding on potworms, compared to those feeding on fungus gnat larvae, had a significantly shorter pre-oviposition period (2.69 vs. 4.59 days). However, diet did not influence other adult female developmental or reproductive characteristics (oviposition period, 18.6 days; post-oviposition period, 6.2 days; total adult longevity, 27.3 days; total number of eggs, 26.5). S. scimitus reared on potworms tended (p = 0.06) to have a higher intrinsic rate of increase, a higher finite rate of increase and a shorter doubling time (rm = 0.142 day(-1), lambda = 1.153, Dt = 4.85 days) than those reared on fungus gnat larvae (rm = 0.105 day(-1), lambda = 1

  12. Arthropod colonization of land--linking molecules and fossils in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida).

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Ina; Norton, Roy A; Scheu, Stefan; Maraun, Mark

    2010-10-01

    Terrestrial fossils that document the early colonization of land are scarce for >100 my after the Cambrian explosion. This raises the question whether life on land did not exist or just did not fossilize. With a molecular dating technique, we analyzed the origin of terrestrial chelicerate microarthropods (Acari, Oribatida) which have a fossil record since the Middle Devonian that is exceptional among soil animals. Our results suggest that oribatid mites originated in the Precambrian (571+/-37 mya) and that the radiation of basal groups coincides with the gap in the terrestrial fossil record between the Cambrian explosion and the earliest fossilized records of continental ecosystems. Further, they suggest that the colonization of land started via the interstitial, approximately 150 my earlier than the oldest fossils of terrestrial ecosystems. Overall, the results imply that omnivorous and detritivorous arthropods formed a major component in early terrestrial food webs, thereby facilitating the invasion of terrestrial habitats by later colonizers of higher trophic levels.

  13. Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra).

    PubMed

    Marques, Sandro; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho

    2002-12-01

    Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-pregui a" (sloth's giant tick) is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae), Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae). Based on the material examined, the states of Rond nia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil.

  14. A New Species of Chigger Mite (Acari: Trombiculidae) from Rodents in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Tian-Guang; Wu, Dian; Fletcher, Quinn E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new species of chigger mite (Acari: Trombiculidae), Gahrliepia cangshanensis n. sp., from rodents in southwest China. The specimens were collected from Yunnan red-backed voles, Eothenomys miletus (Thomas, 1914), and a Chinese white-bellied rat, Niviventer confucianus (Milne-Edwards, 1871) in Yunnan Province. The new species is unique mainly in its number of dorsal setae (n=21), and it has the following features: fT (formula of palpotarsus)=4B (B=branched), fp (formula of palpal seta)=B/N/N/N/B (N=naked), a broad tongue-shaped scutum with an almost straight posterior margin, and 17 PPLs (posterior posterolateral seta) with a length of 36-43 µm. This chigger mite may also infect other rodent hosts and may be distributed in other localities. PMID:24623884

  15. Citrus leprosis virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on citrus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J C V; Kitajima, E W; Childers, C C; Chagas, C M

    2003-01-01

    Citrus leprosis is caused by Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV) that is transmitted by mites in the genus Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). This disease directly reduces production and the life span of the citrus plant. The main symptoms of the disease include lesions on fruits, leaves, and twigs or small branches, causing premature fruit drop, defoliation, and death of the twigs or branches leading to serious tree decline. Leprosis is a highly destructive disease of citrus, wherever it occurs. The Brazilian citrus industry spends over 100 million US dollars annually on acaricides to control the vector, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes). This review contains information about the history of the etiology of citrus leprosis, its geographical distribution, host range, the role of the mite vectors, viral morphology and relationships with the infected cell, and transmissibility of the virus by the mite. In addition, data on the mite-virus-plant relationship, disease damage, and strategies for controlling disease spread are presented.

  16. Quill mites of the genus Syringophilopsis Kethley, 1970 (Acari: Syringophilidae) from North American birds.

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej; Flannery, Maureen E; Spicer, Greg S

    2008-12-01

    Seven mite species belonging to the genus Syringophilopsis Kethley, 1970 (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) are recorded from 10 passeriform host species from the USA. Three new species are described and illustrated: Syringophilopsis polioptilus sp. n. from Polioptila caerulea (Linnaeus) (Polioptilidae); S. empidonax sp. n. from Empidonax hamrnmondii (Vesey) and Empidonax wrightii Baird (Tyrannidae); and S. sialiae sp. n. from Sialia mexicana Swainson (Turdidae). In addition, records of new hosts are given: Turdus migratorius Linnaeus (Turdidae) for Syringophilopsis turdus (Fritsch, 1958); three tyrannid species (Tyrannidae), Myiarchus crinitus (Linnaeus), M. cinerascens (Lawrence) and Tyrannus verticalis Say for S. tyranni Bochkov et Galloway, 2004; Euphagus cyanocephalus (Wagler) (Icteridae) for S. elongatus (Ewing, 1911); and two parulid species (Parulidae), Dendroica graciae Baird and Wilsonia pusilla (Wilson) for S. dendroicae Bochkov et Galloway, 2001. All known species of the genus Syringophilopsis from the Nearctic Region are summarized in tabular form. Syringophilopsis porzanae Bochkov et Galloway, 2004 is reassigned to the genus Ascetonmylla Kethley, 1970. PMID:19175207

  17. A review of the natural enemies of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Daniel; Frank, J Howard; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos V; Peña, Jorge E

    2012-08-01

    A review of all the available information about the natural enemies reported in association with the red palm mite, Raoiella indica is presented. Twenty-eight species of predatory arthropods, including mites and insects, have been reported in association with R. indica in Asia, Africa and the Neotropics. In addition, pathogenic fungi associated with R. indica in the Caribbean have been reported. The available literature indicates that each site has a different natural enemy complex with only one predator species, Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), present in all the geographical areas. The phytoseiids, Amblyseius caudatus Berlese, Amblyseius channabasavanni Gupta and A. largoensis, were regarded as important natural enemies of R. indica, and their predatory efficiency was studied in some detail. Among the predatory insects the coccinellids Stethorus keralicus Kapur and Telsimia ephippiger Chapin were reported as major predators of R. indica. The known distribution, abundance and relative importance of each species reported in association with R. indica are discussed. PMID:21972084

  18. A review of the natural enemies of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Daniel; Frank, J Howard; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos V; Peña, Jorge E

    2012-08-01

    A review of all the available information about the natural enemies reported in association with the red palm mite, Raoiella indica is presented. Twenty-eight species of predatory arthropods, including mites and insects, have been reported in association with R. indica in Asia, Africa and the Neotropics. In addition, pathogenic fungi associated with R. indica in the Caribbean have been reported. The available literature indicates that each site has a different natural enemy complex with only one predator species, Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), present in all the geographical areas. The phytoseiids, Amblyseius caudatus Berlese, Amblyseius channabasavanni Gupta and A. largoensis, were regarded as important natural enemies of R. indica, and their predatory efficiency was studied in some detail. Among the predatory insects the coccinellids Stethorus keralicus Kapur and Telsimia ephippiger Chapin were reported as major predators of R. indica. The known distribution, abundance and relative importance of each species reported in association with R. indica are discussed.

  19. Proctolaelaps euserratus, an ecologically unusual melicharid mite (Acari, Mesostigmata) associated with animal and human decomposition.

    PubMed

    Mašán, Peter; Perotti, Maria Alejandra; Saloña-Bordas, Marta Inés; Braig, Henk Ronald

    2013-12-01

    Proctolaelaps euserratus Karg, 1994 (Acari, Mesostigmata, Melicharidae), exclusivelly known from the Galápagos Islands till now, is newly reported from decaying matter of animal and human decomposition in various countries of Europe (Slovakia, Spain, United Kingdom). In consequence of high levels of necrophilia, the species is considered to be ecologically unusual among the other melicharids, which are primary associated with other than necrophilic habitats, such as galleries of subcorticolous beetles, bumble bee nests, flowers, etc. Proctolaelaps euserratus is reviewed, morphologically re-described (with first diagnostic characters for males), and considered as a new potential marker for later stages of decomposition, namely butyric fermentation and dry decomposition as classified in modern concepts of forensic acarology.

  20. Arthropod colonization of land--linking molecules and fossils in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida).

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Ina; Norton, Roy A; Scheu, Stefan; Maraun, Mark

    2010-10-01

    Terrestrial fossils that document the early colonization of land are scarce for >100 my after the Cambrian explosion. This raises the question whether life on land did not exist or just did not fossilize. With a molecular dating technique, we analyzed the origin of terrestrial chelicerate microarthropods (Acari, Oribatida) which have a fossil record since the Middle Devonian that is exceptional among soil animals. Our results suggest that oribatid mites originated in the Precambrian (571+/-37 mya) and that the radiation of basal groups coincides with the gap in the terrestrial fossil record between the Cambrian explosion and the earliest fossilized records of continental ecosystems. Further, they suggest that the colonization of land started via the interstitial, approximately 150 my earlier than the oldest fossils of terrestrial ecosystems. Overall, the results imply that omnivorous and detritivorous arthropods formed a major component in early terrestrial food webs, thereby facilitating the invasion of terrestrial habitats by later colonizers of higher trophic levels. PMID:20420932

  1. Citrus leprosis virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on citrus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J C V; Kitajima, E W; Childers, C C; Chagas, C M

    2003-01-01

    Citrus leprosis is caused by Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV) that is transmitted by mites in the genus Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). This disease directly reduces production and the life span of the citrus plant. The main symptoms of the disease include lesions on fruits, leaves, and twigs or small branches, causing premature fruit drop, defoliation, and death of the twigs or branches leading to serious tree decline. Leprosis is a highly destructive disease of citrus, wherever it occurs. The Brazilian citrus industry spends over 100 million US dollars annually on acaricides to control the vector, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes). This review contains information about the history of the etiology of citrus leprosis, its geographical distribution, host range, the role of the mite vectors, viral morphology and relationships with the infected cell, and transmissibility of the virus by the mite. In addition, data on the mite-virus-plant relationship, disease damage, and strategies for controlling disease spread are presented. PMID:14756415

  2. Evaluation of corn plant as potential banker plant for supporting predatory gall Midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in greenhouse vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most important and highly polyphagous pests of vegetables and other crops worldwide. In this study, several experiments were conducted under laboratory and greenhouse conditions to evaluate whether corn plant ...

  3. Two new species of Pachyseius Berlese (Acari: Pachylaelapidae) from Turkey, with a key to the world species.

    PubMed

    Özbek, Hasan Hüseyin; Halliday, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The genus Pachyseius Berlese, 1910 (Acari: Pachylaelapidae) is reported from Turkey for the first time. Pachyseius siranensis sp. nov. and Pachyseius masani sp. nov. are described from females collected from litter and moss in north-eastern Turkey. A world-wide key to the species of Pachyseius is provided. The number of setae on the ventri-anal shield appears to be variable within some species in this genus. Some species of Pachyseius show reductions in chaetotaxy on tarsi III and IV. 

  4. Approaches for sampling the twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on clementines in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ferrer, M T; Jacas, J A; Ripollés-Moles, J L; Aucejo-Romero, S

    2006-08-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is an important pest of clementine mandarins, Citrus reticulata Blanco, in Spain. As a first step toward the development of an integrated crop management program for clementines, dispersion patterns of T. urticae females were determined for different types of leaves and fruit. The study was carried out between 2001 and 2003 in different commercial clementine orchards in the provinces of Castelló and Tarragona (northeastern Spain). We found that symptomatic leaves (those exhibiting typical chlorotic spots) harbored 57.1% of the total mite counts. Furthermore, these leaves were representative of mite dynamics on other leaf types. Therefore, symptomatic leaves were selected as a sampling unit. Dispersion patterns generated by Taylor's power law demonstrated the occurrence of aggregated patterns of spatial distribution (b > 1.21) on both leaves and fruit. Based on these results, the incidence (proportion of infested samples) and mean density relationship were developed. We found that optimal binomial sample sizes for estimating low populations of T. urticae on leaves (up to 0.2 female per leaf) were very large. Therefore, enumerative sampling would be more reliable within this range of T. urticae densities. However, binomial sampling was the only valid method for estimating mite density on fruit.

  5. Beat sampling accuracy in estimating spruce spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) populations and injury on juniper.

    PubMed

    Shrewsbury, Paula M; Hardin, Mark R

    2004-08-01

    The use of a standardized beat sampling method for estimating spruce spider mite, Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) (Acari: Tetranychidae), densities on a widely used evergreen ornamental plant species, Juniperus chinensis variety 'Sargentii' A. Henry (Cupressaceae), was examined. There was a significant positive relationship between total spruce spider mite densities and spider mite densities from beat sampling on juniper. The slope and intercept of the relationship may be used by pest managers to predict total spider mite densities on plants from beat sample counts. Beat sampling dramatically underestimates the total number of spider mites on a foliage sample. The relationships between spruce spider mite feeding injury and spider mite density estimates from beat sampling juniper foliage and total spider mite counts on foliage were also examined. There was a significant positive relationship between spruce spider mite density as estimated from beat sampling and injury to the plants. There was a similar positive relationship between the total number of spruce spider mites and injury to the plants, suggesting that a pest manager could use beat sampling counts to estimate plant injury and related thresholds. These findings have important implications to decision-making for spruce spider mite control, especially as it relates to threshold levels and determining rates of predator releases. Further assessment of the effectiveness of beat and other sampling methods across multiple spider mite- host plant associations needs to be examined to enable pest managers to select sampling plans that are feasible and reliable.

  6. Specifying Pathogen Associations of Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) in Western Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Mays, S E; Houston, A E; Trout Fryxell, R T

    2016-03-01

    Amblyomma maculatum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae) is established in western Tennessee, a region with increased risk for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and ehrlichiosis. This tick transmits Rickettsia parkeri to humans, likely contributing to cases of rickettsiosis in the region. The objective was to determine pathogen associations within questing and host-collected A. maculatum, and identify ecological factors associated with pathogen infection that may increase the effectiveness of surveillance methods. Of 265 ticks tested, 60 (22.6%) were infected with R. parkeri, and 15 (5.7%) with Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a Rickettsia of unknown pathogenicity. Two deer-collected ticks tested positive for Ehrlichia ewingii. No ticks were positive for Anaplasma or Borrelia species. None of the ecological factors tested (collection month, collection source, sex, and habitat type) were associated with R. parkeri infection. This project developed baseline prevalence and incidence data for monitoring pathogen prevalence in A. maculatum populations, and identified an inexpensive method for distinguishing R. parkeri from Ca. R. andeanae. PMID:26744464

  7. New species of oribatid mites with auriculate pteromorphs (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae) from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Corpuz-Raros, Leonila

    2015-01-14

    Three new species of oribatid mites of the family Galumnidae (Acari, Oribatida), Galumna (Cosmogalumna) vladopesici sp. nov., Carinogalumna philippinensis sp. nov. and Setogalumna luzonica sp. nov., are described from the Philippines. Galumna (Cosmogalumna) vladopesici sp. nov. is most similar morphologically to G. (C.) dongnaiensis Ermilov & Anichkin, 2013, but it differs from the latter by the surface of body, genital and anal plates, and by the number and size of notogastral porose areas. Carinogalumna philippinensis sp. nov. differs from all species of Carinogalumna by the number of notogastral porose areas and structure of lamellar and sublamellar lines. Setogalumna luzonica sp. nov. is most similar morphologically to S. excellens P. Balogh, 1985, but it differs from the latter by the body size, morphology of bothridial setae, anterior notogastral margin and notogastral porose areas Aa, and structure of lamellar and sublamellar lines. The genera Galumna and Carinogalumna are recorded for the first time in Philippines, and the genus Setogalumna in the Oriental region. Identification keys to known species of Galumna (Cosmogalumna) and Setogalumna are given. 

  8. Molecular cophylogenetic relationships between European bats and their ectoparasitic mites (Acari, Spinturnicidae).

    PubMed

    Bruyndonckx, Nadia; Dubey, Sylvain; Ruedi, Manuel; Christe, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    Cospeciation between host-parasite species is generally thought to result in mirror-image congruent phylogenies. Incongruence can be explained by mechanisms such as host switching, duplication, failure to speciate and sorting events. To investigate the level of association in the host-parasite relationship between Spinturnicid mites and their bat hosts, we constructed the phylogenetic tree of the genus Spinturnix (Acari, Mesostigmata) and compared it to the host phylogeny. We sequenced 938bp of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA and Cytochrome Oxydase subunit I (COI) genes among eleven morphospecies of Spinturnix collected on 20 European Vespertilionid and Rhinolophid bat species. Phylogenetic reconstruction of hosts and parasites showed statistical evidence for cospeciation and suggested that their evolutionary history involved also failure to speciate events and host switches. The latter seem to be mainly promoted by similar roosting habits of the host. As currently understood, host associations of Spinturnicid mites likely results from a complex interaction between the phylogenetic history of the host and the behaviour and the ecology of both parasite and host.

  9. Morphological and molecular analysis of Ornithonyssus spp. (Acari: Macronyssidae) from small terrestrial mammals in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Labruna, Marcelo B; Marcili, Arlei; Durden, Lance A; Mendoza-Uribe, Leonardo; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2011-12-01

    Based on chaetotaxy of the dorsal shield, the taxonomic status of many species of Ornithonyssus has been considered invalid, resulting in the synonymy of all Brazilian Ornithonyssus from small terrestrial wild mammals into one of the following four species: Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst, 1913), Ornithonyssus matogrosso (Fonseca, 1954), Ornithonyssus pereirai (Fonseca, 1935) or Ornithonyssus wernecki (Fonseca, 1935). Despite the revision of this genus in 1980, including all known species worldwide, the knowledge of Ornithonyssus in Brazil has not progressed for more than 40 years. Considering the potential importance of these haematophagous mites in transmitting rickettsial disease agents to animals and humans, we have revised Ornithonyssus species collected from small mammals in Brazil by means of morphological and molecular studies. Types and other material deposited in the Acari Collection of the Instituto Butantan (IBSP) were examined in addition to recently collected specimens. Morphological and genetic analysis of the 16S rDNA mitochondrial gene revealed that small terrestrial mammals in Brazil are parasitized by six species of Ornithonyssus mites: Ornithonyssus brasiliensis (Fonseca, 1939), O. matogrosso, O. monteiroi (Fonseca, 1941), O. pereirai, O. vitzthumi (Fonseca, 1941), and O. wernecki. An illustrated key to females of the valid Brazilian species of Ornithonyssus is included, based on optical and scanning electron microscopy. PMID:21786041

  10. Practical sampling plans for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies and apiaries.

    PubMed

    Lee, K V; Moon, R D; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Spivak, M

    2010-08-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) is arguably the most detrimental pest of the European-derived honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Unfortunately, beekeepers lack a standardized sampling plan to make informed treatment decisions. Based on data from 31 commercial apiaries, we developed sampling plans for use by beekeepers and researchers to estimate the density of mites in individual colonies or whole apiaries. Beekeepers can estimate a colony's mite density with chosen level of precision by dislodging mites from approximately to 300 adult bees taken from one brood box frame in the colony, and they can extrapolate to mite density on a colony's adults and pupae combined by doubling the number of mites on adults. For sampling whole apiaries, beekeepers can repeat the process in each of n = 8 colonies, regardless of apiary size. Researchers desiring greater precision can estimate mite density in an individual colony by examining three, 300-bee sample units. Extrapolation to density on adults and pupae may require independent estimates of numbers of adults, of pupae, and of their respective mite densities. Researchers can estimate apiary-level mite density by taking one 300-bee sample unit per colony, but should do so from a variable number of colonies, depending on apiary size. These practical sampling plans will allow beekeepers and researchers to quantify mite infestation levels and enhance understanding and management of V. destructor.

  11. Comparing oxalic acid and sucrocide treatments for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) control under desert conditions.

    PubMed

    Sammataro, D; Finley, J; Underwood, R

    2008-08-01

    The effectiveness of oxalic acid (OA) and Sucrocide (S) (AVA Chemical Ventures, L.L.C., Portsmouth, NH) in reducing populations of the varroa mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies was measured under the desert conditions of Arizona, USA. OA and S were applied three times 7 d apart. A 3.2% solution of OA was applied in sugar syrup via a large volume syringe, trickling 5 ml per space between frames in the colony. S was applied at a concentration of 0.625% (mixed with water), according to the label directions, using a compressed air Chapin sprayer at 20 psi to apply 59 ml per frame space. Varroa mites, collected on a sticky board before, during, and after the treatments, were counted to assess the effectiveness of the treatments. This study showed that a desert climate zone did not confer any positive or negative results on the acaricidal properties of OA. Even with brood present in colonies, significant varroa mite mortality occurred in the OA colonies. In contrast, we found that Sucrocide was not effective as a mite control technique. Despite its ability to increase mite mortality in the short-term, varroa mite populations measured posttreatment were not affected any more by Sucrocide than by no treatment at all.

  12. Effects of radiation (Cobalt-60) on the elimination of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) Cardinium endosymbiont.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Valdenice M; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Segatti, Naiara; Mineiro, Jeferson L C; Arthur, Valter; Bastianel, Marinês; Hilf, Mark E; Gottwald, Tim R; Machado, Marcos A

    2008-08-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is a polyphagous mite with worldwide distribution and it is also a vector of several plant viruses. In citrus, B. phoenicis transmits Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV), the causal agent of leprosis, a disease that costs millions of dollars per year for its prevention and control. Brevipalpus phoenicis mites reproduce through thelytokous parthenogenesis, producing haploid females. This characteristic is attributable to the presence of an endosymbiont bacterium of the genus Cardinium; however, very little is known about the biological and ecological implications of the presence of this endosymbiont in Brevipalpus mites. In order to investigate the role of Cardinium in the transmission of CiLV to citrus plants, our goal was to eliminate the bacterium from the mite. We assessed the effectiveness of different doses of radiation from a Cobalt-60 source to cure B. phoenicis populations from Cardinium sp. The efficiency of irradiation on the elimination of the endosymbiont was determined by counting the number of females and males obtained in the F(1) generation after irradiation and confirming the presence of the endosymbiont by PCR. Both radiation treatments influenced the oviposition period and the number of eggs laid by irradiated females. Also, irradiation eliminated the Cardinium endosymbiont and increased the number of males in progeny of the exposed populations. Although macroscopic morphological abnormalities were not observed among the treated mites, the mortality was higher compared to the non-irradiated control group.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA and RAPD polymorphisms in the haploid mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J C V; Gallo-Meagher, M; Ochoa, R; Childers, C C; Adams, B J

    2004-01-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is recognized as the vector of citrus leprosis virus that is a significant problem in several South American countries. Citrus leprosis has been reported from Florida in the past but no longer occurs on citrus in North America. The disease was recently reported in Central America, suggesting that B. phoenicis constitutes a potential threat to the citrus industries of North America and the Caribbean. Besides B. phoenicis, B. obovatus Donnadieu, and B. californicus (Banks) have been incriminated as vectors of citrus leprosis virus and each species has hundreds of host plants. In this study, Brevipalpus mite specimens were collected from different plants, especially citrus, in the States of Florida (USA) and São Paulo (Brazil), and reared on citrus fruit under standard laboratory conditions. Mites were taken from these colonies for DNA extraction and for morphological species identification. One hundred and two Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were scored along with amplification and sequencing of a mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene fragment (374 bp). Variability among the colonies was detected with consistent congruence between both molecular data sets. The mites from the Florida and Brazilian colonies were morphologically identified as belonging to B. phoenicis, and comprise a monophyletic group. These colonies could be further diagnosed and subdivided geographically by mitochondrial DNA analysis.

  14. Sequential sampling plan for Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on rubber tree.

    PubMed

    Martins, G L M; Vieira, M R; Barbosa, J C

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a sequential sampling plan for the decision-making process to control Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), an important pest of the rubber tree crop. The experimental area was represented by 1,000 plants of the RRIM 600 clone divided in 100 plots with 10 plants each. Leaves were collected and the number of mites determined under laboratory conditions. The sequential sampling plan was developed in accordance with the Sequential Test Likelihood Ratio. The value 0.10 was pre-established for α and β representing type I and type II errors, respectively. The level of control adopted was six mites per 12 cm(2). The operating characteristic curve and the curve of maximum expected sample were determined. Two lines were generated: the upper one, when the condition for chemical control is recommended (S1 = 23.3080 + 2.1972); and the lower, when chemical control is not recommended (S0 = -23.3080 + 2.1972). Sample size for the decision-making process to control T. heveae requires 6 to 18 plants.

  15. Sequential sampling plan for Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on rubber tree.

    PubMed

    Martins, G L M; Vieira, M R; Barbosa, J C

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a sequential sampling plan for the decision-making process to control Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), an important pest of the rubber tree crop. The experimental area was represented by 1,000 plants of the RRIM 600 clone divided in 100 plots with 10 plants each. Leaves were collected and the number of mites determined under laboratory conditions. The sequential sampling plan was developed in accordance with the Sequential Test Likelihood Ratio. The value 0.10 was pre-established for α and β representing type I and type II errors, respectively. The level of control adopted was six mites per 12 cm(2). The operating characteristic curve and the curve of maximum expected sample were determined. Two lines were generated: the upper one, when the condition for chemical control is recommended (S1 = 23.3080 + 2.1972); and the lower, when chemical control is not recommended (S0 = -23.3080 + 2.1972). Sample size for the decision-making process to control T. heveae requires 6 to 18 plants. PMID:23949755

  16. Life history of Amblyseius herbicolus (Chant) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on coffee plants.

    PubMed

    Reis, Paulo R; Teodoro, Adenir V; Pedro Neto, Marçal; da Silva, Ester A

    2007-01-01

    The predaceous mite Amblyseius herbicolus (Chant) is the second most abundant phytoseiid on coffee plants (Coffea arabica L), after Euseius alatus DeLeon, in Lavras, MG, Brazil, associated to the vector of the coffee ring spot virus, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Its life history was studied taking into account biological aspects, life table, predatory activity and functional and numerical responses in relation to the density of the prey. The adult female has longevity of 38 days when supplied with B. phoenicis. The intrinsic rate of population increase (r m) was 0.150 and the mean generation time (T) 25.3 days. The population doubles every 4.6 days. Thirty mites B. phoenicis /3-cm diameter coffee leaf arenas were separately offered to one specimen of each predator phase. Adult females were more efficient in killing all developmental phases of B. phoenicis, followed by the nymph stages. For the functional and numerical responses studies, from 0.14 to 42.3 immature specimens of the prey /cm(2) of arena were submitted to the predator, the preferred phase for predation. Predation and the oviposition of A. herbicolus increased with increasing prey density, with a positive and highly significant correlation. Regression analysis suggests a functional type II response, with a maximum daily predation near 35 B. phoenicis /cm(2) /one adult female. PMID:17607463

  17. Mitochondrial DNA and RAPD polymorphisms in the haploid mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J C V; Gallo-Meagher, M; Ochoa, R; Childers, C C; Adams, B J

    2004-01-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is recognized as the vector of citrus leprosis virus that is a significant problem in several South American countries. Citrus leprosis has been reported from Florida in the past but no longer occurs on citrus in North America. The disease was recently reported in Central America, suggesting that B. phoenicis constitutes a potential threat to the citrus industries of North America and the Caribbean. Besides B. phoenicis, B. obovatus Donnadieu, and B. californicus (Banks) have been incriminated as vectors of citrus leprosis virus and each species has hundreds of host plants. In this study, Brevipalpus mite specimens were collected from different plants, especially citrus, in the States of Florida (USA) and São Paulo (Brazil), and reared on citrus fruit under standard laboratory conditions. Mites were taken from these colonies for DNA extraction and for morphological species identification. One hundred and two Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were scored along with amplification and sequencing of a mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene fragment (374 bp). Variability among the colonies was detected with consistent congruence between both molecular data sets. The mites from the Florida and Brazilian colonies were morphologically identified as belonging to B. phoenicis, and comprise a monophyletic group. These colonies could be further diagnosed and subdivided geographically by mitochondrial DNA analysis. PMID:15651525

  18. Effects of radiation (Cobalt-60) on the elimination of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) Cardinium endosymbiont.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Valdenice M; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Segatti, Naiara; Mineiro, Jeferson L C; Arthur, Valter; Bastianel, Marinês; Hilf, Mark E; Gottwald, Tim R; Machado, Marcos A

    2008-08-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is a polyphagous mite with worldwide distribution and it is also a vector of several plant viruses. In citrus, B. phoenicis transmits Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV), the causal agent of leprosis, a disease that costs millions of dollars per year for its prevention and control. Brevipalpus phoenicis mites reproduce through thelytokous parthenogenesis, producing haploid females. This characteristic is attributable to the presence of an endosymbiont bacterium of the genus Cardinium; however, very little is known about the biological and ecological implications of the presence of this endosymbiont in Brevipalpus mites. In order to investigate the role of Cardinium in the transmission of CiLV to citrus plants, our goal was to eliminate the bacterium from the mite. We assessed the effectiveness of different doses of radiation from a Cobalt-60 source to cure B. phoenicis populations from Cardinium sp. The efficiency of irradiation on the elimination of the endosymbiont was determined by counting the number of females and males obtained in the F(1) generation after irradiation and confirming the presence of the endosymbiont by PCR. Both radiation treatments influenced the oviposition period and the number of eggs laid by irradiated females. Also, irradiation eliminated the Cardinium endosymbiont and increased the number of males in progeny of the exposed populations. Although macroscopic morphological abnormalities were not observed among the treated mites, the mortality was higher compared to the non-irradiated control group. PMID:18648995

  19. Occurrence of Poecilochirus austroasiaticus (Acari: Parasitidae) in forensic autopsies and its application on postmortem interval estimation.

    PubMed

    González Medina, Alejandro; González Herrera, Lucas; Perotti, M Alejandra; Jiménez Ríos, Gilberto

    2013-03-01

    Despite the fact that mites were used at the dawn of forensic entomology to elucidate the postmortem interval, their use in current cases remains quite low for procedural reasons such as inadequate taxonomic knowledge. A special interest is focused on the phoretic stages of some mite species, because the phoront-host specificity allows us to deduce in many occasions the presence of the carrier (usually Diptera or Coleoptera) although it has not been seen in the sampling performed in situ or in the autopsy room. In this article, we describe two cases where Poecilochirus austroasiaticus Vitzthum (Acari: Parasitidae) was sampled in the autopsy room. In the first case, we could sample the host, Thanatophilus ruficornis (Küster) (Coleoptera: Silphidae), which was still carrying phoretic stages of the mite on the body. That attachment allowed, by observing starvation/feeding periods as a function of the digestive tract filling, the establishment of chronological cycles of phoretic behavior, showing maximum peaks of phoronts during arrival and departure from the corpse and the lowest values in the phase of host feeding. From the sarcosaprophagous fauna, we were able to determine in this case a minimum postmortem interval of 10 days. In the second case, we found no Silphidae at the place where the corpse was found or at the autopsy, but a postmortem interval of 13 days could be established by the high specificity of this interspecific relationship and the departure from the corpse of this family of Coleoptera.

  20. Temperature-dependent fumigant activity of essential oils against twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Lim, Eu Gene; Roh, Hyun Sik; Coudron, Thomas A; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2011-04-01

    Fumigant activity of 34 commercial essential oils was assessed on female adults and eggs of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) at three temperatures (5, 15, and 25 degrees C). Common thyme, cinnamon, and lemongrass oils were equally effective on twospotted spider mite adults showing 85.8-100% mortality at 5 and 10 microl/liter air at 25 degrees C. At a lower temperature of 15 degrees C, lemongrass and peppermint resulted in > or =90% mortality of adults at 10 microl/liter air. Only lemongrass was relatively active at 5 microl/liter air, at 15 degrees C. At 5 degrees C, lemongrass and peppermint caused significantly higher adult mortality than controls but only at 10 microl/liter air. Common thyme oil showed the highest ovicidal activity at 5 microl/liter air at 25 degrees C. Among the main components of common thyme and lemongrass oils, citral was lethal to twospotted spider mite adults at all tested temperatures. Carvacrol, thymol, and citral caused the same inhibitory effects on the hatch of twospotted spider mite eggs at 25 degrees C. However, citral was more active than other compounds to twospotted spider mite eggs at 15 degrees C. Therefore, we conclude that citral has the best potential for development as a fumigant against twospotted spider mite on agricultural products harvested late in the growing season.

  1. Flagging versus dragging as sampling methods for nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rulison, Eric L.; Kuczaj, Isis; Pang, Genevieve; Hickling, Graham J.; Tsao, Jean I.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    The nymphal stage of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), is responsible for most transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, to humans in North America. From 2010 to fall of 2012, we compared two commonly used techniques, flagging and dragging, as sampling methods for nymphal I. scapularis at three sites, each with multiple sampling arrays (grids), in the eastern and central United States. Flagging and dragging collected comparable numbers of nymphs, with no consistent differences between methods. Dragging collected more nymphs than flagging in some samples, but these differences were not consistent among sites or sampling years. The ratio of nymphs collected by flagging vs dragging was not significantly related to shrub density, so habitat type did not have a strong effect on the relative efficacy of these methods. Therefore, although dragging collected more ticks in a few cases, the numbers collected by each method were so variable that neither technique had a clear advantage for sampling nymphal I. scapularis.

  2. Deoxidant-induced anoxia as a physical measure for controlling spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takeshi; Wang, Chih-Hung; Gotoh, Tetsuo; Amano, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Katsumi

    2015-03-01

    Tiny agricultural pests such as spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) attached to seedlings grown outdoors often invade greenhouses, thereby triggering pest outbreaks. To solve the problem, we examined whether differences in anoxia tolerance between animals and plants would permit the application of an anoxic environment to control spider mites without the aid of acaricides. Under an anoxic environment created by using a commercial deoxidant at 25 °C, the time for 50 % mortality of eggs, non-diapausing adults (summer form), and diapausing adults (winter form) were 6.1, 5.5, and 23.6 h, respectively, for Tetranychus urticae Koch and 5.4, 3.9, and 23.2 h, respectively, for Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida. With anoxia for 12 h, no eggs and non-diapausing adults survived in either species, whereas most diapausing adults (98 % for T. urticae and 88 % for T. kanzawai) survived. Under this treatment, host Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings showed serious physiological disorders in their primary leaves and apical buds, and unusual lateral buds developed in the cotyledon axils. The spider mites acquire anoxia tolerance during diapause, but anoxia can potentially control them during the summer if no negative effects are observed in the treated seedlings.

  3. Tick species (Acari: Ixodida) in Antalya City, Turkey: species diversity and seasonal activity.

    PubMed

    Koc, Samed; Aydın, Levent; Cetin, Huseyin

    2015-07-01

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) are an important group of ectoparasites of vertebrates. Most species are known vectors of diseases including Lyme disease, Q fever, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. A 3-year research was conducted in Antalya, Turkey, to determine tick species composition, seasonal abundance, and spatial distribution. The study was carried out in five districts (Aksu, Dosemealtı, Kepez, Konyaaltı, and Muratpasa) of Antalya Metropolitan Municipality area in Turkey, between May 2010 and May 2013, where 1393 tick specimens were collected from domestic and wild animals (cattle, goats, sheep, hedgehogs, tortoises, dogs, cats, chickens) and from the environment. The collected ticks were preserved in 70 % alcohol and then were identified. Five genus and eight hard and soft tick species were identified, including Argas persicus, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. sanguineus, R. turanicus, Hyalomma aegyptium, H. marginatum, Haemaphysalis parva, and Dermacentor niveus. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. turanicus, and H. aegyptium were the most common tick species in Antalya city. Rhipicephalus turanicus and R. sanguineus were the most abundant tick species infesting dogs in the city. The hosts of H. aegyptium are primarily tortoises in Antalya. The results of this research will contribute to establishing appropriate measures to control tick infestations on animals and humans and their environment in the city of Antalya. PMID:25869959

  4. In situ observation of the Cardinium symbionts of Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Elliot W; Groot, Thomas V M; Novelli, Valdenice M; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Alberti, Gerd; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2007-01-01

    Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) mites are important pests on a variety of host plant species. The mites damage their hosts directly by feeding and some species also serve as vectors of plant viruses. Among more than 200 described Brevipalpus species, three are recognized as vectors of plant viruses: B. phoenicis, B. californicus and B. obovatus. These species occur worldwide in subtropical and tropical regions. Brevipalpus mites reproduce mostly by thelytokous parthenogenesis and this condition was attributed to a bacterial endosymbiont, recently characterized as a member of the genus Cardinium. The same symbiont infects many other arthropods and is capable of manipulating their host reproduction in various ways. Generally the presence of Cardinium is determined by molecular, PCR based, techniques. In the current work we present visual evidence for the presence of these bacteria by transmission electron microscopy as a complement of previous detection by PCR. Cardinium is easily identified by the presence of a unique array of microtubule-like structures (ML) in the cell. Symbionts have been observed in several organs and eggs from different populations of all three Brevipalpus species known as vector of plant viruses. Cardinium cells were always immersed directly within the cytoplasm of infected cells. Bacteria were observed in all females of all instars, but were absent from all males examined. Females from some Brevipalpus populations were observed to be uninfected by Cardinium. This observation confirmed previous PCR-based results that these populations were aposymbiotic. The observed distribution of the bacteria suggests that these bacteria could have other functions in the mite biology beside feminization.

  5. Prevalence of Ehrlichia, Borrelia, and Rickettsial agents in Amblyomma americanum (Acari : Ixodidae) collected from nine states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mixson, T.R.; Campbell, S.R.; Gill, J.S.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Reichard, M.V.; Schultz, T.L.; Dasch, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Ambyomma antericanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) is an aggressive tick that feeds on humans during all postembryonic life stages. In many regions of the United States, it is the tick most commonly found attached to humans. Public health interest has grown recently, due to the recognition of new human pathogens transmitted by A. antericanum and the expanding distribution of the tick. A. americanum is a vector of several bacteria pathogenic to humans. Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii cause moderate-to-severe febrile illness. 'Rickettsia amblyommii,' a member of the spotted fever group Rickettsia, also has recently been implicated as a possible human pathogen based on serologic evidence from persons recovering from illness after a tick bite. We have determined the prevalence of infection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, E. ewingii, 'Borrelia lonestari,' and R. amblyommii within A. americanum ticks from 29 sites in nine states. Overall infection prevalences were 4.7% for E. chaffeensis (range, 0-27%), 3.5% for E. ewingii (range, 0-18.6%), 2.5% for B. lonestari (range, 0-12.2%), and 41.2% for R. amblyommii (range, 0-84.0%). In addition, 87 ticks (4.3%) were infected with two or more bacteria. This report documents new distribution records for E. ewingii, B. lonestari, and R. amblyommii and underscores the nonhomogeneous distribution of pathogen foci of infection. Additional surveillance throughout the range of A. antericanum is warranted to increase physician and public awareness of the risk of disease to humans from exposure to the agents transmitted by this tick.

  6. In situ observation of the Cardinium symbionts of Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Elliot W; Groot, Thomas V M; Novelli, Valdenice M; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Alberti, Gerd; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2007-01-01

    Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) mites are important pests on a variety of host plant species. The mites damage their hosts directly by feeding and some species also serve as vectors of plant viruses. Among more than 200 described Brevipalpus species, three are recognized as vectors of plant viruses: B. phoenicis, B. californicus and B. obovatus. These species occur worldwide in subtropical and tropical regions. Brevipalpus mites reproduce mostly by thelytokous parthenogenesis and this condition was attributed to a bacterial endosymbiont, recently characterized as a member of the genus Cardinium. The same symbiont infects many other arthropods and is capable of manipulating their host reproduction in various ways. Generally the presence of Cardinium is determined by molecular, PCR based, techniques. In the current work we present visual evidence for the presence of these bacteria by transmission electron microscopy as a complement of previous detection by PCR. Cardinium is easily identified by the presence of a unique array of microtubule-like structures (ML) in the cell. Symbionts have been observed in several organs and eggs from different populations of all three Brevipalpus species known as vector of plant viruses. Cardinium cells were always immersed directly within the cytoplasm of infected cells. Bacteria were observed in all females of all instars, but were absent from all males examined. Females from some Brevipalpus populations were observed to be uninfected by Cardinium. This observation confirmed previous PCR-based results that these populations were aposymbiotic. The observed distribution of the bacteria suggests that these bacteria could have other functions in the mite biology beside feminization. PMID:17634867

  7. Passion fruit green spot virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on passion fruit in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, E W; Rezende, J A M; Rodrigues, J C V

    2003-01-01

    Passion fruit green spot disease was first identified in 1997 after a severe outbreak at Vera Cruz County, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Mature yellow fruits of Passiflora edulis Simms f. flavicarpa Degener showed characteristic green spots, 2-5 mm in diameter and patches of green tissues were present on senescent leaves. The devastating effect to passion flower is caused by necrotic lesions that encircle the stems and kill the plant. In severe cases, entire orchards of a few hectares in size have been completely destroyed. The disease was always preceded by heavy infestations of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Transmission electron microscopy of affected tissues (fruits, leaves, and stems) consistently revealed the presence of short, bacilliform particles (50-70 nm x 100-120 nm) in the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as the presence of a dense viroplasm in the cytoplasm. This cytopathic effect has been found in several other Brevipalpus-transmitted or associated viruses and is classified as a cytoplasmic type of disease. Experimental reproduction of the leaf and stem symptoms was achieved by transferring B. phoenicis collected from affected field passion flower plants onto healthy plants. The evidence supports a viral etiology for the disease and the agent was named passion fruit green spot virus. Its relationship with other B. phoenicis related viruses continues to be studied. The disease was also found in the Brazilian states of Bahia, Sergipe, Rondonia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and in the Federal District. Use of one or more of the following acaricides (hexythiazox, fenbutatin-oxide, propargite, quinomethionate, or dicofol) has significantly reduced the incidence of the disease. PMID:14756419

  8. Bacterial diversity in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) with a focus on members of the genus Rickettsia.

    PubMed

    Heise, Stephanie R; Elshahed, M S; Little, S E

    2010-03-01

    The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae), is commonly reported from people and animals throughout the eastern U.S. and is associated with transmission of a number of emerging diseases. To better define the microbial communities within lone star ticks, 16S rRNA gene based analysis using bacteria-wide primers, followed by sequencing of individual clones (n = 449) was used to identify the most common bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) present within colony-reared and wild A. americanum. The colony-reared ticks contained primarily sequence affiliated with members of the genus Coxiella (89%; 81/91), common endosymbionts of ticks, and Brevibacterium (11%; 10/91). Similarly, analysis of clones from unfed wild lone star ticks revealed that 96.7% (89/92) of all the OTUs identified were affiliated with Coxiella-like endosymbionts, as compared with only 5.1-11.7% (5/98-9/77) of those identified from wild lone star ticks after feeding. In contrast, the proportion of OTUs identified as Rickettsia sp. in wild-caught ticks increased from 2.2% (2/92) before feeding to as high as 46.8% (36/77) after feeding, and all Rickettsia spp. sequences recovered were most similar to those described from the spotted fever group Rickettsia, specifically R. amblyommii and R. massiliae. Additional characterization of the Rickettsiales tick community by polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing of 17 kDa and gltA genes confirmed these initial findings and suggested that novel Rickettsia spp. are likely present in these ticks. These data provide insight into the overall, as well as the rickettsial community of wild lone star ticks and may ultimately aid in identification of novel pathogens transmitted by A. americanum.

  9. Seasonal changes in the cold hardiness of the two-spotted spider mite females (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Khodayari, S; Colinet, H; Moharramipour, S; Renault, D

    2013-12-01

    The twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is an important agricultural pest. Population dynamics and pest outbreaks highly depend on the overwintering success of the mite specimens; therefore, it is necessary to assess winter survival dynamics of this pest. Seasonal changes in supercooling point (SCP) and acute cold tolerance (2-h exposure at -5, -10, -15, -20, -23, or -25°C) were assessed in field-collected females during the winter in 2010-2011 in Iran. The SCP values varied from a minimum of -30.5°C (January 2011) to a maximum of -12.6°C (April 2011). Significant differences were recorded in the SCP distribution patterns between autumn- and winter-sampled females, depicting the acquisition of cold hardiness over the winter. The mean ambient air temperature was the lowest in January (4°C), when the females showed the highest supercooling ability. Correlated patterns between monthly temperatures and acute cold tolerance also were found. At -20°C, the survival of the mites was very low (10%) when they were sampled in October 2010; whereas it was high (97.5%) in January 2011, before decreasing to 5% in April 2011. The present data show that T. urticae females are chill tolerant and capable of adjusting their cold tolerance over the winter season. Acute cold tolerance (-15 and -20°C) and SCP represent valuable metrics that can be used for predicting the seasonal changes of the cold hardiness of T. urticae females.

  10. Passion fruit green spot virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on passion fruit in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, E W; Rezende, J A M; Rodrigues, J C V

    2003-01-01

    Passion fruit green spot disease was first identified in 1997 after a severe outbreak at Vera Cruz County, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Mature yellow fruits of Passiflora edulis Simms f. flavicarpa Degener showed characteristic green spots, 2-5 mm in diameter and patches of green tissues were present on senescent leaves. The devastating effect to passion flower is caused by necrotic lesions that encircle the stems and kill the plant. In severe cases, entire orchards of a few hectares in size have been completely destroyed. The disease was always preceded by heavy infestations of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Transmission electron microscopy of affected tissues (fruits, leaves, and stems) consistently revealed the presence of short, bacilliform particles (50-70 nm x 100-120 nm) in the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as the presence of a dense viroplasm in the cytoplasm. This cytopathic effect has been found in several other Brevipalpus-transmitted or associated viruses and is classified as a cytoplasmic type of disease. Experimental reproduction of the leaf and stem symptoms was achieved by transferring B. phoenicis collected from affected field passion flower plants onto healthy plants. The evidence supports a viral etiology for the disease and the agent was named passion fruit green spot virus. Its relationship with other B. phoenicis related viruses continues to be studied. The disease was also found in the Brazilian states of Bahia, Sergipe, Rondonia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and in the Federal District. Use of one or more of the following acaricides (hexythiazox, fenbutatin-oxide, propargite, quinomethionate, or dicofol) has significantly reduced the incidence of the disease.

  11. Monitoring Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae) With Traps in Dry-Cured Ham Aging Rooms.

    PubMed

    Amoah, Barbara; Schilling, M W; Phillips, Thomas W

    2016-08-01

    Methyl bromide is the most effective fumigant for controlling the mold (or ham) mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Acari: Acaridae), the most significant pest of dry-cured ham. However, methyl bromide is being phased out of use. Therefore, integrated pest management (IPM) methods should be developed to help control mites in dry-cured ham plants. The foundation of a successful IPM program is an effective monitoring program that provides information on pest presence and abundance over time. By using food-baited traps fabricated from disposable petri dishes and a dog food-based bait, mite activity over time and space was monitored in five dry-cured ham aging rooms from three commercial processing facilities that differed in their fumigation frequencies. Weekly sampling of the mite was conducted from June 2012 to September 2013. There were significant differences in the average weekly trap captures in all facilities, especially before and after fumigation, with the majority of mites in traps prior to fumigation. Mite numbers had a pattern of sharp decline after fumigation, followed by a steady increase until the next fumigation. Average trap captures varied due to trap location over the study period at all study sites, indicating that traps could be used to identify specific locations within an aging room where mite infestation of hams was more likely to occur. These findings can inform facility managers of mite population changes that can be used as one factor toward making pest management decisions and assessing the impact of fumigation or other pest mitigation actions. PMID:27247306

  12. Effects of soybean proteinase inhibitors on development of the soil mite Scheloribates praeincisus (Acari: Oribatida).

    PubMed

    Simões, R A; Silva-Filho, M C; Moura, D S; Delalibera, I

    2008-03-01

    Proteinase inhibitors (PI) are present in plant tissues, especially in seeds, and act as a defense mechanism against herbivores and pathogens. Serine PI from soybean such as Bowman-Birk (BBPI) and Kunitz have been used to enhance resistance of sugarcane varieties to the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), the major pest of this crop. The use of these genetically-modified plants (GM) expressing PI requires knowledge of its sustainability and environmental safety, determining the stability of the introduced characteristic and its effects on non-target organisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate direct effects of ingestion of semi-purified and purified soybean PI and GM sugarcane plants on the soil-dwelling mite Scheloribates praeincisus (Berlese) (Acari: Oribatida). This mite is abundant in agricultural soils and participates in the process of organic matter decomposition; for this reason it will be exposed to PI by feeding on GM plant debris. Eggs of S. praeincisus were isolated and after larvae emerged, immatures were fed milled sugarcane leaves added to semi-purified or purified PI (Kunitz and BBPI) or immatures were fed GM sugarcane varieties expressing Kunitz and BBPI type PI or the untransformed near isogenic parental line variety as a control. Developmental time (larva-adult) and survival of S. praeincisus was evaluated. Neither Kunitz nor BBPI affected S. praeincisus survival. On the other hand, ingestion of semi-purified and purified Kunitz inhibitor diminished duration of S. praeincisus immature stages. Ingestion of GM senescent leaves did not have an effect on S. praeincisus immature developmental time and survival, compared to ingestion of leaves from the isogenic parental plants. These results indicate that cultivation of these transgenic sugarcane plants is safe for the non-target species S. praeincisus.

  13. Mites (Arachnida: Acari) collected on rubber trees Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A.Juss.) Müll.Arg. in Santana, Amapá state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Deus, E G; Souza, M S M; Mineiro, J L C; Adaime, R; Santos, R S

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate a preliminary list of the mite species associated with rubber trees in the municipality of Santana, in the state of Amapá, Brazil. Two collections of rubber tree leaves were conducted on May 2nd and June 5th , 2010. Twenty-five plants were sampled at random. Three leaves were collected per plant, from the lower third of the crown. The samples were placed in paper bags, packed in an isothermal box chilled gel-based pulp plant (Gelo-X(®)), and transported to the Entomology Laboratory at Embrapa Amapá, in Macapá. The leaflets were examined under a stereomicroscope, and the mites found on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaves were collected with a stilet, mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer's medium, and later identified. We collected a total of 1,722 mites of 10 families: Acaridae, Cunaxidae, Eriophyidae, Iolinidae, Phytoseiidae, Stigmaeidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, Tydeidae, and Winterschmidtiidae, in addition to unidentified species of the suborders Oribatida and Astigmatina. The family Phytoseiidae represented only 2.90% of specimens collected, but showed the highest species richness (5 species). The only representative of Tenuipalpidae was Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945, but 81.13% of the mites collected in this study belonged to this species.

  14. Mites (Arachnida: Acari) collected on rubber trees Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A.Juss.) Müll.Arg. in Santana, Amapá state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Deus, E G; Souza, M S M; Mineiro, J L C; Adaime, R; Santos, R S

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate a preliminary list of the mite species associated with rubber trees in the municipality of Santana, in the state of Amapá, Brazil. Two collections of rubber tree leaves were conducted on May 2nd and June 5th , 2010. Twenty-five plants were sampled at random. Three leaves were collected per plant, from the lower third of the crown. The samples were placed in paper bags, packed in an isothermal box chilled gel-based pulp plant (Gelo-X(®)), and transported to the Entomology Laboratory at Embrapa Amapá, in Macapá. The leaflets were examined under a stereomicroscope, and the mites found on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaves were collected with a stilet, mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer's medium, and later identified. We collected a total of 1,722 mites of 10 families: Acaridae, Cunaxidae, Eriophyidae, Iolinidae, Phytoseiidae, Stigmaeidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, Tydeidae, and Winterschmidtiidae, in addition to unidentified species of the suborders Oribatida and Astigmatina. The family Phytoseiidae represented only 2.90% of specimens collected, but showed the highest species richness (5 species). The only representative of Tenuipalpidae was Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945, but 81.13% of the mites collected in this study belonged to this species. PMID:23295522

  15. Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Demodecidae) parasitizing Castor fiber (Rodentia), and other parasitic arthropods associated with Castor spp.

    PubMed

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Fryderyk, Sławomira; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2016-02-11

    A new species of demodecid mite, Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Demodecidae), is described based on adult stages from the skin of the nasal region of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758, collected in Poland. This is the first detection of a representative demodecid mite in rodents of the suborder Castorimorpha and also represents the first detection of a skin mite in Eurasian beavers. The new species is a small skin mite (average 173 µm in length) characterized by sexual dimorphism related to body proportions. D. castoris sp. nov. was observed in 4 out of 6 beavers examined (66.6%), with a mean intensity of 10.8 and an intensity range of 2-23 ind. host(-1). This paper also contains a checklist of parasitic arthropods known from Castor spp.

  16. Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Demodecidae) parasitizing Castor fiber (Rodentia), and other parasitic arthropods associated with Castor spp.

    PubMed

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Fryderyk, Sławomira; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2016-02-11

    A new species of demodecid mite, Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Demodecidae), is described based on adult stages from the skin of the nasal region of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758, collected in Poland. This is the first detection of a representative demodecid mite in rodents of the suborder Castorimorpha and also represents the first detection of a skin mite in Eurasian beavers. The new species is a small skin mite (average 173 µm in length) characterized by sexual dimorphism related to body proportions. D. castoris sp. nov. was observed in 4 out of 6 beavers examined (66.6%), with a mean intensity of 10.8 and an intensity range of 2-23 ind. host(-1). This paper also contains a checklist of parasitic arthropods known from Castor spp. PMID:26865230

  17. A new species of Tenuipalpus sensu stricto (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from Brazil, with ontogeny and a key to the known species.

    PubMed

    Castro, Elizeu B; Feres, Reinaldo J F; Ochoa, Ronald; Bauchan, Gary R

    2016-03-09

    The Cerrado is the second largest Brazilian biome, and is considered to be a "hotspot" due the great concentration of endemic species and high rate of deforestation. Surveys of the mite fauna present in this biome have revealed a great number of new species. In this paper, we describe Tenuipalpus spinosaurus sp. nov. (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), a new species of Tenuipalpus sensu stricto, from adult females, deutonymphs, protonymphs, larvae and eggs, collected on Terminalia argentea (Combretaceae), from the Cerrado in Brazil. Females of this new species bear a prominent longitudinal crest on the opisthosoma. The ontogenetic changes in the idiosoma and leg chaetotaxy of all stages are presented. A key to the world species of Tenuipalpus sensu stricto is provided.

  18. Screening of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) for reproductive endosymbionts reveals links between co-infection and evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Kai; Chen, Ya-Ting; Yang, Kun; Qiao, Ge-Xia; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive endosymbionts have been shown to have wide-ranging effects on many aspects of their hosts' biology. A first step to understanding how these endosymbionts interact with their hosts is to determine their incidences. Here, we screened for four reproductive endosymbionts (Wolbachia, Cardinium, Spiroplasma and Rickettsia) in 28 populations of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) representing 12 species. Each of the four endosymbionts were identified in at least some of the tested specimens, and their infection patterns showed variations at the species-level and population-level, suggesting their distributions can be correlated with both the phylogeny and ecology of the hosts. Co-infections of unrelated bacteria, especially double infections of Wolbachia and Cardinium within the same individuals were common. Spiroplasma and Rickettsia infections were specific to particular host species, respectively. Further, the evolutionary histories of these endosymbionts were inferred by comparing the phylogenies of them and their hosts. These findings can help to clarify the interactions between endosymbionts and arthropods.

  19. Relationship between body colour, feeding, and reproductive arrest under short-day development in Tetranychus pueraricola (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Ito, Katsura; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Arakawa, Ryo; Saito, Yutaka

    2013-08-01

    In Tetranychus spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae), diapausing females have a conspicuous orange body colour, which is used as an indicator of diapause induction in many laboratory studies. However, to which extent body colour reflects reproductive activity is scarcely investigated. In this study, we investigated the relationship between body colour, reproductive arrest, and food intake in the inbred strain of T. pueraricola individually reared at 20 °C with a 10:14 h light: dark photoperiod. Our results showed that (1) body colour is a good indicator of reproductive arrest 11 days after adult emergence but does not completely reflect reproductive status at an earlier age; (2) even orange females intermittently feed, and the arrest of feeding comes after the change in body colour; and (3) reproducing females have a higher risk of death than non-reproducing females. These results suggest that measurement of diapause incidence by body colour alone may miss the variation in reproductive status in early adult life.

  20. A new species of Tenuipalpus sensu stricto (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from Brazil, with ontogeny and a key to the known species.

    PubMed

    Castro, Elizeu B; Feres, Reinaldo J F; Ochoa, Ronald; Bauchan, Gary R

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado is the second largest Brazilian biome, and is considered to be a "hotspot" due the great concentration of endemic species and high rate of deforestation. Surveys of the mite fauna present in this biome have revealed a great number of new species. In this paper, we describe Tenuipalpus spinosaurus sp. nov. (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), a new species of Tenuipalpus sensu stricto, from adult females, deutonymphs, protonymphs, larvae and eggs, collected on Terminalia argentea (Combretaceae), from the Cerrado in Brazil. Females of this new species bear a prominent longitudinal crest on the opisthosoma. The ontogenetic changes in the idiosoma and leg chaetotaxy of all stages are presented. A key to the world species of Tenuipalpus sensu stricto is provided. PMID:27394345

  1. Catalogue and historical overview of juvenile instars of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida).

    PubMed

    Norton, Roy A; Ermilov, Sergey G

    2014-07-08

    Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) comprise a taxonomically and morphologically diverse suborder of about 10,000 described species, not including the hyporder Astigmata, with collectively a global distribution. They are primarily soil and litter inhabitants, feeding on fungi and decaying plant remains with various levels of specificity. Though all five active instars are important for reasons that relate to both ecology and systematics, most species are known only as adults. Our purpose was to gather the existing world literature on the active juvenile instars (i.e., excluding prelarva) of oribatid mites, to put classifications and nomenclature in a current context, and to identify the nature of the information in each paper. A selected historical overview identifies the contributions of 19th century authors C.L. Koch, H. Nicolet and A.D. Michael, and summarizes errors that resulted in various oribatid mite juveniles being classified in genera, families and even suborders that were different from those of their adult instars. The catalogue includes all species known to us for which juveniles have been described: 805 species in 310 genera, representing only about 8% of the known oribatid mite species and 30% of genera. These represent 118 families, about 70% of those known. At the superfamily level, representation is weakest among the diverse Oppioidea and Oribatuloidea, and those superfamilies with juveniles that are endophagous in organic substrates, such as Phthiracaroidea, Euphthiracaroidea and Carabodoidea. Representation is strongest in the middle-derivative hyporder Nothrina, in which adults and juveniles are more easily associated, and in brachypyline superfamilies that are mostly affiliated with aquatic, semiaquatic or intertidal environments, such as Limnozetoidea and Ameronothroidea. Juvenile instars remain unknown for 45 families of Brachypylina. Four new nomenclatural actions were proposed: Ojaithrus nymphoides Habeeb, 1982 is a junior synonym of

  2. Otoacariasis due to Edentalges bradypus Fonseca 1954 (Acari; Psoroptidae) infestation in the brown-throated three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Clarissa Pimentel; Verocai, Guilherme Gomes; de Arruda, Julio Almeida Alencar Matos; Pires, Jeferson Rocha; Takitani, Andréa Yuri; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the first description of gross pathological aspects of otoacariasis due to Edentalges bradypus Fonseca 1954 (Acari; Psoroptidae) infestation in the brown-throated three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825 (Xenarthra; Bradypodidae) in Brazil. Mites were collected from massive skin crusts seen in both external ear canals and around both eyes of an extremely debilitated advanced-aged female sloth brought to the Wildlife Care Section of Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  3. Otoacariasis due to Edentalges bradypus Fonseca 1954 (Acari; Psoroptidae) infestation in the brown-throated three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Clarissa Pimentel; Verocai, Guilherme Gomes; de Arruda, Julio Almeida Alencar Matos; Pires, Jeferson Rocha; Takitani, Andréa Yuri; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the first description of gross pathological aspects of otoacariasis due to Edentalges bradypus Fonseca 1954 (Acari; Psoroptidae) infestation in the brown-throated three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825 (Xenarthra; Bradypodidae) in Brazil. Mites were collected from massive skin crusts seen in both external ear canals and around both eyes of an extremely debilitated advanced-aged female sloth brought to the Wildlife Care Section of Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:19471963

  4. Exploration of the acarine fauna on coconut palm in Brazil with emphasis on Aceria guerreronis (Acari: Eriophyidae) and its natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Lawson-Balagbo, L M; Gondim, M G C; de Moraes, G J; Hanna, R; Schausberger, P

    2008-02-01

    Coconut is an important crop in tropical and subtropical regions. Among the mites that infest coconut palms, Aceria guerreronis Keifer is economically the most important. We conducted surveys throughout the coconut growing areas of Brazil. Samples were taken from attached coconuts, leaflets, fallen coconuts and inflorescences of coconut palms in 112 localities aiming to determine the occurrence and the distribution of phytophagous mites, particularly A. guerreronis, and associated natural enemies. Aceria guerreronis was the most abundant phytophagous mite followed by Steneotarsonemus concavuscutum Lofego & Gondim Jr. and Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon (Tarsonemidae). Infestation by A. guerreronis was recorded in 87% of the visited localities. About 81% of all predatory mites belonged to the family Phytoseiidae, mainly represented by Neoseiulus paspalivorus De Leon, Neoseiulus baraki Athias-Henriot and Amblyseius largoensis Muma; 12% were Ascidae, mainly Proctolaelaps bickleyi Bram, Proctolaelaps sp nov and Lasioseius subterraneus Chant. Neoseiulus paspalivorus and N. baraki were the most abundant predators on attached coconuts. Ascidae were predominant on fallen coconuts, while A. largoensis was predominant on leaflets; no mites were found on branches of inflorescences. Leaflets harboured higher mite diversity than the attached coconuts. Mite diversity was the highest in the state Pará and on palms surrounded by seasonal forests and Amazonian rain-forests. Neoseiulus paspalivorus, N. baraki and P. bickleyi were identified as the most promising predators of A. guerreronis. Analyses of the influence of climatic factors revealed that dry ambient conditions favour the establishment of A. guerreronis. Neoseiulus paspalivorus and N. baraki have differing climatic requirements; the former being more abundant in warm and dry areas, the latter prevailing in moderately tempered and humid areas. We discuss the significance of our findings for natural and biological

  5. Host plant mediates foraging behavior and mutual interference among adult Stethorus gilvifrons (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) preying on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Bayoumy, Mohamed H; Osman, Mohamed A; Michaud, J P

    2014-10-01

    Physical plant characteristics can influence predator foraging and their behavioral responses to each other. This study examined the searching efficiency and functional response of adult female Stethorus gilvifrons Mulsant foraging for Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on castor bean, common bean, and cucumber leaves. Experiments conducted on leaf discs in arenas for 12 h revealed a type II functional response for S. gilvifrons on all host plants. Per capita searching efficiency and killing power decreased with increasing predator density on all plants, but most notably on common bean, the plant with the highest prey consumption rates, due to greater mutual interference. Attack rates were highest on common bean and lowest on castor bean, whereas handling times were shortest on common bean and longest on cucumber, such that the daily predation rate was maximal on common bean. Host plant interacted with predator and prey densities to affect searching efficiency and functional response, the differences in mite consumption among host plants increasing with predator and prey densities. The waxy layers of castor bean leaves and high trichome counts of cucumber leaves appeared to reduce predator foraging efficiency. Thus, the efficacy of S. gilvifrons against T. urticae is likely to be greatest on plants such as Phaeseolus vulgaris L. that have relatively smooth leaves.

  6. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Irish, Brian M

    2012-08-01

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different degrees by R. indica infestation throughout the Caribbean. Genetic resistance in the host and the proximity of natural sources of mite infestation has been suggested as two of the main factors affecting R. indica densities in Musa spp. plantations. Greenhouse experiments were established to try to determine what effect coconut palm proximities and planting densities had on R. indica populations infesting Musa spp. plants. Trials were carried out using potted Musa spp. and coconut palms plants at two different ratios. In addition, fourteen Musa spp. hybrid accessions were evaluated for their susceptibility/resistance to colonization by R. indica populations. Differences were observed for mite population buildup for both the density and germplasm accession evaluations. These results have potential implications on how this important pest can be managed on essential agricultural commodities such as bananas and plantains. PMID:21915683

  7. Diagnosis of amitraz resistance in Brazilian populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) with larval immersion test.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Elisa Cimitan; Mendes, Márcia Cristina; Sato, Mário Eidi

    2013-11-01

    Among the ectoparasites of cattle, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae) remains a major cause of economic losses to livestock. The chemical control with acaricides is still the most efficient method available to control ticks. The aims of this study were to diagnose resistance to amitraz in 16 tick populations from the States of São Paulo (14) and Paraná (2), using the larval immersion technique (LIT), and evaluate the effect of synergists [piperonyl butoxide (PBO), diethyl maleate (DEM), triphenyl phosphate (TPP)] on amitraz resistant and susceptible strains of cattle tick. Most of the evaluated populations (68.7 %) showed to be resistant to amitraz, with resistance ratios ranging from 2.14 to 132. The results suggest that the test procedure by LIT is sensitive and adequate for detection and monitoring of amitraz resistance in cattle tick. No synergistic effect was observed for the synergists PBO, DEM and TPP, on the amitraz resistant (Poa) strain of cattle tick, indicating that increased detoxification metabolism was not involved in this resistance. PMID:23620418

  8. Regional factors rather than forest type drive the community structure of soil living oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida).

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Georgia; Scheu, Stefan; Maraun, Mark

    2012-06-01

    Most European forests are managed by humans. However, the manner and intensity of management vary. While the effect of forest management on above-ground communities has been investigated in detail, effects on the below-ground fauna remain poorly understood. Oribatid mites are abundant microarthropods in forest soil and important decomposers in terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we investigated the effect of four forest types (i.e., managed coniferous forests; 30 and 70 years old managed beech forests; natural beech forests) on the density, diversity and community structure of oribatid mites (Acari). The study was replicated at three regions in Germany: the Swabian Alb, the Hainich and the Schorfheide. To relate changes in oribatid mite community structure to environmental factors, litter mass, pH, C and N content of litter, fine roots and C content of soil were measured. Density of oribatid mites was highest in the coniferous forests and decreased in the order 30 years old, 70 years old, and natural beech forests. Mass of the litter layer and density of oribatid mites were strongly correlated indicating that the litter layer is an important factor regulating oribatid mite densities. Diversity of oribatid mites was little affected by forest type indicating that they harbor similar numbers of niches. Species composition differed between the forest types, suggesting different types of niches. The community structure of oribatid mites differed more strongly between the three regions than between the forest types indicating that regional factors are more important than effects associated with forest type.

  9. Relative contribution of biotic and abiotic factors to the population density of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Rêgo, Adriano S; Teodoro, Adenir V; Maciel, Anilde G S; Sarmento, Renato A

    2013-08-01

    The cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa, is a key pest of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), and it may be kept in check by naturally occurring predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae. In addition to predatory mites, abiotic factors may also contribute to regulate pest mite populations in the field. Here, we evaluated the population densities of both M. tanajoa and the generalist predatory mite Euseius ho DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) over the cultivation cycle (11 months) of cassava in four study sites located around the city of Miranda do Norte, Maranhão, Brazil. The abiotic variables rainfall, temperature and relative humidity were also recorded throughout the cultivation cycle of cassava. We determined the relative importance of biotic (density of E. ho) and abiotic (rainfall, temperature and relative humidity) factors to the density of M. tanajoa. The density of M. tanajoa increased whereas the density of E. ho remained constant throughout time. A hierarchical partitioning analysis revealed that most of the variance for the density of M. tanajoa was explained by rainfall and relative humidity followed by E. ho density and temperature. We conclude that abiotic factors, especially rainfall, were the main mechanisms driving M. tanajoa densities.

  10. New Miticides for Integrated Pest Management of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Honey Bee Colonies on the Canadian Prairies.

    PubMed

    Vandervalk, L P; Nasr, M E; Dosdall, L M

    2014-12-01

    Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman 2000 (Acari: Varroidae) is an ectoparasitic mite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Honey bee colonies require extensive management to prevent mortality caused by varroa mites and the viruses they vector. New miticides (Thymovar and HopGuard) to manage varroa mites were evaluated during the spring and fall treatment windows of the Canadian prairies to determine their effectiveness as part of an integrated management strategy. Thymovar and HopGuard were evaluated alongside the currently used industry standards: Apivar and formic acid. Results demonstrated that Apivar and formic acid remain effective V. destructor management options under spring and fall conditions. Applications of Thymovar during spring were associated with a reduction in brood area, and therefore should be limited to the fall season. The miticide HopGuard was not effective in managing V. destructor, and alteration of the current delivery system is necessary. This study demonstrates the potential for new effective treatment options to supplement currently used V. destructor integrated pest management systems.

  11. Efficacy and persistence of rosemary oil as an acaricide against twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on greenhouse tomato.

    PubMed

    Miresmailli, Saber; Isman, Murray B

    2006-12-01

    Efficacy of rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis L., essential oil was assessed against twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), as well as effects on the tomato, Lycopersicum esculatum Mill., host plant and biocontrol agents. Laboratory bioassay results indicated that pure rosemary oil and EcoTrol (a rosemary oil-based pesticide) caused complete mortality of spider mites at concentrations that are not phytotoxic to the host plant. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot is less susceptible to rosemary oil and EcoTrol than twospotted spider mite both in the laboratory and the greenhouse. Rosemary oil repels spider mites and can affect oviposition behavior. Moreover, rosemary oil and rosemary oil-based pesticides are nonpersistent in the environment, and their lethal and sublethal effects fade within 1 or 2 d. EcoTrol is safe to tomato foliage, flowers, and fruit even at double the recommended label rate. A greenhouse trial indicated that a single application of EcoTrol at its recommended label rate could reduce a twospotted spider mite population by 52%. At that rate, EcoTrol did not cause any mortality in P. persimilis nor did it affect their eggs. In general, EcoTrol was found to be a suitable option for small-scale integrated pest management programs for controlling twospotted spider mites on greenhouse tomato plants.

  12. Efficacy of a granular formulation containing Metarhizium brunneum F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) microsclerotia against nymphs of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixoididae).

    PubMed

    Behle, Robert W; Jackson, Mark A; Flor-Weiler, Lina B

    2013-02-01

    Technical improvements in the production and formulation of microbial agents will increase the potential for development of biological pesticides that are able to compete with chemical insecticides in the marketplace. Here we report the efficacy of a simple granule formulation containing microsclerotia of Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) for control of unfed and fed nymphs of Ixodes scpaularis Say (Acari: Ixoididae). Microsclerotial granules of M. brunneum applied to moist potting mix produce infective conidia within 2 wk and conidia remained viable for up to 8 wk after application. Microsclerotial granules produced from 3.05 x 10(9) to 1.24 x 10(10) conidia g(-1) granules in potting mix. Both unfed and fed nymphs were susceptible to infection when exposed to treated potting soil with up to 56 and 74% mortality, respectively. M. brunneum demonstrated a transtadial infection for fed nymphs exposed to treated potting mix with signs of a fungal infection becoming apparent only after molting into adults. High conidial production rates from microsclerotial granules of M. brunneum combined with significant tick mortality support the need for additional research to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment technology as a biopesticide option for control of ticks.

  13. Community structure variability of Uropodina mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) in nests of the common mole, Talpa europaea, in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Napierała, Agnieszka; Mądra, Anna; Leszczyńska-Deja, Kornelia; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Gołdyn, Bartłomiej; Błoszyk, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    Underground nests of Talpa europaea, known as the common mole, are very specific microhabitats, which are also quite often inhabited by various groups of arthropods. Mites from the suborder Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata) are only one of them. One could expect that mole nests that are closely located are inhabited by communities of arthropods with similar species composition and structure. However, results of empirical studies clearly show that even nests which are close to each other can be different both in terms of the species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities. So far, little is known about the factors that can cause these differences. The major aim of this study was to identify factors determining species composition, abundance, and community structure of Uropodina communities in mole nests. The study is based on material collected during a long-term investigation conducted in western parts of Poland. The results indicate that the two most important factors influencing species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities in mole nests are nest-building material and depth at which nests are located. Composition of Uropodina communities in nests of moles was also compared with that of other microhabitats (e.g. rotten wood, forest litter, soil) based on data from 4421 samples collected in Poland. Communities of this habitat prove most similar to these of open areas, especially meadows, as well as some forest types. PMID:26861069

  14. Toxicity of acaricides to Raoiella indica and their selectivity for its predator, Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    de Assis, Carla P O; de Morais, Elisângela G F; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2013-07-01

    Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is considered a pest of coconut palm in Asia and the Middle East. This mite was recently introduced in the Americas, where it spread to several countries and expanded its range of hosts, causing heavy losses to coconut and banana production. The phytoseiid mite Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) is one of the predators most often encountered in coconut palms. Because the current prospects for the control of R. indica in the New World indicate the use of acaricides and the management of their natural enemies, the objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of selected acaricides to R. indica and the selectivity (i.e., toxicity to the predator relative to toxicity to the prey) for A. largoensis. Assays were performed by the immersion of banana leaf discs in acaricide solutions, followed by the placing of adult females of the pest or predator on the discs. Mortality of the mites was evaluated after 24 h, and the data obtained were subjected to probit analysis. Abamectin, fenpyroximate, milbemectin and spirodiclofen were the products most toxic to R. indica adults, whereas fenpyroximate and spirodiclofen were the most selective for A. largoensis.

  15. Effects of soil moisture and temperature on reproduction and development of twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) in strawberries.

    PubMed

    White, Jeffrey C; Liburd, Oscar E

    2005-02-01

    The effects of soil moisture and temperature on the reproduction of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), were examined in laboratory and field tests in strawberries, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne, in Florida. Different soil moisture levels (low, moderate, and high) were compared to determine how soil moisture affects the reproduction and development of twospotted spider mite. In addition to soil moisture, different irrigation techniques (drip versus drip/overhead) were compared to determine their effects on twospotted spider mite reproduction as well as the incidence of angular leaf spot, Xanthomonas fragaria Kennedy & King disease. Similar studies were conducted to determine how different temperatures (18, 27, and 35 degrees C) affect the reproduction and development of twospotted spider mites. In the laboratory, low soil moisture as well as temperatures >27 degrees C promoted twospotted spider mite development. A similar trend was observed in a field study with low soil moisture promoting twospotted spider mite reproduction during the early season (11 November--8 December). Irrespective of moisture levels, a significantly higher incidence of X. fragaria was recorded in treatments with drip/overhead irrigation systems compared with drip irrigation. Implications for management of soil moisture levels are discussed with respect to the abundance of twospotted spider mite and X. fragaria in strawberries.

  16. Efficacy of a granular formulation containing Metarhizium brunneum F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) microsclerotia against nymphs of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixoididae).

    PubMed

    Behle, Robert W; Jackson, Mark A; Flor-Weiler, Lina B

    2013-02-01

    Technical improvements in the production and formulation of microbial agents will increase the potential for development of biological pesticides that are able to compete with chemical insecticides in the marketplace. Here we report the efficacy of a simple granule formulation containing microsclerotia of Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) for control of unfed and fed nymphs of Ixodes scpaularis Say (Acari: Ixoididae). Microsclerotial granules of M. brunneum applied to moist potting mix produce infective conidia within 2 wk and conidia remained viable for up to 8 wk after application. Microsclerotial granules produced from 3.05 x 10(9) to 1.24 x 10(10) conidia g(-1) granules in potting mix. Both unfed and fed nymphs were susceptible to infection when exposed to treated potting soil with up to 56 and 74% mortality, respectively. M. brunneum demonstrated a transtadial infection for fed nymphs exposed to treated potting mix with signs of a fungal infection becoming apparent only after molting into adults. High conidial production rates from microsclerotial granules of M. brunneum combined with significant tick mortality support the need for additional research to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment technology as a biopesticide option for control of ticks. PMID:23448015

  17. Acaricidal effects of cardiac glycosides, azadirachtin and neem oil against the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Al-Rajhy, DiefAlla H; Alahmed, Azzam M; Hussein, Hamdy I; Kheir, Salah M

    2003-11-01

    The cardiac glycoside, digitoxin, from Digitalis purpurea L (Scrophulariaceae), a cardiac glycosidal (cardenolide) extract from Calotropis procera (Ait) R Br (Asclepiadaceae), azadirachtin and neem oil from Azadirachta indica A Juss (Meliaceae) were tested for their effects against larvae and adult stages of the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii Koch (Acari: Ixodidae). The contact LC50 values of the first three materials against adults were 4.08, 9.63 and >40.7 microg cm(-2), respectively, whereas the dipping LC50 values of the four materials were 409.9, 1096, >5000 and >5000 mg litre(-1), respectively. Contact and dipping LC50 values of the extract and azadirachtin against larvae were 6.16, >20.3 microg cm(-2) and 587.7 and >2500 mg litre(-1), respectively. Azadirachtin had no effects on egg production or feeding of adults up to 5000 mg litre(-1); however at 2500 mg litre(-1), it caused significant reduction in feeding activity of larve, prolonged the period for moulting to nymphal stage, and caused 60% reduction in moultability. Results of the two cardiac glycoside materials are comparable with those of several commercial acaricides. The risks and benefits associated with the use of cardiac glycosides are considered. PMID:14620053

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval, 1867) (Acari: Tetranychidae), and Its Response to β-Sitosterol

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Chunya; Li, Jinling; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Shi, Guanglu; Peng, Bo; Han, Jingyu; Gao, Pin; Wang, Younian

    2015-01-01

    Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a worldwide polyphagous agricultural pest that has the title of resistance champion among arthropods. We reported previously the identification of the acaricidal compound β-sitosterol from Mentha piperita and Inula japonica. However, the acaricidal mechanism of β-sitosterol is unclear. Due to the limited genetic research carried out, we de novo assembled the transcriptome of T. cinnabarinus using Illumina sequencing and conducted a differential expression analysis of control and β-sitosterol-treated mites. In total, we obtained >5.4 G high-quality bases for each sample with unprecedented sequencing depth and assembled them into 22,941 unigenes. We identified 617 xenobiotic metabolism-related genes involved in detoxification, binding, and transporting of xenobiotics. A highly expanded xenobiotic metabolic system was found in mites. T. cinnabarinus detoxification genes—including carboxyl/cholinesterase and ABC transporter class C—were upregulated after β-sitosterol treatment. Defense-related proteins, such as Toll-like receptor, legumain, and serine proteases, were also activated. Furthermore, other important genes—such as the chloride channel protein, cytochrome b, carboxypeptidase, peritrophic membrane chitin binding protein, and calphostin—may also play important roles in mites' response to β-sitosterol. Our results demonstrate that high-throughput-omics tool facilitates identification of xenobiotic metabolism-related genes and illustration of the acaricidal mechanisms of β-sitosterol. PMID:26078964

  19. Toxicity of acaricides to Raoiella indica and their selectivity for its predator, Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    de Assis, Carla P O; de Morais, Elisângela G F; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2013-07-01

    Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is considered a pest of coconut palm in Asia and the Middle East. This mite was recently introduced in the Americas, where it spread to several countries and expanded its range of hosts, causing heavy losses to coconut and banana production. The phytoseiid mite Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) is one of the predators most often encountered in coconut palms. Because the current prospects for the control of R. indica in the New World indicate the use of acaricides and the management of their natural enemies, the objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of selected acaricides to R. indica and the selectivity (i.e., toxicity to the predator relative to toxicity to the prey) for A. largoensis. Assays were performed by the immersion of banana leaf discs in acaricide solutions, followed by the placing of adult females of the pest or predator on the discs. Mortality of the mites was evaluated after 24 h, and the data obtained were subjected to probit analysis. Abamectin, fenpyroximate, milbemectin and spirodiclofen were the products most toxic to R. indica adults, whereas fenpyroximate and spirodiclofen were the most selective for A. largoensis. PMID:23229493

  20. Screening of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) for reproductive endosymbionts reveals links between co-infection and evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Kai; Chen, Ya-Ting; Yang, Kun; Qiao, Ge-Xia; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive endosymbionts have been shown to have wide-ranging effects on many aspects of their hosts' biology. A first step to understanding how these endosymbionts interact with their hosts is to determine their incidences. Here, we screened for four reproductive endosymbionts (Wolbachia, Cardinium, Spiroplasma and Rickettsia) in 28 populations of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) representing 12 species. Each of the four endosymbionts were identified in at least some of the tested specimens, and their infection patterns showed variations at the species-level and population-level, suggesting their distributions can be correlated with both the phylogeny and ecology of the hosts. Co-infections of unrelated bacteria, especially double infections of Wolbachia and Cardinium within the same individuals were common. Spiroplasma and Rickettsia infections were specific to particular host species, respectively. Further, the evolutionary histories of these endosymbionts were inferred by comparing the phylogenies of them and their hosts. These findings can help to clarify the interactions between endosymbionts and arthropods. PMID:27291078

  1. The red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Acari: Tetranychidae): its status, biology, ecology and management in tea plantations.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somnath; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda

    2014-08-01

    Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acari: Tetranychidae), the red spider mite (RSM), is a major pest of tea (Camellia sinensis) in most tea-producing countries. Nymphs and adults of RSM lacerate cells, producing minute characteristic reddish brown marks on the upper surface of mature leaves, which turn red in severe cases of infestation, resulting in crop loss. The pest is present on tea all the year round, although numbers vary depending on season. Their number increases as the weather warms up and decreases markedly once rains set in. Under optimal conditions there may be 22 overlapping generations in a year. Parthenogenesis is known to occur; consequently, all mite stages can be found at a given time. Their infestation is mainly confined to the upper surface of the mature leaves and could readily be identified by the bronzing of the leaf. There are several naturally occurring insect predators, such as coccinellid and staphylinid larvae, lacewing larvae, and mite predators, most importantly species of the families Phytoseiidae and Stigmaeidae. Integrated management has been adopted to control this mite pest, involving cultural, mechanical, physical, biological and chemical methods. This review collates the most important works carried out on biology, ecology and management of O. coffeae. Also the scope of future studies for better management of this regular mite pest of tea is discussed. PMID:24705870

  2. Screening of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) for reproductive endosymbionts reveals links between co-infection and evolutionary history

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Kai; Chen, Ya-Ting; Yang, Kun; Qiao, Ge-Xia; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive endosymbionts have been shown to have wide-ranging effects on many aspects of their hosts’ biology. A first step to understanding how these endosymbionts interact with their hosts is to determine their incidences. Here, we screened for four reproductive endosymbionts (Wolbachia, Cardinium, Spiroplasma and Rickettsia) in 28 populations of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) representing 12 species. Each of the four endosymbionts were identified in at least some of the tested specimens, and their infection patterns showed variations at the species-level and population-level, suggesting their distributions can be correlated with both the phylogeny and ecology of the hosts. Co-infections of unrelated bacteria, especially double infections of Wolbachia and Cardinium within the same individuals were common. Spiroplasma and Rickettsia infections were specific to particular host species, respectively. Further, the evolutionary histories of these endosymbionts were inferred by comparing the phylogenies of them and their hosts. These findings can help to clarify the interactions between endosymbionts and arthropods. PMID:27291078

  3. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Irish, Brian M

    2012-08-01

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different degrees by R. indica infestation throughout the Caribbean. Genetic resistance in the host and the proximity of natural sources of mite infestation has been suggested as two of the main factors affecting R. indica densities in Musa spp. plantations. Greenhouse experiments were established to try to determine what effect coconut palm proximities and planting densities had on R. indica populations infesting Musa spp. plants. Trials were carried out using potted Musa spp. and coconut palms plants at two different ratios. In addition, fourteen Musa spp. hybrid accessions were evaluated for their susceptibility/resistance to colonization by R. indica populations. Differences were observed for mite population buildup for both the density and germplasm accession evaluations. These results have potential implications on how this important pest can be managed on essential agricultural commodities such as bananas and plantains.

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval, 1867) (Acari: Tetranychidae), and Its Response to β-Sitosterol.

    PubMed

    Bu, Chunya; Li, Jinling; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Shi, Guanglu; Peng, Bo; Han, Jingyu; Gao, Pin; Wang, Younian

    2015-01-01

    Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a worldwide polyphagous agricultural pest that has the title of resistance champion among arthropods. We reported previously the identification of the acaricidal compound β-sitosterol from Mentha piperita and Inula japonica. However, the acaricidal mechanism of β-sitosterol is unclear. Due to the limited genetic research carried out, we de novo assembled the transcriptome of T. cinnabarinus using Illumina sequencing and conducted a differential expression analysis of control and β-sitosterol-treated mites. In total, we obtained >5.4 G high-quality bases for each sample with unprecedented sequencing depth and assembled them into 22,941 unigenes. We identified 617 xenobiotic metabolism-related genes involved in detoxification, binding, and transporting of xenobiotics. A highly expanded xenobiotic metabolic system was found in mites. T. cinnabarinus detoxification genes-including carboxyl/cholinesterase and ABC transporter class C-were upregulated after β-sitosterol treatment. Defense-related proteins, such as Toll-like receptor, legumain, and serine proteases, were also activated. Furthermore, other important genes-such as the chloride channel protein, cytochrome b, carboxypeptidase, peritrophic membrane chitin binding protein, and calphostin-may also play important roles in mites' response to β-sitosterol. Our results demonstrate that high-throughput-omics tool facilitates identification of xenobiotic metabolism-related genes and illustration of the acaricidal mechanisms of β-sitosterol. PMID:26078964

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval, 1867) (Acari: Tetranychidae), and Its Response to β-Sitosterol.

    PubMed

    Bu, Chunya; Li, Jinling; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Shi, Guanglu; Peng, Bo; Han, Jingyu; Gao, Pin; Wang, Younian

    2015-01-01

    Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a worldwide polyphagous agricultural pest that has the title of resistance champion among arthropods. We reported previously the identification of the acaricidal compound β-sitosterol from Mentha piperita and Inula japonica. However, the acaricidal mechanism of β-sitosterol is unclear. Due to the limited genetic research carried out, we de novo assembled the transcriptome of T. cinnabarinus using Illumina sequencing and conducted a differential expression analysis of control and β-sitosterol-treated mites. In total, we obtained >5.4 G high-quality bases for each sample with unprecedented sequencing depth and assembled them into 22,941 unigenes. We identified 617 xenobiotic metabolism-related genes involved in detoxification, binding, and transporting of xenobiotics. A highly expanded xenobiotic metabolic system was found in mites. T. cinnabarinus detoxification genes-including carboxyl/cholinesterase and ABC transporter class C-were upregulated after β-sitosterol treatment. Defense-related proteins, such as Toll-like receptor, legumain, and serine proteases, were also activated. Furthermore, other important genes-such as the chloride channel protein, cytochrome b, carboxypeptidase, peritrophic membrane chitin binding protein, and calphostin-may also play important roles in mites' response to β-sitosterol. Our results demonstrate that high-throughput-omics tool facilitates identification of xenobiotic metabolism-related genes and illustration of the acaricidal mechanisms of β-sitosterol.

  6. Precopulatory mate guarding influences the development of quiescent deutonymph females in the two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Oku, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Individuals of some organisms have a specific stage sensitive to environmental cues that initiate developmental plasticity which subsequently influences their entire development. Females may use male behaviour such as precopulatory mate guarding as an environmental cue to change their developmental rate. In the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), only the first insemination results in fertilization and males guard quiescent deutonymph females. As quiescent individuals take on a silvery appearance before moulting, the period of the quiescent stage can be divided into two parts: from entering the quiescent stage to becoming silvery (1st period) and from becoming silvery to moulting (2nd period). Females may be sensitive to precopulatory mate guarding immediately before moulting (i.e. 2nd period). Thus, I examined whether precopulatory mate guarding during either period affects the total developmental duration of quiescent deutonymph females. When guarded by a male, the whole developmental duration of the quiescent deutonymph females became significantly shorter (by 3-5%) than that of solitary ones, regardless whether the guarding occurred during the 1st period, the 2nd period or both periods. In conclusion, quiescent deutonymph T. urticae females use precopulatory mate guarding by conspecific males as an environmental cue for their developmental rate, although they are sensitive to the mate guarding not only immediately before moulting.

  7. The red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Acari: Tetranychidae): its status, biology, ecology and management in tea plantations.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somnath; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda

    2014-08-01

    Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acari: Tetranychidae), the red spider mite (RSM), is a major pest of tea (Camellia sinensis) in most tea-producing countries. Nymphs and adults of RSM lacerate cells, producing minute characteristic reddish brown marks on the upper surface of mature leaves, which turn red in severe cases of infestation, resulting in crop loss. The pest is present on tea all the year round, although numbers vary depending on season. Their number increases as the weather warms up and decreases markedly once rains set in. Under optimal conditions there may be 22 overlapping generations in a year. Parthenogenesis is known to occur; consequently, all mite stages can be found at a given time. Their infestation is mainly confined to the upper surface of the mature leaves and could readily be identified by the bronzing of the leaf. There are several naturally occurring insect predators, such as coccinellid and staphylinid larvae, lacewing larvae, and mite predators, most importantly species of the families Phytoseiidae and Stigmaeidae. Integrated management has been adopted to control this mite pest, involving cultural, mechanical, physical, biological and chemical methods. This review collates the most important works carried out on biology, ecology and management of O. coffeae. Also the scope of future studies for better management of this regular mite pest of tea is discussed.

  8. Avian hosts of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) and the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in larvae feeding on the Oregon junco.

    PubMed

    Wright, S A; Tucker, J R; Donohue, A M; Castro, M B; Kelley, K L; Novak, M G; Macedo, P A

    2011-07-01

    Larval and nymphal western blacklegged tick, Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls (Acari: Ixodidae), were collected from birds, rodents, and lizards at Quail Ridge Reserve located in Napa County in northwestern California. Species from three vertebrate classes were sampled simultaneously from two transects during two consecutive spring seasons. Feeding larval and nymphal ticks were removed and preserved for counting, examination and testing for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner. Mean infestations with I. pacificus subadults on lizards were 10.0, on birds 2.9, and on rodents 1.3. I. pacificus larvae (204) collected from 10 avian species and (215) collected from two rodent species were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.s. via real-time polymerase chain reaction. Three B. burgdorferi-infected larvae were taken from two Junco hyemalis and two infected larvae from one Neotoma fuscipes Baird. This is the detection of B. burgdorferi ss in an Ixodes pacificus larvae feeding on a Junco hyemalis L., [corrected] in western North America. PMID:21845945

  9. Community structure variability of Uropodina mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) in nests of the common mole, Talpa europaea, in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Napierała, Agnieszka; Mądra, Anna; Leszczyńska-Deja, Kornelia; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Gołdyn, Bartłomiej; Błoszyk, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    Underground nests of Talpa europaea, known as the common mole, are very specific microhabitats, which are also quite often inhabited by various groups of arthropods. Mites from the suborder Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata) are only one of them. One could expect that mole nests that are closely located are inhabited by communities of arthropods with similar species composition and structure. However, results of empirical studies clearly show that even nests which are close to each other can be different both in terms of the species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities. So far, little is known about the factors that can cause these differences. The major aim of this study was to identify factors determining species composition, abundance, and community structure of Uropodina communities in mole nests. The study is based on material collected during a long-term investigation conducted in western parts of Poland. The results indicate that the two most important factors influencing species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities in mole nests are nest-building material and depth at which nests are located. Composition of Uropodina communities in nests of moles was also compared with that of other microhabitats (e.g. rotten wood, forest litter, soil) based on data from 4421 samples collected in Poland. Communities of this habitat prove most similar to these of open areas, especially meadows, as well as some forest types.

  10. Efficacy of plant-derived and synthetic compounds on clothing as repellents against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Jordan, Robert A; Schulze, Terry L; Dolan, Marc C

    2012-01-01

    We conducted field trials to compare the relative repellent activity of two natural product compounds (nootkatone and carvacrol) with commercially available plant-derived (EcoSMART organic insect repellent) and permethrin-based (Repel Permanone) repellents against adult Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) by using treated coveralls. One day after treatment, nootkatone and carvacrol provided 100% repellency of I. scapularis adults, with nootkatone maintaining complete protection through 3 d, whereas carvacrol showed steadily declining repellency against I. scapularis during the 7-d course of the trials. Nootkatone was at least as effective against host-seeking A. americanum as against I. scapularis through 3 d. Carvacrol provided little protection against A. americanum adults. Both natural compounds performed well initially in comparison with the commercial products. After 7 d, nootkatone was the most effective against both species followed in order of activity by Permanone, EcoSMART, and carvacrol. Nootkatone seems to have offer considerable potential as a clothing repellent against both I. scapularis and A. americanum. PMID:22308777

  11. The delineation of the fourth walking leg segment is temporally linked to posterior segmentation in the mite Archegozetes longisetosus (Acari: Oribatida, Trhypochthoniidae).

    PubMed

    Barnett, Austen A; Thomas, Richard H

    2012-07-01

    Acari (mites and ticks) lack external segmentation, with the only indication of segmentation being the appendages of the prosoma (chelicerae, pedipalps, and four pairs of walking legs). Acari also have a mode of development in which the formation of the fourth walking leg is suppressed until the nymphal stages, following a hexapodal larva. To determine the number of segments in the posterior body region (opisthosoma) of mites, and to also determine when the fourth walking leg segment is delineated during embryogenesis, we followed the development of segmentation in the oribatid mite Archegozetes longisetosus using time-lapse and scanning electron microscopy, as well as in situ hybridizations of the A. longisetosus orthologues of the segmentation genes engrailed and hedgehog. Our data show that A. longisetosus patterns only two opisthosomal segments, indicating a large degree of segmental fusion or loss. Also, we show that the formation of the fourth walking leg segment is temporally tied to opisthosomal segmentation, the first such observation in any arachnid. PMID:22765209

  12. Life history of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed with castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) pollen in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Marafeli, P P; Reis, P R; Silveira, E C da; Souza-Pimentel, G C; de Toledo, M A

    2014-08-01

    The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the development of fast resistance making it hard to control it. The objective of this work was to study the life history of the predatory mite N. californicus as a contribution to its mass laboratory rearing, having castor bean plant [Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae)] pollen as food, for its subsequent use as a natural enemy of T. urticae on a cultivation of greenhouse rosebushes. The studies were carried out in the laboratory, at 25 ± 2°C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14 hour photophase. The biological aspects and the fertility life table were appraised. Longevity of 32.9 days was verified for adult females and 40.4 days for males. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.2 and the mean generation time (T) was 17.2 days. The population doubled every 4.1 days. The results obtained were similar to those in which the predatory mite N. californicus fed on T. urticae.

  13. Removal of drone brood from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and retain adult drones.

    PubMed

    Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R

    2009-12-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population.

  14. Removal of drone brood from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and retain adult drones.

    PubMed

    Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R

    2009-12-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population. PMID:20069828

  15. Positive correlation of trophic level and proportion of sexual taxa of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) in alpine soil systems.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Barbara M; Meyer, Erwin; Maraun, Mark

    2014-08-01

    We investigated community structure, trophic ecology (using stable isotope ratios; (15)N/(14)N, (13)C/(12)C) and reproductive mode of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) along an altitudinal gradient (2,050-2,900 m) in the Central Alps (Obergurgl, Austria). We hypothesized that (1) the community structure changes with altitude, (2) oribatid mites span over four trophic levels, (3) the proportion of sexual taxa increases with altitude, and (4) the proportion of sexual taxa increases with trophic level, i.e. is positively correlated with the δ(15)N signatures. Oribatid mite community structure changed with altitude indicating that oribatid mites occupy different niches at different altitudes. Oribatid mites spanned over 12 δ(15)N units, i.e. about four trophic levels, which is similar to lowland forest ecosystems. The proportion of sexually reproducing taxa increased from 2,050 to 2,900 m suggesting that limited resource availability at high altitudes favors sexual reproduction. Sexual taxa more frequently occurred higher in the food web indicating that the reproductive mode is related to nutrition of oribatid mites. Generally, oribatid mite community structure changed from being decomposer dominated at lower altitude to being dominated by fungal and lichen feeders, and predators at higher altitude. This supports the view that resources from dead organic material become less available with increasing altitude forcing species to feed on living resources such as fungi, lichens and nematodes. Our findings support the hypothesis that limited resource accessibility (at high altitudes) favors sexually reproducing species whereas ample resource supply (at lower altitudes) favors parthenogenetic species. PMID:24687174

  16. A novel spotted fever group Rickettsia infecting Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae) in highlands of Argentina and Chile.

    PubMed

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Marcili, Arlei; Nava, Santiago; González-Acuña, Daniel; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Ruiz-Arrondo, Ignacio; Venzal, José M; Mangold, Atilio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-04-01

    The tick Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae) has established populations in Andean and Patagonic environments of South America. For the present study, adults of A. parvitarsum were collected in highland areas (elevation >3500 m) of Argentina and Chile during 2009-2013, and tested by PCR for rickettsial infection in the laboratory, and isolation of rickettsiae in Vero cell culture by the shell vial technique. Overall, 51 (62.2%) out of 82 A. parvitarsum adult ticks were infected by spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, which generated DNA sequences 100% identical to each other, and when submitted to BLAST analysis, they were 99.3% identical to corresponding sequence of the ompA gene of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated in Vero cell culture from two ticks, one from Argentina and one from Chile. DNA extracted from the third passage of the isolates of Argentina and Chile were processed by PCR, resulting in partial sequences for three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompB, ompA). These sequences were concatenated and aligned with rickettsial corresponding sequences available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. pavitarsum rickettsial agent grouped under high bootstrap support in a clade composed by the SFG pathogens R. sibirica, R. africae, R. parkeri, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, and two unnamed SFG agents of unknown pathogenicty, Rickettsia sp. strain NOD, and Rickettsia sp. strain ApPR. The pathogenic role of this A. parvitarsum rickettsia cannot be discarded, since several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that were considered nonpathogenic for decades are now associated with human infections. PMID:26826974

  17. Laboratory evaluation of a native strain of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Immediato, Davide; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Puttilli, Maria Rita; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2015-09-15

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae) is one of the most economically important ectoparasites of laying hens worldwide. Chemical control of this mite may result in environmental and food contamination, as well as the development of drug resistance. High virulence of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato strains isolated from naturally infected hosts or from their environment has been demonstrated toward many arthropod species, including ticks. However, a limited number of studies have assessed the use of B. bassiana for the control of D. gallinae s.l. and none of them have employed native strains. This study reports the pathogenicity of a native strain of B. bassiana (CD1123) against nymphs and adults of D. gallinae. Batches of nymph and adult mites (i.e., n=720 for each stage) for treated groups (TGs) were placed on paper soaked with a 0.1% tween 80 suspension of B. bassiana (CIS, 10(5), 10(7) and 10(9) conidia/ml), whilst 240 untreated control mites for each stage (CG) were exposed only to 0.1% tween 80. The mites in TG showed a higher mortality at all stages (p<0.01) when compared to CG, depending on the time of exposure and the conidial concentration. A 100% mortality rate was recorded using a CIS of 10(9) conidia/ml 12 days post infection (DPI) in adults and 14 DPI in nymphs. B. bassiana suspension containing 10(9) conidia/ml was highly virulent towards nymph and adult stages of D. gallinae, therefore representing a possible promising natural product to be used in alternative or in combination to other acaricidal compounds currently used for controlling the red mite.

  18. Laboratory evaluation of a native strain of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Immediato, Davide; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Puttilli, Maria Rita; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2015-09-15

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae) is one of the most economically important ectoparasites of laying hens worldwide. Chemical control of this mite may result in environmental and food contamination, as well as the development of drug resistance. High virulence of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato strains isolated from naturally infected hosts or from their environment has been demonstrated toward many arthropod species, including ticks. However, a limited number of studies have assessed the use of B. bassiana for the control of D. gallinae s.l. and none of them have employed native strains. This study reports the pathogenicity of a native strain of B. bassiana (CD1123) against nymphs and adults of D. gallinae. Batches of nymph and adult mites (i.e., n=720 for each stage) for treated groups (TGs) were placed on paper soaked with a 0.1% tween 80 suspension of B. bassiana (CIS, 10(5), 10(7) and 10(9) conidia/ml), whilst 240 untreated control mites for each stage (CG) were exposed only to 0.1% tween 80. The mites in TG showed a higher mortality at all stages (p<0.01) when compared to CG, depending on the time of exposure and the conidial concentration. A 100% mortality rate was recorded using a CIS of 10(9) conidia/ml 12 days post infection (DPI) in adults and 14 DPI in nymphs. B. bassiana suspension containing 10(9) conidia/ml was highly virulent towards nymph and adult stages of D. gallinae, therefore representing a possible promising natural product to be used in alternative or in combination to other acaricidal compounds currently used for controlling the red mite. PMID:26206607

  19. The invasive spider mite Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae) alters community composition and host-plant use of native relatives.

    PubMed

    Ferragut, Francisco; Garzón-Luque, Eva; Pekas, Apostolos

    2013-07-01

    The tomato spider mite Tetranychus evansi Baker and Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a worldwide pest of solanaceous crops that has recently invaded many parts of the world. In the present study we examined the ecological impact of its arrival in the Mediterranean region. The spider mite and phytoseiid mite assemblages in various crop and non-crop plants in three areas of Valencia (Spain) were studied a few months before and 10 years after the invasion of T. evansi. According to rarefaction analyses, the invasion of T. evansi did not affect neither the total number of species in the mite community examined (spider mite and phytoseiid species) nor the number of species when the two communities were examined separately. However, after the invasion, the absolute and relative abundance of the native Tetranychus species was significantly reduced. Before the invasion, T. urticae and T. turkestani were the most abundant spider mites, accounting for 62.9 and 22.8 % of the specimens. After the invasion, T. evansi became the most abundant species, representing 60 % of the total spider mites recorded, whereas the abundance of T. urticae was significantly reduced (23 %). This reduction took place principally on non-crop plants, where native species were replaced by the invader. Null model analyses provided evidence for competition structuring the spider mite community on non-crop plants after the invasion of T. evansi. Resistance to acaricides, the absence of efficient native natural enemies, manipulation of the plant defenses and the web type produced by T. evansi are discussed as possible causes for the competitive displacement.

  20. Revision of the genus Andreacarus (Acari: Laelapidae) with description of seven new species and a new genus for Australian species formerly placed in Andreacarus.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Ashley P G; Bochkov, Andre V; O'Connor, Barry M

    2007-05-01

    The mesostigmatid genus Andreacarus Radford, 1953 (Acari: Laelapidae), species of which are obligatory parasites of small mammals, is revised. Andreacarus includes 11 species, four species previously recognized and seven new species described from Madagascar hosts: A. brachyuromys sp. n. from Brachyuromys betsileoensis Bartlett, A. eliurus sp. n. from Eliurus species, A. gymnuromys sp. n. from Gymnuromys roberti Major, A. voalavo sp. n. from Voalavo gymnocaudus Carleton & Goodman, A. nesomys sp. n. from Nesomys rufus Peters-all from nesomyid rodents; A. tenrec sp. n. from Tenrec ecaudatus Schreber (Afrosoricida: Tenrecidae); and A. galidia from Galidia elegans I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (Carnivora: Viverridae). An amended generic diagnosis and key to females are also given. Six species described in Andreacarus from Australian and New Guinean hosts are removed and transferred to the new genus, Juxtalaelaps.

  1. County-level surveillance of white-tailed deer infestation by Ixodes scapularis and Dermacentor albipictus (Acari: Ixodidae) along the Illinois River.

    PubMed

    Cortinas, M Roberto; Kitron, Uriel

    2006-09-01

    From 1998 to 2003, 4,935 hunter-killed deer in northern and central Illinois were examined for ticks; 4,066 blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, and 6,530 winter ticks, Dermacentor albipictus (Packard) (Acari: Ixodidae), were collected. I. scapularis was the predominant tick species in the northern portion of the study area, with a decreasing north-to-south prevalence gradient. In contrast, D. albipictus was more common in the south with a decreasing south-to-north prevalence gradient. Compared with previous studies, the geographic range for both species expanded into the central portion of the Illinois River. Prevalence and intensity of both tick species were greater on bucks, and infested bucks were geographically more widespread than infested does and fawns. These findings indicate that blacklegged tick and winter tick distributions remain dynamic in the north central United States PMID:17017213

  2. Active surveillance of Anaplasma marginale in populations of arthropod vectors (Acari: Ixodidae; Diptera: Tabanidae) during and after an outbreak of bovine anaplasmosis in southern Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    Yunik, Matthew E M; Galloway, Terry D; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2016-04-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is the disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma marginale. It can cause production loss and death in cattle and bison. This was a reportable disease in Canada until April 2014. Before then, infected herds were quarantined and culled, removing infected animals. In North America, A. marginale is biologically vectored by hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae), Dermacentor variabilis and D. andersoni. Biting flies, particularly horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae), can also act as mechanical vectors. An outbreak of bovine anaplasmosis, consisting of 14 herds, was detected in southern Manitoba in 2008. This outbreak lasted multiple rounds of testing and culling before eradication in 2011, suggesting local maintenance of the pathogen was occurring. We applied novel approaches to examine the vector ecology of this disease in this region. We did not detect A. marginale by screening of 2056 D. variabilis (2011 and 2012) and 520 horse flies (2011) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PMID:27127345

  3. Prevalence, mean intensity of infestation and host specificity of Spinturnicidae mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Camila de Lima; Graciolli, Gustavo

    2013-06-01

    Acari ectoparasites were collected from bats during 12 months in the Rio Negro farm (19°34'22″S and 56°14'36″W), Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 654 bats belonging to the families Phyllostomidae, Noctilionidae, Molossidae, Vespertilionidae and Emballonuridae were captured. Only 136 bats of nine genera and 11 species were parasitised. Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans was the most abundant mite species, and this prevalence may be related to the low degree of host specificity of this species and due to the broad geographical distribution of its hosts. The greatest mean intensity was found to Periglischrus torrealbai Machado-Allison on Phyllostomus discolor Wagner (Phyllostomidae) and Periglischrus tonatii Herrin and Tipton associated with Lophostoma silviculum d'Orbigny (Phyllostomidae), which also had the highest prevalence of infestation.

  4. Active surveillance of Anaplasma marginale in populations of arthropod vectors (Acari: Ixodidae; Diptera: Tabanidae) during and after an outbreak of bovine anaplasmosis in southern Manitoba, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Yunik, Matthew E.M.; Galloway, Terry D.; Lindsay, L. Robbin

    2016-01-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is the disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma marginale. It can cause production loss and death in cattle and bison. This was a reportable disease in Canada until April 2014. Before then, infected herds were quarantined and culled, removing infected animals. In North America, A. marginale is biologically vectored by hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae), Dermacentor variabilis and D. andersoni. Biting flies, particularly horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae), can also act as mechanical vectors. An outbreak of bovine anaplasmosis, consisting of 14 herds, was detected in southern Manitoba in 2008. This outbreak lasted multiple rounds of testing and culling before eradication in 2011, suggesting local maintenance of the pathogen was occurring. We applied novel approaches to examine the vector ecology of this disease in this region. We did not detect A. marginale by screening of 2056 D. variabilis (2011 and 2012) and 520 horse flies (2011) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PMID:27127345

  5. First description of the nymph and larva of Dermacentor compactus Neumann, 1901 (Acari: Ixodidae), parasites of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A

    2016-05-01

    Recent reexamination of collection lots stored in the United States National Tick Collection revealed adult specimens of Dermacentor compactus Neumann, 1901 (Acari: Ixodidae) reared from field-collected nymphs, which allowed us to associate field-collected unidentified nymphs and larvae with this species. Nymphs of D. compactus can be easily distinguished from those of other congeneric species by the shape of the scutum and spiracular plate, the hypostome dentition, and the size of the spurs on the coxae. Larvae of this species can be distinguished by the shape and sculpture of the scutum, the shape of basis capituli, the absence of auriculae, and the size of the spurs on coxae II and III. Both nymphs and larvae feed mostly on various species of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae). Considerably fewer nymphs and larvae were found on murid rodents (Rodentia: Muridae), domestic dogs (Carnivora: Canidae), and a snake (Squamata: Colubridae). PMID:27095664

  6. Effects of Temperature on Development and Voltinism of Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae): Implications for Climate Change Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jeong Joon; Son, Youngsoo; He, Yaqian; Lee, Eungul; Park, Yong-Lak

    2016-01-01

    Temperature plays an important role in the growth and development of arthropods, and thus the current trend of climate change will alter their biology and species distribution. We used Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae), a cleptoparasitic mite associated with Osmia bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), as a model organism to investigate how temperature affects the development and voltinism of C. krombeini in the eastern United States. The effects of temperature on the stage-specific development of C. krombeini were determined at seven constant temperatures (16.1, 20.2, 24.1, 27.5, 30.0, 32.4 and 37.8°C). Parameters for stage-specific development, such as threshold temperatures and thermal constant, were determined by using empirical models. Results of this study showed that C. krombeini eggs developed successfully to adult at all temperatures tested except 37.8°C. The nonlinear and linear empirical models were applied to describe quantitatively the relationship between temperature and development of each C. krombeini stage. The nonlinear Lactin model estimated optimal temperatures as 31.4, 32.9, 32.6 and 32.5°C for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. In the linear model, the lower threshold temperatures were estimated to be 9.9, 14.7, 13.0 and 12.4°C for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. The thermal constant for each stage completion were 61.5, 28.1, 64.8 and 171.1 degree days for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. Under the future climate scenarios, the number of generations (i.e., voltinism) would increase more likely by 1.5 to 2.0 times by the year of 2100 according to simulation. The findings herein firstly provided comprehensive data on thermal development of C. krombeini and implications for the management of C. krombeini populations under global warming were discussed. *Scientific Article No. 3278 of the West Virginia Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Morgantown, West Virginia PMID

  7. Ability of transstadially infected Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) to transmit West Nile virus to song sparrows or western fence lizards.

    PubMed

    Reisen, W K; Brault, A C; Martinez, V M; Fang, Y; Simmons, K; Garcia, S; Omi-Olsen, E; Lane, R S

    2007-03-01

    The hypothesis that Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls (Acari: Ixodidae) may serve as a reservoir and vector of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in California was tested by determining the ability of this tick species to become infected with the NY99 strain of WNV while feeding on viremic song sparrows, to maintain the infection transstadially, and then to transmit WNV to recipient naive song sparrows and western fence lizards during the nymphal stage. The percentage of ticks testing positive by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) decreased from 77% of 35 larvae at day 6 after ticks were transferred to donor song sparrows (day of detachment) to 23% of 35 nymphs at 59 d postinfestation (approximately 19 d after molting to the nymphal stage). However, the percentage of ticks positive by RT-PCR from which infectious virus was recovered by Vero cell assay decreased from 59% on day 6 to 12% on day 59, even though there was no statistically significant decrease in the quantity of RNA within positive ticks. Attempts to improve the sensitivity of plaque assays by blind passage through C6/36 cell cultures were unsuccessful. These data indicated that ticks maintained viral RNA but not necessarily infectious virus over time. Nymphs from larvae that fed on song sparrows with peak viremias ranging from 7.2 to 8.5 log10 plaque-forming units (PFU) per ml were used in transmission attempts. From one to seven RNA-positive nymphal ticks engorged and detached from each of four recipient song sparrows or western fence lizards. Blood samples from sparrows and lizards remained negative, indicating that transmission did not occur. An additional four lizards inoculated with 1,500 PFU of WNV developed moderate viremias, ranging from 4.2 to 5.6 log10 PFU/ml. Our data and data from previous studies collectively indicated that ixodid ticks were not able to experimentally transmit WNV and therefore most likely would not be important vectors in WNV

  8. Effects of Temperature on Development and Voltinism of Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae): Implications for Climate Change Impacts.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jeong Joon; Son, Youngsoo; He, Yaqian; Lee, Eungul; Park, Yong-Lak

    2016-01-01

    Temperature plays an important role in the growth and development of arthropods, and thus the current trend of climate change will alter their biology and species distribution. We used Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae), a cleptoparasitic mite associated with Osmia bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), as a model organism to investigate how temperature affects the development and voltinism of C. krombeini in the eastern United States. The effects of temperature on the stage-specific development of C. krombeini were determined at seven constant temperatures (16.1, 20.2, 24.1, 27.5, 30.0, 32.4 and 37.8°C). Parameters for stage-specific development, such as threshold temperatures and thermal constant, were determined by using empirical models. Results of this study showed that C. krombeini eggs developed successfully to adult at all temperatures tested except 37.8°C. The nonlinear and linear empirical models were applied to describe quantitatively the relationship between temperature and development of each C. krombeini stage. The nonlinear Lactin model estimated optimal temperatures as 31.4, 32.9, 32.6 and 32.5°C for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. In the linear model, the lower threshold temperatures were estimated to be 9.9, 14.7, 13.0 and 12.4°C for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. The thermal constant for each stage completion were 61.5, 28.1, 64.8 and 171.1 degree days for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. Under the future climate scenarios, the number of generations (i.e., voltinism) would increase more likely by 1.5 to 2.0 times by the year of 2100 according to simulation. The findings herein firstly provided comprehensive data on thermal development of C. krombeini and implications for the management of C. krombeini populations under global warming were discussed. *Scientific Article No. 3278 of the West Virginia Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Morgantown, West Virginia. PMID

  9. Identification and characterization of microRNAs by deep-sequencing in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jin; Liu, Guang-Yuan; Chen, Ze; Ren, Qiao-Yun; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jian-Xun; Wang, Hui

    2015-06-15

    Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (H.a. anatolicum) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks are globally distributed ectoparasites with veterinary and medical importance. These ticks not only weaken animals by sucking their blood but also transmit different species of parasitic protozoans. Multiple factors influence these parasitic infections including miRNAs, which are non-coding, small regulatory RNA molecules essential for the complex life cycle of parasites. To identify and characterize miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum, we developed an integrative approach combining deep sequencing, bioinformatics and real-time PCR analysis. Here we report the use of this approach to identify miRNA expression, family distribution, and nucleotide characteristics, and discovered novel miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum. The result showed that miR-1-3p, miR-275-3p, and miR-92a were expressed abundantly. There was a strong bias on miRNA, family members, and nucleotide compositions at certain positions in H.a. anatolicum miRNA. Uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at positions 1, 6, 16, and 18, which were located approximately at the beginning, middle, and end of conserved miRNAs. Analysis of the conserved miRNAs indicated that miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum were concentrated along three diverse phylogenetic branches of bilaterians, insects and coelomates. Two possible roles for the use of miRNA in H.a. anatolicum could be presumed based on its parasitic life cycle: to maintain a large category of miRNA families of different animals, and/or to preserve stringent conserved seed regions with active changes in other places of miRNAs mainly in the middle and the end regions. These might help the parasite to undergo its complex life style in different hosts and adapt more readily to the host changes. The present study represents the first large scale characterization of H.a. anatolicum miRNAs, which could further the understanding of the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, as well as initiate miRNA studies

  10. [Ocurrence of Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese, 1888) (Acari: Macronyssidae) on Megascops choliba (tropical screech-owl) and Pitangus sulphuratus (great kiskadee) nestlings in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Carolina S; Coimbra, Marco A A; Müller, Gertrud; Brum, João Guilherme W

    2009-01-01

    The Center for Rehabilitation of Wildlife and Center for Selection of Wild Animal of the Federal University of Pelotas has attended two nestlings of Megascops choliba (tropical screech-owl) (Strigiformes - Strigidae) and two of Pitangus sulphuratus (great kiskadee) (Passeriformes - Tyrannidae) heavily parasitized by mites, in May 2005 and December 2006, respectively. The nestlings and the nest of P. sulphuratus were collected in the Pelotas urban area after severe storms. The mites were removed, clarified in lactofenol, permanently mounted in Hoyer's medium and identified as Ornithonyssus bursa (Acari - Macronyssidae). Megascops choliba and Pitangus sulphuratus are reported as host of Ornithonyssus bursa in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. PMID:20040213

  11. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the storage mite pest Tyrophagus longior (Gervais) (Acari: Acaridae) and comparative mitogenomic analysis of four acarid mites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Banghe; Li, Chaopin

    2016-02-01

    Mites of the genus Tyrophagus are economically important polyphagous pest commonly living on stored products and also responsible for allergic reactions to humans. Complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) and the gene features therein are widely used as molecular markers in the study of population genetics, phylogenetics as well as molecular evolution. However, scarcity on the sequence data has greatly impeded the studies in these areas pertaining to the Acari (mites and ticks). Information on the Tyrophagus mitogenomes is quite critical for phylogenetic evaluation and molecular evolution of the mitogenomes within Acariformes. Herein, we reported the complete mitogenome of the allergenic acarid storage mite Tyrophagus longior (Astigmata: Acaridae), an important member of stored food pests, and compared with those of other three acarid mites. The complete mitogenome of T. longior was a circular molecule of 13,271 bp. Unexpectedly, only 19 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs) were present, lacking trnF, trnS1 and trnQ. Furthermore, it also contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 2 genes for rRNA (rrnS and rrnL) commonly detected in metazoans. The four mitogenomes displayed similar characteristics with respect to the gene content, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Yet, the gene order of T. longior was different from that in other Acari. The J-strands of the four mitogenomes possessed high A+T content (67.4-70.0%), and exhibited positive GC-skews and negative AT-skews. Most inferred tRNAs of T. longior were extremely truncated, lacking either a D- or T-arm, as found in other acarid mites. In T. longior mitogenome the A+T-rich region was just 50 bp in length and can be folded as a stable stem-loop structure, whereas in the region some structures of microsatellite-like (AT)n and palindromic sequences was not present. Besides, reconstructing of the phylogenetic relationship based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 13 PCGs supported that monophyly of the family

  12. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the storage mite pest Tyrophagus longior (Gervais) (Acari: Acaridae) and comparative mitogenomic analysis of four acarid mites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Banghe; Li, Chaopin

    2016-02-01

    Mites of the genus Tyrophagus are economically important polyphagous pest commonly living on stored products and also responsible for allergic reactions to humans. Complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) and the gene features therein are widely used as molecular markers in the study of population genetics, phylogenetics as well as molecular evolution. However, scarcity on the sequence data has greatly impeded the studies in these areas pertaining to the Acari (mites and ticks). Information on the Tyrophagus mitogenomes is quite critical for phylogenetic evaluation and molecular evolution of the mitogenomes within Acariformes. Herein, we reported the complete mitogenome of the allergenic acarid storage mite Tyrophagus longior (Astigmata: Acaridae), an important member of stored food pests, and compared with those of other three acarid mites. The complete mitogenome of T. longior was a circular molecule of 13,271 bp. Unexpectedly, only 19 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs) were present, lacking trnF, trnS1 and trnQ. Furthermore, it also contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 2 genes for rRNA (rrnS and rrnL) commonly detected in metazoans. The four mitogenomes displayed similar characteristics with respect to the gene content, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Yet, the gene order of T. longior was different from that in other Acari. The J-strands of the four mitogenomes possessed high A+T content (67.4-70.0%), and exhibited positive GC-skews and negative AT-skews. Most inferred tRNAs of T. longior were extremely truncated, lacking either a D- or T-arm, as found in other acarid mites. In T. longior mitogenome the A+T-rich region was just 50 bp in length and can be folded as a stable stem-loop structure, whereas in the region some structures of microsatellite-like (AT)n and palindromic sequences was not present. Besides, reconstructing of the phylogenetic relationship based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 13 PCGs supported that monophyly of the family

  13. Acaricidal activity of the essential oil from Tetradenia riparia (Lamiaceae) on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari; Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiani; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Amorim, Ana Carolina L; Hovell, Ana Maria C; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Ferreira, Gilberto Alves; de Lima, Edson Luiz; de Cosmo, Fábio Antunes; Cortez, Diogenes Aparício Garcia

    2011-10-01

    Tetradenia riparia (Lamiaceae) is a well-known herbal medicine with a variety of useful properties, including its acaricidal effect. This experiment was carried out to study the bioacaricidal activity of T. riparia essential oil (EO) against engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari; Ixodidae). For this purpose, nine serial concentrations (12.50%, 6.25%, 3.75%, 1.80%, 0.90%, 0.45%, 0.22%, 0.11%, and 0.056% w/v) of T. riparia were used for the adult immersion test (AIT). For the larval packet test (LPT), we used 14 serial concentrations (100.00%, 50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25%, 3.65%, 1.82%, 0.91%, 0.45%, 0.228%, 0.114%, 0.057%, 0.028%, and 0.014% w/v). The results for AIT showed 100.00% and 2.05% mortality, 19.00 and 90.20% for the total number of eggs, egg-laying inhibition of 0.00% and 90.20%, hatchability inhibition of 0.00% and 70.23%, and product effectiveness of 100.00% and 2.89%, respectively. The AIT indicated that the LC(50) and LC(99.9), calculated using the Probit test, were for mortality (%) 0.534g/mL (0.436-0.632) and 1.552g/mL (1.183-1.92); for total number of eggs were 0.449g/mL (0.339-0.558) and 1.76g/mL (1.27-2.248); and for hatchability inhibition were 0.114g/mL (0.0-0.31) and 2.462g/mL (1.501-3.422), respectively. Larvae between 14 and 21days old were fasted and placed in each envelope. Bioassays were performed at 27°±1°C, RH⩾80%. Larval mortality was observed 24h after treatment and showed 10.60-100% mortality in the LPT bioassay. The LPT showed that the LC(50) and LC(99.9) were 1.222g/mL (0.655-1.788) and 11.382g/mL (7.84-14.91), respectively. A positive correlation between T. riparia EO concentration and tick control, was observed by the strong acaricidal effects against R. (B.) microplus, and the mortality rate of ticks was dose-dependent. Our results showed that T. riparia is a promising candidate as an acaricide against resistant strains of R. (B.) microplus. PMID:21762693

  14. Repellency of oils of lemon eucalyptus, geranium, and lavender and the mosquito repellent MyggA natural to Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the laboratory and field.

    PubMed

    Jaenson, Thomas G T; Garboui, Samira; Palsson, Katinka

    2006-07-01

    MyggA Natural (Bioglan, Lund, Sweden) is a commercially available repellent against blood-feeding arthropods. It contains 30% of lemon-scented eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K. D. Hill & L. A. S. Johnson (Myrtaceae), oil with a minimum of 50% p-menthane-3,8-diol. MyggA Natural also contains small amounts of the essential oils of lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae), and geranium, Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. (Geraniaceae). In laboratory bioassays, MyggA Natural and C. citriodora oil exhibited 100% repellency against host-seeking nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae). Lavender oil and geranium oil, when diluted to 1% in 1,2-propanediol, had weak repellent activities on I. ricinus nymphs, but when diluted to 30% in 1,2-propanediol had 100% repellencies. 1,2-Propanediol (100%) had no significant repellent activity in comparison with that of the control. In field tests in tick-infested areas in central Sweden, tick repellency of MyggA Natural and C. citriodora oil was tested by the blanket-dragging technique for 4 d during a 6-d period. The repellencies (74 and 85%, respectively) on day 1 are similar (89%) to that of blankets treated in a similar manner with 19% diethyl-methyl-benzamide, based on previous work. Repellencies declined significantly from day 1 to day 6 (74 to 45% for MyggA Natural; 85 to 42% for C. citriodora oil). PMID:16892632

  15. Laboratory evaluation of aromatic essential oils from thirteen plant species as candidate repellents against Leptotrombidium chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), the vector of scrub typhus.

    PubMed

    Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yoolek, Adisak; Kongkaew, Wittaya; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Khlaimanee, Nittaya; Parsartvit, Anchana; Malainual, Nat; Yong, Hoi-Sen

    2009-03-01

    Scrub typhus, a rickettsial disease transmitted by several species of Leptotrombidium chiggers (larvae), is endemic in many areas of Asia. The disease is best prevented by the use of personal protective measures, including repellents. In this study commercially produced aromatic, essential oils of 13 plant species and ethanol (control) were tested in the laboratory for repellency against host-seeking chiggers of Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston (Acari: Trombiculidae). A rapid, simple and economic in vitro test method was used by exposing the chigger for up to 5 min. Repellency was based on relative percentages of chiggers attracted to test and control substances. Four of the 13 essential oils showed promise as effective repellent against L. imphalum chiggers. Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 5% concentration (dilution with absolute ethanol), whereas Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 40% concentration. Undiluted oils of Zingiber cassamunar (plai) and Eucalyptus globules (blue gum) exhibited 100% repellency. Of the remaining nine essential oils, only 100% Pelargonium graveolens (geranium) exhibited >50% repellency (viz. 57%). Styrax torkinensis (benzoin) oil did not exhibit any repellency. These findings show that several aromatic, essential oils of plants may be useful as chigger repellent for the prevention of scrub typhus. Syzygium aromaticum oil may be safer and more economical to prevent chigger attacks than commercially available synthetic chemicals, such as DEET that may have harmful side effects. PMID:19009361

  16. Incidence and inheritance of resistance to METI-acaricides in European strains of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Devine, G J; Barber, M; Denholm, I

    2001-05-01

    A strain of Tetranychus urticae (Koch; Acari: Tetranychidae), collected from hops (Humulus humuli L; Cannabaceae) in England with a short history of tebufenpyrad use, exhibited resistance to four METI (mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor)-acaricides; tebufenpyrad, pyridaben, fenazaquin and fenpyroximate. Resistance factors for these compounds in a microimmersion assay were 46, 346, 168 and 77 respectively, and corresponded to those exhibited by a Japanese METI-acaricide-resistant reference strain. Levels of resistance remained stable without further selection, and selection with tebufenpyrad did not increase them. The UK strain was also resistant (c 6-fold) to bifenthrin. Crosses of homozygous, diploid females with hemizygous, haploid males showed that, in the UK strain, METI-acaricide resistance was paternally and maternally inherited, and was an incompletely dominant trait. Another tebufenpyrad-resistant strain from the UK, originating from a chrysanthemum nursery (Chrysanthemum foeniculaceum Giseke; Asteraceae) was collected eight months later at a site c 210 km distant from the first. These are the first published incidences of METI-acaricide resistance in Europe and implications for the future use of these compounds are discussed.

  17. Molecular characterization and evolutionary insights into potential sex-determination genes in the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Chelicerata: Arachnida: Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Aaron F; Hoy, Marjorie A; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the process of sex determination at the molecular level in species belonging to the subclass Acari, a taxon of arachnids that contains mites and ticks. The recent sequencing of the transcriptome and genome of the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis allows investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying the biological processes of sex determination in this predator of phytophagous pest mites. We identified four doublesex-and-mab-3-related transcription factor (dmrt) genes, one transformer-2 gene, one intersex gene, and two fruitless-like genes in M. occidentalis. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted to infer the molecular relationships to sequences from species of arthropods, including insects, crustaceans, acarines, and a centipede, using available genomic data. Comparative analyses revealed high sequence identity within functional domains and confirmed that the architecture for certain sex-determination genes is conserved in arthropods. This study provides a framework for identifying potential target genes that could be implicated in the process of sex determination in M. occidentalis and provides insight into the conservation and change of the molecular components of sex determination in arthropods. PMID:25077523

  18. Acaricidal properties of vetiver essential oil from Chrysopogon zizanioides (Poaceae) against the tick species Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Campos, Roseane Nunes de Santana; Nascimento Lima, Cecília Beatriz; Passos Oliveira, Alexandre; Albano Araújo, Ana Paula; Fitzgerald Blank, Arie; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Nascimento Lima, Rafaely; Albano Araújo, Vinícius; Santana, Alisson Silva; Bacci, Leandro

    2015-09-15

    Ticks are arthropods widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, which can transmit infectious agents also responsible for zoonoses. Excessive use of conventional acaricides has resulted in the onset of drug resistance by these parasites, thus the need to use alternative methods for their control. This study evaluated the acaricidal activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) essential oils containing different zizanoic and khuzimol (high and low acidity) acid concentrations on Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). To this aims, toxicity tests of different concentrations of examined essential oils were conducted on adult females and larval stages. Results showed that the essential oils of C. zizanioides with high and low acidity reduced oviposition of females, eggs hatch and larval survival, being more effective than some commercial products widely used to control these ectoparasites. These results indicate that the C. zizanoides essential oils are promising candidates as acaricidal agents and represent also an add value to vetiver oil with high acidity, which is commercially undervalued in the cosmetic industry.

  19. Description of the life stages of quill mite Mironovia lagopus sp. nov. (Acari: Syringophilidae) parasitizing the rock ptarmigan Lagopus muta (Phasianidae) from Iceland.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Skirnisson, Karl

    2011-03-01

    A new species of syringophilid mites, Mironovia lagopus sp. nov. (Acari: Syringophilidae) is described from feather quills of the rock ptarigman Lagopus muta (Montin) (Phasianidae) from Iceland. Females of this new species differ from the closely related Mironovia rouloul Skoracki and Sikora by setae d2, which are subequal or 1.1-1.2 times shorter than setae e2 (vs. d2 1.4-1.5 times longer than e2 in Mironovia rouloul) and by setae ag1, which are 1.3-1.5 times shorter than ag2 (vs. ag1 1.7-1.8 times shorter than ag2). The postembryonic stages of this new species are figured and described in details. In ontogeny of Mironovia spp., the observed pattern of setal appearance is not different from the pattern in other galliform-associated genera such as Syringophilus and Colinophilus, with exception for tarsal setae p'I, II which are absent in protonymphs. The key to all four species of the genus Mironovia is also provided.

  20. Acaricidal properties of vetiver essential oil from Chrysopogon zizanioides (Poaceae) against the tick species Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Campos, Roseane Nunes de Santana; Nascimento Lima, Cecília Beatriz; Passos Oliveira, Alexandre; Albano Araújo, Ana Paula; Fitzgerald Blank, Arie; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Nascimento Lima, Rafaely; Albano Araújo, Vinícius; Santana, Alisson Silva; Bacci, Leandro

    2015-09-15

    Ticks are arthropods widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, which can transmit infectious agents also responsible for zoonoses. Excessive use of conventional acaricides has resulted in the onset of drug resistance by these parasites, thus the need to use alternative methods for their control. This study evaluated the acaricidal activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) essential oils containing different zizanoic and khuzimol (high and low acidity) acid concentrations on Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). To this aims, toxicity tests of different concentrations of examined essential oils were conducted on adult females and larval stages. Results showed that the essential oils of C. zizanioides with high and low acidity reduced oviposition of females, eggs hatch and larval survival, being more effective than some commercial products widely used to control these ectoparasites. These results indicate that the C. zizanoides essential oils are promising candidates as acaricidal agents and represent also an add value to vetiver oil with high acidity, which is commercially undervalued in the cosmetic industry. PMID:26359641

  1. Differences between populations of Spinturnix myoti (Acari: Mesostigmata) in breeding and non-breeding colonies of Myotis myotis (Chiroptera) in central Europe: the effect of roost type.

    PubMed

    Postawa, Tomasz; Szubert-Kruszyńska, Agnieszka; Ferenc, Hanna

    2014-12-01

    We studied variations in the abundance of parasitic spinturnicid mites in relation to the gender, age and body condition of bats living in different habitats. Populations of Spinturnix myoti Kolenati, 1856 (Acari: Spinturnicidae), an ectoparasite of the bat Myotis myotis (Borkhausen) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), were investigated in two types of roosts differing in microclimatic conditions: caves (low temperature and high humidity) and attics (high temperature and low humidity). Our data suggest that bats from cave nursery colonies harbour more parasites than those from attic colonies, irrespective of host sex or age. In underground colonies, adult females and their young differ in the mean abundance of parasites, whereas no such differences were found in attic colonies. Non-lactating females from underground roosts and lactating females from attic colonies had similar parasite loads, were lower than those of adult lactating females from caves. A negative correlation between the host body condition index and parasite load was found only in the most infected sex/age group of bats. In spite of significant differences in parasite load, the mean abundance of particular life stages of mites seems to be independent of the type of roost occupied by the host, its sex or age. However, in attic colonies the number of female deutonymphs was twice that of male deutonymphs, whereas in cave colonies the proportions of the sexes were similar. We suggest that the microclimate of the host's roosts may influence ectoparasite abundance through pressure on the sex ratio in the nymphal stages of mites. PMID:25651701

  2. Toxicological evaluation of genetically modified cotton (Bollgard) and Dipel WP on the non-target soil mite Scheloribates praeincisus (Acari: Oribatida).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Anibal R; Castro, Thiago R; Capalbo, Deise M F; Delalibera, Italo

    2007-01-01

    Insecticides derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and plants genetically modified (GM) to express B. thuringiensis toxins are important alternatives for insect pest control worldwide. Risk assessment of B. thuringiensis toxins to non-target organisms has been extensively studied but few toxicological tests have considered soil invertebrates. Oribatid mites are one of the most diverse and abundant arthropod groups in the upper layers of soil and litter in natural and agricultural systems. These mites are exposed to the toxic compounds of GM crops or pesticides mainly when they feed on vegetal products incorporated in the soil. Although some effects of B. thuringiensis products on Acari have been reported, effects on oribatid mites are still unknown. This study investigated the effects of the ingestion of Bt cotton Bollgard and of the B. thuringiensis commercial product Dipel WP on the pantropical species Scheloribates praeincisus (Scheloribatidae). Ingestion of Bollgard and Dipel did not affect adult and immature survivorship and food consumption (estimated by number of fecal pellets produced daily) or developmental time of immature stages of S. praeincisus. These results indicate the safety of Bollgard and Dipel to S. praeincisus under field conditions where exposition is lower and other food sources besides leaves of Bt plants are available. The method for toxicological tests described here can be adapted to other species of Oribatida, consisting on a new option to risk assessment studies.

  3. Sampling method evaluation and empirical model fitting for count data to estimate densities of Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on 'Hass' avocado leaves in southern California.

    PubMed

    Lara, Jesús R; Saremi, Naseem T; Castillo, Martin J; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-04-01

    Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) is an important foliar spider mite pest of 'Hass' avocados in several commercial production areas of the world. In California (USA), O. perseae densities in orchards can exceed more than 100 mites per leaf and this makes enumerative counting prohibitive for field sampling. In this study, partial enumerative mite counts along half a vein on an avocado leaf, an industry recommended practice known as the "half-vein method", was evaluated for accuracy using four data sets with a combined total of more than 485,913 motile O. perseae counted on 3849 leaves. Sampling simulations indicated that the half-vein method underestimated mite densities in a range of 15-60 %. This problem may adversely affect management of this pest in orchards and potentially compromise the results of field research requiring accurate mite density estimation. To address this limitation, four negative binomial regression models were fit to count data in an attempt to rescue the half-vein method for estimating mite densities. These models were incorporated into sampling plans and evaluated for their ability to estimate mite densities on whole leaves within 30-tree blocks of avocados. Model 3, a revised version of the original half-vein model, showed improvement in providing reliable estimates of O. perseae densities for making assessments of general leaf infestation densities across orchards in southern California. The implications of these results for customizing the revised half-vein method as a potential field sampling tool and for experimental research in avocado production in California are discussed. PMID:26861068

  4. Responses of Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae) and Menacanthus stramineus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) to gradients of temperature, light, and humidity, with comments on microhabitat selection on chickens.

    PubMed

    Halbritter, D A; Mullens, B A

    2011-03-01

    Responses of the northern fowl mite (NFM), Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago) (Acari: Macronyssidae), and the chicken body louse (CBL), Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzsch) (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae), to variation in temperature, light, and humidity were assessed in bioassays. The location on a continuous thermal gradient at which each ectoparasite arrested was recorded and analyzed. NFM adults arrested at an average temperature of 30.09 +/- 0.34 degrees C. Adult CBL and first-instar CBL nymphs arrested at 33.69 +/- 0.20 degrees C and 34.99 +/- 0.26 degrees C, respectively. Groups of each ectoparasite were placed into clear glass vials (n = 10/vial) with one half shaded, and vials were exposed to three light levels, as follows: high (200 micromolm(-2)s(-1)), low (4 micromolm(-2)s(-1)), and nearly no light (0 micromolm(-2)s(-1)). The vial cap edges provided an opportunity to assess the interactive effect of light with harborage. NFM avoided light and sought harborage. In low light, the harborage preference overrode the tendency to avoid light. CBL avoided the harborage and showed a minimal preference for light. A four-level humidity gradient was established in two separate experimental arenas for NFM and CBL. Trials were run in ambient light (4 micromolm(-2)s(-1)) for the NFM and in nearly no light for the CBL. The NFM gradient used 38 +/- 2%, 54 +/- 7%, 73 +/- 3%, and 90 +/- 4% RH, whereas the CBL gradient used 42 +/- 5%, 48 +/- 7%, 63 +/- 4%, and 73 +/- 5% RH. NFM showed no humidity response in the walking bioassay, but the CBL settled at the lowest humidity level. Temperature and humidity on different hen body regions were related to the bioassay results and observed on-host ectoparasite distributions. PMID:21485360

  5. Sampling method evaluation and empirical model fitting for count data to estimate densities of Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on 'Hass' avocado leaves in southern California.

    PubMed

    Lara, Jesús R; Saremi, Naseem T; Castillo, Martin J; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-04-01

    Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) is an important foliar spider mite pest of 'Hass' avocados in several commercial production areas of the world. In California (USA), O. perseae densities in orchards can exceed more than 100 mites per leaf and this makes enumerative counting prohibitive for field sampling. In this study, partial enumerative mite counts along half a vein on an avocado leaf, an industry recommended practice known as the "half-vein method", was evaluated for accuracy using four data sets with a combined total of more than 485,913 motile O. perseae counted on 3849 leaves. Sampling simulations indicated that the half-vein method underestimated mite densities in a range of 15-60 %. This problem may adversely affect management of this pest in orchards and potentially compromise the results of field research requiring accurate mite density estimation. To address this limitation, four negative binomial regression models were fit to count data in an attempt to rescue the half-vein method for estimating mite densities. These models were incorporated into sampling plans and evaluated for their ability to estimate mite densities on whole leaves within 30-tree blocks of avocados. Model 3, a revised version of the original half-vein model, showed improvement in providing reliable estimates of O. perseae densities for making assessments of general leaf infestation densities across orchards in southern California. The implications of these results for customizing the revised half-vein method as a potential field sampling tool and for experimental research in avocado production in California are discussed.

  6. Ability of two natural products, nootkatone and carvacrol, to suppress Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Lyme disease endemic area of New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Marc C; Jordan, Robert A; Schulze, Terry L; Schulze, Christopher J; Manning, Mark Cornell; Ruffolo, Daniel; Schmidt, Jason P; Piesman, Joseph; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2009-12-01

    We evaluated the ability of the natural, plant-derived acaricides nootkatone and carvacrol to suppress Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae). Aqueous formulations of 1 and 5% nootkatone applied by backpack sprayer to the forest litter layer completely suppressed I. scapularis nymphs through 2 d. Thereafter, the level of reduction gradually declined to < or =50% at 28 d postapplication. Against A. americanum nymphs, 1% nootkatone was less effective, but at a 5% concentration, the level of control was similar or greater to that observed with I. scapularis through 21 d postapplication. Initial applications of 0.05% carvacrol were ineffective, but a 5% carvacrol formulation completely suppressed nymphs of both species through 2 d and resulted in significant reduction in I. scapularis and A. americanum nymphs through 28 and 14 d postapplication, respectively. Backpack sprayer applications of 5% nootkatone to the shrub and litter layers resulted in 100% control of I. scapularis adults through 6 d, but the level of reduction declined to 71.5% at 28 d postapplication. By contrast, high-pressure applications of 2% nootkatone to the litter layer resulted in 96.2-100% suppression of both I. scapularis and A. americanum nymphs through 42 d, whereas much lower control was obtained from the same formulation applied by backpack sprayer. Backpack sprayer application of a 3.1% nootkatone nanoemulsion resulted in 97.5-98.9 and 99.3-100% reduction in I. scapularis and A. americanum nymphs, respectively, at 1 d postapplication. Between 7 d and 35 d postapplication, the level of control varied between 57.1% and 92.5% for I. scapularis and between 78.5 and 97.1% for A. americanum nymphs. The ability of natural products to quickly suppress and maintain significant control of populations of these medically important ticks at relatively low concentrations may represent a future alternative to the use of conventional synthetic acaricides. PMID:20069863

  7. Suppression of host-seeking Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs after dual applications of plant-derived acaricides in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Robert A; Dolan, Marc C; Piesman, Joseph; Schulze, Terry L

    2011-04-01

    We evaluated the ability of dual applications of natural, plant-derived acaricides to suppress nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Lyme disease endemic area of New Jersey. An aqueous formulation of 2% nootkatone provided >90% control of I. scapularis through 7 d. Control declined to 80.9% at 14 d, and a second application was made that provided >95% control through the remaining 4 wk of the nymphal season. Nootkatone provided >90% control of A. americanum through 35 d postapplication. Applications of 2% carvacrol and EcoTrol T&O resulted in rapid knockdown of both tick species, but control declined significantly to 76.7 and 73.7%, respectively, after 14 d when a second application was made that extended control of both tick species to between 86.2 and 94.8% at 21 d. Subsequently, control declined steadily in all plots by 42 d postapplication except for I. scapularis in carvacrol-treated plots, where levels of control >90% were observed through 35 d. Of the three compounds tested, 2% nootkatone provided the most consistent results, with 96.5 and 91.9% control of I. scapularis and A. americanum through 42 and 35 d, respectively. The ability of plant-derived natural products to quickly suppress and maintain significant control of populations of these medically important ticks may represent a future alternative to the use of conventional synthetic acaricides. In addition, the demonstrated efficacy of properly-timed backpack sprayer application may enable homeowner access to these minimal-risk acaricides. PMID:21510219

  8. Sobre el estado evolutivo de β Pictoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde el descubrimiento de fuertes excesos infrarrojos en β Pictoris, esta estrella ha sido muy estudiada y es considerada candidata a poseer un sistema planetario propio. β Pic está rodeada de un disco asimétrico de polvo que se observa de canto y que esta vacío a distancias <= 40 AU. Esto se considera una fuerte evidencia en favor de la presencia de (al menos) un planeta gigante. Recientemente se han observado líneas de material circunestelar que se han interpretado como consecuencia de la caída de objetos cometarios sobre esta estrella. Recientemente se ha utilizado la existencia del disco de polvo para atribuir una edad corta (pre - secuencia principal) a βPic. Sin embargo, la evaporación de estos cometas provee suficiente polvo como para explicar la presencia del disco observado sin necesidad de edades cortas. En este trabajo mostramos que la comparación entre la tasa de impactos cometarios estimada en el Sistema Solar para diferentes etapas de su evolución y los datos observados en β Pic indica edades avanzadas para β Pic. Esta estimación debe tomarse con cautela ya que depende de la estructura de los sistemas planetarios. Además mostramos que, desde el punto de vista de la evolución estelar y con las incertezas presentes en la luminosidad y la temperatura efectiva, existe un continuo de edades posible para β Pic. Sin embargo, empleando los datos provenientes de los flujos cometarios encontramos que una edad prolongada es consistente con ambos tratamientos.

  9. Preliminary study on the acaricidal efficacy of spinosad administered orally to dogs infested with the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Snyder, Daniel E; Cruthers, Larry R; Slone, Robyn L

    2009-12-01

    Spinosad is a novel mode of action insecticide and acaricide derived from a family of natural compounds produced from fermentation of the actinomycete, Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Although spinosad has been shown to have rapid knockdown and 1 month of residual efficacy against fleas (Ctenocephalides spp.) following oral administration in dogs, potential activity against ticks infesting dogs has not been determined. To address this possibility, a proof-of-concept laboratory efficacy study was conducted using dogs orally treated with spinosad and experimentally infested with the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae). In this randomized block (blocked by gender and pre-treatment tick counts), blinded, parallel-arm study, 12 dogs selected on health and ability to maintain pre-treatment tick populations were allocated equally among three groups: placebo-treated negative control, and spinosad in gelatin capsules at 50 and 100mg/kg administered per os. All treatments were administered once on Day 0. On days -6, -1, 7, 14, 21 and 28, each dog was infested with 50 unfed adult R. sanguineus, approximately 50% male and 50% female, obtained from the investigator's established tick colony. Tick comb counts were performed approximately 48 h post-infestation by study personnel who were blinded to treatments. Compared to geometric mean live tick counts in the control group, tick counts in the 50 and 100mg/kg spinosad doses were significantly (P<0.05) reduced by 94.8 and 97.2%, respectively, within 24h of treatment. Compared to geometric mean live tick counts in the control group at Days 9, 16, 23 and 30 after treatment, the 50mg/kg spinosad treatment group demonstrated 67.8, 49.1, 52.1 and 5.0% reductions, while the 100mg/kg spinosad treatment group demonstrated 88.6, 70.6, 61.9 and 71.3% reductions, respectively. This pilot efficacy study demonstrated that a single oral treatment with technical spinosad in gelatin capsules, at 50 and 100mg

  10. Eupalopsellidae and Stigmaeidae (Acari: Prostigmata) within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines, and ground cover plants.

    PubMed

    Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A

    2014-10-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs were sampled for predacious mites in the families Eupalopsellidae and Stigmaeidae (Acari: Prostigmata) in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruit, twigs, and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between August 1994 and January 1996. Open flowers were sampled in March from five of the sites. Two species of eupalopsellid mites (Exothorhis caudata Summers and Saniosulus harteni (van-Dis and Ueckermann)) were identified from 252 specimens collected within citrus tree canopies within the seven citrus orchards of which 249 were E. caudata. Only two E. caudata were collected from ground cover plants within five of the seven orchards. Eight species of Stigmaeidae were identified from 5,637 specimens: Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, A. terminalis Gonzalez, Eustigmaeus arcuata (Chandhri), E. sp. near arcuata, E. segnis (Koch), Mediostigmaeus citri (Rakha and McCoy), Stigmaeus seminudus Wood, and Zetzellia languida Gonzalez were collected from within citrus tree canopies from seven orchard sites. Agistemus floridanus was the only species in either family that was abundant with 5,483 collected from within citrus tree canopies compared with only 39 from vine or ground cover plants. A total of 431 samples from one or more of 82 vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996 in five of these orchards and one or more eupalopsellids or stigmaeids were collected from 19 of these plants. Richardia brasiliensis (Meg.) Gomez had nine A. floridanus from 5 of 25 samples collected from this plant. Solanum sp. had five A. floridanus from three samples taken. Both eupalopsellid and stigmaeid species numbers represented <1 % of the total numbers of phytoseiid species taken from the same plants. The two remaining orchards were on full herbicide programs and ground cover plants were absent. Agistemus floridanus was more abundant in the citrus orchards

  11. Glyphosate sub-lethal toxicity to non-target organisms occurring in Jatropha curcas plantations in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Saraiva, Althiéris Souza; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Teodoro, Adenir Vieira; Erasmo, Eduardo Andrea Lemus; Belchior, Diana Cléssia Vieira; de Azevedo, Emiliano Brandão

    2016-10-01

    Weed management in physic nut plantations has generally been performed by spraying the herbicide glyphosate. However, the effects of glyphosate on non-target organisms present in the crop system are unknown. Here, we evaluated the toxicity of glyphosate (Roundup Transorb(®)) against the pest species Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae) and Tetranychus bastosi (Acari: Tetranychidae) which can be exposed by drift. These mites are considered pests of the physic nut; however, they can also feed and reside on weeds associated with the crop, serving as food sources for predatory mites. When subjected to residue (by ingestion of sap of treated plants), and direct contact to glyphosate, P. latus reproduction was affected but T. bastosi was affected only by the residual effect. Although the herbicide caused a reduction in the number of eggs laid by the females of both pest mites, it is suggested that sublethal effects of glyphosate stimulates oviposition of P. latus and T. bastosi: both species displayed higher reproductive rates when exposed to 0.36 kg ha(-1) of the herbicide. We conclude that glyphosate negatively affects the arthropod herbivores studied and we discuss possible implications on their biological control in Jatropha curcas plantations. PMID:27502112

  12. Glyphosate sub-lethal toxicity to non-target organisms occurring in Jatropha curcas plantations in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Saraiva, Althiéris Souza; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Teodoro, Adenir Vieira; Erasmo, Eduardo Andrea Lemus; Belchior, Diana Cléssia Vieira; de Azevedo, Emiliano Brandão

    2016-10-01

    Weed management in physic nut plantations has generally been performed by spraying the herbicide glyphosate. However, the effects of glyphosate on non-target organisms present in the crop system are unknown. Here, we evaluated the toxicity of glyphosate (Roundup Transorb(®)) against the pest species Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae) and Tetranychus bastosi (Acari: Tetranychidae) which can be exposed by drift. These mites are considered pests of the physic nut; however, they can also feed and reside on weeds associated with the crop, serving as food sources for predatory mites. When subjected to residue (by ingestion of sap of treated plants), and direct contact to glyphosate, P. latus reproduction was affected but T. bastosi was affected only by the residual effect. Although the herbicide caused a reduction in the number of eggs laid by the females of both pest mites, it is suggested that sublethal effects of glyphosate stimulates oviposition of P. latus and T. bastosi: both species displayed higher reproductive rates when exposed to 0.36 kg ha(-1) of the herbicide. We conclude that glyphosate negatively affects the arthropod herbivores studied and we discuss possible implications on their biological control in Jatropha curcas plantations.

  13. Infection and co-infection rates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum variants, Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, and the rickettsial endosymbiont in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) from sites in Indiana, Maine, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Fresia E; Pinger, Robert R; Vann, Carolyn N; Grindle, Nate; Civitello, David; Clay, Keith; Fuqua, Clay

    2008-03-01

    In total, 394 questing adult blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), collected at four sites were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for five microbial species: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Babesia odocoilei, Borrelia burgdorferi, and the rickettsial I. scapularis endosymbiont. Identities of genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum were determined by sequencing a portion of the 16S DNA. In 55% of infected ticks (193/351), a single agent was detected. In 45% (158/351), two or more agents were detected; 37% harbored two agents and 8% harbored three agents. One male tick, collected from Ft. McCoy, WI, harbored all four microbial genera The highest rates of co-infection were by the Ixodes endosymbiont and B. burgdorferi (95/351). Two species of Babesia co-occurred within a single tick population in Wells National Estuarine Research Reserve, Wells, ME, whereas only B. odocoilei was found in other tick populations. Only A. phagocytophilum human anaplasmosis variant was detected in questing ticks from Tippecanoe River State Park, IN; from Wells; and Ft. McCoy, whereas a single infected tick from Presque Isle, PA, was infected by AP-Variant 1. Partially engorged ticks from deer in Tippecanoe River State Park were all infected with AP-Variant 1. Frequency of infections with each agent varied among populations. Rates and types of co-infections were not significantly different from random except for the Ixodes endosymbiont and B. burgdorferi in male ticks, which co-occurred less frequently than expected. Thus, I. scapularis hosts an array of pathogenic and symbiotic agents and potential evidence of interactions among microbial species was observed.

  14. In vitro activity of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis and ecdysis of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; de Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodriguez

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis, as a larvicide and on ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae). On the oogenesis' test, 48 engorged females were divided into three groups, evaluated at 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment. Half of the females were treated with 0.01% 3β-O-tigloylmelianol diluted in distilled water and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), while the other half (controls) were exposed to distilled water and 5% DMSO. After treatment, the ovaries were weighed in order to measure the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and were also subjected to standard histological technical tests. On the larvicide and ecdysis' tests, 3β-O-tigloylmelianol was tested at concentrations of 0.01, 0.005, 0.0025 and 0.00125%. Compared with the controls, there was a reduction of GSI of approximately 50% on the treated group, which started at 48 h post treatment. Overall, the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol has caused a significant reduction in the number of oocytes. It has also caused alteration of the cytoplasmic and germinal vesicle diameters. Morphological changes, such as vacuolization, chorion irregularity which has modified the oocytes' morphology as well as alterations on the yolk's granules were also observed. The compound was not larvicide, however, interfered in the ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs. This study shows that the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from G. kunthiana acts on oogenesis and ecdysis of R. (B.) microplus, but not as larvicide, indicating that it acts on the endocrine system of the tick.

  15. Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole (1836) and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    de Assis Lage, Tiago Coelho; Montanari, Ricardo Marques; Fernandes, Sergio Antonio; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; de Oliveira Souza Senra, Tatiane; Zeringota, Viviane; da Silva Matos, Renata; Daemon, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (common name "alecrim-do-campo" in Brazil) is a plant with widespread distribution in South America that is the botanical origin of green propolis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of B. dracunculifolia and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on unengorged larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). The essential oil yield was 0.8% of dry mass and the major constituents were nerolidol (22.3%), germacrene D (7.2%), limonene (6.9%), β-pinene (6.7) and bicyclogermacrene (6.5%). The acaricidal activity of the essential oil and the pure compounds nerolidol and (R)-(+)-limonene were assessed in the laboratory through the modified larval packet test (LPT) and the female immersion test (FIT). In the LPT, the essential oil and nerolidol were both active, causing more than 90% mortality at concentrations from 15.0 and 10.0 mg mL(-1), respectively, whereas (R)-(+)-limonene was not active. In the FIT, the oil and nerolidol caused reduction in the quantity and quality of eggs produced, with control percentages of 96.3% and 90.3% at concentrations of 60.0 and 50.0 mg mL(-1), respectively. It can be concluded that the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of B. dracunculifolia and its major component nerolidol have high activity on R. microplus larvae and engorged females. PMID:25448290

  16. Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole (1836) and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    de Assis Lage, Tiago Coelho; Montanari, Ricardo Marques; Fernandes, Sergio Antonio; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; de Oliveira Souza Senra, Tatiane; Zeringota, Viviane; da Silva Matos, Renata; Daemon, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (common name "alecrim-do-campo" in Brazil) is a plant with widespread distribution in South America that is the botanical origin of green propolis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of B. dracunculifolia and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on unengorged larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). The essential oil yield was 0.8% of dry mass and the major constituents were nerolidol (22.3%), germacrene D (7.2%), limonene (6.9%), β-pinene (6.7) and bicyclogermacrene (6.5%). The acaricidal activity of the essential oil and the pure compounds nerolidol and (R)-(+)-limonene were assessed in the laboratory through the modified larval packet test (LPT) and the female immersion test (FIT). In the LPT, the essential oil and nerolidol were both active, causing more than 90% mortality at concentrations from 15.0 and 10.0 mg mL(-1), respectively, whereas (R)-(+)-limonene was not active. In the FIT, the oil and nerolidol caused reduction in the quantity and quality of eggs produced, with control percentages of 96.3% and 90.3% at concentrations of 60.0 and 50.0 mg mL(-1), respectively. It can be concluded that the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of B. dracunculifolia and its major component nerolidol have high activity on R. microplus larvae and engorged females.

  17. Estudio muestra importancia de conversaciones tempranas sobre el cuidado en etapa final de la vida

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre la importancia de hablar en forma temprana sobre el cuidado paliativo para asegurar que la atención prestada en la etapa final de la vida sea más acorde con las preferencias de los pacientes.

  18. Tenuipalpidae (Acari: Trombidiformes) from Casuarinaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Tenuipalpidae from the Casuarinaceae are reviewed. Twelve new species are described, from one new genus and six established genera: Chaudhripalpus costacola Beard & Seeman sp. nov., Crossipalpus gersoni Beard & Seeman sp. nov., Crossipalpus raveni Beard & Seeman sp. nov., Magdalenapalpus capera...

  19. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer con una sección especial sobre la prevalencia d

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  20. Some Research-Based Issues and Recommendations Expressed at the Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Ernesto M.

    The first Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue (International Seminar on Bilingual Education), under the aegis of the National Association for Bilingual Education and the Mexican secretary for public education, brought together professionals from Canada, the United States, and Mexico in Oaxtepec, Mexico in November 1986 to share…

  1. Informe del NCI y los CDC sobre el tabaco sin humo

    Cancer.gov

    El primer informe sobre el consumo mundial del tabaco sin humo y sus consecuencias en la salud pública reveló que más de 300 millones de personas en al menos 70 países usan estos productos dañinos.

  2. Discussions about the Nature of Science in a Course on the History of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Discusiones sobre la Naturaleza de la Ciencia en un Curso sobre Historia de la Astronomía.) Discussões sobre a Natureza da Ciência em um Curso sobre a História da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires de Andrade, Victória Flório; L'Astorina, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    There are an increasing number of researches in science education that affirm the importance of discussions on the "nature of science" in basic education level as well as in teacher training. The history of science applied to education is a way to contextualize epistemological discussions, allowing both the understanding of scientific content and learning about science concepts. We present some reasonably consensual definitions on the nature of science that have been widely discussed by the academic community. We show also some episodes in the history of astronomy which can lead to discussions involving some aspects of the nature of science, and how they can do it. Hay un número creciente de investigaciones en la enseñanza de las ciencias que afirman la importancia de debates sobre la "naturaleza de la ciencia" en la educación básica y formación del profesorado. La historia de la ciencia aplicada a la educación es una manera de contextualizar los debates de la epistemología, lo que permite tanto la comprensión de los contenidos científicos como el aprendizaje de conceptos científicos. En esto trabajo, presentamos algunas definiciones bastante consensuales sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia que han sido ampliamente discutidas por la comunidad académica y mostramos cómo algunos episodios en la historia de la astronomía pueden llevar a discusiones sobre algunos aspectos de la naturaleza de la ciencia. Há um número crescente de pesquisas na área de ensino de ciências que afirmam a importância de discussões sobre a "natureza da ciência" na educação básica e na formação de professores. A história da ciência aplicada ao ensino é uma maneira de contextualizar discussões epistemológicas, permitindo tanto a compreensão de conteúdos científicos quanto o aprendizado de noções sobre as ciências. Neste trabalho apresentamos algumas definições razoavelmente consensuais sobre a natureza da ciência que foram amplamente discutidas pela

  3. Interspecific interactions involving Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis (Acari: Stigmaeidae) as predators of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcos Zatti; Sato, Mário Eidi; de Oliveira, Carlos Amadeu Leite; Nicastro, Roberto Lomba

    2015-03-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) is associated with the transmission of Citrus leprosis which is considered the main viral disease for the Brazilian citrus production. Mites of the families Stigmaeidae and Phytoseiidae coexist in various agricultural crops, often promoting the biological control of pest mites. The aim of this work was to study the interactions of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Stigmaeidae), in the presence or absence of B. phoenicis. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, a N. californicus female was placed in each leaf disc arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and A. brasiliensis as food sources. In the second, an A. brasiliensis female was placed in each arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and N. californicus as food sources. Adults of both predators were able to consume both types of eggs available as food sources, but they fed on considerably higher proportions of B. phoenicis than on eggs of the predator. Eggs of A. brasiliensis were not a suitable food source for N. californicus, which produced only 0.1 egg per female per day when only eggs of that species were present in the experimental unit. The results suggest that eggs of N. californicus were a suitable food source for A. brasiliensis, which oviposited 1.12 eggs per day, when only eggs of N. californicus were provided to the stigmaeid mite. The possible interactions among N. californicus, A. brasiliensis and B. phoenicis in citrus orchards are discussed.

  4. Interspecific interactions involving Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis (Acari: Stigmaeidae) as predators of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcos Zatti; Sato, Mário Eidi; de Oliveira, Carlos Amadeu Leite; Nicastro, Roberto Lomba

    2015-03-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) is associated with the transmission of Citrus leprosis which is considered the main viral disease for the Brazilian citrus production. Mites of the families Stigmaeidae and Phytoseiidae coexist in various agricultural crops, often promoting the biological control of pest mites. The aim of this work was to study the interactions of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Stigmaeidae), in the presence or absence of B. phoenicis. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, a N. californicus female was placed in each leaf disc arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and A. brasiliensis as food sources. In the second, an A. brasiliensis female was placed in each arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and N. californicus as food sources. Adults of both predators were able to consume both types of eggs available as food sources, but they fed on considerably higher proportions of B. phoenicis than on eggs of the predator. Eggs of A. brasiliensis were not a suitable food source for N. californicus, which produced only 0.1 egg per female per day when only eggs of that species were present in the experimental unit. The results suggest that eggs of N. californicus were a suitable food source for A. brasiliensis, which oviposited 1.12 eggs per day, when only eggs of N. californicus were provided to the stigmaeid mite. The possible interactions among N. californicus, A. brasiliensis and B. phoenicis in citrus orchards are discussed. PMID:25524512

  5. Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) in Indiana.

    PubMed

    Pinger, R R; Glancy, T

    1989-03-01

    Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman and Corwin is reported from Indiana for the first time. Four specimens were taken from deer and one from a dog. All specimens are adult females and all were collected in 1987. The significance of this finding is discussed.

  6. New Pergalumna (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae) from Peru.

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Friedrich, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Six species of oribatid mites of the genus Pergalumna (Oribatida, Galumnidae) are collected from the German Expedition to Amazonian Peru in 2013; of these, three are new for science, described from upper soil and leaf litter in the primary evergreen lowland rainforest. Pergalumna (Pergalumna) parapassimpunctata sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to P. (P.) passimpunctata Balogh & Mahunka, 1969, but differs from the latter by the presence of foveolate body surface, two pairs of porose areas Aa and minute interlamellar setae, and the absence of porose areas A3. Pergalumna (Pergalumna) krisperi sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to P. (P.) cardosensis Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio, 1986, but differs from the latter by the smaller body size, rostral and lamellar setae of medium size and the presence of four pairs of notogastral porose areas. Pergalumna (Pergalumna) lenticulata sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to P. (P.) decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977, but differs from the latter by the larger body size and the presence of lenticulus and bidentate rostrum. The species Pergalumna (Pergalumna) bryani Jacot, 1934 is recorded for the first time in Peru. PMID:27394360

  7. Hyperparasitism in Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Labruna, M B; Ahid, S M M; Soares, H S; Suassuna, A C D

    2007-12-01

    In the present study, we report a case of hyperparasitism in Amblyomma rotundatum. During examination of live ticks immediately after collecting them from Boa constrictor snakes held in a reptile facility in Mossoró, RN, northeastern Brazil, 1 unengorged tick female was seen attached to the venter of a partially engorged female. The hypostome and chelicerae of the unengorged female had penetrated the integument of the partially engorged female to the level of the basis capitulli and the palps were splayed outward. To our knowledge, we present the second report of hyperparasitism for the genus Amblyomma.

  8. Ecology of Amblyomma neumanni (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Nava, Santiago; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2009-09-01

    The life cycle of Amblyomma neumanni was described studying the seasonal distribution of free-living stages and parasitic phases during two consecutive years. Development periods of engorged ticks under different photoperiod conditions were recorded. Larvae of A. neumanni have the peak of abundance in autumn. Nymphs reach the peak in winter. Females were collected on cattle from autumn to late spring. The seasonal distribution pattern of females showed a bimodal curve, with a peak in autumn and other during early and middle spring. The engorged females exposed at shortest photoperiod regimen (10 h light-14 h dark) under both laboratory and field conditions undergo morphogenetic diapause, expressed as a delay in the oviposition. It is concluded that females of A. neumanni that feed and copulate in autumn undergo morphogenetic diapause, and they will lay eggs in spring, simultaneously with the females that feed and copulate in this season. Climate niche analysis shows that adequate suitability for A. neumanni depends mainly from temperature (mean, absolute maximum and minimum, and mean temperature in wettest and driest quarters) as well as from rainfall in warmest and coldest quarters. Sequences of 16S rDNA gene belonging to different populations of A. neumanni, showed no intraspecific genetic differentiation.

  9. Tenuipalpidae (Acari: Trombidiformes) from Casuarinaceae (Fagales).

    PubMed

    Beard, Jennifer J; Seeman, Owen D; Bauchan, Gary R

    2014-03-12

    The Tenuipalpidae associated with the Casuarinaceae are reviewed, including one new genus, Palpipalpus gen. nov., twelve new species, and seven redescriptions. Two new generic records for Australia are established, Pentamerismus and Philippipalpus. The new species are: Chaudhripalpus costacola Beard and Seeman sp. nov., Crossipalpus gersoni Beard and Seeman sp. nov., Crossipalpus raveni Beard and Seeman sp. nov., Magdalenapalpus caperatus Beard and Seeman sp. nov., Magdalenapalpus forsteri Seeman and Beard sp. nov., Pentamerismus sititoris Beard and Seeman sp. nov., Pentamerismus hicklingorum Seeman and Beard sp. nov., Pentamerismus wardo Seeman and Beard sp. nov., Palpipalpus hesperius Beard and Seeman sp. nov. gen. nov., Philippipalpus flumaquercus Beard and Seeman sp. nov., Philippipalpus belah Beard and Seeman sp. nov., and Philippipalpus nigraquercus Seeman and Beard sp. nov.  Meyeraepalpus delfinadae Smiley et al., is reinstated based on new material and an analysis of its phylogenetic relationships. Crossipalpus muellerianae Smiley et al., Crossipalpus verticillatae Smiley et al., and Tegopalpus conicus Womersley are redescribed and rediagnosed from the original type specimens and newly collected material; and Chaudhripalpus creelae (Smiley et al.), Magdalenapalpus strandtmanni (Smiley et al.) and Philippipalpus agohoi Corpuz-Raros are redescribed and rediagnosed from type material only. All flat mite species were host-specific. Up to three species of flat mite were collected from a single she-oak species. Leg setation and ontogeny are reviewed for the taxa studied. A key to Tenuipalpidae from Casuarinaceae is provided. A phylogeny of the subfamily Tegopalpinae found the following relationships: Meyeraepalpus (Australopalpus, Crossipalpus, Palpipalpus (Magdalenapalpus (Philippipalpus (Chaudhripalpus + Tegopalpus)))). Our preliminary analysis of the Tegopalpinae suggested the group is monophyletic and its sister group is Phytoptipalpus.

  10. The supercooling ability of ticks (Acari, Ixodoidea).

    PubMed

    Dautel, H; Knülle, W

    1996-01-01

    The supercooling capacity of nine laboratory-held species of ticks originating from different geographical areas, as well as five field-collected species from Germany, was investigated. All but one tick species showed mean supercooling points between about -17 and -23 degrees C, suggesting that the capacity to supercool to temperatures of < or = -17 degrees C might be an inherent property of many tick species unrelated to their geographic origin. Photoperiod did not influence the mean supercooling point in any of the species and there was also no distinct seasonal pattern of supercooling in seasonally acclimatized Dermacentor marginatus. Thus, the supercooling ability was independent of the presence/absence of diapause. The finding of thermal hysteresis in D. marginatus hemolymph raises the question of whether or not anti-freeze proteins are involved in the supercooling capacity of that species. An interspecies comparison revealed a weak negative correlation between relative water content and supercooling point of the ticks and an even weaker correlation between body mass or body water mass and the supercooling point. Since the ticks exhibited low supercooling points both before and shortly after feeding, the blood used as food should lack potent ice nucleators.

  11. Review of the genus Tenuipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tenuipalpus Donnadieu is the most speciose genus of the family Tenuipalpidae, with over 300 described species. The descriptions of many of these species are incomplete, and lack important information necessary for accurate species identification. The objective of this study was to re-describe specie...

  12. Tenuipalpidae (Acari: Trombidiformes) from Casuarinaceae (Fagales).

    PubMed

    Beard, Jennifer J; Seeman, Owen D; Bauchan, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    The Tenuipalpidae associated with the Casuarinaceae are reviewed, including one new genus, Palpipalpus gen. nov., twelve new species, and seven redescriptions. Two new generic records for Australia are established, Pentamerismus and Philippipalpus. The new species are: Chaudhripalpus costacola Beard and Seeman sp. nov., Crossipalpus gersoni Beard and Seeman sp. nov., Crossipalpus raveni Beard and Seeman sp. nov., Magdalenapalpus caperatus Beard and Seeman sp. nov., Magdalenapalpus forsteri Seeman and Beard sp. nov., Pentamerismus sititoris Beard and Seeman sp. nov., Pentamerismus hicklingorum Seeman and Beard sp. nov., Pentamerismus wardo Seeman and Beard sp. nov., Palpipalpus hesperius Beard and Seeman sp. nov. gen. nov., Philippipalpus flumaquercus Beard and Seeman sp. nov., Philippipalpus belah Beard and Seeman sp. nov., and Philippipalpus nigraquercus Seeman and Beard sp. nov.  Meyeraepalpus delfinadae Smiley et al., is reinstated based on new material and an analysis of its phylogenetic relationships. Crossipalpus muellerianae Smiley et al., Crossipalpus verticillatae Smiley et al., and Tegopalpus conicus Womersley are redescribed and rediagnosed from the original type specimens and newly collected material; and Chaudhripalpus creelae (Smiley et al.), Magdalenapalpus strandtmanni (Smiley et al.) and Philippipalpus agohoi Corpuz-Raros are redescribed and rediagnosed from type material only. All flat mite species were host-specific. Up to three species of flat mite were collected from a single she-oak species. Leg setation and ontogeny are reviewed for the taxa studied. A key to Tenuipalpidae from Casuarinaceae is provided. A phylogeny of the subfamily Tegopalpinae found the following relationships: Meyeraepalpus (Australopalpus, Crossipalpus, Palpipalpus (Magdalenapalpus (Philippipalpus (Chaudhripalpus + Tegopalpus)))). Our preliminary analysis of the Tegopalpinae suggested the group is monophyletic and its sister group is Phytoptipalpus. PMID:24871621

  13. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975 a 2012

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975 a 2012, es una actualización de los índices de casos nuevos, muertes y tendencias de los cánceres más comunes en los Estados Unidos.

  14. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    The present article is the analysis of a conversation between the author and Lara, a four-yearold- girl, enrolled in nursery school, while she makes a drawing of the Earth. It took place outside school environment and without any other person around to avoid interference during the interview. According to Ferreira & Silva (2004), a researcher can only comprehend a child's drawing, or form, by listening to him/her while he/she is creating it. Lara presented the traditional flat drawing, picturing the sky parallel to the ground, as reported by Nardi & Carvalho (1996). However, when asked to draw the World - term used by Butterworth et al. (2002), in order to avoid unnecessary confusion - she represented it by a circle, with herself on the surface. Her drawings led to the conclusion that such girl does not know yet the World in which she lives is the Earth, and probably because of that, within her age and consequent maturity, she accurately differentiates the concepts of land and Earth. El presente artículo analiza una entrevista libre, mientras una niña de 4 años y 4 meses, matriculada en el pregrado, dibuja la Tierra. Esta entrevista se realizó fuera del ambiente escolar y sin otra persona alrededor que pudiera interferir. De acuerdo con Ferreira Silva (2004), para quien investiga es posible conocer realmente lo que un niño o una niña pone en el papel a través de grafismos y/o dibujos si se lo escucha durante el proceso de creación de la escritura con imágenes. La niña, en este caso, representa la Tierra con el tradicional dibujo plano y el "cielo" paralelo al suelo, conforme analizaron Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Pero, cuando se Le solicita dibujar el "Mundo" - palabra empleada en un trabajo de Butterworth et al. (2002), con intención de no provocar "confusiones" innecesarias a sus sujetos de investigación- lo representa de forma circular, poniéndose sobre su superficie. Sus dibujos llevan a concluir que esta niña aún no tiene conocimiento que el mundo

  15. Testing prey DNA fingerprinting on Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) predation of Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Rivera-Rivera, Carlos; Galindo-Cardona, Alberto; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle

    2012-08-01

    Molecular detection of predation by identifying prey markers in the digestive tract of predators has developed into a powerful tool to assess predator-prey systems in which diet identification is too time consuming or impossible. Here we explore its utility for detecting predation of the pest mite Raoiella indica Hirst by the predatory mite Amblyseius largoensis Muma, taking advantage of the color the predator acquires after eating this mite to cross-reference our results. For this, a ~410 bp segment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene marker specific for the subfamily Tetranychoidea was used. Amblyseius largoensis that had recently eaten were collected from greenhouse colonies containing both mites, and isolated from any other food source. Predator mites were taken for fingerprinting at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of starving after collection, and the same process was repeated a second time, offering pollen as an alternative food source to see whether detection changed. Lastly, a sampling trial was conducted in the greenhouse, in which mites were collected regardless of their color and frozen immediately for fingerprinting. Raoiella indica DNA was detected for 48 h on starving predators, and for 96 h on those who had eaten pollen. The segment was detected in 26 % of the samples collected on the trial. This technique needs refinement specific for this system, but the results obtained here confirm that it could turn into a very useful tool for assessing aspects of this predator-prey system.

  16. Testing prey DNA fingerprinting on Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) predation of Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Rivera-Rivera, Carlos; Galindo-Cardona, Alberto; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle

    2012-08-01

    Molecular detection of predation by identifying prey markers in the digestive tract of predators has developed into a powerful tool to assess predator-prey systems in which diet identification is too time consuming or impossible. Here we explore its utility for detecting predation of the pest mite Raoiella indica Hirst by the predatory mite Amblyseius largoensis Muma, taking advantage of the color the predator acquires after eating this mite to cross-reference our results. For this, a ~410 bp segment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene marker specific for the subfamily Tetranychoidea was used. Amblyseius largoensis that had recently eaten were collected from greenhouse colonies containing both mites, and isolated from any other food source. Predator mites were taken for fingerprinting at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of starving after collection, and the same process was repeated a second time, offering pollen as an alternative food source to see whether detection changed. Lastly, a sampling trial was conducted in the greenhouse, in which mites were collected regardless of their color and frozen immediately for fingerprinting. Raoiella indica DNA was detected for 48 h on starving predators, and for 96 h on those who had eaten pollen. The segment was detected in 26 % of the samples collected on the trial. This technique needs refinement specific for this system, but the results obtained here confirm that it could turn into a very useful tool for assessing aspects of this predator-prey system. PMID:22476445

  17. Seasonal variation in the populations of Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi in physic nut (Jatropha curcas) plantations.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Jander F; Picanço, Marcelo C; Sarmento, Renato A; da Silva, Ricardo Siqueira; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Carvalho, Marcos Alberto; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Silva, Laila Cristina Rezende

    2015-07-01

    Studies on the seasonal variation of agricultural pest species are important for the establishment of integrated pest control programs. The seasonality of pest attacks on crops is affected by biotic and abiotic factors, for example, climate and natural enemies. Besides that, characteristics of the host plant, crop management, location and the pests' bioecology also affect this seasonality. The mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) and Tetranychus bastosi (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) are the most important pests in the cultivation of physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae). All parts of J. curcas can be used for a wide range of purposes. In addition many researchers have studied its potential for use as neat oil, as transesterified oil (biodiesel), or as a blend with diesel. However studies about physic nut pests have been little known. The objective of this study was to assess the seasonal variation of P. latus and T. bastosi in physic nut. This study was conducted at three sites in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. We monitored climatic elements and the densities of the two mite species and of their natural enemies for a period of 2 years. Attack by P. latus occurred during rainy seasons, when the photoperiod was short and the physic nut had new leaves. In contrast, attack by T. bastosi occurred during warmer seasons with longer photoperiods and stronger winds. Populations of both mites and their natural enemies were greater in sites with greater plant diversity adjacent to the plantations. The predators found in association with P. latus and T. bastosi were Euseius concordis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), spiders, Stethorus sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). PMID:25910991

  18. Seasonal variation in the populations of Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi in physic nut (Jatropha curcas) plantations.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Jander F; Picanço, Marcelo C; Sarmento, Renato A; da Silva, Ricardo Siqueira; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Carvalho, Marcos Alberto; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Silva, Laila Cristina Rezende

    2015-07-01

    Studies on the seasonal variation of agricultural pest species are important for the establishment of integrated pest control programs. The seasonality of pest attacks on crops is affected by biotic and abiotic factors, for example, climate and natural enemies. Besides that, characteristics of the host plant, crop management, location and the pests' bioecology also affect this seasonality. The mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) and Tetranychus bastosi (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) are the most important pests in the cultivation of physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae). All parts of J. curcas can be used for a wide range of purposes. In addition many researchers have studied its potential for use as neat oil, as transesterified oil (biodiesel), or as a blend with diesel. However studies about physic nut pests have been little known. The objective of this study was to assess the seasonal variation of P. latus and T. bastosi in physic nut. This study was conducted at three sites in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. We monitored climatic elements and the densities of the two mite species and of their natural enemies for a period of 2 years. Attack by P. latus occurred during rainy seasons, when the photoperiod was short and the physic nut had new leaves. In contrast, attack by T. bastosi occurred during warmer seasons with longer photoperiods and stronger winds. Populations of both mites and their natural enemies were greater in sites with greater plant diversity adjacent to the plantations. The predators found in association with P. latus and T. bastosi were Euseius concordis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), spiders, Stethorus sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

  19. El Informe a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975-2012

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975-2012) indica que continuó la baja de tasas de mortalidad de todos los cánceres juntos, así como de la mayoría de los cánceres en hombres y mujeres de todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales.

  20. O que bilíngues bimodais têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue?

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Português e Língua de Sinais Americana (ASL) e Inglês (Lillo-Martin et al. 2010) têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de interações espontâneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisição da Libras e do português como língua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente. nos mesmos contextos, de crianças adquirindo ASL e inglês1. Além disso, há também dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de línguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma visão geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisição bilíngue bimodal por crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, será apresentada e, então, serão expostos alguns aspectos linguísticos deste tipo de aquisição, considerando as discussões sobre aquisição bilíngue a partir da pesquisa realizada. PMID:24431480

  1. University Students' Conceptions about the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones de Estudiantes Universitários sobre Las Fases de la Luna.) Concepções de Estudantes Universitários sobre as Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima Oliveira Saraiva, Maria; da Silveira, Fernando Lang; Steffani, Maria Helena

    2011-07-01

    In this article we describe the development of a multiple choice test about lunar phases and analyze the results of its application to ten groups of Physics students at the UFRGS. During the improvement of the test, we noticed that the percentage of right answers about some concepts increased significantly when associated with the reformulation of the question, emphasizing the importance of being careful to avoid incorrect answers generated by unclear questions, and not by ignorance on the matter. We confirm the results of other studies that show that students have great difficulty to relate the Moon's phase with its position in the sky at given time. On the other hand, our results suggest that, in general, students of Physics understand the phenomenon of lunar phases better than the average of university students. En estese artículo se describe la elaboración de una prueba de opción múltiple sobre las fases de la Luna y se analizan los resultados de su aplicación en diez grupos de estudiantes de Física de UFRGS. Durante el mejoramiento de la prueba observamos que el porcentaje de aciertos creció considerablemente cuando considerada una nueva redacción de la pregunta, destacando el cuidado que se debe tomar a fin de evitar respuestas incorrectas generadas por preguntas poco claras y no a causa de la ignorancia de los estudiantes sobre el tema. Confirmamos los resultados de otros estudios que las mayores dificultades de los alumnos sobre el tema fases de la Luna están en relacionar la fase de la Luna con su posición en el cielo en determinado momento. Por otra parte, nuestros resultados sugieren que, en general, los estudiantes de la Física comprenden mejor el fenómeno de las fases lunares que el promedio de los estudiantes universitarios. Neste artigo descrevemos a elaboração de um teste de múltipla escolha sobre as fases da Lua e analisamos os resultados de sua aplicação em dez grupos de estudantes de Física da UFRGS. Durante o aprimoramento do

  2. Sobre a largura da última superfície de espalhamento

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, M. A. S.; Pires, N.; Lima, J. A. S.

    2003-08-01

    De acordo com o modelo do "Big-Bang", no universo primordial a matéria estava em equilíbrio térmico com a radiação. Com a expansão a temperatura da radiação cai. Quando a temperatura chega em torno dos 4.000K, os espalhamentos diminuem, começando a recombinação dos prótons e elétrons em Hidrogênio neutro (era conhecida como da recombinação). Ao final da recombinação, os fótons se propagam livremente sofrendo, em princípio, somente os efeitos do "redshift" cosmológico. Esses fótons nos alcançam hoje como a radiação cósmica de fundo (RCF), e parecem vir de uma superfície esférica ao nosso redor, tal que o raio dela é a distância que ele viajou desde seu último espalhamento na época da recombinação. Naturalmente, esse processo não ocorreu abruptamente, implicando na existência de uma largura no espaço dos "redshifts" que deve depender do modelo cosmológico específico e dos processos físicos considerados. Neste trabalho analisamos os efeitos de diferentes modelos - a saber, aqueles com decaimento do vácuo L(t), criação de matéria, quintessência e gás de Chaplygin - sobre a última superfície de espalhamento da RCF, em particular sua largura e a função visibilidade, que determina a probabilidade de um fóton ter tido seu último espalhamento num "redshift" z. No caso particular dos modelos com decaimento do vácuo, existe uma forte dependência da função visibilidade com L(t). Tais efeitos poderão ser testados através da análise dos resultados de experimentos mais precisos que estão atualmente em andamento, como por exemplo, o WMAP.

  3. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  4. Reflexión bioética sobre el uso de organismos genéticamente modificados

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países. PMID:21927675

  5. Human breast milk and adipokines--A potential role for the soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R) in the regulation of infant energy intake and development.

    PubMed

    Zepf, F D; Rao, P; Moore, J; Stewart, R; Ladino, Yuli Martinez; Hartmann, B T

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of different adipokines in human breast milk are thought to be able to affect energy intake of the infant. Leptin is a hormone synthesized by adipose tissue and the human placenta and favors satiety. The availability of leptin in breast milk is influenced by epithelial cells of the mammary gland that are known to be able to produce leptin, as well as leptin from maternal circulation that is transported to the breast milk, and which can thus in turn reach neonatal blood after absorption. Research so far as mainly focused on leptin concentrations in breast milk. However, evidence suggests that in addition to leptin concentrations levels of the so-called soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R), the main high-affinity binding protein for leptin in humans, are necessary in order to calculate the free leptin index (FLI) and to assess function of the leptin axis. FLI is calculated from the ratio of leptin to the sOb-R, and serves as the main parameter for assessing function of the leptin axis throughout maturation and development. Here we propose that assessing sOb-R levels in addition to leptin concentrations in breast milk could serve as a valuable tool to investigate effects of the leptin axis in breast milk because sOb-R concentrations can impact available leptin levels, and which in turn can have significant implications for infant energy intake and related development.

  6. Educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH: un diagnóstico para América Latina y el Caribe

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Lisa M.; Galárraga, Omar; Campero, Lourdes; Walker, Dilys M.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Objetivo Mostrar, a través de un diagnóstico en América Latina y el Caribe, el panorama legislativo y curricular sobre sexualidad y prevención contra el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en el ámbito escolar, contrastándolo con los comportamientos sexuales reportados en encuestas demográficas y de salud. Métodos En mayo de 2008 se realizó, con el apoyo del Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas (UNFPA), una encuesta a informantes clave en 34 países de la Región. El cuestionario autoaplicado solicitó información sustantiva de agentes de las diferentes partes interesadas, como ministerios de educación y de salud, sobre los programas de prevención contra el VIH/Sida que se están aplicando en las escuelas. Resultados Respondieron a la encuesta 27 países que representan 95,5% de la población objetivo (6 a 18 años de edad). La mayoría de los países informó tener al menos un libro de texto o un capítulo específico para enseñar los temas de educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH. En la escuela secundaria se cubren la mayor parte de los temas pertinentes relevantes para la educación sobre sexualidad, pero no todos. Por ejemplo, el problema de la discriminación por orientación o preferencia sexual no se incluye en los programas escolares. Conclusiones El material educativo sobre sexualidad debe ser revisado y actualizado periódicamente de modo que refleje los avances en los temas y en la forma de tratar los contenidos. En cada país el currículo debe abordar el tema del respeto a la diversidad sobre orientación, preferencia e identidad sexuales, y en particular el manejo apropiado de la educación para prevenir infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres. Los esfuerzos de evaluación de la efectividad de los programas deben contemplar desenlaces tales como marcadores biológicos (incidencia y prevalencia de ITS y embarazo) y no únicamente indicadores de conocimiento y

  7. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  8. Biology and life cycle of Amblyomma incisum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Szabó, Matias Pablo J; Pereira, Lucas de F; Castro, Márcio B; Garcia, Marcos V; Sanches, Gustavo S; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2009-07-01

    Amblyomma incisum Neumann is a major tick species in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Tapir is the main host for adult ticks and a high aggressiveness of nymphs to humans has been reported. In this work data on the biology and life cycle of this tick species is presented for the first time. It was shown that horse is a suitable host for A. incisum adults and rabbit for larvae and nymphs. It was also shown that A. incisum is a big tick species (mean engorged female weight of 1.96 g) with a long life cycle which lasts 262.3 days when maintained at 27 degrees C and 85% RH. These laboratory conditions were, however, inappropriate and egg hatching rate (1.2%) was very low. Nevertheless egg hatching of ticks in a forest patch increased considerably (72.2%) indicating that this A. incisum population is highly dependent on a forest-like environment. PMID:19130270

  9. Does Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acari: Ixodidae) really occur in China?

    PubMed

    Chen, Ze; Li, Youquan; Ren, Qiaoyun; Liu, Zhijie; Luo, Jin; Li, Kai; Guan, Guiquan; Yang, Jifei; Han, Xueqing; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2015-02-01

    Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann has been considered to exist in China, especially in the southern part of the country. However, H. bispinosa referred to in many Chinese research papers may in fact be H. longicornis, which is widely distributed in most regions of China. In order to clarify the occurrence of H. bispinosa, Haemaphysalis ticks collected from 18 of 23 provinces of China (Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Guangxi, Gansu, Yunnan, Xinjiang, Anhui, Zhejiang, Shannxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, Shanxi, Shandong, Ningxia, Fujian, Qinghai and Jiangxi) were examined based on morphological and molecular characteristics. We found no evidence of H. bispinosa being present in China. Our results indicate that all of the so called "H. bispinosa" ticks reported in China are in fact H. longicornis.

  10. Status of Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Bouseman, J K; Kitron, U; Kirkpatrick, C E; Siegel, J; Todd, K S

    1990-07-01

    Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman & Corwin was found for the first time in Illinois in November 1987, when two adult females were collected from two deer in Jo Daviess County in the northwestern corner of the state. In 1988, in a study of six state parks in northern Illinois, questing adults and nymphs were encountered in one park in Ogle County. During the firearm deer hunt in November 1988, adult female and male ticks were found in several counties, with a high rate of infestation (greater than 25%) in two counties (Ogle and Rock Island) along the Rock River, which flows from Wisconsin into the Mississippi River. Several cases in humans with no history of travel outside of the state have been reported, primarily from northern Illinois. We suspect that infiltration of infected ticks and wildlife from Wisconsin is resulting in the emergence of Lyme disease in Illinois. Because all the components necessary for the completion of the tick life cycle and for the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi are available throughout much of the state, I. dammini and Lyme disease can spread and become established in large portions of Illinois. PMID:2388231

  11. Apparent tick paralysis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Ramos, Rafael Antonio do Nascimento; Stanneck, Dorothee; Baneth, Gad; de Caprariis, Donato

    2012-09-10

    Certain tick species including Ixodes holocyclus can inoculate neurotoxins that induce a rapid, ascending flaccid paralysis in animals. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the most widespread tick of dogs, is recognized as a vector of several pathogens causing diseases in dogs and humans. A single report suggests its role as cause of paralysis in dogs. This study presents the clinical history of 14 young dogs heavily infested by R. sanguineus (intensity of infestation, 63-328) in an endemic area of southern Italy. During May to June of 2011, dogs were presented at the clinical examination with neurological signs of different degrees (e.g., hind limb ataxia, generalized lethargy, and difficulty in movements). All animals were treated with acaricides and by manual tick removal but ten of them died within a day, displaying neurological signs. The other 4 dogs recovered within 3 days with acaricidal and supportive treatment. Twelve dogs were positive by blood smear examination for Hepatozoon canis with a high parasitemia, two also for Babesia vogeli and two were negative for hemoparasites. Low-grade thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and pancytopenia were the haematological alterations most frequently recorded. Other causes of neurological disease in dogs were excluded and the diagnosis of tick paralysis by R. sanguineus was confirmed (ex juvantibus) by early and complete recovery of 4 dogs following acaricidal treatment and tick removal. PMID:22546547

  12. Acaroid mites (Acari: Astigmata) in Chinese traditional medicines.

    PubMed

    Cui, Y-B; Li, C-P; Wang, J; Yang, Q-G; Tian, Y

    2003-12-01

    Almost 2000 samples of the dried plants and animals used in Chinese traditional medicine were collected from a storehouse in Huainan city, Anhui province, China, where they had been kept for at least 6 months. When examined, every sample was found to contain acaroid mites. The mites included representatives of 44 species belonging to 22 genera and seven families. It seems that samples of Chinese traditional medicine frequently become severely infested with mites while in storage. More importance should be attached to protecting the medicines against mite infestation and to protecting against acariasis those who ingest or simply handle the medicines.

  13. Infestation of grasses by eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains incomplete. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study on grass-infesting eriophyoid mites in Turkey. The aim of this study was to collect...

  14. Diversity of feather mites (Acari: Astigmata) on Darwin's finches.

    PubMed

    Villa, Scott M; Le Bohec, Céline; Koop, Jennifer A H; Proctor, Heather C; Clayton, Dale H

    2013-10-01

    Feather mites are a diverse group of ectosymbionts that occur on most species of birds. Although Darwin's finches are a well-studied group of birds, relatively little is known about their feather mites. Nearly 200 birds across 9 finch species, and from 2 locations on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos, were dust-ruffled during the 2009 breeding season. We found 8 genera of feather mites; the most prevalent genus was Mesalgoides (53-55%), followed by Trouessartia (40-45%), Amerodectes and Proctophyllodes (26-33%), Xolalgoides (21-27%), Analges and Strelkoviacarus (0-6%), and Dermoglyphus (2-4%). There was no evidence for microclimatic effects (ambient temperature and relative humidity) on mite diversity. Host body mass was significantly correlated with mean feather mite abundance across 7 of 8 well-sampled species of finches. Certhidea olivacea, the smallest species, did not fit this pattern and had a disproportionately high number of mites for its body mass.

  15. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Mastropaolo, Mariano; Beltrán-Saavedra, L Fabián; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2014-03-01

    The tick species reported in Bolivia are reviewed here as (1) endemic or established: Ornithodoros echimys, O. guaporensis, O. hasei, O. kohlsi, O. mimon, O. peropteryx, O. rostratus, Otobius megnini, Amblyomma auricularium, A. cajennense, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. dubitatum, A. humerale, A. incisum, A. longirostre, A. naponense, A. nodosum, A. oblongoguttatum, A. ovale, A. parvitarsum, A. parvum, A. pecarium, A. pseudoconcolor, A. rotundatum, A. scalpturatum, A. tigrinum, A. triste, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, H. leporispalustris, I. boliviensis, I. cooleyi, I. luciae, Rhipicephalus microplus, R. sanguineus, and (2) erroneously reported: Ornithodoros puertoricensis, O. talaje, O. turicata, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, A. multipunctum, Ixodes ricinus, I. scapularis, Rhipicephalus annulatus. Many of these records are lacking locality and/or host, and some of them need new findings for confirmation. Some of the species recorded may represent a threat for human and animal health, therefore would be of great value to make a countrywide survey of ticks in order to update the information presented in this work.

  16. Dietary effects on body weight of predatory mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Goleva, Irina; Rubio Cadena, Esteban C; Ranabhat, Nar B; Beckereit, Caroline; Zebitz, Claus P W

    2015-08-01

    Pollen is offered as alternative or supplementary food for predacious mites; however, it may vary in its nutritional value. Body weight appears a representative parameter to describe food quality. Thus, we assessed the body weight for adults of the generalist mites Amblyseius swirskii, Amblydromalus limonicus, and Neoseiulus cucumeris reared on 22, 12, and 6 pollen species, respectively. In addition, A. swirskii and A. limonicus was reared on codling moth eggs. In all mite species, female body weight was higher than that of males, ranging between 4.33 and 8.18 µg for A. swirskii, 2.56-6.53 µg for A. limonicus, and 4.66-5.92 µg for N. cucumeris. Male body weight ranged between 1.78 and 3.28 µg, 1.37-3.06 µg, and 2.73-3.03 µg, respectively. Nutritional quality of pollen was neither consistent among the mite species nor among sex, revealing superior quality of Quercus macranthera pollen for females of A. swirskii and Tulipa gesneriana pollen for males, Alnus incana pollen for females of A. limonicus and Aesculus hippocastanum pollen for males, and Ae. hippocastanum pollen for both sexes of N. cucumeris. The results are discussed against the background of known or putative pollen chemistry and mite's nutritional physiology. PMID:26014648

  17. Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) is more than one species.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D L; Trueman, J W

    2000-03-01

    Varroa jacobsoni was first described as a natural ectoparasitic mite of the Eastern honeybee (Apis cerana) throughout Asia. It later switched host to the Western honeybee (A. mellifera) and has now become a serious pest of that bee worldwide. The studies reported here on genotypic, phenotypic and reproductive variation among V. jacobsoni infesting A. cerana throughout Asia demonstrate that V. jacobsoni is a complex of at least two different species. In a new classification V. jacobsoni is here redefined as encompassing nine haplotypes (mites with distinct mtDNA CO-I gene sequences) that infest A. cerana in the Malaysia Indonesia region. Included is a Java haplotype, specimens of which were used to first describe V. jacobsoni at the beginning of this century. A new name, V. destructor n. sp., is given to six haplotypes that infest A. cerana on mainland Asia. Adult females of V. destructor are significantly larger and less spherical in shape than females of V. jacobsoni and they are also reproductively isolated from females of V. jacobsoni. The taxonomic positions of a further three unique haplotypes that infest A. cerana in the Philippines is uncertain and requires further study. Other studies reported here also show that only two of the 18 different haplotypes concealed within the complex of mites infesting A. cerana have become pests of A. mellifera worldwide. Both belong to V. destructor, and they are not V. jacobsoni. The most common is a Korea haplotype, so-called because it was also found parasitizing A. cerana in South Korea. It was identified on A. mellifera in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Less common is a Japan/Thailand haplotype, so-called because it was also found parasitizing A. cerana in Japan and Thailand. It was identified on A. mellifera in Japan, Thailand and the Americas. Our results imply that the findings of past research on V. jacobsoni are applicable mostly to V. destructor. Our results will also influence quarantine protocols for bee mites, and may present new strategies for mite control.

  18. Life Cycle of Amblyomma romitii (Acari: Ixodidae) Under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Landulfo, G A; Luz, H R; Sampaio, J S; Faccini, J L H; Barros-Battesti, D M

    2016-01-01

    The life cycle of Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli, 1939 is reported for the first time, using rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) for larvae and capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) for nymphs and adults, as experimental hosts. Developmental periods of free-living stages were observed in an incubator at 27 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% relative humidity (RH), and 24-h darkness. The life cycle of A. romitii in the laboratory could be completed in an average period of 216.4 d. The overall sex ratio (M:F) was 1:1.4. The results showed that rabbits are quite suitable as experimental hosts for the larval stages of A. romitii, while capybaras are suitable experimental hosts for nymphs and adults. PMID:26487244

  19. Hypopi (Acari: Hypoderatidae) of the wood stork (Aves: Ciconiiformes: Ciconiidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pence, Danny B.; Thomas, N.J.

    1995-01-01

    A new species is described and additional host records are presented for 2 other species of deutonymphs of the family Hypoderatidae from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of the wood stork, Mycteria americana L. Phalacrodectes (Phalacrodectes) mycteria n. sp. appears to share affinities with species from both pelicaniform and ciconiiform hosts, but it most closely resembles P. (P.) punctatissimus (Černý) Pence & Courtney from pelicans in idiosomal chaetotaxy, cutdcular sclerotization, and posteriorly divergent, widely separated genital openings. The new species differs from this and other species of the genus by its small size, the degree of separation of the genital openings with papillae, no secondary sclerotization in the perigenital area or surrounding the genital openings, and the long filiform setae s and w on genu III. There was a mixed infection of Neottialges kutzeri Fain and N. mycteriae Pence in all of 7 wood storks examined from Florida and Georgia; P. (P) mycteria was found in 4 of these hosts. This is the 7th species described as a deutonymph in the genus Phalacrodectes. The apparent close affinity of P. (P.) mycteria with P. (P.) punctatissimus and allied species from pelicaniform versus ciconiiform birds appears to be inconsistent with the established host-parasite relationships based on classical avian taxonomic relationships. However, this apparent affinity may be more reflective of the close relationships between the families of pelicans, ibises and spoonbills, and storks as recently proposed by DNA-DNA hybridization studies.

  20. Relative humidity and activity patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.

  1. Three eriophyoid mite species (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Honarmand, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Three mite species of the family Eriophyidae from Iran are described and illustrated. They are: Tegolophus marrubiumer sp. nov. on Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae); Phyllocoptes sp. cf. balasi Farkas, 1962 on Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. minor (Rosaceae) and Aceria fasciculifolis sp. nov. on Astragalus fasciculifolius Boiss. (Fabaceae). Both new species described herein are vagrants on their respective host plants. PMID:27395681

  2. Three eriophyoid mite species (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Honarmand, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Three mite species of the family Eriophyidae from Iran are described and illustrated. They are: Tegolophus marrubiumer sp. nov. on Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae); Phyllocoptes sp. cf. balasi Farkas, 1962 on Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. minor (Rosaceae) and Aceria fasciculifolis sp. nov. on Astragalus fasciculifolius Boiss. (Fabaceae). Both new species described herein are vagrants on their respective host plants.

  3. The oribatid mite genus Benoibates (Acari, Oribatida, Oripodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Kontschán, Jenő; Retana-Salazar, Axel P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two species of oribatid mites of the genus Benoibates (Oribatida, Oripodidae), i.e., Benoibates bolivianus Balogh & Mahunka, 1969(a) and Benoibates minimus Mahunka, 1985, are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica. Both are redescribed in details, using drawings, images and SEM micrographs, on the basis of Costa Rican specimens. An identification key to the known species of Benoibates is given. PMID:25349489

  4. The oribatid mite genus Benoibates (Acari, Oribatida, Oripodidae).

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Kontschán, Jenő; Retana-Salazar, Axel P

    2014-01-01

    Two species of oribatid mites of the genus Benoibates (Oribatida, Oripodidae), i.e., Benoibatesbolivianus Balogh & Mahunka, 1969(a) and Benoibatesminimus Mahunka, 1985, are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica. Both are redescribed in details, using drawings, images and SEM micrographs, on the basis of Costa Rican specimens. An identification key to the known species of Benoibates is given. PMID:25349489

  5. Origins of asexuality in Bryobia mites (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Obligate asexual reproduction is rare in the animal kingdom. Generally, asexuals are considered evolutionary dead ends that are unable to radiate. The phytophagous mite genus Bryobia contains a large number of asexual species. In this study, we investigate the origin and evolution of asexuality using samples from 111 populations in Europe, South Africa and the United States, belonging to eleven Bryobia species. We also examine intraspecific clonal diversity for one species, B. kissophila, by genotyping individuals from 61 different populations. Knowledge on the origin of asexuality and on clonal diversity can contribute to our understanding of the paradox of sex. Results The majority (94%) of 111 sampled populations reproduces asexually. Analysis of part of nuclear 28S rDNA shows that these asexuals do not form a monophyletic clade. Analysis of the mitochondrial COI region shows that intraspecific variation is extensive (up to 8.8%). Within B. kissophila, distinct clades are found, which are absent at the nuclear 28S rDNA level. Moreover, paraphyletic patterns are found at the mitochondrial DNA. Conclusion Asexuality is widespread in the genus Bryobia, signifying that some animal taxa do contain a high number of asexuals. We argue that asexuality originated multiple times within Bryobia. Wolbachia bacteria cause asexuality in at least two Bryobia species and may have infected different species independently. The high intraspecific clonal diversity and the patterns of paraphyly at the mitochondrial DNA in B. kissophila might be explained by a high mutation fixation rate and past hybridization events. Reproductive parasites like Wolbachia and Cardinium might influence these processes. We discuss the role these bacteria could play in the evolutionary success of asexual species. PMID:18489749

  6. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Nava, S; Lareschi, M; Rebollo, C; Benítez Usher, C; Beati, L; Robbins, R G; Durden, L A; Mangold, A J; Guglielmone, A A

    2007-04-01

    The ticks reported in Paraguay, which are here reviewed, can be categorized as 'endemic or established' (Argas persicus or a sibling species, Ornithodoros hasei, O. rostratus, O. rudis, O. talaje/O. puertoricensis, Amblyomma aureolatum, Am. auricularium, Am. brasiliense, Am. cajennense, Am. calcaratum, Am. coelebs, Am. dissimile, Am. dubitatum, Am. incisum, Am. longirostre, Am. nodosum, Am. ovale, Am. pacae, Am. parvum, Am. pseudoconcolor, Am. rotundatum, Am. scutatum, Am. tigrinum, Am. triste, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, H. leporispalustris, Ixodes loricatus, Rhipicephalus microplus, and Rh. sanguineus), 'probably endemic or established' (Ar. miniatus, Ar. monachus, Am. argentinae, Am. humerale, Am. naponense, Am. oblongoguttatum, Am. pseudoparvum, I. aragaoi/I. pararicinus, I. auritulus, I. luciae), or 'erroneously reported from Paraguay' (O. coriaceus, Am. americanum and Am. maculatum). Most Paraguayan tick collections have been made in the Chaco phyto-geographical domain, in the central part of the country. Argas persicus or a related species, Am. cajennense, D. nitens, Rh. microplus and Rh. sanguineus are important parasites of domestic animals. Ornithodoros rudis, Am. aureolatum, Am. brasiliense, Am. cajennense, Am. coelebs, Am. incisum, Am. ovale and Am. tigrinum have all been collected from humans. In terms of public health, the collections of Am. cajennense and Am. triste from humans may be particularly significant, as these species are potential vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii and Ri. parkeri, respectively.

  7. Contribution to the knowledge of Galumnoidea (Acari, Oribatida) of Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.; Tolstikov, Andrei V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An annotated checklist of identified oribatid mites of the superfamily Galumnoidea collected from Cuba, including ten species from four genera and two families, is provided. Galumna flabellifera Hammer, 1958, Pergalumna bifissurata Hammer, 1972, Pergalumna bryani (Jacot, 1934), Pergalumna decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977 and Galumnopsis secunda Sellnick, 1923 are recorded for the first time in the Cuban fauna. A new species of Pergalumna, Pergalumna cubaensis sp. n., is described; it is morphologically similar to Pergalumna decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977, but differs from the latter by the larger body size, heavily granulated prodorsum and well-developed interlamellar setae. The adult of Allogalumna cubana Balogh & Mahunka, 1979 is redescribed. PMID:26798237

  8. Development of Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tucci, E C; Prado, A P; Araújo, R P

    2008-08-01

    The development, viability, and life cycle parameters of Dermanyssus gallinae at five different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C), and at relative humidity 70-85% were evaluated. Life cycle duration was 690.75 h (28 days) at 15 degrees C, 263.12h (11 days) at 20 degrees C, 164.63 h (7 days) at 25 degrees C, 140.69 h (6 days) at 30 degrees C and 172.04 h (7 days) at 35 degrees C. The optimal development temperature for D. gallinae was 30 degrees C, with the greatest survival in all stages and the shortest development time. High mortality at 35 degrees C indicated that this temperature had adverse effects on development of D. gallinae, and that in field conditions D. gallinae populations may decrease or even disappear due to the negative impact of high temperature on development. There were no significant differences in the pre-oviposition period among the four temperatures 20-35 degrees C, indicating that temperature did not affect this part of the life cycle.

  9. Thermal requirements of Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Tucci, Edna Clara; do Prado, Angelo P; de Araújo, Raquel Pires

    2008-01-01

    The thermal requirements for development of Dermanyssus gallinae were studied under laboratory conditions at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C, a 12h photoperiod and 60-85% RH. The thermal requirements for D. gallinae were as follows. Preoviposition: base temperature 3.4 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 562.85 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.59, regression equation: Y= -0.006035 + 0.001777x. Egg: base temperature 10.60 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 689.65 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.94, regression equation: Y= -0.015367 + 0.001450x. Larva: base temperature 9.82 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 464.91 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.87, regression equation: Y= -0.021123 + 0.002151x. Protonymph: base temperature 10.17 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 504.49 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.90, regression equation: Y= -0.020152 + 0.001982x. Deutonymph: base temperature 11.80 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 501.11 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.99, regression equation: Y= -0.023555 + 0.001996x. The results obtained showed that 15 to 42 generations of Dermanyssus gallinae may occur during the year in the State of São Paulo, as estimated based on isotherm charts. Dermanyssus gallinae may develop continually in the State of São Paulo, with a population decrease in the winter. There were differences between the developmental stages of D. gallinae in relation to thermal requirements.

  10. Reestablishment of Amblyomma tenellum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Nava, Santiago; Beati, Lorenza; Dunlop, Jason; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2014-10-01

    Herein, Amblyomma tenellumKoch, 1844 (Ixodidae) is reestablished as a valid tick name and removed from the synonymy list of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787), while Amblyomma imitatorKohls, 1958, is relegated to a junior synonym of A. tenellum. Amblyomma tenellum is redescribed based on the examination of male type specimens collected by Deppe at the beginning of the 19th century in Mexico and described by Koch in 1844.

  11. Revision of the genus Raoiella (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) of the world.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flat mites in the genus Raoiella have attracted recent world-wide interest due to the rapid spread of a major pest of various palm trees and other monocot species, the red palm mite, R. indica. This focus on the species R. indica has created a need to better understand the genus. Despite the econo...

  12. A catalog of Tenuipalpidae Berlese of the world (Acari: Prostigmata)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The family Tenuipalpidae is worldwide in distribution and includes several economically important pest species. Species of the genus Brevipalpus have been identified as vectors of rhabdoviruses that cause diseases such as citrus leprosis, coffee ring spot virus, passion fruit green spot virus and ot...

  13. [Control of Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897) (Acari: Ixodidae) on equines].

    PubMed

    Bello, Ana Cristina P De P; Da Cunha, Arildo P; Leite, Romário C; Oliveira, Paulo R; Ribeiro, Antônio Cândido C L; Domingues, Luisa N; De Freitas, Carolina Maria V; Bastianetto, Eduardo; Dalla Rosa, Ricardo C

    2008-09-01

    This trial evaluated control practices of Anocentor nitens on equines, using spraying devices and application of acaricide paste formulation in the auricular pavilion and nasal diverticulum. The study was carried out from October 2003 to March of 2008 and the evaluations had been divided in the following stages: Phase 1--out/03 mar/04 and Phases 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively, correspondents to the month's periods until março/08. It was used score of 0 to 3 to classify infestation levels. From abr/04 to mar/06 was implanted a schedule of acaricide sprayings every seven days and divided in two series. The first one beginning in April 2004 and the second beginning in July, both using six sprayings treatments with pyrethroid chemical base--cypermethrin 0,015%, plus topical treatments applied monthly in the auricular pavilions (powder acaricide). From abril/06 to março/08 was carried out similar schedule treatments, each two months, using an experimental acaricide paste in the auricular pavilion and nasal diverticulum. Phases 2 and 3 did not showed reduction of the parasitic loads of A. nitens compared to the control period. Whereas in Phases 4 and 5 registered significant reduction compared control period and also with the results of Phases 2 and 3, characterizing the effectiveness of the treatment with the acaricide paste formulation. Results demonstrated of A. nitens populations present in the nasal diverticulum are important in the maintenance of the infestations on equines, and necessary attention to this anatomical structure when controlling ticks.

  14. Three new rotundabaloghid mites (Acari, Uropodina) from Sabah (Malaysia)

    PubMed Central

    Kontschán, Jenő

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of the family Rotundabaloghiidae are discovered and described from Sabah, Malaysia. The unusual Angulobaloghia rutra sp. n. differs from the other known Angulobaloghia Hirschmann, 1979 species in the long anterior process of the female’s genital shield. Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) tobiasi sp. n. has very long and apically pilose dorsal setae and two pairs of bulbiform setae, which are unique in the subgenus Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) Hirschmann, 1975. The long, serrate and curved setae in the big ventral cavity of Depressorotunda (Depressorotunda) serrata sp. n. is a so far unknown character in the subgenus Depressorotunda (Depressorotunda) Kontschán, 2010. PMID:25349515

  15. Reproductive morphology of Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago) (Acari: Macronyssidae).

    PubMed

    Pound, J M; Oliver, J H

    1976-06-01

    The male reproductive system consists of paired tests, vasa deferentia and dark-staining lateral accessory glands, single ventromedial spongy accessory gland, seminal vesicle, ejaculatory apparatus, and gonopore. The female system consists of paired rami sacculi, sacculus foemineus, ovary (lyriform and medial portions), oviduct, vagina, and paired vaginal glands. PMID:932922

  16. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan.

  17. Hypopi (Acari:Hypoderatidae) from owls (Aves:Strigiformes:Strigidae).

    PubMed

    Pence, D B; Bergan, J F

    1996-09-01

    Hypopi (deutonymphs) of the family Hypoderatidae were found in a barn owl, Tyto alba (Scopoli), and a burrowing owl, Speotyto cunicularia (Molina), from Texas. A redescription is provided for mature specimens of the hypopus of Tytodectes (Tytodectes) tyto Fain from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of the pelvic region in the barn owl. The hypopus of Tytodectes (Tytodectes) speotyto n. sp. is described from specimens in the subcutaneous adipose tissues of the pelvic region and in the adipose tissues of the intermuscular fasciae of the ankle in the burrowing owl. T. (T.) speotyto appears most similar in size and chaetotaxy to T. (T.) glaucidii Cerný described from the Cuban pygmy owl, Glaucidium siju (d'Orbigny), in Cuba, but differs in the presence of a spine on tibia IV, which also occurs in T. (T.) tyto. Both of the former species have the anterior apodemes of coxae I fused in a simple V and lack a sternum. They differ from T. (T.) tyto which has the anterior apodemes of coxae I fused in a Y and there is a well developed sternum. Based on the above 3 described hypopi, the hypoderatids of owls represent an assemblage of small closely related, but easily differentiated, species. The occurrence of a few specimens of Neottialges evansi Fain in the barn owl and Hypodectes (Hypodectoides) propus (Nitzsch) in the burrowing owl probably represent examples of host capture by hypopi that normally occur in cormorants and pigeons, herons or egrets, respectively. PMID:8840691

  18. Status of Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Bouseman, J K; Kitron, U; Kirkpatrick, C E; Siegel, J; Todd, K S

    1990-07-01

    Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman & Corwin was found for the first time in Illinois in November 1987, when two adult females were collected from two deer in Jo Daviess County in the northwestern corner of the state. In 1988, in a study of six state parks in northern Illinois, questing adults and nymphs were encountered in one park in Ogle County. During the firearm deer hunt in November 1988, adult female and male ticks were found in several counties, with a high rate of infestation (greater than 25%) in two counties (Ogle and Rock Island) along the Rock River, which flows from Wisconsin into the Mississippi River. Several cases in humans with no history of travel outside of the state have been reported, primarily from northern Illinois. We suspect that infiltration of infected ticks and wildlife from Wisconsin is resulting in the emergence of Lyme disease in Illinois. Because all the components necessary for the completion of the tick life cycle and for the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi are available throughout much of the state, I. dammini and Lyme disease can spread and become established in large portions of Illinois.

  19. Apparent tick paralysis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Ramos, Rafael Antonio do Nascimento; Stanneck, Dorothee; Baneth, Gad; de Caprariis, Donato

    2012-09-10

    Certain tick species including Ixodes holocyclus can inoculate neurotoxins that induce a rapid, ascending flaccid paralysis in animals. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the most widespread tick of dogs, is recognized as a vector of several pathogens causing diseases in dogs and humans. A single report suggests its role as cause of paralysis in dogs. This study presents the clinical history of 14 young dogs heavily infested by R. sanguineus (intensity of infestation, 63-328) in an endemic area of southern Italy. During May to June of 2011, dogs were presented at the clinical examination with neurological signs of different degrees (e.g., hind limb ataxia, generalized lethargy, and difficulty in movements). All animals were treated with acaricides and by manual tick removal but ten of them died within a day, displaying neurological signs. The other 4 dogs recovered within 3 days with acaricidal and supportive treatment. Twelve dogs were positive by blood smear examination for Hepatozoon canis with a high parasitemia, two also for Babesia vogeli and two were negative for hemoparasites. Low-grade thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and pancytopenia were the haematological alterations most frequently recorded. Other causes of neurological disease in dogs were excluded and the diagnosis of tick paralysis by R. sanguineus was confirmed (ex juvantibus) by early and complete recovery of 4 dogs following acaricidal treatment and tick removal.

  20. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise

    2015-07-28

    Predatory phytoseiid mites have been intensively studied and surveyed in the last decades because of their economic importance as biocontrol agents of agricultural pests. However, many regions of the world remain unexplored and the diversity of the family worldwide is still fragmentary. Up to date no phytoseiid species have been collected in the southernmost part of the Earth down to latitude 45º S. In this study Phytoseiidae were sampled from native vegetation in southern Argentina and Chile in the regions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island. Thirteen species were collected, five of which were previously described and eight, Chileseius australis n. sp., Neoseiulus mapuche n. sp., Typhlodromips valdivianus n. sp., T. fissuratus n. sp., Amblyseius grandiporus n. sp., A. caliginosus n. sp., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) anomalos n. sp. and Metaseiulus parabrevicollis n. sp. are proposed as new to science and are described and diagnosed.

  1. The genus Pachyseius Berlese, 1910 in Iran (Acari: Pachylaelapidae).

    PubMed

    Babaeian, Esmaeil; Mašán, Peter; Saboori, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    A new pachylaelapid mite Pachyseius persicus Babaeian & Mašán sp. nov. is described and illustrated, based on adult females collected from litter and soil detritus of forest habitat in Northern Iran (Mazandaran Province). The new species can be easily distinguished from the other congeners by the following female character states: (1) presternal shields absent; (2) sternal shield coarsely punctate-reticulate over entire surface; (3) ventrianal shield with four pairs of pre-anal setae; (4) post-stigmatic section of peritrematal shields terminally rounded, reaching slightly beyond the coxae IV; (5) exopodal shields II-III free, exopodal shields III-IV fused to posterior section of peritrematal shields; (6) idiosoma with 11 pairs of setae in soft integument; (7) trochanter I with five setae, tarsus II with three spur-like setae, tarsus IV with 17 setae. Two species of Pachyseius previously reported from Iran, namely Pachyseius angustus Hyatt, 1956 and Pachyseius humeralis Berlese, 1910, are reviewed and discussed, respectively, and both records are considered to be based on misidentifications. PMID:27394349

  2. [Biology of Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae) and its predation potential on Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)].

    PubMed

    Matioli, André L; de Oliveira, Carlos A L

    2007-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the biology of Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira at the following temperatures, namely 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C, fed with Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) and Typha pollen, in laboratory conditions. Life tables were calculated to evaluate the biological parameters. The optimal development of A. brasiliensis took place at 29 degrees C. The values of T (time of generation - days), R0 and r m at 30 degrees C were, 13.95, 16.25 and 0.20, respectively. The prey consumption of A. brasiliensis was studied at the densities of 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 leprosis mite females per cage (3 cm in diameter) on citrus fruits at 29 degrees C. The maximum prey, namely 7.6 B. phoenicis females per day, were consumed at a density of 20 leprosis mites. At densities of above 40 leprosis mites per cage, A. brasiliensis oviposits 4.7 eggs per day, in comparison to 2.5 eggs per day at 20 mites per cage.

  3. Evaluation of the predatory mite Amblyseius hainanensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and artificial rainfall for the management of Brevipalpus obovatus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Da-Rui; Liu, Guang-Hua; Zhang, Run-Jie; Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Qiu, Bao-Li

    2012-10-01

    Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu is an important pest mite on tea plants in South China. In the current study, predatory mites of B. obovatus in the tea gardens of Guangzhou were extensively surveyed. In total, 13 species of predatory mites (four families with seven genera) were recorded. The population proportion of Amblyseius hainanensis Wu et Qian was the highest (68.6 %), followed by that of Anystis baccarum (L.) (8.4 %) and A. theae Wu (6.3 %). The effects of starvation time, habitat size and pest population density on the predatory efficiency of the most dominant species, A. hainanensis, feeding on B. obovatus were assessed. In addition, the effectiveness of artificial rainfall in reducing B. obovatus populations was evaluated. After starvation for 48 h, the predatory efficiency of A. hainanensis was significantly higher than those that had been starved for 24 or 72 h when 30-50 B. obovatus eggs were made available. The predation of A. hainanensis on B. obovatus also increased with increasing prey density. The number of prey attacked by A. hainanensis in a 3.2 cm(2) habitat was significantly higher than in a 6.3 cm(2) habitat. The average predation of A. hainanensis was 31.7 eggs per day when offered 100 B. obovatus eggs on a tea leaf. This decreased to 17.8 eggs per day when four A. hainanensis shared 100 B. obovatus eggs. B. obovatus populations can be reduced by artificial rainfall, with the reduction affected by rainfall intensity. With an intensity of 40 mm in 15 min, 90.2 % mortality of B. obovatus occurred; lower mortalities were recorded (13.3 and 29.8 %) when the intensity was 2 or 4 mm in 15 min. Combination of the predatory mite A. hainanensis and artificial rainfall for the integrated pest management of B. obovatus is discussed.

  4. Evaluation of the predatory mite Amblyseius hainanensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and artificial rainfall for the management of Brevipalpus obovatus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Da-Rui; Liu, Guang-Hua; Zhang, Run-Jie; Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Qiu, Bao-Li

    2012-10-01

    Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu is an important pest mite on tea plants in South China. In the current study, predatory mites of B. obovatus in the tea gardens of Guangzhou were extensively surveyed. In total, 13 species of predatory mites (four families with seven genera) were recorded. The population proportion of Amblyseius hainanensis Wu et Qian was the highest (68.6 %), followed by that of Anystis baccarum (L.) (8.4 %) and A. theae Wu (6.3 %). The effects of starvation time, habitat size and pest population density on the predatory efficiency of the most dominant species, A. hainanensis, feeding on B. obovatus were assessed. In addition, the effectiveness of artificial rainfall in reducing B. obovatus populations was evaluated. After starvation for 48 h, the predatory efficiency of A. hainanensis was significantly higher than those that had been starved for 24 or 72 h when 30-50 B. obovatus eggs were made available. The predation of A. hainanensis on B. obovatus also increased with increasing prey density. The number of prey attacked by A. hainanensis in a 3.2 cm(2) habitat was significantly higher than in a 6.3 cm(2) habitat. The average predation of A. hainanensis was 31.7 eggs per day when offered 100 B. obovatus eggs on a tea leaf. This decreased to 17.8 eggs per day when four A. hainanensis shared 100 B. obovatus eggs. B. obovatus populations can be reduced by artificial rainfall, with the reduction affected by rainfall intensity. With an intensity of 40 mm in 15 min, 90.2 % mortality of B. obovatus occurred; lower mortalities were recorded (13.3 and 29.8 %) when the intensity was 2 or 4 mm in 15 min. Combination of the predatory mite A. hainanensis and artificial rainfall for the integrated pest management of B. obovatus is discussed. PMID:22527834

  5. [Biology of Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae) and its predation potential on Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)].

    PubMed

    Matioli, André L; de Oliveira, Carlos A L

    2007-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the biology of Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira at the following temperatures, namely 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C, fed with Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) and Typha pollen, in laboratory conditions. Life tables were calculated to evaluate the biological parameters. The optimal development of A. brasiliensis took place at 29 degrees C. The values of T (time of generation - days), R0 and r m at 30 degrees C were, 13.95, 16.25 and 0.20, respectively. The prey consumption of A. brasiliensis was studied at the densities of 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 leprosis mite females per cage (3 cm in diameter) on citrus fruits at 29 degrees C. The maximum prey, namely 7.6 B. phoenicis females per day, were consumed at a density of 20 leprosis mites. At densities of above 40 leprosis mites per cage, A. brasiliensis oviposits 4.7 eggs per day, in comparison to 2.5 eggs per day at 20 mites per cage. PMID:17934624

  6. [Can Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) prey on Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) in coconut palm?].

    PubMed

    Melo, José W da S; Domingos, Cleiton A; Gondim, Manoel G C; Moraes, Gilberto J de

    2009-01-01

    Mites of the genus Euseius are generally considered specialist as pollen feeders. Euseius alatus DeLeon is one of the six species of phytoseiid mites most commonly found on coconut plants in northeast Brazil associated with Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Although the morphology of E. alatus does not favor the exploitation of the meristematic area of the fruit inhabited by A. guerreronis, the predator may have some role in the control of this eriophyid during the dispersion process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and reproduction of E. alatus on the following diets: A. guerreronis, Ricinus communis pollen (Euphorbiaceae), and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) + R. communis pollen + honey solution 10%. Euseius alatus developed slightly faster and had slightly higher oviposition rate when feeding on the diet composed of T. urticae + pollen + honey. However, life table parameters were very similar on all diets, suggesting that E. alatus may contribute in reducing the population of A. guerreronis in the field. PMID:19347108

  7. Fusarium semitectum, a potential mycopathogen against thrips and mites in chilli, Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Mikunthan, G; Manjunatha, M

    2006-01-01

    In India, chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) suffers with a characteristic leaf curl symptoms due to the attack of mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae) and thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) or both. Experiments were conducted in the fields of College of Agriculture, Shimoga, India during kharif (September 2003 to January 2004) and summer (March-June) 2004. After proving its pathogenicity, the potential of the mycopathogen, Fusarium semitectum was evaluated under field conditions using the popular chilli variety "Byadagi". Different combinations of Fusarium semitectum formulations with monocrotophos (0.025% and 0.05%) were tested. Oil-emulsion and dust-water formulations (DWF) at 1x 10(8) spore/ml, DWF with monocrotophos and 5% Neem Seed Kernal Extract (NSKE) were evaluated. Population of S. dorsalis, P. latus, predatory mite Amblyseius ovalis and damage index were estimated. Populations of thrips, mite and the predatory mite were estimated at 15 days interval after 30 days of transplanting. Damage index was assessed using a visual rating method. Plant height, fruit length and dry chilli yield of each treatment were also taken. Among the treatments, oil-emulsion formulation and dust water formulation of F. semitectum in combination with monocrotophos (0.05%) reduced the population of thrips significantly over other treatments. Dust water formulation was achieved a significant decline of thrips population in chilli plants after 60 days of transplanting. This reduction of thrips population could be achieved due to the effect of second spraying, which was given at 50 days after transplanting. Chilli plant height and fruit length did not vary significantly among the treatment in both seasons. The highest dry chilli yield of 512 and 1058 kg/ha was recorded in dust water formulation in combination with monocrotophos (0.05%) followed by oil formulation (432 kg/ha and 763 kg/ha) in Kharif and summer seasons, respectively

  8. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  9. Sobre a atividade pós-periélica do cometa de órbita parabólica Yanaka (1988r)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, A. A.; Sanzovo, G. C.; Boczko, R.

    2003-08-01

    Greenberg, Singh & de Almeida (ApJ, 414: L45-48, 1993) mostraram que a deficiência nas abundâncias observadas de C2 e CN no Cometa Yanaka (1988r) pode ser explicada em termos das propriedades dos seus componentes refratários orgânicos, além do fato que trata-se de um cometa dinamicamente novo, observado através de abertura de fenda pequena projetada muito próximo do núcleo. Neste trabalho, complementamos o estudo sobre a atividade deste cometa de órbita parabólica, através da determinação da lei de potência que exprime sua taxa de produção de H2O (o principal indicador de atividade) na fase pós-periélica, determinamos o raio nuclear efetivo mínimo com sua fração de área ativa e analisamos a emissão de partículas de poeira observadas no contínuo em 625,0 nm.

  10. Cambios históricos en el aporte terrígeno de la cuenca del Río de la Plata sobre la plataforma interna Uruguaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Analía; Tudurí, Adriana; Pérez, Laura; Cuña, Caroline; Muniz, Pablo; Lopes Figueira, Rubens; Michaelovitch de Mahiques, Michel; Alves de Lima Ferreira, Paulo; Pittauerová, Daniela; Hanebuth, Till; García Rodríguez, Felipe

    2014-12-01

    B 13813-4. También se determinó una mayor acumulación de sedimentos a través del tiempo en el cinturón de barro del Río de la Plata (plataforma continental adyacente), comparado con aquel registrado en la Barra del Indio (límite entre zona intermedia y externa del estuario). Estas diferencias podrían estar relacionadas con la influencia del Río de la Plata, el cual genera un ambiente altamente dinámico sobre la Barra del Indio y un ambiente más estable sobre el cinturón de barro en la plataforma continental.

  11. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  12. Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as a potential control agent of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae): effect of pest/predator ratio on pest abundance on strawberry.

    PubMed

    Greco, Nancy M; Sánchez, Norma E; Liljesthröm, Gerardo G

    2005-01-01

    Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) is a promising agent for successful Tetranychus urticae Koch control through conservation techniques, in strawberry crops in La Plata (Buenos Aires, Argentina). In prey-predator interaction, initial relative densities have an important effect on system dynamics. The economic threshold level (ETL) used for this pest in the present study was 50 active mites per leaflet. In our laboratory experiments, initial T. urticae to N. californicus ratio had a significant effect on the population abundance of T. urticae at a 7-day period. When pest/predator ratio was 5/1 (at initial pest densities from 5 to 15 females/leaflet) the final number of active T. urticae/leaflet was significantly lower than the ETL, while at 20 females/leaflet this number did not differ from the ETL. At 7.5/1 ratio, the final number of active T. urticae/leaflet, at initial pest densities from 5 to 15 females/leaflet, reached the ETL without surpassing it. At 10/1 and 15/1 ratios, pest densities exceeded the ETL only at 15 initial T. urticae/leaflet. Most greenhouse and field observations were consistent with the predictions of a graphical model based on experimental results. This predator was very effective in limiting pest densities at a 7-day period and within the range of pest-predator ratios and absolute densities used in this study. Conservation of N. californicus promoting favorable pest/predator ratios may result in early control of T. urticae.

  13. Typhlodromus pyri and Euseius finlandicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as potential biocontrol agents against spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) inhabiting willows: laboratory studies on predator development and reproduction on four diets.

    PubMed

    Puchalska, Ewa K; Kozak, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Euseius finlandicus (Oudemans) are important predators of phytophagous mites. The present laboratory study aimed to determine whether both species can develop and reach maturity feeding on spider mites occurring on willows, i.e., Schizotetranychus schizopus (Zacher), Schizotetranychus garmani Pritchard & Baker, and Tetranychus urticae Koch, and on Brassica napus L. pollen. The predators' development, reproduction and demographic parameters were significantly affected by diet. The data suggest that rape pollen can be useful in mass rearing of E. finlandicus but is completely unsuitable as alternative food for T. pyri. Short development time and high values of population parameters achieved by T. pyri feeding on larvae and protonymphs of S. schizopus and by E. finlandicus feeding on juvenile stages of S. garmani indicate great suitability of these preys as food for the phytoseiids, and make both predatory species promising biocontrol agents in spider mite control on willows.

  14. Two new oribatid mites from the Republic of Rwanda. Plasmobates zarae sp. n. (Acari, Plasmobatidae) and Basilobelba spasmenosi sp. n. (Acari, Basilobelbidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Nestor; Theron, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of oribatid mites, Plasmobates zarae sp. n. and Basilobelba spasmenosi sp. n. are described from the Republic of Rwanda. They can easily be differentiated from other species by a number of characters. Plasmobates zarae sp. n. is differentiated the following characters. four types of particular cerotegumental layers. Integument slightly foveate to smooth on prodorsum; foveate on notogaster; ventral region rugose to smooth.Large rostral setae inserted on protuberance, whip-shaped, with longitudinal pucker; interlamellar setae rod-shaped with triangular scales; interlamellar setae small. Medial band on prodorsum extending to anterior of central part, but not reaching rostrum. Bothridium horn-shaped; opening basally incised with rectilinear wall, internal bothridial rings dentate. Sensillus whip-like, with minute triangular scales. Variably distributed circumgastric macropores. Opisthosomal gland apophysis flat, triangular in lateral view and cylindrical in posterolateral view. Six pairs of notogastral setae, all situated posterior to opisthosomal gland level. Aggenital setae not detected; three pairs of adanal setae; two pairs of anal setae present. Nymphal scalps simple without anterior tuft or filaments, with dentate peripheral ridge. Larval scalp shaped like Chinese hat. Basilobelba spasmenosi sp. n. is characterized by the combination of the following characters: Cerotegument: thick basal layer with amorphous coat and cavities of different sizes, as well as structures resembling small cauliflowers. Setation: simple: notogastral, epimeral, genital, anal; simple long, basally barbate: le, ro setae; simple, whip-shaped: ex setae; medium length, sharpened tip with thorns on surface: in setae, leg setae; Flabellate: setae situated in ventral neotrichous zone. Thorn-like barbs and more or less parallel longitudinal grooves present on body surface of le, ro, in and leg setae. Prodorsum: rostrum finger-shaped, relative sizes of setae: le > ro > in > ex. Prodorsal cuticular surface smooth with shallow transversal furrow and two oblique furrows determining two triangular structures. Large humpbacked CSO situated anterior to and in medial line with in setal insertion, dorsal bothridial opening. Notogaster swollen, hemispheric; nine pairs of minute setae, only h1, h2, h3 easily identifiable, cuticular wart and dimple clearly visible. Humeral apophysis with longitudinal furrow dorsally. Elongate chelicera with cha, chb setae, behind them a series of scales directed dorsoventrally. Epimeral setation 3-1-3-3, adanal-aggenital neotrichy with between 8-10 setae. Nymphal scalps with very particular bean-shaped structure on either side of the decoupage zone, surrounding horn-like structure. Scalps with cuticular polyhedral reticulate to ovoid structure, often forming a cavity, either completely perforated or with a thin cuticular layer resembling an interior membrane. PMID:27408588

  15. A new species of Leipothrix Keifer, 1966 (Acari: Eriophyidae) on Dipsacus spp. in Europe and reassignment of two Epitrimerus spp. (Acari: Eriophyidae) to the genus Leipothrix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of eriophyid mite, Leipothrix dipsacivagus n. sp., collected from Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae) and D. fullonum L. in Serbia and Montenegro, Bulgaria, and France, is described and illustrated. Differential diagnosis is provided in comparison with Leipothrix knautiae (Liro) n. co...

  16. Evaluation of the combined effect of thymol, carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde on Amblyomma sculptum (Acari: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Novato, Tatiane Pinheiro Lopes; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; de Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira; Maturano, Ralph; Senra, Tatiane de Oliveira Souza; da Silva Matos, Renata; Gomes, Geovany Amorim; de Carvalho, Mario Geraldo; Daemon, Erik

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of thymol, carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde on Amblyomma sculptum and Dermacentor nitens larvae. The effects resulting from treatments were evaluated by means of the modified larval packet test. In order to determine the LC50, components of essential oils, the monoterpenes thymol, carvacrol and phenylpropanoid (E)-cinnamaldehyde were individually tested at different concentrations. After determining the LC50, each essential oil component was separately evaluated and then combined with another substance at a 1:1 proportion at the LC50 concentration and at 1/2 and 1/4 of the LC50. For A. sculptum, the lowest LC50 value was obtained for (E)-cinnamaldehyde (1.40 mg/ml), followed by thymol (2.04 mg/ml) and carvacrol (3.49 mg/ml). The same order of effectiveness was observed for D. nitens, with values of 1.68, 2.17 and 3.33 mg/ml, respectively. In the evaluation of component associations of essential oils against A. sculptum larvae, only the combinations between carvacrol and thymol (LC50) and carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (1/4 LC50) presented a moderate synergetic effect. In turn, for D. nitens larvae, the combinations between thymol and carvacrol (LC50 and 1/2 LC50) presented a synergetic effect, while the others presented an additive or antagonistic effect. Therefore, it can be concluded that the combination of thymol and carvacrol (LC50) has a moderate synergetic effect against A. sculptum larvae, while thymol, combined with carvacrol (LC50 and 1/2 LC50), has a synergetic effect against D. nitens larvae. PMID:26346899

  17. Stellate hairs on leaves of a deciduous shrub Viburnum erosum var. punctatum (Adoxaceae) effectively protect Brevipalpus obovatus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) eggs from the predator Phytoseius nipponicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Sudo, Masaaki; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2013-07-01

    The eggs of the herbivorous false spider mite Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu have a longer incubation period than those of spider mites and are not protected by webs. Brevipalpus obovatus often lays its eggs in the gaps among the hairs on host leaves. We examined the effects of stellate hairs of Viburnum erosum var. punctatum (VEP) leaves on the survival of B. obovatus eggs. Adult B. obovatus and Phytoseius nipponicus Ehara, a generalist predator, were introduced to VEP leaf disks; each B. obovatus egg was inspected daily until hatching. More eggs (63 vs. 42 %) survived on the abaxial surfaces of VEP leaves, where the stellate hairs are more complicated, than on the adaxial surfaces. Predation hazard decreased rapidly with increasing egg age and a substantial portion of the eggs hatched. Phytoseius nipponicus preyed on eggs regardless of egg age when mixed-age eggs were provided. Manipulative experiments with bent stellate hairs showed that the normal hairs reduced the predation risk of B. obovatus eggs by P. nipponicus. Therefore, the predation hazard was considered to decrease since the stellate hairs hindered the search for B. obovatus eggs by the phytoseiid mite.

  18. A gallery of the key characters to ease identification of Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Gamasida: Dermanyssidae) and allow differentiation from Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Gamasida: Macronyssidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry red mite) is a major threat for the poultry industry and is of significant interest for public health. Identification of D. gallinae can be difficult for scientists not familiar with mite morphology and terminology especially when trying to use identification keys. Moreover, this species may easily be confused with another dermanyssoid mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (northern fowl mite), which often shares the same hosts and environment. Methods Specimens of D. gallinae were collected at poultry farms in the Puglia and performed for light and scanning electron microscopy observations, identification and micrographs. Moreover specimens of O. sylviarum were collected separately macerated and mounted on slides for light microscopy observations, identification and pictures. Results The micrographs used in this study, based on LM and SEM observations, highlight the following important identifying characters of D. gallinae: the prominent shoulders of the dorsal shield and the jagged edges of the shield reticulations, the position of setae j1, s1 and the epigynal pores, and the presence on tibia IV pl of one seta. Additional micrographs highlighting the shape of the dorsal (abruptly narrowed posteriorly) and epigynal (narrowly rounded posteriorly) shields and the chelicera (elongate, with distinct digits) of O. sylviarum enable its differentiation from D.gallinae. Conclusion The photographic support provided here (both LM and SEM pictures) can be considered a practical tool for scientists who are not well acquainted with the morphology of D.gallinae, and who are involved with classical and molecular systematics, veterinary and human health aspects of poultry red mites. PMID:22647594

  19. Typhlodromus pyri and Euseius finlandicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as potential biocontrol agents against spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) inhabiting willows: laboratory studies on predator development and reproduction on four diets.

    PubMed

    Puchalska, Ewa K; Kozak, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Euseius finlandicus (Oudemans) are important predators of phytophagous mites. The present laboratory study aimed to determine whether both species can develop and reach maturity feeding on spider mites occurring on willows, i.e., Schizotetranychus schizopus (Zacher), Schizotetranychus garmani Pritchard & Baker, and Tetranychus urticae Koch, and on Brassica napus L. pollen. The predators' development, reproduction and demographic parameters were significantly affected by diet. The data suggest that rape pollen can be useful in mass rearing of E. finlandicus but is completely unsuitable as alternative food for T. pyri. Short development time and high values of population parameters achieved by T. pyri feeding on larvae and protonymphs of S. schizopus and by E. finlandicus feeding on juvenile stages of S. garmani indicate great suitability of these preys as food for the phytoseiids, and make both predatory species promising biocontrol agents in spider mite control on willows. PMID:26530991

  20. Stellate hairs on leaves of a deciduous shrub Viburnum erosum var. punctatum (Adoxaceae) effectively protect Brevipalpus obovatus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) eggs from the predator Phytoseius nipponicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Sudo, Masaaki; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2013-07-01

    The eggs of the herbivorous false spider mite Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu have a longer incubation period than those of spider mites and are not protected by webs. Brevipalpus obovatus often lays its eggs in the gaps among the hairs on host leaves. We examined the effects of stellate hairs of Viburnum erosum var. punctatum (VEP) leaves on the survival of B. obovatus eggs. Adult B. obovatus and Phytoseius nipponicus Ehara, a generalist predator, were introduced to VEP leaf disks; each B. obovatus egg was inspected daily until hatching. More eggs (63 vs. 42 %) survived on the abaxial surfaces of VEP leaves, where the stellate hairs are more complicated, than on the adaxial surfaces. Predation hazard decreased rapidly with increasing egg age and a substantial portion of the eggs hatched. Phytoseius nipponicus preyed on eggs regardless of egg age when mixed-age eggs were provided. Manipulative experiments with bent stellate hairs showed that the normal hairs reduced the predation risk of B. obovatus eggs by P. nipponicus. Therefore, the predation hazard was considered to decrease since the stellate hairs hindered the search for B. obovatus eggs by the phytoseiid mite. PMID:23400449

  1. Two new oribatid mites from the Republic of Rwanda. Plasmobates zarae sp. n. (Acari, Plasmobatidae) and Basilobelba spasmenosi sp. n. (Acari, Basilobelbidae).

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Nestor; Theron, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of oribatid mites, Plasmobates zarae sp. n. and Basilobelba spasmenosi sp. n. are described from the Republic of Rwanda. They can easily be differentiated from other species by a number of characters. Plasmobates zarae sp. n. is differentiated the following characters. four types of particular cerotegumental layers. Integument slightly foveate to smooth on prodorsum; foveate on notogaster; ventral region rugose to smooth.Large rostral setae inserted on protuberance, whip-shaped, with longitudinal pucker; interlamellar setae rod-shaped with triangular scales; interlamellar setae small. Medial band on prodorsum extending to anterior of central part, but not reaching rostrum. Bothridium horn-shaped; opening basally incised with rectilinear wall, internal bothridial rings dentate. Sensillus whip-like, with minute triangular scales. Variably distributed circumgastric macropores. Opisthosomal gland apophysis flat, triangular in lateral view and cylindrical in posterolateral view. Six pairs of notogastral setae, all situated posterior to opisthosomal gland level. Aggenital setae not detected; three pairs of adanal setae; two pairs of anal setae present. Nymphal scalps simple without anterior tuft or filaments, with dentate peripheral ridge. Larval scalp shaped like Chinese hat. Basilobelba spasmenosi sp. n. is characterized by the combination of the following characters: Cerotegument: thick basal layer with amorphous coat and cavities of different sizes, as well as structures resembling small cauliflowers. Setation: simple: notogastral, epimeral, genital, anal; simple long, basally barbate: le, ro setae; simple, whip-shaped: ex setae; medium length, sharpened tip with thorns on surface: in setae, leg setae; Flabellate: setae situated in ventral neotrichous zone. Thorn-like barbs and more or less parallel longitudinal grooves present on body surface of le, ro, in and leg setae. Prodorsum: rostrum finger-shaped, relative sizes of setae: le > ro > in > ex. Prodorsal cuticular surface smooth with shallow transversal furrow and two oblique furrows determining two triangular structures. Large humpbacked CSO situated anterior to and in medial line with in setal insertion, dorsal bothridial opening. Notogaster swollen, hemispheric; nine pairs of minute setae, only h1 , h2 , h3 easily identifiable, cuticular wart and dimple clearly visible. Humeral apophysis with longitudinal furrow dorsally. Elongate chelicera with cha, chb setae, behind them a series of scales directed dorsoventrally. Epimeral setation 3-1-3-3, adanal-aggenital neotrichy with between 8-10 setae. Nymphal scalps with very particular bean-shaped structure on either side of the decoupage zone, surrounding horn-like structure. Scalps with cuticular polyhedral reticulate to ovoid structure, often forming a cavity, either completely perforated or with a thin cuticular layer resembling an interior membrane. PMID:27408588

  2. La utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales en la ensenanza de biologia y su efecto sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en los estudiantes universitarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rivera, Maria M.

    Se investigo el efecto de los mapas conceptuales sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en estudiantes universitarios. La investigacion utilizo dos estrategias: mapas conceptuales individuales y mapas conceptuales colaborativos, con el fin de investigar si existen diferencias significativas en el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis. El analisis de los datos incluyo aspectos cualitativos y cuantitativos. Se desprende del estudio que el 80% de los estudiantes describen la utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales como una experiencia beneficiosa. El 70% de los estudiantes expreso que los mapas conceptuales son utiles en el aprendizaje del proceso de fotosintesis y el 61% indico que facilitan la comprension de los conceptos. Los hallazgos mas importantes del analisis cuantitativo indican que los estudiantes que utilizaron los mapas conceptuales mejoraron significativamente su desempeno en la posprueba global. Se utilizo la prueba Mann-Whitney para investigar si existian diferencias significativas en la posprueba y preprueba global, el valor de W = 1945.0, para un valor p de 0.00, lo cual establece diferencias significativas. Para determinar si existian diferencias significativas entre la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual, se realizo la prueba nuevamente. El valor de W correspondio a 490.5, que es significativo, con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluye que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual. Los datos proveen suficiente evidencia para sostener que los estudiantes que utilizaron la estrategia de mapas conceptuales individuales mejoraron el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis significativamente. Se realizo nuevamente la prueba para los resultados de posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. El valor de W correspondio a 446 con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluyo que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. Finalmente, se efectuo una

  3. Investigaccion-accion en la sala de clases sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios y su relacion reciproca con el aprendizaje de las ciencias biologicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova-Santiago, Lizzette Astrid

    La investigacion---accion que se llevo a cabo en la sala de clases tenia como punto de partida las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios para luego examinar sus implicaciones en el proceso de aprendizaje de las Ciencias Biologicas. ¿Que se supone que hagan las creencias en relacion con el aprendizaje? ¿En que consiste incorporar este aspecto a la practica educativa universitaria? Utilizando el modelo de Kemmis y McTaggart (1987) la investigacion-accion se planteo como un proceso dinamico en cuatro momentos en espiral constituidos por la planificacion, la accion, la observacion y la reflexion. Cada una de las fases tuvo una intencion retrospectiva y prospectiva formando una espiral de autorreflexion del conocimiento y la accion. Se llevaron a cabo audio grabaciones en clases y analisis de documentos. Ademas, la profesora-investigadora hizo un portafolio para reflexionar sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tienen los estudiantes y las creencias del aprendizaje que tiene la profesora y sobre como la comprension de estos elementos ayudo a mejorar su practica educativa a traves del tiempo. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan a que las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tiene el grupo de estudiantes son diversas. Ellos si creen que la ciencia tiene una cultura la cual describieron como: complicada y desconocida que evoluciona constantemente, que es un conjunto de metodos, que es altamente tecnologica, que resuelve problemas de salud, ayuda a interpretar la realidad del mundo que los rodea y su origen y que existen unas intersecciones entre la ciencia y el poder. Sobre las creencias del proceso de aprendizaje de la profesora-investigadora, estas senalan que el modelaje de actores, la vision de la academia que tiene ella asi como la participacion y negociacion entre todos los involucrados en el proceso educativo, son factores que inciden en el proceso de aprendizaje.

  4. Amblyomma tapirellum  (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from tropical forest canopy.

    PubMed

    Loaiza, Jose R; Miller, Matthew J; Bermingham, Eldredge; Sanjur, Oris I; Jansen, Patrick A; Rovira, Jose R; Alvarez, Eric; Rodriguez, Eric; Davis, Philip; Dutari, Larissa C; Pecor, James; Foley, Desmond; Radtke, Meghan; Pongsiri, Montira J

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging ticks are widely known to be restricted to the ground level of vegetation. Here, we document the capture of the tick species Amblyomma tapirellum in light traps placed in the forest canopy of Barro Colorado Island, central Panama. A total of forty eight adults and three nymphs were removed from carbon dioxide-octenol baited CDC light traps suspended 20 meters above the ground during surveys for forest canopy mosquitoes. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of questing ticks from the canopy of tropical forests. Our finding suggests a novel ecological relationship between A. tapirellum and arboreal mammals, perhaps monkeys that come to the ground to drink or to feed on fallen fruits. PMID:25075277

  5. Evidence for Frozen-Niche Variation in a Cosmopolitan Parthenogenetic Soil Mite Species (Acari, Oribatida)

    PubMed Central

    von Saltzwedel, Helge; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan; Schaefer, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Parthenogenetic lineages may colonize marginal areas of the range of related sexual species or coexist with sexual species in the same habitat. Frozen-Niche-Variation and General-Purpose-Genotype are two hypotheses suggesting that competition and interclonal selection result in parthenogenetic populations being either genetically diverse or rather homogeneous. The cosmopolitan parthenogenetic oribatid mite Oppiella nova has a broad ecological phenotype and is omnipresent in a variety of habitats. Morphological variation in body size is prominent in this species and suggests adaptation to distinct environmental conditions. We investigated genetic variance and body size of five independent forest - grassland ecotones. Forests and grasslands were inhabited by distinct genetic lineages with transitional habitats being colonized by both genetic lineages from forest and grassland. Notably, individuals of grasslands were significantly larger than individuals in forests. These differences indicate the presence of specialized genetic lineages specifically adapted to either forests or grasslands which coexist in transitional habitats. Molecular clock estimates suggest that forest and grassland lineages separated 16-6 million years ago, indicating long-term persistence of these lineages in their respective habitat. Long-term persistence, and morphological and genetic divergence imply that drift and environmental factors result in the evolution of distinct parthenogenetic lineages resembling evolution in sexual species. This suggests that parthenogenetic reproduction is not an evolutionary dead end. PMID:25409516

  6. Gohieria fusca (Acari: Astigmata) found in the filter dusts of air conditioners in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaopin; Zhan, Xiaodong; Zhao, Jinhong; Wei, Guo

    2014-10-06

    Objetivo: La Gohieria fusca (Oudemans, 1902) se reproduce en la harina de trigo, arroz, maíz, piensos, salvado de trigo y los medicamentos a base de hierbas, además de en otros productos almacenados; este ácaro puede tener una reactividad cruzada de leve a moderada con alérgenos de los ácaros del polvo domésticos, una importante fuente de alérgenos de interior asociada al asma y otras afecciones alérgicas. Los sistemas de aire acondicionado son indispensables en edificios públicos y civiles, y las pantallas de estos aparatos son los lugares donde más se acumula el polvo. Se realizó este estudio con el fin de investigar si la Gohieria fusca puede reproducirse en las pantallas de los acondicionadores de aire instalados en espacios públicos o viviendas en la ciudad de Wuhu, provincia de Anhui, China. Métodos: Se recogieron 430 muestras de polvo de los filtros de los sistemas de aire acondicionado en la cafeterías de centros educativos, mercados, hoteles y edificios civiles entre junio y septiembre de 2013, y se aisló la Gohieria fusca de dichas muestras. Resultados: Los resultados indicaron que la Gohieria fusca estaba presente en 98 de las 430 muestras (22,79%), y la tasa de reproducción fue significativa en los filtros del aire acondicionado de diferentes espacios (c2=18.294, P.

  7. Metarhizium anisopliae as a biological control agent against Hyalomma anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Elham A; Shigidi, M T; Hassan, S M

    2013-12-15

    In the Sudan, ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (TBDs) with subsequent costs of control and treatment are causing substantial economic loss. Control of ticks is mainly by chemical insecticides. The rising environmental hazards and problem of resistance has motivated research on biological agents as alternative methods of control. The present study aims at controlling livestock ticks using fungi for their unique mode of action besides their ability to adhere to the cuticle, to germinate and penetrate enzymatically. The study was conducted to evaluate the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for tick control as an alternative mean to chemical acaricides. Pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on different developmental stages of the tick Hyalomma anatolicum. The fungus induced high mortality to flat immature stages. It, also, affected reproductive potential of the females. Egg laid, hatching percent, fertility and moulting percent of immature stages were significantly (p < or = 0.05) reduced. It was, also, shown that the fungus had ability to adhere to the cuticle and penetrate the integument of the tick. Conidia of the fungus were isolated from their internal tissues. This phenomenon is important in considering fungi as bioinsecticides. Infection of eggs laid by treated engorged female ticks, with the fungus might demonstrate suggesting transovarian transmission. The use of M. anisopliae to control ticks is discussed.

  8. Successful Feeding of Amblyomma coelebs (Acari: Ixodidae) Nymphs on Humans in Brazil: Skin Reactions to Parasitism.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marcos V; Matias, Jaqueline; Aguirre, AndrÉ De A R; Csordas, Barbara G; SzabÓ, Matias P J; Andreotti, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Identifying the tick species that successfully feed on humans would increase knowledge of the epidemiology of several tick-borne diseases. These species salivate into the host, increasing the risk of pathogen transmission. However, there is a lack of data in the literature regarding the ticks that prefer to feed on humans. Herein, we describe the successful feeding of Amblyomma coelebs Neumann nymphs on two of the authors after accidental tick bites occurred during field surveys in two preserved areas of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. One of the host-parasite interactions was closely monitored, and the tick development, gross host skin alterations, and related sensations are presented. PMID:26336294

  9. Mechanisms of insecticide resistance in field populations of varroa mite (Acari: Mesostigmata: Varroidae)in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destuctor is a serious threat to beekeeping and crops that rely on honey bee for pollination. The Varroa mite not only causes significant damage to honey bees by feeding on their haemolymph, but also serves as a vector of disease. In addition, the Varroa mite has develo...

  10. Evaluation of Four Bed Bug Traps for Surveillance of the Brown Dog Tick (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Carnohan, Lucas P; Kaufman, Phillip E; Allan, Sandra A; Gezan, Salvador A; Weeks, Emma N I

    2015-03-01

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latrielle), can be a serious residential pest due to its unique ability, among ticks, to complete its lifecycle indoors. A single engorged and fertilized female tick can oviposit around 4,000 eggs, allowing indoor establishment to be rapid and easy to miss in early-stage infestations. Acaricide treatment is currently the primary method of control, but can be costly and can lead to the development of acaricide resistance in tick populations. Traps of various designs can be used to help monitor and manage populations of indoor pests, such as cockroaches and bed bugs, but there are currently no commercially available traps for use with brown dog tick infestations. This study included a comparison of four commercially available bed bug traps (NightWatch [BioSensory Inc., Putnam, CT], Bed Bug Beacon [PackTite, Fort Collins, CO], ClimbUp [Susan McKnight Inc., Memphis, TN], and Verify [FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA]) with regard to their efficacy in capturing brown dog ticks, and also compared tick attraction to ClimbUp traps baited with several stimuli including CO2. Significantly more ticks were captured and attracted to the NightWatch and CO2-baited ClimbUp traps than the other two trap models. The results suggest that bed bug traps may be useful in brown dog tick monitoring, and CO2 will likely be an important component of a trapping system employed in the future. PMID:26336310

  11. Ecology of the interaction between Ixodes loricatus (Acari: Ixodidae) and Akodon azarae (Rodentia: Criceridae).

    PubMed

    Colombo, Valeria C; Nava, Santiago; Antoniazzi, Leandro R; Monje, Lucas D; Racca, Andrea L; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M

    2015-10-01

    The present study explores associations of different factors (i.e. host parameters, presence of other ectoparasites and [mainly biotic] environmental factors) with burdens of Ixodes loricatus immature stages in one of its main hosts in Argentina, the rodent Akodon azarae. For 2 years, rodents were trapped and sampled monthly at 16 points located in four different sites in the Parana River Delta region. Data were analysed with generalized linear mixed models with a negative binomial response (counts of larvae or nymphs). The independent variables assessed were (a) environmental: trapping year, presence of cattle, type of vegetation, rodent abundance; (b) host parameters: body length, sex, body condition, blood cell counts, natural antibody titers and (c) co-infestation with other ectoparasites. Two-way interaction terms deemed a priori as relevant were also included in the analysis. Most of the associations investigated were found significant, but in general, the direction and magnitude of the associations were context-dependent. An exception was the presence of cattle, which was consistently negatively associated with both larvae and nymphs independently of all other variables considered and had the strongest effect on tick burdens. Mites, fleas and Amblyomma triste were also significantly associated (mostly positively) with larval and nymph burdens, and in many cases, they influenced associations with environmental or host factors. Our findings strongly support that raising cattle may have a substantial impact on the dynamics of I. loricatus and that interactions within the ectoparasite community may be an important-but generally ignored-driver of tick dynamics.

  12. Dermacentor everestianus Hirst, 1926 (Acari: Ixodidae): phylogenetic status inferred from molecular characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ze; Li, Youquan; Ren, Qiaoyun; Luo, Jin; Liu, Zhijie; Zhou, Xun; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2014-10-01

    Dermacentor everestianus Hirst, 1926, is only reported in Northwestern China and Nepal. Few researches about this species have been involved, especially for molecular characteristics. The taxonomy studies of D.everestianus are mainly based on morphological features, and its taxonomic status is an ongoing controversy. To clarify the molecular characteristics and phylogenetic status of D.everestianus and other related species, the sequences of mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and cox1 fragments were analyzed in the present study. Analysis of 16S rDNA and cox1 sequences showed 99.3-100% identity within D.everestianus individuals, with the genetic divergence among them was 0-0.0086. The interspecific distance of 16S rDNA and cox1 between D.everestianus and some other Palaearctic species including D. silvarum, D. nuttalli, and D. marginatus was much smaller than that between D.everestianus and Nearctic Dermacentor ticks (D.albipictus, D.nitens, and D.variabilis). Such relationships of these ticks were also verified in the phylogenetic analysis. Two major clades were recovered within Dermacentor spp. with more than 90% bootstrap support in the phylogenetic trees. D.everestianus together with D.silvarum, D.nuttalli, and D.marginatus were included in the clade I (Eurasia lineage). Other analyzed tick species including D.variabilis, D.nitens, and D.albipictus formed clade II, which are distributed in Nearctic realm. These indicated that the genus Dermacentor was at least composed of two lineages. Thus, further researches including additionally molecular markers on all Dermacentor species globally should be taken to precisely resolve relationships within Dermacentor. PMID:25049051

  13. Taxonomic distribution of defensive alkaloids in Nearctic oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida).

    PubMed

    Saporito, Ralph A; Norton, Roy A; Garraffo, Martin H; Spande, Thomas F

    2015-11-01

    The opisthonotal (oil) glands of oribatid mites are the source of a wide diversity of taxon-specific defensive chemicals, and are likely the location for the more than 90 alkaloids recently identified in oribatids. Although originally recognized in temperate oribatid species, alkaloids have also been detected in related lineages of tropical oribatids. Many of these alkaloids are also present in a worldwide radiation of poison frogs, which are known to sequester these defensive chemicals from dietary arthropods, including oribatid mites. To date, most alkaloid records involve members of the superfamily Oripodoidea (Brachypylina), although few species have been examined and sampling of other taxonomic groups has been highly limited. Herein, we examined adults of more than 60 species of Nearctic oribatid mites, representing 46 genera and 33 families, for the presence of alkaloids. GC-MS analyses of whole body extracts led to the detection of 15 alkaloids, but collectively they occur only in members of the genera Scheloribates (Scheloribatidae) and Protokalumma (Parakalummidae). Most of these alkaloids have also been detected previously in the skin of poison frogs. All examined members of the oripodoid families Haplozetidae and Oribatulidae were alkaloid-free, and no mites outside the Oripodoidea contained alkaloids. Including previous studies, all sampled species of the cosmopolitan oripodoid families Scheloribatidae and Parakalummidae, and the related, mostly tropical families Mochlozetidae and Drymobatidae contain alkaloids. Our findings are consistent with a generalization that alkaloid presence is widespread, but not universal in Oripodoidea. Alkaloid presence in tropical, but not temperate members of some non-oripodoid taxa (in particular Galumnidae) deserves further study. PMID:26264156

  14. Tick infestations (Acari: Ixodidae) on three lizard species from Seraidi (Annaba District), northeastern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Soualah-Alila, Hana; Bouslama, Zihad; Amr, Zuhair; Bani Hani, Rihan

    2015-09-01

    Parasitism of Ixodes ricinus on three species of lizards (Psammodromus algirus, Podarcis vaucheri and Timon pater) in northeastern Algeria was studied. Psammodromus algirus was the most preferred host, T. pater was least preferred. Nymphs of I. ricinus were found attached to lizards from March to August in various numbers. Most nymphs were collected during March, April and June for P. algirus, and most larvae from April until August. Larval stages were found to be mostly associated with P. vaucheri during the study period, with the highest number of recovered larvae in June.

  15. Description of a new hygrobatid genus from Chile (Acari, Hydrachnidia: Hygrobatidae).

    PubMed

    Tuzovskij, Petr V; Stolbov, Vitaly A

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new genus of the water mite family Hygrobatidae. The material was collected by V. Stolbov in 2014 and A. Prokin in 2015 in running waters in Chile. The material was sampled with a common hand net with 250 µm mesh size. The water mites were fixed in 75% ethanol. PMID:27615954

  16. Amblyomma tapirellum  (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from tropical forest canopy

    PubMed Central

    Loaiza, Jose R; Miller, Matthew J; Bermingham, Eldredge; Sanjur, Oris I; Jansen, Patrick A; Rovira, Jose R; Alvarez, Eric; Rodriguez, Eric; Davis, Philip; Dutari, Larissa C; Pecor, James; Foley, Desmond; Radtke, Meghan; Pongsiri, Montira J

    2014-01-01

    Free-ranging ticks are widely known to be restricted to the ground level of vegetation. Here, we document the capture of the tick species Amblyomma tapirellum in light traps placed in the forest canopy of Barro Colorado Island, central Panama. A total of forty eight adults and three nymphs were removed from carbon dioxide–octenol baited CDC light traps suspended 20 meters above the ground during surveys for forest canopy mosquitoes. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of questing ticks from the canopy of tropical forests. Our finding suggests a novel ecological relationship between A. tapirellum and arboreal mammals, perhaps monkeys that come to the ground to drink or to feed on fallen fruits. PMID:25075277

  17. Assessment of potential fumigants to control Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae) associated with Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    White, Joseph B; Park, Yong-Lak; West, Todd P; Tobin, Patrick C

    2009-12-01

    With the recent decline of honey bees, Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), there is a need for alternative or supplemental crop pollinators, such as Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). However, O. cornifrons propagation could be impeded by a cleptoparasitic mite, Chaetodactylus krombeini Baker. We investigated the effects of formic acid and wintergreen oil on mortality of C. krombeini hypopi and O. cornifrons adults by determining the lethal concentration of each compound on each species. On average, >4.8 and >1.8 h were required to cause mortality in O. cornifrons adults when <2,473.5 ppm of formic acid and wintergreen oil was applied as a fumigant, respectively. When the two chemicals were directly applied to the exoskeleton of O. cornifrons adults, 353.4 ppm of wintergreen oil caused bee mortality within 10 min; however, no mortality was found with any formic acid application attempted. Mortality of C. krombeini hypopi occurred 5 and 10 min after application of >176.7 ppm of formic acid and wintergreen oil, respectively. Estimates of LC50 for C. krombeini hypopi treated with formic acid and wintergreen oil were 54.3 and 271.3 ppm, respectively. This study showed that C. krombeini could be controlled effectively without inducing O. cornifrons adult mortality based on concentration and duration of fumigation.

  18. Economic threshold for Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in clementine mandarins Citrus clementina.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Ruiz, Sara; Aguilar-Fenollosa, Ernestina; Ibáñez-Gual, Victoria; Hurtado-Ruiz, Mónica A; Martínez-Ferrer, M Teresa; Jacas, Josep A

    2014-03-01

    Tetranychus urticae is a key pest of citrus in Spain, especially of clementine mandarin trees. The effects of this mite on fruit production were assessed in 24 clementine trees for three consecutive years. Trees were visited weekly and spider mite and phytoseiid mite populations and leaf flush patterns were estimated. At the end of the season, mandarins were harvested, weighed, and mite damage (scarring on the fruit) characterized. Negative relationships between spider mite density and yield (kg/tree) and fruit damage (% scarred fruit rind) were found. The multivariate regressions highlighted the key role of phytoseiid mites and leaf flush patterns, which were negatively related to fruit damage. The shortest sampling period that satisfactorily predicted fruit damage at harvest, extended from August to mid-October. For IPM purposes, an action threshold of 31.1 mites m⁻² of symptomatic leaf was estimated. Taking into account spider mite dynamics, the economic threshold ranged from 10 to 15 mites m⁻² of symptomatic leaf. When this threshold is exceeded growers would have a 1-week window to apply the control technologies against T. urticae of their choice.

  19. Physiological changes in Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) experimentally infected with entomopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Isabele C; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius M; Tunholi, Victor M; Perinotto, Wendell M S; Gôlo, Patrícia S; Camargo, Mariana G; Quinelato, Simone; Pinheiro, Jairo; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism plays an important role in the physiology and maintenance of energy stores within living organisms. However, when organisms are exposed to adverse physiological conditions, such as during pathogenic infection, these organisms begin to use alternative substrates (proteins and lipids) for energy production. This paper studied the carbohydrate metabolism of Rhipicephalus microplus after infection with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The parameters evaluated were glucose concentration, enzymatic activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminostransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminostransferase (AST), amounts of uric acid and urea in the hemolymph, and amount of glycogen in the fat body. The results showed changes in nitrogenous products, including an increase in the amount of urea detected 48 h after infection with both fungi. The enzymatic activities of LDH, ALT, and AST were increased after infection. The amount of glucose was increased 24 h after infection with B. bassiana and was reduced 48 h after infection with both fungi. The amount of glycogen in the fat body was reduced at different times of infection with both fungi. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the changes in carbohydrate metabolism of R. microplus after infection with M. anisopliae and B. bassiana and contribute to a better understanding of this host-parasite relationship. Together with knowledge of diseases that affect these ticks and their susceptibility to entomopathogens, an understanding of tick physiology will be necessary for the effective implementation of current biological control methods and will assist in the discovery of new methods to control this ectoparasite. PMID:25346195

  20. Synergistic inhibitory effect of scopoletin and bisdemethoxycurcumin on Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Yang, Zhen-Guo; Ding, Wei; Luo, Jin-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the synergistic activity of scopoletin and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) against the carmine spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus. The acaricidal activities of mixtures of scopoletin and BDMC against T. cinnabarinus female adults were measured via slide dipping and leaf disc dipping. A mathematical model was established by SPSS software. Bioassays for multiple effects including contact, ovicidal, cowpea root intake, repellency and oviposition inhibitory activity were carried out. The optimal mass ratio of the mixture of scopoletin and BDMC (at their respective LC(50)), the median lethal concentration (LC(50)) and the co-toxicity coefficient were 7:6, 0.19 mg/mL and 129, respectively. LC(50) values of contact activities of the mixture at optimal ratio against adults, nymphs, larvae, and eggs were 0.19, 0.18, 0.06, and 1.52 mg/mL, respectively. LC(50) values of cowpea root intake activity against adults and nymphs were 5.62 and 6.52 mg/mL, respectively. The highest repellent rates against adults and nymphs were 69.5% and 72.5%, respectively. The mixture of scopoletin and BDMC at the optimal mass ratio possessed strong acaricidal activity against T. cinnabarinus at various developmental stages. PMID:26824978

  1. Temperature governs on-host distribution of the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae).

    PubMed

    De La Riva, Deborah G; Soto, Diane; Mullens, Bradley A

    2015-02-01

    The northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestri & Fanzago), is an ectoparasite of more than 70 species of North American wild birds, but it has a particularly significant impact on chickens, where it is a permanent resident of vent feathers. Improved control practices depend on a better understanding of host-mite relationships. ISA Brown hens were inoculated experimentally with northern fowl mite adults, and northern fowl mite populations developed naturally. Using a fast-response microprobe, temperatures of individual vent feathers (n = 15) were recorded at 5-mm increments along the length of the feather shaft. Immediately after temperatures were recorded, the individual feathers were quickly clipped at the skin surface and then flash-frozen between 2 small blocks of dry ice, freezing all northern fowl mite stages in situ. The feathers then were cut into 5-mm sections for careful mite enumeration by life stage. There were no overall differences among life stages in the distributions on the feather. Mite positions on feathers (distance from skin) varied distinctly with feather zone temperatures, as well as with ambient and average temperatures over the prior 24 hr. Ambient temperature at time of sampling affected the positions of the 2 mobile categories, adults and larvae/nymphs, but showed no statistical relationship with egg distribution. In contrast, ambient 24-hr temperature influenced the positions of all life stages. On-host feather temperatures reflected ambient temperatures. Feathers collected on hot days (ambient temperatures of 23-33 C) provided a narrow and quite warm range of temperature conditions for mites (often >30-36 C). Temperatures on cool days (ambient temperatures of <23 C) provided much wider on-host temperature ranges for mites to occupy (13-35 C). Mites were farther from the skin on warmer days. When mites had a broad range of temperatures, the feather temperature zone occupied by all life stages averaged 28-29 C. Mites move to occupy favorable temperature conditions on-host. When further out on feathers in warm weather, and under thermal stress, northern fowl mites either move off host or are dislodged. They then become a human pest, are noticed by farmers, and are more likely to disperse. PMID:25275303

  2. Seasonal activity of nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in different habitats in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Lord, C C

    1995-01-01

    Activity patterns of nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say were compared between habitat types (dominant tree types: mixed deciduous, oak, white pine, red cedar, sassafras, and spicebush). Both the time of peak abundance and the relative abundance of questing nymphs at the peak were compared. Several smoothing algorithms were tested with the data to determine if they could be used to estimate the time of peak abundance more accurately. Determination of the time of peak abundance using the raw data or simple moving averages was susceptible to outliers. Weighted averages were less susceptible to outliers. The seasonal pattern of nymphal abundance was similar in all habitat types. Variation in the time of peak abundance between habitats was low. Peak densities were lower in deciduous habitats (0.24 +/- 0.05 nymphs per square meter) than in nondeciduous habitats (0.85 +/- 0.15 nymphs per square meter); this could have resulted from higher host use of the nondeciduous areas. These data suggest that there are differences in the population dynamics of nymphs found in different habitats.

  3. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on swifts (Apodiformes: Apodidae) in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tolesano-Pascoli, Graziela; Garcia, Frederico Innecco; Gomes, Carla Raphaela Gonzaga; Diniz, Kátia Cristina; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho; Venzal, José Manuel; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2014-10-01

    Brazil harbors five species of Cypseloidinae swifts. Those from Streptoprocne and Cypseloides genera have a very distinct ecology. They shelter at night and build nests in moist cliffs by waterfalls. Information about tick infestation of these birds is virtually non-existent and restricted to the description of a new species, Ixodes paranaensis, in Streptoprocne biscutata in Paraná State and another record of this species in Streptoprocne zonaris in Minas Gerais State. We herein report tick infestation of swifts at eight waterfalls in the Cerrado biome of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Swifts were captured during six campaigns from November 2008 to April 2013. Overall, 584 swifts were captured (527 C. senex, four C. fumigatus and 53 S. zonaris). Four birds were tick infested (prevalence of 0.7 %). Three individuals of C. senex hosted one tick each; a nymph of I. paranaensis, a female of I. paranaensis and a nymph of Amblyomma cajennense. One S. zonaris hosted an I. paranaensis nymph and an Ornithodoros sp. larva (Argasidae). PMID:24696361

  4. Pruritus and behavior of pigs infested by itch mites, Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae).

    PubMed

    Davis, D P; Moon, R D

    1990-08-01

    Effects of infestation by Sarcoptes scabiei (De Geer) on pruritus and other behaviors of pigs for 9-13 wks after weaning were evaluated. Regardless of the dose of mites inoculated, pigs fed ad lib. spent approximately 60% of their time at rest. Within their average day, pigs spent more time eating in morning and evening, were more active and pruritic at midday, and rested more and spent the least time drinking water at night. Mite infestations increased total activity and time spent scratching and rubbing. Infested pigs sprayed with water rubbed and scratched 4-10 times more frequently than those left undisturbed or disturbed by other means. Pigs receiving inoculating doses of 1,000 mites became more pruritic than pigs receiving 100 mites, and both groups developed more pruritus than non-infested control pigs.

  5. Suitability of different pollen as alternative food for the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Goleva, Irina; Zebitz, Claus P W

    2013-11-01

    The predacious mite Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot is used as a biological control agent against various pests in greenhouses. Pollen offered as supplementary food is reported to improve their fast establishment and performance. However, the nutritional suitability of different pollens for A. swirskii is not sufficiently known yet. Pollens of 21 plant species were offered to the mites as exclusive food during preimaginal development. Preimaginal mortality and developmental time have been assessed, followed by a life-table analysis of the emerged adults and a calculation of demographic parameters. Amblyseius swirskii can feed exclusively on pollen, but the nutritional value of the pollens differed significantly. Pollens of Lilium martagon and Hippeastrum sp. were toxic, causing 100 % preimaginal mortality, probably due to secondary plant compounds. Hibiscus syriacus pollen was absolutely incompatible for the juvenile and adult mites, possibly due to their external morphology, differing from all the other pollens tested and leading to 100 % preimaginal mortality also. Considering all parameters, feeding on Aesculus hippocastanum, Crocus vernus, Echinocereus sp. and Paulownia tomentosa pollens lead to the best performance of the mites. Feeding on most pollens resulted in no or low preimaginal mortality of A. swirskii, but affected significantly developmental time, adult longevity, and reproduction parameters. Commercial bee pollen was not able to improve life-table parameters compared to pure pollen of the plant species. Pollens of Helianthus annuus, Corylus avellana and a Poaceae mix were less suitable as food source and resulted in a poor performance of all tested parameters. Compared with literature data, 18 pollens tested proved to be a similar or better food source than cattail pollen, qualifying A. swirskii as a positively omnivorous type IV species. Pollens of Ricinus communis and Zea mays can be recommended as supplementary food offered as banker plants, and A. hippocastanum and Betula pendula pollen is recommended to be used as dispersible pollen in greenhouses. PMID:23670826

  6. [Acaricidal activity of clove bud oil against Dermatophagoides farinae (Acari: Pyroglyphidae)].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wu, Hai-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Gang

    2009-12-01

    Volatile oil from the clove bud was extracted by petroleum ether using Soxhlet Extractor. The acaricidal activity was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays. In a filter paper contact toxicity bio-assay, at 2.5 h after treatment, clove bud oil at a dose of 12.20 microg/cm2 killed all dust mites. As judged by 24-h LD50 values, potent fumigant action was observed with clove bud oil (12.20 microg/cm2), showing an adequate acaricidal activity against indoor Dermatophagoides farinae. PMID:20232631

  7. Revealing the diversity of a once small taxon: the genus Selenoribates (Acari, Oribatida, Selenoribatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pfingstl, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Three new intertidal oribatid species, Selenoribates elegans sp. n., Selenoribates quasimodo sp. n. and Selenoribates satanicus sp. n. are described from the archipelago of Bermuda. Selenoribates elegans sp. n. is characterized by its slender body shape, Selenoribates quasimodo sp. n. possesses a hunchback in lateral view and Selenoribates satanicus sp. n. exhibits two horn-like projections on its anterior gastronotic region. Based on these new findings, the number of Selenoribates species doubled at once and the distribution of this genus, formerly limited to the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, includes now occurrences in the Atlantic and Indo-pacific Ocean as well. The morphology of Selenoribates quasimodo sp. n. and Selenoribates satanicus sp. n. deviates conspicuously from the other known members of Selenoribates, thus indicating that not only the number of species but also the anatomy of this genus is more diverse than formerly supposed. Nymphs of Selenoribates quasimodo sp. n. show an interesting case of ontogenetic neotrichy, with gastronotic setae being duplicated with each moult. PMID:23825447

  8. Two new species of the genus Trouessartia (Acari, Trouessartiidae) from laughingthrushes (Passeriformes, Leiothrichidae)

    PubMed Central

    Constantinescu, Ioana Cristina; Cobzaru, Ioana; Mukhim, D. Khlur B.; Adam, Costică

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new feather mite species of the genus Trouessartia Canestrini are described from laughingthrushes (Passeriformes: Leiothrichidae) captured in Meghalaya (India): Trouessartia cyanouropterae sp. n. from Actinodura cyanouroptera (Hodgson) and Trouessartia alcippeae sp. n. from Alcippe nipalensis (Hodgson). It is the first time when species of the genus Trouessartia are described from leiothrichids. PMID:27110158

  9. Eriophyoid mites from Eastern India: description of three new species (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea).

    PubMed

    Debnath, Pranab; Karmakar, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Three new eriophyoid mite species, namely Dichopelmus puncti n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from cogan grass, Imperata cylindrica (Poaceae); Calacarus kalyaniensis n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) and Neorhynacus bidhanae n. sp. (Diptilomiopidae) from Croton caudatus (Euphorbiaceae), are described and illustrated from West Bengal, India. The new species are vagrants on the leaves of their respective host plants with no visible damage observed. Keys to the known species of Dichopelmus and Neorhynacus are provided along with a checklist of eriophyoid mites species present in West Bengal.

  10. Activity of essential oil of Lippia triplinervis Gardner (Verbenaceae) on Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Lage, Tiago Coelho de Assis; Montanari, Ricardo Marques; Fernandes, Sergio Antonio; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; de Oliveira Souza Senra, Tatiane; Zeringota, Viviane; Calmon, Fernanda; da Silva Matos, Renata; Daemon, Erik

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize and investigate the acaricidal activity of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Lippia triplinervis at different concentrations on unengorged larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus. The essential oil yielded 2.21 % (w/w to dry matter) and was composed mainly of carvacrol (31.9 %), thymol (30.6 %), and p-cymene (12.3 %). Two tests were performed to assess the acaricidal activity: the modified larval packet test, with concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 mg/mL and the female immersion test, with concentrations of 10.0, 20.0, 30.0, 40.0, and 50.0 mg/mL. There were ten repetitions for each concentration, and for each test, a control group was formed in which the ticks were treated with Tween 80 (20 mg/mL). The experimental groups were kept in a climate-controlled chamber (27 ± 1 °C and RH >80 %). The mortality of the larvae was above 95 % in all the groups tested and reached 100 % as of the 5.0 mg/mL concentration, while the control group exhibited 0 % mortality. In the female immersion test, there was a significant decline (p < 0.05) in the egg mass weight, egg production index, and hatching percentage starting at the concentration of 30.0, 40.0, and 20.0 mg/mL, respectively, and the control percentage at the concentrations of 40.0 and 50.0 mg/mL were above 90 and 95 %. The L. triplinervis oil as thus an alternative source of the monoterpenes thymol, carvacrol, and p-cymene, and its toxicity on R. microplus larvae and females makes it promising possibility for control of this tick. PMID:23224609

  11. Competitive and Predacious Interactions Among Three Phytoseiid Species Under Experimental Conditions (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Ji, J; Zhang, Y-X; Saito, Y; Takada, T; Tsuji, N

    2016-02-01

    The effect of competition on species that coexist with similar ecological niches is an important theme in ecology. Furthermore, species displacement by introduced or invaded species is also an important environmental problem for biological control and conservation ecology. We tested whether two species of phytoseiids could coexist in closed cages with ample quantities of the extraguild prey species Carpoglyphus lactis (L.). Three species of phytoseiid mites-Amblyseius eharai Amitai & Swirski (a species native to China), Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (both species were introduced from outside of China)-were tested under experimental conditions (25 ± 1°C, 90 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 14:10 [L:D] h). With extraguild prey, we found that the numbers of a single population of each phytoseiid species (initial density of 10 females per cage) reached a plateau between 18 and 25 d after introduction into the experimental cages, suggesting that density-dependent factors were operating. In closed environments, one of these density-dependent factors might be cannibalism by these species. With regression analyses, Lotka-Volterra equations estimated the rate of population increase (r) and the carrying capacity (K) of each species with the data from observations on population dynamics. We next observed the interactions of two phytoseiid species with abundant extraguild prey. In all species combinations, one species went extinct and the other increased in population size, despite the availability of sufficient extraguild prey, suggesting some type of competition must have caused the extinctions. We suggested that intraguild predation is the most plausible hypothesis to explain the results. PMID:26496951

  12. Heavy metal sensitivity and bioconcentration in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) Gradient study in meadow ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Skubała, Piotr; Zaleski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    In this study we aimed to identify different reactions of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution and to measure concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper in oribatid species sampled along a gradient. Oribatid mites were sampled seasonally during two years in five meadows located at different distances from the zinc smelter in the Olkusz District, southern Poland. Oribatids were shown to withstand critical metal concentration and established comparatively abundant and diverse communities. The highest abundance and species richness of oribatids were recorded in soils with moderate concentrations of heavy metals. Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognized. Heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni) and various physical (bulk density, field capacity, total porosity) and chemical (K(av), P(av), N, C, pH) factors were recognized as the structuring forces that influence the distribution of oribatid species. Analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed large differences in metal body burdens among species. None of the species can be categorized as accumulators or non-accumulators of the heavy metals - the pattern depends on the metal. The process of bioconcentration of the toxic metal (regulated) and essential elements (accumulated) was generally different in the five oribatid species studied. PMID:22134027

  13. A new species of Ornithodoros (Acari: Argasidae) from desert areas of northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Venzal, José M; González-Acuña, Daniel; Nava, Santiago; Lopes, Marcos G; Martins, Thiago F; Figueroa, Cecilia; Fernández, Nicolás; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-07-01

    Ornithodoros atacamensis n. sp. is described from larvae collected on the lizard Liolaemus bisignatus and from free-living adults collected in desert areas from the Pan de Azúcar and Llanos de Challe National Parks, in Northern Chile. Additionally, unengorged larvae were obtained from fertilized females, which laid eggs in the laboratory. Morphological and mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequence analyses were performed in order to compare this new soft tick species with other congeneric Neotropical representatives. Larvae of O. atacamensis are morphologically closely related to Ornithodoros talaje sensu stricto, Ornithodoros puertoricensis, Ornithodoros rioplatensis, Ornithodoros guaporensis and Ornithodoros hasei, all belonging to the O. talaje species group. The larval diagnostic characters for this species are a combination of a large pyriform dorsal plate with a length of approximately 300μm, 17 pairs of dorsal setae with five central pairs, hypostome with apex pointed and dental formula 2/2 in most rows, 3/3 apically, and capsule of the Haller's organ oval in shape without reticulations. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene and a Principal Component Analysis based on morphometric characters provide additional support to the description of O. atacamensis as an independent lineage within the genus clustering within the O. talaje species group.

  14. Resistance status of ticks (Acari; Ixodidae) to amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides in Isoka District, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muyobela, Jackson; Nkunika, Philip Obed Yobe; Mwase, Enala Tembo

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to obtain data on the farmer's approach to tick control and to determine whether Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neuman, Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius), and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) were resistant to amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides, in Isoka District, Zambia. Prevailing tick control practices were documented by administering a semi-structured questionnaire to 80 randomly selected smallholder livestock farmers from four agricultural camps (Longwe, Kantenshya, Kapililonga, and Ndeke) in Isoka District. Modified larval packet test (LPT) bioassay experiments were used to determine the resistance status of the common tick species against amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides. Fifty percent of respondents practiced chemical tick control with amitraz (27 %) and cypermethrin (23 %) being the acaricides in use, and were applied with knapsack sprayers. Less than 3 l of spray wash per animal was used which was considerably lower than the recommended delivery rate of 10 l of spray wash per animal. No significant susceptibility change to amitraz at 95 % confidence level was observed in R. appendiculatus and A. variegatum against amitraz. However, a significant change in the susceptibility of R. (Bo.) microplus tested with amitraz was detected at 95 % confidence. The test population had a lower susceptibility (LD50 0.014 %; LD90 0.023 %) than the reference population (LD50 0.013 %; LD90 0.020 %). The results indicated that resistance to amitraz was developing in R. (Bo.) microplus. For cypermethrin, no significant susceptibility change at 95 % confidence was observed in any of the three species and thus resistance to this chemical was not observed.

  15. Molecular, biological, and morphometric comparisons between different geographical populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Sanches, Gustavo S; Évora, Patrícia M; Mangold, Atílio J; Jittapalapong, Sattaporn; Rodriguez-Mallon, Alina; Guzmán, Pedro E E; Bechara, Gervásio H; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2016-01-15

    In this study, different geographical populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato were compared by molecular, biological, and morphometric methods. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using 12S and 16S rDNA sequences and showed two distinct clades: one composed of ticks from Brazil (Jaboticabal, SP), Cuba (Havana) Thailand (Bangkok) and the so-called "tropical strain" ticks. The second clade was composed of ticks from Spain (Zaragoza), Argentina (Rafaela, Santa Fe) and the so-called "temperate strain" ticks. Morphometric analysis showed good separation between females of the two clades and within the temperate clade. Males also exhibited separation between the two clades, but with some overlap. Multiple biological parameters revealed differences between the two clades, especially the weight of the engorged female. These results confirm the existence of at least two species under the name "R. sanguineus". PMID:26790741

  16. Amblyomma mixtum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae): First record confirmation in Colombia using morphological and molecular analyses.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Páez, Fredy A; Labruna, Marcelo B; Martins, Thiago F; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2016-07-01

    Up to some years ago, the taxon Amblyomma cajennense represented a single tick species in the New World, from southern United States to northern Argentina. Recent studies, based on genetic, reproductive and morphological data reorganized this taxon into a complex of the following 6 valid species: A. cajennense sensu stricto, Amblyomma mixtum, Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma interandinum, Amblyomma tonelliae, and Amblyomma patinoi. According to this classification, the A. cajennense complex is currently represented in Colombia by only one species, A. patinoi. Because the Colombian land is surrounded by confirmed records of A. mixtum in Panama and Ecuador, and by A. cajennense s.s. in Venezuela and the Brazilian Amazon, it is possible that these two species could also occur in Colombia. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of ticks of the A. cajennense complex in the Orinoquía region of Colombia. A total of 246 adult ticks of the Amblyomma genus were collected in three sampled regions: 71 females and 110 males in Arauca (Arauca Department), 27 females and 20 males in Nunchía (Casanare Department), and 10 females and 8 males in Yopal (Casanare Department). Based on morphological and molecular analyses, these ticks were identified as A. mixtum. Molecular analyses consisted of DNA sequences of two molecular markers, the nuclear second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). The presence of A. mixtum in Colombia is of medical relevance, since this species is incriminated as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii in Central America. PMID:27062448

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on spermatogenesis and fertility of male Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, J.H. Jr.; Stanley, M.A.

    1987-04-01

    Amblyomma americanum males were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 16 krad of gamma radiation. Testes of ticks treated with 2, 3, 4, 8, and 16 krad were smaller than those of ticks irradiated at lower levels and controls. No recognizable alteration in timing of spermatogenesis was noted among the different radiation groups, but severe breakdown and depletion of germinal cells was noted at 4, 8, and 16 krad. Percent hatch of larvae from crosses of irradiated males and untreated females decreased with increasing radiation level. No hatch was observed from eggs of females mated to males treated at 2 krad or higher.

  18. Landsat-TM identification of Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae) habitats in Guadeloupe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hugh-Jones, M.; Barre, N.; Nelson, G.; Wehnes, K.; Warner, J.; Garvin, J.; Garris, G.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of identifying specific habitats of the African bont tick, Amblyomma variegatum, from Landsat-TM images was investigated by comparing remotely sensed images of visible farms in Grande Terre (Guadeloupe) with field observations made in the same period of time (1986-1987). The different tick habitates could be separated using principal component analysis. The analysis clustered the sites by large and small variance of band values, and by vegetation and moisture indexes. It was found that herds in heterogeneous sites with large variances had more ticks than those in homogeneous or low variance sites. Within the heterogeneous sites, those with high vegetation and moisture indexes had more ticks than those with low values.

  19. Biology, ecology and distribution of the tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae) in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Heath, Acg

    2016-01-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis is the only tick in New Zealand that infests livestock. Throughout its range H. longicornis is exposed to and exhibits tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions, although it flourishes more in moist, warm-temperate environments. This review examines aspects of the biology, physiology and ecology of H. longicornis that determine its distribution and seasonal activity in New Zealand, based on laboratory and field studies. Examples are also drawn from studies outside New Zealand for comparative purposes, especially in the context of seasonal activity as seen in less temperate latitudes. The tick is able to withstand a wide range of temperature, from its developmental threshold of ∼12°C to nearly 40°C at its lethal limit, but its tolerance of dehydration is less wide, especially in the larva and adult, the former especially being the stage that largely determines suitable biotopes for the tick and its present distributional limits. The importance of H. longicornis to the New Zealand livestock industry has recently increased through the establishment and spread of Theileria orientalis Ikeda among dairy and beef cattle, although the tick has always posed production-limiting problems for cattle, deer and to a lesser extent, sheep. The tick's role as a vector of theileriosis and how aspects of the tick's biology affect the spread and maintenance of this disease are discussed. It is proposed that, of available wildlife hosts, the brown hare with its wide-ranging habits, is an important disseminator of ticks. Currently control of ticks is difficult partly because of their wide host range, overlapping activity periods of stadia, and also because the greater part of their annual cycle is spent on pasture. This means that acaricides alone do not satisfactorily reduce tick populations or provide comprehensive protection to stock, so integrated management combining pasture management with good husbandry and chemical prophylaxis is advocated. PMID:25849758

  20. Reported distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dennis, D T; Nekomoto, T S; Victor, J C; Paul, W S; Piesman, J

    1998-09-01

    Lyme disease, caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most frequently reported arthropod-borne disease in the United States. To develop a national map of the distribution of the vectors of B. burgdorferi to humans (Ixodes scapularis Say and Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls ticks), we sent questionnaires to acarologists, health officials, and Lyme disease researchers; surveyed the 1966-1996 MEDLINE data base; and reviewed 1907-1995 National Tick Collection data. Tick collection methods cited included flagging and dragging, deer surveys, small- and medium-sized mammal surveys, CO2 baiting, and receipt of tick submissions. A total of 1,058 unique, county-specific I. scapularis and I. pacificus records was obtained. Tick populations were classified as "reported" (< 6 ticks and 1 life stage identified) or "established" (> or = 6 ticks or > 1 life stage identified). Established populations of I. scapularis were identified in 396 counties in 32 states in the eastern and central United States, whereas established populations of I. pacificus were found in 90 counties in 5 western states. Counties with established populations were most concentrated in the northeastern, upper northcentral, and west-coastal states but were also clustered in southeastern and Gulf-coastal states. A less concentrated distribution was found in the south-central states. Reports were notably missing from all but a few counties in Ohio, West Virginia, western Virginia and North Carolina, Kentucky, and Tennessee. They were absent in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountain regions and from large areas of western states east of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada cordilleras. These data are useful for identifying areas of Lyme disease risk, for targeting Lyme disease prevention strategies, and for monitoring trends in spatial distribution of Lyme disease vector ticks. PMID:9775584

  1. Increasing density and Borrelia burgdorferi infection of deer-infesting Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) in Maryland.

    PubMed

    Amerasinghe, F P; Breisch, N L; Neidhardt, K; Pagac, B; Scott, T W

    1993-09-01

    A statewide survey of Ixodes dammini Spielman was done in November 1991 as a follow-up to a study in 1989. In total, 3,434 adult ticks were collected from 922 hunter-killed white-tailed deer processed at 22 check stations (1 per county in 22 of 23 counties in the state). Significantly more male than female ticks were collected. Tick infestation was significantly heavier on male than female deer. The pattern of tick distribution was similar to that in 1989, with low prevalence (percentage tick-infested deer) and abundance (mean ticks per deer) in the Appalachian region, moderate values in the Piedmont, and high values in the western and eastern Coastal Plains regions. The pattern of tick infection with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes (determined by polyclonal immunofluorescence assay) was similar to the tick distributional pattern. Overall, tick prevalence and abundance were higher in 1991 than in 1989, as was the spirochete infection rate in ticks. Multiple regression analysis of tick prevalence against six selected physical and biotic parameters (elevation, rainfall, summer and winter temperature, percentage of forest land, deer density) showed a significant relationship with rainfall and elevation in 1989 and elevation alone in 1991. A more extensive study in Caroline and Dorchester counties in the eastern Coastal Plains region (which showed exceptionally low tick density indices in a generally tick-abundant region in 1989) demonstrated that I. dammini was well established in Caroline but not in Dorchester County. PMID:8254631

  2. Transovarial Transmission of Francisella-Like Endosymbionts and Anaplasma phagocytophilum Variants in Dermacentor albipictus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    BALDRIDGE, GERALD D.; SCOLES, GLEN. A.; BURKHARDT, NICOLE Y.; SCHLOEDER, BRIAN; KURTTI, TIMOTHY J.; MUNDERLOH, ULRIKE G.

    2009-01-01

    Dermacentor albipictus (Packard) is a North American tick that feeds on cervids and livestock. It is a suspected vector of anaplasmosis in cattle, but its microbial flora and vector potential remain underevaluated. We screened D. albipictus ticks collected from Minnesota white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) for bacteria of the genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Francisella, and Rickettsia using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) gene amplification and sequence analyses. We detected Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) in nymphal and adult ticks of both sexes at 45 and 94% prevalences, respectively. The A. phagocytophilum and FLEs were transovarially transmitted to F1 larvae by individual ticks at efficiencies of 10–40 and 95–100%, respectively. The FLEs were transovarially transmitted to F2 larvae obtained as progeny of adults from F1 larval ticks reared to maturity on a calf, but A. phagocytophilum were not. Based on PCR and tissue culture inoculation assays, A. phagocytophilum and FLEs were not transmitted to the calf. The amplified FLE 16S rRNA gene sequences were identical to that of an FLE detected in a D. albipictus from Texas, whereas those of the A. phagocytophilum were nearly identical to those of probable human-nonpathogenic A. phagocytophilum WI-1 and WI-2 variants detected in white-tailed deer from central Wisconsin. However, the D. albipictus A. phagocytophilum sequences differed from that of the nonpathogenic A. phagocytophilum variant-1 associated with Ixodes scapularis ticks and white-tailed deer as well as that of the human-pathogenic A. phagocytophilum ha variant associated with I. scapularis and the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus. The transovarial transmission of A. phagocytophilum variants in Dermacentor ticks suggests that maintenance of A. phagocytophilum in nature may not be solely dependent on horizontal transmission. PMID:19496436

  3. Spatial and temporal distribution of Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) in a northwestern Illinois state park.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J P; Kitron, U; Bouseman, J K

    1991-01-01

    Five km of hiking trails in Castle Rock State Park in Ogle Co., Ill., were drag-sampled for Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman & Corwin between 15 May and 19 October 1989. Densities of nymphs peaked on 22 June, larval densities peaked on 9 August, and adult densities had two peaks, 15 May and 19 October. The terrain crossed by the trails consisted of woods and meadow. There were no discernible habitat preferences for adult females, but nymphs and larvae were most numerous in the woods. Peak nymph density averaged one nymph per 28.5 m in woods, one nymph per 67 m in mixed habitat, and one nymph per 194 m in meadow. The results of this study are consistent with previously published data from the east coast of the United States. Recoveries of nymphs using a modified tick drag, consisting of one dozen 0.5-m strips, and the standard 1-m design were compared. PMID:2033600

  4. Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) distribution surveys in the Chicago metropolitan region.

    PubMed

    Rydzewski, Jennifer; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra; Warner, Richard E; Nelson, Jeffrey A; Velat, Tom C

    2012-07-01

    Considering recent studies confirming an increased risk of contracting Lyme disease near metropolitan Chicago, we surveyed a more comprehensive area to assess whether the geographical distribution and establishment of Ixodes scapularis (Say) populations across northeast Illinois are widespread or limited in occurrence. From May through October 2008 and from April through October 2009, 602 I. scapularis ticks of all three life stages (larva, nymph, adult) were collected from sites in Cook, DuPage, Lake, and McHenry counties in northeast Illinois. The surveys were conducted by drag sampling vegetation in public-access forested areas. I. scapularis comprised 56.4% of ticks collected (n = 1,067) at 17 of 32 survey sites. In addition, four other tick species were incidentally collected: Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard), Ixodes dentatus (Marx), and Amblyomma americanum (L.). This study updates the I. scapularis distribution in northeast Illinois. Our random sampling of suitable tick habitats across a large geographic area of the Chicago metropolitan area suggests a widespread human exposure to I. scapularis, and, potentially, to their associated pathogens throughout the region. These results prompt continued monitoring and investigation of the distribution, emergence, and expansion of I. scapularis populations and Borrelia burgdorferi transmission within this heavily populated region of Illinois. PMID:22897059

  5. Squalene: a naturally abundant mammalian skin secretion and long distance tick-attractant (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Yoder, J A; Stevens, B W; Crouch, K C

    1999-07-01

    Squalene is a naturally occurring lipid on mammalian skin and is an attractant to the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.). In this study, we compared squalene to the standard tick-attractants, benzaldehyde, isobutyric acid, methyl salicylate, nonanoic acid, and o-nitrophenol identified as active ingredients of tick aggregation-attachment pheromones and determined its effectiveness in field and laboratory settings at varying distances. Squalene was detected from 1/4 m greater than the standard tick attractants, attracted a greater percentage of ticks (75 compared with 0-43%) and featured a rapid response time (< 30 min). Thus, squalene contributes more to the tick's ability to locate hosts at greater distances than aggregation-attachment pheromones. These results have important implications for improving tick monitoring and control programs by adding squalene as a supplement to existing attractant baits. PMID:10467784

  6. Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) infestation on medium-sized mammals and blue jays in northwestern Illinois.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, A; Kitron, U; Jones, C J; Slajchert, T L

    1993-09-01

    High prevalence of infestation of five species of medium-sized mammals and blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata (L.), by immature Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman and Corwin was found in Castle Rock State Park in northwestern Illinois during May-August 1991. Raccoons, Procyon lotor L., and opossums, Didelphis virginiana Kerr, were infested with the highest larval densities and were trapped primarily in bottomland forest and ecotone habitats. All species had similar nymphal densities, except the eastern cottontails, Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, which were infested with fewer nymphs. Infestation by I. dammini is reported for the first time for fox squirrels, Sciurus niger E. G. St. Hilaire, and for the first time in the midwestern United States for blue jays, C. cristata. These two species were hosts for nymphs in upland forest habitat. Molting rates varied among ticks that fed on different host species and among larvae that fed on individuals of the same species. Molting rate is proposed as an important factor in determining the relative importance of a host species to I. dammini population dynamics. PMID:8254647

  7. A review of Hyalomma scupense (Acari, Ixodidae) in the Maghreb region: from biology to control.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Hyalomma scupense (syn. Hyalomma detritum) is a two-host domestic endophilic tick of cattle and secondarily other ungulates in the Maghreb region (Africa). This species transmits several pathogens, among which two are major livestock diseases: Theileria annulata and Theileria equi. Various other pathogens are also transmitted by this tick species, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia bovis. Hyalomma scupense is common in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of several regions in the world, mainly in the Maghreb region. In this region, adults attach to animals during the summer season; larvae and nymphs attach to their hosts during autumn, but there is a regional difference in H. scupense phenology. There is an overlap between immature and adult ticks, leading in some contexts to a dramatic modification of the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. This tick species attaches preferentially to the posterior udder quarters and thighs. Tick burdens can reach 130 ticks per animal, with a mean of 60 ticks. Calves are 70 times less infested than adult cattle. The control can be implemented through six options: (i) rehabilitation of the farm buildings by roughcasting and smoothing the outer and inner surfaces of the enclosures and walls. This control option should be recommended to be combined with a thorough cleaning of the farm and its surrounding area. With regard to Theileria annulata infection, this control option is the most beneficial. (ii) Acaricide application to animals during the summer season, targeting adults. (iii) Acaricide application during the autumn period for the control of the immature stages. (iv) Acaricide application to the walls: many field veterinarians have suggested this option but it is only partially efficient since nymphs enter deep into the cracks and crevices. It should be used if there is a very high tick burden or if there is a high risk of tick-borne diseases. (v) Manual tick removal: this method is not efficient since the ticks can feed on several other animal species in the farm. This control option can lead to a reduction of the tick population, but not a decrease in tick-borne disease incidence. (vi) Vaccination: this control option consists of injecting the protein Hd86; trials have shown a partial effect on nymphs, with no effect on adult ticks. Combination of two of these control options is recommended in regions where there are high burdens of important tick vectors. Further studies are needed to improve our knowledge on this tick species in the Maghreb region, since the number of published studies on Hyalomma scupense in this region is very limited. PMID:24507485

  8. Acquisition and transmission of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) by the tick Amblyomma ovale (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Rubini, A S; Paduan, K S; Martins, T F; Labruna, M B; O'Dwyer, L H

    2009-10-14

    The present study aimed to evaluate under controlled conditions the acquisition of Hepatozoon canis by Amblyomma ovale after feeding on infected dogs, and the subsequent induction of infection in uninfected dogs that ingested the experimentally infected ticks. Two H. canis naturally infected dogs were infested with A. ovale adult ticks derived from an uninfected laboratory tick colony. After feeding, two A. ovale females presented H. canis oocysts in the hemolymph at the first and fourth days after removal of ticks from dogs. The oocysts had an average size of 244.34 microm x 255.46 microm. Three uninfected dogs were fed with ticks previously fed on the infected dogs. Only one dog became infected 32 days after oral inoculation, presenting circulating gametocytes, parasitemia less than 1%, and positive PCR confirmed to be H. canis by DNA sequencing. The results obtained indicated A. ovale ticks as potential vector of H. canis in rural areas of Brazil. PMID:19501969

  9. Cysticercoids of Anoplocephala magna (Eucestoda: Anoplocephalidae) experimentally grown in oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida).

    PubMed

    Schuster, Rolf K; Coetzee, Louise

    2012-11-23

    Anoplocephala magna eggs found in the rectal content of a naturally infected zebra from South Africa were fed to Scheloribates pallidulus under laboratory condition. Mites remained in contact with the eggs for one week and were late kept for 30 days in an incubator at 28°C. At the end of the experiment, 19 out of 136 mites contained typical anoplocephalidae cysticercoids in their body cavity in numbers between one and three. The average size of the metacestodes varied depending on intensity of infection. Cysticercoid infected mites were less likely to carry mite eggs.

  10. Studies on chicken acquired resistance to Argas (persicargas) persicus Latereille (Acari: Argasidae) due to repeated infestation.

    PubMed

    Habeeb, S M; Sayed, M A; El-Kammah, K M

    2001-08-01

    Spring chickens were used for feeding Argas persicus (females) daily over one week during both winter and summer seasons. Acquired resistance to ticks was monitored by: 1) failure of ticks to replenish a blood meal from chickens bitten repeatedly by the infesting ticks during winter and summer seasons; 2) measurements of anti-tick activity in the chicken sera; 3) detection of changes in their serum proteins. Chickens were bled after the 4th feeding, during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th weeks post-feeding. The titre of anti-tick antibody was determined in the chicken sera by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The change in sera protein bands after Argas persicus female repeated feeding was studied by the use of 10% SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the nonfeeding percentage in A. persicus was significant in both winter and summer seasons. The highest concentration of antibodies against A. persicus was detected after the fourth feeding and the lowest titre was reported in sera collected after the fourth week in both seasons. Infested chicken serum proteins electrophoresis showed different patterns of separation from the non-infested chickens. The protein bands of the noninfested chicken sera had 5 and 10 bands in the winter and summer seasons, but in infested chicken sera, it ranged between 12-17 and 14-18 bands in winter and summer seasons respectively.

  11. Changes in leaf physiology caused by Calacarus heveae (Acari, Eriophyidae) on rubber tree.

    PubMed

    Daud, Rodrigo Damasco; de Cássia Conforto, Elenice; Feres, Reinaldo José Fazzio

    2012-06-01

    The influence of Calacarus heveae Feres on physiological processes was evaluated in two rubber tree clones. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with 5-month-old potted seedlings of RRIM 600 and GT 1 clones, that were either infested with C. heveae or not (non-infested control). The level of photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, changes in relative humidity between leaf surface and ambient air (Δw) and intercellular CO(2) concentration (Ci CO(2)) were evaluated. Infested plants showed significant reductions in the rate of transpiration, the rate of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and Δw. RRIM 600 seedlings showed more pronounced physiological damage than GT 1 seedlings, indicating a lower physiological tolerance of the former clone to the mite. However, carotenoid levels were reduced only in GT 1 seedlings. Photosynthesis was probably reduced due to a decrease in stomatal opening, as indicated by reductions in transpiration rate and stomatal conductance and by the absence of differences in chlorophyll levels between treatments. Our results indicate that populations of C. heveae reduce the productivity of rubber trees. Thus, farmers must to be aware to control this mite pest in rubber tree plantations. PMID:22527832

  12. Use of plastic tips in artificial feeding of Dermacentor (Anocentor) nitens females Neumann, 1897 (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo; Baêta, Bruna de Azevedo; Valim, Jaqueline Rodrigues de Almeida; Teixeira, Rafaella Câmara; Cepeda, Patrícia Barizon; da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique

    2014-10-01

    The establishment of laboratory colonies of ticks is often hampered by their lack of adaptation to alternative hosts. The aim of this study was to artificially feed partially engorged Dermacentor (Anocentor) nitens females through plastic tips, and to identify what are the optimal conditions of application of this technique to get as much as possible close to the natural conditions. The technique of artificial feeding through plastic tips allowed the engorgement of D. nitens ticks to a final weight within the normal range for the species.

  13. Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) and permethrin to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hornbostel, V.L.; Zhioua, E.; Benjamin, M.A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Ostfeld, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Effectiveness of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, for controlling nymphal Ixodes scapularis, was tested in laboratory and field trials. In the laboratory, M. anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin strain ESC1 was moderately pathogenic, with an LC50 of 107 spores/ml and induced 70% mortality at 109 spores/ml. In a field study, however, 109 spores/ml M. anisopliae did not effectively control questing I. scapularis nymphs, and significant differences were not detected in pre- and post-treatment densities. For nymphs collected and returned to the laboratory for observation, mortality was low in treatment groups, ranging from 20 to 36%. To assess whether a chemical acaricide would synergistically enhance pathogenicity of the fungus, we challenged unfed nymphal I. scapularis with combinations of M. anisopliae and permethrin, a relatively safe pyrethroid acaricide, in two separate bioassays. Significant interactions between M. anisopliae and permethrin were not observed, supporting neither synergism nor antagonism.

  14. Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhioua, E.; Browning, M.; Johnson, P.W.; Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is highly pathogenic to the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Spore concentrations of 108/ml for engorged larvae and 107/ml for engorged females resulted in 100% tick mortality, 2 wk post-infection. The LC50 value for engorged larvae (concentration to kill 50% of ticks) was 107 spores/ml. Metarhizium anisopliae shows considerable potential as a microbial control agent for the management of Ixodes scapularis.

  15. Inhibition of the classical pathway of the complement system by saliva of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Franco, Paula F; Silva, Naylene C S; Fazito do Vale, Vladimir; Abreu, Jéssica F; Santos, Vânia C; Gontijo, Nelder F; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Pereira, Marcos H; Sant'Anna, Mauricio R V; Gomes, Alessandra P S; Araujo, Ricardo N

    2016-05-01

    Inhibition of the complement system during and after haematophagy is of utmost importance for tick success in feeding and tick development. The role of such inhibition is to minimise damage to the intestinal epithelium as well as avoiding inflammation and opsonisation of salivary molecules at the bite site. Despite its importance, the salivary anti-complement activity has been characterised only in species belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex which saliva is able to inhibit the alternative and lectin pathways. Little is known about this activity in other species of the Ixodidae family. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the inhibition of the classical pathway of the complement system by the saliva of Amblyomma cajennense at different stages of the haematophagy. The A. cajennense saliva and salivary gland extract (SGE) were able to inhibit the complement classical pathway through haemolytic assays with higher activity observed when saliva was used. The anti-complement activity is present in the salivary glands of starving females and also in females throughout the whole feeding process, with significant higher activity soon after tick detachment. The SGE activity from both females fed on mice or horses had no significant correlation (p > 0.05) with tick body weight. The pH found in the intestinal lumen of A. cajennense was 8.04 ± 0.08 and haemolytic assays performed at pH 8.0 showed activation of the classical pathway similarly to what occurs at pH 7.4. Consequently, inhibition could be necessary to protect the tick enterocytes. Indeed, the inhibition observed by SGE was higher in pH 8.0 in comparison to pH 7.4 reinforcing the role of saliva in protecting the intestinal cells. Further studies should be carried out in order to identify the inhibitor molecule and characterise its inhibition mechanism. PMID:26948715

  16. Amblyomma mixtum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae): First record confirmation in Colombia using morphological and molecular analyses.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Páez, Fredy A; Labruna, Marcelo B; Martins, Thiago F; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2016-07-01

    Up to some years ago, the taxon Amblyomma cajennense represented a single tick species in the New World, from southern United States to northern Argentina. Recent studies, based on genetic, reproductive and morphological data reorganized this taxon into a complex of the following 6 valid species: A. cajennense sensu stricto, Amblyomma mixtum, Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma interandinum, Amblyomma tonelliae, and Amblyomma patinoi. According to this classification, the A. cajennense complex is currently represented in Colombia by only one species, A. patinoi. Because the Colombian land is surrounded by confirmed records of A. mixtum in Panama and Ecuador, and by A. cajennense s.s. in Venezuela and the Brazilian Amazon, it is possible that these two species could also occur in Colombia. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of ticks of the A. cajennense complex in the Orinoquía region of Colombia. A total of 246 adult ticks of the Amblyomma genus were collected in three sampled regions: 71 females and 110 males in Arauca (Arauca Department), 27 females and 20 males in Nunchía (Casanare Department), and 10 females and 8 males in Yopal (Casanare Department). Based on morphological and molecular analyses, these ticks were identified as A. mixtum. Molecular analyses consisted of DNA sequences of two molecular markers, the nuclear second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). The presence of A. mixtum in Colombia is of medical relevance, since this species is incriminated as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii in Central America.

  17. New records and human parasitism by Ornithodoros mimon (Acari: Argasidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Marcili, Arlei; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Fernandes, André A; Leite, Romario C; Venzal, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    The bat tick Ornithodoros mimon Kohls, Clifford & Jones is currently known by only few reports in Bolivia, Uruguay, Argentina, and the state of São Paulo in southeastern Brazil. Here, we expand the distribution of O. mimon in Brazil to the states of Minas Gerais (southeastern region), Goiás (central-western), Pernambuco, and Rio Grande do Norte (northeastern). Ticks were collected on human dwellings, where there had been repeated complains of tick bites on persons during the night. Tick bites were generally followed by intense inflammatory reactions that lasted for several weeks at the bite site. Bats and opossums were reported to inhabit the attic of the infested houses. In addition, a free-ranging opossum (Didelphis albiventris Lund) trapped in Rio Grande do Norte was found infested by argasid larvae. Based on morphological and/or molecular analysis, all ticks were identified as O. mimon. From one of the sites (Tiradentes, state of Minas Gerais), 20 field-collected nymphs were tested by a battery of polymerase chain reaction protocols targeting tick-borne microorganisms of the genera Babesia, Hepatozoon, Rickettsia, Borrelia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Coxiella; no tick specimen was found infected by any of these microorganism genera. The current study expands northwards the distribution of O. mimon, which has been shown to be very harmful to humans because of the intense inflammatory response that usually occurs after tick bites. PMID:24605480

  18. Ecosystemic, climatic and temporal differences in oribatid communities (Acari: Oribatida) from forest soils.

    PubMed

    Corral-Hernández, E; Balanzategui, I; Iturrondobeitia, J C

    2016-08-01

    Oribatid mite communities from 18 natural autochthonous forest soils in the Basque Country, belonging to five forest types, distributed along an ombrothermic gradient of five climatic regions were broadly studied. Forest type and climatic region together (45 % of the total variability) were important factors influencing the oribatid community. The local scale variable (forest type, 28 %) was about as determinant a factor as the regional scale (climatic region, 26 %), though together they accounted for just 9 %. By contrast, the influence of spatial distribution (geography) was not significant by itself but played an important role as a co-variable. Differences in community indices were detected only for species abundances, with holm oak showing the highest oribatid density and beech the lowest. The effect of the passage of time on oribatid communities was also analyzed by comparing recent communities to those of 19-26 years ago in the same forests. The community indices are influenced by the course of time when separate periods of time are compared. Although the recently studied forests apparently show the same conservational conditions as those studied in the past, they are less diverse. PMID:27193341

  19. "Inert" formulation ingredients with activity: toxicity of trisiloxane surfactant solutions to twospotted spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Cowles, R S; Cowles, E A; McDermott, A M; Ramoutar, D

    2000-04-01

    Organosilicone molecules are important surfactant ingredients used in formulating pesticides. These methylated silicones are considered inert ingredients, but their superior surfactant properties allow them to wet, and either suffocate or disrupt important physiological processes in mites and insects. Aqueous solutions of the tri-siloxane surfactants Silwet L-77, Silwet 408, and Silwet 806 were bioassayed against adult female two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, with leaf dip methods to compare their toxicity with organosilicone molecules containing bulkier hydrophobic components. All three tri-siloxanes in aqueous solutions were equivalently toxic (LC50 = 5.5-8.9 ppm), whereas Silwet L-7607 solutions were less toxic (LC50 = 4,800 ppm) and Silwet L-7200 was nontoxic to mites. In another experiment, the toxicity of Silwet L-77 was affected by the wettability of leaf surfaces. The LC50 shifted from 22 to 84 ppm when mites were tested on bean and strawberry leaf disks, respectively. Droplet spreading on paraffin and surface tension were both related to the toxicity of surfactant solutions. Surface tensions of solutions below 23 mN/m caused > 90% mite mortality in leaf dip bioassays. A field test of Conserve SC and its formulation blank, with and without Dyne-Amic adjuvant (a vegetable oil-organosilicone surfactant mixture) revealed that Dyne-Amic had the greatest miticidal contribution, reducing mite populations by 70%, followed by formulation inactive ingredients. Spinosad, the listed active ingredient in Conserve, only contributed miticidal activity when synergized by Dyne-Amic. Researchers should include appropriate surfactant or formulation blank controls when testing insecticides or miticides, especially when using high spray volumes.

  20. Acaricidal efficacy of Myrrh (Commiphora molmol) on the fowl tick Argas persicus (Acari: Argasidae).

    PubMed

    Massoud, A M; Kutkat, M A; Abdel Shafy, Sobhy; El-Khateeb, Rabab M; Labib, Iman M

    2005-08-01

    Five concentrations of purified extract of Myrrh from Commiphora molmol tree were prepared to study its effects on the fowl tick Argas persicus under laboratory conditions. The results revealed that Myrrh had dependant dose toxic effect on the adult female of A. persicus. Toxicity increased gradually daily post treatment. The LC50 was 1.28%, 0.88%, 0.84%, 0.50% and 0.42% at Ist, 2nd, 3rd, 6th and 12th days respectively. At 12th day, the recorded mortality rates were 63, 67, 76, 87 and 94% for concentrations, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10%, respectively against 5% in control. Histopathological and Transmission election microscope (TEM) examinations showed the lysing of epithelial gut cells in treated groups. The lysed epithelial gut cells showed irregularly distributed nucleus, commonly at low concentrations and rarely in high concentrations of Myrrh. The lysed epithelial gut cells, without nucleus or with aggregated one beside the basal lamina, were common at high concentrations and rare in low concentrations of Myrrh. Consequently, Myrrh can rapidly penetrate the cuticle to body cavity, destroy the epithelial gut cells and finally cause the death of ticks. PMID:16083075

  1. Infestations of the bont tick Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae) on different breeds of cattle in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Norval, R A; Sutherst, R W; Kerr, J D

    1996-10-01

    Infestations of adults and nymphs of Amblyomma hebraeum were counted on Brahman (Br), Brahman x Simmental (BS), Sanga (Sa) and Hereford (He) steers exposed to infested pastures at Mbizi in southern Zimbabwe in 1986-1987. Herefords were always the most heavily infested, while the Sanga tended to carry the fewest ticks with the Brahman and Brahman x Simmental groups being in between. The ratios of the engorged females on the four breeds were 2.3:1.4:1.4:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The ratios of the standard nymphs were 2.2:1.4:1.7:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The results confirm earlier observations in Africa and support the view that there are genetic differences between breeds in the expression of resistance to this tick species. PMID:8952073

  2. Effects of agroforestry on phytoseiid mite communities (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in vineyards in the South of France.

    PubMed

    Barbar, Ziad; Tixier, Marie-Stéphane; Cheval, Brigitte; Kreiter, Serge

    2006-01-01

    The abundance and diversity of phytoseiid mites were surveyed from April to September 2003 to 2005 in vineyards (Grenache and Syrah cultivars) co-planted with rows of Sorbus domestica or Pinus pinea and in monoculture plots of grapes in the South of France. Densities of phytoseiid mites were different on the two tree species, with P. pinea a more suitable host than S. domestica. Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) exhilaratus was the dominant species occurring on grapes and on co-planted rows of S. domestica and P. pinea, whereas T. (T.) phialatus was the most abundant species in monoculture plots of both S. domestica and P. pinea. Factors determining the dominance of T. (T.) phialatus over T. (T.) exhilaratus in monoculture trees are discussed. In this study, agroforestry management did not affect phytoseiid diversity in vineyards, but did affect phytoseiid density, especially in 2005. The results obtained in 2003 and 2004 are not easy to discuss in this regard because of the low densities of mites observed during these 2 years (very dry climatic conditions and pesticide applications).

  3. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia odocoilei DNA in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) collected in Indiana.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Fresia E; Pinger, Robert R; Vann, Carolyn N; Abley, Melanie J; Sullivan, Bridget; Grindle, Nate; Clay, Keith; Fuqua, Clay

    2006-03-01

    The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, first reported in Indiana in 1987, has now been detected in more than half of Indiana's counties. The first case of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (human anaplasmosis) in Indiana was reported in 2002. We now report the detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia odocoilei (Emerson and Wright 1968) in I. scapularis ticks collected in northern Indiana. Using polymerase chain reaction analysis, 41 of 193 adult ticks (21.2%) collected from deer were positive for A. phagocytophylum, and 22 (11.4%) were positive for Babesia sp. Restriction fragment analysis of 12, and sequencing of another five of the amplified products identified these parasites as B. odocoilei. Five ticks (2.6%) were coinfected. Eight of 68 questing adult ticks (11.8%) were positive for A. phagocytophilum; seven (10.3%) were positive for Babesia sp. Six of the latter seven positive samples were determined to be B. odocoilei by restriction fragment analysis and sequencing of two samples. None of 39 pools of nymphs was positive for Babesia sp. Three of 15 ticks (20%) collected from a dog were positive for A. phagocytophilum and three ticks (20%) were positive for Babesia sp. One was confirmed as B. odocoilei. One tick was coinfected. This is the first report of the presence of these two agents in ticks in Indiana.

  4. Minimum infection rate of Ambylomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) by Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Rickettsiales: Ehrlichieae) in southern Indiana.

    PubMed

    Burket, C T; Vann, C N; Pinger, R R; Chatot, C L; Steiner, F E

    1998-09-01

    In 1994 and 1995, 8 cases of human monocytic ehrlichiosis were confirmed. These cases originated from southern counties where the putative tick vector Ambylomma americanum (L.) is well established. To confirm the presence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in ticks in southern Indiana and to determine the minimum infection rate, specimens of A. americanum were collected from 5 counties (7 sites). Nucleic acid was isolated from 88 pools of ticks (430 individuals) using an optimized phenol/CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) extraction procedure and subjected to polymerase chain reaction analysis using species-specific 16S rRNA gene bacterial primers. Twenty-one of 88 pools (a minimum of 21 of 430 individuals) were positive for the presence of E. Chaffeensis, yielding an average minimum infection rate of 4.9%. Minimum infection rates at individual sites ranged from 0 to 9.4%. These data extend the known distribution of the bacterium to 3 southern counties of Indiana and suggest a higher prevalence of E. chaffeensis than previously reported for Missouri, North Carolina, or Kentucky.

  5. Inability of Ixodes cookei and Amblyomma americanum nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae) to transmit Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Ryder, J W; Pinger, R R; Glancy, T

    1992-05-01

    The vector competency of Ixodes cookei Packard and Amblyomma americanum (L.) for Borrelia burgdorferi was studied using Syrian hamsters. Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman & Corwin were used as controls. Darkfield and immunofluorescent examinations of midgut diverticula revealed B. burgdorferi spirochetes in 32 of 36 (88.9%) I. dammini larvae, 5 of 36 (13.9%) I. cookei larvae, and 7 of 36 (19.4%) A. americanum larvae within 48 h after feeding on infected Syrian hamsters. B. burgdorferi were also observed in the midguts of 94 of 107 (87.8%) I. dammini nymphs that developed from the fed larvae. However, none of 30 I. cookei nymphs was positive for spirochetes and only 1 of 60 (1.7%) A. americanum nymphs was found positive for B. burgdorferi. Nymphs of each tick species, reared from larvae that had fed on infected hamsters, were allowed to feed on uninfected hamsters to determine their ability to transmit B. burgdorferi. Transmission was demonstrated only by I. dammini nymphs.

  6. Rhipicephalus annulatus (Acari: Ixodidae) Control by Nigella sativa, Thyme and Spinosad Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Aboelhadid, Shawky Mohamed; Mahran, Hesham A; El-Hariri, Hazem M; Shokier, Khalid Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several compounds obtained from plants have potential insecticidal, growth deterrent or repellent characteristics. The control of hard ticks by non-chemical substances was targeted in this study. Methods: The effect of 36 materials on in-vitro ticks was studied, including 2 absolute controls (water only or absolute ethyl alcohol only), 6 conventionally used spinosad preparations (aqueous solutions), 12 Nigella sativa (N. sativa) preparations (aqueous and alcoholic solutions), and 12 Thyme preparations (aqueous and alcoholic solutions). The engorged ticks were tested in-vitro for mortality and oviposition ability using the studied materials. Results: The final mortality after 48 hours of application in N. sativa aqueous preparations began from 10.0% concentration, 1.0% to 100% by concentration preparations ≥10%. In addition, N. sativa alcoholic preparations began from 50.0% concentration, 2 % to 100% by concentration ≥5%. Meanwhile, Thyme aqueous and alcoholic preparations began from 70.0% concentration, 5% to 90% by concentration 10–20%. Additionally, spinosad aqueous preparations and both of control preparations (Water and Alcohol) resulted in no mortality. All differences were statistically significant. The oviposition was stopped in N. sativa (aqueous ≥10% and alcoholic ≥5%) and in spinosad (aqueous≥25%). The aqoues dilution of the used matters killed B. annulatus larvae beginning from the concentration 5%. Conclusion: Nigella sativa alcohol 20% was the best of studied preparations being the lowest concentration (20%) that could achieve the highest lethal (100%) effect in shortest time (12 hours). Moreover, Thyme oil and spinosad could not kill 100% of adult but did on larvae. PMID:27308273

  7. Pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhioua, E.; Heyer, K.; Browning, M.; Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki de Barjac & Lemille was tested against the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say. Engorged larvae dipped in a solution of 108 spores per ml showed 96% mortality, 3 wk post-infection. The LC50 value for engorged larvae (concentration required to kill 50% of ticks) was 107 spores/ml. Bacillus thuringiensis shows considerable potential as a microbial control agent for the management of Ixodes scapularis.

  8. Borrelia infection in Ixodes pararicinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Nava, Santiago; Barbieri, Amalia M; Maya, Leticia; Colina, Rodney; Mangold, Atilio J; Labruna, Marcelo B; Venzal, José M

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to describe for the first time the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infecting ticks in Argentina. Unfed specimens of Ixodes pararicinus collected from vegetation in Jujuy Province were tested for Borrelia infection by PCR targeting the gene flagellin (fla), the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer region (IGS) and the 16S rDNA (rrs) gene. One male and one female of I. pararicinus collected in Jujuy were found to be positive to Borrelia infection with the three molecular markers tested. Phylogenetically, the Borrelia found in I. pararicinus from Jujuy belongs to the B. burgdorferi s.l complex, and it was similar to one of the genospecies detected in I. aragaoi from Uruguay. Also, this genospecies is closely related to two genospecies known from USA, Borrelia americana and the Borrelia sp. genospecies 1. The epidemiological risk that implies the infection with Borrelia in I. paracinus ticks from Argentina appears to be low because the genospecies detected is not suspected of having clinical relevance and there are no records of Ixodes ticks biting humans in the southern cone of South America. Further studies are needed to assess accurately if there is risk of borreliosis transmitted by ticks in South America. PMID:24979685

  9. Survival and water-balance characteristics of unfed adult Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Strey, O F; Teel, P D; Longnecker, M T; Needham, G R

    1996-01-01

    Off-host survival, water balance, and cold tolerance of unfed adult, Cayenne ticks, Amblyomma cajennense (F.), were examined to evaluate species characteristics important to zoogeography and off-host ecology. Survivorship decreased when males and females were subjected to progressively drier constant environmental conditions. Average maximum survival was 641.2 and 682.5 d at 85% RH and 23 degrees C (2.98 mm Hg) for males and females, respectively. Mean survival in both sexes was progressively less variable in drier conditions. Slopes of log-linear models of survival days based on saturation deficit (mm Hg) were significantly different between males and females at 50%, but not at 25 or 0%. Whole-body water loss rates for 4-wk-old adults were measured at 0% RH and 23 degrees C until ticks became nonambulatory. The mean whole-body water loss rate of females, 0.06128% h-1, was 11.3% less than for males, 0.06914% h-1. Although nonambulatory ticks appeared dead, >1/2 of the individuals from each sex regained ambulatory status after they were removed from 0% RH and exposed to 96% RH for 24 h. Among these, male ticks averaged 0.44 more recuperative (ambulatory) cycles than females, although, the duration encompassing all recuperative cycles was generally longer for females and on average, females gained 8.16% more weight than males upon each rehydration. Estimates of the mean critical equilibrium activity for males and females were 0.74 av and 0.79 av, respectively. A. cajennense adults were found to be less tolerant to -12.5 degrees C than adult lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.), whose distribution encompasses more temperate regions. Although A. cajennense exhibit little host preference and are capable of extended off-host survival, the establishment of populations beyond this species zoogeographic distribution may be constrained by an intolerance to cold.

  10. Fenvalerate resistance status in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) from Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Jyoti; Nandi, Abhijit; Singh, Harkirat; Singh, N K; Rath, S S

    2016-09-01

    Larval packet test was used for evaluating the resistance levels in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from different districts of central plain zone of Punjab state, India against fenvalerate. The regression graphs of probit mortality of larvae plotted against log values of progressively increasing concentrations of fenvalerate were utilized for the estimation of lethal concentration for 50 % (LC50) and 95 % (LC95) values against various field isolates of R. (B.) microplus. The slope of mortality (95 % confidence levels) varied from 0.730 ± 0.097 (0.419-1.043) to 1.455 ± 0.281 (0.558-2.352) and the value of R(2) varied from 0.881 to 0.997. From the regression equation the values of LC50 and LC95 were recorded in range of 184.39-1,338.01 and 3,253.33-112,706.26 ppm, respectively. Among the various tick isolates resistance factors in range of 1.56-54.34 were determined and all field isolates studied were found resistant against fenvalerate. Two field isolates (Jalandhar and Ludhiana) showed level I resistance; three (Patiala, Fatehgarh Sahib and Amritsar) showed level II and Kapurthala isolate showed level IV resistance. The data generated on fenvalerate resistant status will help in judicious use of the drug and formulation of effective tick control strategy for the region.

  11. Deltamethrin resistance in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Ahanger, R R; Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Bhutyal, A D S; Katoch, M; Singh, N K; Bader, M A

    2015-11-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from six districts of Jammu and Kashmir (India) was carried out using the adult immersion test. The regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of concentration of drug were utilised for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50% (LC50), 95% (LC95) and resistance factor (RF). On the basis of the data generated on mortality, egg mass weight, reproductive index and percentage inhibition of oviposition, the resistance level was categorised as I, II, III and IV. Out of these six districts, resistance to deltamethrin at level I was detected in one district (RF = 1.9), at level II in two districts (RF = 7.08-10.07) and at level IV in three districts (RF = 96.08-288.72). The data generated on deltamethrin resistance status will help in formulating tick control strategy in the region.

  12. Alternative control of Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae) on tomato plants grown in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Soto, Alberto; Venzon, Madelaine; Oliveira, Rafael M; Oliveira, Hamilton G; Pallini, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard is an important pest of solanaceous plants, including tomatoes. This mite is characterized by a high reproductive rate, which leads to high population growth in a short period of time causing important economic damage. Control of T. evansi is mainly through synthetic acaricides. In searching for environmentally friendly control measures, we evaluated the efficiency of alternative products to control T. evansi on tomato plants under greenhouse conditions. The products tested were lime sulphur and neem based products. We first estimated the lethal concentration (LC) and instantaneous rate of increase (r i) of T. evansi exposed to different product concentrations in laboratory conditions, and later tested the efficacy of LC95 and the concentrations that restrained mite population growth (r i = 0) in greenhouse conditions. The following treatments were repeated three times: NeemPro (81.0 and 71.6 mg a.i./l), Natuneem (31.1 and 20.4 mg ai/l), Organic Neem (39.1 and 30.4 mg a.i./l), lime sulphur (1.0 and 0.6%) and water (control). For all products, control provided by LC95 was higher than provided for lower concentrations (r i = 0) one day after spraying. However, after five days, for both concentrations, the percentage of T. evansi population reduction was superior to 95% and increased over time. Only plants sprayed with Natuneem (31.1 mg a.i./l) showed symptoms of phytotoxicity. Lime sulphur and neem based products, applied in appropriate concentrations and formulations, bear out as a viable alternative to control T. evansi on tomato plants.

  13. Contribution to the knowledge of the oribatid mite genus Aeroppia (Acari, Oribatida, Oppiidae).

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Aeroppia (Oribatida, Oppiidae) are described from upper soil and leaf litter in the primary evergreen lowland rainforest in Peru. Aeroppia friedrichi sp. nov. differs from A. nasalis Mahunka, 1984 by the absence of striate ornamentation on the notogaster and notogastral setae h1, and the presence of setiform adanal setae ad1. Aeroppia longisensilla sp. nov. differs from A. adjacens Mahunka, 1985 by the smaller body size and long bothridial setae. The supplementary descriptions of Aeroppia consimilis (Banks, 1910) and A. magnipilosa (Ewing, 1909) are presented, based on material from U.S.A. A new generic diagnosis for Aeroppia is given. The taxonomic status of the subgenus Aeroppia (Paraeroppia) Sanyal, 2009 is discussed, resulting in the following taxonomic proposal: Aeroppia Hammer, 1961 (=Aeroppia (Paraeroppia) Sanyal, 2009 syn. nov.). PMID:27470768

  14. Phytoseiid mites from tropical fruit trees in Bahia State, Brazil (Acari, Phytoseiidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Izabel Vieira; Sá Argolo, Poliane; Júnior, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cultivation of tropical fruit trees has grown considerably in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Some of these have been severely attacked by phytophagous mites, which are usually controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. However, there is today a growing interest for the adoption of less aggressive measures of pest control, as for example the use of predatory mites. Most of the plant-inhabiting predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae. The objective of this paper is to report the phytoseiid species found in an intensive survey conducted on cultivated tropical fruit trees in fifteen localities of the southern coast of Bahia. Measurements of relevant morphological characters are provided for each species, to complement the understanding of the morphological variation of these species. Twenty-nine species of sixteen genera were identified. A key was elaborated to assist in the separation of these species. Fifteen species are reported for the first time in the state, raising to sixty-six the number of species of this family now known from Bahia. Seventy-two percent of the species collected belong to Amblyseiinae, followed by Typhlodrominae (21%) and Phytoseiinae (7%). The most diverse genus was Amblyseius. Amblyseius operculatus De Leon was the most frequent and abundant species. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the possible role of the most common predators as control agents of the phytophagous mites co-occurring with them. PMID:26668542

  15. Stigmaeid mites (Acari: Stigmaeidae) from vineyards in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Johann, Liana; Carvalho, Gervasio Silva; Majolo, Fernanda; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2013-01-01

    The fauna of the family Stigmaeidae Oudemans on grapevines and weed plants associated with vineyard agroecosystem in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) was studied. Five recognized species were reported: Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli et al., 2002, Agistemus floridanus Gonzales, 1965, Agistemus mendozensis Simons, 1967, Zetzellia agistzellia Hernandes and Feres, 2005, and Zetzellia malvinae Matioli et al., 2002. Two new species were described: Agistemus riograndensis sp. nov. and Zetzellia ampelae sp. nov. A pictorial key was compiled to aid in the recognition of these stigmaeids.

  16. Developmental biology of Argas neghmei Kohls & Hoogstraal (Acari: Argasidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    González-Acuña, Daniel; Vargas, Pamela; Ardiles, Karen; Parra, Luis; Guglielmone, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    In order to describe the developmental biology of the tick Argas neghmei Kohls & Hoogstraal under laboratory conditions, 40 females and 40 males were collected from chicken coops located in Calama (II Region, Chile). They were fed on chickens and maintained under two laboratory conditions: one group at 30 +/- 5 degrees C and 35 +/- 5 % RH and another at 27 +/- 5 degrees C and 80 +/- 5 % RH, both at 12: 12 h L:D photoperiod. The ticks were observed daily to determine larval feeding periods, preoviposition, oviposition, egg incubation as well as the frequency of egg laying, number of eggs laid, and percentage of larval hatching. Females did not lay eggs at 80 +/- 5% RH, and data on the biology of this tick was obtained only at 35 +/- 5% RH. The life cycle of A. neghmei lasted an average of 269 days. Feeding period of each nymphal stage as well as of adult females between oviposition events lasted less than a day. Females laid on average 1.8 egg batches and egg-laying period lasted on average 14 days, during which about 96 eggs were laid per female.

  17. Occurrence and transmission of mycovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 from dejecta of Thyreophagus corticalis (Acari, Acaridae).

    PubMed

    Bouneb, Mabrouk; Turchetti, Tullio; Nannelli, Roberto; Roversi, Pio Federico; Paoli, Francesco; Danti, Roberto; Simoni, Sauro

    2016-03-01

    The natural spread of virus-induced hypovirulence is highly involved in the recovery of blighted chestnut stands and orchards in Italy and in Europe. The potential role of corticolous mites as vectors of hypovirulence in blighted chestnut Castanea sativa (Mill.) stands was pointed out in previous reports. Here, by using RT-PCR, mycovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus (CHV1) was detected in Thyreophagus corticalis mites reared on a hypovirulent strain in monoxenic cultures and in their faecal pellets. Cryphonectria parasitica mycelium derived from mites' dejecta was able to transmit CHV1 to the virulent strain determining its conversion to hypovirulent one. This converted strain induced healing cankers on excised stems, differently from the un-converted virulent strain. Our findings prove the spread of CHV1 by corticolous mites that feed on virus-infected fungus and emphasize their potential role as vectors.

  18. Evaluation of Etoxazole against Insects and Acari in Vegetables in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongqiang; Yang, Na; Wei, Xingcun; Ling, Yun; Yang, Xinling; Wang, Qingmin

    2014-01-01

    Etoxazole, 2-(2,6-difluorophenyl-4-[4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2-ethoxy-phenyl]-4,5-dihydrooxazole, an organofluorine chitin synthesis inhibitor, was assayed for its bioactivities against several major insect and acarus pests and compared to several other pesticides: two chitin synthesis inhibitors, hexaflumuron and chlorfluazuron; a pyrethroid, permethrin; an organophosphate, acephate; a carboximide, hexythiazox; and a tetrazine, clofentezine. The LC50 of etoxazole was calculated using probit analysis of the concentration-dependent mortality data against susceptible and resistant strains of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Plutellidae); bean aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae); and carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) Boudreaux (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae). The resistant strains were found to be resistant against all tested pesticides except etoxazole. The bioactivity of etoxazole was many times that of the other tested insecticides and acaricides widely used in vegetable crops in China. On the basis of our research, etoxazole can be expected to be extensively used on vegetable crops in China. PMID:25199415

  19. Sublethal effects of spinetoram on the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli

    2016-09-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a serious pest of many agricultural crops and ornamental plants. The sublethal effects of a new chemical, spinetoram, on T. urticae were investigated by treating adult females and eggs with LC10 and LC20 in the laboratory. The data were assessed based on age-stage, two-sex life table analysis. The results showed that T. urticae developmental time from egg to adult was reduced and that fecundity was increased by treatment with LC10 and LC20 of spinetoram. The LC10 and LC20 of spinetoram also increased the intrinsic and finite rate of increase and the net reproductive rate and reduced the mean generation time, egg duration, and larval duration whether eggs or adult females were treated. These laboratory results suggest that sublethal or lethal doses of spinetoram may cause outbreaks of T. urticae. PMID:27521920

  20. Esterase and lipase in camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae) during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Afaf S; Abdel-Gany, Somia S; Mohamed, Tarek M; Mohamed, Saleh A

    2004-02-01

    Esterase and lipase activity showed significant changes during embryogenesis of camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii. From the elution profile of chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, six forms of H. dromedarii esterase (El to EVI) can be distinguished. Esterase EIII was purified to homogeneity after chromatography on Sepharose 6B. The molecular mass of esterase EIII was 45 kDa for the native enzyme and represented a monomer of 45 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Esterase EIII had an acidic pI at 5.3. Lipase activity was detected in the same DEAE-cellulose peaks (LI to LVI) of H. dromedarii esterases. The highest lipase activity was exhibited by lipase LIII. Esterase EIII and lipase LIII were compared with respect to Michaelis constant, substrate specificity, temperature optimum, heat stability, pH optimum, effect of metal ions and inhibitors. This study suggests that H. dromedarii lipolytic enzymes may play a central role in the interconversion of lipovitellins during embryogenesis. PMID:14990212

  1. Species diversity of ectoparasitic chigger mites (Acari: Prostigmata) on small mammals in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Ren, Tian-Guang; Song, Wen-Yu; Dong, Wen-Ge; Fan, Rong

    2016-09-01

    Chigger mites are a large group of arthropods and the larvae of mites are ectoparasites. Some species of ectoparasitic mites (larvae) can be the transmitting vectors of tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus). Yunnan Province is located in the southwest of China with complicated topographic landform and high biodiversity, where there are five zoogeographical subregions. Rodents and some other small mammals were trapped and examined for ectoparasitic chigger mites in 29 investigation sites in Yunnan during 2001-2013. From 13,760 individuals and 76 species of small mammal hosts, we collected 274 species of mites, which were identified as comprising 26 genera in two families. The species diversity of chigger mites (274 species) in the present study were not only much higher than that from other provinces of China but also largely exceeded that recorded from other regions and countries in the world. Of the five zoogeographical subregions, both the species diversity and Shannon-Weiner's diversity of mites were the highest in subregion II (southern subregion of Hengduan Mountains) with middle altitudes and middle latitude. Both the species diversity of mites and Shannon-Wiener diversity index showed a parabolic tendency from the low altitude (<500 m) to the high altitude (>3500 m) along the vertical gradients with the peak occurring in the middle-altitude regions (2000-2500 m). Of four dominant hosts, the species richness of mites was highest on Eothenomys miletus (S = 165) and Shannon-Wiener diversity index was highest on Rattus norvegicus (H = 3.13). Along latitude gradients, species richness of chigger mites increased first and then decreased, peaking at 25° to 26° N with 193 mite species. The geographical location, complex topography, and landscape with diverse small mammal hosts in Yunnan Province have contributed to the extremely high species diversity of mites in the province. The large sampling size of small mammal hosts in a wide geographical scope within a long time span also made it possible to have collected so many species of chigger mites. PMID:27212464

  2. Fenvalerate resistance status in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) from Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Jyoti; Nandi, Abhijit; Singh, Harkirat; Singh, N K; Rath, S S

    2016-09-01

    Larval packet test was used for evaluating the resistance levels in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from different districts of central plain zone of Punjab state, India against fenvalerate. The regression graphs of probit mortality of larvae plotted against log values of progressively increasing concentrations of fenvalerate were utilized for the estimation of lethal concentration for 50 % (LC50) and 95 % (LC95) values against various field isolates of R. (B.) microplus. The slope of mortality (95 % confidence levels) varied from 0.730 ± 0.097 (0.419-1.043) to 1.455 ± 0.281 (0.558-2.352) and the value of R(2) varied from 0.881 to 0.997. From the regression equation the values of LC50 and LC95 were recorded in range of 184.39-1,338.01 and 3,253.33-112,706.26 ppm, respectively. Among the various tick isolates resistance factors in range of 1.56-54.34 were determined and all field isolates studied were found resistant against fenvalerate. Two field isolates (Jalandhar and Ludhiana) showed level I resistance; three (Patiala, Fatehgarh Sahib and Amritsar) showed level II and Kapurthala isolate showed level IV resistance. The data generated on fenvalerate resistant status will help in judicious use of the drug and formulation of effective tick control strategy for the region. PMID:27605769

  3. Unveiling the oxidative metabolism of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) experimentally exposed to entomopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi Alves, Victor Menezes; da Silva, Jairo Pinheiro; Nora Castro, Rosane; Salgueiro, Fernanda Barbosa; Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo de Souza; Gôlo, Patrícia Silva; Camargo, Mariana Guedes; Angelo, Isabele da Costa; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro

    2016-10-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus is an important tick in tropical regions due to the high economic losses caused by its parasitism. Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana are well-known entomopathogenic fungi that can afflict R. microplus ticks. The development of new targets and strategies to control this parasite can be driven by studies of this tick's physiology. Recently, it was reported that when exposed to adverse physiological conditions, ticks can activate fermentative pathways, indicating transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism by which entomopathogenic fungi influence R. microplus metabolism has not been clarified, limiting understanding of the tick-fungus association. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of infection of ticks by M. anisopliae and B. bassiana on the amount of selected carboxylic acids present in the hemolymph, enabling increased understanding of changes previously reported. The results showed preservation in the concentrations of oxalic, lactic, and pyruvic acids in the hemolymph 24 and 48 h after dropping from cattle; while there were variations in the concentration of these carboxylic acids after infection of female ticks to M. anisopliae and B. bassiana. Significant increases were observed in the concentration of oxalic and lactic acids and significant reduction of pyruvic acid for both observation times (24 and 48 h) after infection by entomopathogenic fungi. These results indicate that B. bassiana and M. anisopliae infection alters the basal metabolism of R. microplus females, resulting in the activation of fermentative pathways.

  4. Spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) mitochondrial COI phylogeny reviewed: host plant relationships, phylogeography, reproductive parasites and barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Breeuwer, Johannes A. J.

    2007-01-01

    The past 15 years have witnessed a number of molecular studies that aimed to resolve issues of species delineation and phylogeny of mites in the family Tetranychidae. The central part of the mitochondrial COI region has frequently been used for investigating intra- and interspecific variation. All these studies combined yield an extensive database of sequence information of the family Tetranychidae. We assembled this information in a single alignment and performed an overall phylogenetic analysis. The resulting phylogeny shows that important patterns have been overlooked in previous studies, whereas others disappear. It also reveals that mistakes were made in submitting the data to GenBank, which further disturbed interpretation of the data. Our total analysis clearly shows three clades that most likely correspond to the species T. urticae, T. kanzawai and T. truncatus. Intraspecific variation is very high, possibly due to selective sweeps caused by reproductive parasites. We found no evidence for host plant associations and phylogeographic patterns in T. urticae are absent. Finally we evaluate the application of DNA barcoding. PMID:17712605

  5. Track analysis of Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) of the Subantarctic subregion of South America.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Érica V; Romano, Gonzalo M; Morrone, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    We analysed distributional data of 30 species of Oribatid mites of the Subantarctic subregion of southern South America in order to contribute to elucidate their biotic evolution. We constructed individual tracks for the species analysed, based on published and unpublished records. After superposing them we obtained six generalized tracks and five nodes. Four generalized tracks (T2, T3, T4 and T6) extend along and near the Andean ranges, whereas two generalized tracks (T1 and T5) may be artefacts caused by the lack of information. The generalized tracks and nodes show the complex relationships of the austral biota, as hypothesized in previous contributions based on other plant and animal taxa. PMID:27395631

  6. Effects of Orchard Pesticides on Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae): Repellency and Irritancy.

    PubMed

    Beers, Elizabeth H; Schmidt-Jeffris, Rebecca A

    2015-02-01

    The effects of repellency or irritancy in Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) were studied for three rates of 16 pesticides commonly used in apple production. Adult female mites were exposed to residues in a series of choice bioassays (treated and untreated half of bean leaf disks). Novaluron, carbaryl, mancozeb+copper hydroxide, and sulfur were the most repellent materials to G. occidentalis, with females consistently avoiding the treated side of the leaf disk. Spirotetramat, flubendiamide, and cyantriniliprole caused an intermediate or inconsistent degree of repellency; azinphosmethyl, lambda-cyhalothrin, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, imidacloprid, spinetoram, spinosad, and chlorantriniliprole caused little to no repellency. Irritancy (running off of the disk, as opposed to resting on the untreated half) was the most pronounced in the acetamiprid and lambda-cyhalothrin treatments. Acute toxicity (within the 6 h test period) was highest in the lambda-cyhalothrin and spinetoram treatments; in the former case, the mortality at all rates tested was substantial enough to interfere with the measurement of behavioral effects. Although irritancy may be considered the more extreme form of repellency, there were several pesticides (carbaryl, cyantraniliprole, mancozeb+copper hydroxide, novaluron) where a moderate to high degree of repellency did not correspond to a high degree of irritancy. Similarly, repellency was not consistently related to acute toxicity; one of the most repellent materials (novaluron) was not acutely toxic. Behavioral effects may help explain instances where lethal or sublethal bioassays do not fully predict the effects of pesticides seen in orchard use. PMID:26470128

  7. The Impact of Three Commonly Used Fungicides on Typhlodromus pyri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in European Vineyards.

    PubMed

    Kemmitt, G; Valverde-Garcia, P; Hufnagl, A; Bacci, L; Zotz, A

    2015-04-01

    The impact of the fungicides mancozeb, myclobutanil, and meptyldinocap on populations of Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten was evaluated under field conditions, when applied following the good agricultural practices recommended for their use. Two complementary statistical models were used to analyze the population reduction compared to the control: a linear mixed model to estimate the mean effect of the fungicide, and a generalized linear mixed model (proportional odds mixed model) to estimate the cumulative probability for those effects being equal or less than a specific IOBC class (International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animal and Plants). Findings from 27 field experiments in a range of different vine-growing regions in Europe indicated that the use of mancozeb, myclobutanil, and meptyldinocap caused minimal impact on naturally occurring populations of T. pyri. Both statistical models confirmed that although adverse effects on T. pyri can occur under certain conditions after several applications of any of the three fungicides studied, the probability of the effects occurring is low and they will not persist. These methods demonstrated how data from a series of trials could be used to evaluate the variability of the effects caused by the chemical rather than relying on the worst-case findings from a single trial. PMID:26470172

  8. Resistance status of ticks (Acari; Ixodidae) to amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides in Isoka District, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muyobela, Jackson; Nkunika, Philip Obed Yobe; Mwase, Enala Tembo

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to obtain data on the farmer's approach to tick control and to determine whether Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neuman, Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius), and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) were resistant to amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides, in Isoka District, Zambia. Prevailing tick control practices were documented by administering a semi-structured questionnaire to 80 randomly selected smallholder livestock farmers from four agricultural camps (Longwe, Kantenshya, Kapililonga, and Ndeke) in Isoka District. Modified larval packet test (LPT) bioassay experiments were used to determine the resistance status of the common tick species against amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides. Fifty percent of respondents practiced chemical tick control with amitraz (27 %) and cypermethrin (23 %) being the acaricides in use, and were applied with knapsack sprayers. Less than 3 l of spray wash per animal was used which was considerably lower than the recommended delivery rate of 10 l of spray wash per animal. No significant susceptibility change to amitraz at 95 % confidence level was observed in R. appendiculatus and A. variegatum against amitraz. However, a significant change in the susceptibility of R. (Bo.) microplus tested with amitraz was detected at 95 % confidence. The test population had a lower susceptibility (LD50 0.014 %; LD90 0.023 %) than the reference population (LD50 0.013 %; LD90 0.020 %). The results indicated that resistance to amitraz was developing in R. (Bo.) microplus. For cypermethrin, no significant susceptibility change at 95 % confidence was observed in any of the three species and thus resistance to this chemical was not observed. PMID:26310511

  9. Deltamethrin resistance in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Ahanger, R R; Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Bhutyal, A D S; Katoch, M; Singh, N K; Bader, M A

    2015-11-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from six districts of Jammu and Kashmir (India) was carried out using the adult immersion test. The regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of concentration of drug were utilised for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50% (LC50), 95% (LC95) and resistance factor (RF). On the basis of the data generated on mortality, egg mass weight, reproductive index and percentage inhibition of oviposition, the resistance level was categorised as I, II, III and IV. Out of these six districts, resistance to deltamethrin at level I was detected in one district (RF = 1.9), at level II in two districts (RF = 7.08-10.07) and at level IV in three districts (RF = 96.08-288.72). The data generated on deltamethrin resistance status will help in formulating tick control strategy in the region. PMID:26255278

  10. Towards a genomics approach to tick (Acari: Ixodidae) control in cattle: a review.

    PubMed

    Mapholi, Ntanganedzeni O; Marufu, Munyaradzi C; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi; Banga, Cuthbert B; Muchenje, Voster; MacNeil, Michael D; Chimonyo, Michael; Dzama, Kennedy

    2014-09-01

    Ticks and tick-borne disease (TBD) are major challenges to cattle production in the tropics and subtropics. Economic losses associated with ticks amount to billions of dollars annually. Although efforts to eradicate ticks and TBD using chemical control strategies have been implemented in many developing countries for decades, these acaricides are costly, and cattle susceptibility to ticks remains unchanged. Traditional breeding methods, where the farmer selected animals using records to improve the host genetic resistance to ticks (HGRT), are less than fully effective and time consuming. The HGRT has been reported in literature. To date, solutions to fight ticks and TBD are still unclear. Development of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) technologies has created an opportunity to estimate breeding values of animals from DNA samples. The use of SNP technology for genomic selection allows information retrieval from the genotype even before the gene is expressed; thus potentially giving farmers the ability to make selection decisions on HGRT at an earlier age. This review discusses factors that affect HGRT, breeding selection, immunology, and genomic approaches and their application to improve HGRT in order to enhance livestock production. PMID:24954600

  11. Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) tick populations susceptible or resistant to acaricides in the Mexican Tropics.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Díaz, M A; Fernández-Salas, A; Martínez-Ibáñez, F; Osorio-Miranda, J

    2013-10-18

    The objectives of the present study were: (i) to identify the frequency of cattle farms with a cohabitation of Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus, (ii) to determine the status of susceptibility or resistance to acaricides used in Veracruz, Mexico, on A. cajennense populations and (iii) to identify factors associated with A. cajennense resistant to acaricides. Fifty farms were visited to determine the presence of ticks (A. cajennense and R. microplus) and to collect engorged A. cajennense individuals. From these, 24 A. cajennense populations were evaluated in resistance bioassays using discriminating doses of acaricides. The acaricides tested were organophosphates (chlorpiriphos, coumaphos and diazinon), pyrethroids (flumethrin, deltamethrin and cypermethrin), amidines (amitraz) and fipronil (a broad spectrum N-phenylpyrazole insecticide). A. cajennense infesting bovines were identified in 86% (43/50) of the farms visited, and 100% of the farms sampled (43/43) had cohabitation between R. microplus and A. cajennense. Of the farm owners or managers surveyed, 87.5% could not distinguish the morphological difference between tick genera. Populations of A. cajennense were 100%, 91.7% and 12.5% resistant to diazinon, coumaphos and chlorpyriphos (organophosphates), respectively, and 12.5% to amitraz, as were those susceptible to flumethrin and fipronil. In conclusions, populations of A. cajennense showed a high frequency of resistance to the organophosphates tested and to amitraz. Factors associated with the resistance to acaricides in A. cajennense were not identified. PMID:23827041

  12. In vitro activity of pineapple extracts (Ananas comosus, Bromeliaceae) on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Feitosa, Karina Alves; Fantatto, Rafaela Regina; Rabelo, Márcio Dias; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Oliveira, Gilson Pereira de; Bechara, Gervasio Henrique; Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza

    2013-07-01

    Measures to control the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, based only on chemical products are becoming unsustainable, mainly because of the development of resistance. The objective of this study was to test the effect of the aqueous extract of pineapple skin (AEPS) and bromelain extracted from the stem (Sigma-Aldrich®, B4882) on engorged females and larvae of R. (B.) microplus in vitro. These substances were diluted in water and evaluated at eight concentrations. Engorged females were collected and distributed in groups of 10, with three repetitions for each treatment. After immersion in the solutions, the females were placed in an incubator for observation of survival, oviposition and larval hatching. The larval packet method was used, also with three repetitions with about 100 larvae each. The packets were incubated and the readings were performed after 24 h. The estimated reproduction and efficacy of the solutions were calculated. The LC(50) and LC(90) were estimated using the Probit procedure of the SAS program. The eight concentrations were compared within each treatment by the Tukey test. For the experiment with engorged females, the most effective concentrations were 125, 250 and 500 mg/mL: 33%, 48% and 59% for the AEPS and 27%, 51% and 55% for the bromelain. The LC(50) and LC(90) values were, respectively, 276 and 8691 mg/mL for AEPS and 373 and 5172 mg/mL for bromelain. None of the dilutions tested was effective against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus. This is the first report of the action of pineapple extracts or their constituents on cattle ticks. The results demonstrate that further studies regarding composition of tick cuticle, with evaluation of other solvents and formulations, should be conducted seeking to enhance the effect of pineapple extracts and compounds against this ectoparasite. PMID:23541882

  13. Susceptibility of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) to pyrethroids and their associations in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Santana, Breno Barros; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Santana, Marília de Andrade; Alves, Leucio Cãmara; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The synthetic pyrethroids and their associations have been widely used for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The frequent use of acaricides has been inducing the development of resistance in the tick populations. The aim of this study was to assess the susceptibility of R. (B.) microplus populations to pyrethroids and their associations in the region of Garanhuns, Pernambuco, Brazil. In addition, the level of information among farm owners regarding tick control measures was investigated. Ticks were collected directly from naturally infested dairy cattle in the region and were exposed to pyrethroids and their associations. At the same time, an epidemiological questionnaire was applied with the aim of investigating the level of information among the farmers. The results reported here indicate that R. (B.) microplus populations in the dairy region of Garanhuns show resistance to pyrethroids and their associations, except when the product is associated with piperonyl butoxide. Regarding the results from the epidemiological survey, it was seen that there is a considerable lack of information among the farmers in relation to ixodid control measures. The level of ticks resistance to acaricides varied widely across the region studied. No alternative control programs have been implemented among these farms, thus demonstrating that there is a need for more information relating to the biology and control of R. (B.) microplus. PMID:23856731

  14. [Populational dynamics of mites (Acari) in the mate-tea tree (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.: Aquifoliaceae)].

    PubMed

    de Gouvea, Alfredo; Boaretto, Luiz C; Zanella, Carla F; Alves, Luis F A

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research was to analyze the populational dynamic of the phytophagous mites, as well as that of their natural predators in the plants Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. (Aquifoliaceae). This study was conduced in Dois Vizinhos, State of Paraná, from August 2001 to July 2002. Leaf samples from different parts of the plant were taken and the number of mites was registered. During this period, two species of phytophagous mites, Dichopelmus notus Keifer, and Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor), and three species of predator mites identified as Euseius concordis (Chant), Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, and Agistemus sp. were related to the mate-tea plant. Large numbers of D. notus appeared on mature leaves and on the inferior face of leaves. The mite was more frequent in the inferior and medium strata. O. yothersi occurred mainly on mature leaves. The concentration of E. concordis e I. zuluagai was higher on the inferior face of the leaves, and on the leaves of inferior and medium strata, as well as in the internal canopy region, and on mature leaves. The highest numbers of D. notus, O. yothersi, E. concordis and I. zuluagai occurred in periods with mild temperatures and little rain precipitation. The largest population density of Agistemus sp. occurred on the inferior face of the leaves, more often in periods of high temperature and heavy rain.

  15. Three new species of myrmecophilous scutacarid mites (Acari: Scutacaridae) from Western Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2015-09-08

    Three new species of myrmecophilous mites of the genus Scutacarus Gros, 1845 (Acariformes: Pygmephoroidea: Scutacaridae), S. lasiophilus sp. nov., S. myrmicinus sp. nov., and S. crinitus sp. nov. are described from ants and their nests in Tyumen Province, Western Siberia, Russia.

  16. Supplement to the knowledge of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) from Palaearctic Region.

    PubMed

    Niedbała, Wojciech

    2015-12-11

    A list of over 400 new localities studied for ptyctimous mites within Palaearctic Region and a list of 96 identified species of ptyctimous mites of 20 genera are given. The species, knowledge of whose zoogeographical ranges was extended, have been pointed out. One new species, Phthiracarus pachys sp. nov. from Spain, is described. A few rare species have been diagnosed and their additional morphological data are given. The species from a few papers that have not been included in the monograph by Niedbała (2011) are commented on. The unjustified recombinations of species between certain genera (Subías 2004, updated in 2015) and unaccepted proposals on synonymy of some species by Subías & Shtanchaeva (2011) have been commented on.

  17. Microhabitat selection in the simple oribatid community dwelling in epilithic moss cover (Acari: Oribatida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smrž, Jaroslav

    2006-11-01

    The moss cover of a roof was studied as the model of a simple habitat divided into microhabitats by the members of a community of saprophagous mites. This community consisted of two species of oribatid mites: Scutovertex minutus and Trichoribates trimaculatus. They were extracted from moss onto moist paper, and subsequently, their mobility, responses to moisture fluctuation, and food selection were tested in laboratory experiments. For the nutritional biology, the microanatomy of their alimentary tract was examined according to the system of histological characteristics formulated in the laboratory of the author (type of food, digestive activity of gut walls, etc.). The paraplast sections of the mites were stained by Masson triple stain for these purposes. Moreover, the enzymological tests (chitinase and cellulase activities) were performed to detail the digestive processes. Such an approach was applied to field-sampled specimens as well as to those in the laboratory experiments. These above-mentioned data were discussed with respect to microhabitat selection, vertical and horizontal distribution, and dispersal ability of these two oribatid mites sharing this habitat. These two species differ in several characteristics from each other and these differences resulted in their different microhabitat choices and role in the habitat as a whole.

  18. Convergent evolution of defense mechanisms in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) shows no "ghosts of predation past".

    PubMed

    Pachl, Patrick; Domes, Katja; Schulz, Garvin; Norton, Roy A; Scheu, Stefan; Schaefer, Ina; Maraun, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Oribatid mites are diverse and abundant terrestrial soil arthropods that are involved in decomposition of organic matter and nutrient cycling. As indicated by fossils starting from the Devonian, they evolved varied mechanisms and structures for defense from predators. We investigated four of these defensive structures (ptychoid body, hologastry, mineralization and opisthonotal glands) and used ancestral character state reconstruction to determine whether they evolved convergently and how many times this may have happened. Phylogenetic trees based on 18S rDNA were constructed for 42 oribatid mite species and two outgroup taxa using likelihood and Bayesian algorithms. The results suggest that at least three of the four defensive structures evolved convergently several times; for opisthonotal glands convergent evolution remains equivocal. This high level of convergence indicates that predation has been an important factor throughout the evolution of oribatid mites, contributing to morphological diversity and potentially also to species richness, as there are indications that some taxa radiated after the evolution of defense structures. Despite the ancientness of oribatid mites, defense structures seems to have been rarely lost, suggesting that they still are functional and necessary to reduce predation, rather than being 'ghosts of predation past'.

  19. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, H M; Hernandes, F A; Pichorim, M

    2015-08-01

    The present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata) and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fifteen feather mite taxa could be identified to the species level, sixteen to the genus level and three to the subfamily level, distributed into the families Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae, Pteronyssidae, Xolalgidae, Trouessartiidae, Falculiferidae and Gabuciniidae. Hitherto unknown associations between feather mites and birds were recorded for eleven taxa identified to the species level, and nine taxa were recorded for the first time in Brazil. The number of new geographic records, as well as the hitherto unknown mite-host associations, supports the high estimates of diversity for feather mites of Brazil and show the need for research to increase knowledge of plumicole mites in the Neotropical region.

  20. Phytoseiid mites (Acari) associated with yerba mate in southern Brazil, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Dinarte; Da Silva, Guilherme Liberato; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2013-12-11

    Yerba mate is a plant of great socioeconomic importance in southern South America. Little has been published about the phytoseiid mite fauna of yerba mate. This paper presents information about the morphology and distribution of phytoseiid mites collected in yerba mate in the Ilópolis and Putinga counties of Brazil between 2002 and 2004. Four areas with of different forms of cultivation in every county were sampled. A list of the species recorded from that state, and a key for their identification are provided. Sixteen phytoseiid mites species were identified, belonging to 11 genera in the subfamilies Amblyseiinae (13 species) and Typhlodrominae (three species). The most abundant genus was Amblyseius with three species. Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma, 1961 and Typhloseiopsis dorsoreticulatus Lofego, Demite & Feres, 2011 are reported for the first time from Rio Grande do Sul state. This study also includes the description of a new species, Typhlodromips pallinii n. sp.

  1. New and little known species of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Niedbała, Wojciech; Starý, Josef

    2014-11-28

    Altogether 24 species of ptyctimous mites were found in sifting litter samples from the Cameroon. Twelve new species of the ptyctimous mites, Indotritia montkoupensis sp. nov., Acrotritia furca sp. nov., Acrotritia quasidivida sp. nov., Hoplophthiracarus kumboensis sp. nov., Hoplophthiracarus reticulatus sp. nov., Hoplophthiracarus spinus sp. nov., Steganacarus (Rhacaplacarus) quaternarius sp. nov., Austrophthiracarus bicarinatus sp. nov., Protophthiracarus diatropos sp. nov., Protophthiracarus korupensis sp. nov., Protophthiracarus preptos sp. nov., Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) gibbus sp. nov., from the Cameroon are described and figured. Seven species are recorded for the first time for the Cameroon oribatid mite fauna. A comparison of morphological similarities with the most closely related species is presented. Taxonomical notes and additional information for two ptyctimous species: Acrotritia ardua (C.L.Koch, 1841), Arphthicarus sculptilis (Niedbała, 1988), were added. Keys for Afrotropical species of genera Hoplophthiracarus and Protophthiracarus are presented. 

  2. A screen of maternally inherited microbial endosymbionts in oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida).

    PubMed

    Konecka, Edyta; Olszanowski, Ziemowit

    2015-08-01

    We determined the distribution of microbial endosymbionts as possible agents of parthenogenesis in Oribatida. We screened mites from 20 species of 14 families suspected to be parthenogenetic from the absence or rarity of males. Our research included parthenogenesis-inducing bacteria Wolbachia spp., Cardinium spp., Rickettsia spp., and additionally Arsenophonus, Spiroplasma and microsporidia that can also manipulate host reproduction. We detected the endosymbionts by PCR-based methods and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of fixed and stained preparations of host cells. We detected Wolbachia only in one Oribatida species, Oppiella nova, by identifying Wolbachia genes using PCR. TEM observations confirmed infection by the endosymbiont in O. nova and its lack in other Oribatida species. Sequence analysis of hcpA and fbpA genes showed that the Wolbachia strain from O. nova was different from strains characterized in some insects, crustaceans (Isopoda), mites (Tetranychidae), springtails (Hexapoda) and roundworms (Nematoda). The analysis strongly suggested that the Wolbachia sp. strain found in O. nova did not belong to supergroups A, B, C, D, E, F, H or M. We found that the sequences of Wolbachia from O. nova were clearly distantly related to sequences from the bacteria of the other supergroups. This observation makes O. nova a unique Wolbachia host in terms of the distinction of the strain. The role of these micro-organisms in O. nova remains unknown and is an issue to investigate.

  3. Water Mites (Acari: Hydrachnida) of Ozark Streams - Abundance, Species Richness, and Potential as Environmental Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radwell, A. J.; Brown, A. V.

    2005-05-01

    Because water mites are tightly linked to other stream metazoans through parasitism and predation, they are potentially effective indicators of environmental quality. Meiofauna (80 μm to 1 mm) were sampled from headwater riffles of 11 Ozark streams to determine relative abundance and densities of major meiofauna taxa. Water mites comprised 15.3% of the organisms collected exceeded only by chironomids (50.2%) and oligochaetes (17.8%), and mean water mite density among the 11 streams was 265 organisms per liter. The two streams that differed the most in environmental quality were sampled using techniques suitable for identification of species. An estimated 32 species from 20 genera and 13 families were found in the least disturbed stream; an estimated 19 species from 13 genera and 8 families were found in the most disturbed stream. This preliminary finding supports the notion that water mite species richness declines in response to environmental disturbance. Many species could only be identified as morphospecies of particular genera, but the ongoing taxonomic revision of Hydrachnida is expected to provide needed information. A collaborative effort between those interested in taxonomy/systematics of water mites and ecologists interested in the significance of water mites in aquatic communities could prove mutually beneficial.

  4. Cophylogeny of quill mites from the genus Syringophilopsis (Acari: Syringophilidae) and their North American passerine hosts.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Sarah A; Flannery, Maureen E; Spicer, Greg S

    2013-10-01

    Species of Syringophilopsis quill mites are found in the flight feathers of passerine birds. A phylogeny of species from this genus infecting North American passerines was inferred from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene and the nuclear 28S ribosomal RNA gene. Based on the large genetic distance among lineages, the genus appears to be composed of several cryptic species. A reconciliation analysis of these mites and their avian hosts indicates a limited, but significant, degree of cophylogeny. However, strict cospeciation is not found to be occurring in this system.

  5. Taxonomic distribution of defensive alkaloids in Nearctic oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida).

    PubMed

    Saporito, Ralph A; Norton, Roy A; Garraffo, Martin H; Spande, Thomas F

    2015-11-01

    The opisthonotal (oil) glands of oribatid mites are the source of a wide diversity of taxon-specific defensive chemicals, and are likely the location for the more than 90 alkaloids recently identified in oribatids. Although originally recognized in temperate oribatid species, alkaloids have also been detected in related lineages of tropical oribatids. Many of these alkaloids are also present in a worldwide radiation of poison frogs, which are known to sequester these defensive chemicals from dietary arthropods, including oribatid mites. To date, most alkaloid records involve members of the superfamily Oripodoidea (Brachypylina), although few species have been examined and sampling of other taxonomic groups has been highly limited. Herein, we examined adults of more than 60 species of Nearctic oribatid mites, representing 46 genera and 33 families, for the presence of alkaloids. GC-MS analyses of whole body extracts led to the detection of 15 alkaloids, but collectively they occur only in members of the genera Scheloribates (Scheloribatidae) and Protokalumma (Parakalummidae). Most of these alkaloids have also been detected previously in the skin of poison frogs. All examined members of the oripodoid families Haplozetidae and Oribatulidae were alkaloid-free, and no mites outside the Oripodoidea contained alkaloids. Including previous studies, all sampled species of the cosmopolitan oripodoid families Scheloribatidae and Parakalummidae, and the related, mostly tropical families Mochlozetidae and Drymobatidae contain alkaloids. Our findings are consistent with a generalization that alkaloid presence is widespread, but not universal in Oripodoidea. Alkaloid presence in tropical, but not temperate members of some non-oripodoid taxa (in particular Galumnidae) deserves further study.

  6. Fossil oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) from the Florisbad Quaternary deposits, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coetzee, Louise; Brink, James S.

    2003-03-01

    In a pioneer application of acarology to Quaternary fossil-bearing sediments in southern Africa, the oribatid composition in the Florisbad Quaternary sediments was determined and compared to the currently known distribution of those species. Nine species of oribatid mites were recorded in the Holocene aeolian deposits of the third test pit, three species from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) horizon sediments of the third test pit, and thirteen species from the Holocene spring sediments. The Florisbad results indicate a better agreement between the oribatid fauna of the last interglacial MSA horizon of the third test pit and the organic-rich mid-Holocene deposits near the spring than between either of these and early- and late-Holocene aeolian sediments of the third test pit, suggesting some similarity in microsedimentary environments. The majority of the species recorded in the sediments are parthenogenetic and can be regarded as pioneer species.

  7. Ulyxes, a new Australopapuan mite genus associated with arboreal nests (Acari: Laelapidae).

    PubMed

    Shaw, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    As part of a survey of mammal and bird nests, new species, new male stages, and some feeding observations have been collected from what was formerly called the Androlaelaps ulysses group. As many features of this group are consistently different from Androlaelaps, and also from Haemolaelaps where it was formerly placed, this group is here elevated to Ulyxes new genus, and U. autolycus, U. euryclea, and U. theoclymenus are described as new species. This genus has a broad range of feeding behaviour spanning intranasal parasitism, nidicolous parasitism, and at least one species is a nidicolous predator. Its host range is broad; two new species are shown here to cohabit with parrots while most remaining species associate with mammals. In contrast to the variation in feeding behaviour, Ulyxes spp are associated with a narrow range of nest types, being confined to arboreal nests, usually tree hollows (rarely fallen logs), and on the parrot or mammal hosts that use them. Ulyxes spp show a remarkable variability in male cheliceral development, which assorts according to feeding behaviour. There is a strong contrast between male chelicerae of predatory and parasitic species that has not been previously observed in such a compact dermanyssine genus. Previously male cheliceral morphology was thought to be conservative enough to provide diagnostic characters at suprageneric rank. For systematics, these findings complicate previous attempts to recognise male mouthparts as reliable features marking higher-level natural groups that include dermanyssoid vertebrate parasites. For evolutionary studies, this may be relevant in seeking examples of transitions to, or away from, parasitism. PMID:25544446

  8. Entomopathogenic nematodes in insect cadaver formulations for the control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Caio Márcio de Oliveira; Matos, Renata da Silva; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Campos, Roberson; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro; Dolinski, Claudia; Furlong, John; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo

    2014-07-14

    This study evaluated the efficacy of four entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) strains in insect cadaver formulations against Rhipicephalus microplus and compared the efficacy of the most virulent EPNs applied in cadavers of Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor. In the first experiment, infected G. mellonela larvae were used as the source of EPNs. Engorged females of R. microplus were placed in pots filled with soil and different numbers of G. mellonella larvae infected with one of four species of nematodes. All treatments with EPNs of the genus Heterorhabditis caused significant reduction (p<0.05) in the egg mass weight and hatching percentage of larvae. The EPNs of the genus Steinernema, except for the group exposed to Steinernema carpocapsae ALL, whose source nematodes included six larvae of G. mellonella, caused a significant reduction (p<0.05) in the egg mass weight produced per female. Steinernema feltiae SN applied with two, four, and six cadavers and S. carpocapsae ALL with two cadavers caused a reduction in hatching percentage of larvae of R. microplus (p<0.05). The percentage of control was above 95% in all groups treated with Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HP88 and Heterorhabditis indica LPP1 and in the treatment with four larvae infected with S. feltiae SN. The second experiment followed the same methodology, using G. mellonella and T. molitor larvae infected by the two most virulent EPNs. H. bacteriophora HP88 and H. indica LPP1 in different formulations caused reduction in the egg mass weight and hatching percentage of larvae. The percentage of control were 82.4 and 84.9% for H. bacteriophora HP88 and H. indica LPP1, respectively, formulated in T. molitor, and reaching 99.9% in groups formulated with G. mellonella. The EPNs tested in insect cadaver formulation showed pathogenicity to engorged females of R. microplus and EPNs of the genus Heterorhabditis formulated in G. mellonella larvae were more effective. PMID:24836639

  9. [Interrelatio of acari Ixodidae and hosts of Edentata of the Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Botelho, J R; Linardi, P M; da Encarnação, C D

    1989-01-01

    We received for examination a small colection of ticks captured in the National Park of the Serra da Canastra (MG), between 1979 and 1980. The authors demonstrated the existence of a broad co-accomodation of Amblyomma pseudoconcolor on Edentata of the family Dasypodidae, being Dasypodini the tribe more adjusted to this infestation. In conformity to the Figs 1 and 2, Dasypodini are probably the real hosts of A. pseudoconcolor and also the oldest hosts. For the first time, A. pseudoconcolor is also recorded on Cabassous tatouay, C. unicinctus, Priodontes maximus and Euphractus sexcincuts. Also for the first time A. pseudoconcolor and Amblyomma calcaratum were recorded in the State of Minas Gerais. The ectoparasites are deposited in the "Departamento de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil".

  10. Ornithonyssus (Acari: Macronyssidae) mite dermatitis in poultry field-workers in Almarg, Qalyobiya governorate.

    PubMed

    Mazyad, Said A; Abel El-Kadi, Mohamed

    2005-04-01

    Cutaneous manifestations of bird and rat mite infestation in man are not easily recognized by physicians or patients. Clinical signs and symptoms are developed secondary to bites of mites that have infested rats, domestic poultry or birds nesting in or near human habitation and comes into contact with man. This study details 4 cases of pruritic dermatitis developed in four field workers in poultry farms in Al-Marg district, Qalyobia governorate, Egypt. The zoonotic species of Ornithoyssus sp., (Family Macronyssidae) was isolated from all samples collected from patients' habitat and the role played by Ornithonyssus mites in causing dermatitis in man was discussed. PMID:15881008

  11. Rickettsial pathogens in the tropical rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti (Acari: Macronyssidae) from Egyptian rats (Rattus spp.).

    PubMed

    Reeves, Will K; Loftis, Amanda D; Szumlas, Daniel E; Abbassy, Magda M; Helmy, Ibrahim M; Hanafi, Hanafi A; Dasch, Gregory A

    2007-01-01

    We collected and tested 616 tropical rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)) from rats (Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout) and R. rattus (Linnaeus)) throughout 14 governorates in Egypt and tested DNA extracts from pools of these mites for Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia spp. by PCR amplification and sequencing. Three different mite-associated bacterial agents, including one Bartonella and two Rickettsia spp., were detected in eight pools of mites. Further research could demonstrate the vector potential of mites and pathogenicity of these agents to humans or animals. PMID:17225079

  12. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes): lower species richness compared to European mainland

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Pedro; Mironov, Sergey; Sychra, Oldrich; Resendes, Roberto; Literak, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic) during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae). A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria) presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai. PMID:25665827

  13. Repellent effect of santalol from sandalwood oil against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Roh, Hyun Sik; Park, Kye Chung; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2012-04-01

    Thirty-four essential oils were screened for their repellent activities against the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae), at 0.1% concentration level using choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays. Of these, 20 essential oils showed significant repellencies against T. urticae in the choice tests. In subsequent no-choice tests using these 20 essential oils, only sandalwood oil showed significant repellency against T. urticae. Total number of eggs oviposited by T. urticae was significantly lower than controls in the choice tests when the kidney bean leaves were treated with 1 of 14 essential oils. The significant repellency of sandalwood oil against T. urticae lasted at least for 5 h at the 0.1% concentration level. Our GC-MS analysis indicated that the major components of the sandalwood oil were alpha-santalol (45.8%), beta-santalol (20.6%), beta-sinensal (9.4%), and epi-beta-santalol (3.3%). Santanol, a mixture of the two main components in the sandalwood oil, appears to be responsible for the repellency of sandalwood oil against T. urticae.

  14. Parasitism of lizards by immature stages of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari, Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Durden, Lance A; Oliver, James H; Banks, Craig W; Vogel, Gregory N

    2002-01-01

    From 1982-1985 and 1993-1999, a total of 309 individual reptiles, mostly lizards and snakes, belonging to 12 species (American alligator, six lizard species, five snake species) was captured on St. Catherine's Island, Liberty County, Georgia, USA, and examined for ticks. Three lizard species, the broad-headed skink Eumeces laticeps, southeastern 5-lined skink Eumeces inexpectatus, and eastern glass lizard Ophisaurus ventralis, were severely infested with larvae and nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Ticks were not found on any of the other reptile species. Overall, 80% of 65 E. inexpectatus examined were parasitized by a mean intensity of 21.5 larvae and 88% were parasitized by a mean intensity of 4.8 nymphs. Corresponding figures for E. laticeps (n=56) were 93% and 51.3 for larvae and 89% and 7.4 for nymphs, and for O. ventralis (n=3) were 67% and 22.5 for larvae and 100% and 21.3 for nymphs. Larvae and nymphs attached along the lateral grooves of O. ventralis. Nymphs attached mainly behind the ears and in the foreleg axillae whereas larvae mainly attached to these sites and on the hindlegs in Eumeces spp. Seasonally, both larvae and nymphs were recorded on lizards from April through October. A unimodal larval peak was recorded in May or June. Seasonal data for nymphs did not reveal any distinct peaks but small bimodal peaks in mean intensities may have occurred (one in early summer, the other in late summer) suggesting that some ticks complete their life cycle in one year, and others in two years, on St. Catherine's Island. Potential epidemiological consequences of these findings with respect to Lyme disease in the southeastern United States are briefly addressed.

  15. Lizards as hosts for immature Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Levine, J F; Apperson, C S; Howard, P; Washburn, M; Braswell, A L

    1997-11-01

    Previously archived museum specimens of lizards collected throughout North Carolina were examined for Ixodes scapularis (Say). Lizards (n = 1,349) collected in 80 of North Carolina's 100 counties were examined. Lizards with ticks were collected in 23 (29%) of the 80 counties from which lizards were examined. I. scapularis was detected on 8.7% (n = 117) of the lizards and was the sole species of tick obtained from lizards. Immature ticks were most frequently found on the southeastern five-lined skink, Eumeces inexpectatus, and the eastern glass lizard, Ophisaurus ventralis. Larvae were most frequently found on the six-lined racerunner, Cnemidophorus sexlineatus. One C. sexlineatus harbored 177 larvae and 2 nymphs. Nymphs were most frequently observed on E. inexpectatus. The majority of counties (chi 2, P < 0.01) where ticks were found on lizards were in the Coastal Plain.

  16. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of small antelopes: steenbok, Raphicerus campestris and suni, Neotragus moschatus.

    PubMed

    Golezardy, H; Horak, I G

    2006-09-01

    During surveys on the tick burdens of various wildlife species in South Africa, nine small antelopes became available for study. Six of these were steenbok, Raphicerus campestris and three sunis, Neotragus moschatus, and their tick burdens are recorded here. The steenbok were examined in three nature reserves and harboured nine tick species. The sunis were examined in a fourth reserve and were infested with eight species. The steenbok and sunis were generally infested with the immature stages of the same tick species that infest larger animals in the same geographic regions. In addition the sunis harboured Haemaphysalis parmata, which in South Africa is present only in the eastern and north-eastern coastal and adjacent areas of KwaZulu-Natal Province. They were also infested with Rhipicephalus kochi, which in South Africa occurs only in the far north-east of the KwaZulu-Natal and Limpopo Provinces.

  17. A new species of eriophyoid mite (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on Rosa sp. from Israel.

    PubMed

    Druciarek, Tobiasz; Lewandowski, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    A new species of eriophyoid mite from a hybrid of Rosa sp. (Rosaceae) found in Israel is described and illustrated. Eriophyes eremus n. sp. is a refuge-seeking type mite, inhabiting flower buds and petiole bases, causing no apparent damage to the host plant. Eighteen eriophyoid species are known to inhabit Rosa sp. and those are listed here along with type localities, damage they cause and host plant details. PMID:27395555

  18. New species of Hexabdella and Neomolgus (Acari: Prostigmata: Bdellidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Eghbalian, Amir Hossein; Khanjani, Mohammad; Safaralizadeh, Mohammad Hassan; Ueckermann, Edward A

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Hexabdella Van der Schyff, Theron & Ueckermann (Acariformes: Bdellidae), H. quercusi Eghbalian, Khanjani, Safaralizadeh, Ueckermann sp. nov., and a new species of Neomolgus Oudemans, N. iraniensis Eghbalian, Khanjani, Safaralizadeh, Ueckermann sp. nov., are described and illustrated. A key is provided for adult females of all known species of Hexabdella, as well as for adult females of Neomolgus from Asian and neighbouring countries, including Iran, Japan and the Siberian region of Russia. All specimens were collected from soil and litter under oak trees, Quercus brantii Lindley (Fagaceae), or from soil and litter under wild almond, Amygdalus scoparia L. (Rosaceae), from western Iran. PMID:27395925

  19. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes): lower species richness compared to European mainland.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Pedro; Mironov, Sergey; Sychra, Oldrich; Resendes, Roberto; Literak, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic) during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae). A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria) presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai.

  20. Distribution patterns and environmental correlates of water mites (Hydrachnidia, Acari) in peatland microhabitats.

    PubMed

    Więcek, Mariusz; Martin, Peter; Gąbka, Maciej

    2013-10-01

    In Europe peatlands are wetlands of postglacial origin. Because of climatic changes and agricultural activities (i.e. drainage and peat extraction), they are one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide. Water mites are well known as indicators of changing environments in other ecosystems such as springs and lakes. For our study we selected seven peatlands located in North-Western Poland and focused on water mite distribution and associated habitat and water quality variables. We described water mite fauna in various microhabitats (aquatic and semiaquatic) along the mineral-richness gradient to test whether this gradient is reflected in the composition of water mite assemblages. We selected conductivity, pH and vegetation as variables reflecting the poor-rich gradient. Additionally, we measured water depth, temperature and dissolved oxygen, which are often important parameters for water mites. We also noted presence of prey and host taxa of particular water mite species. Based on physicochemical parameters we identified three types of habitats harbouring three distinctive species groups of water mites. We were able to distinguish species that appear to be typical of spring fens (e.g. Hygrobates norvegicus, Lebertia separata), connected with acidic, nutrient poor pools (e.g. Arrenurus neumani, A. pustulator) and species seemingly typical of temporary habitats dominated by Sphagnum mosses (e.g. Piersigia intermedia, Zschokkea oblonga, A. stecki). The poor-rich gradient is strongly reflected in the composition of water mite assemblages. We also found strong correlations between the water mite fauna and both conductivity and pH gradient. Our results show that water conductivity is the most important of the examined factors, driving mite-species distribution in peatlands.

  1. The Impact of Three Commonly Used Fungicides on Typhlodromus pyri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in European Vineyards.

    PubMed

    Kemmitt, G; Valverde-Garcia, P; Hufnagl, A; Bacci, L; Zotz, A

    2015-04-01

    The impact of the fungicides mancozeb, myclobutanil, and meptyldinocap on populations of Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten was evaluated under field conditions, when applied following the good agricultural practices recommended for their use. Two complementary statistical models were used to analyze the population reduction compared to the control: a linear mixed model to estimate the mean effect of the fungicide, and a generalized linear mixed model (proportional odds mixed model) to estimate the cumulative probability for those effects being equal or less than a specific IOBC class (International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animal and Plants). Findings from 27 field experiments in a range of different vine-growing regions in Europe indicated that the use of mancozeb, myclobutanil, and meptyldinocap caused minimal impact on naturally occurring populations of T. pyri. Both statistical models confirmed that although adverse effects on T. pyri can occur under certain conditions after several applications of any of the three fungicides studied, the probability of the effects occurring is low and they will not persist. These methods demonstrated how data from a series of trials could be used to evaluate the variability of the effects caused by the chemical rather than relying on the worst-case findings from a single trial.

  2. Identification, Distribution and Population Dynamics of Francisella-like Endosymbiont in Haemaphysalis doenitzi (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Nan; Yu, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Li-Meng; Li, Ning-Xin; Wang, Rong-Rong; Zhang, Chun-Mian; Liu, Jing-Ze

    2016-01-01

    Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) with significant homology to Francisella tularensis (γ-proteobacteria) have been characterized in several tick species, whereas knowledge on their distribution and population dynamics in ticks remains meager. Hence, in the current study, we identified a novel Francisella-like endosymbiont (FLEs-Hd) from the tick Haemaphysalis doenitzi and evaluated the putative functions of this symbiont. Results indicated that FLEs-Hd had 100% infection rate and a perfect vertical transmission in H. doenitzi, and that it is distributed in ovaries, malpighian tubules, salivary glands and midguts of the ticks, suggesting that FLEs-Hd presumably is a crucial symbiont of the host without specific tissue tropism. To further explore the function of the symbiont, the population dynamics of FLEs-Hd at each developmental stage of ticks and in tissues at different reproductive statuses were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR). Results showed that the high density and regular population dynamics of FLEs-Hd appeared in female ovaries, suggesting that the symbiont may provide necessary nutrients or regulators to ensure normal ovary development of ticks. PMID:27731377

  3. Panonychus from Georgia: survey, taxonomical status and redescription of P. hadzhibejliae (Reck, 1947) (Acari, Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Arabuli, Tea; Çobanoglu, Sultan; Auger, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    A survey of Panonychus species was undertaken across Georgia from 2005 to 2014 on various host plants, revealing three species: Panonychus citri (McGregor, 1916), Panonychus hadzhibejliae (Reck, 1947) and Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836). New hosts for P. ulmi and P. citri are recorded, Buxus sempervirens, Hedera colchica and Prunus laurocerasus for P. ulmi and Ficus carica for P. citri, whereas P. hadzhibejliae was only found on F. carica. The newly collected material also allowed us to investigate the taxonomical status of P. hadzhibejliae. The comparison of P. hadzhibejliae with the two closely related species sampled in the survey, P. ulmi and P. citri, and with data of P. caricae found in the literature, shows that P. hadzhibejliae is a valid species. It can be separated from the three other Panonychus species without ambiguity especially using the female dorsal setae length in combination with the ratio between the length of the female dorsal opisthosomal f2 and h1 setae and the ratio between the palptarsal terminal eupathidium su and the related solenidion ω. A redescription of P. hadzhibejliae is provided including the male and some morphological characters, measurements and drawings of the female that were omitted in the original description. A key to the world species of Panonychus is also proposed. PMID:27395141

  4. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with wildlife and vegetation of Haller park along the Kenyan coastline.

    PubMed

    Wanzala, W; Okanga, S

    2006-09-01

    This artcile describes the results obtained from a tick survey conducted in Haller park along the Kenyan coastline. The survey aimed at evaluating tick-host associations, assessing tick population density, and providing baseline information for planning future tick control and management in the park. Ticks (2,968) were collected by handpicking from eight species of wildlife and by dragging in 14 selected sites within the park. A considerable proportion of ticks were also collected from leaves, stems, and bark of most dominant trees, namely, Casuarina equisetifolia L. (Forst. and Forst.), Cocos nucifera L., Adansonia digitata L., Musa paradisiaca L., and Azadiracta indica Adr. Juss. Dragging was conducted in sites predominantly occupied by Cynodon dactylon L. (Pers.), Cenchrus ciliaris L., Stenotaphrum dimidiatum L. (Kuntze.) Brongn., and Brachiaria xantholeuca Hack. Ex Schinz Stapf. and Loudetia kagerensis K. Schum. Hutch. Eight tick species were identified, and the collection included Rhipicephalus pravus Dönitz 1910, Rhipicephalus pulchellus Gerstäcker 1873, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes Koch 1844, Amblyomma gemma Dönitz 1910, Amblyomma hebraeum Koch 1844, Amblyomma sparsum Neumann 1899, Amblyomma nuttalli Dönitz 1909, and Boophilus decoloratus Koch 1844. Given that the identified tick species are known to parasitize humans as well as livestock, there exist risks of emergence of zoonotic infections mediated by tick vectors. In the recreational environment of Haller park, where tick vectors share habitats with hosts, there is a need to develop sustainable and effective tick control and management strategies to minimize economic losses that tick infestation may cause.

  5. Successful Feeding of Amblyomma coelebs (Acari: Ixodidae) Nymphs on Humans in Brazil: Skin Reactions to Parasitism.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marcos V; Matias, Jaqueline; Aguirre, AndrÉ De A R; Csordas, Barbara G; SzabÓ, Matias P J; Andreotti, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Identifying the tick species that successfully feed on humans would increase knowledge of the epidemiology of several tick-borne diseases. These species salivate into the host, increasing the risk of pathogen transmission. However, there is a lack of data in the literature regarding the ticks that prefer to feed on humans. Herein, we describe the successful feeding of Amblyomma coelebs Neumann nymphs on two of the authors after accidental tick bites occurred during field surveys in two preserved areas of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. One of the host-parasite interactions was closely monitored, and the tick development, gross host skin alterations, and related sensations are presented.

  6. Successful Feeding of Amblyomma coelebs (Acari: Ixodidae) Nymphs on Humans in Brazil: Skin Reactions to Parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Marcos V.; Matias, Jaqueline; Aguirre, André De A. R.; Csordas, Barbara G.; Szabó, Matias P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the tick species that successfully feed on humans would increase knowledge of the epidemiology of several tick-borne diseases. These species salivate into the host, increasing the risk of pathogen transmission. However, there is a lack of data in the literature regarding the ticks that prefer to feed on humans. Herein, we describe the successful feeding of Amblyomma coelebs Neumann nymphs on two of the authors after accidental tick bites occurred during field surveys in two preserved areas of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. One of the host–parasite interactions was closely monitored, and the tick development, gross host skin alterations, and related sensations are presented. PMID:26336294

  7. Survey of birds and lizards for ixodid ticks (Acari) and spirochetal infection in northern California.

    PubMed

    Manweiler, S A; Lane, R S; Block, W M; Morrison, M L

    1990-11-01

    A total of 138 birds (24 species) was captured in an oak woodland between December 1988 and June 1989 at the University of California, Sierra Foothill Range Field Station, Yuba County, Calif. Ticks were not found on 71 birds captured between December 1988 and March 1989. Five subadult Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls were removed from 3 of 67 birds caught between April and June 1989. These three birds, an orange-crowned warbler (Vermivora celata (Say], a lazuli bunting (Passerina amoena (Say], and a chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina (Bechstein], represent new host records for I. pacificus in California. Tissues from two ticks and thick blood films prepared from 126 birds tested negative for spirochetes by direct immunofluorescence (DI). A total of 172 larval and 197 nymphal I. pacificus was removed from 15 of 16 western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis Baird & Girard) caught between April and June 1989 in the same location as were birds. Thick blood films prepared from all 16 lizards and tissue smears from 334 of the ticks (143 larvae and 191 nymphs) were DI test-negative for spirochetes. One (1.1%) of 93 adult I. pacificus collected at the bird-lizard capture site in February 1989 was infected with spirochetes that resembled B. burgdorferi. PMID:2280384

  8. Soil mites of the families Ascidae, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) from mountainous areas of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Ramírez, Diana; Varela, Amanda; Moraes, Gilberto J De

    2016-01-01

    Soil mites of the Ascidae sensu Lindquist & Evans (1965) are poorly known in Colombia. This group, presently represented by the families Ascidae sensu stricto, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae, contains species known to prey on small arthropods and nematodes, thus having the potential to be used for the control of soil pests. The aim of this study was to identify species of this group from a fragment of Andean forest and a nearby grassland at the municipality of La Calera, Cundinamarca Department, Colombia, at about 2800 m of elevation. Nine species were found, including five new species, namely Gamasellodes andinus sp. nov., Gamasellodes intermedius sp. nov., Protogamasellus caleraensis sp. nov., Cheiroseius mesae sp. nov. and Proctolaelaps colombianus sp. nov. Morphological characterisation of all the species and relevant soil characteristics of the sites where the mites were collected are presented. PMID:27395637

  9. Inhibition of the classical pathway of the complement system by saliva of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Franco, Paula F; Silva, Naylene C S; Fazito do Vale, Vladimir; Abreu, Jéssica F; Santos, Vânia C; Gontijo, Nelder F; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Pereira, Marcos H; Sant'Anna, Mauricio R V; Gomes, Alessandra P S; Araujo, Ricardo N

    2016-05-01

    Inhibition of the complement system during and after haematophagy is of utmost importance for tick success in feeding and tick development. The role of such inhibition is to minimise damage to the intestinal epithelium as well as avoiding inflammation and opsonisation of salivary molecules at the bite site. Despite its importance, the salivary anti-complement activity has been characterised only in species belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex which saliva is able to inhibit the alternative and lectin pathways. Little is known about this activity in other species of the Ixodidae family. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the inhibition of the classical pathway of the complement system by the saliva of Amblyomma cajennense at different stages of the haematophagy. The A. cajennense saliva and salivary gland extract (SGE) were able to inhibit the complement classical pathway through haemolytic assays with higher activity observed when saliva was used. The anti-complement activity is present in the salivary glands of starving females and also in females throughout the whole feeding process, with significant higher activity soon after tick detachment. The SGE activity from both females fed on mice or horses had no significant correlation (p > 0.05) with tick body weight. The pH found in the intestinal lumen of A. cajennense was 8.04 ± 0.08 and haemolytic assays performed at pH 8.0 showed activation of the classical pathway similarly to what occurs at pH 7.4. Consequently, inhibition could be necessary to protect the tick enterocytes. Indeed, the inhibition observed by SGE was higher in pH 8.0 in comparison to pH 7.4 reinforcing the role of saliva in protecting the intestinal cells. Further studies should be carried out in order to identify the inhibitor molecule and characterise its inhibition mechanism.

  10. Polymorphism of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) strains isolated from Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Moldova.

    PubMed

    Mitina, G V; Tokarev, Y S; Movila, A A; Yli-Mattila, T

    2011-03-01

    Polymorphism of 10 Beauveria bassiana strains, isolated from Ixodes ricinus in Moldova, was evaluated using traditional (morphological and cultural properties) and molecular (RAPD patterns and ITS sequences) methods. The isolates differed greatly in morphological and cultural features, such as color, consistence, and growth rate. Four RAPD-PCR markers were used to evaluate genetic diversity of the strains. Phylogenetic neighbor-joining analysis of RAPD patterns divided strains into 3 major clades. The ITS sequences of 8 strains were identical to those of known B. bassiana strains. Two subsets (1 and 2) different by one nucleotide change were found in the ITS1 region. One strain of subset 1 was different from known B. bassiana strains by possessing 2 point mutations in the ITS region. RAPD-based clustering correlated to ITS sequence and colony morphology-based grouping of the strains.

  11. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding calreticulin from Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinliang; Luo, Jianxun; Fan, Ruiquan; Fingerle, Volker; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Zhijie; Li, Youquan; Zhao, Haiping; Ma, Miling; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Aihong; Ren, Qiaoyun; Dang, Zhisheng; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Yin, Hong

    2008-03-01

    The application of anti-tick vaccine has been shown to be the most promising alternative strategy compared to the current use of acaricides that suffer from a number of serious limitations. The success of this method is dependent upon identification and cloning of potential tick vaccine antigens. Previously, we have cloned 21 positive clones (named from Hq02 to Hq22) by immunoscreening complimentary DNA (cDNA) libraries of Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis; however, some of those clones did not contain open reading frames (ORF). In this study, we amplified the entire sequence of Hq07 by using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. Hq07 contains an ORF of 1,233 bp that encodes for 410 amino acid residues with a coding capacity of 47 kDa. Search of the cloned sequences against GenBank revealed that Hq07 is a calreticulin (CRT)-similar clone and designated HqCRT. Expression analysis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that this gene is ubiquitously expressed at different developmental stages and in different tissues of H. qinghaiensis. The gene was expressed as glutathione S-transferase-fused proteins in a prokaryotic system. Western blot analysis revealed that native HqCRT was secreted into their hosts by ticks during blood sucking. Vaccination of sheep with rHqCRT conferred protective immunity against ticks, resulting in 54.3% mortality in adult ticks, compared to the 38.7% death rate in the control group. These results demonstrated that rHqCRT might be a useful vaccine candidate antigen for biological control of H. qinghaiensis.

  12. Esterases of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae), parasitic mite of the honeybee.

    PubMed

    Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Żołtowska, Krystyna; Frączek, Regina; Lipiński, Zbigniew

    2014-04-01

    Varroa destructor is an ectoparasite that causes serious damage to the population of the honeybee. Increasing resistance of the parasite to acaricides is related, among others, to metabolic adaptations of its esterases to facilitate decomposition of the chemicals used. Esterases are a large heterogeneous group of enzymes that metabolize a number of endogenous and exogenous substrates with ester binding. The aim of the present study was to determine the activity of esterases in the body extracts (BE) and excretion/secretion products (E/SP) of the mite. The enzymes contained in the E/SP should originate mainly from the salivary glands and the alimentary system and they may play a particularly important role in the first line of defence of the mite against acaricides. Activity of cholinesterases (ChEs) [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase], carboxylesterases (CEs) and phosphatases [alkaline phosphatase (AP) and acid phosphatase (AcP)] was investigated. The activity of all the enzymes except AChE was higher in the E/SP than in the BE. ChEs from the BE and from the E/SP reacted differently on eserine, a ChE inhibitor. Eserine inhibited both enzymes from the BE, increased decomposition of acetylcholine, but did not influence hydrolysis of butyrylcholine by the E/SP. Activity of the CEs from the BE in relation to the esters of carboxylic acids can be presented in the following series: C10 > C12 > C14 > C8 > C2 > C4 = C16, while activity of the CEs from the E/SP was: C4 > C8 > C2 > C14 > C10 > C12 > C16. The inhibitor of CEs, triphenyl phosphate, reduced the activity of esterases C2–C8 and C14–C16; however, it acted in the opposite way to CEs C10 and C12. The activity of both phosphatases was higher in the E/SP than in the BE (AcP about twofold and AP about 2.6-fold); the activities of AP and AcP in the same material were similar. Given the role of esterases in resistance to pesticides, further studies are necessary to obtain complete biochemical characteristics of the enzymes currently present in V. destructor.

  13. Repellency of the oily extract of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    PubMed

    González-Gómez, Rebeca; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Santizo-Rincón, José Antonio

    2012-03-01

    A crude oil extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica, Sapindales: Meliaceae) was evaluated for repellency on Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman. Burgerjon's tower was used to spray worker bee pupae with 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3, 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract concentrations. Sprayed pupae were attached to observation arenas and incubated at 32 ± 2°C and 70 ± 10% RH. The ability of V. destructor to locate and feed on treated and untreated pupae was monitored from 30 min to 72 h after spray. Higher and more stable repellency was achieved with 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract. At the highest concentration, 98% of V. destructor were prevented to settle on bee pupae, resulting in 100% V. destructor mortality at 72 h.

  14. Bioactivity of propolis from different geographical origins on Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    PubMed

    Damiani, Natalia; Fernández, Natalia J; Maldonado, Luis M; Alvarez, Alejandro R; Eguaras, Martín J; Marcangeli, Jorge A

    2010-06-01

    Varroa destructor is an ectoparasitic mite that affects colonies of honey bee Apis mellifera worldwide. In the last years, substances of botanical origin have emerged as natural alternative acaricides to diminish the population levels of the mite. In the present work, the bioactivity of propolis from different geographical locations of Pampean region from Argentina on V. destructor was evaluated. Fourteen propolis samples were organoleptic and physicochemically characterized and, by means topical applications, their activity was tested on mites. All propolis had a homogeneous composition and the bioactivity levels against mites were comparable among the different propolis samples. The percentage of mites killed by the treatments ranged between 60.5% and 90% after 30 s of exposure. Thus, V. destructor was highly susceptible to propolis. Moreover, the mites remained anesthetized during the first hours after topical treatment. The results suggest that propolis from Argentinean pampas could be incorporated in honey bee colonies as acaricidal treatment by spraying.

  15. The effects of beta acids from hops (Humulus lupulus) on mortality of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    PubMed

    Degrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Ahumada, Fabiana; Probasco, Gene; Schantz, Lloyd

    2012-12-01

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) beta acids (HBA) were tested for miticidal effects on varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman, a parasitic mite of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). When varroa were placed on bees that had topical applications of 1 % HBA, there was 100 % mite mortality. Bee mortality was unaffected. Cardboard strips saturated with HBA and placed in colonies resulted in mite drop that was significantly greater than in untreated hives. HBA was detected on about 60 % of the bees in colonies during the first 48 h after application. Mite drop in colonies lasted for about 7 days with the highest drop occurring in the first 2-3 days after treatment. There was a reduction in the percentages of bees with HBA and in the amounts on their bodies after 7 days. Bee and queen mortality in the colonies were not affected by HBA treatments. When cardboard strips saturated with HBA were put in packages of bees, more than 90 % of the mites were killed without an increase in bee mortality. HBA might have potential to control varroa when establishing colonies from packages or during broodless periods.

  16. Borrelia infection in Ixodes pararicinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Nava, Santiago; Barbieri, Amalia M; Maya, Leticia; Colina, Rodney; Mangold, Atilio J; Labruna, Marcelo B; Venzal, José M

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to describe for the first time the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infecting ticks in Argentina. Unfed specimens of Ixodes pararicinus collected from vegetation in Jujuy Province were tested for Borrelia infection by PCR targeting the gene flagellin (fla), the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer region (IGS) and the 16S rDNA (rrs) gene. One male and one female of I. pararicinus collected in Jujuy were found to be positive to Borrelia infection with the three molecular markers tested. Phylogenetically, the Borrelia found in I. pararicinus from Jujuy belongs to the B. burgdorferi s.l complex, and it was similar to one of the genospecies detected in I. aragaoi from Uruguay. Also, this genospecies is closely related to two genospecies known from USA, Borrelia americana and the Borrelia sp. genospecies 1. The epidemiological risk that implies the infection with Borrelia in I. paracinus ticks from Argentina appears to be low because the genospecies detected is not suspected of having clinical relevance and there are no records of Ixodes ticks biting humans in the southern cone of South America. Further studies are needed to assess accurately if there is risk of borreliosis transmitted by ticks in South America.

  17. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on swifts (Apodiformes: Apodidae) in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tolesano-Pascoli, Graziela; Garcia, Frederico Innecco; Gomes, Carla Raphaela Gonzaga; Diniz, Kátia Cristina; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho; Venzal, José Manuel; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2014-10-01

    Brazil harbors five species of Cypseloidinae swifts. Those from Streptoprocne and Cypseloides genera have a very distinct ecology. They shelter at night and build nests in moist cliffs by waterfalls. Information about tick infestation of these birds is virtually non-existent and restricted to the description of a new species, Ixodes paranaensis, in Streptoprocne biscutata in Paraná State and another record of this species in Streptoprocne zonaris in Minas Gerais State. We herein report tick infestation of swifts at eight waterfalls in the Cerrado biome of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Swifts were captured during six campaigns from November 2008 to April 2013. Overall, 584 swifts were captured (527 C. senex, four C. fumigatus and 53 S. zonaris). Four birds were tick infested (prevalence of 0.7 %). Three individuals of C. senex hosted one tick each; a nymph of I. paranaensis, a female of I. paranaensis and a nymph of Amblyomma cajennense. One S. zonaris hosted an I. paranaensis nymph and an Ornithodoros sp. larva (Argasidae).

  18. Efficacy of granular deltamethrin against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidade) nymphs.

    PubMed

    Schulze, T L; Jordan, R A; Hung, R W; Taylor, R C; Markowski, D; Chomsky, M S

    2001-03-01

    A single barrier application of granular deltamethrin to the woodland edges of a forested residential community in late spring significantly reduced the abundance of Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs. The application also suppressed the population of Amblyomma americanum (L.) nymphs, which recently became established in the study area. The efficacy of deltamethrin is compared with other commonly used acaricides.

  19. Oocyte maturation in the sloth's giant tick Amblyomma varium (Acari: Ixodidae) in an ecological context.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Gustavo S; André, Marcos R; do Prado, Angelo P; Allegretti, Silmara M; Remedio, Rafael N; Nunes, Pablo H; Machado, Rosangela Z; Bechara, Gervásio H; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2014-12-01

    The sloth's giant tick Amblyomma varium Koch, which is a neotropical species that inhabits tropical rainforests, is the largest tick reported to date. The adult stage of this tick parasitizes mammals from the families Bradypodidae and Magalonychidae (Xenarthra) nearly exclusively. This study aimed to describe morphological and histological features of the reproductive system and the oocyte maturation process of this tick species. The ovary of A. varium is a long single tubular organ that is horseshoe-shaped, winding and arranged in the posterior part of the body. Two oviducts are connected to the ovary on each side; these thicken at certain region forming the uterus (common oviduct), followed by a muscular connecting tube, vagina and genital aperture. A large number of oocytes at different stages of development are attached to the ovary wall by the pedicel, as they reach maturity they are released into the ovary lumen and from there to the genital aperture. These oocytes develop simultaneously and asynchronically along the ovary. Amblyomma varium oocytes were classified into five development stages (i.e., I-V), and specific characteristics were observed; the processes of yolk and chorion deposition begin early in oocytes stage II, and oocytes V exhibit a very thick chorion and eggs of a large size. These characteristics are likely adaptations that enhance the survival and the reproductive success of this extremely host-specific tick, which is limited to a particular environment.

  20. Factors affecting patterns of Amblyomma triste (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitism in a rodent host.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Valeria C; Nava, Santiago; Antoniazzi, Leandro R; Monje, Lucas D; Racca, Andrea L; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M

    2015-07-30

    Here we offer a multivariable analysis that explores associations of different factors (i.e., environmental, host parameters, presence of other ectoparasites) with the interaction of Amblyomma triste immature stages and one of its main hosts in Argentina, the rodent Akodon azarae. Monthly and for two years, we captured and sampled rodents at 16 points located at 4 different sites in the Parana River Delta region. The analyses were conducted with Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a negative binomial response (counts of larvae or nymphs). The independent variables assessed were: (a) environmental: trapping year, season, presence of cattle; type of vegetation (natural grassland or implanted forest); rodent abundance; (b) host parameters: body length; sex; body condition; blood cell counts; natural antibody titres; and (c) co-infestation with other ectoparasites: other stage of A. triste; Ixodes loricatus; lice; mites; and fleas. Two-way interaction terms deemed a priori as relevant were also included in the analysis. Larvae were affected by all environmental variables assessed and by the presence of other ectoparasites (lice, fleas and other tick species). Host factors significantly associated with larval count were sex and levels of natural antibodies. Nymphs were associated with season, presence of cattle, body condition, body length and with burdens of I. loricatus. In most cases, the direction and magnitude of the associations were context-dependent (many interaction terms were significant). The findings of greater significance and implications of our study are two. Firstly, as burdens of A. triste larvae and nymphs were greater where cattle were present, and larval tick burdens were higher in implanted forests, silvopastoral practices developing in the region may affect the population dynamics of A. triste, and consequently the eco-epidemiology of Rickettsia parkeri. Secondly, strong associations and numerous interactions with other ectoparasites suggest that co-infestations may be more important for tick dynamics than has so far been appreciated.

  1. Diversity and population dynamics of Ascidae, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) in tropical flowers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Britto, Erika Pessoa Japhyassu; Finotti, Amanda Silva; de Moraes, Gilberto José

    2015-06-01

    Cultivation of tropical flowers has expanded considerably in Brazil, justifying efforts to determine the arthropods associated with it. Heliconia species are some of the most important tropical flowers in Brazil. Mites of the families Ascidae, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae are commonly found on those plants. They disperse from flower to flower on hummingbirds. The objective of this study was to identify the diversity of mites of this group in tropical flowers, with emphasis on Heliconia species, in Brazil and to determine the fluctuation of the population of these mites in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state. Specimens from Amazonas, Bahia, Pernambuco, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina and São Paulo States were examined. Mites of the genera Asca and Iphidozercon (Ascidae), Cheiroseius and Lasioseius (Blattisociidae), and Proctolaelaps and Tropicoseius (Melicharidae) were collected in flowers of four plant families, with Lasioseius being the most diverse genus. Overall, most specimens found belonged to Tropicoseius, especially Tropicoseius venezuelensis Baker & Yunker; this was the dominant species on five of 13 Heliconia species/hybrids considered in this study. Samples of panicles of Heliconia rostrata Ruiz & Pavón were collected every 2 weeks, in Piracicaba. Six species of those mite families were found, among which Tropicoseius heliconiae Baker & Yunker and T. venezuelensis were the most numerous. The highest population levels of mites of those three families occurred at the beginning and at the end of the year, coinciding with the highest levels of rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, when plant flowers were most numerous and vigorous. Along each panicle, the highest mite densities were found in inflorescences of the three distal eighths of the panicles, where nectar and pollen were probably most abundant.

  2. Transmission of grapevine Pinot gris virus by Colomerus vitis (Acari: Eriophyidae) to grapevine.

    PubMed

    Malagnini, Valeria; de Lillo, Enrico; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Beber, Roberta; Duso, Carlo; Raiola, Alessandro; Zanotelli, Livia; Valenzano, Domenico; Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Morelli, Massimiliano; Ratti, Claudio; Causin, Roberto; Gualandri, Valeria

    2016-09-01

    Grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV) is a new virus reported in Europe and several other grape-growing countries. In an attempt to identify a vector for GPGV, samples of the eriophyid mite Colomerus vitis collected from buds and erinea in GPGV-infected vines were analysed by RT-PCR, using specific primers. Molecular analysis revealed the presence of GPGV in C. vitis. Transmission trials were conducted using C. vitis collected from GPGV-infected vines. Mites were able to transmit GPGV to healthy grapevines, suggesting that C. vitis is a potential vector of this virus.

  3. First record of Tenuipalpus uvae De Leon, 1962 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first record of Tenuipalpus uvae De Leon (Tenuipalpidae) in Brazil. Specimens were collected from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) in the states of Amapa (Northern Brazil) and Pernambuco (northeast)....

  4. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild birds in north-central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Flores, Fernando S; Nava, Santiago; Batallán, Gonzalo; Tauro, Laura B; Contigiani, Marta S; Diaz, Luis A; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2014-10-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected from wild birds in five ecoregions in north-central Argentina, namely: Selva de las Yungas, Esteros del Iberá, Delta e Islas del Paraná, Selva Paranaense and Chaco Seco. A total of 2199 birds belonging to 139 species, 106 genera, 31 families and 11 orders were captured, but ticks were collected only from 121 birds (prevalence=5.5%) belonging to 39 species (28.1%) and three Orders: Tinamiformes (Tinamidae) and Falconiformes (Falconidae) in Selva de las Yungas and Passeriformes (Conopophagidae, Corvidae, Emberizidae, Furnariidae, Icteridae, Parulidae, Thamnophilidae, Thraupidae, Troglodytidae, Turdidae) for all ecoregions. The following tick species were found: Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes pararicinus plus Amblyomma sp. and Haemaphysalis sp. in Selva de las Yungas; Amblyomma triste and Ixodes auritulus in Delta e Islas del Paraná; Amblyomma dubitatum, A. triste and Amblyomma sp. in Esteros del Iberá; Amblyomma ovale and Amblyomma sp. in Selva Paranaense, and Amblyomma tigrinum in Chaco Seco. Amblyomma dubitatum was found for the first time on Passeriformes, while the records of A. ovale on avian hosts are the first for Argentina. Birds are also new hosts for I. pararicinus females. Besides 2 larvae and 1 nymph, and 1 larvae found on Tinamidae (Tinamiformes) and Falconidae (Falconiformes), respectively, all other ticks (691 larvae, 74 nymphs and 2 females) were found on Passeriformes with a relevant contribution of the family Turdidae. Birds are important hosts for I. pararicinus as shown by a prevalence of 45% while all others prevalence were below 15%. All the species of Amblyomma and Haemaphysalis found on birds in Argentina have been also detected on humans and are proven or potential vectors for human diseases. Therefore, their avian hosts are probable reservoirs of human pathogens in Argentina.

  5. Four new species of Lorryia (Acari: Tydeidae) associated with Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mondin, Alexandre De Souza; Nuvoloni, Felipe Micali; Feres, Reinaldo José Fazzio

    2016-01-01

    Lorryia (Tydeinae) species are commonly found in surveys of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) in Brazil, although only Lorryia formosa (Cooreman, 1958) has been formally reported from this host. In this study, we described Lorryia parvireticuli sp. nov., L. amazonensis sp. nov., L. fortistriata sp. nov., and L. virga sp. nov., associated with rubber trees from Brazil. PMID:27615898

  6. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Turkey: description of five new species.

    PubMed

    Kiedrowicz, Agnieszka; Denizhan, Evsel; Bromberek, Klaudia; Szydło, Wiktoria; Skoracka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Five new eriophyoid mite species (Eriophyidae) from Turkey are described and illustrated in this paper: Aceria vanensis n. sp., Aceria onosmae n. sp., Aculus lydii n. sp., Aculus gebeliae n. sp. and Aculus spectabilis n. sp.. The descriptions are based on the morphology of females collected from weedy plants, respectively: Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae), Onosma isauricum Boiss. et Heldr. (Boraginaceae), Hypericum lydium Boiss. (Hypericaceae), Lotus gebelia Vent. (Fabaceae) and Stachys spectabilis Choisy ex DC. (Lamiaceae). The new species were found to be vagrant on their host plants with no visible damage symptoms observed. PMID:27395550

  7. Detection of permethrin resistance and fipronil tolerance in Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Permethrin is a commonly used acaricide for tick control on domestic animals and in residential environments, while fipronil use is restricted to on-animal treatment. Following widespread reports of permethrin and fipronil application failures to control indoor infestations of Rhipicephalus sanguin...

  8. A first record of Amblyomma dissimile (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Suzana Gomes; Andrade, Gilda Vasconcellos de; Costa-Júnior, Lívio Martins

    2010-01-01

    A non-engorged adult female Amblyomma dissimile and two Amblyomma sp. larvae were found parasitizing the lizard Ameiva ameiva in the municipality of Chapadinha, State of Maranhão. This is the first record in the state of Maranhão and fills a gap in the distribution of A. dissimile in Brazil. The lizard A. ameiva represents a new host for A. dissimile, and also the first record of this tick species infesting lizards of the family Teiidae in Brazil. PMID:21184707

  9. The impact of insecticides applied in apple orchards on the predatory mite Kampimodromus aberrans (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Duso, Carlo; Ahmad, Shakeel; Tirello, Paola; Pozzebon, Alberto; Klaric, Virna; Baldessari, Mario; Malagnini, Valeria; Angeli, Gino

    2014-03-01

    Kampimodromus aberrans is an effective predatory mite in fruit orchards. The side-effects of insecticides on this species have been little studied. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of insecticides on K. aberrans. Field experiments showed the detrimental effects of etofenprox, tau-fluvalinate and spinosad on predatory mites. Spider mite (Panonychus ulmi) populations reached higher densities on plots treated with etofenprox and tau-fluvalinate than in the other treatments. Single or multiple applications of neonicotinoids caused no detrimental effects on predatory mites. In the laboratory, spinosad and tau-fluvalinate caused 100 % mortality. Etofenprox caused a significant mortality and reduced fecundity. The remaining insecticides did not affect female survival except for imidacloprid. Thiamethoxam, clothianidin, thiacloprid, chlorpyrifos, lufenuron and methoxyfenozide were associated with a significant reduction in fecundity. No effect on fecundity was found for indoxacarb or acetamiprid. Escape rate of K. aberrans in laboratory was relatively high for etofenprox and spinosad, and to a lesser extent thiacloprid. The use of etofenprox, tau-fluvalinate and spinosad was detrimental for K. aberrans and the first two insecticides induced spider mite population increases. The remaining insecticides caused no negative effects on predatory mites in field trials. Some of them (reduced fecundity and repellence) should be considered with caution in integrated pest management programs.

  10. Lone star tick (Acari: Ixodidae) occurrence in Nebraska: historical and current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cortinas, R; Spomer, S

    2013-03-01

    In 2010 and 2011, field collections were undertaken to determine the geographic range of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), in Nebraska In addition, tick identifications from submissions by the general public dating to 1911 were examined. Consistent lone star tick identifications from extreme southeast Nebraska began in 1987. Specimens have been identified from 27 counties, making lone star ticks the second most frequently and second most widely reported tick in the state after Dermacentor variabilis (Say). Surveys conducted in 70 sites in 43 counties yielded 2,169 ticks of which 1,035 were lone star ticks. Lone star ticks were more frequent in the southeast portion of the state and ticks were found in nine counties from which there were no known submissions. Life stage peaks observed during the surveys corresponded with those observed from submissions. Other ticks, incidental to the study, were also collected. Woody plant expansion into the tallgrass prairie, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianianus L.) and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo L.) population growth, and the increased frequency of milder winters may be facilitating lone star tick occurrence in the region. Further studies will assess lone star tick establishment and disease pathogen prevalence in the state.

  11. Tenuipalpus sensu stricto (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from Brazil, with ontogeny and a key to the known species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cerrado is the second largest Brazilian biome, and is considered to be a “hotspot” due the great concentration of en-demic species and high rate of deforestation. Surveys of the mite fauna present in this biome have revealed a great number of new species. In this paper, we describe Tenuipalpus s...

  12. Tick pests and vectors (Acari: Ixodoidea) in European towns: Introduction, persistence and management.

    PubMed

    Uspensky, Igor

    2014-02-01

    Ticks have always been a part of fauna in and around human settlements, and their significance changed concurrently with the enlargement of settlements and their transformation into towns. The increased rate of urbanization during the last decades has created a new reality for tick existence. Two groups of ticks are of major concern for modern towns: those living under natural conditions of urban surroundings and those well-adapted to urban conditions. During the process of urbanization, encroachment into forested and uncultivated areas as well as protection of existing green spaces create opportunities for ticks living in nature to also exist under urban and suburban conditions. Conditions of modern urban and especially suburban environment in developed European countries adequately meet tick requirements. Tick species having an advantage in urban areas are those that can use one and the same host at all parasitic stages, can starve for a prolonged time, can use either urban pests or domesticated animals as hosts, and can live in man-made buildings. The ticks of the Argas reflexus group (Argasidae) and the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodidae) comply with practically all conditions necessary for successful survival in urban areas. The ability of ticks to transmit numerous human and animal pathogens and the presence of many reservoir hosts in urban and suburban areas create persistent danger for human populations and domestic animals. Impact on urban ticks should be directed against the two major requirements of tick existence: reducing populations of potential tick hosts (feral pigeons, stray dogs and cats, and urban rodents), and changing other environmental conditions to make them less suitable for ticks. It is especially important that urban inhabitants be properly informed about the danger posed by ticks, the sites of possible tick attacks, and basic self-protection techniques.

  13. Effect of temperature on feeding period of larval blacklegged ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on eastern fence lizards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rulison, Eric L.; LeBrun, Roger A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Ambient temperature can influence tick development time, and can potentially affect tick interactions with pathogens and with vertebrate hosts. We studied the effect of ambient temperature on duration of attachment of larval blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, to eastern fence lizards, Sceloporus undulatus (Bose & Daudin). Feeding periods of larvae that attached to lizards under preferred temperature conditions for the lizards (WARM treatment: temperatures averaged 36.6°C at the top of the cage and 25.8°C at the bottom, allowing behavioral thermoregulation) were shorter than for larvae on lizards held under cool conditions (COOL treatment temperatures averaged 28.4°C at top of cage and 24.9°C at the bottom). The lizards were infested with larvae four times at roughly monthly intervals. Larval numbers successfully engorging and dropping declined and feeding period was longer after the first infestation.

  14. Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787) (Acari: Ixodidae), the Cayenne tick: phylogeography and evidence for allopatric speciation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Amblyomma cajennense F. is one of the best known and studied ticks in the New World because of its very wide distribution, its economical importance as pest of domestic ungulates, and its association with a variety of animal and human pathogens. Recent observations, however, have challenged the taxonomic status of this tick and indicated that intraspecific cryptic speciation might be occurring. In the present study, we investigate the evolutionary and demographic history of this tick and examine its genetic structure based on the analyses of three mitochondrial (12SrDNA, d-loop, and COII) and one nuclear (ITS2) genes. Because A. cajennense is characterized by a typical trans-Amazonian distribution, lineage divergence dating is also performed to establish whether genetic diversity can be linked to dated vicariant events which shaped the topology of the Neotropics. Results Total evidence analyses of the concatenated mtDNA and nuclear + mtDNA datasets resulted in well-resolved and fully congruent reconstructions of the relationships within A. cajennense. The phylogenetic analyses consistently found A. cajennense to be monophyletic and to be separated into six genetic units defined by mutually exclusive haplotype compositions and habitat associations. Also, genetic divergence values showed that these lineages are as distinct from each other as recognized separate species of the same genus. The six clades are deeply split and node dating indicates that they started diverging in the middle-late Miocene. Conclusions Behavioral differences and the results of laboratory cross-breeding experiments had already indicated that A. cajennense might be a complex of distinct taxonomic units. The combined and congruent mitochondrial and nuclear genetic evidence from this study reveals that A. cajennense is an assembly of six distinct species which have evolved separately from each other since at least 13.2 million years ago (Mya) in the earliest and 3.3 Mya in the latest lineages. The temporal and spatial diversification modes of the six lineages overlap the phylogeographical history of other organisms with similar extant trans-Amazonian distributions and are consistent with the present prevailing hypothesis that Neotropical diversity often finds its origins in the Miocene, after the Andean uplift changed the topology and consequently the climate and ecology of the Neotropics. PMID:24320199

  15. Mechanical properties of the cuticle of the tick Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Flynn, Peter C; Kaufman, W Reuben

    2015-09-01

    Female ticks of the family Ixodidae increase their mass up to 100-fold during the 7-10 day feeding period. We determined the material properties of the alloscutal cuticle of female Amblyomma hebraeum from the time of moulting through to full engorgement. The material properties of the cuticle were evaluated by a Kelvin-Voigt analysis of compliance determined from the stretch of loops of cuticle under stress. There was a 3-fold increase in cuticle dry mass during the first 3 weeks post-moult, during which the ductility and stiffness of the cuticle increased substantially. Under stress, the cuticle displayed time-dependent stretch, with a plastic (non-recoverable) and viscoelastic (recoverable) component. Plastic deformation was reasonably constant in the range 10-15% over a wide range of induced stress above ∼ 0.6 MPa. The plastic component of tick alloscutal cuticle was about 5-10 times higher than that of unsclerotized insect cuticle. Tick cuticle is far more ductile than unsclerotized insect cuticle. Material properties of the cuticle did not change significantly as a function of cuticular water content over the normal range throughout the feeding cycle (13-37% wet mass). Injected dopamine (DA) reduced one measure of the viscosity of the cuticle by 38%. Plastic deformability of the cuticle was reduced by 70% after an in vitro stretch, but restored in fully engorged ticks, and in in vitro stretched loops by treatment with DA and reduced pH. Thinning of the cuticle by half during the rapid phase of engorgement requires plastic deformation (irreversible strain) in two orthogonal dimensions in excess of 40%. Treatment with DA increased plastic deformation and enabled extensibility (strain at the point of rupture) above 40%.

  16. Life-cycle of Suidasia medanensis (=pontifica) (Acari: Suidasiidae) under laboratory conditions in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Mercado, D; Puerta, L; Caraballo, L

    2001-01-01

    The life cycle of Suidasia medanensis (=pontifica) was studied under laboratory conditions at 26 degrees C and 86% relative humidity. Freshly laid eggs were observed until they developed into adults and the periods between stages were recorded. Production of eggs by mated females was monitored until they died. The eggs required an average of 12.6 +/- 0.6 days to develop into adults. Mean longevity of mated females and males was similar (48.6 +/- 13 and 49.1 +/- 20 days, respectively). The conditions used in this study may be considered optimal for in vitro culture of S. medanensis.

  17. Repellent activity of plant-derived compounds against Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs.

    PubMed

    Soares, Sara Fernandes; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; de Sousa Braga, Raquel; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; de Paula, José Realino; Ferri, Pedro Henrique

    2010-01-20

    Repellence responses of Amblyomma cajennense nymphs to callicarpenal, intermedeol, Hyptis suaveolens essential oil, extract of Melia azedarach, Cymbopogon nardus, Spiranthera odoratissima, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ageratum conyzoides, Mentha pulegium, Ruta graveolens, and Memora nodosa were studied. Among these the extract of C. nardus stood out because of the long-lasting repellence, maintaining, in the highest concentration, 35h of protection against 90% of the nymphs. The essential oil of H. suaveolens and the extracts of C. ambrosioides and A. conyzoides showed good repellence index (66%) when applied in high concentrations. However, greater protection could be obtained at higher concentrations but with a shorter repellence time. Callicarpenal, intermedeol, extract of M. Pulegium, and M. nodosa leaves showed moderate repellence in high concentrations. Extracts from M. azedarach, R. graveolens, S. odoratissima, and M. nodosa roots showed little or no repellent effect. These results show that some plant extracts may represent a promising alternative in the control of infestations by A. cajennense.

  18. Occurrence and transmission of mycovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 from dejecta of Thyreophagus corticalis (Acari, Acaridae).

    PubMed

    Bouneb, Mabrouk; Turchetti, Tullio; Nannelli, Roberto; Roversi, Pio Federico; Paoli, Francesco; Danti, Roberto; Simoni, Sauro

    2016-03-01

    The natural spread of virus-induced hypovirulence is highly involved in the recovery of blighted chestnut stands and orchards in Italy and in Europe. The potential role of corticolous mites as vectors of hypovirulence in blighted chestnut Castanea sativa (Mill.) stands was pointed out in previous reports. Here, by using RT-PCR, mycovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus (CHV1) was detected in Thyreophagus corticalis mites reared on a hypovirulent strain in monoxenic cultures and in their faecal pellets. Cryphonectria parasitica mycelium derived from mites' dejecta was able to transmit CHV1 to the virulent strain determining its conversion to hypovirulent one. This converted strain induced healing cankers on excised stems, differently from the un-converted virulent strain. Our findings prove the spread of CHV1 by corticolous mites that feed on virus-infected fungus and emphasize their potential role as vectors. PMID:26895863

  19. A new species of Tenuipalpus Donnadieu (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from Brazil, with ontogeny of chaetotaxy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tenuipalpus toropi sp. nov., is described from females, males, deutonymphs, protonymphs and larvae collected on Sapium glandulatum (Vell.) Pax (Euphorbiaceae) from the northwest of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. We include details of the development in idiosomal and leg chaetotaxy for all stages of...

  20. New records of Amblyomma goeldii (Acari: Ixodidae) and description of the nymphal stage.

    PubMed

    Martins, Thiago F; Gianizella, Sérgio L; Nunes, Pablo H; Faria, Diogo C L O; Do Nascimento, Carlos A R; Abrahão, Carlos R; Miranda, Flávia R; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Ramirez, Diego G; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-04-29

    Since its original description from the Amazonian region, the tick species Amblyomma goeldii Neumann, 1899 has been misidentified with Amblyomma rotundatum Koch, 1844 in different countries of the Neotropical region. Because of this, some authors have considered that the only confirmed records of A. goeldii were from French Guyana. Herein, we reviewed all specimens of A. goeldii that have been deposited at two tick collections in Brazil. In addition, we describe the nymphal stage of A. goeldii for the first time. A total of 10 unpublished records of the adult stage of A. goeldii are recorded from the Amazonian region of Brazil, confirming the occurrence of A. goeldii in this country. Except for one record on the snake Boa constrictor Linnaeus, all records of A. goeldii reported in the present study were from anteaters (Pilosa: Myrmecophagidae). Our results, in conjunction with previous literature records, indicate that anteaters and large snakes are important hosts for the adult stage of A. goeldii. The nymph of A. goeldii is morphologically similar to the nymphs of Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli, 1939, Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844, and A. rotundatum. We present a modification of a previously published taxonomic key of Amblyomma nymphs from Brazil, in order to perform taxonomic identification of the nymph of A. goeldii based on external morphology. The geographical distribution of A. goeldii appears to be restricted to the Amazonian region. There were no previous host records for the immature stages of A. goeldii, thus it is expected that the present nymphal description will facilitate further works on the ecology of this poorly studied tick species.

  1. Histopathological study of ovaries of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) exposed to different thymol concentrations.

    PubMed

    da Silva Matos, Renata; Daemon, Erik; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Remédio, Rafael Neodini; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Novato, Tatiane Pinheiro Lopes

    2014-12-01

    Thymol is a monoterpene with proven acaricide action for several tick species. In addition to killing these ectoparasites, thymol can also reduce oviposition and egg hatch rate. However, the effects of thymol on the morphophysiology of tick ovaries are still unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the morphophysiological changes caused by this active principle in ovaries of Rhipicephalus sanguineus after a 6-day feeding period, through the application of morphohistochemical techniques. After the feeding period, a total of 50 females were divided into five groups and immersed in the following solutions: (I) distilled water (control), (II) 30% ethanol (control), (III) 1.25 mg/mL thymol, (IV) 2.5 mg/mL thymol, and (V) 5.0 mg/mL thymol. The experimental groups were kept in a climatic chamber (27 ± 1 °C; RH 80 ± 10%) for 5 days. After this period, morphological (hematoxylin/eosin) and histochemical (von Kossa) techniques were applied after remotion of the ovaries. The morphological results revealed large vacuoles in germ cells at different developmental stages and invaginations that represent deformations in the chorionic membrane. From the results obtained in this study, it was concluded that thymol interfered with the development of oocytes, which showed degeneration signs. The treatment containing 5.0 mg/mL thymol affected more accentuately the morphological development. Moreover, thymol also altered the calcium content of yolk granules, which generally showed an intense staining for this element. PMID:25300417

  2. Larval morphology of benthic and interstitial water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from a Luxembourgian stream.

    PubMed

    Martin, Peter

    2016-01-01

    During a project of the Luxembourg National Museum of Natural History the parasitism of water mites dwelling a small stream (Lurenzgriecht) in the southern part of the country (Gutland) was investigated. The first step of the project was to clarify the taxonomy of the larvae of all stream-dwelling species. For that reason emergence traps were installed in the stream during 2002 and emptied every 14 days to obtain parasitized hosts. Additionally, rearing experiments were implemented in the laboratory to produce larvae of well-defined species/mothers but only with partly success. The stream has a well-known water mite inventory of 22 species, almost equally composed of true benthic species and species strongly adapted to hyporheic interstitial. The larvae of five species (Torrenticola elliptica, Atractides pumilus, Feltria motasi, Ljania macilenta, Neoacarus hibernicus) were described here as new to science. Due to the poor quality and availability of former descriptions a re-description was made for another species living in the stream (Sperchon denticulatus-gr.) and, additionally, for Hygrobates fluviatilis, a common stream-dwelling species of the area. The larvae of nine species of the Lurenzgriecht had already been sufficiently described for identification purposes (Protzia eximia, Sperchonopsis verrucosa, Sperchon clupeifer, S. thienemanni, Lebertia glabra, Atractides fonticolus, Feltria rouxi, Ljania bipapillata, Aturus fontinalis). The larvae of some other species (Aturus crinitus, Kongsbergia spp., Stygohydracarus subterraneus, Arrenurus haplurus) could neither be reared in the lab nor attributed to species for taxonomic reasons. With the exception of Kongsbergia spp. (no known larva of the genus worldwide) and Aturus crinitus (a rare species in the Lurenzgriecht) an identification key was compiled for the larvae of all known species of the stream using the new descriptions and all available information on the other ones. PMID:27470819

  3. Validation of the taxon Ixodes aragaoi Fonseca (Acari: Ixodidae) based on morphological and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Onofrio, Valeria C; Ramirez, Diego G; Giovanni, Dalton N S; Marcili, Arlei; Mangold, Atilio J; Venzal, José M; Mendonça, Ronaldo Z; Labruna, Marcelo B; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2014-01-01

    The species Ixodes aragaoi Fonseca was described as Ixodes ricinus aragaoi, and later placed in synonymy with Ixodes affinis. However, this synonymy was rejected and the subspecies was elevated to species, and named as I. aragaoi. Some researchers did not consider the validity of I. aragaoi and maintained the synonymy proposed until 1998 when I. aragaoi was revalidated, and it was suggested that Ixodes pararicinus could be a synonym. The aim of this study was to confirm the taxonomic validity of I. aragaoi by means of redescription of adults and molecular analysis. Morphological studies were performed by optical and scanning electron microscopy; types of I. aragaoi were compared with those of I. pararicinus from Argentina, and also with material of I. pararicinus from Uruguay and I. affinis from the United States. Mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences were obtained for determining phylogenetic relationships based on maximum parsimony. Morphological and molecular differences between I. aragaoi, I. pararicinus from Argentina, and I. affinis confirm the validity of the first each of these species. The morphological similarities of I. pararicinus from Uruguay with I. aragaoi, and the small distance of nucleotide sequences between them, confirm that the Uruguayan ticks are in fact I. aragaoi and expand the geographical distribution of this species. Based on the specimens of Ixodes examined in the present study, from the same locality of the types of I. ricinus rochensis in Uruguay, we agree with the synonymy of this subspecies with I. aragaoi as previously reported. Finally, our analyses indicate that both I. aragaoi and Ixodes fuscipes, another South American tick species, belong to the I. ricinus complex, currently composed of 19 species.  PMID:25283212

  4. [Spatial distribution of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on rubber tree plantations].

    PubMed

    Martins, Gustavo L M; Vieira, Marineide R; Barbosa, José C; Dini, Thiago A; Manzano, Anderson M; Alves, Bruno M S; Silva, Rodolfo M

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the spatial distribution of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker in rubber tree plantations. The experimental area was located in Marinópolis, State of São Paulo, and corresponded to a total of 1,000 plants (clone RRIM 600) divided in 100 plots of ten plants each. A total of 16 samplings were conducted, approximately once every 10 days, between December 2007 and June 2008. On each date, samples were taken from two plants per plot, each sample corresponding to the top 30 cm of a branch randomly taken from the median region of the canopy of each plant. The number of T. heveae was evaluated on three leaflets randomly taken from each sample, using a 20x power pocket magnifying glass. The number of mites was evaluated in two areas of 1 cm² delimited on the lower surface of each leaflet, being one along the midrib and the other along a lateral vein. The calculated dispersion indexes were: variance/mean relationship (I), index of Morisita (I´), coefficient of Green (Cx) and k exponent of negative binomial distribution. Tenuipalpus heveae showed aggregate distribution. The negative binomial distribution model was the most appropriate to represent the spatial distribution of the mite in the rubber tree plantation.

  5. First report of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Navia, D; Marsaro, A L; da Silva, F R; Gondim, M G C; de Moraes, G J

    2011-01-01

    The presence of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst, is reported for the first time in Brazil. This invasive mite was found in July 2009 infesting coconut palms and bananas in urban areas of Boa Vista, State of Roraima, in northern Brazil. Comments on the possible pathways of R. indica into the country, present and potential impact of its introduction and mitigating measures to prevent or to delay the mite spread in Brazil are presented.

  6. Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae): an exploding mite pest in the neotropics.

    PubMed

    Kane, Ethan C; Ochoa, Ronald; Mathurin, Guy; Erbe, Eric F; Beard, Jennifer J

    2012-08-01

    Major infestations of the flat mite species Raoiella indica Hirst affecting bananas, palms and other ornamental plants have been reported from the Caribbean islands, Mexico, FL (USA), Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil. Specimens from these localities were examined using traditional light microscopy and low-temperature scanning electron microscopy techniques. While little is known about the biology of this mite, its recent appearance in the Americas in both commercial coconut and banana plantations has raised concerns about its economic impact as an invasive pest.

  7. Host plant range of Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in areas of invasion of the New World.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Daniel; Amalin, Divina; Hosein, Farzan; Roda, Amy; Duncan, Rita E; Peña, Jorge E

    2012-08-01

    Raoiella indica has spread rapidly through the Neotropical region where the mite damages economically and ecologically important plants. Three studies were conducted to determine the host plant range of R. indica, using the presence of colonies containing all life stages as an indicator of reproductive suitability. Periodic surveys at the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden (Miami Dade County, FL, USA) and the Royal Botanical Gardens (Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago) identified 27 new reproductive host plants. The reproductive suitability of two dicotyledonous species and three native Florida palm species was examined. An updated list of reproductive host plants of R. indica is presented. All reported reproductive hosts (91 plant species) of R. indica are monocots from the orders Arecales (Arecaceae), Zingiberales (Heliconiaceae, Musaceae, Strelitziaceae, Zingiberaceae) and Pandanales (Pandanaceae). Most are palms of the family Arecaceae that originated in areas of the Eastern Hemisphere; about one fourth of the reported hosts are native to the New World and could be considered new host associations of R. indica. Six years after the initial detection in the Caribbean, R. indica has expanded its host plant range. Here we report 27 new reproductive host of R. indica that represent 30% of increase on previous host plant records. As this mite continues spreading in the Neotropical region a great diversity of plants is potentially affected.

  8. Life cycle of Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on ornamental plants, mostly Arecaceae.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, C; Colmenárez, Y; de Moraes, G J

    2015-02-01

    The red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst, has been primarily found associated with coconut and musaceous plants in the New World. However, it has also been recorded on several other palms, heliconiaceous and zingiberaceous species. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of different botanical families on which R. indica has been collected in the field and of arecaceous plants of the natural vegetation of the neotropics. In total, ten species of Arecaceae as well as Heliconia psittacorum [Heliconiaceae] and Alpinia purpurata [Zingiberacae] were evaluated, using coconut as a control. The study was carried out under controlled conditions (29 ± 0.5 °C, 60 ± 10% RH and photoperiod 12 h of light). Raoiella indica was able to complete immature development only on coconut, Adonidia merrillii, Ptychosperma macarthurii, H. psittacorum and A. purpurata. Duration of the immature phase (egg-adult) ranged between 21.5 days on coconut to 34.1 days on A. purpurata. Longevity was at least 50% greater and oviposition at least 38% higher on coconut than on other plants. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was higher on coconut (0.166) and A. merrillii (0.042), but negative on the other two plant species. Raoiella indica could not reach adulthood on any of the other ten arecaceous species considered in the study. The results suggested R. indica to be a threat to A. merrillii in addition to coconut, but not to other evaluated plants. However, complementary studies should be conducted to investigate whether the experimental procedures adopted in this study could not have prevented the mite from a better performance than it could have been under field conditions, especially in relation to Mauritia flexuosa, one of the dominant arecaceous plants in South America.

  9. Chemical control of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in banana and coconut.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Peña, J E

    2012-08-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst, is a predominant pest of coconuts, date palms and other palm species, as well as a major pest of bananas (Musa spp.) in different parts of the world. Recently, RPM dispersed throughout the Caribbean islands and has reached both the North and South American continents. The RPM introductions have caused severe damage to palm species, and bananas and plantains in the Caribbean region. The work presented herein is the result of several acaricide trials conducted in Puerto Rico and Florida on palms and bananas in order to provide chemical control alternatives to minimize the impact of this pest. Spiromesifen, dicofol and acequinocyl were effective in reducing the population of R. indica in coconut in Puerto Rico. Spray treatments with etoxanole, abamectin, pyridaben, milbemectin and sulfur showed mite control in Florida. In addition, the acaricides acequinocyl and spiromesifen were able to reduce the population of R. indica in banana trials.

  10. Brevipalpus mites (Acari: Tenuipalpidae): vectors of invasive, non-systemic cytoplasmic and nuclear viruses in plants.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Childers, Carl C

    2013-02-01

    Multi-directional interactions occur among plant hosts, Brevipalpus mites and the plant viruses they transmit. Such interactions should be considered when evaluating the severity of a disease such as citrus leprosis. The current understanding of Brevipalpus-transmitted viruses relies on the capability of the vector to transmit the disease, the persistence of the virus in the host plant and the ability of the disease to spread. Previously, we discussed the Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV) and its importance and spread over the past decade into new areas of South and Central America, most recently into southern Mexico and Belize. Here, we address key questions to better understand the biology of the mite vector, fitness costs, and the peculiarities of Brevipalpus mite reproduction, virus survival, transmissibility and spread, and the expansion of the host plant range of Brevipalpus species vectoring the disease.

  11. Molecular Effects of Irradiation (Cobalt-60) on the Control of Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; Luo, Lingyan; Chen, Xieting; Hu, Meiying; Hu, Qiongbo; Gong, Liang; Weng, Qunfang

    2015-01-01

    The effective dose of irradiation to control pest mites in quarantine has been studied extensively, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of the irradiation on mites are largely unknown. In this study, exposure to 400 Gy of γ rays had significant (p < 0.05) effects on the adult survival, fecundity and egg viability of Panonychus citri. The irradiation caused the degradation of the DNA of P. citri adults and damaged the plasma membrane system of the egg, which led to condensed nucleoli and gathered yolk. Additionally, the transcriptomes and gene expression profiles between irradiated and non-irradiated mites were compared, and three digital gene expression libraries were assembled and analyzed. The differentially expressed genes were putatively involved in apoptosis, cell death and the cell cycle. Finally, the expression profiles of some related genes were studied using quantitative real-time PCR. Our study provides valuable information on the changes in the transcriptome of irradiated P. citri, which will facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that cause the sterility induced by irradiation. PMID:26569230

  12. The Tenuipalpidae of Turkey, with a key to species (Acari: Trombidiformes).

    PubMed

    Çobanoğlu, Sultan; Ueckermann, Edward Albert; Sağlam, Hayriye Didem

    2016-03-30

    A new Turkish species of Tenuipalpidae, Aegyptobia juniperi sp. nov., is described and seven previously recorded species are redescribed: Aegyptobia beglarovi Livshitz & Mitrofanov 1967, Brevipalpus rotai Castagnoli & Pegazzano, 1979, Cenopalpus bagdasariani (Livshitz & Mitrofanov, 1970), Cenopalpus bakeri Düzgüneş, 1967, Phytoptipalpus salicicola (Al-Gboory, 1987), Tenuipalpus granati Sayed, 1946 and Tenuipalpus punicae Pritchard & Baker, 1958. A key to the 28 species of Tenuipalpidae from Turkey is provided. Cenopalpus bagdasariani, B. rotai and A. beglarovi are new records for Turkey.

  13. [Stability of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) resistance to hexythiazox in citrus groves].

    PubMed

    Campos, Fernando J; Omoto, Celso

    2006-01-01

    The false spider mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes), is one the most important pests of the citrus groves and transmits the citrus leprosis virus. The acaricide hexythiazox has been widely used for controlling B. phoenicis in citrus groves. The resistance of this species to hexythiazox has already been detected at high frequencies at some locations. In order to implement a resistance management program, studies were undertaken to understand the stability of the resistance of B. phoenicis to hexythiazox by 1) comparing the life-history of susceptible (S) and resistant (R) strains under laboratory conditions, and 2) evaluating the dynamics of hexythiazox resistance in citrus field plots with low (< 20%) and high (> 60%) frequency of resistance, during two years. The frequencies of resistance were estimated with direct contact bioassays on eggs with discriminating concentration of 18 mg of hexythiazox/L of water. There were no significant differences between S and R strains, based on biological parameters evaluated to build fertility life tables. However, the resistance of B. phoenicis to hexythiazox was unstable under field conditions; that is, significant reductions in the frequency of resistance were observed in the absence of selection pressure, either in citrus field plots with low or high frequency of resistance. Therefore, the instability of B. phoenicis resistance to hexythiazox can be exploited in resistance management programs.

  14. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) species complex (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)--a closer look.

    PubMed

    Beard, Jennifer J; Ochoa, Ronald; Braswell, W Evan; Bauchan, Gary R

    2015-04-07

    Brevipalpus phoenicis sensu stricto (Geijskes) is redescribed and the species diagnosis established. Two former synonyms of B. phoenicis sensu lato, B. yothersi Baker and B. papayensis Baker, are resurrected and redescribed and their species diagnoses established. Brevipalpus hondurani Evans is also redescribed and diagnosed. Four new species, previously misidentified as B. phoenicis sensu lato or B. obovatus Donnadieu, are described--B. azores sp. nov., B. feresi sp. nov., B. ferraguti sp. nov., and B. tucuman sp. nov. Four new junior synonyms of B. yothersi are listed--Brevipalpus amicus Chaudhri and B. recula Chaudhri (new synonymies), and B. mcbridei Baker and B. deleoni Pritchard and Baker (misidentifications). A key is provided to separate these species. New morphological characters significant for species separation are presented and discussed.

  15. Arrhenotoky and oedipal mating in the northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) (Acari: Gamasida: Macronyssidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The northern fowl mite (NFM; Ornithonyssus sylviarum) is a blood-feeding ectoparasite of birds and a major pest of poultry in the United States. Mite populations spread rapidly in commercial flocks, reach peak burdens of >70,000 mites per bird and have developed resistance to many pesticides. Despite decades as a pest in the United States, the reproductive biology of NFM remains unclear. Based on karyotypes, the NFM has haplodiploid sex determination, which suggests unmated females could produce male offspring (arrhenotoky). Thus, unmated females could disseminate to a new host and initiate an infestation by producing and mating with sons (oedipal mating). Methods We used small capsules to isolate and recover NFM on host chickens. Mites in capsules could blood feed, develop and reproduce, but could not contact other mites. Individual larvae were matured in isolation to produce known, unmated females. We evaluated reproduction of (I) previously mated females (i) in isolation, or (ii) paired with a male, and (II) unmated (virgin) females in isolation. In each treatment we recorded the number and sexes of offspring produced over time. Results Mated NFM produced female and male offspring in isolation, or when paired with a male. When paired with a male, females produced a female-biased sex ratio of the offspring (F:M ratio ~5:1). Unmated, female NFM produced exclusively male offspring when in isolation. When paired with their sons that had developed to maturity, the "virgin" females were able to mate and subsequently produce female offspring. Conclusions This study found that females with immediate access to sperm produced mostly female offspring. Virgin female NFM initially produced only male offspring and subsequently used oedipal mating to produce female offspring. Using this reproductive system NFM could successfully colonize new hosts as immature, or unmated females. The strong female-biased sex ratio of NFM populations suggests a large proportion of the parasite population is capable of disseminating to new hosts, which is essential for an obligate parasite to persist. PMID:23210934

  16. First record of parasitism of water mite larva (Acari: Hydrachnidia) on the pupa of Trichoptera.

    PubMed

    Buczyńska, Edyta; Buczyński, Paweł; Zawal, Andrzej; Michoński, Grzegorz; Szlauer-Łukaszewska, Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    During the studies on ecology of Trichoptera of anthropogenic water bodies we have unexpectedly discovered the parasitic larvae of water mites of the species Tiphys torris on the pupa of Triaenodes bicolor. This is the first documented case of the parasitism of water mites on the caddisfly pupa as well as the first ever record of the species which is regarded as a dipteran parasite on caddisflies. The situation is very untypical for preimaginal stages of caddisflies are used by phoretic and not parasitic water mite larvae. Parasitism has been confirmed in this case by the formation of stylostomes and enlarged sizes of the bodies of the larvae. This is probably the case of facultative parasitism in which the pupa has served as a substitute of the adult form of a caddisfly.

  17. New species and records of Uropodina mites from Iran (Acari, Mesostigmata)

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Shahrooz; Abolghasemi, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, a new species of the genus Nenteria Oudemans, 1915 is described on the basis of adult female and male specimens collected in soil and litter in parks in Kerman, southeastern Iran, and Tehran, northern Iran. A key to the Iranian species of Nenteria is also presented, and Trachycilliba abantica (Bal & Őzkan, 2007) is reported for the first time in Iran. PMID:27408598

  18. Soil mites of the families Ascidae, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) from mountainous areas of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Ramírez, Diana; Varela, Amanda; Moraes, Gilberto J De

    2016-06-24

    Soil mites of the Ascidae sensu Lindquist & Evans (1965) are poorly known in Colombia. This group, presently represented by the families Ascidae sensu stricto, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae, contains species known to prey on small arthropods and nematodes, thus having the potential to be used for the control of soil pests. The aim of this study was to identify species of this group from a fragment of Andean forest and a nearby grassland at the municipality of La Calera, Cundinamarca Department, Colombia, at about 2800 m of elevation. Nine species were found, including five new species, namely Gamasellodes andinus sp. nov., Gamasellodes intermedius sp. nov., Protogamasellus caleraensis sp. nov., Cheiroseius mesae sp. nov. and Proctolaelaps colombianus sp. nov. Morphological characterisation of all the species and relevant soil characteristics of the sites where the mites were collected are presented.

  19. Two new species of the feather mite genus Trouessartia (Acari: Trouessartiidae) from Asia.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Ioana Cristina; Cobzaru, Ioana; Mukhim, D Khlur B; Adam, Costică

    2016-01-01

    Two new feather mite species of the genus Trouessartia Canestrini are described from birds captured in Meghalaya (India): Trouessartia longidenticulata Constantinescu sp. n. from Pycnonotus cafer (Linnaeus) (Passeriformes, Pycnonotidae) and Trouessartia dicruri Constantinescu sp. n. from Dicrurus aeneus (Vieillot) (Passeriformes, Dicruridae). In the genus Trouessartia, males of T. longidenticulata show a unique character state in having the lamellae of the opisthosomal lobes with long and sharp denticles. Both sexes of T. dicruri differ from closely related T. delicatula Gaud, 1952 by smaller body size (T. dicruri males are 420-452 long, females 500-532 long, vs. c. 575 and 595, respectively in T. delicatula); males have the adanal apodemes without apophyses and the terminal lamellae in a shape of a parallelogram (vs. the adanal apodemes have a pair of apophyses and the terminal lamellae are semi-ovate); the opisthosomal lobes do not touch each other at the inner margins (vs. the opisthosomal lobes touch each other at the inner margins, at the level of setae h3); in females, setae h1 are lanceolate (vs. spiculiform). PMID:27470729

  20. Molecular Diagnosis of Ehrlichia canis in Dogs and Ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pat-Nah, Henry; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Bolio-Gonzalez, Manuel Emilio; Villegas-Perez, Sandra Luz; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis is the etiological agent behind canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, and the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) is its main vector. Blood smear and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to identify E. canis infection in dogs and R. sanguineus, and explore factors possibly associated with infection in dogs in Yucatan, Mexico. Blood samples were taken and ticks R. sanguineus collected from 50 dogs (10 house dogs and 40 in an animal control center). Data were collected on dog age, sex, body condition, and signs associated with platelet deficiencies (epistaxis). Blood smears were analyzed to identify E. canis morulae and generate platelet counts. Nested PCR analysis was done on blood samples and 200 ticks. A χ(2) test was done to identify factors associated with the E. canis infection in the tested dogs. The overall prevalence for infection, as determined by PCR, was 36% (18 out of 50). All positive dogs were from samples collected from the animal shelter, representing prevalence, for this sampling site, of 45% (18 out of 40). Morulae in monocytes were identified in only 4% of samples. Dog origin (i.e. animal control center) was the only variable associated with E. canis infection (P < 0.01). Male ticks had a higher (P < 0.05) infection rate than female ticks (24.5 vs 13.5%). It is concluded that E. canis infection is present in both dogs and the brown dog ticks R. sanguineus in Yucatan, Mexico. PMID:26336286

  1. Sylvatic Infestation of Oklahoma Reptiles with Immature Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Garvin, Stephen D; Noden, Bruce H; Dillwith, Jack W; Fox, Stanley F; Payton, Mark E; Barker, Robert W

    2015-09-01

    Reptiles were collected in nine counties in Oklahoma from September 2002 to May 2004 and examined for Ixodes scapularis (Say) larvae and nymphs to determine seasonal incidence and prevalence of these ticks. In total, 209 reptile specimens consisting of nine species of lizards and seven species of snakes were collected. Plestiodon fasciatus (L.) was the most numerous species collected (55%) followed by Sceloporus undulatus (Latreille) (17%) and Scincella lateralis (Say) (11%). Less than 10 individuals were collected for all remaining reptile species. The infestation prevalence of I. scapularis on all reptile specimens collected was 14% for larvae and 25% for nymphs. Larvae were found on lizards from April until September and peaked in May, while nymphs were found from March until September and peaked in April. I. scapularis larvae (84%) and nymphs (73%) preferentially attached to the axillae/front leg of P. fasciatus. Two chigger species, Eutrombicula splendens (Ewing) and Eutrombicula cinnabaris (Ewing), were found on 2% of the reptiles collected. No ectoparasites, including ticks, were obtained from the seven species of snakes collected.

  2. Population dynamics of American dog ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) along park trails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, J.F.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    We conclude a mark-recapture study in which drag-collected ticks were removed from some park trails weekly from April to July. Weekly survival rates (probability of surviving and remaining on the trails) were significantly lower on trials used heavily by hikers, horses, and pets than on trails used less frequently. Although usage was the only obvious difference among these trails, differences in weekly survival rate estimates may be attributable to differential success in acquiring hosts. The estimated probability of capturing a host-seeking tick located along a trail on a single drag was 0.20 on the drag alone, and 0.25 including the person dragging. When routes parallel to the trails and of equal lengths were dragged immediately after sampling the trails, only .apprxeq. 5% as many ticks (including ticks on the person dragging) were found off the trails as on them. We found no evidence of reduced tick numbers on removal trails, but this result should be considered inconclusive because the power of the discerning test was low. However, the data reported here provide insights into turnover rates of the adult Dermacentor variabilis population and effectiveness of the drag as a sampling device.

  3. Potential nontarget effects of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) used for biological control of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.; Heyer, K.; Zhioua, E.

    2002-01-01

    The potential for nontarget effects of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, when used for biological control of ticks, was assessed in laboratory trials. Fungal pathogenicity was studied against convergent ladybird beetles, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, house crickets, Acheta domesticus (L.), and milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas). Fungal spores applied with a spray tower produced significant mortality in H. convergens and A. domesticus, but effects on O. fasciatus were marginal. Treated insects placed with untreated individuals resulted in mortality from horizontal transmission to untreated beetles and crickets, but not milkweed bugs. Spread of fungal infection in the beetles resulted in mortality on days 4-10 after treatment, while in crickets mortality was on day 2 after treatment, suggesting different levels of pathogenicity and possibly different modes of transmission. Therefore, M. anisopliae varies in pathogenicity to different insects. Inundative applications can potentially affect nontarget species, but M. anisopliae is already widely distributed in North America, so applications for tick control generally would not introduce a novel pathogen into the environment. Pathogenicity in lab trials does not, by itself, demonstrate activity under natural conditions, so field trials are needed to confirm these results and to assess methods to minimize nontarget exposure.

  4. Potential nontarget effects of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) used for biological control of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.; Heyer, K.; Zhioua, E.

    2002-01-01

    The potential for nontarget effects of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, when used for biological control of ticks, was assessed in laboratory trials. Fungal pathogenicity was studied against convergent ladybird beetles, Hippodamia convergens Gue??rin-Me??neville, house crickets, Acheta domesticus (L.), and the milkweed bugs Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas). Fungal spores applied with a spray tower produced significant mortality in H. convergens and A. domesticus, but effects on O. fasciatus were marginal. Placing treated insects with untreated individuals resulted in mortality from horizontal transmission to untreated beetles and crickets, but not milkweed bugs. Spread of fungal infection in the beetles resulted in mortality on days 4-10 after treatment, while in crickets mortality was on day 2 after treatment, suggesting different levels of pathogenicity and possibly different modes of transmission. Therefore, M. anisopliae varies in pathogenicity to different insects. Inundative applications can potentially affect nontarget species, but M. anisopliae is already widely distributed in North America, so applications for tick control generally would not introduce a novel pathogen into the environment. Pathogenicity in lab trials does not, by itself, demonstrate activity under natural conditions, so field trials are needed to confirm these results and to assess methods to minimize nontarget exposure.

  5. Pathogenicity of Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema glaseri (Nematoda:Steinernematidae) to Ixodes Scapularis (Acari:Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhioua, E.; LeBrun, R.A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Aeschliman, A.

    1995-01-01

    The entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and S. glaseri (Steiner) are pathogenic to engorged adult, blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis (Say), but not to unfed females, engorged nymphs, or engorged larvae. Nematodes apparently enter the tick through the genital pore, thus precluding infection of immature ticks. The timing of tick mortality, and overall mortality after 17 d, did not differ between infections by S. carpocapsae and S. glaseri. These nematodes typically do not complete their life cycles or produce infective juveniles in I. scapularis. However, both species successfully produced infective juveniles when the tick body was slit before nematode infection. Mortality of engorged I. scapularis females infected by S. carpocapsae was greater than uninfected controls, but did not vary significantly with nematode concentration (50-3,000 infective juveniles per 5-cm-diameter petri dish). The LC50 was 347.8 infective juveniles per petri dish (5 ticks per dish). Hatched egg masses of infected ticks weighed less than those of uninfected controls. Mortality of infected ticks was greatest between 20 and 30?C, and was lower at 15?C.

  6. First report of an hypopus (Acari: Hypoderatidae) from a jaeger (Aves: Charadriiformes: Stercorariidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pence, Danny B.; Cole, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Thalassornectes (Alcidectes) aukletae, originally described from two species of auklets (Charadriiformes: Alcidae) from maritime eastern Russia, is reported from a third species of pelagic charadriiform (Stercorariidae), the pomarine jaeger, Stercorarius poinarinus (Temminck), from Florida. The specimens from the jaeger are slightly smaller, the genital apodeme is more heavily sclerotized, paired setae gm are twice as long and there are other minor variations in the idiosomal and leg chaetotaxy. These differences are not considered sufficient to warrant taxonomic separation at the species or subspecies level from the nominate species T. (A.) aukletae. The same hypopus occurring across different families of birds is unusual in the Hypoderatidae. The diversity in hosts from several orders of birds, low intensities of infection in the two species from Africa, low prevalences in alcids from Russia, and rarity of these hypoderatids in all surveyed hosts leads us to speculate that the true host affinities of species in the genus Thalassornectes are unknown. The alternative consideration is that these are simply uncommon species that are very host specific.

  7. Influence of deer abundance on the abundance of questing adult Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Zhioua, E.

    1999-01-01

    Nymphal and adult Ixodes scapularis Say were sampled by flagging at 2 sites on a barrier island, Fire Island, NY, and at 2 sites on the nearby mainland. Nymphal densities did not differ consistently between island and mainland sites, but adult densities were consistently lower on the island. We tested whether lower adult densities on the island resulted from greater nymphal mortality on the island than the mainland, or whether adult ticks on the island were poorly sampled by flagging because they had attached abundantly to deer, which were common on Fire Island. Differential nymphal mortality on islands vs. mainland did not explain this difference in adult densities because survival of flat and engorged nymphs in enclosures was the same at island and mainland sites. Ticks were infected by parasitic wasps on the island and not the mainland, but the infection rate (4.3%) was too low to explain the difference in adult tick densities. In contrast, exclusion of deer by game fencing on Fire Island resulted in markedly increased numbers of adult ticks in flagging samples inside compared to samples taken outside the exclosures. Therefore, the scarcity of adult ticks in flagging samples on Fire Island resulted, at least in part, from the ticks being unavailable to flagging samples because they were on deer hosts. Differences in the densities of flagged ticks inside and outside the exclosures were used to estimate the percentage of questing adults on Fire Island that found deer hosts, excluding those that attached to other host species. Approximately 56% of these questing adult ticks found deer hosts in 1995 and 50% found deer hosts in 1996. Therefore, in areas where vertebrate hosts are highly abundant, large proportions of the questing tick population can find hosts. Moreover, comparisons of tick densities at different sites by flagging can potentially be biased by differences in host densities among sites.

  8. SURVIVAL, FECUNDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF DERMATOPHAGOIDES FARINAE (ACARI: PYROGLYPHIDAE) AT FLUCTUATING RELATIVE HUMIDITY. (R825250)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. New records with examples of potential host colonization events for hypopi (Acari: Hypoderatidae) from birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pence, Danny B.; Spalding, M.G.; Bergan, J.F.; Cole, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    New host, geographic records, or both are established for 14 species of hypoderatid deutonymphs from 14 species of birds in North America. Ten of these records are regarded as examples of a potential host colonization event where these hypopi have become established in hosts other than those with which they are normally associated. Herein, potential host colonization events by hypoderatid deutonymphs are regarded as more of an ecologically determined than physiologically specific phenomenon, often specifically related to sharing of nesting sites in the same rookeries by different host taxa. Neottialges ibisicola Young & Pence is placed as a junior synonym of Neottialges plegadicola Fain. The taxonomic status of Hypodectes propus from columbid versus ardeid hosts needs further study.

  10. Human Infestation with Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) in a Family Referred with Pruritus and Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad; Mirafzali, Mahmoud S; Belgheiszadeh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran. PMID:25629073

  11. Biocontrol of pigeon tick Argas reflexus (Acari: Argasidae) by entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales)

    PubMed Central

    Tavassoli, Mosa; Pourseyed, Seyed Hassan; Ownagh, Abdulghaffar; Bernousi, Iraj; Mardani, Karim

    2011-01-01

    The pigeon tick Argas reflexus is a pathogen-transmitting soft tick that typically feeds on pigeons, but can also attack humans causing local and systemic reactions. Chemical control is made difficult due to environmental contamination and resistance development. As a result, there is much interest in increasing the role of other strategies like biological control. In this study, the efficacy of three strains (V245, 685 and 715C) of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for biological control of three life stages of pigeon tick A. reflexus including eggs, larvae, engorged and unfed adults was investigated under laboratory conditions. Five concentrations of different strains of M. anisopliae ranging from 103 to 107 conidia/ml were used. All fungal strains significantly decreased hatchability of A. reflexus eggs. Strain V245 was the most effective strain on the mortality of larval stage with nearly 100% mortality at the lowest concentration (103 conidia/ml) at 10 days post-inoculation. The mortality rate of both engorged and unfed adult ticks were also increased significantly exposed to different conidial concentrations compared to the control groups (P < 0.05) making this fungus a potential biological control agent of pigeon tick reducing the use of chemical acaricides. PMID:24031777

  12. Effects of temperature and humidity on oviposition, molting, and longevity of Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Nordenfors, H; Höglund, J; Uggla, A

    1999-01-01

    The juvenile development and survival of Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) kept in vitro at different temperatures and humidity were investigated to obtain biological baseline data for a Swedish population. Individual females, eggs, larvae, and protonymphs were observed with regard to egg production, duration of various stages, and longevity when kept at different temperatures and relative humidities. Female mites laid eggs at temperatures between 5 and 45 degrees C with the highest numbers laid at 20 degrees C and 70% RH, but development to larvae and protonymphs was only observed at temperatures ranging from 20 to 25 degrees C. The average duration of oviposition varied from 1.0 to 3.2 d within the temperature range 20-45 degrees C but was gradually increased to 28 d at 5 degrees C. Specimens survived for up to 9 mo without access to food when kept in the temperature range of 5-25 degrees C. Temperatures > 45 degrees C and at -20 degrees C were found to be lethal. Longevity was similar for females and protonymphs kept at 30 and 45% RH, but it was enhanced at 70 and 90% RH for protonymphs. This study showed that D. gallinae can survive for a long time without feeding if the microclimate is suitable, but it does not thrive at low relative humidities and at temperature extremes. This indicates that changing of the abiotic conditions in infested poultry houses could be a possible measure to reduce mite populations.

  13. Human Infestation with Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) in a Family Referred with Pruritus and Skin Lesions.

    PubMed

    Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad; Mirafzali, Mahmoud S; Belgheiszadeh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran.

  14. Acaricidal activity of plant essential oils against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Il; Yi, Jee-Hwan; Tak, Jun-Hyung; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2004-04-15

    The acaricial activity of 56 plant essential oils against poultry house-collected adult Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer was examined using direct contact and fumigation methods. In a filter paper contact bioassay, 100% mortality at 0.07 mgcm-2 was observed in bay, cade, cinnamon, clove bud, coriander, horseradish, lime dis 5F, mustard, pennyroyal, pimento berry, spearmint, thyme red and thyme white oils, whereas the mortality of these oils was significantly decreased at 0.02 mgcm-2. In fumigation tests with adult D. gallinae at 0.28 mgcm-2, cade, clove bud, coriander, horseradish and mustard oils were more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the effect of these essential oils was largely due to action in the vapour phase. Plant essential oils described herein merit further study as potential D. gallinae control agents.

  15. Contact and fumigant toxicity of oriental medicinal plant extracts against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Il; Na, Young-Eun; Yi, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-04-30

    The acaricidal activity of methanolic extracts from 40 oriental medicinal plant species and a steam distillate of Cinnamomum camphora towards poultry house-collected adult Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with those of 15 acaricides currently used. In filter paper contact toxicity bioassays using adult D. gallinae, C. camphora steam distillate (0.0051 mgcm(-2)) was the most toxic material, followed by extracts from Asarum sieboldii var. seoulens whole plant, Eugenia caryophyllata flower bud and Mentha arvensis var. piperascens whole plant (0.0063-0.0072 mgcm(-2)), based upon 24h LD(50) values. The acaricidal activity of these four plant preparations was almost comparable to that of profenofos (LD(50), 0.003 mgcm(-2)) but less effective than dichlorvos (LD(50), 0.0004 mgcm(-2)). The toxicity of Illicium verum fruit and Lysimachia davurica leaf extracts (0.09 mgcm(-2)) was almost comparable to that of benfuracarb, prothiofos, propoxur and fenthion (0.053-0.070mgcm(-2)). In vapour phase toxicity tests, these plant preparations were more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the mode of delivery of these plant extracts was largely a result of action in the vapour phase. Plants described herein merit further study as potential D. gallinae control agents.

  16. Transmission of grapevine Pinot gris virus by Colomerus vitis (Acari: Eriophyidae) to grapevine.

    PubMed

    Malagnini, Valeria; de Lillo, Enrico; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Beber, Roberta; Duso, Carlo; Raiola, Alessandro; Zanotelli, Livia; Valenzano, Domenico; Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Morelli, Massimiliano; Ratti, Claudio; Causin, Roberto; Gualandri, Valeria

    2016-09-01

    Grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV) is a new virus reported in Europe and several other grape-growing countries. In an attempt to identify a vector for GPGV, samples of the eriophyid mite Colomerus vitis collected from buds and erinea in GPGV-infected vines were analysed by RT-PCR, using specific primers. Molecular analysis revealed the presence of GPGV in C. vitis. Transmission trials were conducted using C. vitis collected from GPGV-infected vines. Mites were able to transmit GPGV to healthy grapevines, suggesting that C. vitis is a potential vector of this virus. PMID:27344161

  17. Three new species of myrmecophilous scutacarid mites (Acari: Scutacaridae) from Western Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of myrmecophilous mites of the genus Scutacarus Gros, 1845 (Acariformes: Pygmephoroidea: Scutacaridae), S. lasiophilus sp. nov., S. myrmicinus sp. nov., and S. crinitus sp. nov. are described from ants and their nests in Tyumen Province, Western Siberia, Russia. PMID:26623897

  18. Life cycle of Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on ornamental plants, mostly Arecaceae.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, C; Colmenárez, Y; de Moraes, G J

    2015-02-01

    The red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst, has been primarily found associated with coconut and musaceous plants in the New World. However, it has also been recorded on several other palms, heliconiaceous and zingiberaceous species. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of different botanical families on which R. indica has been collected in the field and of arecaceous plants of the natural vegetation of the neotropics. In total, ten species of Arecaceae as well as Heliconia psittacorum [Heliconiaceae] and Alpinia purpurata [Zingiberacae] were evaluated, using coconut as a control. The study was carried out under controlled conditions (29 ± 0.5 °C, 60 ± 10% RH and photoperiod 12 h of light). Raoiella indica was able to complete immature development only on coconut, Adonidia merrillii, Ptychosperma macarthurii, H. psittacorum and A. purpurata. Duration of the immature phase (egg-adult) ranged between 21.5 days on coconut to 34.1 days on A. purpurata. Longevity was at least 50% greater and oviposition at least 38% higher on coconut than on other plants. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was higher on coconut (0.166) and A. merrillii (0.042), but negative on the other two plant species. Raoiella indica could not reach adulthood on any of the other ten arecaceous species considered in the study. The results suggested R. indica to be a threat to A. merrillii in addition to coconut, but not to other evaluated plants. However, complementary studies should be conducted to investigate whether the experimental procedures adopted in this study could not have prevented the mite from a better performance than it could have been under field conditions, especially in relation to Mauritia flexuosa, one of the dominant arecaceous plants in South America. PMID:25342244

  19. Ornithodoros peropteryx (Acari: Argasidae) in Bolivia: an argasid tick with a single nymphal stage.

    PubMed

    Venzal, José M; Nava, Santiago; Terassini, Flavio A; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Camargo, Luis Marcelo A; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2013-10-01

    By the end of the 1960s, the argasid tick Ornithodoros peropteryx was described from larval specimens collected from the bat Peropteryx macrotis in Colombia. Since its original description, no additional record of O. peropteryx has been reported, and its post-larval stages have remained unknown. During July 2010, 18 larvae were collected from 9 bats (Centronycteris maximiliani), resulting in a mean infestation of 2.0 ± 2.2 ticks per bat (range 1-8). These bats were captured in a farm in northeastern Bolivia close to Guaporé River in the border with Brazil. Morphological examinations of the larvae revealed them to represent the species O. peropteryx. One engorged larva that was kept alive in the laboratory moulted to a nymph after 9 days. Fourteen days after the larval moulting, the nymph moulted to an adult female without taking any blood meal during the nymphal period. This adult female was used for a morphological description of the female stage of O. peropteryx. In addition, the larvae were used for a morphological redescription of this stage. One larva and two legs extirpated from the adult female were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR targeting a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene, which yielded DNA sequences at least 11 % divergent from any available argasid sequence in Genbank. We show that O. peropteryx ontogeny is characterized by a single, non-feeding, nymphal stage. This condition has never been reported for ticks. PMID:23543273

  20. Temperature-related development and population parameters for Typhlodromus pyri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) found in Oregon vineyards.

    PubMed

    Gadino, Angela N; Walton, Vaughn M

    2012-09-01

    The beneficial mite Typhlodromus pyri is a key predator of grapevine rust mite Calepitrimerus vitis in Pacific coastal vineyards. Rust mite feeding has been associated with damage such as stunted, deformed shoot growth and reductions in fruit yield. The life history traits of T. pyri were assessed at seven constant temperatures (12.5, 15, 17.5, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C) to determine population parameters providing data to better predict biological control of C. vitis populations by T. pyri in vineyards. Successful development from the egg to adult stage was observed at temperatures ranging from 15 to 30 °C. Constant exposure to 12.5 and 35 °C resulted in 100 % mortality in immature T. pyri. Developmental times, fecundity and longevity were highest at 25 °C. The estimated minimum and maximum developmental thresholds were 7.24 and 42.56 °C, respectively. Intrinsic rate of increase (r ( m )) was positive from 15 to 30 °C indicating population growth within this range of temperatures. Net reproductive rate and intrinsic rate of increase were greatest at 25 °C. These developmental parameters can be used to estimate population growth, determine seasonal phenology and aid in conservation management of T. pyri. Results presented in this study will aid in evaluating the effectiveness of T. pyri as a key biological control agent of C. vitis during different periods of the growing season in Pacific Northwest vineyards.

  1. Establishment of Oulenziella gen. nov. for Oulenzia bakeri (Hughes, 1962) (Acari: Winterschmidtiidae).

    PubMed

    Fan, Qing-Hai; George, Sherly; Li, Dong-Mei; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    A new genus, Oulenziella, is proposed for Oulenzia bakeri (Hughes, 1962), a species originally collected on jute (Corchorus sp., Malvaceae) from India. Oulenziella bakeri (Hughes, 1962) comb. nov. is re-described. Oulenzia gossypii Meyer & Rodrigues, 1965 collected from Gossypium sp. in Mozambique is considered a junior synonym of Oulenziella bakeri. The new genus differs from Oulenzia in having hT present on tibiae I and II, kT on tibia IV, la and ra on tarsus II, w and r on tarsus III, e and f on tarsi I-III; and by seta d on tarsi III and IV positioned at level of apical 1/8 to 1/6 of the segments. PMID:25947801

  2. Five new species of the feather mite genus Trouessartia Canestrini from South America (Acari: Trouessartiidae).

    PubMed

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi

    2014-01-01

    Five new feather mite species of the genus Trouessartia Canestrini are described from South American birds: Trouessartia latiducta sp. nov. from Phylloscartes kronei (Tyrannidae), T. basileuteri sp. nov. from Basileuterus culicivorus (Parulidae), T. sicaliae sp. nov. from Sicalis flaveola (Emberizidae), T. savanae sp. nov. from Tyrannus savana (Tyrannidae), and T. picumni from Picumnus fulvescens (Picidae). The latter species is the first representative of the genus described from a bird of the order Piciformes.  PMID:25284645

  3. Molecular characterization of two carboxylesterase genes of the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Ding, Tian-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2013-04-01

    The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri, is known for its ability to rapidly evolve resistance to insecticides/acaricides and to adapt to hosts that produce toxins. To get better insight into the detoxification mechanism of P. citri, two carboxylesterase (CarE) genes, PCE1 and PCE2, were isolated and characterized. PCE1 and PCE2 contained open reading frames of 1,653 and 1,392 nucleotides, encoding proteins of 550 and 463 amino acid residues, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses showed that PCE1 and PCE2 were most closely related to the CarE genes from other phytophagous mites. The transcriptional profiles of two CarE genes among developmental stages (egg, larva, nymph, adult female, and adult male), after exposing to four acaricides (avermectin, azocyclotin, pyridaben, and spirodiclofen) and acid rain were investigated using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results showed that during development, PCE1 was highly expressed at the egg stage, whereas PCE2 was abundantly expressed at the adult stage of males. The expression levels of PCE1 were highly induced upon exposure to acaricides and acid rain. On the other hand, the expression levels of PCE2 were increased after treatment with avermectin and pyridaben. These results suggest that PCE1 and PCE2 may have distinct roles in different developmental stages and participate in the detoxification of acaricides.

  4. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) female ticks exposed to castor oil (Ricinus communis): an ultrastructural overview.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, B R; Furquim, K C S; Nunes, P H; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2013-02-01

    Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. Ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentation, by acting as an effective biocide. The same positive results have been observed when these esters are added to the food given to tick-infested rabbits. This study tested the effect of these substance on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, added to rabbit food, more specifically on oogenesis. For this, four groups were established: four control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3, and CG4) and four treatment groups (TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG4) with one rabbit in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. After full 4 days feeding (semi-engorgement), the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. In this study, it was observed that R. sanguineus females exposed to esters had their ovaries modified, which was demonstrated through transmission electron microscopy techniques. The addition of ricinoleic esters to the diet of tick-infested rabbits revealed how toxic such substances are for the cytoplasmic organelles of oocytes and pedicel cells. These compounds can change the morphophysiology of germ and somatic cells, consequently influencing their viability and, therefore, confirming that the ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil are a promising substance in the control of R. sanguineus. PMID:23086445

  5. Repellency of the oily extract of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    PubMed

    González-Gómez, Rebeca; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Santizo-Rincón, José Antonio

    2012-03-01

    A crude oil extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica, Sapindales: Meliaceae) was evaluated for repellency on Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman. Burgerjon's tower was used to spray worker bee pupae with 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3, 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract concentrations. Sprayed pupae were attached to observation arenas and incubated at 32 ± 2°C and 70 ± 10% RH. The ability of V. destructor to locate and feed on treated and untreated pupae was monitored from 30 min to 72 h after spray. Higher and more stable repellency was achieved with 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract. At the highest concentration, 98% of V. destructor were prevented to settle on bee pupae, resulting in 100% V. destructor mortality at 72 h. PMID:22270115

  6. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) species complex – resurrection of E. W. Baker’s species (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brevipalpus phoenicis sensu lato has been identified from countries all over the world and has been associated with many different host plant species. As a taxon, it shows a degree of morphological variation. A combination such as this often indicates that the taxon actually represents a complex o...

  7. New flat mite genera (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) associated with Australian sedges (Cyperaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new genera, Gahniacarus and Cyperacarus, and four new species, G. gersonus, G. tuberculatus, C. naomae and C. foliatus, are described from native Australian sedge species in the genus Gahnia (Cyperaceae). Leg chaetotaxy is provided for all stages of each species. The importance of taxonomic ch...

  8. The Tenuipalpidae of Turkey, with a key to species (Acari: Trombidiformes).

    PubMed

    Çobanoğlu, Sultan; Ueckermann, Edward Albert; Sağlam, Hayriye Didem

    2016-01-01

    A new Turkish species of Tenuipalpidae, Aegyptobia juniperi sp. nov., is described and seven previously recorded species are redescribed: Aegyptobia beglarovi Livshitz & Mitrofanov 1967, Brevipalpus rotai Castagnoli & Pegazzano, 1979, Cenopalpus bagdasariani (Livshitz & Mitrofanov, 1970), Cenopalpus bakeri Düzgüneş, 1967, Phytoptipalpus salicicola (Al-Gboory, 1987), Tenuipalpus granati Sayed, 1946 and Tenuipalpus punicae Pritchard & Baker, 1958. A key to the 28 species of Tenuipalpidae from Turkey is provided. Cenopalpus bagdasariani, B. rotai and A. beglarovi are new records for Turkey. PMID:27394536

  9. Resistance to hexythiazox in Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from Brazilian citrus.

    PubMed

    Campos, Fernando Joly; Omoto, Celso

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to collect baseline information for implementing an acaricide resistance management program of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) to hexythiazox in Brazilian citrus groves. The egg susceptibility of B. phoenicis to hexythiazox was measured by a direct contact bioassay. The estimated LC50 for the S strain was 0.89 mg hexythiazox L(-1) of water (95% FL 0.75-1.03). After hexythiazox selection of a field-collected population associated with intense hexythiazox use, a resistance ratio greater than 10,000-fold was detected. Results from a survey revealed a great variability in the frequency of resistance in populations of B. phoenicis collected from citrus groves located in the State of São Paulo. No relationship was observed between the intensity of hexythiazox use and the frequency of resistance. Studies on dynamics of resistance showed that the resistance of B. phoenicis to hexythiazox is stable under laboratory conditions. Therefore, there is an urgent need to implement resistance management of B. phoenicis to hexythiazox in order to prolong its effective use in Brazilian citrus groves. PMID:12537296

  10. Host plant range of Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in areas of invasion of the New World.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Daniel; Amalin, Divina; Hosein, Farzan; Roda, Amy; Duncan, Rita E; Peña, Jorge E

    2012-08-01

    Raoiella indica has spread rapidly through the Neotropical region where the mite damages economically and ecologically important plants. Three studies were conducted to determine the host plant range of R. indica, using the presence of colonies containing all life stages as an indicator of reproductive suitability. Periodic surveys at the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden (Miami Dade County, FL, USA) and the Royal Botanical Gardens (Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago) identified 27 new reproductive host plants. The reproductive suitability of two dicotyledonous species and three native Florida palm species was examined. An updated list of reproductive host plants of R. indica is presented. All reported reproductive hosts (91 plant species) of R. indica are monocots from the orders Arecales (Arecaceae), Zingiberales (Heliconiaceae, Musaceae, Strelitziaceae, Zingiberaceae) and Pandanales (Pandanaceae). Most are palms of the family Arecaceae that originated in areas of the Eastern Hemisphere; about one fourth of the reported hosts are native to the New World and could be considered new host associations of R. indica. Six years after the initial detection in the Caribbean, R. indica has expanded its host plant range. Here we report 27 new reproductive host of R. indica that represent 30% of increase on previous host plant records. As this mite continues spreading in the Neotropical region a great diversity of plants is potentially affected. PMID:21915682

  11. Morphological observations on Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) including comparisons with B. californicus and B. obovatus.

    PubMed

    Welbourn, W Calvin; Ochoa, Ronald; Kane, Ethan C; Erbe, Eric F

    2003-01-01

    The genus Brevipalpus has over 300 species worldwide. The three most important agricultural pest species in the genus, Brevipalpus californicus (Banks), B. obovatus Donnadieu, and B. phoenicis (Geijskes), have been consistently confused and misidentified for more than 50 years. The present study provides a discussion of the characters and character states used to separate these mites. Low-temperature scanning electron microscopy and traditional light microscopy techniques were used to illustrate the subtle morphological differences between these three species. Morphology of the dorsal propodosoma, opisthosoma, and leg chaetotaxy of all three species was examined and compared. The number of dorsal setae, the number of solenidia (omega) on tarsus II, and dorsal cuticular patterns were the most important characters in the identification of Brevipalpus species. B. phoenicis is similar to B. californicus in having two omega on tarsus leg II and different from B. obovatus which has only one omega on tarsus leg II and similar to B. obovatus in having only one pair of F setae (f3), but differing from B. californicus which has two pairs of F setae (f2-3). The dorsal opisthosomal and propodisomal cuticular patterns frequently used to distinguish between these three species are useful but one must be aware that age, feeding, and mounting techniques can affect the appearance of these characters. PMID:14756413

  12. Brevipalpus mites (Acari: Tenuipalpidae): vectors of invasive, non-systemic cytoplasmic and nuclear viruses in plants.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Childers, Carl C

    2013-02-01

    Multi-directional interactions occur among plant hosts, Brevipalpus mites and the plant viruses they transmit. Such interactions should be considered when evaluating the severity of a disease such as citrus leprosis. The current understanding of Brevipalpus-transmitted viruses relies on the capability of the vector to transmit the disease, the persistence of the virus in the host plant and the ability of the disease to spread. Previously, we discussed the Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV) and its importance and spread over the past decade into new areas of South and Central America, most recently into southern Mexico and Belize. Here, we address key questions to better understand the biology of the mite vector, fitness costs, and the peculiarities of Brevipalpus mite reproduction, virus survival, transmissibility and spread, and the expansion of the host plant range of Brevipalpus species vectoring the disease. PMID:23203501

  13. Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae): an exploding mite pest in the neotropics.

    PubMed

    Kane, Ethan C; Ochoa, Ronald; Mathurin, Guy; Erbe, Eric F; Beard, Jennifer J

    2012-08-01

    Major infestations of the flat mite species Raoiella indica Hirst affecting bananas, palms and other ornamental plants have been reported from the Caribbean islands, Mexico, FL (USA), Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil. Specimens from these localities were examined using traditional light microscopy and low-temperature scanning electron microscopy techniques. While little is known about the biology of this mite, its recent appearance in the Americas in both commercial coconut and banana plantations has raised concerns about its economic impact as an invasive pest. PMID:22392436

  14. [Stability of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) resistance to hexythiazox in citrus groves].

    PubMed

    Campos, Fernando J; Omoto, Celso

    2006-01-01

    The false spider mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes), is one the most important pests of the citrus groves and transmits the citrus leprosis virus. The acaricide hexythiazox has been widely used for controlling B. phoenicis in citrus groves. The resistance of this species to hexythiazox has already been detected at high frequencies at some locations. In order to implement a resistance management program, studies were undertaken to understand the stability of the resistance of B. phoenicis to hexythiazox by 1) comparing the life-history of susceptible (S) and resistant (R) strains under laboratory conditions, and 2) evaluating the dynamics of hexythiazox resistance in citrus field plots with low (< 20%) and high (> 60%) frequency of resistance, during two years. The frequencies of resistance were estimated with direct contact bioassays on eggs with discriminating concentration of 18 mg of hexythiazox/L of water. There were no significant differences between S and R strains, based on biological parameters evaluated to build fertility life tables. However, the resistance of B. phoenicis to hexythiazox was unstable under field conditions; that is, significant reductions in the frequency of resistance were observed in the absence of selection pressure, either in citrus field plots with low or high frequency of resistance. Therefore, the instability of B. phoenicis resistance to hexythiazox can be exploited in resistance management programs. PMID:17273718

  15. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) species complex (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)--a closer look.

    PubMed

    Beard, Jennifer J; Ochoa, Ronald; Braswell, W Evan; Bauchan, Gary R

    2015-01-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis sensu stricto (Geijskes) is redescribed and the species diagnosis established. Two former synonyms of B. phoenicis sensu lato, B. yothersi Baker and B. papayensis Baker, are resurrected and redescribed and their species diagnoses established. Brevipalpus hondurani Evans is also redescribed and diagnosed. Four new species, previously misidentified as B. phoenicis sensu lato or B. obovatus Donnadieu, are described--B. azores sp. nov., B. feresi sp. nov., B. ferraguti sp. nov., and B. tucuman sp. nov. Four new junior synonyms of B. yothersi are listed--Brevipalpus amicus Chaudhri and B. recula Chaudhri (new synonymies), and B. mcbridei Baker and B. deleoni Pritchard and Baker (misidentifications). A key is provided to separate these species. New morphological characters significant for species separation are presented and discussed. PMID:25947538

  16. Coffee ringspot virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in coffee.

    PubMed

    Chagas, C M; Kitajima, E W; Rodrigues, J C V

    2003-01-01

    Coffee ringspot is characterized by conspicuous ringspot symptoms on leaves, berries, and less frequently on twigs. It is caused by coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV), a short, bacilliform virus (40 nm x 100-110 nm). The virus is not seed borne and is transmitted by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes). Transovarial transmission within the mite does not occur. CoRSV has been mechanically transmitted to Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste and Reynaud, C. quinoa Wildenow, Beta vulgaris L., and Alternanthera tenella Colla resulting in local lesions. Systemic infection within both C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa occurs. Virions are found in the nucleus or cytoplasm of infected cells, commonly associated with membranes. Occasionally, membrane bounded particles are found within the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum. A characteristic electron lucent, nuclear inclusion is commonly found in many infected cells. These cytopathic effects place CoRSV among the nuclear type of Brevipalpus-borne viruses. The disease has been reported in several Brazilian states (São Paulo, Paraná, Minas Gerais, and Federal District) and recently found in Costa Rica. A similar disease is known in the Philippines, but no information exists about its relationship to CoRSV. Coffee ringspot had no economical significance until recently when a large scale infection was reported in Minas Gerais that resulted in yield loss. PMID:14756417

  17. [Spatial distribution of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on rubber tree plantations].

    PubMed

    Martins, Gustavo L M; Vieira, Marineide R; Barbosa, José C; Dini, Thiago A; Manzano, Anderson M; Alves, Bruno M S; Silva, Rodolfo M

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the spatial distribution of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker in rubber tree plantations. The experimental area was located in Marinópolis, State of São Paulo, and corresponded to a total of 1,000 plants (clone RRIM 600) divided in 100 plots of ten plants each. A total of 16 samplings were conducted, approximately once every 10 days, between December 2007 and June 2008. On each date, samples were taken from two plants per plot, each sample corresponding to the top 30 cm of a branch randomly taken from the median region of the canopy of each plant. The number of T. heveae was evaluated on three leaflets randomly taken from each sample, using a 20x power pocket magnifying glass. The number of mites was evaluated in two areas of 1 cm² delimited on the lower surface of each leaflet, being one along the midrib and the other along a lateral vein. The calculated dispersion indexes were: variance/mean relationship (I), index of Morisita (I´), coefficient of Green (Cx) and k exponent of negative binomial distribution. Tenuipalpus heveae showed aggregate distribution. The negative binomial distribution model was the most appropriate to represent the spatial distribution of the mite in the rubber tree plantation. PMID:21120376

  18. [Life cycle of Proprioseiopsis cannaensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on different types of food].

    PubMed

    Bellini, Marcos R; de Araujo, Ralf V; Silva, Edmilson S; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Berti Filho, Evoneo

    2010-01-01

    Several annual and perennial crops are severely attacked by mites from the family Eriophyidae, Tenuipalpidae and Tetranychidae. A suitable alternative commonly used in several countries for the control of these pest mites involve the use of predatory mites in the family Phytoseiidae. The phytoseiid fauna in the Brazilian natural vegetation is very rich, but nothing is known about the biology of most of these species, as it is the case with Proprioseiopsis cannaensis (Muma). The objective of this study was to determine biological parameters of P. cannaensis fed on pest mite species such as Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) (Eriophyidae), Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Tenuipalpidae) and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae). To enable a comparison for different food sources, one of the treatments consisted of pollen from Typha angustifolia L. The study was conducted in the laboratory at 25+/-1 masculineC, 80+/-10% RH and Photophase of 12 h. Proprioseiopsis cannaensis did not complete the development when it was fed on P. oleivora. Its fecundity was very low with all other food sources (maximum of 3.3 eggs/female with pollen of T. angustifolia). The values of r m for P. cannaensis were -0.05, -0.09 and 0.002 when fed on B. phoenicis, T. urticae and pollen respectively. The unsatisfactory results from the four types of food sources do not permit us to conclude that P. cannaensis utilizes mites from the family Eriophyidae, Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae or pollen from different plant species as principal sources of food in nature. PMID:20676508

  19. [Perspectives for mass rearing of Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma (Acari: Phytoseiidae)].

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Fábio A de; Moraes, Gilberto J de

    2008-01-01

    Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma is an important predator of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) on citrus in Brazil. The suitability of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) as a food source of I. zuluagai in laboratory rearing was investigated at 25.5 +/- 0.5 masculineC, 88 +/- 7% RU and photophase of 12h. Initially, levels of oviposition of the predator fed on eggs were evaluated, as well as the dead or live post-embryonic stages of T. putrescentiae, in a period of 10 days. The daily oviposition rate was 1.3 egg per female when they were fed on eggs on T. putrescentiae, 0.7 egg per female when they were fed on dead post embryonic stages and about 0.3 egg per female when they were fed on live post-embryonic stages. Later, the life table of I. zuluagai was constructed, when eggs of T. putrescentiae were offered to the predators as prey. The immature stages were observed every 8h, to determine the corresponding durations. In the adult phase, the mites were observed every 24h, to determine the reproductive parameters. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m) was 0.11 female/ female/day; resulting in a finite rate of increase of 1.11 (l). The net reproductive rate (R0) was 7.1 females/generation, with a mean generation time (T) 18.6 days. The results show that T. putrescentiae is a favorable food source for the development of I. zuluagai. PMID:18641905

  20. In vitro activity of pineapple extracts (Ananas comosus, Bromeliaceae) on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Feitosa, Karina Alves; Fantatto, Rafaela Regina; Rabelo, Márcio Dias; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Oliveira, Gilson Pereira de; Bechara, Gervasio Henrique; Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza

    2013-07-01

    Measures to control the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, based only on chemical products are becoming unsustainable, mainly because of the development of resistance. The objective of this study was to test the effect of the aqueous extract of pineapple skin (AEPS) and bromelain extracted from the stem (Sigma-Aldrich®, B4882) on engorged females and larvae of R. (B.) microplus in vitro. These substances were diluted in water and evaluated at eight concentrations. Engorged females were collected and distributed in groups of 10, with three repetitions for each treatment. After immersion in the solutions, the females were placed in an incubator for observation of survival, oviposition and larval hatching. The larval packet method was used, also with three repetitions with about 100 larvae each. The packets were incubated and the readings were performed after 24 h. The estimated reproduction and efficacy of the solutions were calculated. The LC(50) and LC(90) were estimated using the Probit procedure of the SAS program. The eight concentrations were compared within each treatment by the Tukey test. For the experiment with engorged females, the most effective concentrations were 125, 250 and 500 mg/mL: 33%, 48% and 59% for the AEPS and 27%, 51% and 55% for the bromelain. The LC(50) and LC(90) values were, respectively, 276 and 8691 mg/mL for AEPS and 373 and 5172 mg/mL for bromelain. None of the dilutions tested was effective against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus. This is the first report of the action of pineapple extracts or their constituents on cattle ticks. The results demonstrate that further studies regarding composition of tick cuticle, with evaluation of other solvents and formulations, should be conducted seeking to enhance the effect of pineapple extracts and compounds against this ectoparasite.